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Sample records for aboard international space

  1. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  2. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  3. Ovarian Tumor Cells Studied Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In August 2001, principal investigator Jeanne Becker sent human ovarian tumor cells to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the STS-105 mission. The tumor cells were cultured in microgravity for a 14 day growth period and were analyzed for changes in the rate of cell growth and synthesis of associated proteins. In addition, they were evaluated for the expression of several proteins that are the products of oncogenes, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. This photo, which was taken by astronaut Frank Culbertson who conducted the experiment for Dr. Becker, shows two cell culture bags containing LN1 ovarian carcinoma cell cultures.

  4. Accomplishments in Bioastronautics Research Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 16 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space flight on the crew members and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes, muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; and changes in immune function. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS . Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program.

  5. Accomplishments in bioastronautics research aboard International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uri, John J.; Haven, Cynthia P.

    2005-05-01

    The tenth long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 18 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space flight on the crewmembers and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study: the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes; muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; changes in immune function, and evaluation of imaging techniques. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS. Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program.

  6. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Conrath, M; Canfield, P J; Bronowicki, P M; Dreyer, M E; Weislogel, M M; Grah, A

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  7. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrath, M.; Canfield, P. J.; Bronowicki, P. M.; Dreyer, M. E.; Weislogel, M. M.; Grah, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  8. Accomplishments in bioastronautics research aboard International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Uri, John J; Haven, Cynthia P

    2005-01-01

    The tenth long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 18 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration spaceflight on the crewmembers and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study: the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes; muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; changes in immune function, and evaluation of imaging techniques. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS. Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program.

  9. Dwarf Wheat grown aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dwarf wheat were photographed aboard the International Space Station in April 2002. Lessons from on-orbit research on plants will have applications to terrestrial agriculture as well as for long-term space missions. Alternative agricultural systems that can efficiently produce greater quantities of high-quality crops in a small area are important for future space expeditions. Also regenerative life-support systems that include plants will be an important component of long-term space missions. Data from the Biomass Production System (BPS) and the Photosynthesis Experiment and System Testing and Operations (PESTO) will advance controlled-environment agricultural systems and will help farmers produce better, healthier crops in a small area. This same knowledge is critical to closed-loop life support systems for spacecraft. The BPS comprises a miniature environmental control system for four plant growth chambers, all in the volume of two space shuttle lockers. The experience with the BPS on orbit is providing valuable design and operational lessons that will be incorporated into the Plant Growth Units. The objective of PESTO was to flight verify the BPS hardware and to determine how the microgravity environment affects the photosynthesis and metabolic function of Super Dwarf wheat and Brassica rapa (a member of the mustard family).

  10. The SAGE III's mission aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Michael; Thomason, Larry; Zawodny, Joseph; Flittner, David; Hill, Charles; Roell, Marilee; Vernier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) is being prepared for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015. Constructed in the early 2000s, the instrument is undergoing extensive testing and refurbishment prior to delivery to ISS. In addition, ESA is refurbishing their Hexapod which is a high-accuracy pointing system developed to support ISS external payloads, particularly SAGE III. The SAGE III instrument refurbishment also includes the replacement of the neutral density filter that has been associated with some instrument performance degradation during the SAGE III mission aboard METEOR/3M mission (2002-2005). We are also exploring options for expanding the science targets to include additional gas species including IO, BrO, and other solar, lunar, and limb-scatter species. In this presentation, we will discuss SAGE III-ISS refurbishment including results from Sun-look testing. We also will discuss potential revisions to the science measurements and the expected measurement accuracies determined in part through examination of the SAGE III-METEOR/3M measurement data quality. In addition, we will discuss potential mission science goals enabled by the mid-inclination ISS orbit. No dedicated field campaign for SAGE III validation is anticipated. Instead, validation will primarily rely on a collaborative effort with international groups making in situ and ground-based measurements of aerosol, ozone, and other SAGE III data products. A limited balloon-based effort with a yet-to-be-determined validation partner is also in the planning stages.

  11. The capillary flow experiments aboard the International Space Station: Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weislogel, Mark M.; Jenson, Ryan; Chen, Yongkang; Collicott, Steven H.; Klatte, Jörg; Dreyer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides a current overview of the in-flight operations and experimental results of the capillary flow experiment (CFE) performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) beginning August 2004 to present, with at least 16 operations to date by five astronauts. CFE consists of six approximately 1-2 kg experiment units designed to probe certain capillary phenomena of fundamental and applied importance, such as capillary flow in complex containers, critical wetting in discontinuous structures, and large length scale contact line dynamics. Highly quantitative video images from the simply performed experiments provide direct confirmation of the usefulness of current analytical design tools as well as provide guidance to the development of new ones. A description of the experiments, crew procedures, performances and status of the data collection and reduction is provided for the project. The specific experimental objectives are briefly introduced by way of the crew procedures and a sample of the verified theoretical predictions of the fluid behavior is provided. The potential impact of the flight experiments on the design of spacecraft fluid systems is discussed in passing.

  12. Microbial antibiotic production aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Benoit, M R; Li, W; Stodieck, L S; Lam, K S; Winther, C L; Roane, T M; Klaus, D M

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies examining metabolic characteristics of bacterial cultures have mostly suggested that reduced gravity is advantageous for microbial growth. As a consequence, the question of whether space flight would similarly enhance secondary metabolite production was raised. Results from three prior space shuttle experiments indicated that antibiotic production was stimulated in space for two different microbial systems, albeit under suboptimal growth conditions. The goal of this latest experiment was to determine whether the enhanced productivity would also occur with better growth conditions and over longer durations of weightlessness. Microbial antibiotic production was examined onboard the International Space Station during the 72-day 8A increment. Findings of increased productivity of actinomycin D by Streptomyces plicatus in space corroborated with previous findings for the early sample points (days 8 and 12); however, the flight production levels were lower than the matched ground control samples for the remainder of the mission. The overall goal of this research program is to elucidate the specific mechanisms responsible for the initial stimulation of productivity in space and translate this knowledge into methods for improving efficiency of commercial production facilities on Earth.

  13. Langmuir probe measurements aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, B.; Asenovski, S.; Bachvarov, D.; Boneva, A.; Grushin, V.; Georgieva, K.; Klimov, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    In the current work we describe the Langmuir Probe (LP) and its operation on board the International Space Station. This instrument is a part of the scientific complex "Ostonovka". The main goal of the complex is to establish, on one hand how such big body as the International Space Station affects the ambient plasma and on the other how Space Weather factors influence the Station. The LP was designed and developed at BAS-SRTI. With this instrument we measure the thermal plasma parameters-electron temperature Te, electron and ion concentration, respectively Ne and Ni, and also the potential at the Station's surface. The instrument is positioned at around 1.5 meters from the surface of the Station, at the Russian module "Zvezda", located at the farthermost point of the Space Station, considering the velocity vector. The Multi- Purpose Laboratory (MLM) module is providing additional shielding for our instrument, from the oncoming plasma flow (with respect to the velocity vector). Measurements show that in this area, the plasma concentration is two orders of magnitude lower, in comparison with the unperturbed areas. The surface potential fluctuates between-3 and-25 volts with respect to the ambient plasma. Fast upsurges in the surface potential are detected when passing over the twilight zone and the Equatorial anomaly.

  14. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  15. Prospects for Interdisciplinary Science Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of the International Space Station was completed in early 2011, and is now embarking on its first year of the coming decade of use as a laboratory. Two key types of physical science research are enabled by ISS: studies of processes that are normally masked by gravity, and instruments that take advantage of its position as a powerful platform in orbit. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection enables experiments in diverse areas such as fluids near the critical point, Marangoni convection, combustion, and coarsening of metal alloys. The positioning of such a powerful platform in orbit with robotic transfer and instrument support also provides a unique alternative platform for astronomy and physics instruments. Some of the operating or planned instruments related to fundamental physics on the International Space Station include MAXI (Monitoring all-sky X-ray Instrument for ISS), the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), and ACES (Atomic Clock Experiment in Space). The presentation will conclude with an overview of pathways for funding different types of experiments from NASA funding to the ISS National Laboratory, and highlights of the streamlining of services to help scientists implement their experiments on ISS.

  16. Facilities for Biological Research Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, Kenneth A.; Yost, Bruce D.; Berry, William E.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1996-01-01

    A centrifuge designed as part of an integrated biological facility for installation onboard the International Space Station is presented. The requirements for the 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, which is designed for the support of biological experiments are discussed. The scientific objectives of the facility are to: provide a means of conducting fundamental studies in which gravitational acceleration is a controllable variable; provide a 1g control; determine the threshold acceleration for physiological response, and determine the value of centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for the biomedical problems associated with space flight. The implementation of the facility is reported on, and the following aspects of the facility are described: the host resources systems supply requirements such as power and data control; the habitat holding rack; the life sciences glove box; the centrifuge; the different habitats for cell culture, aquatic studies, plant research and insect research; the egg incubator, and the laboratory support equipment.

  17. Microbial Diversity Aboard Spacecraft: Evaluation of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Victoria A.; Thrasher, Adrianna N.; Healy, Mimi; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2003-01-01

    An evaluation of the microbial flora from air, water, and surface samples provided a baseline of microbial diversity onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to gain insight into bacterial and fungal contamination during the initial stages of construction and habitation. Using 16S genetic sequencing and rep-PeR, 63 bacterial strains were isolated for identification and fingerprinted for microbial tracking. The use of these molecular tools allowed for the identification of bacteria not previously identified using automated biochemical analysis and provided a clear indication of the source of several ISS contaminants. Fungal and bacterial data acquired during monitoring do not suggest there is a current microbial hazard to the spacecraft, nor does any trend indicate a potential health risk. Previous spacecraft environmental analysis indicated that microbial contamination will increase with time and require continued surveillance.

  18. Droplet Combustion Experiments Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Nayagam, Vedha; Hicks, Michael C.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Farouk, Tanvir; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Choi, Mun Y.; Liu, Yu Cheng; Avedisian, C. Thomas; Williams, Forman A.

    2014-10-01

    This paper summarizes the first results from isolated droplet combustion experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS). The long durations of microgravity provided in the ISS enable the measurement of droplet and flame histories over an unprecedented range of conditions. The first experiments were with heptane and methanol as fuels, initial droplet droplet diameters between 1.5 and 5.0 m m, ambient oxygen mole fractions between 0.1 and 0.4, ambient pressures between 0.7 and 3.0 a t m and ambient environments containing oxygen and nitrogen diluted with both carbon dioxide and helium. The experiments show both radiative and diffusive extinction. For both fuels, the flames exhibited pre-extinction flame oscillations during radiative extinction with a frequency of approximately 1 H z. The results revealed that as the ambient oxygen mole fraction was reduced, the diffusive-extinction droplet diameter increased and the radiative-extinction droplet diameter decreased. In between these two limiting extinction conditions, quasi-steady combustion was observed. Another important measurement that is related to spacecraft fire safety is the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the oxygen concentration below which quasi-steady combustion cannot be supported. This is also the ambient oxygen mole fraction for which the radiative and diffusive extinction diameters become equal. For oxygen/nitrogen mixtures, the LOI is 0.12 and 0.15 for methanol and heptane, respectively. The LOI increases to approximately 0.14 (0.14 O 2/0.56 N 2/0.30 C O 2) and 0.17 (0.17 O 2/0.63 N 2/0.20 C O 2) for methanol and heptane, respectively, for ambient environments that simulated dispersing an inert-gas suppressant (carbon dioxide) into a nominally air (1.0 a t m) ambient environment. The LOI is approximately 0.14 and 0.15 for methanol and heptane, respectively, when helium is dispersed into air at 1 atm. The experiments also showed unique burning behavior for large heptane droplets. After the

  19. 'Smart SPHERES' Fly High Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 12 engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., and Johnson Space Center in Houston conducted an experiment using small, free-flying robotic satellites called "Smart SPH...

  20. Video- Making a Film of Water Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Dr. Pettit demonstrates how to make films of pure water. Watch the video to see how he does it, see his two-dimensional beaker, and marvel along with him at how tenacious the films are.

  1. STS 129 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-129) and International Space Station (ULF3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Reports on the air quality aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-129), and the International Space station (ULF3). NASA analyzed the grab sample canisters (GSCs) and the formaldehyde badges aboard both locations for carbon monoxide levels. The three surrogates: (sup 13)C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene registered 109, 101, and 109% in the space shuttle and 81, 87, and 55% in the International Space Station (ISS). From these results the atmosphere in both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) was found to be breathable.

  2. SiGe crystal growth aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Arai, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Inatomi, Y.; Miyata, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2015-05-01

    A silicon germanium mixed crystal Si1-xGex (x~0.5) 10 mm in diameter and 9.2 mm in length was grown by the traveling liquidus-zone (TLZ) method in microgravity by suppressing convection in a melt. Ge concentration of 49.8±2.5 at% has been established for the whole of the grown crystal. Compared with the former space experiment, concentration variation in the axial direction increased from ±1.5 at% to ±2.5 at% although average Ge concentration reached to nearly 50 at%. Excellent radial Ge compositional uniformity 52±0.5 at% was established in the region of 7-9 mm growth length, where axial compositional uniformity was also excellent. The single crystalline region is about 5 mm in length. The interface shape change from convex to concave is implied from both experimental results and numerical analysis. The possible cause of increase in concentration variation and interface shape change and its relation to the two-dimensional growth model are discussed.

  3. Materials Research Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: Facilities Overview, Operational Procedures, and Experimental Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Luz, Paul; Smith, Guy; Spivey, Reggie; Jeter, Linda; Gillies, Donald; Hua, Fay; Anikumar, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and Maintenance Work Area (MWA) are facilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that were used to successfully conduct experiments in support of, respectively, the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI). The capabilities of these facilities are briefly discussed and then demonstrated by presenting "real-time" and subsequently down-linked video-taped examples from the abovementioned experiments. Data interpretation, ISS telescience, some lessons learned, and the need of such facilities for conducting work in support of understanding materials behavior, particularly fluid processing and transport scenarios, in low-gravity environments is discussed.

  4. Materials Research Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: Facilities Overview, Operational Procedures, and Experimental Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Gillies, D. C.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and Maintenance Work Area (MWA) are facilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that were used to successfully conduct experiments in support of, respectively, the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI). The capabilities of these facilities are briefly discussed and then demonstrated by presenting real-time and subsequently down-linked video-taped examples from the abovementioned experiments. Data interpretation, ISS telescience, some lessons learned, and the need of such facilities for conducting work in support of understanding materials behavior, particularly fluid processing and transport scenarios, in low-gravity environments is discussed.

  5. The Evaluation of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction. As community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a health concern in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts aboard ISS or the space station itself. Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis of archived ISS isolates confirmed our earlier studies indicating a transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers. In addition, this fingerprinting also indicated a transfer between crewmembers and their environment. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and the environment, phenotypic evaluations indicated minimal methicillin resistance. However, positive results for the Penicillin Binding Protein, indicative of the presence of the mecA gene, were detected in multiple isolates of archived Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Phenotypic analysis of these isolates confirmed their resistance to methicillin. While MRSA has not been isolated aboard ISS, the potential exists for the transfer of the gene, mecA, from coagulase negative environmental Staphylococcus to S. aureus creating MRSA strains. This study suggests the need to expand environmental monitoring aboard long duration exploration spacecraft to include antibiotic resistance profiling.

  6. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  7. Microstructure Analysis of Directionally Solidified Aluminum Alloy Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angart, Samuel Gilbert

    This thesis entails a detailed microstructure analysis of directionally solidified (DS) Al-7Si alloys processed in microgravity aboard the International Space Station and similar duplicate ground based experiments at Cleveland State University. In recent years, the European Space Agency (ESA) has conducted experiments on alloy solidification in microgravity. NASA and ESA have collaborated for three DS experiments with Al- 7 wt. % Si alloy, aboard the International Space Station (ISS) denoted as MICAST6, MICAST7 and MICAST12. The first two experiments were processed on the ISS in 2009 and 2010. MICAST12 was processed aboard the ISS in the spring of 2014; the resulting experimental results of MICAST12 are not discussed in this thesis. The primary goal of the thesis was to understand the effect of convection in primary dendrite arm spacings (PDAS) and radial macrosegregation within DS aluminum alloys. The MICAST experiments were processed with various solidification speeds and thermal gradients to produce alloy with differences in microstructure features. PDAS and radial macrosegregation were measured in the solidified ingot that developed during the transition from one solidification speed to another. To represent PDAS in DS alloy in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion-controlled growth. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of solidified samples, PDAS was measured and calculated. The ground-based (1-g) experiments done at Cleveland State University CSU were also analyzed for comparison to the ISS experiments (0-g). During steady state in the microgravity environment, there was a reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated PDAS. In ground-based experiments, transverse sections exhibited obvious radial macrosegregation caused by thermosolutal convection resulting in a non-agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Using a combination of image processing techniques and Electron Microprobe Analysis

  8. Soyuz 25 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 25. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 76, 108 and 88%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned aboard Soyuz 25.

  9. The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laster, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to

  10. Comparison of Directionally Solidified Samples Solidified Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, S.; Lauer, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Grugel, R. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). Terrestrial DS-experiments have been carried out at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. As of this writing, two dendritic metrics was measured: primary dendrite arm spacings and primary dendrite trunk diameters. We have observed that these dendrite-metrics of two samples grown in the microgravity environment show good agreements with models based on diffusion controlled growth and diffusion controlled ripening, respectively. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosegregation. Dendrite trunk diameters also show differences between the earth- and space-grown samples. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, the dendritic seed crystals were partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS was carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described and have modeled.

  11. Life-cycle experiments of medaka fish aboard the international space station.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Fish are the most likely candidates to be the first vertebrate to live their life cycle aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the space-shuttle experiment using medaka, the fry born in space had the same number of germ cells as the ground control fish, and these germ cells later developed to produce the offspring on the ground. Fry hatched in space did not exhibit any looping behavior regardless of their strain, visual acuity, etc. The aquatic habitat (AQH) is a space habitat designed for long-term breeding of medaka, zebrafish and Xenopus, and recent advancements in this hardware also support fish life-cycle experiments. From the crosses between two strains, fish having good eyesight and less sensitivity to gravity were obtained, and their tolerance to microgravity was tested by parabolic flight using an airplane. The fish exhibited less looping and no differences in degree of looping between light and dark conditions. These are possible candidates for the first adult medaka (parent fish) to start a life cycle aboard ISS. Embryos were treated with a three-dimensional clinostat. Such simulated microgravity caused no differences in tissue architecture or in gene expression within the retina, nor in formation of cartilage (head skeleton). Otolith formation in embryos and fry was investigated for wild-type and mutant (ha) medaka. The ha embryos could not form utricular otoliths. They formed saccular otoliths but with a delay. Fry of the mutant fish lacking the utricular otoliths are highly light-dependent at the time of hatching, showing a perfect dorsal-light response (DLR). As they grow, they eventually shift from being light dependent to gravity dependent. Continuous treatment of the fry with altered light direction suppressed this shift to gravity dependence. Being less dependent on gravity, these fish can serve as model fish in studying the differences expected for the fish that have experienced a life cycle in microgravity.

  12. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  13. Wetlab-2 - Quantitative PCR Tools for Spaceflight Studies of Gene Expression Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlab-2 is a research platform for conducting real-time quantitative gene expression analysis aboard the International Space Station. The system enables spaceflight genomic studies involving a wide variety of biospecimen types in the unique microgravity environment of space. Currently, gene expression analyses of space flown biospecimens must be conducted post flight after living cultures or frozen or chemically fixed samples are returned to Earth from the space station. Post-flight analysis is limited for several reasons. First, changes in gene expression can be transient, changing over a timescale of minutes. The delay between sampling on Earth can range from days to months, and RNA may degrade during this period of time, even in fixed or frozen samples. Second, living organisms that return to Earth may quickly re-adapt to terrestrial conditions. Third, forces exerted on samples during reentry and return to Earth may affect results. Lastly, follow up experiments designed in response to post-flight results must wait for a new flight opportunity to be tested.

  14. Rapid culture-independent microbial analysis aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Monaco, Lisa; Morris, Heather; Gunter, Daniel; Damon, Michael; Wells, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A new culture-independent system for microbial monitoring, called the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle STS-116 on December 9, 2006, and has since been used by ISS crews to monitor endotoxin on cabin surfaces. Quantitative analysis was performed within 15 minutes, and sample return to Earth was not required. Endotoxin (a marker of Gram-negative bacteria) was distributed throughout the ISS, despite previous indications that mostbacteria on ISS surfaces were Gram-positive [corrected].Endotoxin was detected at 24 out of 42 surface areas tested and at every surface site where colony-forming units (cfu) were observed, even at levels of 4-120 bacterial cfu per 100 cm(2), which is below NASA in-flight requirements (<10,000 bacterial cfu per 100 cm(2)). Absent to low levels of endotoxin (<0.24 to 1.0 EU per 100 cm(2); defined in endotoxin units, or EU) were found on 31 surface areas, including on most panels in Node 1 and the US Lab. High to moderate levels (1.01 to 14.7 EU per 100 cm(2)) were found on 11 surface areas, including at exercise, hygiene, sleeping, and dining facilities. Endotoxin was absent from airlock surfaces, except the Extravehicular Hatch Handle (>3.78 EU per 100 cm(2)). Based upon data collected from the ISS so far, new culture-independent requirements (defined in EU) are suggested, which are verifiable in flight with LOCAD-PTS yet high enough to avoid false alarms. The suggested requirements are intended to supplement current ISS requirements (defined in cfu) and would serve a dual purpose of safeguarding crew health (internal spacecraft surfaces <20 EU per 100 cm(2)) and monitoring forward contamination during Constellation missions (surfaces periodically exposed to the external environment, including the airlock and space suits, <0.24 EU per 100 cm(2)).

  15. Rapid Culture-Independent Microbial Analysis Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Monaco, Lisa; Morris, Heather; Gunter, Daniel; Damon, Michael; Wells, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A new culture-independent system for microbial monitoring, called the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle STS-116 on December 9, 2006, and has since been used by ISS crews to monitor endotoxin on cabin surfaces. Quantitative analysis was performed within 15 minutes, and sample return to Earth was not required. Endotoxin (a marker of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) was distributed throughout the ISS, despite previous indications that most bacteria on ISS surfaces were Gram-positive. Endotoxin was detected at 24 out of 42 surface areas tested and at every surface site where colony-forming units (cfu) were observed, even at levels of 4-120 bacterial cfu per 100 cm2, which is below NASA in-flight requirements (<10,000 bacterial cfu per 100 cm2). Absent to low levels of endotoxin (<0.24 to 1.0 EU per 100 cm2; defined in endotoxin units, or EU) were found on 31 surface areas, including on most panels in Node 1 and the US Lab. High to moderate levels (1.01 to 14.7 EU per 100 cm2) were found on 11 surface areas, including at exercise, hygiene, sleeping, and dining facilities. Endotoxin was absent from airlock surfaces, except the Extravehicular Hatch Handle (>3.78 EU per 100 cm2). Based upon data collected from the ISS so far, new culture-independent requirements (defined in EU) are suggested, which are verifiable in flight with LOCAD-PTS yet high enough to avoid false alarms. The suggested requirements are intended to supplement current ISS requirements (defined in cfu) and would serve a dual purpose of safeguarding crew health (internal spacecraft surfaces <20 EU per 100 cm2) and monitoring forward contamination during Constellation missions (surfaces periodically exposed to the external environment, including the airlock and space suits, <0.24 EU per 100 cm2).

  16. Timepix-based radiation environment monitor measurements aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Kroupa, Martin; Hoang, Son; Idarraga, John; Amberboy, Clif; Rios, Ryan; Hauss, Jessica; Keller, John; Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Turecek, Daniel; Jakubek, Jan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    A number of small, single element radiation detectors, employing the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration's Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) coupled to a specially modified version of the USB-Lite interface for that ASIC provided by the Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP) at the Czech Technical University in Prague, have been developed at the University of Houston and NASA Johnson Space Center. These detectors, officially designated by NASA as Radiation Environment Monitors (REMs), were deployed aboard the International Space Station in late 2012. Six REM units are currently operating on Station Support Computers (SSCs) and returning data on a daily basis. The associated data acquisition software on the SSCs provides both automated data collection and transfer, as well as algorithms to handle adjustment of acquisition rates and recovery and restart of the acquisition software. A suite of ground software analysis tools has been developed to allow rapid analysis of the data and provides a ROOT-based framework for extending data analysis capabilities.

  17. Overview of the Development of the Temporary Sleep Station Hygiene Liner Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the crew had performed hygiene activities within the aisle way (the habitable volume, not including the sleep areas) of the ISS. The Crew used wet towels, re-hydrated body soap, and "no-rinse" shampoo to cleanse themselves amongst the stowage and systems hardware, referred to as "racks", even without a designated area to dry the wet items. Performing hygiene in this manner became an accepted method; no isolated location was available to the Crew. After several years of hygiene operations, some of the fabric-covered racks began to grow biological material (generically described as mold) and soon became a Crew health concern. Hygiene has one of the strongest impacts on Crew morale, and mandating changes to the Crew routine would have been met with strong resistance. The answer to the conundrum was to develop a liner to be placed within the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS), one of the Crew s sleeping racks. This liner provided the Crew a means to perform hygiene activities within a private, enclosed area that also significantly decreased the potential to grow mold. This paper will describe the development of the TeSS Hygiene Liner, its impacts on the ISS and Crew, as well as its contribution to hygiene activities used in space today.

  18. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  19. Materials Processing in Space: Model Experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Direct observation of fluid flow, bubble movement and solidification during controlled melting and solidification of succinonitrile were conducted in the glovebox facility of the International Space Station (ISS). The samples were processed in the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) apparatus in the glovebox facility (GBX) on board the ISS. Experimental processing parameters of temperature gradient and translation speed, as well as camera settings, were remotely monitored and manipulated from the ground Telescience Center (TSC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Real time visualization of the controlled directional melt back and resolidification reveals a number of microgravity dependent phenomena otherwise masked by Earth s gravity. These and some initial analysis of the observed events is presented.

  20. Soyuz 24 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz. This is the first time all samples were acquired with the mini-grab samplers. The toxicological assessment of 15 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C(13)-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 75, 97 and 79%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned on Soyuz 24

  1. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  2. A Survey of Staphylococcus sp and its Methicillin Resistance aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Ott, C.; Healy, M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Within the past few years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, such as hospitals and nursing homes. As the International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts occupying ISS or on surfaces of the space station itself. Methods: Identification of isolates was completed using VITEK (GPI cards, BioMerieux), 16S ribosomal DNA analysis (MicroSeq 500, ABI), and Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting (Divemilab, Bacterial Barcodes). Susceptibility tests were performed using VITEK (GPS-105 cards, BioMerieux) and resistance characteristics were evaluated by testing for the presence of the mecA gene (PBP2' MRSA test kit, Oxoid). Results: Rep-PCR analysis indicated the transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers and between crewmembers and ISS surfaces. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and environment, evaluations of the microbial population indicated minimal methicillin resistance. Results of this study indicated that within the semi-closed ISS environment, transfer of bacteria between crewmembers and their environment has been occurring, although there was no indication of a high concentration of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species. Conclusions: While this study suggests that the spread of methicillin resistant S. aureus is not currently a concern aboard ISS, the increasing incidence of Earth-based antibiotic resistance indicates a need for continued clinical and environmental monitoring.

  3. The Capillary Flow Experiments Aboard the International Space Station: Increments 9-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Ryan M.; Weislogel, Mark M.; Tavan, Noel T.; Chen, Yongkang; Semerjian, Ben; Bunnell, Charles T.; Collicott, Steven H.; Klatte, Jorg; dreyer, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the experimental, analytical, and numerical results of the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments were conducted in space beginning with Increment 9 through Increment 16, beginning August 2004 and ending December 2007. Both primary and extra science experiments were conducted during 19 operations performed by 7 astronauts including: M. Fincke, W. McArthur, J. Williams, S. Williams, M. Lopez-Alegria, C. Anderson, and P. Whitson. CFE consists of 6 approximately 1 to 2 kg handheld experiment units designed to investigate a selection of capillary phenomena of fundamental and applied importance, such as large length scale contact line dynamics (CFE-Contact Line), critical wetting in discontinuous structures (CFE-Vane Gap), and capillary flows and passive phase separations in complex containers (CFE-Interior Corner Flow). Highly quantitative video from the simply performed flight experiments provide data helpful in benchmarking numerical methods, confirming theoretical models, and guiding new model development. In an extensive executive summary, a brief history of the experiment is reviewed before introducing the science investigated. A selection of experimental results and comparisons with both analytic and numerical predictions is given. The subsequent chapters provide additional details of the experimental and analytical methods developed and employed. These include current presentations of the state of the data reduction which we anticipate will continue throughout the year and culminate in several more publications. An extensive appendix is used to provide support material such as an experiment history, dissemination items to date (CFE publication, etc.), detailed design drawings, and crew procedures. Despite the simple nature of the experiments and procedures, many of the experimental results may be practically employed to enhance the design of spacecraft engineering

  4. Ocular examination for trauma; clinical ultrasound aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, Leroy; Sharipov, Salizhan; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Melton, Shannon; Hamilton, Douglas R.; McFarlin, Kellie; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound imaging is a successful modality in a broad variety of diagnostic applications including trauma. Ultrasound has been shown to be accurate when performed by non-radiologist physicians; recent reports have suggested that non-physicians can perform limited ultrasound examinations. A multipurpose ultrasound system is installed on the International Space Station (ISS) as a component of the Human Research Facility (HRF). This report documents the first ocular ultrasound examination conducted in space, which demonstrated the capability to assess physiologic alterations or pathology including trauma during long-duration space flight. METHODS: An ISS crewmember with minimal sonography training was remotely guided by an imaging expert from Mission Control Center (MCC) through a comprehensive ultrasound examination of the eye. A multipurpose ultrasound imager was used in conjunction with a space-to-ground video downlink and two-way audio. Reference cards with topological reference points, hardware controls, and target images were used to facilitate the examination. Multiple views of the eye structures were obtained through a closed eyelid. Pupillary response to light was demonstrated by modifying the light exposure of the contralateral eye. RESULTS: A crewmember on the ISS was able to complete a comprehensive ocular examination using B- and M-mode ultrasonography with remote guidance from an expert in the MCC. Multiple anteroposterior, oblique, and coronal views of the eye clearly demonstrated the anatomic structures of both segments of the globe. The iris and pupil were readily visualized with probe manipulation. Pupillary diameter was assessed in real time in B- and M-mode displays. The anatomic detail and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and could be used to answer a variety of clinical and space physiologic questions. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive, high-quality ultrasound examination of the eye was performed with a multipurpose imager

  5. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  6. Quantum test of the equivalence principle and space-time aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jason; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan; Müller, Holger

    2016-02-01

    We describe the Quantum Test of the Equivalence principle and Space Time (QTEST), a concept for an atom interferometry mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary science objective of the mission is a test of Einstein’s equivalence principle with two rubidium isotope gases at a precision of better than 10-15, a 100-fold improvement over the current limit on equivalence principle violations, and over 1,000,000 fold improvement over similar quantum experiments demonstrated in laboratories. Distinct from the classical tests is the use of quantum wave packets and their expected large spatial separation in the QTEST experiment. This dual species atom interferometer experiment will also be sensitive to time-dependent equivalence principle violations that would be signatures for ultralight dark-matter particles. In addition, QTEST will be able to perform photon recoil measurements to better than 10-11 precision. This improves upon terrestrial experiments by a factor of 100, enabling an accurate test of the standard model of particle physics and contributing to mass measurement, in the proposed new international system of units (SI), with significantly improved precision. The predicted high measurement precision of QTEST comes from the microgravity environment on ISS, offering extended free fall times in a well-controlled environment. QTEST plans to use high-flux, dual-species atom sources, and advanced cooling schemes, for N > 106 non-condensed atoms of each species at temperatures below 1 nK. Suppression of systematic errors by use of symmetric interferometer configurations and rejection of common-mode errors drives the QTEST design. It uses Bragg interferometry with a single laser beam at the ‘magic’ wavelength, where the two isotopes have the same polarizability, for mitigating sensitivities to vibrations and laser noise, imaging detection for correcting cloud initial conditions and maintaining contrast, modulation of the atomic hyperfine states

  7. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.

    2005-01-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P < 0.05). The finding that other acute-phase proteins were unchanged after flight suggests that the changes in iron metabolism are not likely to be solely a result of an inflammatory response. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was greater and RBC superoxide dismutase was less after flight (P < 0.05), indicating increased oxidative damage. Despite vitamin D supplement use during flight, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was decreased after flight (P < 0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several markers. Bone formation, assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers.

  8. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L; Davis-Street, Janis E

    2005-03-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P < 0.05). The finding that other acute-phase proteins were unchanged after flight suggests that the changes in iron metabolism are not likely to be solely a result of an inflammatory response. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was greater and RBC superoxide dismutase was less after flight (P < 0.05), indicating increased oxidative damage. Despite vitamin D supplement use during flight, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was decreased after flight (P < 0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several markers. Bone formation, assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers.

  9. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  10. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  11. The effects of background noise on cognitive performance during a 70 hour simulation of conditions aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Baranski, J V; Thompson, M M; Abel, S M

    2003-01-01

    A total of twenty-five subjects were cloistered for a period of 70 hours, five at a time, in a hyperbaric chamber modified to simulate the conditions aboard the International Space Station (ISS). A recording of 72 dBA background noise from the ISS service module was used to simulate noise conditions on the ISS. Two groups experienced the background noise throughout the experiment, two other groups experienced the noise only during the day, and one control group was cloistered in a quiet environment. All subjects completed a battery of cognitive tests nine times throughout the experiment. The data showed little or no effect of noise on reasoning, perceptual decision-making, memory, vigilance, mood, or subjective indices of fatigue. Our results suggest that the level of noise on the space station should not affect cognitive performance, at least over a period of several days.

  12. Evaluation of the MICAST #2-12 AI-7wt%Si Sample Directionally Solidified Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, Surendra N.; Ghods, Masoud; Angart, Samuel G.; Lauer, Mark; Grugel, Richard N.; Poirier, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The US team of the European led "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions" (MICAST) program recently received a third Aluminum - 7wt% silicon alloy that was processed in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station. The sample, designated MICAST#2-12, was directionally solidified in the Solidification with Quench Furnace (SQF) at a constant rate of 40micometers/s through an imposed temperature gradient of 31K/cm. Procedures taken to evaluate the state of the sample prior to sectioning for metallographic analysis are reviewed and rational for measuring the microstructural constituents, in particular the primary dendrite arm spacing (Lambda (sub1)), is given. The data are presented, put in context with the earlier samples, and evaluated in view of a relevant theoretical model.

  13. Microstructure and Macrosegregation Study of Directionally Solidified Al-7Si Samples Processed Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, Samuel; Erdman, R. G.; Poirier, David R.; Tewari, S.N.; Grugel, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    This talk reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). The DS-experiments have been carried out under 1-g at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under low-g on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially-processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. We have observed that the primary dendrite arm spacings of two samples grown in the low-g environment of the ISS show good agreement with a dendrite-growth model based on diffusion controlled growth. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosgregation. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, dendritic-seed crystals have to partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS is carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described.

  14. [Levels of radiation exposure and radiation risk in flights aboard the orbital complex "Mir" and the International space station].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Petrov, V M

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents results of calculating mean daily values of absorbed and equivalent doses from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Earth's radiation belts (ERB) to crew members on orbital missions aboard Mir and the International space station during solar minimum and maximum. Calculated doses were corrected in accordance with the dosimetric and spectrometric data from Mir missions 18 through to 23 that took place in the period of solar minimum. Contribution of local and albedo neutrons to equivalent dose was also taken into account. Presented are calculated total radiation risk and tumor risk over life time for Mir and ISS crews following missions of varying duration, and predictions for reduction in life span in view of recent dosimetric data.

  15. Simulations of space radiation interactions with materials, with application to dose estimates for lunar shelter and aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tai T.

    This research performed simulations using the state-of-art three dimensional computer codes to investigate the interactions of space radiation with materials and quantify the biological dose onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in a lunar shelter for future manned missions. High-energy space radiation of Trapped Protons, Solar Particle Events, and GCRs particles interactions are simulated using MCNPX and PHITS probabilistic codes. The energy loss and energy deposition within the shielding materials and in a phantom are calculated. The contributions of secondary particles produced by spallation reactions are identified. Recent experimental measurements of absorbed dose in a phantom aboard the International Space Station (ISS) was simulated, and used to determine the most appropriate simulation methodology.

  16. Logistical and Analytical Approach to a Failure Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Seve; Wright, M. Clara; Salazar, Victoria; Lubas, David; Tucker, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) from the International Space Station (ISS) began exhibiting off-nominal electrical demands and vibration. Examination by spacewalking astronauts revealed metallic debris contaminating the system and damage to the outboard race of the SARJ. Samples of the contamination were returned to Earth and analyzed. Excessive friction caused the nitride region of the 15-5 PH stainless steel race to spall, generating the debris and damaging the race surface. Excessive vibration and excess power was required to operate the system as a result.

  17. Experiments Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI): A Current Study of Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Gillies, D. C> ; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments in support of the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) were conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) with the goal of promoting our fundamental understanding of melting dynamics , solidification phenomena, and defect generation during materials processing in a microgravity environment. Through the course of many experiments a number of observations, expected and unexpected, have been directly made. These include gradient-driven bubble migration, thermocapillary flow, and novel microstructural development. The experimental results are presented and found to be in good agreement with models pertinent to a microgravity environment. Based on the space station results, and noting the futility of duplicating them in Earth s unit-gravity environment, attention is drawn to the role ISS experimentslhardware can play to provide insight to potential materials processing techniques and/or repair scenarios that might arise during long duration space transport and/or on the lunar/Mars surface.

  18. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  19. Soyuz 7 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of one grab sample canister (GSC), 6 dual sorbent tubes (DSTs), and 20 formaldehyde badges returned aboard Soyuz 7 are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the GSC were 84-89%. The recoveries of the less volatile surrogates from the DSTs were 87 to 112%; however, 13C-acetone was only recovered at 53-59%. Formaldehyde recoveries from 2 lab controls were 87 and 95%; trip controls were not returned to ground.

  20. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  1. Invited Article: Data analysis of the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Barjatya, Aroh; Swenson, Charles M.; Thompson, Donald C.; Wright, Kenneth H. Jr.

    2009-04-15

    We present data from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) that is deployed on the starboard truss of the International Space Station. The FPMU is a suite of instruments capable of redundant measurements of various plasma parameters. The instrument suite consists of a floating potential probe, a wide-sweeping spherical Langmuir probe, a narrow-sweeping cylindrical Langmuir probe, and a plasma impedance probe. This paper gives a brief overview of the instrumentation and the received data quality, and then presents the algorithm used to reduce I-V curves to plasma parameters. Several hours of data are presented from August 5, 2006 and March 3, 2007. The FPMU derived plasma density and temperatures are compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and Utah State University-Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurement (USU-GAIM) models. Our results show that the derived in situ density matches the USU-GAIM model better than the IRI, and the derived in situ temperatures are comparable to the average temperatures given by the IRI.

  2. Data Analysis of the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barjatya, Aroh; Swenson, Charles M.; Thompson, Donald C.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    We present data from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), that is deployed on the starboard (S1) truss of the International Space Station. The FPMU is a suite of instruments capable of redundant measurements of various plasma parameters. The instrument suite consists of: a Floating Potential Probe, a Wide-sweeping spherical Langmuir probe, a Narrow-sweeping cylindrical Langmuir Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe. This paper gives a brief overview of the instrumentation and the received data quality, and then presents the algorithm used to reduce I-V curves to plasma parameters. Several hours of data is presented from August 5th, 2006 and March 3rd, 2007. The FPMU derived plasma density and temperatures are compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and USU-Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurement (USU-GAIM) models. Our results show that the derived in-situ density matches the USU-GAIM model better than the IRI, and the derived in-situ temperatures are comparable to the average temperatures given by the IRI.

  3. The Cold Atom Laboratory: a facility for ultracold atom experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aveline, David; CAL Team

    2016-05-01

    Spread across the globe there are many different experiments in cold quantum gases, enabling the creation and study of novel states of matter, as well as some of the most accurate inertial sensors currently known. The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), being built at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will be a multi-user facility that will allow the first study of ultracold quantum gases in the microgravity conditions of the International Space Station (ISS). The microgravity environment offers a wealth of advantages for studies of cold atoms, including expansion into extremely weak traps and achieving unearthly cold temperatures. It will also enable very long interaction times with released samples, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of cold atom interferometry. We will describe the CAL mission objectives and the flight hardware architecture. We will also report our ongoing technology development for the CAL mission, including the first microwave evaporation to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) on a miniaturized atom chip system, demonstrated in JPL's CAL Ground Testbed. We will present the design, setup, and operation of two experiments that reliably generate and probe BECs and dual-species mixtures of Rb-87 and K-39 (or K-41). CAL is scheduled to launch to the ISS in 2017. The CAL mission is supported by NASA's SLPS and ISS-PO. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under Contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  5. Evaluation of Primary Dendrite Arm Spacings from Aluminum-7wt% Silicon alloys Directionally Solidified aboard the International Space Station - Comparison with Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, Samuel; Lauer, Mark; Poirier, David; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum – 7wt% silicon alloys were directionally solidified in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station as part of the “MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions” (MICAST) European led program. Cross-sections of the sample during periods of steady-state growth were metallographically prepared from which the primary dendrite arm spacing (lambda 1) was measured. These spacings were found to be in reasonable agreement with the Hunt-Lu model which assumes a diffusion-controlled, convectionless, environment during controlled solidification. Deviation from the model was found and is attributed to gravity-independent thermocapillary convection where, over short distances, the liquid appears to have separated from the crucible wall.

  6. Direct Signal-to-Noise Quality Comparison between an Electronic and Conventional Stethoscope aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Ebert, Doug; Bauer, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of heart, lung, and bowel sounds is routinely performed with the use of a stethoscope to help detect a broad range of medical conditions. Stethoscope acquired information is even more valuable in a resource limited environments such as the International Space Station (ISS) where additional testing is not available. The high ambient noise level aboard the ISS poses a specific challenge to auscultation by stethoscope. An electronic stethoscope's ambient noise-reduction, greater sound amplification, recording capabilities, and sound visualization software may be an advantage to a conventional stethoscope in this environment. Methods: A single operator rated signal-to-noise quality from a conventional stethoscope (Littman 2218BE) and an electronic stethoscope (Litmann 3200). Borborygmi, pulmonic, and cardiac sound quality was ranked with both stethoscopes. Signal-to-noise rankings were preformed on a 1 to 10 subjective scale with 1 being inaudible, 6 the expected quality in an emergency department, 8 the expected quality in a clinic, and 10 the clearest possible quality. Testing took place in the Japanese Pressurized Module (JPM), Unity (Node 2), Destiny (US Lab), Tranquility (Node 3), and the Cupola of the International Space Station. All examinations were conducted at a single point in time. Results: The electronic stethoscope's performance ranked higher than the conventional stethoscope for each body sound in all modules tested. The electronic stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 7 and 10 in all modules tested. In comparison, the traditional stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 4 and 7. The signal to noise ratio of borborygmi showed the biggest difference between stethoscopes. In the modules tested, the auscultation of borborygmi was rated between 5 and 7 by the conventional stethoscope and consistently 10 by the electronic stethoscope. Discussion: This stethoscope comparison was limited to a single operator. However, we

  7. All Aboard for Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    This book is designed as a resource for teachers and parents concerned with early childhood education. It is hoped that the ideas and activities presented herein will serve in the creation of a space science and mathematics curriculum that is both child-centered and exciting. The basic philosophy for this curriculum is that of Piaget. This…

  8. Implementation of Satellite Formation Flight Algorithms Using SPHERES Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandy, Christophe P.; Sakamoto, Hiraku; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The MIT's Space Systems Laboratory developed the Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) as a risk-tolerant spaceborne facility to develop and mature control, estimation, and autonomy algorithms for distributed satellite systems for applications such as satellite formation flight. Tests performed study interferometric mission-type formation flight maneuvers in deep space. These tests consist of having the satellites trace a coordinated trajectory under tight control that would allow simulated apertures to constructively interfere observed light and measure the resulting increase in angular resolution. This paper focuses on formation initialization (establishment of a formation using limited field of view relative sensors), formation coordination (synchronization of the different satellite s motion) and fuel-balancing among the different satellites.

  9. Langmuir Probes for Obstanovka Experiment Aboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-04

    charged due to the operation of so many instruments, solar batteries, life supporting devices, etc. The present grant is for the elaboration and tests of...sensors (in RKK “ Energia ” – Moscow)  Updating of the technological instruments - a new power supply block (PSB) was elaborated, which made it possible to...depending on space weather, Year of Astronomy: Solar and Solar - Terrestrial Physics 2009, Proceedings of the All-Russian Yearly Conference on Solar

  10. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  11. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  12. Balanced Expertise Distribution in Remote Ultrasound Imaging Aboard The International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot; Dulchavsky, Scott; Hamilton, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut training for ISS operations usually ensures independent performance. With small crew size same crews also conduct all science work onboard. With diverse backgrounds, a good "match" between the existing and required skills can only be anecdotal. Furthermore, full proficiency in most of the complex tasks can be attained only through long training and practice, which may not be justified and may be impossible given the scarcity of training time. To enable a number of operational and science advancements, authors have developed a new approach to expertise distribution in time and among the space and ground personnel. Methods: As part of NASA Operational Ultrasound Project (1998-2003) and the NASA-solicited experiment "Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity-ADUM" (P.I. -S.D., ongoing), the authors have created a "Balanced Expertise Distribution" approach to perform complex ultrasound imaging tasks on ISS for both operational and science use. The four components of expertise are a) any pre-existing pertinent expertise; b) limited preflight training c) adaptive onboard proficiency enhancement tools; d) real-time ' guidance from the ground. Throughout the pre-flight training and flight time preceding the experiments, the four components are shaped in a dynamic fashion to meet in an optimum combination during the experiment sessions. Results: Procedure validation sessions and feasibility studies have given encouraging results. While several successful real-time remote guidance sessions have been conducted on ISS, Expedition 8 is the first to use an "on-orbit proficiency enhancement" tool. Conclusions: In spite of severely limited training time, daring peer-reviewed research and operational enhancements are feasible through a balanced distribution of expertise in time, as well as among the crewmembers and ground personnel. This approach shows great promise for biomedical research, but may be applicable for other areas of micro gravity-based science

  13. Autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control during prolonged spaceflights aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Baevsky, Roman M; Baranov, Victor M; Funtova, Irina I; Diedrich, André; Pashenko, Andrey V; Chernikova, Anja G; Drescher, Jürgen; Jordan, Jens; Tank, Jens

    2007-07-01

    Impaired autonomic control represents a cardiovascular risk factor during long-term spaceflight. Little has been reported on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during and after prolonged spaceflight. We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular control remains stable during prolonged spaceflight. Electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, and respiratory frequency (RF) were assessed in eight male cosmonauts (age 41-50 yr, body-mass index of 22-28 kg/m2) during long-term missions (flight lengths of 162-196 days). Recordings were made 60 and 30 days before the flight, every 4 wk during flight, and on days 3 and 6 postflight during spontaneous and controlled respiration. Orthostatic testing was performed pre- and postflight. RF and BP decreased during spaceflight (P < 0.05). Mean HR and HRV in the low- and high-frequency bands did not change during spaceflight. However, the individual responses were different and correlated with preflight values. Pulse-wave transit time decreased during spaceflight (P < 0.05). HRV reached during controlled respiration (6 breaths/min) decreased in six and increased in one cosmonaut during flight. The most pronounced changes in HR, BP, and HRV occurred after landing. The decreases in BP and RF combined with stable HR and HRV during flight suggest functional adaptation rather than pathological changes. Pulse-wave transit time shortening in our study is surprising and may reflect cardiac output redistribution in space. The decrease in HRV during controlled respiration (6 breaths/min) indicates reduced parasympathetic reserve, which may contribute to postflight disturbances.

  14. Initial Results from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Swenson, Charles; Thompson, Don; Barjatya, Aroh; Koontz, Steven L.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Minow, Joseph; Craven, Paul; Coffey, Victoria; Parker, Linda; Bui, Them

    2007-01-01

    The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a multi-probe package designed to measure the floating potential of the 1nternational Space Station (ISS) as well as the density and temperature of the local ionospheric plasma environment. The role oj the FPMU is to provide direct measurements of ISS spacecraft charging as continuing construction leads to dramatic changes in ISS size and configuration. FPMU data are used for refinement and validation of the ISS spacecraft charging models used to evaluate the severity and frequency of occurrence of ISS charging hazards. The FPMU data and the models are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed hazard controls. The FPMU consists of four probes: a floating potential probe, two Langmuir probes. and a plasma impedance probe. These probes measure the floating potential of the ISS, plasma density, and electron temperature. Redundant measurements using different probes support data validation by inter-probe comparisons. The FPMU was installed by ISS crewmembers, during an ExtraVehicular Activity, on the starboard (Sl) truss of the ISS in early August 2006, when the ISS incorporated only one 160V US photovoltaic (PV) array module. The first data campaign began a few hours after installation and continued for over five days. Additional data campaigns were completed in 2007 after a second 160V US PV array module was added to the ISS. This paper discusses the general performance characteristics of the FPMU as integrated on ISS, the functional performance of each probe, the charging behavior of the ISS before and after the addition of a second 160V US PV array module, and initial results from model comparisons.

  15. Extreme Tele-Echocardiography: Methodology for Remote Guidance of In-flight Echocardiography Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David; Borowski, Allan; Bungo, Michael W.; Dulchavsky, Scott; Gladding, Patrick; Greenberg, Neil; Hamilton, Doug; Levine, Benjamin D.; Norwoord, Kelly; Platts, Steven H.; Poston, Sue; Roper, Matthew; Sandoz, Gwenn; Thomas, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiography is ideally suited for cardiovascular imaging in remote environments, but the expertise to perform it is often lacking. In 2001, an ATL HDI5000 was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The instrument is currently being used in a study to investigate the impact of long-term microgravity on cardiovascular function. The purpose of this report is to describe the methodology for remote guidance of echocardiography in space. Methods: In the year before launch of an ISS mission, potential astronaut echocardiographic operators participate in 5 sessions to train for echo acquisitions that occur roughly monthly during the mission, including one exercise echocardiogram. The focus of training is familiarity with the study protocol and remote guidance procedures. On-orbit, real-time guidance of in-flight acquisitions is provided by a sonographer in the Telescience Center of Mission Control. Physician investigators with remote access are able to relay comments on image optimization to the sonographer. Live video feed is relayed from the ISS to the ground via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System with a 2 second transmission delay. The expert sonographer uses these images along with two-way audio to provide instructions and feedback. Images are stored in non-compressed DICOM format for asynchronous relay to the ground for subsequent off-line analysis. Results: Since June, 2009, a total of 19 resting echocardiograms and 4 exercise studies have been performed in-flight. Average acquisition time has been 45 minutes, reflecting 26,000 km of ISS travel per study. Image quality has been adequate in all studies, but remote guidance has proven imperative for fine-tuning imaging and prioritizing views when communication outages limit the study duration. Typical resting studies have included 12 video loops and 21 still-frame images requiring 750 MB of storage. Conclusions: Despite limited crew training, remote guidance allows research

  16. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacing and Trunk Diameter in Al-7-Weight-Percentage Si Alloy Directionally Solidified Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghods, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Lauer, M.; Poirier, D. R.; Grugel, R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Under a NASA-ESA collaborative research project, three Al-7-weight-percentage Si samples (MICAST-6, MICAST-7 and MICAST 2-12) were directionally solidified aboard the International Space Station to determine the effect of mitigating convection on the primary dendrite array. The samples were approximately 25 centimeters in length with a diameter of 7.8 millimeter-diameter cylinders that were machined from [100] oriented terrestrially grown dendritic Al-7Si samples and inserted into alumina ampoules within the Sample Cartridge Assembly (SCA) inserts of the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF). The feed rods were partially remelted in space and directionally solidified to effect the [100] dendrite-orientation. MICAST-6 was grown at 5 microns per second for 3.75 centimeters and then at 50 microns per second for its remaining 11.2 centimeters of its length. MICAST-7 was grown at 20 microns per second for 8.5 centimeters and then at 10 microns per second for 9 centimeters of its remaining length. MICAST2-12 was grown at 40 microns per second for 11 centimeters. The thermal gradient at the liquidus temperature varied from 22 to 14 degrees Kelvin per centimeter during growth of MICAST-6, from 26 to 24 degrees Kelvin per centimeter for MICAST-7 and from 33 to 31 degrees Kelvin per centimeter for MICAST2-12. Microstructures on the transverse sections along the sample length were analyzed to determine nearest-neighbor spacing of the primary dendrite arms and trunk diameters of the primary dendrite-arrays. This was done along the lengths where steady-state growth prevailed and also during the transients associated with the speed-changes. The observed nearest-neighbor spacings during steady-state growth of the MICAST samples show a very good agreement with predictions from the Hunt-Lu primary spacing model for diffusion controlled growth. The observed primary dendrite trunk diameters during steady-state growth of these samples also agree with predictions from a coarsening-based model

  17. Thaumatin crystallization aboard the International Space Station using liquid-liquid diffusion in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN).

    PubMed

    Barnes, Cindy L; Snell, Edward H; Kundrot, Craig E

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports results from the first biological crystal-growth experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Crystals of thaumatin were grown using liquid-liquid diffusion in Tygon tubing transported in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Different volume ratios and concentrations of protein and precipitant were used to test different adaptations of the vapor-diffusion crystallization recipe to the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The EGN warmed up from 77 to 273 K in about 4 d, about the same time it took to warm from 273 to 293 K. The temperature within the EGN was 293-297 K for the majority of the experiment. Air gaps that blocked liquid-liquid diffusion formed in the tubes. Nonetheless, crystals were grown. Synchrotron diffraction data collected from the best space-grown crystal extended to 1.28 A, comparable to previous studies of space-grown thaumatin crystals. The resolution of the best ground-control crystal was only 1.47 A. It is not clear if the difference in diffraction limit arises from factors other than crystal size. Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that the EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space-grown crystals that diffract to high resolution.

  18. Thaumatin Crystallization Aboard the International Space Station Using Liquid-Liquid Diffusion in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig; Barnes, Cindy L.; Snell, Edward H.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results from the first biological crystal growth experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Crystals of thaumatin were grown using liquid-liquid diffusion in Tygon tubing transported in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Different Volume ratios and concentrations of protein and precipitant were used to test different adaptations of the vapor diffusion crystallization recipe to the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The EGN warmed up from -196 C to 0 C in about four days, about the same time it took to warm from 0 C to 20 C. The temperature within the EGN was 20 - 24 C for the majority of the experiment. Air gaps that blocked liquid-liquid diffusion formed in the tubes. Nonetheless, crystals were grown. Synchrotron diffraction data collected from the best space grown crystal extended to 1.28 Angstroms, comparable to previous studies of space-grown thaumatin crystals. The resolution of the best ground control crystal was only 1.47 Angstroms. It is not clear if the difference in diffraction limit is due to factors other than crystal size. Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space grown crystals that diffract to high resolution.

  19. STS 134, 135 and 26S Return Samples: Air Quality aboard Shuttle (STS-134) and International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    This is a very limited set of samples on which to perform an air quality assessment. However, based on these samples, we have no reason to believe that nominal ISS air is unsafe to breathe. We must continue to be vigilant when dealing with nominal atmospheres in ISS. New, unmanned modules require special attention when the crew first enters. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation aboard ISS: Beginning in late 2008 the nominal concentrations of CO began increasing gradually (Figure 1). The results from samples returned on this flight indicate that the CO concentrations, after dropping in late 2009, have cycled upward and then settled back to concentrations near 2 mg/m3. In any case, these changes are well below the 180-day SMAC for CO, which is17 mg/m3. There is no threat to crew health. Carbon Dioxide: This anthropogenic compound has drawn much attention recently because of the possibility that it could contribute to the effects of intracranial hypertension experienced because of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts. From now on we will maintain a plot (Figure 2) of carbon dioxide concentrations ( SD) by averaging the values found in the 3-5 mini-GSC samples taken each month in diverse locations of the ISS. This will enable us to estimate the average exposure of crewmembers to carbon dioxide during their stay aboard the ISS. In general, concentrations are being maintained below 3.5 mmHg. Figure 1

  20. Development and Performance of the Oxygen Sensor in the CSA-CP Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    A combustion products analyzer (CPA) was built for use on Shuttle in response to several thermodegradation incidents that had occurred during early flights. The CPA contained sensors that measured carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, and hydrogen fluoride. These marker compounds, monitored by the CPA, were selected based upon the likely products to be released in a spacecraft fire. When the Toxicology Laboratory group at Johnson Space Center (JSC) began to assess the air quality monitoring needs for the International Space Station (ISS), the CPA was the starting point for design of an instrument to monitor the atmosphere following a thermodegradation event. The final product was significantly different from the CPA and was named the compound specific analyzer-combustion products (CSA-CP). The major change from the CPA that will be the focus of this paper was the replacement of an unreliable hydrogen fluoride (HF) sensor with an oxygen sensor. A reliable HF sensor was not commercially available, but as the toxicology group reviewed the overall monitoring strategy for ISS, it appeared that a portable oxygen sensor to backup the major constituent analyzer was needed. Therefore, an oxygen sensor replaced the HF sensor in the new instrument. This paper will describe the development, deployment, and performance of the CSA-CP oxygen sensor on both Shuttle and ISS. Also, data for CSA-CP oxygen sensor accuracy at nominal and reduced pressures will be presented.

  1. Equilibrium Kinetics Studies and Crystallization Aboard the International Space Station (ISS) Using the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achari, Aniruddha; Roeber, Dana F.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Protein Crystallization Apparatus in Microgravity (PCAM) trays have been used in Shuttle missions to crystallize proteins in a microgravity environment. The crystallization experiments are 'sitting drops' similar to that in Cryschem trays, but the reservoir solution is soaked in a wick. From early 2001, crystallization experiments are conducted on the International Space Station using mission durations of months rather than two weeks on previous shuttle missions. Experiments were set up in April 2001 on Flight 6A to characterize the time crystallization experiments will take to reach equilibrium in a microgravity environment using salts, polyethylene glycols and an organic solvent as precipitants. The experiments were set up to gather data for a series of days of activation with different droplet volumes and precipitants. The experimental set up on ISS and results of this study will be presented. These results will help future users of PCAM to choose precipitants to optimize crystallization conditions for their target macromolecules for a particular mission with known mission duration. Changes in crystal morphology and size between the ground and space grown crystals of a protein and a protein -DNA complex flown on the same mission will also be presented.

  2. LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a New System for Microbial Monitoring Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Danibm N,; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and -1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of

  3. Living aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The crew habitat of the Space Shuttle is briefly characterized. Subjects discussed include the overall layout of the crew quarters; the air-purification and climate-control facilities; menus and food-preparation techniques; dishwashing, laundry, toilet, bathing, and shaving procedures; and recreation and sleeping accommodations. Drawings and a photograph are provided.

  4. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  5. Extreme Tele-Echocardiography: Methodology for Remote Guidance of In-Flight Echocardiography Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David S.; Borowski, Allan; Bungo, Michael W.; Gladding, Patrick; Greenberg, Neil; Hamilton, Doug; Levine, Benjamin D.; Lee, Stuart M.; Norwood, Kelly; Platts, Steven H.; Matz, Timothy; Roper, Matthew; Sandoz, Gwenn; Thomas, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Methods: In the year before launch of an ISS mission, potential astronaut echocardiographic operators participate in 5 sessions to train for echo acquisitions that occur roughly monthly during the mission, including one exercise echocardiogram. The focus of training is familiarity with the study protocol and remote guidance procedures. On-orbit, real-time guidance of in-flight acquisitions is provided by a sonographer in the Telescience Center of Mission Control. Physician investigators with remote access are able to relay comments on image quality to the sonographer. Live video feed is relayed from the ISS to the ground via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System with a 2- second transmission delay. The expert sonographer uses these images, along with twoway audio, to provide instructions and feedback. Images are stored in non-compressed DICOM format for asynchronous relay to the ground for subsequent off-line analysis. Results: Since June, 2009, a total of 27 resting echocardiograms and 5 exercise studies have been performed during flight. Average acquisition time has been 45 minutes, reflecting 26,000 km of ISS travel per study. Image quality has been adequate in all studies, and remote guidance has proven imperative for fine-tuning imaging and prioritizing views when communication outages limit the study duration. Typical resting studies have included 27 video loops and 30 still-frame images requiring 750 MB of storage. Conclusions: Despite limited crew training, remote guidance allows research-quality echocardiography to be performed by non-experts aboard the ISS. Analysis is underway and additional subjects are being recruited to define the impact of microgravity on cardiac structure and systolic and diastolic function.

  6. Using the Flow-3D General Moving Object Model to Simulate Coupled Liquid Slosh - Container Dynamics on the SPHERES Slosh Experiment: Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulman, Richard; Kirk, Daniel; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The SPHERES Slosh Experiment (SSE) is a free floating experimental platform developed for the acquisition of long duration liquid slosh data aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The data sets collected will be used to benchmark numerical models to aid in the design of rocket and spacecraft propulsion systems. Utilizing two SPHERES Satellites, the experiment will be moved through different maneuvers designed to induce liquid slosh in the experiment's internal tank. The SSE has a total of twenty-four thrusters to move the experiment. In order to design slosh generating maneuvers, a parametric study with three maneuvers types was conducted using the General Moving Object (GMO) model in Flow-30. The three types of maneuvers are a translation maneuver, a rotation maneuver and a combined rotation translation maneuver. The effectiveness of each maneuver to generate slosh is determined by the deviation of the experiment's trajectory as compared to a dry mass trajectory. To fully capture the effect of liquid re-distribution on experiment trajectory, each thruster is modeled as an independent force point in the Flow-3D simulation. This is accomplished by modifying the total number of independent forces in the GMO model from the standard five to twenty-four. Results demonstrate that the most effective slosh generating maneuvers for all motions occurs when SSE thrusters are producing the highest changes in SSE acceleration. The results also demonstrate that several centimeters of trajectory deviation between the dry and slosh cases occur during the maneuvers; while these deviations seem small, they are measureable by SSE instrumentation.

  7. Characteristics of the eyes pursuit function during readaptation to terrestrial gravity after prolonged flights aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, L.; Alekhina, M.; Temnikova, V.; Naumov, I.

    2005-08-01

    Studies of characteristics of the eyes pursuit function were performed after prolonged space flights by electrooculography and videooculography techniques. Objectives of the work were: to determine the effect of the prolonged microgravity exposure on characteristics of the eyes pursuit function, and to reveal the correlation between characteristics of the that and the vestibular function. It has been shown that after microgravity exposure, were registered alterations of the accuracy, velocity and time characteristics of the eyes pursuit function. These alterations differed in a depth, pattern and readaptation dynamics, were correlated with changes in vestibular function. It has been demonstrated that the structure of visual pursuit was altered in those cosmonauts who had central changes in oculomotor system.

  8. A Year in Space: Early Results and Lessons Learned from the First Year-Long Expedition Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. B.; Bogomolov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Two ISS crewmembers recently completed the first year-long orbital stay in two decades. International cooperation was central to the success of Mikhail Kornienko from Russia and Scott Kelly from the United States. Their expedition leveraged current mission experience and capitalized on recent advances in health monitoring technology. This unique effort began in 2012 when the program managers of the ISS partner nations adopted two separate goals: greater multilateral cooperation to increase efficiency of inflight research and a year-long expedition to gain familiarity with in-flight durations approaching that required for a Mars mission. These goals were unified when a set of bilateral Russian and American human research investigations was assigned to the year-long mission, augmented by additional investigations from Europe and Japan. For example, Kelly was assigned 18 investigations (twice the complement on standard six-month missions) including two joint U.S.-Russian studies, and two Russian and two Japanese studies. The core set of American investigations was a repetition of six studies Kelly had done on his previous six-month ISS mission, to allow a direct comparison of physiological and behavioral responses of the longer and shorter durations in this single individual. The remainder of his assignments plus those of Kornienko were drawn from currently active national investigations documenting human adaptation to long-duration spaceflight factors or effectiveness of countermeasures against known deleterious adaptations. The two joint U.S.-Russian investigations were the flagship biomedical studies of the year-long expedition. The "Fluid Shifts" study collocated American research equipment alongside a Russian operational stressor device to document the pattern and impacts of the headward fluid shift long known to occur in weightlessness, including its role in ocular changes recently observed in some astronauts. The "Field Test" study investigated the ability of

  9. Earth Views From the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    In celebration of Earth Day, NASA presents images of Earth captured by cameras aboard the International Space Station. Traveling at an approximate speed of 17,500 miles per hour, the space station ...

  10. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  11. Assessment of Air Quality in the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle Based on Samples Returned Aboard STS-110 (ISS-8A) in April 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2002-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of grab sample canisters (GSCs) returned aboard STS-110 is reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and surrogate standard recoveries from the GSCs were 77-121%, with one exception. Pressure tracking indicated no leaks in the canisters. Recoveries from lab and trip controls for formaldehyde analyses ranged from 87 to 96%. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contributions). Because of the inertness of Freon 218 (octafluoropropane, OFP), its contribution to the NMVOC is subtracted and tabulated separately. Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols are also shown for each sample. Because formaldehyde is quantified from sorbent badges, its concentration is listed separately. These five indices of air quality are summarized.

  12. Soyez Departs From International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Seven photographed the Soyez TMA-1 Capsule through a window of the International Space Station (ISS) as it departed for Earth. Aboard were Expedition Six crew members, astronauts Kerneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, and cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin. Expedition Six served a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS, the longest stay to date.

  13. NASA, Rockets, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    General overview of NASA, Launch Services Program, and the Slosh experiment aboard the International Space Station. This presentation is designed to be presented in front of university level students in hopes of inspiring them to go into STEM careers.

  14. Assessment of Air Quality in the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle Based on Samples Returned Aboard STS-ll1 (UF2) in June 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of grab sample canisters (GSCs) and 2 solid sorbent air samplers (SSASs) returned aboard STS-111 are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the GSCs were 86-106% and 62% to 136 % from the SSASs; 2 tubes with low surrogate recoveries were not reported. Pressure tracking indicated no leaks in the canisters during analysis. Recoveries from lab and trip controls for formaldehyde analyses ranged from 87 to 96%. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contributions). Because of the inertness of Freon 218 (octafluoropropane, OFP), Its contribution to the NMVOC is subtracted and tabulated separately. Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols (including acetone) are also shown for each sample. Because formaldehyde is quantified from sorbent badges, its concentration is listed separately. The table shows that the air quality in general was acceptable for crew respiration; however, certain values shown in bold require further explanation. The 1.05 T value on 2/28/02 was caused by an unusually high measurement ofhexamethylcyc1otrisiloxane (T value = 0.50), which is not a concern. The MPLM T value of 1.42 and the alcohol level of 7.5 mg/cu m were due to an overall polluted atmosphere, which was expected at first entry. The major T-value component was carbon monoxide at a contribution of 0.44 units. Since the crew was only exposed momentarily to the polluted atmosphere, no health effects are expected. The formaldehyde value of 0.060 mg/cu m found in the Lab sample from 3/27/02 is cause for concern because the Lab consistently shows higher concentrations of formaldehyde than the SM and occasionally the concentrations are above the acceptable guideline. Levels of OFP have remained low, suggesting

  15. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  16. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  17. Forced Forward Smoldering Experiments Aboard The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Bar-Ilan, A.; Rein, G.; Urban, D. L.; Torero, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Smoldering is a basic combustion problem that presents a fire risk because it is initiated at low temperatures and because the reaction can propagate slowly in the material interior and go undetected for long periods of time. It yields a higher conversion of fuel to toxic compounds than does flaming, and may undergo a transition to flaming. To date there have been a few minor incidents of overheated and charred cables and electrical components reported on Space Shuttle flights. With the establishment of the International Space Station, and the planning of a potential manned mission to Mars, there has been an increased interest in the study of smoldering in microgravity. The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a spacecraft environment. The aim of the experiment is to provide a better fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering combustion under normal- and microgravity conditions. This in turn will aid in the prevention and control of smolder originated fires, both on earth and in spacecrafts. The microgravity smoldering experiments have to be conducted in a space-based facility because smoldering is a very slow process and consequently its study in a microgravity environment requires extended periods of time. The microgravity experiments reported here were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle. The most recent tests were conducted during the STS-105 and STS-108 missions. The results of the forward smolder experiments from these flights are reported here. In forward smolder, the reaction front propagates in the same direction as the oxidizer flow. The heat released by the heterogeneous oxidation reaction is transferred ahead of the reaction heating the unreacted fuel. The resulting increase of the virgin fuel temperature leads to the onset of the smolder reaction, and propagates through the fuel. The MSC data are compared with normal gravity

  18. High temperature heat pipe experiments aboard the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. ); Secary, C.J. )

    1993-01-10

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most space nuclear power systems, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation. Three SST/potassium heat pipes are being designed, fabricated, and ground tested. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will fly aboard the space shuttle in 1995. Three wick structures will be tested: homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap. Ground tests are described that simulate the space shuttle environment in every way except gravity field.

  19. International Space Station in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after deparating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with the Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

  20. International Space Station in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after separating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistic Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

  1. Space science experiments aboard ATS-F.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, R.; King, W.

    1972-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Experiment (EME) package is mounted on the ATS-F spacecraft to a structure that is located on top of the 30-foot parabolic reflector hub. The eight experiments of the EME package are designed to study the environment in space at synchronous altitude and to obtain information on electromagnetic-ionospheric interactions. Six of these experiments will obtain data on charged particles of several different types. A seventh experiment is to provide magnetic field data. The eighth experiment is concerned with solar cell degradation studies.

  2. Stability of Formulations Contained in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf life are essential for successful space medical operations in support of space exploration missions. Physical and environmental factors unique to space missions such as vibration, G forces and ionizing radiation may adversely affect stability of pharmaceuticals intended for standard care of astronauts aboard space missions. Stable pharmaceuticals, therefore, are of paramount importance for assuring health and wellness of astronauts in space. Preliminary examination of stability of formulations from Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) medical kits revealed that some of these medications showed physical and chemical degradation after flight raising concern of reduced therapeutic effectiveness with these medications in space. A research payload experiment was conducted with a select set of formulations stowed aboard a shuttle flight and on ISS. The payload consisted of four identical pharmaceutical kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms that were transported to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the Space Shuttle, STS 121. One of the four kits was stored on the shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at six months intervals on a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit; the shuttle kit was returned to Earth on the same flight. Standard stability indicating physical and chemical parameters were measured for all pharmaceuticals returned from the shuttle and from the first ISS increment payload along with ground-based matching controls. Results were compared between shuttle, ISS and ground controls. Evaluation of data from the three paradigms indicates that some of the formulations exhibited significant degradation in space compared to respective ground controls; a few formulations were unstable both on the ground and in space. An increase in the number of pharmaceuticals from ISS failing USP standards was noticed compared to those from the shuttle

  3. Working aboard the Mir space station.

    PubMed

    Reiter, T

    1996-11-01

    For more than ten years, the Mir station has been the World's only permanently manned laboratory in low earth orbit. With an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees, its ground track covers more than 85% of the Earth's surface, where approximately 95% of the population lives. For the transfer of up to three crew members per trip to and from Mir, the 6.9 t Soyuz spacecraft is used. In general, the station's crew is changed every six months, with an overlap during the exchange of between one and two weeks. A Progress spacecraft (an unmanned derivative of the Soyuz vehicle) visits the station every three months to resupply it, with up to 2.1 t of payload, and to reboost it to maintain its nominal orbital altitude. The station's core module, injected into orbit in February 1986, contains the central control post for most onboard systems, the computer for attitude control, and the telemetry and communications system. It also contains the station's largest work space, which is 7.0 m long and varies in width between 1.5 and 2.5 m.

  4. International Space Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of the program vision and mission; Space Station uses; definition of program phases; as well as descriptions and status of several scheduled International Space Station Overview assembly flights.

  5. 75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee. The purpose of the meeting is to assess NASA and Roscosmos continuing plans to support a six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including transportation,......

  6. Protein crystallization aboard the Space Shuttle and the Mir space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delbaere, Louis T. J.; Vandonselaar, Margaret; Prasad, Lata; Quail, J. W.; Birnbaum, George I.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Moore, Karen; Bugg, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Two different protein crystallizations, namely ,the free Fab fragment of the Je142 monoclonal antibody and the complex of Fab fragment/HPr with antigen, were performed aboard the Discovery Space Shuttle flights and the Mir space station, respectively. Medium sized crystals of the Je142 Fab fragment were obtained. The Je142 Fab fragment/Hpr complex produced two medium-sized crystals after two months aboard the Mir space station. Microgravity was found to eliminate the tendency of these crystals to form clusters.

  7. [Light microscopy of statocyst cell elements from Helix lucorum (space experiment aboard the orbital station "MIR")].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Bukiia, R D; Kalandarishvili, E L; Taktakishvili, A D; Davitashvili, M T; Gelashvili, N Sh; Madzhagaladze, N B; Galkin, V A

    2013-01-01

    Statocyst epithelial lining of terrestrial pulmonary snail Helix lucorum is a spatially arranged structure consisting of 13 cell ensembles. Each ensemble has a sensory cell surrounded by companion cells. The sensory cell on the anterior statocyst pole is star-shaped due to multiple protoplasmatic protrusions on its body. The remaining 12 polygon-shaped cells form 3 tires along the statocyst internal perimeter: anterior, middle or equatorial and posterior. There are 4 cells in each tire. Topography of every sensory cell on the statocyst internal surface was described as well as cell nuclei size and form, nucleoli number and patterns of cytoplasm vacuolization. Space free of sensory cells is occupied by supporting or intercalary cells. Exposure to space microgravity over 40, 43, 102 and 135 days aboard the orbital station MIR affected morphology of the sensory cells. Specifically, this appeared as reductions in cell height and, consequently, extension of the statocyst cavity internal diameter and volume in the space-flown snails.

  8. Testing of Polymer Materials on MIR Space Station and on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhvalov, Yu. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.; Milinchuk, V. K.; Klinshpont, E. R.; Ananjeva, O. A.; Pasevich, O. F.; Novikov, L. S.; Chernik, V. N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of space tests of different polymer films. The experiments were carried out aboard Mir Space Station in 1985-1999 and continued aboard the International Space Station (ISS) since 1998. Two types of polymer film samples were studied: unprotected and protected with glass filters. Upon return to Earth, the samples were analyzed using different analytical techniques and the data on mass loss, changes in thickness and changes in optical properties were obtained.

  9. ISS Update: Science Aboard Kounotori3

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Pete Hasbrook, associate program scientist, about the experiments traveling to the International Space Station aboard the H-II Transfer Vehicle...

  10. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    One of the astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery took this photograph, from the aft flight deck of the Discovery, of the International Space Station (ISS) in orbit. The photo was taken after separation of the orbiter Discovery from the ISS after several days of joint activities and an important crew exchange.

  11. International Space Station: Expedition 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of the International Space Station (ISS) presents an inside look at the groundwork and assembly of the ISS. Footage includes both animation and live shots of a Space Shuttle liftoff. Phil West, Engineer; Dr. Catherine Clark, Chief Scientist ISS; and Joe Edwards, Astronaut, narrate the video. The first topic of discussion is People and Communications. Good communication is a key component in our ISS endeavor. Dr. Catherine Clark uses two soup cans attached by a string to demonstrate communication. Bill Nye the Science Guy talks briefly about science aboard the ISS. Charlie Spencer, Manager of Space Station Simulators, talks about communication aboard the ISS. The second topic of discussion is Engineering. Bonnie Dunbar, Astronaut at Johnson Space Flight Center, gives a tour of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). She takes us inside Node 2 and the U.S. Lab Destiny. She also shows where protein crystal growth experiments are performed. Audio terminal units are used for communication in the JEM. A demonstration of solar arrays and how they are tested is shown. Alan Bell, Project Manager MRMDF (Mobile Remote Manipulator Development Facility), describes the robot arm that is used on the ISS and how it maneuvers the Space Station. The third topic of discussion is Science and Technology. Dr. Catherine Clark, using a balloon attached to a weight, drops the apparatus to the ground to demonstrate Microgravity. The bursting of the balloon is observed. Sherri Dunnette, Imaging Technologist, describes the various cameras that are used in space. The types of still cameras used are: 1) 35 mm, 2) medium format cameras, 3) large format cameras, 4) video cameras, and 5) the DV camera. Kumar Krishen, Chief Technologist ISS, explains inframetrics, infrared vision cameras and how they perform. The Short Arm Centrifuge is shown by Dr. Millard Reske, Senior Life Scientist, to subject astronauts to forces greater than 1-g. Reske is interested in the physiological effects of

  12. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  13. STS-113/11A: Assessment of Air Quality in the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle Based on Samples Returned in December 2002 and in May 2003 aboard Soyuz 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of grab sample canisters (GSCs) returned aboard STS-l13 and Soyuz 5 are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the GSCs were 79-120% except as noted in the table. One sample was returned with the valve opened. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contributions). Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols (including acetone) are also shown for each sample. Octafluoropropane (OFP) has leaked from heat-exchange units in large quantities, so its concentration is tracked separately. Because formaldehyde is quantified from sorbent badges, its concentration is also listed separately. The table shows that the air quality in general was acceptable for crew respiration through the middle of December 2002. No conclusions can be made about the air quality after that date due to NASA's inability to return air samples from the ISS . Alcohols are not being controlled to the recently lowered guideline of 5 mg/m3, which was recommended to protect the water recovery systems. The airlock sample was taken during the regeneration of Met ox canisters in the adjacent Node. The trace pollutants were not increased above background; however, inspection of table 1 in the appendix shows a CO2 concentration of 17,000 mg/cu m, which is a relatively high concentration, but still below the 24-hour SMAC of23,000 mg/cu m. The control of OFP continues to be adequate at least through December 2002. Formaldehyde concentrations suggest that the high levels that were being found in the Lab atmosphere have subsided. This is probably attributable to the restoration of IMV in early February 2003 . Before the obstructing material was removed from ducts the Lab formaldehyde concentrations approached 0.06 mg/cu m, whereas

  14. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  15. Use of international space station for fundamental physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U.; Lee, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's research plans aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. Experiments in low temperature physics and atomic physics are planned to commence in late 2005. Experiments in gravitational physics are planned to begin in 2007. A low temperature microgravity physics facility is under development for the low temperature and gravitation experiments.

  16. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  17. International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassler, Maggie (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) is described in this video, hosted by Marina Sirtis from the 'Star Trek' television show's Starship Enterprise. A complete explanation of what ISU is, how the university functions, and the benefits that the university provides are described. Included are brief comments from former ISU graduates.

  18. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  19. Comparison between Measured and Simulated Radiation Doses in the Matoroshka-R Spherical phantom Experiment#1 and Area Monitoring aboard International Space Station using PADLES from May - Sep. 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Aiko; Tolochek, Raisa; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Nikolaev, Igor; Tawara, Hiroko; Kitajo, Keiichi; Shimada, Ken

    The measurement of radiation environmental parameters in space is essential to support radiation risk assessments for astronauts and establish a benchmark for space radiation models for present and future human space activities. Since Japanese Experiment Module ‘KIBO’ was attached to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008, we have been performing continuous space radiation dosimetery using a PADLES (Passive Dosimeter for Life-Science Experiments in Space) consisting of CR-39 PNTDs (Plastic Nuclear track detectors) and TLD-MSOs (Mg2SiO4:Tb) for various space experiments onboard the ‘KIBO’ part of the ISS. The MATROSHKA-R experiments aims to verify of dose distributions in a human body during space flight. The phantom consists of tissue equivalent material covered by a poncho jacket with 32 pockets on the surface. 20 container rods with dosimeters can be struck into the spherical phantom. Its diameter is 370 mm and it is 32 kg in weight. The first experiment onboard the KIBO at Forward No.2 area (JPM1F2 Rack2) was conducted over 114 days from 21 May to 12 September 2012 (the installation schedule inside the phantom) on the way to solar cycle 24th upward curve. 16 PADLES packages were deployed into 16 poncho pockets on the surface of the spherical phantom. Another 12 PADLES packages were deployed inside 4 rods (3 packages per rod in the outer, middle and inner side). Area monitoring in the KIBO was conducted in the same period (Area PADLES series #8 from 15 May to 16 September, 2012). Absorbed doses were measured at 17 area monitoring points in the KIBO and 28 locations (16 packages in poncho pockets and 12 inside 4 rods) in the phantom. The maximum value measured with the PADLES in the poncho pockets on the surface of the spherical phantom facing the outer wall was 0.43 mGy/day and the minimum value measured with the PADLES in the poncho pockets on the surface of the spherical phantom facing the KIBO interior was 0.30 mGy/day. The maximum absorbed

  20. Characterization of the Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus for Microgravity Aboard the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Roeber, D.; Achari, A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted experiments to determine the equilibration rates of some major precipitants used in protein crystallography aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The solutions were placed in the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM) which mimic Cryschem sitting drop trays. The trays were placed in cylinders. These cylinders were placed inside a Single locker Thermal Enclosure System (STES), and were activated for different durations during the flight. Bumpers pressed against elastomers seal drops in a deactivated state during pre-flight and prior to transfer to the ISS. Activation occurs while in flight on the ISS by releasing the bumpers allowing the drops to be exposed to the reservoir. PCAM was flown to the ISS on STS 100, Flight 6A, on April 19, 2001. Six series of equilibration experiments were tested for each precipitant with a small amount of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Cylinder 10 was never activated, 7 was activated for 40 days, 8 was activated for 20 days, 9 was activated for 10 days, 11 was activated for 4 days and 12 was activated for 2 days. Upon the return to Earth by STS 104 on July 24,2001 the samples were transferred to Marshall Space Flight Center. The samples were then brought to the lab and the volumes of each sample were measured.

  1. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  2. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: internal measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Passive radiation dosimeters were exposed aboard the Mir Orbital Station over a substantial portion of the solar cycle in order to measure the change in dose and dose equivalent rates as a function of time. During solar minimum, simultaneous measurements of the radiation environment throughout the habitable volume of the Mir were made using passive dosimeters in order to investigate the effect of localized shielding on dose and dose equivalent. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors to measure absorbed dose and CR-39 PNTDs to measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > or = 5 keV/micrometers. Results from the two detector types were then combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Contrary to expectations, both dose and dose equivalent rates measured during May-October 1991 near solar maximum were higher than similar measurements carried out in 1996-1997 during solar minimum. The elevated dose and dose equivalent rates measured in 1991 were probably due to a combination of intense solar activity, including a large solar particle event on 9 June 1991, and the temporary trapped radiation belt created in the slot region by the solar particle event and ensuing magnetic storm of 24 March 1991. During solar minimum, mean dose and dose equivalent rates were found to vary by factors of 1.55 and 1.37, respectively, between different locations through the interior of Mir. More heavily shielded locations tended to yield lower total dose and dose equivalent rates, but higher average quality factor than did more lightly shielding locations. However, other factors such as changes in the immediate shielding environment surrounding a given detector location, changes in the orientation of the Mir relative to its velocity vector, and changes in the altitude of the station also contributed to the variation. Proton and neutron-induced target

  3. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  4. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  5. The International Space Station in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

  6. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  7. Recently Deployed Solar Arrays on International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This video still depicts the recently deployed starboard and port solar arrays towering over the International Space Station (ISS). The video was recorded on STS-97's 65th orbit. Delivery, assembly, and activation of the solar arrays was the main mission objective of STS-97. The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics, and will provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  8. International Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the 2013 Space Apps Challenge, space enthusiasts with diverse backgrounds gathered April 20-21 for a collaborative, global problem-solving effort. Held at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Comple...

  9. Commercial opportunities in bioseparations and physiological testing aboard Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Cell Research (CCR) is a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space which has as its main goal encouraging industry-driven biomedical/biotechnology space projects. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide long duration, crew-tended microgravity environments which will enhance the opportunities for commercial biomedical/biotechnology projects in bioseparations and physiological testing. The CCR bioseparations program, known as USCEPS (for United States Commercial Electrophoresis Program in Space), is developing access for American industry to continuous-flow electrophoresis aboard SSF. In space, considerable scale-up of continuous free-flow electrophoresis is possible for cells, sub cellular particles, proteins, growth factors, and other biological products. The lack of sedemination and buoyancy-driven convection flow enhances purity of separations and the amount of material processed/time. Through the CCR's physiological testing program, commercial organizations will have access aboard SSF to physiological systems experiments (PSE's); the Penn State Biomodule; and telemicroscopy. Physiological systems experiments involve the use of live animals for pharmaceutical product testing and discovery research. The Penn State Biomodule is a computer-controlled mini lab useful for projects involving live cells or tissues and macro molecular assembly studies, including protein crystallization. Telemicroscopy will enable staff on Earth to manipulate and monitor microscopic specimens on SSF for product development and discovery research or for medical diagnosis of astronaut health problems. Space-based product processing, testing, development, and discovery research using USCEPS and CCR's physiological testing program offer new routes to improved health on Earth. Direct crew involvement-in biomedical/biotechnology projects aboard SSF will enable better experimental outcomes. The current data base shows that there is reason for considerable optimism

  10. International Space Station Research Racks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

  11. Feasibility study to conduct windblown sediment experiments aboard a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Iversen, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A feasibility study was undertaken to determine if a suitable apparatus could be designed to analyze aeolian processes for operation in space and to assess the feasibility of conducting meaningful experiments to address key aspects of aeolian processes. To meet this objective a prototype apparatus was fabricated and some limited experiments were run to determine its suitability for this application. At least three general types of experiments were devised that could be carried out aboard a space station: threshold studies, swirl (dust devil) experiments, and analyses of windblown particle trajectories. How experiments in a zero-g environment could advance knowledge of aeolian processes was studied.

  12. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  13. Technology development for laser-cooled clocks on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W. M.

    2003-01-01

    The PARCS experiment will use a laser-cooled cesium atomic clock operating in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station to provide both advanced tests of gravitational theory to demonstrate a new cold-atom clock technology for space.

  14. STS-98 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), with its newly attached U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, was photographed by a crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis during a fly-around inspection after Atlantis separated from the Space Station. The Laboratory is shown in the foreground of this photograph. The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5-meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. The International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nat, Gopalswamy; Joseph, Davila; Barbara, Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is a program of international cooperation aimed at understanding the external drivers of space weather. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009 and will continue with those aspects that directly affect life on Earth. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This presentation outlines the ISWI program including its organizational aspects and proposed activities. The ISWI observatory deployment and outreach activities are highly complementary to the CAWSES II activities of SCOSTEP.

  16. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000-pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  17. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 upon its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  18. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  19. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  20. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000- pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  1. Science and Technology Research Directions for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique and unprecedented space research facility. Never before have scientists and engineers had access to such a robust, multidisciplinary, long-duration microgravity laboratory. To date, the research community has enjoyed success aboard such platforms as Skylab, the Space Shuttle, and the Russian Mir space station. However, these platforms were and are limited in ways that the ISS is not. Encompassing four times the volume of Mir, the ISS will support dedicated research facilities for at least a dozen scientific and engineering disciplines. Unlike the Space Shuttle, which must return to Earth after less than three weeks in space, the ISS will accommodate experiments that require many weeks even months to complete. Continual access to a microgravity laboratory will allow selected scientific disciplines to progress at a rate far greater than that obtainable with current space vehicles.

  2. A prototype gas exchange monitor for exercise stress testing aboard NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Joseph A.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Bauer, Anne

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an easy-to-use monitor developed to track the weightlessness deconditioning aboard the NASA Space Station, together with the results of testing of a prototype instrument. The monitor measures the O2 uptake and CO2 production, and calculates the maximum O2 uptake and anaerobic threshold during an exercise stress test. The system uses two flowmeters in series to achieve a completely automatic calibration, and uses breath-by-breath compensation for sample line-transport delay. The monitor was evaluated using two laboratory methods and was shown to be accurate. The system's block diagram and the bench test setup diagram are included.

  3. Aeronomy from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lessons learned with The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) a new NASA experiment studying the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from a vantage point on the International Space Station (ISS) will be reviewed. The RAIDS mission focuses on the coupling and transition from the coldest part of the atmosphere, the mesopause near 85 km, up to the hottest regions of the thermosphere above 300 km. Built jointly by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and The Aerospace Corporation, RAIDS also is serving as a pathfinder experiment for atmospheric remote sensing aboard the ISS. The 51.6 deg. orbital inclination and roughly 340 km orbital altitude of the ISS required tailoring atmospheric science objectives appropriate for low- and mid-latitude observations. Orbital precession enables observations over a range of local time and solar illumination conditions, but also causes the orbital plane to intersect the Sun roughly monthly, requiring a temporary shutdown of the RAIDS sensors. Extensive station structures near the field-of-regard pose a risk of scattered light contamination which must be mitigated through good baffling of optical sensors. Activities aboard the manned station, including attitude perturbations from spacecraft dockings and construction activities, occasionally disrupt observations. A significant challenge for limb-viewing RAIDS was ISS pitch oscillations up to ±0.75 deg. per orbit associated with solar array rotation, but NASA adjusted the station’s flight characteristics to provide ±0.2 deg. pitch stability for RAIDS. Jitter and vibration at the extremity of the ISS have not been a concern for RAIDS. Finally, manned environments are notoriously dirty with respect to contamination-sensitive optical instruments, but after twelve months of continuous operation RAIDS does not exhibit any unusual degradation in sensor performance.

  4. The transportation of fine arts materials aboard the space shuttle Columbia. GAS payload No. 481: Vertical horizons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Ellery; Wishnow, Howard

    1988-01-01

    The Vertical Horizons experiment represents an initial investigation into the transportation of fine arts materials aboard a space shuttle. Within the confines of a GAS canister, artist quality fine arts materials were packaged and exposed to the rigors of space flight in an attempt to identify adverse effects.

  5. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  6. The International Space Station: a pathway to the future.

    PubMed

    Kitmacher, Gary H; Gerstenmaier, William H; Bartoe, John-David F; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 6 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  7. The International Space Station: A Pathway to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.; Bartoe, John-David F.; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 16 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the longterm effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  8. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  9. Space Biosciences, Space-X, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Space Biosciences Research on the International Space Station uses living organisms to study a variety of research questions. To enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. To develop the fundations for a safe, productive human exploration of space. To improve the quality of life on earth.

  10. Space station internal propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richie, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned with a wireless communication system in place for the transmission of information between crew members on board. The clarity of transmission is paramount to an effective system of communication. A short overview is presented of the system including the requirements of interest, and a statement of the problem. The theory used to solve the problem is explored. The results given are for the experiments performed on a mockup of the proposed structure at NASA-Marshall. The requirements on the signal level are that there is a 45 dB signal to noise ratio from end to end, and that coverage over 99 pct. of the volume be maintained. The Rice probability distribution function, a simple extension of the Rayleigh distribution, is used to estimate the field strength inside a volume, where a significant line of sight from the transmitter to the receiver exists. For the SSF, this distribution will correspond to the summation of a coherent line of sight path between the transmitter and the receiver and an incoherent portion. The incoherent portion is the sum of reflections from the walls and the equipment inside the SSF. The Rice distribution was found to be the optimal distribution from the results.

  11. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Sciences's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jordan, Lee P.

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas.

  12. Students Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International SpaceStation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Memphis student working at the University of Alabama in Huntsville prepares samples for the first protein crystal growth experiments plarned to be performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The proteins are placed in plastic tubing that is heat-sealed at the ends, then flash-frozen and preserved in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be analyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  13. Students Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Memphis students working at the University of Alabama in Huntsville prepare samples for the first protein crystal growth experiments plarned to be performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The proteins are placed in plastic tubing that is heat-sealed at the ends, then flash-frozen and preserved in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be analyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  14. Students Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Memphis student working at the University of Alabama in Huntsville prepares samples for the first protein crystal growth experiments plarned to be performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The proteins are placed in plastic tubing that is heat-sealed at the ends, then flash-frozen and preserved in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be analyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  15. [Cell biology researches aboard the robotic space vehicles: preparation and performance].

    PubMed

    Tairbekov, M G

    2006-01-01

    The article reviews the unique aspects of preparation and performance of cell biology experiments flown on robotic space vehicles Bion and Foton, and gives an overview of key findings in researches made under the author's leadership over the past decades. Described are the criteria of selecting test objects, and the conditions required for preparation and implementation of space and control (synchronous) experiments. The present-day status and issues of researches into cell responsivity to space microgravity and other factors are discussed. Also, potentialities of equipment designed to conduct experiments with cell cultures in vitro and populations of single-celled organisms are presented, as well as some ideas for new devices and systems. Unveiled are some circumstances inherent to the development and performance of space experiments, setting up laboratory facilities at the launch and landing site, and methods of safe transportation and storage of biosamples. In conclusion, the author puts forward his view on biospecies, equipment and areas of research aboard future space vehicles.

  16. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Denham, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analysis and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will indicate changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations, and is an update to the status presented in 20031. Many new modules, and sleep stations have been added to the ISS since that time. In addition, noise mitigation efforts have reduced noise levels in some areas. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS have improved.

  17. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, alarm audibility, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analyses and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will reveal changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations and is an update to the status presented in 2011. Since this last status report, many payloads (science experiment hardware) have been added and a significant number of quiet ventilation fans have replaced noisier fans in the Russian Segment. Also, noise mitigation efforts are planned to reduce the noise levels of the T2 treadmill and levels in Node 3, in general. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS continue to improve.

  18. Microbial Characterization of Free Floating Condensate Aboard the Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Three samples of humidity condensate that had accumulated behind panels aboard the Russian space station Mir were collected and returned to earth for analysis. As these floating masses of liquid come into contact with the astronauts and the engineering systems, they have the potential to affect both crew health and systems performance. Using a combination of culturing techniques, a wide variety of organisms were isolated included Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and a presumed Legionella species. In addition, microscopic analysis indicated the presence of protozoa, dust mites, and spirochetes. These findings suggest the need for more comprehensive microbial analysis of the environment through the use of new methodologies to allow a more thorough risk assessment of spacecraft. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag.

  19. A linear accelerator in the space: The beam experiment aboard rocket

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, P.G.; Butler, T.A.; Lynch, M.T.; McKenna, K.F.; Pongratz, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    On July 13, 1989 the BEAM experiment Aboard Rocket (BEAR) linear accelerator was successfully launched and operated in space. The flight demonstrated that a neutral hydrogen beam could be successfully propagated in an exoatmospheric environment. The accelerator, which was the result of an extensive collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and industrial partners, was designed to produce a 10 mA (equivalent), 1 MeV neutral hydrogen beam in 50 {mu}s pulses at 5 Hz. The major components were a 30 keV H{sup {minus}} injector a 1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole, two 425 Mhz RF amplifiers, a gas cell neutralizer, beam optics, vacuum system and controls. The design was strongly constrained by the need for a lightweight rugged system that would survive the rigors of launch and operate autonomously. Following the flight the accelerator was recovered and operated again on the laboratory. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  1. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as construction goes on. The habitability resources available to the crew are the crew sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to deal with ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of International Partner Laboratories. Also, Node 2 and 3 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The Node 3 module will provide additional Environmental Control and Life Support Capability. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is the effects of long duration space flight on humans, a result of this research they will determine what are the habitability requirements for long duration space flight.

  2. Comparison of Martian Radiation Environment with International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This graphic shows the radiation dose equivalent as measured by Odyssey's Martian radiation environment experiment at Mars and by instruments aboard the International Space Station, for the 11-month period from April 2002 through February 2003. The accumulated total in Mars orbit is about two and a half times larger than that aboard the Space Station. Averaged over this time period, about 10 percent of the dose equivalent at Mars is due to solar particles, although a 30 percent contribution from solar particles was seen in July 2002, when the sun was particularly active.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The radiation experiment was provided by the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tex. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Variations in digestive physiology of rats after short duration flights aboard the US space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Rabot, S; Szylit, O; Nugon-Baudon, L; Meslin, J C; Vaissade, P; Popot, F; Viso, M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of microgravity on several endogenous and microbial parameters of digestive physiology. On the occasion of two Spacelab Life Sciences missions, SLS-1 (a 9-day space flight) and SLS-2 (a 14-day space flight), Sprague-Dawley rats flown aboard the US space shuttle were compared to age-matched ground-based controls. In both flights, exposure to microgravity modified cecal fermentation: concentration and profile of short-chain fatty acids were altered, whereas urea and ammonia remained unchanged. Only in SLS-1 was there an induction of intestinal glutathione-S-transferase. Additional analyses in SLS-2 showed a decrease of hepatic CYP450 and of colonic goblet cells containing neutral mucin. After a postflight recovery period equal to the mission length, only modifications of the hepatic and intestinal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes still persisted. These findings should help to predict the alterations of digestive physiology and detoxification potential likely to occur in astronauts. Their possible influence on health is discussed.

  4. Worms on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nate; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Conley, Cassie

    2002-01-01

    C. elegans was proposed as a model system for space biology studies in 1991 and has since flown on STS-42, STS-76, and STS-95. Data obtained from these flights have confirmed that C. elegans requires adequate in flight oxygenation and displays an increased rate of mutation, much like other organisms in space. Unlike vertebrates, C. elegans has been observed to successfully complete two continuous full life cycles in space without gross developmental abnormalities. These observations, could with the utility of C. elegans as a terrestrial, fully sequenced, model system make C. elegans a good candidate for long term research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). We are currently working on technology to support biological studies aboard the ISS. A component of this effort is in the development of the Space Station Biological Research Program (SSBRP) Incubator which will be able to house organisms at a constant temperature setpoint ranging from 4deg C to 45deg C. The SSBRP Incubator provides air exchange, power, data and video ports and, when placed in the collaborative NASA/NASDA 2.5M centrifuge rotor, will be capable of providing a lg gravity control. Current plans for validation of the Incubator include video monitoring and periodic sampling of C. elegans in the Incubator onboard the ISS. Once returned to earth, samples will be distributed for analysis via a specimen sharing plan and analyzed for gene expression and other parameters of growth and development in space flight. These data should provide the C. elegans research community with a baseline from which to propose studies for future flights. We have also been developing an appropriate method of culturing C. elegans in liquid media in order to remove the need for the crew to assure that strains are properly fed. Currently, we are growing strains in the chemically defined, axenic, media developed by Dr. Nancy Lu. Wild-type animals complete multiple generations and appear generally healthy after being

  5. These six astronauts have been named to fly aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in support of the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 CREW PORTRAIT --- These six astronauts have been named to fly aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in support of the Spacehab-04 mission, scheduled for launch in May of this year. On the front row are astronauts John H. Casper (right), mission commander; and Curtis L. Brown Jr., pilot. In the rear, from the left, are astronauts Daniel W. Bursch, Mario Runco Jr., Marc Garneau and Andrew S. W. Thomas, all mission specialists. Garneau represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

  6. International Space Station Water Balance Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Barry; Garr, John D., II; Erne, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    In November 2008, the Water Regenerative System racks were launched aboard Space Shuttle flight, STS-126 (ULF2) and installed and activated on the International Space Station (ISS). These racks, consisting of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), completed the installation of the Regenerative (Regen) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), which includes the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) that was launched 2 years prior. With the onset of active water management on the US segment of the ISS, a new operational concept was required, that of water balance . In November of 2010, the Sabatier system, which converts H2 and CO2 into water and methane, was brought on line. The Regen ECLSS systems accept condensation from the atmosphere, urine from crew, and processes that fluid via various means into potable water, which is used for crew drinking, building up skip-cycle water inventory, and water for electrolysis to produce oxygen. Specification (spec) rates of crew urine output, condensate output, O2 requirements, toilet flush water, and drinking needs are well documented and used as the best guess planning rates when Regen ECLSS came online. Spec rates are useful in long term planning, however, daily or weekly rates are dependent upon a number of variables. The constantly changing rates created a new challenge for the ECLSS flight controllers, who are responsible for operating the ECLSS systems onboard ISS from Mission Control in Houston. This paper reviews the various inputs to water planning, rate changes, and dynamic events, including but not limited to: crew personnel makeup, Regen ECLSS system operability, vehicle traffic, water storage availability, and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Sabatier, and OGA capability. Along with the inputs that change the various rates, the paper will review the different systems, their constraints, and finally the operational challenges and means by which flight controllers

  7. International Space Station Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at

  8. On-Orbit Prospective Echocardiography on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon; Feiverson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    A number of echocardiographic research projects and experiments have been flown on almost every space vehicle since 1970, but validation of standard methods and the determination of Space Normal cardiac function has not been reported to date. Advanced Diagnostics in Microgravity (ADUM) -remote guided echocardiographic technique provides a novel and effective approach to on-board assessment of cardiac physiology and structure using a just-in-time training algorithm and real-time remote guidance aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The validation of remotely guided echocardiographic techniques provides the procedures and protocols to perform scientific and clinical echocardiography on the ISS and the Moon. The objectives of this study were: 1.To confirm the ability of non-physician astronaut/cosmonaut crewmembers to perform clinically relevant remotely guided echocardiography using the Human Research Facility on board the ISS. 2.To compare the preflight, postflight and in-flight echocardiographic parameters commonly used in clinical medicine.

  9. Public school teachers in the U.S. evaluate the educational impact of student space experiments launched by expendable vehicles, aboard Skylab, and aboard Space Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, B B; McLean, J E; Curtis, J P; James, G S

    1991-12-01

    Space education is a discipline that has evolved at an unprecedented rate over the past 25 years. Although program proceedings, research literature, and historical documentation have captured fragmented pieces of information about student space experiments, the field lacks a valid comprehensive study that measures the educational impact of sounding rockets, Skylab, Ariane, AMSAT, and Space Shuttle. The lack of this information is a problem for space educators worldwide which led to a national study with classroom teachers. Student flown experiments continue to offer a unique experiential approach to teach students thinking and reasoning skills that are imperative in the current international competitive environment in which they live and will work. Understanding the history as well as the current status and educational spin-offs of these experimental programs strengthens the teaching capacity of educators throughout the world to develop problem solving skills and various higher mental processes in the schools. These skills and processes enable students to use their knowledge more effectively and efficiently long after they leave the classroom. This paper focuses on student space experiments as a means of motivating students to meet this educational goal successfully.

  10. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  11. Cases in Space Medicine: Right Lower Quadrant Abdominal Pain in a Female Crewmember on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Scheuring, Richard; Jones, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    A case study of a medical emergency aboard the International Space Station is reviewed. The case involves a female crewmember who is experiencing acute abdominal pain. The interplay of the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) and the NASA Flight Surgeon is given. Possible diagnoses, and advised medical actions are reviewed. Along the case study questions are posed to the reader, and at the end answers are given.

  12. Visiting the International Space Station - my mission diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, U.

    2001-08-01

    Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle "Endeavour", with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed "Raffaello" logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US "Destiny" module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main task during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station.

  13. LEO degradation of graphite and carbon-based composites aboard Space Shuttle Flight STS-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Blaine R.; Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Devries, M. J.; Woollam, John A.; Moore, Arthur W.; Lake, Max

    1995-01-01

    Six different types of carbon and carbon-boron nitride composites were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-46. The samples received a nominal atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm in 42 hours of exposure. Pyrolytic graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite showed significant degradation, and the measured erosion yield was within a factor of two of published values. The erosion yield of pyrolytic boron nitride was found to be 2.6 x 10(exp 26) cu cm/atom in plasma asher exposure, over 42 times lower than that of pyrolytic graphite. This low erosion yield makes graphite plus boron nitride mixtures quite resistant to low Earth orbit exposure. Evidence suggests that the graphitic component was preferentially etched, leaving the surface boron nitride rich. Degradation resistance increases with boron nitride composition. Carbon fiber/carbon composites degraded in low Earth orbit, and the carbon pitch binder was found to etch more easily than the graphite fibers which have much higher degradation resistance.

  14. International cooperation in space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    International cooperation in the field of Space Transportation has become an accepted norm as companies and countries have come to understand the necessity of lower costs for launch services. Many different approaches have been attempted, some of which are more successful than others. This paper discusses the history of McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) launch vehicle cooperation with Japan, as well as how MDA developed Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) as a supplier for the Delta III program, and how MDA became a supplier for the Japanese H-2 vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Renormalization group in internal space

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.; Sailer, K.

    2005-01-15

    Renormalization group in the internal space consists of the gradual change of the coupling constants. Functional evolution equations corresponding to the change of the mass or the coupling constant are presented in the framework of a scalar model. The evolution in the mass which yields the functional generalization of the Callan-Symanzik equation for the one-particle irreducible effective action is given in its renormalized, cutoff-independent form. The evolution of the coupling constant generates an evolution equation for the two-particle irreducible effective action.

  16. Modeling a Wireless Network for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Yaprak, Ece; Lamouri, Saad

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of wireless local area network (LAN) simulation modeling methods to the hybrid LAN architecture designed for supporting crew-computing tools aboard the International Space Station (ISS). These crew-computing tools, such as wearable computers and portable advisory systems, will provide crew members with real-time vehicle and payload status information and access to digital technical and scientific libraries, significantly enhancing human capabilities in space. A wireless network, therefore, will provide wearable computer and remote instruments with the high performance computational power needed by next-generation 'intelligent' software applications. Wireless network performance in such simulated environments is characterized by the sustainable throughput of data under different traffic conditions. This data will be used to help plan the addition of more access points supporting new modules and more nodes for increased network capacity as the ISS grows.

  17. The International Space Station: Stepping-stone to Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; Kitmacher, Gary H.; Kelly, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle returns to flight this year, major reconfiguration and assembly of the International Space Station continues as the United States and our 5 International Partners resume building and carry on operating this impressive Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14,2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. The current ongoing research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human physiology will greatly benefit human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. The continual operation of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of system and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Program, including a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  18. The International Space Station: Stepping-stone to Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; Kelly, Brian K.; Kelly, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle returns to flight this year, major reconfiguration and assembly of the International Space Station continues as the United States and our 5 International Partners resume building and carry on operating this impressive Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush ratified the United States' commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. The current ongoing research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human physiology will greatly benefit human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. The continual operation of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of system and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Program, including a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  19. Angry Birds in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA created a video using Angry Birds Space to explain how physics works in space, including demonstrating trajectories in mic...

  20. International Space Programs. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, S. B.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, is a collection of the diverse information available regarding the international space programs. The five goals listed for the book are: to examine the Soviet space program, to understand the future of Soviet space activity, to examine other national and international space programs, to…

  1. International Space Station Increment-3 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy; Grodsinksy, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of August to December 2001. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-3. However, not all of the activities were analyzed for this report due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification. The International Space Station Increment-3 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: (1) The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. (2) The Space Acceleration Measurement System, which is

  2. International Space Station Increment-2 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data, collected aboard the International Space Station during the period of May to August 2001, the Increment-2 phase of the station. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels during activities that took place during the Increment-2 segment. However, not all of the activities were analyzed for this report due to time constraints, lack of precise information regarding some payload operations and other station activities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments, which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of vehicle microgravity requirements verification. The International Space Station Increment-2 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: 1) The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and the vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. 2) The Space

  3. Research on the International Space Station - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations November 1998 to November 2000 it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence. Since that time and simultaneous with the complicated task of ISS construction and overcoming impacts from the tragic Columbia accident science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. As of this writing, over 162 experiments have been operated on the ISS, supporting research for hundreds of ground-based investigators from the U.S. and international partners. This report summarizes the experimental results collected to date. Today, NASA's priorities for research aboard the ISS center on understanding human health during long-duration missions, researching effective countermeasures for long-duration crewmembers, and researching and testing new technologies that can be used for future exploration crews and spacecraft. Through the U.S. National Laboratory designation, the ISS is also a platform available to other government agencies. Research on ISS supports new understandings, methods or applications relevant to life on Earth, such as understanding effective protocols to protect against loss of bone density or better methods for producing stronger metal alloys. Experiment results have already been used in applications as diverse as the manufacture of solar cell and insulation materials for new spacecraft and the verification of complex numerical models for behavior of fluids in fuel tanks. A synoptic publication of these results will be forthcoming in 2009. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities were tripled with the addition of ESA's Columbus and JAXA's Kibo scientific modules joining NASA's Destiny Laboratory. All three

  4. A densitometric analysis of IIaO film flown aboard the space shuttle transportation system STS #3, 7, and 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since the United States of America is moving into an age of reusable space vehicles, both electronic and photographic materials will continue to be an integral part of the recording techniques available. Film as a scientifically viable recording technique in astronomy is well documented. There is a real need to expose various types of films to the Shuttle environment. Thus, the main objective was to look at the subtle densitometric changes of canisters of IIaO film that was placed aboard the Space Shuttle 3 (STS-3).

  5. International Space Station Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, Blythe A.

    2008-01-01

    The goals and objectives of the ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) are to: 1) Maximize the utilization the ISS and other spaceflight platforms to assess the effects of longduration spaceflight on human systems; 2) Devise and verify strategies to ensure optimal crew performance; 3) Enable development and validation of a suite of integrated physical (e.g., exercise), pharmacologic and/or nutritional countermeasures against deleterious effects of space flight that may impact mission success or crew health. The ISSMP provides planning, integration, and implementation services for Human Research Program research tasks and evaluation activities requiring access to space or related flight resources on the ISS, Shuttle, Soyuz, Progress, or other spaceflight vehicles and platforms. This includes pre- and postflight activities; 2) ISSMP services include operations and sustaining engineering for HRP flight hardware; experiment integration and operation, including individual research tasks and on-orbit validation of next generation on-orbit equipment; medical operations; procedures development and validation; and crew training tools and processes, as well as operation and sustaining engineering for the Telescience Support Center; and 3) The ISSMP integrates the HRP approved flight activity complement and interfaces with external implementing organizations, such as the ISS Payloads Office and International Partners, to accomplish the HRP's objectives. This effort is led by JSC with Baseline Data Collection support from KSC.

  6. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating in the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  7. Space Station Live: ISS Communications Unit Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters interviews International Space Station Flight Director Mike Lammers about the recent Ku communications unit upgrade work taking place aboard th...

  8. Space Station Live: Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean speaks with Robert Corban, Fluids and Combustion Facility Manager, about the research being performed aboard the International Space Station using this state...

  9. The International Space Station Photographed During the STS-112 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The newly added S1 truss is visible in the center frame. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss,and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  10. The International Space Station Photographed During STS-112 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  11. Video- Astronauts Don Pettit and Ken Bowersox Paint Water Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. Science begets art in this video as Dr. Pettit and commander Ken Bowersox demonstrate two dimensional diffusion using food coloring in a film of water when they created an intriguing birdlike image. Dr. Pettit wonders aloud 'It makes us wonder what Matisse could do with a medium like this.'

  12. Video-A Bottle of Water And Bubbles Rotate on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Pettit performs a demonstration in which he shook up a bottle that was half full of water, half full of air, so that bubbles formed, then spun it real fast to see what would happen to the bubbles. Watch the video to see the outcome.

  13. International Space Station Integration of Automated Safing Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Kim; Prokhorov, Kimberlee

    2006-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) functionality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) includes responding to various emergency conditions. The ISS requirements define three types of emergencies: fire, rapid depressurization, and hazardous or toxic atmosphere. The ISS has automatic integrated vehicle responses to each of these emergencies. These responses are designed to aid the crew in their response actions to the emergencies. This paper focuses on the integration of ISS responses to these three emergencies. It includes the ISS automatic integrated vehicle response and the initial crew response. Philosophies regarding the generic response to an on-orbit emergency are described. Software responses are defined for modules on orbit up to the addition of the Docking Compartment (DC1) in the assembly sequence. Possible future improvements are also described.

  14. Automating Stowage Operations for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for any proposed mission is to demonstrate convincingly that the proposed systems will in fact deliver the science promised. Funding agencies and mission design personnel are becoming ever more skeptical of the abstractions that form the basis of the current state of the practice with respect to approximating science return. To address this, we have been using automated planning and scheduling technology to provide actual coverage campaigns that provide better predictive performance with respect to science return for a given mission design and set of mission objectives given implementation uncertainties. Specifically, we have applied an adaptation of ASPEN and SPICE to the Eagle-Eye domain that demonstrates the performance of the mission design with respect to coverage of science imaging targets that address climate change and disaster response. Eagle-Eye is an Earth-imaging telescope that has been proposed to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. Video- Water Droplet Demonstration on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Dr. Pettit demonstrates a spilling phenomenon with films of water. After drawing a 100-200 micron thick film of pure water, which is impossible to do on Earth, Dr. Pettit oscillates the film back and forth like a drum head, forcing the water droplets to spill off. He observes that although the phenomenon looks much like drops of water that are ejected from the surface of a pool when a rock is dropped in, the underlying physics are very different.

  16. Red Aurora as Seen From the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Auroras are caused when high-energy electrons pour down from the Earth's magnetosphere and collide with atoms. Red aurora, as captured here by a still digital camera aboard the International Space Station (ISS), occurs from 200 km to as high as 500 km altitude and is caused by the emission of 6300 Angstrom wavelength light from oxygen atoms. The light is emitted when the atoms return to their original unexcited state. The white spot in the image is from a light on inside of the ISS that is reflected off the inside of the window. The pale blue arch on the left side of the frame is sunlight reflecting off the atmospheric limb of the Earth. At times of peaks in solar activity, there are more geomagnetic storms and this increases the auroral activity viewed on Earth and by astronauts from orbit.

  17. Orbital Path of the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Dan Burbank explain the orbital path of the International Space Station. Earth video credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA's Johnson Space Cen...

  18. Engineering of the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station is about the size of a football field and weighs 827,794 pounds! So how did we get something so big into space? In pieces! Fifteen different countries from all aroun...

  19. The International Space Station: Systems and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Timothy W.

    2010-01-01

    ISS Program Mission: Safely build, operate, and utilize a permanent human outpost in space through an international partnership of government, industry, and academia to advance exploration of the solar system, conduct scientific research, and enable commerce in space.

  20. STS-97 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) in orbit was taken during a fly-around inspection by the Space Shuttle Endeavour after successfull attachment of the 240-foot-long, 38-foot-wide solar array.

  1. International Space Station payload accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Daniel W.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a low Earth orbiting facility for conducting research in life science, microgravity, Earth observations, and Engineering Research and Technology. Assembled on-orbit at a nominal altitude of 220 nautical miles, it will provide a shirt-sleeve environment for conducting research in six laboratories: the US Laboratory (US Lab), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), the European Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF), the Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM), and the Russian Research Modules. Supplies will be replenished using the Multi-Purpose Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM), a conditioned pressurized transport carrier which will also return passive and perishable payload cargo to earth. External Earth observations can be performed by utilizing the payload attachment points on the truss, the Russian Science Power Platform, the JEM Exposed Facility (EF), and the COF backporch. The pressurized and external locations are equipped with a variety of electrical, avionics, fluids, and gas interfaces to support the experiments. ISS solar arrays, thermal radiators, communication system, propulsion, environmental control, and robotic devices provide the infrastructure to support sustained research. This paper, which reflects the design maturity of payload accommodations at the time of its submittal (10/20/98), is primarily based on the assembly complete configuration of the station. As the design matures, ISS Payload Accommodations will be updated to reflect qualification tests of components and associated analyses of the integrated performance.

  2. Video-Puff of Air Hits Ball of Water in Space Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Dr. Pettit demonstrates the phenomenon of a puff of air hitting a ball of water that is free floating in space. Watch the video to see why Dr. Pettit remarks 'I'd hate think that our planet would go through these kinds of gyrations if it got whacked by a big asteroid'.

  3. Video- Demonstration of Tea and Sugar in Water Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. Imagine what would happen if a collection of loosely attractive particles were confined in a relatively small region in the floating environment of space. Would they self organize into a compact structure, loosely organize into a fractal, or just continue to float around in their container? In this video clip, Dr. Pettit explored the possibilities. At one point he remarks, 'These things look like pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope.' Watch the video and see what happens!

  4. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  5. The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) provided a successful model for the deployment of arrays of small scientific instruments in new and scientifically interesting geographic locations, and outreach. The new International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is designed to build on this momentum to promote the observation, understanding, and prediction space weather phenomena, and to communicate the scientific results to the public.

  6. Development of a System to Assess Biofilm Formation in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin Charles, E.; Summers, Silvia M.; Roman, Monserrate C.

    1998-01-01

    The design requirements for the water treatment systems aboard the International Space Station (ISS) include and require recycling as much water as possible and to treat the water for intentional contamination (hygiene, urine distillate, condensate, etc.) and unintentional contamination in the form of biofilm and microorganisms. As part of an effort to address the latter issue, a biofilm system was developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to simulate the conditions aboard ISS with respect to materials, flow rates, water conditions, water content, and handling. The tubing, connectors, sensors, and fabricated parts included in the system were chosen for specific attributes as applicable to emulate an orbital water treatment system. This paper addresses the design and development process of the system, as well as the configuration, operation, and system procedures for maintenance to assure that the simulation is valid for the representative data as it applies to water degradation and biofilm/microbial growth. Preliminary biofilm/microbial results are also presented.

  7. Advancing Space Situational Awareness through International Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, Terrance

    2012-07-01

    The growing interest in Space Situational Awareness and the recognized need for global coordination has led to the involvement of numerous international activities to increase awareness and foster cooperation. These activities are serving to prioritize and to coordinate our efforts and helping to establish a stronger, global Space Situational Awareness enterprise. This coordination is important for our data infrastructure, research developments, and the provision of operational services. Among the organizations that are contributing to this global coordination are: the International Space Environment Service, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites, and the International Committee on GNSS. In this presentation, the contributions of these various organizations to coordinating our Space Situational Awareness efforts will be described, with an emphasis on space weather.

  8. An International Civil Aviation and Space Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakhu, R.; Sgobba, T.; Trujillo, M.

    2010-09-01

    The human adventure in space is now more than a half century old. A total of about 6000 lift-offs have taken place and some 500 people have flown into space, but in the process a number of fatalities have occurred--both in space and on the ground. Furthermore, space traffic is becoming chaotic and the orbital environment is increasingly polluted by debris. There is a need for an international body to address current and future space operations, its sustainability, safety and the adequate consideration of the potential risk for the environment and the people that populates our planet. This idea of an international regulatory body for space was first proposed some years ago by FAA-AST with the name of International Space Flight Organization(ISFO). At the time, the envisaged scope of the organization was focused on futuristic international traffic of commercial hypersonic space planes, and on the launch of space vehicles from one country which, during its return to Earth, would land in a foreign country. Clearly, potential interest in such operations, and therefore for the ISFO concept, was limited to very few countries. In 2001, Dr. Assad Kotaite, President of the International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) Council, launched the idea of extending the ICAO mandate to space. With the increase of space operations and the rapid emergence of ventures interested in commercial exploitation of space assets, the need of an international organization that will fill this gap is to be seriously considered. Within this framework, this paper will present the rationale behind the “ICAO for Space” vision within the current structure of the ICAO, it will provide an overview of emerging areas(e.g.: integration of aviation / space infrastructure, traffic management, space debris, etc) and it will propose the benefits of extending its mandate to the region of space up to and including the geostationary orbits, an area of realistic commercial interest and developments for the

  9. International Collaboration in Space Weather Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, David; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Danskin, Donald

    Space weather is a global phenomena so interntional collaboration is necessary to maintain awareness of potentially dangerous conditions. The Regional Warning Centres (RWCs) of the International Space Environment Service were set up during the International Geophysical Year to alert the scientific community to conditions requiring special measurements. The information sharing continues to this day with URSIGRAM messages exchanged between RWCs to help them produce space weather forecasts. Venturing into space, especially with manned missions, created a need to know about the space environment and particularly radiation dangers to man in space. Responding to this need led to the creation of a network of stations around the world to provide continuous monitoring of solar activity. Solar wind monitoring is now provided by the ACE satellite, operated by one country, but involving international collaborators to bring the information down in real time. Disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field are monitored by many magnetic observatories that are collaborating through INTERMAGNET to provide reliable data. Space weather produces effects on the ionosphere that can interfere with a variety of systems: the International GNSS Service provides information about effects on positioning systems, and the International Space Environment Service is providing information about iono-spheric absorption, particularly for trans-polar airline operations. The increasing availability of internet access, even at remote locations, is making it easier to obtain the raw information. The challenge now is how to integrate that information to provide effective international situational awareness of space weather.

  10. Video-Bubbles Inserted Into a Floating Drop of Water on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. Inserting a bubble into a floating ball of water in space is difficult, as Pettit demonstrates in this video. Blowing the bubble is the easy part. Getting it to stay in the center of the ball of water is much more difficult. Watch the video to see the technique Dr. Pettit finally uses and see the resulting visual surprise offered by the ensuing optical properties.

  11. Student Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Christiane Gumera, right, a student at Stanton College Preparatory High School in Jacksonville, AL, examines a protein sample while preparing an experiment for flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Merle Myers, left, a University of California, Irvine, researcher, prepares to quick-freeze protein samples in nitrogen. The proteins are in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be anlyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  12. Video-Growing Salt Crystals Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. Growing salt crystals in a bottle of water is a favorite science activity for kids. In space, Dr. Pettit grew salt crystals in stretched films of water so that the salt water only fed the crystals around the edges rather than from all sides, as happens in a glass of water. This video of his demonstration shows that surface tension plays a surprisingly dominant role in the crystal formation and convection is more active that one might expect.

  13. International Space Station Footage of Hurricane Patricia

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the International Space Station, cameras captured dramatic views of Hurricane Patricia at 12:15 p.m. EDT on October 23, 2015 as the mammoth system moved north at about 10 mph, heading for a...

  14. Space Law and International Claimant Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, D. C.; Trach, N.; Mardon, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The presentation undergoes an exploration of all current frameworks and ideas regarding the distribution of space among humanity. It concludes with the suggestion of a separate international council to amalgamate human effort for sustainable travel.

  15. Hurricane Sandy From the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station flew high above Hurricane Sandy just before 12 p.m. CDT Thursday. The storm was located about 85 miles south-southeast of Great Exuma Island. The storm’s maximum s...

  16. STS-97 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station in orbit was taken from the Space Shuttle Endeavour prior to docking. Most of the Station's components are clearly visible in this photograph. They are the Node 1 or Unity Module docked with the Functional Cargo Block or Zarya (top) that is linked to the Zvezda Service Module. The Soyuz spacecraft is at the bottom.

  17. Status: Crewmember Noise Exposures on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo-Rodriguez, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.; Danielson, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique environment where crewmembers from the US and our international partners work and live for as long as 6 to 12 consecutive months. During these long-durations ISS missions, noise exposures from onboard equipment are posing concerns for human factors and crewmember health risks, such as possible reductions in hearing sensitivity, disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and voice communications, interference with crew task performance, and reduced alarm audibility. It is crucial to control acoustical noise aboard ISS to acceptable noise exposure levels during the work-time period, and to also provide a restful sleep environment during the sleep-time period. Acoustic dosimeter measurements, obtained when the crewmember wears the dosimeter for 24-hour periods, are conducted onboard ISS every 60 days and compared to ISS flight rules. NASA personnel then assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed, and provide recommendations for hearing protection device usage. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the status of ISS noise exposure monitoring and hearing conservation strategies, as well as to summarize assessments of acoustic dosimeter data collected since the Increment 36 mission (April 2013). A description of the updated noise level constraints flight rule, as well as the Noise Exposure Estimation Tool and the Noise Hazard Inventory implementation for predicting crew noise exposures and recommending to ISS crewmembers when hearing protection devices are required, will be described.

  18. NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program (BCG) on the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of two phases. The first phase is during assembly of the ISS and will accommodate generic payloads that currently fly in the orbiter middeck. The second phase is after assembly of the ISS is complete and BCG payloads will occupy part of the Biotechnology Facility aboard the ISS. During both phases of the program, there will be two types of BCG payloads. One type will emphasize the production of crystals for structure determination back on Earth and will have high capacity for screening crystallization conditions. The second type of payload will be designed to study the crystallization process with the primary aim of developing new methods to further optimize the use of the microgravity environment. Beginning immediately, access to the BCG program for Guest Investigators is simplified. Access to all BCG hardware for Guest Investigators will be coordinated through one office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Details of how to obtain access to microgravity, the hardware available, and the operational aspects of the program will be described.

  19. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  3. Astronauts Access Web from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams and Flight Engineers Soichi Noguchi and T.J. Creamer share their thoughts about Internet access from space and post a r...

  4. Space-time framework of internal measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Koichiro

    1998-07-01

    Measurement internal to material bodies is ubiquitous. The internal observer has its own local space-time framework that enables the observer to distinguish, even to a slightest degree, those material bodies fallen into that framework. Internal measurement proceeding among the internal observers come to negotiate a construction of more encompassing local framework of space and time. The construction takes place through friction among the internal observers. Emergent phenomena are related to an occurrence of enlarging the local space-time framework through the frictional negotiation among the material participants serving as the internal observers. Unless such a negotiation is obtained, the internal observers would have to move around in the local space-time frameworks of their own that are mutually incommensurable. Enhancement of material organization as demonstrated in biological evolutionary processes manifests an inexhaustible negotiation for enlarging the local space-time framework available to the internal observers. In contrast, Newtonian space-time framework, that remains absolute and all encompassing, is an asymptote at which no further emergent phenomena could be expected. It is thus ironical to expect something to emerge within the framework of Newtonian absolute space and time. Instead of being a complex and organized configuration of interaction to appear within the global space-time framework, emergent phenomena are a consequence of negotiation among the local space-time frameworks available to internal measurement. Most indicative of the negotiation of local space-time frameworks is emergence of a conscious self grounding upon the reflexive nature of perceptions, that is, a self-consciousness in short, that certainly goes beyond the Kantian transcendental subject. Accordingly, a synthetic discourse on securing consciousness upon the ground of self-consciousness can be developed, though linguistic exposition of consciousness upon self

  5. Microgravity Environment on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    A primary feature of the International Space Station will be its microgravity environment--an environment in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. Various types of data are gathered when science experiments are conducted. The acceleration levels experienced during experiment operation should be factored into the analysis of the results of most microgravity experiments. To this end, the Space Acceleration Measurement System records the acceleration levels to support microgravity researchers for nearly three years of International Space Station operations. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project assists the experiments principal investigators with their analysis of the acceleration (microgravity) environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project provides cataloged data, periodic analysis summary reports, specialized reports for experiment teams, and real-time data in a variety of user-defined formats. Characterization of the various microgravity carriers (e.g., Shuttle and International Space Station) is also accomplished for the experiment teams. Presented in this paper will be a short description of how microgravity disturbances may affect some experiment classes, a snapshot of the microgravity environment, and a view into how well the space station is expected to meet the user requirements.

  6. Nutrititional Status Assessment of International Space Station Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Block, G.; Rice, B. I.; Davis-Street, J. F.

    2005-01-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is imperative to ensure crew health on long-duration space exploration missions. To date, nutrient requirement data have been extremely limited because of small sample sizes and difficulties associated with collecting biological samples. In this study, we examined changes in body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Crew members consumed an average of 80% of the recommended energy intakes, and on landing day their body weight had decreased (P=0.051). After flight, hematocrit was less, and serum femtin was greater than before flight (P<0.01). Serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin had decreased after flight. The finding that other acute-phase proteins, including ceruloplasmin, retinol binding protein, transthyretin, and albumin were not changed after flight suggests that the changes in iron metabolism may not be strictly due to an inflammatory response. Urinary 8- hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was greater and superoxide dismutase was less after flight, indicating that oxidative damage had increased (P<0.05). Despite the reported use of vitamin D supplements during flight, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly decreased after flight (P<0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several urinary markers of bone resorption. Bone formation, assessed by serum concentration of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, was elevated only in crew members who landed in Russia, probably because of the longer time lapse between landing and sample collection. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage remain critical concerns for long-duration space flight.

  7. Cabin Air Quality On Board Mir and the International Space Station: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel; Perry, Jay L.

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard spacecraft is critical not only to its habitability but also to its function. Ideally, air quality can be maintained by striking a proper balance between the generation and removal of contaminants. Both very dynamic processes, the balance between generation and removal can be difficult to maintain and control because the state of the cabin atmosphere is in constant evolution responding to different perturbations. Typically, maintaining a clean cabin environment on board crewed spacecraft and space habitats is the central function of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. While active air quality control equipment is deployed on board every vehicle to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace chemical components from the cabin atmosphere, perturbations associated with logistics, vehicle construction and maintenance, and ECLS system configuration influence the resulting cabin atmospheric quality. The air-quality data obtained from the International Space Station (ISS) and NASA-Mir programs provides a wealth of information regarding the maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard long-lived space habitats. A comparison of the composition of the trace chemical contaminant load is presented. Correlations between ground-based and in-flight operations that influence cabin atmospheric quality are identified and discussed, and observations on cabin atmospheric quality during the NASA-Mir expeditions and the International Space Station are explored.

  8. Initial characterization of the microgravity environment of the international space station: increments 2 through 4.

    PubMed

    Jules, Kenol; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric

    2004-11-01

    The primary objective of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide a long-term quiescent environment for the conduct of scientific research for a variety of microgravity science disciplines. This paper reports to the microgravity scientific community the results of an initial characterization of the microgravity environment on the International Space Station for increments 2 through 4. During that period almost 70,000 hours of station operations and scientific experiments were conducted. 720 hours of crew research time were logged aboard the orbiting laboratory and over half a terabyte of acceleration data were recorded and much of that was analyzed. The results discussed in this paper cover both the quasi-steady and vibratory acceleration environment of the station during its first year of scientific operation. For the quasi-steady environment, results are presented and discussed for the following: the space station attitudes Torque Equilibrium Attitude and the X-Axis Perpendicular to the Orbital Plane; station docking attitude maneuvers; Space Shuttle joint operation with the station; cabin de-pressurizations and the station water dumps. For the vibratory environment, results are presented for the following: crew exercise, docking events, and the activation/de-activation of both station life support system hardware and experiment hardware. Finally, a grand summary of all the data collected aboard the station during the 1-year period is presented showing where the overall quasi-steady and vibratory acceleration magnitude levels fall over that period of time using a 95th percentile benchmark.

  9. The In-Space Soldering Investigation: To Date Analysis of Experiments Conducted on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Gillies, D. C.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A.

    2006-01-01

    Soldering is a well established joining and repair process that is of particular importance in the electronics industry. Still, internal solder joint defects such as porosity are prevalent and compromise desired properties such as electrical/thermal conductivity and fatigue strength. Soldering equipment resides aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will likely accompany Exploration Missions during transit to, as well as on, the moon and Mars. Unfortunately, detrimental porosity appears to be enhanced in lower gravity environments. To this end, the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) is being conducted in the Microgravity Workbench Area (MWA) aboard the ISS as "Saturday Science" with the goal of promoting our understanding of joining techniques, shape equilibrium, wetting phenomena, and microstructural development in a microgravity environment. The work presented here will focus on direct observation of melting dynamics and shape determination in comparison to ground-based samples, with implications made to processing in other low-gravity environments. Unexpected convection effects, masked on Earth, will also be shown as well as the value of the ISS as a research platform in support of Exploration Missions.

  10. The In-Space Soldering Investigation: Research Conducted on the International Space Station in Support of NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fincke, M.; Sergre, P. N.; Ogle, J. A.; Funkhouser, G.; Parris, F.; Murphy, L.; Gillies, D.; Hua, F.

    2004-01-01

    Soldering is a well established joining and repair process that is of particular importance in the electronics industry. Still. internal solder joint defects such as porosity are prevalent and compromise desired properties such as electrical/thermal conductivity and fatigue strength. Soldering equipment resides aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will likely accompany Exploration Missions during transit to, as well as on, the moon and Mars. Unfortunately, detrimental porosity appears to be enhanced in lower gravity environments. To this end, the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) is being conducted in the Microgravity Workbench Area (MWA) aboard the ISS as "Saturday Science" with the goal of promoting our understanding of joining techniques, shape equilibrium, wetting phenomena, and microstructural development in a microgravity environment. The work presented here will focus on direct observation of melting dynamics and shape determination in comparison to ground-based samples, with implications made to processing in other low-gravity environments. Unexpected convection effects, masked on Earth, will also be shown as well as the value of the ISS as a research platform in support of Exploration Missions.

  11. Evaluation of shoulder integrity in space: first report of musculoskeletal US on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincke, E. Michael; Padalka, Gennady; Lee, Doohi; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Martin, David; Melton, Shannon L.; McFarlin, Kellie; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Investigative procedures were approved by Henry Ford Human Investigation Committee and NASA Johnson Space Center Committee for Protection of Human Subjects. Informed consent was obtained. Authors evaluated ability of nonphysician crewmember to obtain diagnostic-quality musculoskeletal ultrasonographic (US) data of the shoulder by following a just-in-time training algorithm and using real-time remote guidance aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS Expedition-9 crewmembers attended a 2.5-hour didactic and hands-on US training session 4 months before launch. Aboard the ISS, they completed a 1-hour computer-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement program 7 days before examination. Crewmembers did not receive specific training in shoulder anatomy or shoulder US techniques. Evaluation of astronaut shoulder integrity was done by using a Human Research Facility US system. Crew used special positioning techniques for subject and operator to facilitate US in microgravity environment. Common anatomic reference points aided initial probe placement. Real-time US video of shoulder was transmitted to remote experienced sonologists in Telescience Center at Johnson Space Center. Probe manipulation and equipment adjustments were guided with verbal commands from remote sonologists to astronaut operators to complete rotator cuff evaluation. Comprehensive US of crewmember's shoulder included transverse and longitudinal images of biceps and supraspinatus tendons and articular cartilage surface. Total examination time required to guide astronaut operator to acquire necessary images was approximately 15 minutes. Multiple arm and probe positions were used to acquire dynamic video images that were of excellent quality to allow evaluation of shoulder integrity. Postsession download and analysis of high-fidelity US images collected onboard demonstrated additional anatomic detail that could be used to exclude subtle injury. Musculoskeletal US can be performed in space by minimally

  12. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company,shows Boeing technicians preparing to install one of six hatches or doors to the Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  13. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company, shows Boeing technicians preparing to install one of six hatches or doors to the Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  14. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company, shows Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS), with its hatch door installed. The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  15. Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Hardin, Juanita R.; Lewis, Marian L.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the infrastructure needed to catalyze this biotechnology revolution that could eventually lead to production of medical and pharmaceutical products in space. The biotechnology program discussed herein is evidence of this collaborative effort, with industry involvement from Space Hardware Optimization Technology, Inc., government participation through the NASA Commercial Space program, and academic guidance from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Blending the strengths and resources of each collaborator creates a strong partnership, that offers enormous research and commercial opportunities.

  16. International Space Station: becoming a reality.

    PubMed

    David, L

    1999-07-01

    An overview of the development of the International Space Station (ISS) is presented starting with a brief history of space station concepts from the 1960's to the decision to build the present ISS. Other topics discussed include partnerships with Japan, Canada, ESA countries, and Russia; design changes to the ISS modules, the use of the ISS for scientific purposes and the application of space research to medicine on Earth; building ISS modules on Earth, international funding for Russian components, and the political aspects of including Russia in critical building plans. Sidebar articles examine commercialization of the ISS, multinational efforts in the design and building of the ISS, emergency transport to Earth, the use of robotics in ISS assembly, application of lessons learned from the Skylab project to the ISS, initial ISS assembly in May 1999, planned ISS science facilities, and an overview of space stations in science fiction.

  17. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  18. International ties. [international cooperation in the space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of NASA's participation in international activities in space science is given. The Ariel, Alouette, Isis, and San Marco satellite programs are addressed along with sounding rocket and ground based projects. Relations and cooperation with the Soviet Union are also discussed.

  19. STS-106 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was taken when Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-106 mission) approached the ISS for docking. At the top is the Russian Progress supply ship that is linked with the Russian built Service Module or Zvezda. The Zvezda is cornected with the Russian built Functional Cargo Block (FGB) or Zarya. The U.S. built Node 1 or Unity module is seen at the bottom.

  20. International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

  1. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  2. Space Flute Duet

    NASA Video Gallery

    Harmony reaches new heights as NASA Astronaut Cady Coleman, circling Earth aboard the International Space Station, and musician Ian Anderson, founder of the rock band Jethro Tull, join together for...

  3. International Space Station Microgravity Analytical Model Correlation And Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelBasso, Steve; Laible, Michael; OKeefe, Edmund; Scheer, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    The acceleration environment aboard the completed International Space Station (ISS) is a key resource for scientific and technological endeavors. Hardware verification activIties and early measurements indicate that the ISS is well on the way of meeting these "Assembly Complete" "microgravity" provisions, however, the simulation models that compute these accelerations have, to date, lacked the high degree of empirical validation typical of standard aerospace industry practices. Assembly stage, on-orbit measurements are used to address this shortcoming and to develop higher confidence in the simulation models. The Phase I correlation results show the analyses to be consistently conservative, producing higher than measured levels. The 25 to 30% greater quasi-steady computations are deemed acceptable for verification. Updates are made to localized structural dynamic and vibroacoustic parameters that reduce responses in selected one-third octave bands by almost 50%. These models are then used for the Assembly Complete verification analysis which concludes that the ISS vehicle meets the ISS microgravity requirements with minor reservations. Two of the sixteen rack are marginally non-compliant in the quasi-steady regime, and operational constraints are needed on the U. S. Lab and ESA APM vacuum resource vents, and the Russian Resistive Exercise Device in the structural dynamic regime.

  4. The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, Elliot P.; McFatter, Justin; Sweeney, Daniel J.; Enriquez, Carlos F.; Taylor, Deneen M.; McCann, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high drive motor current draw. Increased structural vibrations near the joint were also observed. Subsequent inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the nitrided case-hardened steel bearing race on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A farreaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken. The investigation included metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The results of the investigation showed that the anomaly had most probably been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors. To mitigate the impact of the damage, astronauts cleaned and lubricated the race ring surface with grease. This corrective action led to significantly improved performance of the mechanism both in terms of drive motor current and induced structural vibration.

  5. The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, Elliot P.; McFatter, Justin; Sweeney, Daniel J.; Enriquez, Carlos F.; Taylor, Deneen M.; McCann, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high drive motor current draw. Increased structural vibrations near the joint were also observed. Subsequent inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the nitrided case hardened steel bearing race on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken. The investigation included metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The results of the investigation showed that anomaly had most probably been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors. To mitigate the impact of the damage astronauts cleaned and lubricated the race ring surface with grease. This corrective action led to significantly improved performance of the mechanism both in terms of drive motor current and induced structural vibration.

  6. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  7. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Coil, David A; Neches, Russell Y; Lang, Jenna M; Brown, Wendy E; Severance, Mark; Cavalier, Darlene; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS). Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation). Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  8. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS)

    PubMed Central

    Neches, Russell Y.; Lang, Jenna M.; Brown, Wendy E.; Severance, Mark; Cavalier, Darlene

    2016-01-01

    Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS). Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation). Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space. PMID:27019789

  9. International Space Programs. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "International Space Programs." The guide is organized according to specific chapters in the textbook. It provides guidelines for teachers in terms of objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outlines, orientation, suggested key points,…

  10. STS-106 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was taken during the STS-106 mission. The ISS component nearest the camera is the U.S. built Node 1 or Unity module, which cornected with the Russian built Functional Cargo Block (FGB) or Zarya. The FGB was linked with the Service Module or Zvezda. On the far end is the Russian Progress supply ship.

  11. Strategic planning for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, Carolyn S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept for utilization and operations planning for the International Space Station Freedom was developed in a NASA Space Station Operations Task Force in 1986. Since that time the concept has been further refined to definitize the process and products required to integrate the needs of the international user community with the operational capabilities of the Station in its evolving configuration. The keystone to the process is the development of individual plans by the partners, with the parameters and formats common to the degree that electronic communications techniques can be effectively utilized, while maintaining the proper level and location of configuration control. The integration, evaluation, and verification of the integrated plan, called the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP), is being tested in a multilateral environment to prove out the parameters, interfaces, and process details necessary to produce the first COUP for Space Station in 1991. This paper will describe the concept, process, and the status of the multilateral test case.

  12. Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available

  13. Analyses of space environment effects on active fiber optic links orbited aboard the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Monarski, T. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the 'Preliminary Analysis of WL Experiment no. 701, Space Environment Effects on Operating Fiber Optic Systems,' is correlated with space simulated post retrieval terrestrial studies performed on the M0004 experiment. Temperature cycling measurements were performed on the active optical data links for the purpose of assessing link signal to noise ratio and bit error rate performance some 69 months following the experiment deployment in low Earth orbit. The early results indicate a high correlation between pre-orbit, orbit, and post-orbit functionality of the first known and longest space demonstration of operating fiber optic systems.

  14. Putting the International Space Station to work.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest international cooperative science and technology project ever undertaken. Involving the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada and 10 ESA Member States, it is now rapidly becoming a reality in orbit, offering unprecedented access for research and applications under space conditions. Europe has invested heavily in this endeavour and plans to exploit that investment by a vigorous utilisation of the ISS for life and physical sciences research and applications, space science, Earth observation, space technology development, the promotion of commercial access to space, and the use of space for educational purposes. In recent years, ESA has engaged in an intensive promotional effort to encourage potential user communities to exploit the novel opportunities that the ISS offers. It has also made significant financial commitments to develop both multi-user facilities for life and physical sciences studies in the Columbus Laboratory, and observational and technology exposure instruments using the external Columbus mounting locations, as well as giving financial support to promote commercial and educational activities. ESA has now elaborated a European Strategy for the efficient utilisation of the ISS by European scientists and other users, which is being coordinated with the Agency's Member States contributing to the ISS Programme, and with the European Science Foundation (ESF). In cooperation with the European Commission, ESA is also fostering synergy with the European Commission's Framework Programmes in terms of shared R&D objectives. This article describes the plan that has been evolved to integrate all of these various elements.

  15. Results of the life sciences DSOs conducted aboard the space shuttle 1981-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bungo, Michael W.; Bagian, Tandi M.; Bowman, Mark A.; Levitan, Barry M.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented for a number of life sciences investigations sponsored by the Space Biomedical Research Institute at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and conducted as Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) on Space Shuttle flights between 1981 and 1986. An introduction and a description of the DSO program are followed by summary reports on the investigations. Reports are grouped into the following disciplines: Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Effects and Fluid Shifts, Equipment Testing and Experiment Verification, Microbiology, Space Motion Sickness, and Vision. In the appendix, the status of every medical/life science DSO is presented in graphical form, which enables the flight history, the number of subjects tested, and the experiment results to be reviewed at a glance.

  16. Low Earth Orbital Mission Aboard the Space Test Experiments Platform (STEP-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of the Space Active Modular Materials Experiments (SAMMES) is presented in vugraph form. The discussion is divided into three sections: (1) a description of SAMMES; (2) a SAMMES/STEP-3 mission overview; and (3) SAMMES follow on efforts. The SAMMES/STEP-3 mission objectives are as follows: assess LEO space environmental effects on SDIO materials; quantify orbital and local environments; and demonstrate the modular experiment concept.

  17. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Cotronei, Vittorio; Sabbagh, Jean

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  18. The International Space Station: A National Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    After more than a decade of assembly missions and the end of the space shuttle program, the International Space Station (ISS) has reached assembly completion. With other visiting spacecraft now docking with the ISS on a regular basis, the orbiting outpost now serves as a National Laboratory to scientists back on Earth. The ISS has the ability to strengthen relationships between NASA, other Federal entities, higher educational institutions, and the private sector in the pursuit of national priorities for the advancement of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The ISS National Laboratory also opens new paths for the exploration and economic development of space. In this presentation we will explore the operation of the ISS and the realm of scientific research onboard that includes: (1) Human Research, (2) Biology & Biotechnology, (3) Physical & Material Sciences, (4) Technology, and (5) Earth & Space Science.

  19. International Space Station -- Human Research Facility (HRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Arn Harris Hoover of Lockheed Martin Company demonstrates an engineering mockup of the Human Research Facility (HRF) that will be installed in Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Using facilities similar to research hardware available in laboratories on Earth, the HRF will enable systematic study of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurosensory, pulmonary, radiation, and regulatory physiology to determine biomedical changes resulting from space flight. Research results obtained using this facility are relevant to the health and the performance of the astronaut as well as future exploration of space. Because this is a mockup, the actual flight hardware may vary as desings are refined. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  20. International space station microgravity environment design & verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Basso, Steve

    1999-01-01

    A broad class of scientific experiments has evolved which utilize extreme low acceleration environments. The International Space Station will provide such a ``microgravity'' environment, in conjunction with an unparalleled combination of quiescent period duration, payload volume and power, and manned or telescience interaction. The International Space Station is the world's first manned space vehicle with microgravity requirements. These place limits on the acceleration levels within the pressurized laboratories and affect everything from flight altitude and attitude to the mechanical and acoustic energies emitted by an air circulation fan. To achieve such performance within the program's resource constraints, a microgravity control approach has been adopted which balances both source and receiver disturbance mitigation. The Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) provides acceleration attenuation at the payload rack level, and dominant sources have been reduced either by isolation or design modifications. Analytical assessments indicate that the vehicle is capable of meeting the challenging microgravity requirements, although some current marginal non-compliances do exist. Assessment refinements will continue through the verification phase with greater reliance on test and on-orbit measured data as part of a long term effort to clearly define and understand the constitution of the acceleration environment. This process will assure that the design and operation of the International Space Station will support significant microgravity science research.

  1. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Shirakawa, Masaki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Valentini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a valuable platform for research in space, but the benefits are limited if research is only conducted by individual countries. Through the efforts of the ISS Program Science Forum, international science working groups, and interagency cooperation, international collaboration on the ISS has expanded as ISS utilization has matured. Members of science teams benefit from working with counterparts in other countries. Scientists and institutions bring years of experience and specialized expertise to collaborative investigations, leading to new perspectives and approaches to scientific challenges. Combining new ideas and historical results brings synergy and improved peer-reviewed scientific methods and results. World-class research facilities can be expensive and logistically complicated, jeopardizing their full utilization. Experiments that would be prohibitively expensive for a single country can be achieved through contributions of resources from two or more countries, such as crew time, up- and down mass, and experiment hardware. Cooperation also avoids duplication of experiments and hardware among agencies. Biomedical experiments can be completed earlier if astronauts or cosmonauts from multiple agencies participate. Countries responding to natural disasters benefit from ISS imagery assets, even if the country has no space agency of its own. Students around the world participate in ISS educational opportunities, and work with students in other countries, through open curriculum packages and through international competitions. Even experiments conducted by a single country can benefit scientists around the world, through specimen sharing programs and publicly accessible "open data" repositories. For ISS data, these repositories include GeneLab, the Physical Science Informatics System, and different Earth data systems. Scientists can conduct new research using ISS data without having to launch and execute their own experiments

  2. Observations of comet 19P/Borrelly by the miniature integrated camera and spectrometer aboard Deep Space 1.

    PubMed

    Soderblom, L A; Becker, T L; Bennett, G; Boice, D C; Britt, D T; Brown, R H; Buratti, B J; Isbell, C; Giese, B; Hare, T; Hicks, M D; Howington-Kraus, E; Kirk, R L; Lee, M; Nelson, R M; Oberst, J; Owen, T C; Rayman, M D; Sandel, B R; Stern, S A; Thomas, N; Yelle, R V

    2002-05-10

    The nucleus of the Jupiter-family comet 19P/Borrelly was closely observed by the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer aboard the Deep Space 1 spacecraft on 22 September 2001. The 8-kilometer-long body is highly variegated on a scale of 200 meters, exhibiting large albedo variations (0.01 to 0.03) and complex geologic relationships. Short-wavelength infrared spectra (1.3 to 2.6 micrometers) show a slope toward the red and a hot, dry surface (

  3. Observations of comet 19P/Borrelly by the miniature integrated camera and spectrometer aboard deep space 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soderblom, L.A.; Becker, T.L.; Bennett, G.; Boice, D.C.; Britt, D.T.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Isbell, C.; Giese, B.; Hare, T.; Hicks, M.D.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Kirk, R.L.; Lee, M.; Nelson, R.M.; Oberst, J.; Owen, T.C.; Rayman, M.D.; Sandel, B.R.; Stern, S.A.; Thomas, N.; Yelle, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus of the Jupiter-family comet 19P/Borrelly was closely observed by the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer aboard the Deep Space 1 spacecraft on 22 September 2001. The 8-kilometer-long body is highly variegated on a scale of 200 meters, exhibiting large albedo variations (0.01 to 0.03) and complex geologic relationships. Short-wavelength infrared spectra (1.3 to 2.6 micrometers) show a slope toward the red and a hot, dry surface (???345 kelvin, with no trace of water ice or hydrated minerals), consistent with ???10% or less of the surface actively sublimating. Borrelly's coma exhibits two types of dust features: fans and highly collimated jets. At encounter, the near-nucleus coma was dominated by a prominent dust jet that resolved into at least three smaller jets emanating from a broad basin in the middle of the nucleus. Because the major dust jet remained fixed in orientation, it is evidently aligned near the rotation axis of the nucleus.

  4. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  5. Large antenna experiments aboard the space shuttle: Application of nonuniform sampling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmatsamii, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Future satellite communication and scientific spacecraft will utilize antennas with dimensions as large as 20 meters. In order to commercially use these large, low sidelobe and multiple beam antennas, a high level of confidence must be established as to their performance in the 0-g and space environment. Furthermore, it will be desirable to demonstrate the applicability of surface compensation techniques for slowly varying surface distortions which could result from thermal effects. An overview of recent advances in performing RF measurements on large antennas is presented with emphasis given to the application of a space based far-field range utilizing the Space Shuttle and the concept of a newly developed nonuniform sampling technique.

  6. Tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry measurements utililzed aboard aircraft and in accelerator based space radiation shielding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard

    The space radiation environment presents a potential hazard to the humans, electronics and materials that are exposed to it. Particle accelerator facilities such as the NASA Space Ra-diation Laboratory (NSRL) and Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) provide particle radiation of specie and energy within the range of that found in the space radiation environment. Experiments performed at these facilities determine various endpoints for bio-logical, electronic and materials exposures. A critical factor in the performance of rigorous scientific studies of this type is accurate dosimetric measurements of the exposures. A Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a microdosimeter that may be used to measure absorbed dose, average quality factor (Q) and dose equivalent of the particle beam utilized in these experiments. In this work, results from a variety of space radiation shielding studies where a TEPC was used to perform dosimetry in the particle beam will be presented. These results compare the absorbed dose and dose equivalent measured downstream of equal density thicknesses of stan-dard and multifunctional shielding materials. The standard materials chosen for these shielding studies included High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and aluminum alloy, while the multifunc-tional materials included carbon composite infused with single walled carbon nanotubes. High energy particles including proton, silicon and iron nuclei were chosen as the incident radia-tion for these studies. Further, TEPC results from measurements taken during flights aboard ER-2 and KC-135 aircraft will also be discussed. Results from these flight studies include TEPC measurements for shielded and unshielded conditions as well as the effect of vibration and electromagnetic exposures on the TEPC operation. The data selected for presentation will highlight the utility of the TEPC in space radiation studies, and in shielding studies in particular. The lineal energy response function of the

  7. International Space Station Remote Sensing Pointing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multiband optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument. This analysis supported the preliminary studies to determine feasibility of utilizing the International Space Station as an observing platform for a SHORE type of instrument. Rigorous analyses will be performed if a SHORE flight program is initiated. The analysis begins with the discussion of the coordinate systems involved and then conversion from the target coordinate system to the instrument coordinate system. Next the geometry of remote observations from the Space Station is investigated including the effects of the instrument location in Space Station and the effects of the line of sight to the target. The disturbance and error environment on Space Station is discussed covering factors contributing to drift and jitter, accuracy of pointing data and target and instrument accuracies.

  8. Opportunities for research in space life sciences aboard commercial suborbital flights.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Erika B; Charles, John B; Cuttino, Charles Marsh

    2009-11-01

    The emergence of commercial suborbital spaceflight offers a wide range of new research and development opportunities for those in the space life sciences. Large numbers of diverse flyers, frequent re-flights, and flexible operations provide a fertile ground for both basic and applied science, as well as technology demonstrations. This commentary explores some of the unique features available to the space life science community and encourages engagement with commercial developers and operators during the design phase to help optimize platform designs and operations for future research.

  9. International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

  10. Cultural factors and the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2005-06-01

    The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the select population of space program personnel. The evidence for the existence of mission-relevant cultural differences is reviewed and includes cultural values, emotional expressivity, personal space norms, and personality characteristics. The review is focused primarily on Russia and the United States, but also includes other ISS partner countries. Cultural differences among space program personnel may have a wide range of effects. Moreover, culture-related strains may increase the probability of distress and impairment. Such factors could affect the individual and interpersonal functioning of both crewmembers and mission control personnel, whose performance is also critical for mission safety and success. Examples from the anecdotal and empirical literature are given to illustrate these points. The use of existing assessment strategies runs the risk of overlooking important early warning signs of behavioral health difficulties. By paying more attention to cultural differences and how they might be manifested, we are more likely to detect problems early while they are still mild and resolvable.

  11. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  12. International Space Station Materials: Selected Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program is of such complexity and scale that there have been numerous issues addressed regarding safety of materials: from design to manufacturing, test, launch, assembly on-orbit, and operations. A selection of lessons learned from the ISS materials perspective will be provided. Topics of discussion are: flammability evaluation of materials with connection to on-orbit operations; toxicity findings for foams; compatibility testing for materials in fluid systems; and contamination control in precision clean systems and critical space vehicle surfaces.

  13. Human Factors and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Novak, Jennifer; Rathjen, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Maida, James; Woolford, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this panel are to inform the human factors community regarding the challenges of designing the International Space Station (ISS) and to stimulate the broader human factors community into participating in the various basic and applied research opportunities associated with the ISS. This panel describes the variety of techniques used to plan and evaluate human factors for living and working in space. The panel members have contributed to many different aspects of the ISS design and operations. Architecture, equipment, and human physical performance requirements for various tasks have all been tailored to the requirements of operating in microgravity.

  14. Speculations on future opportunities to evolve Brayton powerplants aboard the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station provides a unique, low-risk environment in which to evolve new capabilities. In this way, the Space Station will grow in capacity, in its range of capabilities, and its economy of operation as a laboratory and as a center for space operations. Although both Rankine and Brayton cycles, two concepts for solar dynamic power generation, now compete to power the station, this paper confines its attention to the Brayton cycle using a mixture of He and Xe as its working fluid. Such a Brayton powerplant to supply the station's increasing demands for both electric power and heat has the potential to gradually evolve higher and higher performance by exploiting already-evolved materials (ASTAR-811C and molten-Li heat storage), its peak cycle temperature rising ultimately to 1500 K. Adapting the station to exploit long tethers (200 to 300 km long) could yield increases in payloads to LEO, to GEO, and to distant destinations in the solar system. Such tethering of the Space Station would not only require additional power for electric propulsion but also would so increase nuclear safety that nuclear powerplants might provide this power. From an 8000-kWt SP-100 reactor, thermoelectric power generation could produce 300 kWe, or adapted solar-Brayton cycle, 2400 to 2800 kWe.

  15. Study of industry requirements that can be fulfilled by combustion experimentation aboard space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the requirements of commercially motivated microgravity combustion experiments and the optimal way for space station to accommodate these requirements. Representatives of commercial organizations, universities and government agencies were contacted. Interest in and needs for microgravity combustion studies are identified for commercial/industrial groups involved in fire safety with terrestrial applications, fire safety with space applications, propulsion and power, industrial burners, or pollution control. From these interests and needs experiments involving: (1) no flow with solid or liquid fuels; (2) homogeneous mixtures of fuel and air; (3) low flow with solid or liquid fuels; (4) low flow with gaseous fuel; (5) high pressure combustion; and (6) special burner systems are described and space station resource requirements for each type of experiment provided. Critical technologies involving the creation of a laboratory environment and methods for combining experimental needs into one experiment in order to obtain effective use of space station are discussed. Diagnostic techniques for monitoring combustion process parameters are identified.

  16. Reference Guide to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a great international, technological, and political achievement. It is the latest step in humankind's quest to explore and live in space. The research done on the ISS may advance our knowledge in various areas of science, enable us to improve life on this planet, and give us the experience and increased understanding that can eventually equip us to journey to other worlds. As a result of the Station s complexity, few understand its configuration, its design and component systems, or the complex operations required in its construction and operation. This book provides high-level insight into the ISS. The ISS is in orbit today, operating with a crew of three. Its assembly will continue through 2010. As the ISS grows, its capabilities will increase, thus requiring a larger crew. Currently, 16 countries are involved in this venture. This CD-ROM includes multimedia files and animations.

  17. Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    The Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference was held on August 19-21, 1987, at the Mauna Lani Bay Hotel located on the Kohala Coast of the Island of Hawaii. The meeting was cosponsored by the Aerospace Industries Association o f America, AGU, the American Institute o f Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communications Engineering, the Japanese Rocket Society, the Planetary Society, and the U.S./ISY Association and was hosted by the University of Hawaii. It was attended by more than 140 people drawn from the scientific communities and space agencies of eight countries, together with representatives from a number of international organizations.

  18. Utilizing the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System (SwUIS) on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindhelm, Eric; Stern, S. Alan; Ennico-Smith, Kimberly

    2013-09-01

    We present the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System (SwUIS), a compact, low-cost instrument designed for remote sensing observations from a manned platform in space. It has two chief configurations; a high spatial resolution mode with a 7-inch Maksutov-Cassegrain telescope, and a large field-of-view camera mode using a lens assembly. It can operate with either an intensified CCD or an electron multiplying CCD camera. Interchangeable filters and lenses enable broadband and narrowband imaging at UV/visible/near-infrared wavelengths, over a range of spatial resolution. SwUIS has flown previously on Space Shuttle flights STS-85 and STS-93, where it recorded multiple UV images of planets, comets, and vulcanoids. We describe the instrument and its capabilities in detail. The SWUIS's broad wavelength coverage and versatile range of hardware configurations make it an attractive option for use as a facility instrument for Earth science and astronomical imaging investigations aboard the International Space Station.

  19. Student Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Chemist Arna Holmes, left, from the University of Alabama in Huntsville, teaches NaLonda Moorer, center, and Maricar Bana, right, both from Terry Parker High School in Jacksonville, Fl, procedures for preparing protein crystal growth samples for flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, is a sponsor for this educational activity. The proteins are placed in plastic tubing that is heat-sealed at the ends, then flash-frozen and preserved in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aborad the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be analyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  20. The Russian experience in medical care and health maintenance of the International Space Station crews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, V. V.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-02-01

    The main purpose of the medical support system aboard International Space Station (ISS) is crew health maintenance and high level of work capability assurance prior to during and after in space flights. In the present communication the Russian point of view dealing with the problems and achievements in this branch is presented. An overview on medical operations during flight and after finalization of the space missions based on Russian data of crew health and environment state monitoring, as well as data on the inflight countermeasures (prophylaxis) jointly with data on operational problems that are specific to ISS is presented. The report summarizes results of the medical examination of Russian members of the ISS and taxi crews during and after visits to the ISS.

  1. Students Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Kim Nelson, left, of Sandalwood High School in Jacksonville, FL, helps Steven Nepowada, right, of Terry Parker High School in Jacksonville, practice loading a protein sample into a thermos-like container, known as Dewar. Students from Jacksonville worked with researchers from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), as well as universities, in Huntsville, AL, on an experiment for the International Space Station (ISS). The proteins are placed in plastic tubing that is heat-sealed at the ends, then flash-frozen and preserved in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be analyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  2. International cooperation in the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, William P.

    1987-01-01

    The principles and policies governing participation in the International Space Station are examined from a NASA perspective. The history of the program is reviewed; the most important aspects of the partnership concept (functional allocation, shared access, and interface commonality) are considered in detail; and the ongoing outfitting studies are briefly characterized. Major issues remaining to be negotiated include (1) the overall management structure; (2) the division of responsibilities for system design, integration, operation, and utilization; and (3) the sharing of operating costs.

  3. Innovative Ideas for Coordinating International Space Activities: International Center for Space Medicine, International Space Authority, and other Global Youth Space Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Generation Forum SGF, at UNISPACE-III, as one of its ten formal recommendations to the United Nations in 1999, put forward the suggestion that the an international space authority should be created. Other recommendations were the establishment of an International Center for Space Medicine, creation of a global space exploration and development program, establishment of a global space (Nobel) prize, and a global space library. These projects are being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) which shall unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11- 13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the findings of these discussions. In this paper, we present the International Space Authority idea together with recommendations on how that might be taken forward. The purpose of such an organization would be to allow: 1. Oversight and enforcement for the balanced regulation of multiple interests in space 2. Access for all peoples to the material benefits and knowledge and understanding enabled by the exploration and 3. Pooling of national and industry resources for the creation of space infrastructure, missions and enterprises for Operating principles: 1. The ISA regulatory regime would encourage commercialization and the harnessing of competitive market 2. Consistent with its charter to ensure access to all peoples, all UN member states and appropriate NGOs would 3. Close coordination with

  4. Building ISOC Status Displays for the Large AreaTelescope aboard the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, Christina; /SLAC

    2006-09-01

    In September 2007 the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta II rocket in order to put two high-energy gamma-ray detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) into low earth orbit. The Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) at SLAC is responsible for the LAT operations for the duration of the mission, and will therefore build an operations center including a monitoring station at SLAC to inform operations staff and visitors of the status of the LAT instrument and GLAST. This monitoring station is to include sky maps showing the location of GLAST in its orbit as well as the LAT's projected field of view on the sky containing known gamma-ray sources. The display also requires a world map showing the locations of GLAST and three Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) relative to the ground, their trail lines, and ''footprint'' circles indicating the range of communications for each satellite. The final display will also include a space view showing the orbiting and pointing information of GLAST and the TDRS satellites. In order to build the displays the astronomy programs Xephem, DS9, SatTrack, and STK were employed to model the position of GLAST and pointing information of the LAT instrument, and the programming utilities Python and Cron were used in Unix to obtain updated information from database and load them into the programs at regular intervals. Through these methods the indicated displays were created and combined to produce a monitoring display for the LAT and GLAST.

  5. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  6. Contemporary conception of anti-G protection of cosmonauts in flights aboard "Soyuz" space vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kotovskaya, A R; Vil-Viliams, I F; Lukianiuk, V Yu

    2004-07-01

    To ensure safety of cosmonauts impacted by +Gx loads during insertion into orbit of a Soyuz-type space vehicle, it is critical to conduct appropriate medical selection of candidates to space flights, to give them proper complete physical and specialized centrifuge training, and to make it sure that at the moment of actual injection the cosmonaut's posture is optimal relative to the g-vector and that the body is tight fitting the custom-molded couch. No AGS is needed. For the purposes of protection of cosmonauts descending in the Soyuz vehicles, vital are countermeasures applied in the course of flight, water-salt supplements on the descent day, and the optimal posture, an anti-g suit, and a custom-molded couch with an additional body-restraint system and dampers used on the phase of reentry.

  7. STS-31 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array panel deploy aboard OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Held in appendage deploy position by Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, remote manipulator system (RMS), the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) starboard solar array (SA) bistem cassette is released from its stowed position on the Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. The spreader bar and bistem begin to unfurl the SA wing. View was taken by an STS-31 crewmember through an overhead window and is backdropped against the surface of the Earth.

  8. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  9. Speculations on future opportunities to evolve Brayton powerplants aboard the space station

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Station provides a unique, low-risk environment in which to evolve new capabilities. In this way, the Station will grow in capacity, in its range of capabilities, and in its economy of operation as a laboratory, as a center for materials processing, and as a center for space operations. Although both Rankine and Brayton cycles, two concepts for solar-dynamic power generation, now compete to power the Station, this paper confines its attention to the Brayton cycle using a mixture of He and Xe as its working fluid. Such a Brayton powerplant to supply the Station`s increasing demands for both electric power and heat has the potential to gradually evolve higher and higher performance by exploiting already-evolved materials (ASTAR-811C and molten-Li heat storage), its peak cycle temperature rising ultimately to 1500 K. Adapting the Station to exploit long tethers (200 to 300 km long) could yield large increases in payloads to LEO, to GEO, and to distant destinations in the solar system. Such tethering of the Space Station would not only require additional power for electric propulsion but also would so increase nuclear safety that nuclear powerplants might provide this power. From an 8000-kWt SP-100 reactor, thermoelectric power generation could produce 300 kWe, or adapted solar-Brayton cycle, 2400 to 2800 kWe.

  10. Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Botkin, Douglas J.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Smith, Melanie J.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Humans living and working in the harsh environment of space present many challenges for habitability engineers and microbiologists. Spacecraft must provide an internal environment in which physical (gas composition, pressure, temperature, and humidity), chemical, and biological environmental parameters are maintained at safe levels. Microorganisms are ubiquitous and will accompany all human-occupied spacecraft, but if biological contamination were to reach unacceptable levels, long-term human space flight would be impossible. Prevention of microbiological problems, therefore, must have a high priority. Historically, prevention of infectious disease in the crew has been the highest priority, but experience gained from the NASA-Mir program showed that microbial contamination of vehicle and life-support systems, such as biofouling of water and food, are of equal importance. The major sources of microbiological risk factors for astronauts include food, drinking water, air, surfaces, payloads, research animals, crew members, and personnel in close contact with the astronauts. In our efforts to eliminate or mitigate the negative effects of microorganisms in spacecraft, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented comprehensive microbial analyses of the major risk factors. This included the establishment of acceptability requirements for food, water, air, surfaces, and crew members. A robust monitoring program was then implemented to verify that the risks were within acceptable limits. Prevention of microbiological problems is preferred over mitigation of problems during flight, and preventive steps must begin very early in the design phase. Spacecraft development must include requirements to control free water from humidity, condensate, hygiene activities, and other releases. If water is available, microbes are likely to grow because sufficient nutrients are potentially available. Materials selected for the spacecraft must not promote or support

  11. International organizations and space law: their role and contributions. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The following topics were dealt with: international organizations participating in space activities (ESA, EUTELSAT, EUMETSAT, INTERSPUTNIK); international organizations engaged in space regulatory, policy-making and related activities (UN, ICAO, WIPO, ITU); problems arising from privatisation of international space organizations (IMMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT); contributions through international treaties and agreements; contribution in the main sectors of space activity: living and working in space transportation systems, Earth observation, telecommunications and navigation.

  12. Kennedy Space Center, Space Shuttle Processing, and International Space Station Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    Topics include: International Space Station assembly sequence; Electrical power substation; Thermal control substation; Guidance, navigation and control; Command data and handling; Robotics; Human and robotic integration; Additional modes of re-supply; NASA and International partner control centers; Space Shuttle ground operations.

  13. Science and payload options for animal and plant research accommodations aboard the early Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, John D.; Arno, Roger D.; Gustan, Edith; Rudiger, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The resources to be allocated for the development of the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) Space Station Animal and Plant Research Facility and the Growth Station Animal and Plant Vivarium and Laboratory may be limited; also, IOC accommodations for animal and plant research may be limited. An approach is presented for the development of Initial Research Capability Minilabs for animal and plant studies, which in appropriate combination and sequence can meet requirements for an evolving program of research within available accommodations and anticipated budget constraints.

  14. Survival of pathogenic bacteria under nutrient starvation conditions. [aboard orbiting space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Michael; Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph; Maki, James

    1990-01-01

    The survival of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms in water, under nutrient-limiting conditions, has been investigated in order to ascertain whether human pathogens can survive within a water-distribution system of the kind proposed for the NASA Space Station. Cultures of a strain of pseudomonas aeruginosa and two strains of staphylococcus aureus were incubated at 10, 25, or 37 C, and samples at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and six weeks. While neither of the staphylococcus strains tested were detected after 1 week of starvation, the pseudomonas strain can survive in deionized water at all three temperatures.

  15. Catastrophic Failure Modes Assessment of the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, B. E. P.; Goodwin, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses to quantify the hazardous effects of meteoroid/debris penetration of Space Station Alpha manned module protective structures. These analyses concentrate on determining (a) the critical crack length associated with six manned module pressure wall designs that, if exceeded, would lead to unstopped crack propagation and rupture of manned modules, and (b) the likelihood of crew or station loss following penetration of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine tanks aboard the proposed Russian FGB ('Tug') propulsion module and critical elements aboard the control moment gyro module (SPP-1). Results from these quantified safety analyses are useful in improving specific design areas, thereby reducing the overall likelihood of crew or station loss following orbital debris penetration.

  16. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Mclean, Kyle F.; McMann, Joseph; Melf, Markus; Miner, Linda; Ohl, Raymond G.; Redman, Kevin; Roedel, Andreas; Schweiger, Paul; Plate, Maurice T.; Wells, Martyn; Wenzel, Greg W.; Williams, Patrick K.; Young, Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  17. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  18. Interpreting the International Space Station Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric M.; Humphreys, Brad

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. A physical environment with very low-levels of acceleration and vibration has been accomplished by both the free fall associated with orbital flight and the design of the International Space Station. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. The Space Acceleration Measurement System has been in operation for nearly four years on the ISS measuring the microgravity environment in support of principal investigators and to characterize the ISS microgravity environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project functions as a detective to ascertain the source of disturbances seen in the ISS microgravity environment to allow correlation between that environment and experimental data. Payload developers need to predict the microgravity environment that will be imposed upon an experiment and ensure that the science and engineering requirements will be met. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project is developing n interactive tool to predict the microgravity environment at science payloads based on user defined operational scenarios. These operations (predictions and post-analyses) allow a researcher to examine the microgravity acceleration levels expected to exist when their experiment is operated and then receive an analysis of the environment which existed during their experiment operations. Presented in this paper will be descriptions of the environment predictive tool and an investigation into a previously unknown disturbance in the ISS microgravity environment.

  19. International Space Station Increment-6/8 Microgravity Environment Summary Report November 2002 to April 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; Reckart, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    This summary report presents the analysis results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of November 2002 to April 2004. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-6/8. However, not all of the activities during that period were analyzed in order to keep the size of the report manageable. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System to support microgravity science experiments that require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification as well as in support of the International Space Station support cadre. The International Space Station Increment-6/8 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: 1. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. 2. The Space Acceleration Measurement

  20. Lignification in young plant seedlings grown on earth and aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.; Scheld, W. H.; Peterson, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle era has provided an opportunity for investigators to conduct experiments in a microgravity environment. Two Shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, each contained an experiment designed principally to determine whether young plant seedlings exposed to microgravity had reduced lignin content in comparison to seedlings grown at one gravity. Three different plant species, pine, oats, and mung beans, were exposed for eight days to the microgravity environment of the Shuttle. The lignin content of in-flight seedlings was less than the control seedlings in all seven sets of seedlings included in these two experiments. In five sets of seedlings, the reduction in lignin content in flight seedlings ranged from 6 to 24 percent and was statistically significant. In addition, the activity of two enzymes involved in lignin synthesis, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase, were significantly reduced in pine seedlings. It was therefore concluded that microgravity, as perceived by young plant seedlings, results in reduced lignin synthesis.

  1. Space Station Live: Microbiome Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Microbiome experiment Investigator Mark Ott to learn more about this research taking place aboard the International Space Station. The Microbiome e...

  2. ISS Update: Plants in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks with Camille Alleyne, International Space Station Program Scientist, about the plant research taking place aboard the station. Dr. Anna-Lisa Paul, ...

  3. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  4. Enterprise: an International Commercial Space Station Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounge, John M.

    2002-01-01

    In December 1999, the U.S. aerospace company SPACEHAB, Inc., (SPACEHAB) and the Russian aerospace company Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (RSC-Energia), initiated a joint project to establish a commercial venture on the International Space Station (ISS). The approach of this venture is to use private capital to build and attach a commercial habitable module (the "Enterprise Module") to the Russian Segment of the ISS. The module will become an element of the Russian Segment; in return, exclusive rights to use this module for commercial business will be granted to its developers. The Enterprise Module has been designed as a multipurpose module that can provide research accommodation, stowage and crew support services. Recent NASA budget decisions have resulted in the cancellation of NASA's ISS habitation module, a significant delay in its new ISS crew return vehicle, and a mandate to stabilize the ISS program. These constraints limit the ISS crew size to three people and result in very little time available for ISS research support. Since research activity is the primary reason this Space Station is being built, the ISS program must find a way to support a robust international research program as soon as possible. The time is right for a commercial initiative incorporating the Enterprise Module, outfitted with life support systems, and commercially procured Soyuz vehicles to provide the capability to increase ISS crew size to six by the end of 2005.

  5. Crystallization of a protein aboard the US Space Shuttle flight STS-31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbaere, Louis T. J.; Vandonselaar, Margaret; Prasad, Lata; Quail, J. Wilson; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Bugg, Charles E.

    A monoclonal antibody designated Je142 has been generated against a small bacterial protein, and the interaction of the antibody with this antigen is being studied. The method of x-ray crystallography is being used to study the structures of the Fab fragment (the antigen-binding portion of the antibody) and the Fab fragment - antigen complex. Microgravity conditions have been shown to produce better quality crystals than analogous crystals grown on earth, thereby providing an opportunity to obtain x-ray data of better resolution. The Je142 Fab fragment was selected for microgravity crystallization on the space shuttle mission STS-31. The crystallization procedure was largely based on the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. Protein and precipitant solutions are extruded onto a syringe tip and the combined droplet equilibrates with a concentrated reservoir precipitant that is on an absorbent material which surrounds the droplet. Just before the shuttle leaves orbit, the drop is withdrawn into the syringe to minimize mechanical stress on any protein crystals in the droplet. Je142 Fab fragment crystals typically require 8-9 days to reach optimum size (1 mm in each direction).

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  8. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  9. Habitability Assessment of International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess habitability during the International Space Station 1-year mission, and subsequent 6-month missions, in order to better prepare for future long-duration spaceflights to destinations such as Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) and Mars, which will require crewmembers to live and work in a confined spacecraft environment for over a year. Data collected using Space Habitability Observation Reporting Tool (iSHORT), crew-collected videos, questionnaires, and PI conferences will help characterize the current state of habitability for the ISS. These naturalistic techniques provide crewmembers with the opportunity to self-report habitability and human factors observations in near real-time, which is not systematically done during ISS missions at present.

  10. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  11. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  12. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  13. Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Gardner, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ambient plasma characteristics, it is shown that the ISS floating potential is a strong function of the electron temperature of the surrounding plasma. While the ISS floating potential has so far not attained the pre-flight predicted highly negative values, it is shown that for future mission builds, ISS must continue to provide two-fault tolerant arc-hazard protection for astronauts on EVA.

  14. Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Gardner, Barbara

    2002-05-01

    The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ambient plasma characteristics, it is shown that the ISS floating potential is a strong function of the electron temperature of the surrounding plasma. While the ISS floating potential has so far not attained the pre-flight predicted highly negative values, it is shown that for future mission builds, ISS must continue to provide two-fault tolerant arc-hazard protection for astronauts on EVA.

  15. International Space Station Electrodynamic Tether Reboost Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required annually. Electrodynamic tethers provide an attractive alternative in that they can provide periodic reboost or continuous drag cancellation using no consumables, propellant, nor conventional propulsion elements. The system could also serve as an emergency backup reboost system used only in the event resupply and reboost are delayed for some reason.

  16. International Space Station Payload Training Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Deborah B.; Noneman, Steven R.; Sanchez, Julie N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes payload crew training-related activities performed by NASA and the U.S. Payload Developer (PD) community for the International Space Station (ISS) Program. It describes how payloads will be trained and the overall training planning and integration process. The overall concept, definition, and template for payload training are described. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, organizations, and groups involved are discussed. The facilities utilized during payload training and the primary processes and activities performed to plan, develop, implement, and administer payload training for ISS crews are briefly described. Areas of improvement to crew training processes that have been achieved or are currently being worked are identified.

  17. International Space Station General Resource Reel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The construction and evolution of the International Space Station (ISS) is seen through various clips. Live footage shows the following: (1) the Zarya Module under construction and during launch preparations; (2) the Unity Module under construction, during launch preparations, and being lowered into the payload canister; (3) STS-88 Mission Specialists Jerry Ross and Jim Newman during training for their spacewalks, including activities in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL); (4) Zarya and Unity docking to the Service Module; (5) the Expedition 1 crew (William Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko, and Sergei Krikalev) during emergency escape training in the Black Sea and during water survival training at Johnson Space Center; (6) the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle Drop Test; and (7) the US Destiny Laboratory Module, Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA), Service Module, Italian Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, US Airlock, and US Habitation Module under construction. Computerized animations show the following: (1) an ISS fly-around; (2) the STS-88 Space Shuttle as it docks with Zarya and attaches Zarya to the Unity Module; (3) the Space Shuttle as it docks with ISS and installs the Z1 truss segment and PMA; (4) the Soyuz spacecraft as it docks with ISS; (5) interior and exterior views of the Columbus Attached Pressurized Module; and (6) a Transhab animation showing the interior and exterior and marking the components.

  18. Maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes through international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, George E.; Thacher, David J.; Kupperman, Helen S.

    1988-01-01

    NASA activities in support of international cooperation in space exploration and exploitation are briefly reviewed, with a focus on their compatibility with UN treaties. Particular attention is given to the provisions of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 and other applicable legislation, the over 1000 bilateral and international agreements NASA has entered into since 1958, international participation in currently ongoing NASA projects (Hubble Space Telescope, Galileo, Ulysses, Rosat, the D-2 Spacelab mission), and plans for the International Space Station.

  19. Advanced Technologies Demonstrated by the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS) Aboard Deep Space 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, David H.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Brown, Robert H.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Lee, Meemong; Sandel, Bill R.; Thomas, David A.; Benoit, Robert T.; Yelle, Roger V.

    2007-04-01

    MICAS is an integrated multi-channel instrument that includes an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (80 185 nm), two high-resolution visible imagers (10 20 μrad/pixel, 400 900 nm), and a short-wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer (1250 2600 nm). The wavelength ranges were chosen to maximize the science data that could be collected using existing semiconductor technologies and avoiding the need for multi-octave spectrometers. It was flown on DS1 to validate technologies derived from the development of PICS (Planetary Imaging Camera Spectrometer). These technologies provided a novel systems approach enabling the miniaturization and integration of four instruments into one entity, spanning a wavelength range from the UV to IR, and from ambient to cryogenic temperatures with optical performance at a fraction of a wavelength. The specific technologies incorporated were: a built-in fly-by sequence; lightweight and ultra-stable, monolithic silicon-carbide construction, which enabled room-temperature alignment for cryogenic (85 140 K) performance, and provided superb optical performance and immunity to thermal distortion; diffraction-limited, shared optics operating from 80 to 2600 nm; advanced detector technologies for the UV, visible and short-wavelength IR; high-performance thermal radiators coupled directly to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector optical bench, providing an instrument with a mass less than 10 kg, instrument power less than 10 W, and total instrument cost of less than ten million dollars. The design allows the wavelength range to be extended by at least an octave at the short wavelength end and to ˜50 microns at the long wavelength end. Testing of the completed instrument demonstrated excellent optical performance down to 77 K, which would enable a greatly reduced background for longer wavelength detectors. During the Deep Space 1 Mission, MICAS successfully collected images and spectra for asteroid 9969 Braille, Mars, and comet 19/P Borrelly

  20. Final results from the space dust (SPADUS) instrument flown aboard the earth-orbiting ARGOS spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzzolino, A. J.; Economou, T. E.; McKibben, R. B.; Simpson, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Blackburn, L.; Voss, H. D.; Gursky, H.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we present the final report of the data obtained from the Space Dust (SPADUS) instrument on the Earth-orbiting Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). The University of Chicago's SPADUS instrument on the US Air Force's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite has been operating in a nearly polar orbit, at an altitude of approximately 850 km, since soon after its launch on day 54, 1999 (23 February) until termination of the SPADUS operations on day 248, 2001 (5 September). The instrument consists of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust trajectory system, which includes two planar arrays of PVDF sensors (a total of 16 sensors per array) separated by 20.25 cm to provide time of flight (TOF) measurements. The trajectory system measures dust particle flux, mass distribution, velocity and trajectory. The instrument also includes the SPADUS Ancillary Diagnostic Sensor (ADS) subsystem, which measured energetic charged particles (electrons, protons, etc). The PVDF dust trajectory system detected a total of 368 dust impacts over the SPADUS live-time interval of 739 days, yielding an average particle flux of 0.50 impacts/day. Of these 368 impacts, 35 were D1-D2 type events - where particles impacted and penetrated a D1 sensor, then impacted a D2 rear array sensor - allowing for time-of-flight measurements. Of the 35 D1-D2 impacts on SPADUS, we identified 19 D1-D2 impacts yielding TOF values. Of these 19 events, 14 were ambiguous (either bound or interplanetary) and 5 were unambiguous interplanetary impacts. Examples of particle orbits for debris particles as well as D1-D2 impacts are detailed. We also describe transient particle streams detected by the SPADUS trajectory system, resulting from the passage of ARGOS through streams of debris particles in Earth orbit. One of the streams was shown to result from detection by SPADUS of the debris generated by the explosion of a Chinese booster rocket. The SPADUS flight data accumulated

  1. Advanced technologies demonstrated by the miniature integrated camera and spectrometer (MICAS) aboard deep space 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, D.H.; Beauchamp, P.M.; Soderblom, L.A.; Brown, R.H.; Chen, G.-S.; Lee, M.; Sandel, B.R.; Thomas, D.A.; Benoit, R.T.; Yelle, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    MICAS is an integrated multi-channel instrument that includes an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (80-185 nm), two high-resolution visible imagers (10-20 ??rad/pixel, 400-900 nm), and a short-wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer (1250-2600 nm). The wavelength ranges were chosen to maximize the science data that could be collected using existing semiconductor technologies and avoiding the need for multi-octave spectrometers. It was flown on DS1 to validate technologies derived from the development of PICS (Planetary Imaging Camera Spectrometer). These technologies provided a novel systems approach enabling the miniaturization and integration of four instruments into one entity, spanning a wavelength range from the UV to IR, and from ambient to cryogenic temperatures with optical performance at a fraction of a wavelength. The specific technologies incorporated were: a built-in fly-by sequence; lightweight and ultra-stable, monolithic silicon-carbide construction, which enabled room-temperature alignment for cryogenic (85-140 K) performance, and provided superb optical performance and immunity to thermal distortion; diffraction-limited, shared optics operating from 80 to 2600 nm; advanced detector technologies for the UV, visible and short-wavelength IR; high-performance thermal radiators coupled directly to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector optical bench, providing an instrument with a mass less than 10 kg, instrument power less than 10 W, and total instrument cost of less than ten million dollars. The design allows the wavelength range to be extended by at least an octave at the short wavelength end and to 50 microns at the long wavelength end. Testing of the completed instrument demonstrated excellent optical performance down to 77 K, which would enable a greatly reduced background for longer wavelength detectors. During the Deep Space 1 Mission, MICAS successfully collected images and spectra for asteroid 9969 Braille, Mars, and comet 19/P Borrelly. The

  2. Demonstration designs for the remediation of space debris from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Quinn, Mark N.; Wada, Satoshi; Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor; Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Casolino, Marco; Bertaina, Mario E.; Gorodetzky, Philippe; Parizot, Etienne; Tajima, Toshiki; Soulard, Rémi; Mourou, Gérard

    2015-07-01

    We present here designs for a staged implementation of an orbiting debris remediation system comprised of a super-wide field-of-view telescope (EUSO) and a novel high efficiency fibre-based laser system (CAN). Initial proof of concept stages will operate from the International Space Station (ISS) where the EUSO telescope has been designed for operation as a detector of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Equipped with 2.5 m optics and a field of view of ±30°, the EUSO telescope can also be utilised for the detection of high velocity fragmentation debris in orbit near the ISS. Further tracking, characterisation and remediation are to be performed by a CAN laser system operating in tandem with the EUSO telescope. For full scale versions of both instruments, the range of the detection/removal operation can be as large as 100 km. Utilising a step-by-step approach of increasing scale we present an analysis of implementation of: 1) Proof of principle demonstration of the detection by a mini-EUSO and operation of 100-fibre CAN laser technology as an ISS based prototype, 2) Technical demonstrator of debris-removal that consists of the EUSO telescope for the detection and a 10,000 fibre CAN laser for tracking and impulse delivery for debris re-entry, and 3) A free-flyer mission dedicated to debris remediation in a polar orbit with the altitude near 800 km. The integration of the two novel technologies aboard the ISS amounts to a novel approach as an immediate response to the serious space debris problem with the existing platform of ISS.

  3. Initial characterization of the microgravity environment of the international space station: increments 2 through 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide a long-term quiescent environment for the conduct of scientific research for a variety of microgravity science disciplines. This paper reports to the microgravity scientific community the results of an initial characterization of the microgravity environment on the International Space Station for increments 2 through 4. During that period almost 70,000 hours of station operations and scientific experiments were conducted. 720 hours of crew research time were logged aboard the orbiting laboratory and over half a terabyte of acceleration data were recorded and much of that was analyzed. The results discussed in this paper cover both the quasi-steady and vibratory acceleration environment of the station during its first year of scientific operation. For the quasi-steady environment, results are presented and discussed for the following: the space station attitudes Torque Equilibrium Attitude and the X-Axis Perpendicular to the Orbital Plane; station docking attitude maneuvers; Space Shuttle joint operation with the station; cabin de-pressurizations and the station water dumps. For the vibratory environment, results are presented for the following: crew exercise, docking events, and the activation/de-activation of both station life support system hardware and experiment hardware. Finally, a grand summary of all the data collected aboard the station during the 1-year period is presented showing where the overall quasi-steady and vibratory acceleration magnitude levels fall over that period of time using a 95th percentile benchmark. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Results of an International Space Crew Debrief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, P. A.; Holland, A. W.; Looper, L.; Marcondes-North, R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to identify potential multi-cultural and multinational problems for future International Space Station Freedom crew, a crew debrief questionnaire was developed for U.S. astronauts who flew on shuttle missions with one or more crew members from other countries. Methods: From 1981-90, a total of 20 U.S. astronauts flew on international space missions. Debriefs were mailed to all 20 with instructions not to identify themselves or their specific mission. The debrief focused primarily on preflight training and post flight incidents of misunderstanding, miscommunication, and interpersonal friction among crewmembers. Astronauts were also asked to rate the impact of the incident to the mission (low, medium, high). Results: Ten astronauts responded, but only nine responses were able to be scored, for a return rate of 45 percent. 42 incidents were reported, 9 in the preflight period, 26 inflight, and 7 in the postflight period. Most of the incidents were rated at a low or medium impact, but 5 of the inflight incidents were rated at a 'high' mission impact. A number of causes for the problems were listed, and are discussed. Conclusions: The debrief respondents provide useful and timely recommendations on preflight training which might help facilitate the integration of multinational crews and prevent multi-cultural or multinational factors from interfering with mission operations.

  5. Stereo cameras on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Visentin, Gianfranco; Collon, Max; Ranebo, Hans; Sunderland, David; Fortezza, Raimondo

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional media is a unique and efficient means to virtually visit/observe objects that cannot be easily reached otherwise, like the International Space Station. The advent of auto-stereoscopic displays and stereo projection system is making the stereo media available to larger audiences than the traditional scientists and design engineers communities. It is foreseen that a major demand for 3D content shall come from the entertainment area. Taking advantage of the 6 months long permanence on the International Space Station of a colleague European Astronaut, Thomas Reiter, the Erasmus Centre uploaded to the ISS a newly developed, fully digital stereo camera, the Erasmus Recording Binocular. Testing the camera and its human interfaces in weightlessness, as well as accurately mapping the interior of the ISS are the main objectives of the experiment that has just been completed at the time of writing. The intent of this paper is to share with the readers the design challenges tackled in the development and operation of the ERB camera and highlight some of the future plans the Erasmus Centre team has in the pipeline.

  6. Payload Planning for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Tameka J.

    1995-01-01

    A review of the evolution of the International Space Station (ISS) was performed for the purpose of understanding the project objectives. It was requested than an analysis of the current Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) Partnership Utilization Plan (PUP) traffic model be completed to monitor the process through which the scientific experiments called payloads are manifested for flight to the ISS. A viewing analysis of the ISS was also proposed to identify the capability to observe the United States Laboratory (US LAB) during the assembly sequence. Observations of the Drop-Tower experiment and nondestructive testing procedures were also performed to maximize the intern's technical experience. Contributions were made to the meeting in which the 1996 OSAT or Code X PUP traffic model was generated using the software tool, Filemaker Pro. The current OSAT traffic model satisfies the requirement for manifesting and delivering the proposed payloads to station. The current viewing capability of station provides the ability to view the US LAB during station assembly sequence. The Drop Tower experiment successfully simulates the effect of microgravity and conveniently documents the results for later use. The non-destructive test proved effective in determining stress in various components tested.

  7. International Cooperation and Competition in Civilian Space Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report assesses the state of international competition in civilian space activities, explores United States civilian objectives in space, and suggests alternative options for enhancing the overall U.S. position in space technologies. It also investigated past, present, and projected international cooperative arrangements for space activities…

  8. 78 FR 66964 - International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and amendment of the charter of the International Space Station Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the...

  9. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  10. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  11. 78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  12. 78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  13. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  14. Space Station Crew Welcomes World's First Commercial Cargo Craft

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA, Flight Engineer Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency and Flight Engineer Joe Acaba of NASA grappled a...

  15. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment (“Medaka Osteoclast”) was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation–reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation. PMID:26427061

  16. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast") was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation.

  17. International Systems Integration on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; Ticker, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Over the next few months, the International Space Station (ISS), and human spaceflight in general, will undergo momentous change. The European Columbus and Japanese Kibo Laboratories will be added to the station joining U.S. and Russian elements already on orbit. Columbus, Jules Vernes Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Kibo Control Centers will soon be joining control centers in the US and Russia in coordinating ISS operations and research. The Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) will be performing extra vehicular activities that previously only astronauts on EVA could do, but remotely and with increased safety. This paper will address the integration of these international elements and operations into the ISS, both from hardware and human perspectives. Interoperability of on-orbit systems and ground control centers and their human operators from Europe, Japan, Canada, Russia and the U.S. pose significant and unique challenges. Coordination of logistical support and transportation of crews and cargo is also a major challenge. As we venture out into the cosmos and inhabit the Moon and other planets, it's the systems and operational experience and partnership development on ISS, humanity's orbiting outpost that is making these journeys possible.

  18. Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Parazynski, Scott; Kelly, Scott; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.

    2007-01-01

    Airway management techniques are necessary to establish and maintain a patent airway while treating a patient undergoing respiratory distress. There are situations where such settings are suboptimal, thus causing the caregiver to adapt to these suboptimal conditions. Such occurrences are no exception aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a result, the NASA flight surgeon (FS) and NASA astronaut cohorts must be ready to adapt their optimal airway management techniques for suboptimal situations. Based on previous work conducted by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) and other investigators, the MOST had members of both the FS and astronaut cohorts evaluate two oral airway insertion techniques for the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) to determine whether either technique is sufficient to perform in suboptimal conditions within a microgravity environment. Methods All experiments were conducted in a simulated microgravity environment provided by parabolic flight aboard DC-9 aircraft. Each participant acted as a caregiver and was directed to attempt both suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques following a preflight instruction session on the day of the flight and a demonstration of the technique by an anesthesiologist physician in the simulated microgravity environment aboard the aircraft. Results Fourteen participants conducted 46 trials of the suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques. Overall, 43 of 46 trials (94%) conducted were properly performed based on criteria developed by the MOST and other investigators. Discussion The study demonstrated the use of airway management techniques in suboptimal conditions relating to space flight. Use of these techniques will provide a crew with options for using the ILMA to manage airway issues aboard the ISS. Although it is understood that the optimal method for patient care during space flight is to have both patient and caregiver restrained, these techniques provide a needed backup should conditions not present

  19. Space transportation alternatives for large space programs: The International Space University Summer Session, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the International Space University (ISU) held its Summer Session in Kitakyushu, Japan. This paper summarizes and expands upon some aspects of space solar power and space transportation that were considered during that session. The issues discussed in this paper are the result of a 10-week study by the Space Solar Power Program design project members and the Space Transportation Group to investigate new paradigms in space propulsion and how those paradigms might reduce the costs for large space programs. The program plan was to place a series of power satellites in Earth orbit. Several designs were studied where many kW, MW, or GW of power would be transmitted to Earth or to other spacecraft in orbit. During the summer session, a space solar power system was also detailed and analyzed. A high-cost space transportation program is potentially the most crippling barrier to such a space power program. At ISU, the focus of the study was to foster and develop some of the new paradigms that may eliminate the barriers to low cost for space exploration and exploitation. Many international and technical aspects of a large multinational program were studied. Environmental safety, space construction and maintenance, legal and policy issues of frequency allocation, technology transfer and control and many other areas were addressed. Over 120 students from 29 countries participated in this summer session. The results discussed in this paper, therefore, represent the efforts of many nations.

  20. Radiation survey in the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Zaconte, Veronica

    2015-12-01

    The project ALTEA-shield/survey is part of an European Space Agency (ESA) - ILSRA (International Life Science Research Announcement) program and provides a detailed study of the International Space Station (ISS) (USLab and partly Columbus) radiation environment. The experiment spans over 2 years, from September 20, 2010 to September 30, 2012, for a total of about 1.5 years of effective measurements. The ALTEA detector system measures all heavy ions above helium and, to a limited extent, hydrogen and helium (respectively, in 25 Mev-45 MeV and 25 MeV/n-250 MeV/n energy windows) while tracking every individual particle. It measures independently the radiation along the three ISS coordinate axes. The data presented consist of flux, dose, and dose equivalent over the time of investigation, at the different surveyed locations. Data are selected from the different geographic regions (low and high latitudes and South Atlantic Anomaly, SAA). Even with a limited acceptance window for the proton contribution, the flux/dose/dose equivalent results as well as the radiation spectra provide information on how the radiation risks change in the different surveyed sites. The large changes in radiation environment found among the measured sites, due to the different shield/mass distribution, require a detailed Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model to be used together with these measurements for the validation of radiation models in space habitats. Altitude also affects measured radiation, especially in the SAA. In the period of measurements, the altitude (averaged over each minute) ranged from 339 km to 447 km. Measurements show the significant shielding effect of the ISS truss, responsible for a consistent amount of reduction in dose equivalent (and so in radiation quality). Measured Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) dose rates at high latitude range from 0.354 ± 0.002 nGy/s to 0.770 ± 0.006 nGy/s while dose equivalent from 1.21 ± 0.04 nSv/s to 6.05 ± 0.09 nSv/s. The radiation variation

  1. Telemedicine for the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Wilke, D; Padeken, D; Weber, T h; Gerzer, R

    1999-01-01

    The medical care for the integrated crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will require close co-operation between the partner agencies in the areas of selection, medical surveillance, countermeasures, and handling of acute medical problems. Based on a commonly accepted policy of shared care and responsibilities medical guidelines, procedures, and standards for medical data and communication need to be harmonised under the responsibility of the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP). A supporting telemedical network connecting the partners on an organisational and technical level will facilitate the harmonisation process and provide new tools for effective co-operation between medical professionals. Earth bound projects with similar application areas can profit from and contribute to this development and need to be considered for efficient implementation and exploitation.

  2. MISS- Mice on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcetti, G. C.; Schiller, P.

    2005-08-01

    The use of rodents for scientific research to bridge the gap between cellular biology and human physiology is a new challenge within the history of successful developments of biological facilities. The ESA funded MISS Phase A/B study is aimed at developing a design concept for an animal holding facility able to support experimentation with mice on board the International Space Station (ISS).The MISS facility is composed of two main parts:1. The MISS Rack to perform scientific experiments onboard the ISS.2. The MISS Animals Transport Container (ATC) totransport animals from ground to orbit and vice- versa.The MISS facility design takes into account guidelines and recommendations used for mice well-being in ground laboratories. A summary of the MISS Rack and MISS ATC design concept is hereafter provided.

  3. Plasma Charging of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikatarian, R.; Kern, J. W.; Barsamian, H. R.; Koontz, S.; Roussel, J.-R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses electron and ion current collection on the International Space Station (ISS). A theoretical model of spacecraft charging is presented and the basis for its theoretical development discussed. A review of on-orbit ISS measurements of ISS potentials with and without an operating Plasma Contactor Unit is discussed. Additionally, correlations of in-orbit measurements with various ionospheric properties, i.e. electron temperature, plasma concentration, vxB etc., are discussed. It is shown how these on-orbit measurements are utilized in developing the theoretical model. The theoretical model accounts for orbital conditions, solar array shunting/unshunting, vehicle attitude and solar array position, ionosphereric properties, etc. Calculational results for the theoretical model are compared against available flight data for the exiting ISS configuration. Additionally, predictions are made for future ISS mission builds. Sensitivities of model predictions to expected variations of ionospheric properties are also examined.

  4. International Space Station Payload Operations Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanske, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integrator (POINT) plays an integral part in the Certification of Flight Readiness process for the Mission Operations Laboratory and the Payload Operations Integration Function that supports International Space Station Payload operations. The POINTs operate in support of the POIF Payload Operations Manager to bring together and integrate the Certification of Flight Readiness inputs from various MOL teams through maintaining an open work tracking log. The POINTs create monthly metrics for current and future payloads that the Payload Operations Integration Function supports. With these tools, the POINTs assemble the Certification of Flight Readiness package before a given flight, stating that the Mission Operations Laboratory is prepared to support it. I have prepared metrics for Increment 29/30, maintained the Open Work Tracking Logs for Flights ULF6 (STS-134) and ULF7 (STS-135), and submitted the Mission Operations Laboratory Certification of Flight Readiness package for Flight 44P to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD/OZ).

  5. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  7. International Space Station Cathode Life Testing Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.

    1998-01-01

    To demonstrate adequate lifetime and performance capabilities of a hollow cathode for use on the International Space Station (ISS) plasma contactor system, life tests of multiple hollow cathode assemblies (HCAs) were initiated at operating conditions simulating on-orbit operation. Three HCAs are presently being tested. These HCAs are operated with a continuous 6 sccm xenon flow rate and 3 A anode current. Emission current requirements are simulated with a square waveform consisting of 50 minutes at a 2.5 A emission current and 40 minutes with no emission current. As of July 1998, these HCAs have accumulated between 1 1,700 and 14,200 hours. While there have been changes in operatin, behavior the three HCAs continue to operate stably within ISS specifications and are expected to demonstrate the required lifetime.

  8. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based On International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples,Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  9. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  10. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  11. Epigenetics Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a state-of-the orbiting laboratory focused on advancing science and technology research. Experiments being conducted on the ISS include investigations in the emerging field of Epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to stably heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype (the transcriptional potential of a cell) resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations to the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence (the genetic code), which are caused by external or environmental factors, such as spaceflight microgravity. Molecular mechanisms associated with epigenetic alterations regulating gene expression patterns include covalent chemical modifications of DNA (e.g., methylation) or histone proteins (e.g., acetylation, phorphorylation, or ubiquitination). For example, Epigenetics ("Epigenetics in Spaceflown C. elegans") is a recent JAXA investigation examining whether adaptations to microgravity transmit from one cell generation to another without changing the basic DNA of the organism. Mouse Epigenetics ("Transcriptome Analysis and Germ-Cell Development Analysis of Mice in Space") investigates molecular alterations in organ-specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight, as well as assessing changes in offspring DNA. NASA's first foray into human Omics research, the Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), includes investigations evaluating differential epigenetic effects via comprehensive whole genome analysis, the landscape of DNA and RNA methylation, and biomolecular changes by means of longitudinal integrated multi-omics research. And the inaugural Genes in Space student challenge experiment (Genes in Space-1) is aimed at understanding how epigenetics plays a role in immune system dysregulation by assaying DNA methylation in immune cells

  12. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  13. Some characteristics of the international space channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noack, T. L.; Poland, W. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some physical characteristics of radio transmission links and the technology of PCM modulation combine with the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunications Union to define a communications channel having a determinable channel capacity, error rate, and sensitivity to interference. These characteristics and the corresponding limitations on EIRP, power flux density, and power spectral density for space service applications are described. The ITU regulations create a critical height of 1027 km where some parameters of the limitation rules change. The nature of restraints on power spectral density are discussed and an approach to a standardized representation of Necessary Bandwidth for the Space Services is described. It is shown that, given the PFD (power flux density) and PSD (power spectral density) limitations of radio regulations, the channel performance is determined by the ratio of effective receiving antenna aperture to system noise temperature. Based on this approach, the method for a quantitative trade-off between spectrum spreading and system performance is presented. Finally, the effects of radio frequency interference between standard systems is analyzed.

  14. Ladar measurements of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithpeter, Colin L.; Nellums, Robert O.; Lebien, Steve M.; Studor, George; James, George H., III

    2001-09-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely large and flexible structure that requires validated structural models for control and operation. We have developed a 5-lb, 150 in3 laser radar to remotely measure vibration of the ISS structure and determine the structural mode frequencies and amplitudes. The Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) specifications include a 40-degree field of view, range resolution of 0.1 inches, images of 640 by 480 pixels, and a 7.5 Hz update rate. The sensor flew on the Space Shuttle in December of 2000 and provided range video of the newly installed P6 truss and solar array panels during thruster firing. Post flight analysis constructed motion time histories from selected structures. The measured vibration spectra captured the desired mode frequencies and amplitudes with a resolution of 0.02 to 0.1 inches. Additional measurements of curvature in the solar array panels demonstrated the potential for on-orbit characterization or inspection of structures.

  15. Exoplanet Curriculum at the International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, J. D.; Hill, H. G. M.

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly-expanding knowledge of exoplanets is providing a huge opportunity for education at all levels. In addition to the intrinsic scientific interest of finding other planetary systems and developing testable hypotheses about stellar evolution, based for the first time in history on more than one example, there is the prospect of finding habitats for other life. Even if actual life signatures cannot yet be unambiguously detected, just a credible possibility is enough to catalyze new discussions and stimulate new ideas emerging from the rich background of science fiction and the ancient concept of a plurality of inhabited worlds. At the International Space University, a graduate-level institution devoted to identifying, informing and encouraging young professionals from throughout the world, this exploding new field of science provides a grand opportunity for seminars and other activities engaging students in creative thinking about the vast human implications of a populated cosmos. Once a planet's existence and orbit are confirmed by long-continued observations, it may be a suitable object for spectrometry and other techniques to begin finding characteristics of its interior, atmosphere, magnetosphere, possibly even oceans. These observations require not only very advanced instrumentation and data methods but also patience and skill in operations both on Earth and in space. They can serve as an organizing principle for education across all of the specialties represented at ISU. In this paper we discuss the ISU curriculum, focusing on those parts of it that can benefit from the interdisciplinary expansion enabled by exoplanet discoveries.

  16. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) currently provides a Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) as crew quarters for one crewmember in the Laboratory Module. The Russian Segment provides permanent crew quarters (Kayutas) for two crewmembers in the Service Module. The TeSS provides limited electrical, communication, and ventilation functionality. A new permanent rack sized USOS ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) is being developed. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The new CQs will provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack sized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. Providing an acoustically quiet and visually isolated environment, while ensuring crewmember safety, is critical for obtaining crewmember rest and comfort to enable long term crewmember performance. The numerous human factor, engineering, and program considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in the paper.

  17. Auroral Charging of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minow, J. I.; Chandler, M. O.; Wright, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    Electrostatic potential variations of the International Space Station (ISS) relative to the space plasma environment are dominated by biased surfaces of the 160 volt photovoltaic power system with the low Earth orbit plasma environment in sunlight and inductive potential variations across the ISS structure generated by motion of the large vehicle across the geomagnetic field. We have seen little or no evidence to date of daytime ISS potential variations due to space weather events that generate short term variations in ionospheric plasma density or temperature since the primary result of geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes is depletion of plasma density which suppresses charging levels due to the photovoltaic array controlled current collection process. Auroral charging is also a source of potential variations because the 51.6 degree orbital inclination of ISS takes the vehicle to sufficiently high magnetic latitudes to encounter precipitating electrons during geomagnetic storms. We present observations of transient ISS floating potential, plasma density, and electron temperature variations obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments on board the ISS which exhibit characteristics consistent with auroral charging. The events occur primarily at night when the solar arrays are unbiased and cannot therefore be due to solar array current collection. ISS potential decreases to more negative values during the events indicating electron current collection and the events are always observed at the highest latitudes along the ISS trajectory. Comparison of the events with integral >30 keV electron flux measurements from NOAA TIROS spacecraft demonstrate they occur within regions of precipitating electron flux at levels consistent with the energetic electron thresholds reported for onset of auroral charging of the DMSP and Freja satellites. Properties of the charging events similar to those reported for DSMP and Freja satellites

  18. Omics Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbiting laboratory whose goals include advancing science and technology research. Completion of ISS assembly ushered a new era focused on utilization, encompassing multiple disciplines such as Biology and Biotechnology, Physical Sciences, Technology Development and Demonstration, Human Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Educational Activities. The research complement planned for upcoming ISS Expeditions 45&46 includes several investigations in the new field of omics, which aims to collectively characterize sets of biomolecules (e.g., genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic products) that translate into organismic structure and function. For example, Multi-Omics is a JAXA investigation that analyzes human microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem by evaluating data from immune dysregulation biomarkers, metabolic profiles, and microbiota composition. The NASA OsteoOmics investigation studies gravitational regulation of osteoblast genomics and metabolism. Tissue Regeneration uses pan-omics approaches with cells cultured in bioreactors to characterize factors involved in mammalian bone tissue regeneration in microgravity. Rodent Research-3 includes an experiment that implements pan-omics to evaluate therapeutically significant molecular circuits, markers, and biomaterials associated with microgravity wound healing and tissue regeneration in bone defective rodents. The JAXA Mouse Epigenetics investigation examines molecular alterations in organ specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight. Lastly, Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), NASA's first foray into human omics research, applies integrated analyses to assess biomolecular responses to physical, physiological, and environmental stressors associated

  19. The new Jettison Policy for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    During more than seven years of operations by the International Space Station, approximately three dozen pieces of debris were released and subsequently cataloged by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. The individual mass of these objects ranged from less than 1 to 70 kg. Although some of these debris were separated from the International Space Station accidentally, some were intentionally cast-off, especially the larger items. In addition, small operational satellites are candidates for launch from the International Space Station, such as the TNS-0 satellite deployed from International Space Station in March 2005. Recently an official International Space Station Jettison Policy was developed to ensure that decisions to deliberately release objects in the future were based upon a complete evaluation of the benefits and risks to the International Space Station, other resident space objects, and people on the Earth. The policy identifies four categories of items which might be considered for release: (1) items that pose a safety issue for return on-board a visiting vehicle, (2) items that negatively impact International Space Station utilization, return, or on-orbit stowage manifests, (3) items that permit a reduction in the duration of an extravehicular activity, and (4) items that are designed for jettison. Some of the principal issues to be addressed during this evaluation process are the potential for the object to recontact the International Space Station within the first two days after jettison, the potential of the object to break up prior to reentry, the ability of the U.S. Space Surveillance Network to track the object, and the risk to people on Earth from components which might survive reentry. This paper summarizes the history of objects released from International Space Station, examines the specifics of the International Space Station Jettison Policy, and addresses the overall impact of International Space Station debris on the space environment.

  20. Space Station - Opportunity for international cooperation and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with his announcement regarding the development of a permanently manned Space Station, President Reagan invited the United States' friends and allies to join in the Space Station program. The President's invitation was preceded by more than two years of interaction between NASA and some of its potential partners in Space Station planning activities. Attention is given to international participation in Space Station planning, international cooperation on the Space Station, the guidelines for international cooperation, and the key challenges. Questions regarding quid pro quos are considered along with aspects of technology transfer, commercial use, problems of management, and the next steps concerning the Space Station program.

  1. Science off the Sphere: Space Balloonacy

    NASA Video Gallery

    In his off duty time, NASA Astronaut Don Pettit cools down with some microgravity water balloon experiments aboard the International Space Station. Through a partnership between NASA and the Americ...

  2. Video-Conservation of Momentum Observed Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Pettit uses the free fall environment of the ISS to demonstrate the conservation of momentum. He does so by sending bolts into rotation, end over end, into a rigid table from which they bounce off. After collision, the bolts will have nearly the same momentum as they did before the collision. This means that if the bolts bounce off in such a way that their rotation speeds up, the speed from which they translate away from the table must be reduced, and vice versa. This engaging video offers an intriguing insight into physical phenomena that are difficult to observe on Earth.

  3. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  4. Root Cause Investigation of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Deneen; Enriquez, Carlos; McCann, David; McFatter, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high current draw. Later inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the case hardened steel race ring on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken, comprising metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The investigation found that the race ring damage had been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors.

  5. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  6. Portable Multigas Monitors for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) on International Space Station (ISS) includes portable instruments to measure various cabin gases that acutely impact crew health. These hand-held devices measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide. The oxygen and carbon dioxide units also serve to back up key functions of the Major Constituent Analyzers. Wherever possible, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are employed by EHS to save development and sustaining costs. COTS hardware designed for general terrestrial applications however has limitations such as no pressure compensation, limited life of the active sensor, calibration drift, battery issues, unpredictable vendor support and obsolescence. The EHS fleet (inflight and ground inventory) of instruments is both aging and dwindling in number. With the retirement of the US Space Shuttle, maintenance of on-orbit equipment becomes all the more difficult. A project is underway to search for gas monitoring technology that is highly reliable and stable for years. Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLS) seems to be the front-runner technology, but generally is not yet commercially available in portable form. NASA has fostered the development of TDLS through the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. A number of gases of interest to the aerospace and submarine communities can be addressed by TDLS including the list mentioned above plus hydrogen fluoride, ammonia and water (humidity). There are several different forms of TDLS including photoacoustic and direct absorption spectroscopy using various multipass cell geometries. This paper describes the history of portable gas monitoring on NASA spacecraft and provides a status of the development of TDLS based instruments. Planned TDLS flight experiments on ISS could lead both to operational use on ISS and important roles in future Exploration spacecraft and habitats.

  7. Rehabilitation After International Space Station Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauvin, S. J.; Shepherd, B. A. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Taddeo, T.

    2003-01-01

    Rehabilitating U.S. crew members to preflight status following flights on the Russian Mir Space Station required longer than six months for full functional recovery of some of the seven crew members. Additional exercise hardware has been added on the International Space Station as well as a rehabilitative emphasis on functional fitness/agility and proprioception. The authors will describe and present the results of the rehabilitation program for ISS and evaluate rehabilitative needs for longer missions. Pre- and in-flight programs emphasize strength and aerobic conditioning. One year before launch, crew members are assigned an Astronaut Strength and Conditioning specialist. Crew members are scheduled for 2 hours, 3 days a week, for pre-flight training and 2.5 hours, six days a week, for in-flight training. Crewmembers are tested on functional fitness, agility, isokinetic strength, and submaximal cycle ergometer evaluation before and after flight. The information from these tests is used for exercise prescriptions, comparison, and evaluation of the astronaut and training programs. The rehabilitation program lasts for 45 days and is scheduled for 2 hours during each crew workday. Phase 1 of the rehabilitation program starts on landing day and places emphasis on ambulation, flexibility, and muscle strengthening. Phase 2 adds proprioceptive exercise and cardiovascular conditioning. Phase 3 (the longest phase) focuses on functional development. All programs are tailored specifically for each individual according to their test results, preferred recreational activities, and mission roles and duties. Most crew members reached or exceeded their preflight test values 45 days after flight. Some crew members subjectively indicated the need for a longer rehabilitation period. The current rehabilitation program for returning ISS crew members seems adequate in content but may need to be extended for longer expeditions.

  8. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2016-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  9. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  10. Soyuz 27 Return Samples: Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station: Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of 6 GSCs from the ISS is shown. The average recoveries of the 3 surrogate standards from the grab sample containers were as follows: C-13-acetone, 115%; fluorobenzene, 108%; and chlorobenzene, 93%.

  11. STS 133 Return Samples: Air Quality Aboard Shuttle (STS-133) and International Space Station (ULFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 canisters (mini-GSC or GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The percent recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the 2 Shuttle GSCs averaged 86, 100, and 87, respectively. Based on the end-of-mission sample, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  12. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  13. NASA Now Minute: Astronaut Health on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space environment is extreme. Hear how Stephanie Carrizales Flint,a biomedical engineer at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, and her teamdevelop and monitor systems making the International Spac...

  14. NASA Now: Biology: Astronaut Health on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space environment is extreme. Hear how Stephanie Carrizales Flint, a biomedical engineer at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, and her team develop and monitor systems making the International Spac...

  15. International interest in space assets under the Cape Town Convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ametova, Lutfiie

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to outer space is impossible without space equipment. Nowadays space equipment is increasingly being financed by private sector. Private sector financiers, naturally, seek to secure their interest in space equipment. At the same time, increasing international cooperation in space industry leads to some problems of legal character. Thus, space equipment involved in international cooperation programs crosses national borders and is subject to a certain jurisdiction in a given period of time. The problem is that when an interest is created in one jurisdiction, it may not necessarily be recognised in another one. In order to provide a unified approach to interests vested in space equipment an international legal instrument is necessary. The Cape Town Convention represents an international instrument designed to provide a unified approach to interests vested in mobile equipment, including space assets.

  16. NASA Now: Materials Science: International Space Station Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment, or MISSE, provides NASA with a means to study the effects of long-term exposure to space on various materials, computer components and electron...

  17. ISS Update: Becoming an International Space Station Program Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Tara Ruttley, Associate International Space Station Program Scientist, about her educational path and her career activities at NASA. She also discuss...

  18. ISS Update: ISTAR -- International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Sandra Fletcher, EVA Systems Flight Controller. They discuss the International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) activity that...

  19. The International Space Station: Together is the Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the International Space Station Program completes 10 years of continuous human presence, former crewmembers discuss its past, present and future. The first residents, astronaut Bill Shepherd and...

  20. STS-113 Astronauts Work on Port One (P1) Truss on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronauts Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (above) and John B. Herrington (below) work on the newly installed P1 truss during the mission's second scheduled session of extravehicular activity. The space walk lasted 6 hours, 10 minutes. The end effector of the Canadarm2 or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) and Earth's horizon are visible in the bottom of frame.

  1. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  2. Space transportation alternatives for large space programs - The International Space University summer session - 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1993-06-01

    The issues discussed in this paper are the result of a 10-week study by the Space Solar Power Program design project members and the Space Transportation Group at the International Space University (ISU) summer session of 1992 to investigate new paradigms in space propulsion and how those paradigms might reduce the costs for large space programs. The program plan was to place a series of power satellites in Earth orbit. Several designs were studied where many kW, MW or GW of power would be transmitted to Earth or to other spacecraft in orbit. During the summer session, a space solar power system was also detailed and analyzed. At ISU, the focus of the study was to foster and develop some of the new paradigms that may eliminate the barriers to low cost for space exploration and exploitation. Many international and technical aspects of a large multinational program were studied. Environmental safety, space construction and maintenance, legal and policy issues of frequency allocation, technology transfer and control and many other areas were addressed.

  3. Space transportation alternatives for large space programs - The International Space University summer session - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1993-01-01

    The issues discussed in this paper are the result of a 10-week study by the Space Solar Power Program design project members and the Space Transportation Group at the International Space University (ISU) summer session of 1992 to investigate new paradigms in space propulsion and how those paradigms might reduce the costs for large space programs. The program plan was to place a series of power satellites in Earth orbit. Several designs were studied where many kW, MW or GW of power would be transmitted to Earth or to other spacecraft in orbit. During the summer session, a space solar power system was also detailed and analyzed. At ISU, the focus of the study was to foster and develop some of the new paradigms that may eliminate the barriers to low cost for space exploration and exploitation. Many international and technical aspects of a large multinational program were studied. Environmental safety, space construction and maintenance, legal and policy issues of frequency allocation, technology transfer and control and many other areas were addressed.

  4. Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA's participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop a human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  5. Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA!s participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  6. Life In Space: An Introduction To Space Life Sciences And The International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kevin

    2001-11-01

    The impact of the space environment upon living organisms is profound. Its effects range from alterations in sub-cellular processes to changes in the structure and function of whole organ systems. As the number of astronaut and cosmonaut crews flown in space has grown, so to has our understanding of the effects of the space environment upon biological systems. There are many parallels between the physiology of space flight and terrestrial disease processes, and the response of astronaut crews themselves to long-duration space deployment is therefore of central interest. In the next 15 years the International Space Station (ISS) will serve as a permanently manned dedicated life and physical sciences platform for the further investigation of these phenomena. The European Space Agency's Columbus module will hold the bulk of the ISS life science capability and, in combination with NASA's Human Research Facility (HRF) will accommodate the rack mounted experimental apparatus. The programme of experimentation will include efforts in fundamental biology, human physiology, behavioural science and space biomedical research. In the four decades since Yuri Gagarin first orbited the Earth, space life science has emerged as a field of study in its own right. The ISS takes us into the next era of human space exploration, and it is hoped that its programme of research will yield new insights, novel therapeutic interventions, and improved biotechnology for terrestrial application.

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the ISS requirements and initial design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to reduce risk -- given the determination and commitment to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS. While decades of work went into developing the ISS requirements, there are many things in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: (1) Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) (2) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Level 4 materials, emergency hardware and procedures) (3) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of nearly a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery.

  8. Materials Tested on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Miria Finckenor, a materials engineer, analyzes samples in her laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. The materials spent several years exposed to the harsh space env...

  9. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  10. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  11. International space infrastructure for the moon and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.

    1993-10-01

    International research intended to construct new space infrastructure to expand human activity beyond the earth is discussed. The construction of the space infrastructure is aimed at acquiring a self-sustained habitation outside the earth. It is concluded that the organization and coordination of the basic researches in each country should be the most urgent step for international cooperation.

  12. Identification and status of design improvements to the NASA Shuttle EMU for International Space Station application.

    PubMed

    Wilde, R C; McBarron, J W; Faszcza, J J

    1997-06-01

    To meet the significant increase in EVA demand to support assembly and operations of the International Space Station (ISS), NASA and industry have improved the current Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), or "space suit", configuration to meet the unique and specific requirements of an orbital-based system. The current Shuttle EMU was designed to be maintained and serviced on the ground between frequent Shuttle flights. ISS will require the EMUs to meet increased EVAs out of the Shuttle Orbiter and to remain on orbit for up to 180 days without need for regular return to Earth for scheduled maintenance or refurbishment. Ongoing Shuttle EMU improvements have increased reliability, operational life and performance while minimizing ground and on-orbit maintenance cost and expendable inventory. Modifications to both the anthropomorphic mobility elements of the Space Suit Assembly (SSA) as well as to the Primary Life Support System (PLSS) are identified and discussed. This paper also addresses the status of on-going Shuttle EMU improvements and summarizes the approach for increasing interoperability of the U.S. and Russian space suits to be utilized aboard the ISS.

  13. The Importance of the International Space Station for Life Sciences Research: Past and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Evans, C. A.; Tate, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations, it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence in November 2000. Since that time, science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. To date, early utilization of the U.S. Operating Segment of ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting U.S. and international partner research. This paper will summarize the life science accomplishments of early research aboard the ISS both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities (both pressurized and external) will be tripled, with multiple scientific modules that support a wide variety of research racks and science and technology experiments conducted by all of the International Partners. A milestone was reached in February 2008 with the launch and commissioning of ESA s Columbus module and in March of 2008 with the first of three components of the Japanese Kibo laboratory. Although challenges lie ahead, the realization of the international scientific partnership provides new opportunities for scientific collaboration and broadens the research disciplines engaged on ISS. As the ISS nears completion of assembly in 2010, we come to full international utilization of the facilities for research. Using the past as an indicator, we are now able to envision the multidisciplinary contributions to improving life on Earth that the ISS can make as a platform for life sciences research.

  14. Experiment aboard Russian satellite "Foton M2" in 2005: new approaches for study on stimulating effect of space flight on cell proliferation and regeneration in Urodela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Almeida, E.; Domaratskaya, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Aleinikova, K.; Mitashov, V.

    A study on space flight effect upon processes of regeneration is due to the necessity to know their characteristics in animals and human exposed to space and earth conditions shortly after flight Several experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosatellites showed that the rate of organ and tissue regeneration in space was greater than that on the ground Space flight effect stimulating regeneration was enduring and apparent not only just after flight but long time later as well This observation found support in studies simulated physiological weightlessness by means of fast-rotating clinostat It was shown also that the higher rate of regeneration was associated with enhanced cell proliferation For instance we found that the number of cells in S-phase in regenerating tissues was significantly greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls However it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro- g per se or by conditions of hyper- g during launching and re-adaptation on the earth Molecular mechanisms underlying the change also remained obscure These issues were addressed by the joint Russian-USA experiment Regeneration performed on Foton-M2 in 2005 In 16- day flight we used two well-known models of regeneration lens regeneration after lensectomy and tail regeneration after amputation in adult newts Pleurodeles walt Urodela In order to evaluate cell proliferative activity in time limits of microgravity influence the original method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU

  15. Division II / Working Group International Collaboration in Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Liu, William; Sibeck, David G.; Schmieder, Brigitte; Wang, Jingxiu; Wang, Chi

    2007-12-01

    The IAU Division II WG on International Collaboration in Space Weather has as its main goal to help coordinate the many activities related to space weather at an international level. The WG currently includes the international activities of the International Heliospheric Year (IHY), the International Living with a Star (ILWS) program, the CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) Working Group on Sources of Geomagnetic Activity, and Space Weather Studies in China. The coordination of IHY activities within the IAU is led by Division II under this working group. The focus of this half-day meeting was on the activities of the IHY program. About 20 people were in attendance. The Chair of the WG, David F. Webb, gave a brief introduction noting that the meeting would have two parts: first, a session on IHY activities emphasizing IHY Regional coordination and, second, a general discussion of the other programs of the WG involving international Space Weather activities.

  16. Utilization of the International Space Station for Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Matthew; Marquez, Jesica; Hillenius, Steven; Korth, David; Bakalyar, Laure Rush; Woodbury, Neil; Larsen, Crystal M.; Bates, Shelby; Kockler, Mikayla; Rhodes, Brooke; Moore, William E., III; Deliz, Ivonne; Kanefsky, Bob; Zheng, Jimin; Henninger, Ashley; Edhlund, Isabelle; Smith, Kate; Kockler, William; Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne

    2017-01-01

    The United States space policy is evolving toward missions beyond low Earth orbit. In an effort to meet that policy, NASA has recognized Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) as a valuable capability. Identified within AMO capabilities is the potential for autonomous planning and replanning during human spaceflight operations. That is allowing crew members to collectively or individually participate in the development of their own schedules. Currently, dedicated mission operations planners collaborate with international partners to create daily plans for astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS), taking into account mission requirements, ground rules, and various vehicle and payload constraints. In future deep space operations the crew will require more independence from ground support due to communication transmission delays. Furthermore, crew members who are provided with the capability to schedule their own activities are able to leverage direct experience operating in the space environment, and possibly maximize their efficiency. CAST (Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test) is an ISS investigation designed to analyze three important hypotheses about crew autonomous scheduling. First, given appropriate inputs, the crew is able to create and execute a plan in a reasonable period of time without impacts to mission success. Second, the proximity of the planner, in this case the crew, to the planned operations increases their operational efficiency. Third, crew members are more satisfied when given a role in plan development. This paper presents the results from a single astronaut test subject who participated in five CAST sessions. The details on the operational philosophy of CAST are discussed, including the approach to crew training, selection criteria for test days, and data collection methods. CAST is a technology demonstration payload sponsored by the ISS Research Science and Technology Office, and performed by experts in Mission Operations Planning from

  17. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Made Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements are made aboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2000). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Discussions related to hearing protection will also be included. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers aboard the ISS.

  18. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  19. Levitation Technology in International Space Station Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinart-Ramirez, Y.; Cooley, V. M.; Love, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique multidisciplinary orbiting laboratory for science and technology research, enabling discoveries that benefit life on Earth and exploration of the universe. ISS facilities for containerless sample processing in Materials Science experiments include levitation devices with specimen positioning control while reducing containment vessel contamination. For example, ESA's EML (ElectroMagnetic Levitator), is used for melting and solidification of conductive metals, alloys, or semiconductors in ultra-high vacuum, or in high-purity gaseous atmospheres. Sample heating and positioning are accomplished through electromagnetic fields generated by a coil system. EML applications cover investigation of solidification and microstructural formation, evaluation of thermophysical properties of highly reactive metals (whose properties can be very sensitive to contamination), and examination of undercooled liquid metals to understand metastable phase convection and influence convection on structural changes. MSL utilization includes development of novel light-weight, high-performance materials. Another facility, JAXA's ELF (Electrostatic Levitation Furnace), is used to perform high temperature melting while avoiding chemical reactions with crucibles by levitating a sample through Coulomb force. ELF is capable of measuring density, surface tension, and viscosity of samples at high temperatures. One of the initial ELF investigations, Interfacial Energy-1, is aimed at clarification of interfacial phenomena between molten steels and oxide melts with industrial applications in control processes for liquid mixing. In addition to these Materials Science facilities, other ISS investigations that involve levitation employ it for biological research. For example, NASA's "Magnetic 3D Culturing and Bioprinting" investigation uses magnetic levitation for three-dimensional culturing and positioning of magnetized cells to generate spheroid assemblies

  20. International Space Station Modal Correction Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotz[atrocl. Lrostom; Grugoer. < ocjae; Laible, Michael; Sugavanam, Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit modal test and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the ISS Stage ULF4, DTF S4-1A, October 11,2010, GMT 284/06:13:00.00. The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate analytical models with the intent to verify the ISS critical interface dynamic loads and improve fatigue life prediction. For the ISS configurations under consideration, on-orbit dynamic responses were collected with Russian vehicles attached and without the Orbiter attached to the ISS. ISS instrumentation systems that were used to collect the dynamic responses during the DTF S4-1A included the Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS), Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS), Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and ISS External Cameras. Experimental modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping and mode shape information. Correlation and comparisons between test and analytical modal parameters were performed to assess the accuracy of models for the ISS configuration under consideration. Based on the frequency comparisons, the accuracy of the mathematical models is assessed and model refinement recommendations are given. Section 2.0 of this report presents the math model used in the analysis. This section also describes the ISS configuration under consideration and summarizes the associated primary modes of interest along with the fundamental appendage modes. Section 3.0 discusses the details of the ISS Stage ULF4 DTF S4-1A test. Section 4.0 discusses the on-orbit instrumentation systems that were used in the collection of the data analyzed in this paper. The modal analysis approach and results used in the analysis of the collected data are summarized in Section 5.0. The model correlation and validation effort is reported in Section 6.0. Conclusions and

  1. International Heliophysical Year Contributions to Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) is concerned with the study of universal processes in the heliosphere, and international scientific cooperation. The result has been an international cooperative effort, jointly with the United Nations COPUOS, to study process which form the basis of our understanding of Space Weather. It this talk I will review the objectives of the IHY, and the progress made in the deployment of several instrument arrays and investigations which study space weather phenomena.

  2. Probabilistic Analysis of International Space Station Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddell, B.; Alred, J.; Kramer, L.; Mikatarian, R.; Minow, J.; Koontz, S.

    2005-12-01

    To date, the International Space Station (ISS) has been one of the largest objects flown in lower earth orbit (LEO). The ISS utilizes high voltage solar arrays (160V) that are negatively grounded leading to pressurized elements that can float negatively with respect to the plasma. Because laboratory measurements indicate a dielectric breakdown potential difference of 80V, arcing could occur on the ISS structure. To overcome the possibility of arcing and clamp the potential of the structure, two Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) were designed, built, and flown. Also a limited amount of measurements of the floating potential for the present ISS configuration were made by a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), indicating a minimum potential of -24 Volts at the measurement location. A predictive tool, the ISS Plasma Interaction Model (PIM) has been developed accounting for the solar array electron collection, solar array mast wire and effective conductive area on the structure. The model has been used for predictions of the present ISS configuration. The conductive area has been inferred based on available floating potential measurements. Analysis of FPP and PCU data indicated distribution of the conductive area along the Russian segment of the ISS structure. A significant input to PIM is the plasma environment. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001) was initially used to obtain plasma temperature and density values. However, IRI provides mean parameters, leading to difficulties in interpretation of on-orbit data, especially at eclipse exit where maximum charging can occur. This limits our predicative capability. Satellite and Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) data of plasma parameters have also been collected. Approximately 130,000 electron temperature (Te) and density (Ne) pairs for typical ISS eclipse exit conditions have been extracted from the reduced Langmuir probe data flown aboard the NASA DE-2 satellite. Additionally, another 18,000 Te and Ne pairs of ISR data

  3. Mask Design for the Space Interferometry Mission Internal Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, David; Zhao, Feng; Korechoff, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mask design used for the internal metrology of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Included is information about the project, the method of measurements with SIM, the internal metrology, numerical model of internal metrology, wavefront examples, performance metrics, and mask design

  4. The Perfect Field Trip for International Space Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Helenmarie

    1992-01-01

    Provides a poster containing activities that are part of the International Space Year. Describes activities in which students visit a local planetarium and re-create a National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) space flight using reports, articles, NASA slides, and videos. Lists organizations, publications, and other resources related to…

  5. Space Colonies. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    Approximately 204 citations to the international literature concerning various aspects of space colonies are presented. Topics include the design and construction of space colonies, the effects on humans of long term life in a variety of spaceborne environments, and the potential uses of orbital space stations and lunar bases.

  6. STS-100 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, and sporting a readily visible new addition in the form of the Canadarm2 or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the International Space Station was photographed following separation from the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  7. Elite International Schools in the Global South: Transnational Space, Class Relationalities and the "Middling" International Schoolteacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…

  8. International Space Data Systems Standardization: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowen, Andrew Z.

    2004-01-01

    Standardization of products and services is the only way world Space Agencies and their providers can achieve substantial reduction in development and operations cost. Current and future CCSDS tasks will continue to center around providing tools for it to happen. NASA and other Space Agencies welcome efforts of companies and technology and standards organizations to provide our missions with even more tools to succeed.

  9. First Protein Crystallization Experiments on The International Space Station: Sweet Success in Space With Thaumatin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Snell, Eddie H.; Achari, Aniruddha; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We determined the room temperature 1.2 A structure of thaumatin using a crystal grown in the first protein crystallization experiment conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The crystals were grown in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN) developed by Alexander McPherson and co-workers. EGN transports frozen solutions contained in tygon tubing in a liquid nitrogen Dewar to ISS where the tubes then thaw. Batch, free interface diffusion (FID), or vapor diffusion crystallization occurs after thawing. EGN was flown to the ISS on STS-106 on September 8, 2000. This was a "risk mitigation" flight that tested EGN performance and the process of conducting experiments on ISS. We focused on how to map a hanging drop crystallization recipe to the EGN FID method. Thaumatin was chosen as the test system. Three series of crystallization recipes were set-up. Each series tested different volume ratios of protein-rich solution to precipitant-rich solution. The series differed from each other by fixing either the protein concentration or the amount of protein in the solutions. Upon return of the samples to Earth on October 24 by STS-92, bubbles that spanned the diameter of the tubing were observed in all tubes. Such bubbles interrupt liquid-liquid diffusion and force vapor diffusion equilibration to occur instead. Nonetheless, crystals grew in 9 of 30 tubes. Many large crystals were grown, the largest being 2.0 x 1.1 x 1.0 cubic mm. The largest crystal was used to collect data at room temperature on beamline 7-1 of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Source to a maximum resolution of 1.2 A. The structure was refined anisotropically using SHELX with a data to parameter ratio of 4.5 to give an R(sub factor) of 15.8% (R(sub free) = 18.2%) for ail reflections without generated hydrogens. This refinement is proceeding. Comparisons of this 1.2 A microgravity structure to previous reports of the thaumatin structure at 1.75 A and to ground control crystals will be

  10. The role of the International Space University in building capacity in emerging space nations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Robert

    The International Space University provides graduate-level training to the future leaders of the emerging global space community at its Central Campus in Strasbourg, France, and at locations around the world. In its two-month Summer Session and one-year Masters program, ISU offers its students a unique Core Curriculum covering all disciplines related to space programs and enterprises - space science, space engineering, systems engineering, space policy and law, business and management, and space and society. Both programs also involve an intense student research Team Project providing international graduate students and young space professionals the opportunity to solve complex problems by working together in an intercultural environment. Since its founding in 1987, ISU has graduated more than 2500 students from 96 countries. Together with hundreds of ISU faculty and lecturers from around the world, ISU alumni comprise an extremely effective network of space professionals and leaders that actively facilitates individual career growth, professional activities and international space cooperation.

  11. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacings in Al-7Si Alloy Directionally Solidified on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, Samuel; Lauer, Mark; Poirier, David; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Samples from directionally solidified Al- 7 wt. % Si have been analyzed for primary dendrite arm spacing (lambda) and radial macrosegregation. The alloy was directionally solidified (DS) aboard the ISS to determine the effect of mitigating convection on lambda and macrosegregation. Samples from terrestrial DS-experiments thermal histories are discussed for comparison. In some experiments, lambda was measured in microstructures that developed during the transition from one speed to another. To represent DS in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion controlled growth under steady-state conditions. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of a solidified sample, lambda was measured and calculated using the model. During steady-state, there was reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated lambda's in the space-grown samples. In terrestrial samples, the differences between measured and calculated lambda's indicated that the dendritic growth was influenced by convection.

  12. Monitoring and Correcting Autonomic Function Aboard Mir: NASA Technology Used in Space and on Earth to Facilitate Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P.; Toscano, W.; Taylor, B.; DeRoshia, C.; Kornilova, L.; Koslovskaya, I.; Miller, N.

    1999-01-01

    The broad objective of the research was to study individual characteristics of human adaptation to long duration spaceflight and possibilities of their correction using autonomic conditioning. The changes in autonomic state during adaptation to microgravity can have profound effects on the operational efficiency of crewmembers and may result in debilitating biomedical symptoms. Ground-based and inflight experiment results showed that certain responses of autonomic nervous system were correlated with, or consistently preceded, reports of performance decrements or the symptoms. Autogenic-Feedback-Training Exercise (AFTE) is a physiological conditioning method that has been used to train people to voluntary control several of their own physiological responses. The specific objectives were: 1) To study human autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to sustained exposure to microgravity; 2) To study human behavior/performance changes related to physiology; 3) To evaluate the effectiveness of preflight autonomic conditioning (AFTE) for facilitating adaptation to space and readaptation to Earth; and 4) To archive these data for the NASA Life Sciences Data Archive and thereby make this information available to the international scientific community.

  13. Science on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    For over ten years, humans have been living on the space station 24 hours a day, seven days a week AND have performed over 600 experiments! Check out just a few of these extraordinary experiments a...

  14. NASA Now: International Space Station Payload Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll hear Katie Presson of the Payload Operations Integration team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., discuss investigations being conducte...

  15. International Space Education Outreach: Taking Exploration to the Global Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Lichtenberger, L. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Garner, L. C.; Barfus, J. R.; Nazarenko, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    With the development of the International Space Station and the need for international collaboration for returning to the moon and developing a mission to Mars, NASA has embarked on developing international educational programs related to space exploration. In addition, with the explosion of educational technology, linking students on a global basis is more easily accomplished. This technology is bringing national and international issues into the classroom, including global environmental issues, the global marketplace, and global collaboration in space. We present the successes and lessons learned concerning international educational and public outreach programs that we have been involved in for NASA as well as the importance of sustaining these international peer collaborative programs for the future generations. These programs will undoubtedly be critical in enhancing the classroom environment and will affect the achievements in and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  16. Military Use of the International Space Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Opportunities 10 (1985). 7Id. 8Including: wind (Licien); horsepower (Furiso, 16th century); demons (Firdausi, 10th Century, and Kepler , 1634); geese (Godwin... telescopes , a crew on the satellite could inspect any spot on the face of the earth at least once in twenty-four hours. The station could also be used as a...The upper horizontal boom faces deep space and will be ideal for space tracking devices, communications relay equipment, and telescopes . A more

  17. International Space Station Systems Engineering. Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...the First Extraterrestrial (Computer) Virus been discovered on the Space Station,” by Ian O’Neill, Space Reference, Inc. August 26, 2008. 69...the electronic office, factory automation, and the globalization of business. He pioneered the deployment of several artificial intelligence systems

  18. Space Station Cameras Capture Views of Hurricane Irene From Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, an Expedition 28 crew member captured views of intensifying Hurricane Irene from an altitude of 225 miles at 3:33 p.m. EDT on Aug. 22, 2011, as the tropical ...

  19. The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation: A Summary of Conducted Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Volz, M. P.; Anilkumar, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) is being conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) with the goal of understanding bubble generation and interactions during controlled directional solidification processing. Through the course of the experiments, beginning in September 2002, a number of key factors pertinent to solidification processing of materials in a microgravity environment have been directly observed, measured, and modeled. Though most experiments ran uninterrupted, on four separate occasions malfunctions to the PFMI hardware and software were experienced that required crew intervention, including in-space repair. Fortunately, each repair attempt was successful and restored the PFMI apparatus to a fully functional condition. Based on PFMI results and lessons learned, the intent of this presentation is to draw attention to the role ISS experiments/hardware can play in providing insight to potential fabrication processing techniques and repair scenarios that might arise during long duration space transport and/or on the lunar/Mars surface.

  20. Commercial Development Plan for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The long term objective of the development plan for the International Space Station (ISS) is to establish the foundation for a marketplace and stimulate a national economy for space products and services in low-Earth orbit, where both demand and supply are dominated by the private sector. The short term objective is to begin the transition to private investment and offset a share of the public cost for operating the space shuttle fleet and space station through commercial enterprise in open markets.

  1. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  2. International Space Station Increment-4/5 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of December 2001 to December 2002. Unlike the past two ISS Increment reports, which were increment specific, this summary report covers two increments: Increments 4 and 5, hereafter referred to as Increment-4/5. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-4/5. Due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities, not a11 of the activities were analyzed for this report. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System supports science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit supports experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The International Space Station Increment-4/5 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the low-frequency Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem and the higher frequency High Resolution Accelerometer Package. The low frequency sensor measures up to 1 Hz, but is routinely trimmean filtered to yield much lower frequency acceleration data up to 0.01 Hz. This filtered data can be mapped to arbitrary

  3. Fifth International Symposium on Liquid Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, R. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the fiollowing: Theme: Life-life Combustion Devices Technology. Technical Sessions: International Perspectives. System Level Effects. Component Level Processes. Material Considerations. Design Environments -- Predictions. Injector Design Technology. Design Environments -- Measurements. Panel Discussion: Views on future research and development needs and Symposium observations. Aquarium Welcome and Southern Belle Riverboat Recognition Banquet evening events.

  4. Internal contamination in the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poythress, C.

    1985-01-01

    Atmosphere trace contaminant control systems used in the past (Lunar Module and Skylab) and present (nuclear submarines and Shuttle) are discussed. Recommendations are made for the future Space Station contaminant control system. The prevention and control methods used are judicious material selection, detection, and specific removal equipment. Sources and effects of contamination relating to crew and equipment are also discussed.

  5. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

  6. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Environments for the International Space Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-15

    Baseline micrometeoroid and orbital debris fluence estimates for spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are provided. For these calculations, an orbit similar to that of the International Space Station (ISS) is used.

  7. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  8. Modification of the International Space Station USOS to Support Installation and Activation of the Node 3 Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 "Unity" module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration. This paper outlines the design, development, certification, and implementation of these changes in support of ISS assembly complete.

  9. Simulation of Ophthalmic Alterations at the Arctic, Antarctica and the International Space Station for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio; Gonçalves, Cristiane

    2016-07-01

    Well, we propose a series of long-period medical simulations in scientific bases at the Arctic, at Antarctica and aboard the International Space Station (ISS), involving natural ophthalmic diseases such as radiation, solar and trauma retinopathy, keratoconus, cataract, glaucoma, etc., and ophthalmic alterations by accidental injuries. These natural diseases, without a previous diagnosis, specially those specific retinopathy, appear after 1 month to 1.5 year, in average. Such studies will be valuable for the human deep-space exploration because during long-duration spaceflight, such as staying at the ISS, a Moon base and a manned trip to planet Mars, requires several months within such environments, and during such periods ophthalmic diseases and accidents might eventually occur, which could seriously affect the 'round-the-clock' work schedule of the astronauts and the long-duration spaceflight manned program.

  10. A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

  11. Viability of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to space environment in the M-191 experiment system aboard Apollo 16.

    PubMed

    Bucker, H; Horneck, G; Wollenhaupt, H; Schwager, M; Taylor, G R

    1974-01-01

    During the Apollo 16 space flight, in the experiment system M-191, (microbial response to space environment) spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 were exposed to space vacuum or solar UV irradiation with a peak wavelength of 254 nm or both. The effects of these space factors on the colony-forming ability of the spores were studied. It was found (i) that space vacuum alone did not affect the survival of pre-dried spores; (ii) that space vacuum in combination with solar UV irradiation with a peak wavelength of 254 nm had a synergistic effect, which may by attributed to a UV supersensitivity of the spores during vacuum exposure. These results agreed with findings of simulation experiments on earth. It was concluded that air dried spores may survive exposure to space vacuum if shielded against solar UV irradiation.

  12. International food patterns for space food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina; Cox, Amanda; Cornish, Pauline V.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain basic data on ethnic foods by studying dietary patterns and multicultural foods, and to determine nutritional status of multicultural space explorers by evaluating dietary, clinical, biochemical, and socioeconomic factors. The study will plan a significant role in providing nutritional research for space explorers of different ethnic backgrounds. It will provide scientific background information by bringing together cross cultural dietary and nutritional from different ethnic groups. Results will also help the health care personnel including physicians, dietitians, and nutritionists to better understand and assist patients from other cultures illness. Also, the results will provide data which will help in the development of future food plans for long duration flights involving manned exploration to Mars and lunar base colonies.

  13. Recent Successes and Future Plans for NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Testbed on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Sankovic, John M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Lux, James P.; Chelmins, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible and extensible space communications architectures and technology are essential to enable future space exploration and science activities. NASA has championed the development of the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio (SDR) standard and the application of SDR technology to reduce the costs and risks of using SDRs for space missions, and has developed an on-orbit testbed to validate these capabilities. The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed (previously known as the Communications, Navigation, and Networking reConfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT)) is advancing SDR, on-board networking, and navigation technologies by conducting space experiments aboard the International Space Station. During its first year(s) on-orbit, the SCaN Testbed has achieved considerable accomplishments to better understand SDRs and their applications. The SDR platforms and software waveforms on each SDR have over 1500 hours of operation and are performing as designed. The Ka-band SDR on the SCaN Testbed is NASAs first space Ka-band transceiver and is NASA's first Ka-band mission using the Space Network. This has provided exciting opportunities to operate at Ka-band and assist with on-orbit tests of NASA newest Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). During its first year, SCaN Testbed completed its first on-orbit SDR reconfigurations. SDR reconfigurations occur when implementing new waveforms on an SDR. SDR reconfigurations allow a radio to change minor parameters, such as data rate, or complete functionality. New waveforms which provide new capability and are reusable across different missions provide long term value for reconfigurable platforms such as SDRs. The STRS Standard provides guidelines for new waveform development by third parties. Waveform development by organizations other than the platform provider offers NASA the ability to develop waveforms itself and reduce its dependence and costs on the platform developer. Each of these

  14. The International Space Station: overview and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Daniel V.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station, as the largest international civil program in history, features unprecedented technical, managerial, and international complexity. Over the last two years, it has experienced major redesigns and incorporated new international expertise through the involvement of Russia. Because of these challenges, new systems of management, new international relationships, new types of partnerships, and new funding mechanisms had to be developed. However, the International Space Station Program is currently operating on schedule and within budget. A number of major milestones were accomplished this year. A tremendous amount of credit for the continuing success of this Program goes to those people of all nationalities who are involved in the Program and who are dedicated to meeting the challenges to come.

  15. US Interpretation of International Space Policies Regarding Commercial Resource Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    led the international effort to bring into existence globally accepted laws to regulate space endeavors. The existing void of space regulation was...responsibility for the activity, operate in accordance with typical market -based incentives for controlling cost and optimizing return on investment, and have

  16. International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Russell

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

  17. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Backdropped against water and clouds, the International Space Station was separated from the Space Shuttle Discovery after several days of joint activities and an important crew exchange. This photograph was taken by one of the crew of this mission from the aft flight deck of Discovery.

  18. STS-92 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle Discovery began its separation from the International Space Station (ISS), a crew member captured this view of the ISS, revealing new additions to the complex. Most of the Z1 truss structure is visible, along with the recently installed Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3).

  19. PISCES: A "Stepping Stone" to International Space Exploration and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.; Schowengerdt, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) was initiated by the Japan/US Science, Technology and Space Application Programs (JUSTSAP) to advance research and education in space exploration technology and systems working closely with the State of Hawaii. Hawaii has a heritage with space exploration including the training of Apollo astronauts and testing of lunar rover systems in some of the most realistic terrestrial sites available. The high altitude dry environment with greater solar insolation, and the dry lunar regolith-like volcanic ash and cratered terrain make Hawaiian sites ideal to support, international space exploration technology development, demonstration, education and training. This paper will summarize development and roles of PISCES in lunar surface analogs, simulations, technology demonstrations, research and training for space exploration technology and systems.

  20. Critical Function Models for Operation of the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William Roy; Bagian, T. M.

    2000-11-01

    Long duration and exploration class space missions will place new requirements on human performance when compared to current space shuttle missions. Specifically, assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will place significant new demands on the crew. For example, maintenance of systems that provide habitability will become an ongoing activity for the international flight crews. Tasks for maintaining space station habitability will need to be integrated with tasks associated with scientific research. In addition, tasks and resources will need to be prioritized and allocated dynamically in response to changing operational conditions and unplanned system breakdowns. This paper describes an ongoing program to develop a habitability index (HI) for space operations based on the critical function approach. This pilot project focuses on adaptation of the critical function approach to develop a habitability index specifically tailored for space operations. Further work will then be needed to expand and validate the habitability index for application in the ISS operational environment.

  1. The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

  2. Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far

  3. STS-92 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Not long after separation of the Space Shuttle Discovery from the International Space Station (ISS), a crew member was able to use a 70mm handheld camera to grab this image of the station, featuring its newest additions. Backdropped against the blackness of space, the Z1 truss structure and its anterna, as well as the new Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3), are visible in the foreground.

  4. International Space Station Research Benefits for Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Fuglesang, Christer; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth -- not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  5. International Space Station Benefits for Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sabbagh, Jean; Sorokin, Igor; Zell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth--not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  6. Vision 2040: Evolving the Successful International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary; Marti, Izan Peris; Tlustos, Reinhard; Lorente, Arnau Pons; Panerati, Jocopo; Mensink, Wendy; Sorkhabi, Elbruz; Garcia, Oriol Gasquez; Musilova, Michaela; Pearson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Space exploration has always been full of inspiration, innovation, and creativity, with the promise of expanding human civilization beyond Earth. The space sector is currently experiencing rapid change as disruptive technologies, grassroots programs, and new commercial initiatives have reshaped long-standing methods of operation. Throughout the last 28 years, the International Space University (ISU) has been a leading institution for space education, forming international partnerships, and encouraging entrepreneurship in its over 4,000 alumni. In this report, our Vision 2040 team projected the next 25 years of space exploration and analyzed how ISU could remain a leading institution in the rapidly changing industry. Vision 2040 considered five important future scenarios for the space sector: real-time Earth applications, orbital stations, lunar bases, lunar and asteroid mining, and a human presence on Mars. We identified the signals of disruptive change within these scenarios, including underlying driving forces and potential challenges, and derived a set of skills that will be required in the future space industry. Using these skills as a starting point, we proposed strategies in five areas of focus for ISU: the future of the Space Studies Program (SSP), analog missions, outreach, alumni, and startups. We concluded that ISU could become not just an increasingly innovative educational institution, but one that acts as an international organization that drives space commercialization, exploration, innovation, and cooperation.

  7. 14 CFR § 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. § 1214.402 Section § 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  8. Characterization of the Space Environment on Orbit of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Ichiro

    The material-exposure experiment was performed on the International Space Station using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC & SEED) developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The experiment was executed on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station. The SM/MPAC & SEED consists of the MPAC, which captures the space debris, and the SEED, which exposes the polymeric material, the paints, the adhesive, the bearing, and the compound material. This paper is focused on space dust environment, and the results of the MPAC experiment are described.

  9. NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

  10. From Auroras to Sea Ice: Views From the International Space Station and Plans for International Polar Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Runco, Susan K.; Heydorn, James; Trenchard, Michael; Stefanov, William L.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2006-01-01

    For more than 40 years astronauts have been observing Earth, taking photographs or digital images from their spacecraft. Today, a robust program of observation from the International Space Station (ISS) has yielded hundreds of thousands of images of the Earth s surface collected since 2001. Seeing Earth through the eyes of an astronaut is exciting to the general public, and the images are popular in classrooms. Because the ISS has an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees (the north-south limits of the orbit are at 51.6 degrees latitude), high latitude observations are common. Some of the most striking images collected include views of polar phenomena. Astronauts routinely pass above brilliant red and green aurora; view high, wispy clouds at the top of the atmosphere; or look down on glaciers and floating ice rafts. These images, framed and captured by humans, are easily interpreted by students and teachers. Astronaut observations provide a way to visualize complicated polar phenomena and communicate about them to students of all ages. Over the next two years, astronauts aboard the ISS will formally focus their observations on polar phenomena as participants in the International Polar Year (IPY). Imagery acquisition from the ISS will be coordinated with other IPY scientists staging studies and field campaigns on the ground. The imagery collected from the ISS will be cataloged and served on NASA s web-based database of images, http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov . The website allows investigators, students and teachers to search through the imagery, assemble image datasets, and download the imagery and the metadata. We display some of the most spectacular examples of polar imagery and demonstrate NASA s database of astronaut images of Earth.

  11. A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for the flight research environment. A summary will explain the concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program.

  12. A New Direction for NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Trach, Brian; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA recently created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer scientific and technology results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. Accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on nanomaterials and biomaterials type research. Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for this research. Discussion will be

  13. A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research using the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagheck, R.

    2002-01-01

    Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for the flight research environment. A summary will explain the concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program.

  14. International cooperation in the commercial era of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allnutt, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA plans permitting international participation in space activities are reviewed, with an emphasis on the increasing commercialization of these endeavors. The potential indicated by the recent success of the STS, long-term and large-scale Soviet missions, and the Ariane launcher is discussed; the development of the Space Station concept is traced; the increasing use of remote-sensing and telecommunications satellites is documented; currently planned space science missions are listed; and the NASA policy on international cooperation (full payment by the second nation, clean payload-spacecraft interfaces to prevent technology transfer, and open availability of scientific results) is outlined. It is argued that space activity, having passed through first and second phases dominated by exploration and military goals, respectively, will now soon enter a primarily commercial phase, with competition in telecommunications and remote-sensing services and private investment in space processing, manufacturing, and even launchers.

  15. Analysis of space environment effects on active fiber optic links orbited aboard the LDEF. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monarski, T. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.; Taylor, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    The interim analysis correlates the results of the 'Preliminary Analysis of WL Experiment no. 701, Space Environment Effects on Operating Optic Systems' (NASA Report CP-3134) with space simulated post retrieval terrestrial studies performed on the M0004 experiment. Temperature cycling measurements were performed on the active optical data links for the purpose of assessing link signal to noise ratio and bit error rate performance some 69 months following the experiment deployment in low earth orbit. The early results indicate a high correlation between pre-orbit, orbit recorded, and post orbit functionality of the first known and longest space demonstration of operating optic fibers.

  16. International Space Station as Analog of Interplanetary Transit Vehicle For Biomedical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Astronaut missions lasting up to six months aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common with interplanetary flights, especially the outbound, Earth-to-Mars transit portion of a Mars mission. Utilization of ISS and other appropriate platforms to prepare for crewed expeditions to planetary destinations including Mars has been the work of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) since 2005. HRP is charged specifically to understand and reduced the risks to astronaut health and performance in space exploration missions: everything HRP does and has done is directly related to that responsibility. Two major categories of human research have capitalized on ISS capabilities. The first category centers on the biomedical aspects of long-duration exposure to spaceflight factors, including prolonged weightlessness, radiation exposure, isolation and confinement, and actual risk to life and limb. These studies contribute to astronaut safety, health and efficiency on any long-duration missions, whether in low Earth orbit (LEO) or beyond. Qualitatively, weightlessness is weightlessness, whether in LEO or en route to Mars. The HRP sponsors investigations into losses in muscle and bone integrity, cardiovascular function, sensory-motor capability, immune capacity and psychosocial health, and development and demonstration of appropriate treatments and preventative measures. The second category includes studies that are focused on planetary expeditions beyond LEO. For these, ISS offers a high fidelity analog to investigate the combined effects of spaceflight factors (described above) plus the isolation and autonomy associated with simulated increasing distance from Earth. Investigations address crew cohesion, performance and workload, and mission control performance. The behavioral health and performance and space human factors aspects of planetary missions dominate this category. Work has already begun on a new investigation in this category which will examine the

  17. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Akopova, A B; Manaseryan, M M; Melkonyan, A A; Tatikyan, S Sh; Potapov, Yu

    2005-02-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380 km and inclination 51.6 degrees are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z > or = 2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during the last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and "Kosmos" spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2 x 10(3) keV/micrometers and the value of equivalent dose 360 microSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z > or = 2 was measured (3.85 x 10(3) particles/cm2).

  18. Searching Across the International Space Station Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; McDermott, William J.; Smith, Ernest E.; Bell, David G.; Gurram, Mohana

    2007-01-01

    Data access in the enterprise generally requires us to combine data from different sources and different formats. It is advantageous thus to focus on the intersection of the knowledge across sources and domains; keeping irrelevant knowledge around only serves to make the integration more unwieldy and more complicated than necessary. A context search over multiple domain is proposed in this paper to use context sensitive queries to support disciplined manipulation of domain knowledge resources. The objective of a context search is to provide the capability for interrogating many domain knowledge resources, which are largely semantically disjoint. The search supports formally the tasks of selecting, combining, extending, specializing, and modifying components from a diverse set of domains. This paper demonstrates a new paradigm in composition of information for enterprise applications. In particular, it discusses an approach to achieving data integration across multiple sources, in a manner that does not require heavy investment in database and middleware maintenance. This lean approach to integration leads to cost-effectiveness and scalability of data integration with an underlying schemaless object-relational database management system. This highly scalable, information on demand system framework, called NX-Search, which is an implementation of an information system built on NETMARK. NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput open database integration framework for managing, storing, and searching unstructured or semi-structured arbitrary XML and HTML used widely at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) and industry.

  19. 78 FR 66964 - International Space Station National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION International Space Station National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal of the charter of the International Space Station National Laboratory Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to...

  20. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  1. Proceedings of the Seventh International Space University Alumni Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Seventh Alumni Conference of the International Space University, coordinated by the ISU U.S. Alumni Organization (IUSAO), was held at Cleveland State University in Cleveland, Ohio on Friday, July 24, 1998. These proceedings are a record of the presentations. The following topics are included: Remote sensing education in developing countries; Integrated global observing strategy; NASA's current earth science program; Europe's lunar initiative; Lunarsat: Searching for the South Polar cold traps; Asteroid hazards; ESA exobiological activities; Space testbed for photovoltaics; Teledesic Space infrastructure; Space instrument's concurrent design; NASA advanced fuel program; Mission preparation and training for the European Robotic Arm (ERA); and Global access to remote sensing systems.

  2. Development and swimming behavior of Medaka fry in a spaceflight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107).

    PubMed

    Niihori, Maki; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Baba, Shoji A

    2004-09-01

    A space experiment aimed at closely observing the development and swimming activity of medaka fry under microgravity was carried out as a part of the S*T*A*R*S Program, a space shuttle mission, in STS-107 in January 2003. Four eggs laid on earth in an artificially controlled environment were put in a container with a functionally closed ecological system and launched on the Space Shuttle Columbia. Each egg was held in place by a strip of Velcro in the container to be individually monitored by close-up CCD cameras. In the control experiment, four eggs prepared using the same experimental set-up remained on the ground. There was no appreciable difference in the time course of development between space- and ground-based embryos. In the ground experiment, embryos were observed to rotate in place enclosed with the egg membrane, whereas those in the flight unit did not rotate. One of the four eggs hatched on the 8th day after being launched into space. All four eggs hatched in the ground unit. The fry hatched in space was mostly motionless, but with occasional control of its posture with respect to references in the experimental chamber. The fry hatched on ground were observed to move actively, controlling their posture with respect to the gravity vector. These findings suggest that the absence of gravity affects the initiation process of motility of embryos and hatched fry.

  3. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  4. The S1 Truss Prior to Installation on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Being attached to the Canadarm2 on the International Space Station (ISS), the Remote Manipulator System arm built by the Canadian Space Agency, the Integrated Truss Assembly (S1) Truss is suspended over the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' cargo bay. Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, STS-112 mission specialist, and Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, used the Canadarm2 from inside the Destiny laboratory on the ISS to lift the S1 truss out of the orbiter's cargo bay and move it into position prior to its installation on the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  5. Development of NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Test Bed Aboard ISS to Investigate SDR, On-Board Networking and Navigation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Lux, James P.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing an experimental flight payload (referred to as the Space Communication and Navigation (SCAN) Test Bed) to investigate software defined radio (SDR), networking, and navigation technologies, operationally in the space environment. The payload consists of three software defined radios each compliant to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System Architecture, a common software interface description standard for software defined radios. The software defined radios are new technology developments underway by NASA and industry partners. Planned for launch in early 2012, the payload will be externally mounted to the International Space Station truss and conduct experiments representative of future mission capability.

  6. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on "scientific" dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities.

  7. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butina, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines - it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally completed in 2006. It has over 6,000 orbital replaceable units (ORU), and spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operations. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station for both space and ground operations. It started with the basic support concept developed for Department of Defense systems, and then it was tailored for the unique requirements of a manned space vehicle. Space logistics is a new concept that has wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. This paper discusses what type of organization has been put into place to support both space and ground operations and discusses each element of that organization. In addition, some of the unique operations approaches this organization has had to develop is discussed.

  8. Overview of International Space Station orbital environments exposure flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Schmidl, Danny; Finckenor, Miria; Neish, Michael; Imagawa, Kichiro; Dinguirard, Magdeleine; van Eesbeek, Marc; Naumov, S. F.; Krylov, A. N.; Mishina, L. V.; Gerasimov, Y. I.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit environments exposure flight experiments. International teams are flying, or preparing to fly, externally mounted materials exposure trays and sensor packages. The samples in these trays are exposed to a combination of induced molecular contamination, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Exposed materials samples are analyzed upon return. Typical analyses performed on these samples include optical property measurements, X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles, scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface morphology and materials properties measurements. The objective of these studies is to characterize the long-term effects of the natural and induced environments on spacecraft materials. Ongoing flight experiments include the U.S. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) program, the Japanese Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (SM/MPAC&SEED) experiment, the Russian SKK and Kromka experiments from RSC-Energia, and the Komplast flight experiment. Flight experiments being prepared for flight, or in development stage, include the Japanese Space Environment Data Acquisition Attached Payload (SEDA-AP), the Russian BKDO monitoring package from RSC-Energia, and the European Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET). Results from these ISS flight experiments will be crucial to extending the performance and life of long-duration space systems such as Space Station, Space Transportation System, and other missions for Moon and Mars exploration.

  9. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-09-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  10. International Space University variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1994-03-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness, and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that will be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. This report describes the VGRF design that was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation; engineering, architecture; in-space physiological, materials, and life science experimentation; data communications; and business and management.

  11. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  12. The code of conduct for International Space Station crews.

    PubMed

    Farand, A

    2001-02-01

    On 15 September 2000 in Washington DC, the Multilateral Coordination Board (MCB), the highest-level cooperative body established by the Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) pertaining to the International Space Station (ISS) Programme signed early in 1998 by NASA and each of the Cooperating Agencies designated by the other ISS Partners (i.e. the Russian Space Agency, ESA, the Government of Japan and the Canadian Space Agency), approved the Code of Conduct for International Space Station Crews. This document contains a set of standards agreed by all Partners to govern the conduct of ISS crew members, starting with the first expedition crew launched from Baikonur in Kazakhstan on 31 October 2000. These standards had been developed over the previous six months by teams of Agency officials, working in close consultation with the competent authorities of the Partner States.

  13. International Space Station ECLSS Operations Status - Increment OA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamczyk, Philip C.; Cobb, Carey T. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) operations to date for preflight planning, international partner coordination and mission plan execution of the International Space Station (ISS). The focus is on the activities involved with the STS-88(2A) Space Shuttle Endeavor flight, the first delivery of the US segment of the ISS, which consists of the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)/and Node 1 elements, and the delivery of the first Russian segment of the ISS, the FGB, a US-financed and Russian- built module.

  14. A multinational Mars mission for the International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University's 1991 design project activity has yielded a report on the organization and implementation of a multinational program for manned exploration of Mars; the organization encompasses a political as well as a technical component. This International Manned Mission employs an artificial-gravity spacecraft with nuclear-electric propulsion for interplanetary transfer. An unmanned cargo mission precedes the piloted flights to increase the mass deliverable to Mars, as well as to serve as a testbed for interplanetary vehicle design.

  15. [Accounting the effect of spatial orientation of the International space station on dose rate during traverse of the South-Atlantic anomaly].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, S G; Bengin, V V

    2009-01-01

    A method was devised to calculate dose rates aboard the International space station (ISS) with account for radiation field anisotropy in the region of South-Atlantic anomaly. The method enables incorporation in an explicit form the spectral-angular distribution of falling radiation in combination with ISS shielding mass distribution. It includes also a procedure of reducing these characteristics to the united coordinates with reference to ISS orientation. The dose rate ratio on the Service module opposite sides was shown to depend essentially on ISS spatial orientation.

  16. Modification of an apparatus for tumor-suppressor protein crystal growth in the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    Some human diseases as tumors are being studied continuously for the development of vaccines against them. And a way of doing that is by means of proteins research. There are some kinds of proteins, like the p53 and p73 proteins, which are tumor suppressors. There are other diseases such as A.I.D.S., hansenosis, the Parkinson's and Chagas' diseases which are protein-related. The determination of how proteins geometrically order themselves, during its biological functions is very necessary to understand how a protein's structure affects its function, to design vaccines that intercede in tumor-protein activities and in other proteins related to those other diseases. The protein crystal growth in microgravity environment produces purer crystallization than on the ground, and it is a powerful tool to produce better vaccines. Several data have already been acquired using ground-based research and in spaceflight experiments aboard the Spacelab and Space Shuttle missions, and in the MIR and in the International Space Station (ISS). Here in this paper, I propose to be performed in the ISS Biological Research Facility (which is being developed), multiple crystal growth of proteins related to cancer (as tumors suppressors and oncoproteins), A.I.D.S., hansenosis, the Parkinson's and Chagas' diseases, for the future obtaining of possible vaccines against them. I also propose a simple and practical equipment, a modification of the crystallization plates (which use a vapor diffusion technique) inside each cylinder of the Protein Crystallization Apparatus in Microgravity (PCAM), with multiple chambers with different sizes. Instead of using some chambers with the same size it is better to use several chambers with different sizes. Why is that? The answer is: the energy associated with the surface tension of the liquid in the chamber is directly related to the circle area of it. So, to minimize the total energy of the surface tension of a proteins liquid -making it more stable

  17. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its

  18. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (ISS CDRA) Concepts and Advancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ElSherif, Dina; Knox, James C.

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of air revitalization for life support in spacecraft is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air. Several types of carbon dioxide removal systems are in use in spacecraft life support. These systems rely on various removal techniques that employ different architectures and media for scrubbing CO2, such as permeable membranes, liquid amine, adsorbents, and absorbents. Sorbent systems have been used since the first manned missions. The current state of key technology is the existing International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), a system that selectively removes carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. The CDRA system was launched aboard UF-2 in February 2001 and resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory module. During the past four years, the CDRA system has operated with varying degrees of success. There have been several approaches to troubleshooting the CDRA system aimed at developing work-around solutions that would minimize the impact on astronaut time required to implement interim solutions. The paper discusses some of the short-term fixes applied to promote hardware life and restore functionality, as well as long-term plans and solutions for improving operability and reliability. The CDRA is a critical piece of life support equipment in the air revitalization system of the ISS, and is demonstrated technology that may ultimately prove well-suited for use in lunar or Mars base, and Mars transit life support applications.

  19. New Directions in NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program (BCG) on the International Space Station (ISS) is changing direction from the study of crystallization to an emphasis on producing crystals for structure determination in leading problems in structural biology. The program will consist of two phases. The first phase is during assembly of the ISS and will primarily utilize payloads that currently fly in the orbiter middeck but can be adapted for ISS. The second phase begins after assembly of the ISS is complete and BCG payloads will occupy part of the Biotechnology Facility aboard the ISS. Two types of BCG payloads will be flown. One will emphasize the production of crystals for structure determination back on Earth. These types of payloads will allow hundreds of crystallization conditions to be tested. The second type of payload will be designed to study the crystallization process with the primary aim of assisting the structural biology efforts. Access to these facilities will be through the NASA BCG Guest Investigators program, the NASA Research Announcement, and other opportunities currently being formulated. Details of the crystallization hardware, the application procedures, and the operational aspects of the program will be described.

  20. Crew Earth Observations: Twelve Years of Documenting Earth from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kimberley; Runco, Susan; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Dawson, Melissa; Trenchard, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload was one of the initial experiments aboard the International Space Station, and has been continuously collecting data about the Earth since Expedition 1. The design of the experiment is simple: using state-of-the-art camera equipment, astronauts collect imagery of the Earth's surface over defined regions of scientific interest and also document dynamic events such as storms systems, floods, wild fires and volcanic eruptions. To date, CEO has provided roughly 600,000 images of Earth, capturing views of features and processes on land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. CEO data are less rigorously constrained than other remote sensing data, but the volume of data, and the unique attributes of the imagery provide a rich and understandable view of the Earth that is difficult to achieve from the classic remote sensing platforms. In addition, the length-of-record of the imagery dataset, especially when combined with astronaut photography from other NASA and Russian missions starting in the early 1960s, provides a valuable record of changes on the surface of the Earth over 50 years. This time period coincides with the rapid growth of human settlements and human infrastructure.

  1. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs a suite of portable and permanently located gas monitors to insure crew health and safety. These sensors are tasked with functions ranging from fixed mass spectrometer based major constituents analysis to portable electrochemical sensor based combustion product monitoring. An all optical multigas sensor is being developed that can provide the specificity of a mass spectrometer with the portability of an electrochemical cell. The technology, developed under the Small Business Innovation Research program, allows for an architecture that is rugged, compact and low power. A four gas version called the Multi-Gas Monitor was launched to ISS in November 2013 aboard Soyuz and activated in February 2014. The portable instrument is comprised of a major constituents analyzer (water vapor, carbon dioxide, oxygen) and high dynamic range real-time ammonia sensor. All species are sensed inside the same enhanced path length optical cell with a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) targeted at each species. The prototype is controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The optical and electronic approaches are designed for scalability and future versions could add three important acid gases and carbon monoxide combustion product gases to the four species already sensed. Results obtained to date from the technology demonstration on ISS are presented and discussed.

  2. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the International Space Station (ISS): Mission Description and Science Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Mach, D. M.; Bateman, M.; Walker, T. D.; Buechler, D.; Koshak, W. J.; OBrien, S.; Wilson, T.; Colley, E. C.; Abbott, T.; Carter, J.; Pavelitz, S.; Coker, C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners have developed and demonstrated space-based lightning observations as an effective remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) continues to provide global observations of total lightning after 17 years on-orbit. In April 2013, a space-qualified LIS built as the flight spare for TRMM, was selected for flight as a science mission on the International Space Station. The ISS LIS (or I-LIS as Hugh Christian prefers) will be flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) H5 mission, which has a January 2016 baseline launch date aboard a SpaceX launch vehicle for a 2-4 year or longer mission. The LIS measures the amount, rate, and radiant energy of global lightning. More specifically, it measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution, millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. It has been found that the characteristics of lightning that LIS measures can be quantitatively coupled to both thunderstorm and other geophysical processes. Therefore, the ISS LIS lightning observations will provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines, including weather, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and lightning physics. A unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning, especially valuable for operational applications over data sparse regions such as the oceans. The ISS platform will also uniquely enable LIS to provide simultaneous and complementary observations with other payloads such as the European Space Agency's Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) that will be exploring

  3. Analysis of high-altitude planetary ion velocity space distributions detected by the Ion Mass Analyzer aboard Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fraenz, M.; Curry, S.; Mitchell, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    We present observations of planetary ion velocity space distributions from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard Mars Express (MEX). The magnetometer data from Mars Global Surveyor is used to obtain a rough estimate of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Characteristic features of the velocity space distributions will be examined and discussed for orbits aligned with the convective electric field and those in the Mars terminator plane. This study will focus on the high (keV) energy ions, as well as the relative importance of a high-altitude magnetosheath source of escaping planetary ions. Furthermore, this paper will examine various methods for converting the IMA detector counts to species-specific fluxes. After mimicking the methods previously used by researchers, we apply each of these methods of species extraction to data collected during the same time intervals. We discuss the implications for planetary ion motion around Mars, using the details of the velocity space observations to better understand the solar wind interaction with Mars. Comparisons to virtual detections using a test particle simulation will also provide insight into ion origins and trajectories.

  4. Benchmarking processes for managing large international space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.; Duke, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between management style and program costs is analyzed to determine the feasibility of financing large international space missions. The incorporation of management systems is considered to be essential to realizing low cost spacecraft and planetary surface systems. Several companies ranging from large Lockheed 'Skunk Works' to small companies including Space Industries, Inc., Rocket Research Corp., and Orbital Sciences Corp. were studied. It is concluded that to lower the prices, the ways in which spacecraft and hardware are developed must be changed. Benchmarking of successful low cost space programs has revealed a number of prescriptive rules for low cost managements, including major changes in the relationships between the public and private sectors.

  5. International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-120 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by the blackness of space and Earth's horizon is the International Space Station (ISS) as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation. The latest configuration of the ISS includes the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony, and the P6 truss segment installed over 11 days of cooperative work onboard the shuttle and station by the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 4:32 a.m. (CST) on Nov. 5, 2007.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-120 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by the blackness of space is the International Space Station (ISS) as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation. The latest configuration of the ISS includes the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony, and the P6 truss segment installed over 11 days of cooperative work onboard the shuttle and station by the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 4:32 a.m. (CST) on Nov. 5, 2007.

  7. The Second Annual International Space University Alumni Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les (Compiler); Robinson, Paul A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the conference reflect the multidisciplinary nature of the International Space University (ISU) and its alumni. The first papers presented hold special relevance to the design projects, and cover such topics as lunar-based astronomical instrumentation, solar lunar power generation, habitation on the moon, and the legal issues governing multinational astronauts conducting research in space. The next set of papers cover various technical issues such as project success assessment, satellite networks and space station dynamics, thus reflecting the diverse backgrounds of the ISU alumni.

  8. Configuration of International Space Station (ISS) Post STS-115

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of the International Space Station, back dropped against the blackness of space, was taken shortly after the Space Shuttle Atlantis undocked from the orbital outpost at 7:50 a.m. CDT during the STS-115 mission. The unlinking completed after six days, two hours and two minutes of joint operations of the installation of the P3/P4 truss. The new 17 ton truss included batteries, electronics, a giant rotating joint, and sported a second pair of 240-foot solar wings. The new solar arrays will eventually double the onboard power of the Station when their electrical systems are brought online during the next shuttle flight, STS-116.

  9. Lab-on-a-Chip: From Astrobiology to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Nor; Steele, Andrew; Gunter, Dan; Monaco, Lisa A.; Wells, Mark E.; Morris, Heather C.; Boudreaux, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    The continual and long-term habitation of enclosed environments, such as Antarctic stations, nuclear submarines and space stations, raises unique engineering, medical and operational challenges. There is no easy way out and no easy way to get supplies in. This situation elevates the importance of monitoring technology that can rapidly detect events within the habitat that affect crew safety such as fire, release of toxic chemicals and hazardous microorganisms. Traditional methods to monitor microorganisms on the International Space Station (ISS) have consisted of culturing samples for 3-5 days and eventual sample return to Earth. To augment these culture methods with new, rapid molecular techniques, we developed the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development - Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). The system consists of a hand-held spectrophotometer, a series of interchangeable cartridges and a surface sampling/dilution kit that enables crew to collect samples and detect a range of biological molecules, all within 15 minutes. LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in December 2006, where it was operated for the first time during March-May 2007. The surfaces of five separate sites in the US Lab and Node 1 of ISS were analyzed for endotoxin, using cartridges that employ the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay; results of these tests will be presented. LOCAD-PTS will remain permanently onboard ISS with new cartridges scheduled for launch in February and October of 2008 for the detection of fungi (Beta-glucan) and Gram-positive bacteria (lipoteichoic acid), respectively.

  10. GPS Lessons Learned from the International Space Station, Space Shuttle and X-38

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a collection of writings concerning the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to the International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle, and X-38 vehicles. An overview of how GPS technology was applied is given for each vehicle, including rationale behind the integration architecture, and rationale governing the use (or non-use) of GPS data during flight.

  11. Connecting in Space: Docking with the International Space Station. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses the space shuttle and the docking procedures used with the International Space Station (ISS). Using this activity designed for grades 5-12, students demonstrate and identify procedures for determining the best method for completing the docking activity. Students will also study and identify Newton's Laws of Motion. A mockup…

  12. Analysis of International Space Station Vehicle Materials Exposed on Materials International Space Station Experiment from 2001 to 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Golden, J. L.; Kravchenko, M.

    2013-01-01

    Since August 2001, the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) has provided data on a variety of materials and spacecraft components, including samples chosen to provide sustaining engineering and life extension data for the International Space Station vehicle itself. This Technical Publication is by no means a complete set of MISSE data but does provide changes in solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and visual appearance due to atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, and thermal cycling in vacuum. Conversion coatings, anodizes, thermal control coatings with organic and inorganic binders, multilayer insulation components, optical materials, and part markings are discussed.

  13. A space maintainability experiment aboard the Ben Franklin submersible during the 30-day Gulf Stream drift mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; May, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    In the summer of 1969, a deep submersible drifted for 30 days below the surface of the Gulf Stream, while operated by a six man crew. The main purpose of the mission was oceanographic research. The crew's activities and completely self-contained environment resembled those of a space station such as Skylab. Because of these similarities aspects of onboard vehicle maintenance during the actual conduct of a scientific mission were investigated. The maintainability study was accomplished in six distinct phases. Two useful plots of manpower distribution were developed. A maintenance action summary is presented in a table.

  14. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  15. Two CubeSats Deployed from the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie of a CubeSat deployment from the International Space Station shows a compilation of photos taken by astronauts on May 16, 2016. The bottom-most CubeSat is the NASA-funded MinXSS CubeSat,...

  16. International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the development process of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model which is a subsystem analyses tool utilized in the ISSA design analysis cycles. Fast-track prototyping of the detailed relationships between daily crew and station consumables, propellant needs, maintenance requirements and crew rotation via spread sheets provide adequate benchmarks to assess cargo vehicle design and performance characteristics.

  17. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  18. Space Environment Data Acquisition with KIBO Exposed Facility on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Takahiro

    Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment with attached payload (SEDA-AP) which was mounted on the Exposed Facility (EF) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, also known as “Kibo”) on the International Space Station (ISS) started to measure the space environment along the orbit of ISS from Sept. 2009. This paper reports the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of SEDA-AP.

  19. Overview of Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Siamidis, John

    2009-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE 7B) is the most recent in a series of experiments flown on the exterior of International Space Station for the purpose of determining the durability of materials and components in the space environment. A collaborative effort among the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, industry, and academia, MISSE 7B will be flying a number of NASA experiments designed to gain knowledge in the area of space environmental effects to mitigate risk for exploration missions. Consisting of trays called Passive Experiment Containers, the suitcase sized payload opens on hinges and allows active and passive experiments contained within to be exposed to the ram and wake or zenith and nadir directions in low Earth orbit, in essence, providing a test bed for atomic oxygen exposure, ultraviolet radiation exposure, charged particle radiation exposure, and thermal cycling. New for MISSE 7B is the ability to monitor experiments actively, with data sent back to Earth via International Space Station communications. NASA?s active and passive experiments cover a range of interest for the Agency. Materials relevant to the Constellation Program include: solar array materials, seal materials, and thermal protection system materials. Materials relevant to the Exploration Technology Development Program include: fabrics for spacesuits, materials for lunar dust mitigation, and new thermal control coatings. Sensors and components on MISSE 7B include: atomic oxygen fluence monitors, ultraviolet radiation sensors, and electro-optical components. In addition, fundamental space environmental durability science experiments are being flown to gather atomic oxygen erosion data and thin film polymer mechanical and optical property data relevant to lunar lander insulation and the James Web Space Telescope. This paper will present an overview of the NASA experiments to be flown on MISSE 7B, along with a summary of the

  20. Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Air and Surfaces of the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Knox, Benjamin P; Blachowicz, Adriana; Palmer, Jonathan M; Romsdahl, Jillian; Huttenlocher, Anna; Wang, Clay C C; Keller, Nancy P; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10. Whole-genome sequencing of ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 showed 54,960 and 52,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, compared to Af293, which is consistent with observed genetic heterogeneity among sequenced A. fumigatus isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources. Assessment of in vitro growth characteristics, secondary metabolite production, and susceptibility to chemical stresses revealed no outstanding differences between ISS and clinical strains that would suggest special adaptation to life aboard the ISS. Virulence assessment in a neutrophil-deficient larval zebrafish model of invasive aspergillosis revealed that both ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 were significantly more lethal than Af293 and CEA10. Taken together, these genomic, in vitro, and in vivo analyses of two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the ISS provide a benchmark for future investigations of these strains and for continuing research on specific microbial isolates from manned space environments. IMPORTANCE As durations of manned space missions increase, it is imperative to understand the long-term consequence of microbial exposure on human health in a closed human habitat. To date, studies aimed at bacterial and fungal contamination of space vessels have highlighted species compositions biased toward hardy, persistent organisms capable of withstanding harsh conditions. In the current study, we assessed traits of two independent Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated