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Sample records for aboard mars express

  1. Simulation of Radar-Backscattering from Phobos - A Contribution to the Experiment MARSIS aboard MarsExpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Orosei, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plaut, J.; Picardi, G.

    2009-04-01

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) on board MarsExpress is the first and so far the only space borne radar that observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were measured for different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of the low frequency sounding of Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into the crust of Phobos. In this poster we present a numerical method that allows a very precise computation of radar echoes backscattered from the surface of large objects. The software is based on a combination of physical optics calculation of surface scattering of the radar target, and Method of Moments to calculate the radiation pattern of the whole space borne radar system. The calculation of the frequency dependent radiation pattern takes into account all relevant gain variations and coupling effects aboard the space craft. Based on very precise digital elevation models of Phobos, patch models in the resolution of lambda/10 were generated. Simulation techniques will be explained and a comparison of simulations and measurements will be shown. SURFACE BACKSCATTERING SIMULATOR FOR LARGE OBJECTS The computation of surface scattering of the electromagnetic wave incident on Phobos is based on the Physical Optics method. The scattered field can be expressed by the induced equivalent surface currents on the target. The Algorithm: The simulation program itself is split into three phases. In the first phase, an illumination test checks whether a patch will be visible from the position of the space craft. If this is not the case, the patch will be excluded from the simulation. The second phase serves as a preparation stage for the third phase. Amongst other tasks, the dyadic products for the Js and Ms surface currents are calculated. This is a time-memory trade-off: the simulation will need additional 144 bytes of RAM for every patch that passes phase one. However, the calculation of the dyads is expensive, so that considerable

  2. Simulation of Radar-Backscattering from Phobos - A Contribution to the Experiment MARSIS aboard MarsExpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Orosei, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plaut, J.; Picardi, G.

    2009-04-01

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) on board MarsExpress is the first and so far the only space borne radar that observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were measured for different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of the low frequency sounding of Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into the crust of Phobos. In this poster we present a numerical method that allows a very precise computation of radar echoes backscattered from the surface of large objects. The software is based on a combination of physical optics calculation of surface scattering of the radar target, and Method of Moments to calculate the radiation pattern of the whole space borne radar system. The calculation of the frequency dependent radiation pattern takes into account all relevant gain variations and coupling effects aboard the space craft. Based on very precise digital elevation models of Phobos, patch models in the resolution of lambda/10 were generated. Simulation techniques will be explained and a comparison of simulations and measurements will be shown. SURFACE BACKSCATTERING SIMULATOR FOR LARGE OBJECTS The computation of surface scattering of the electromagnetic wave incident on Phobos is based on the Physical Optics method. The scattered field can be expressed by the induced equivalent surface currents on the target. The Algorithm: The simulation program itself is split into three phases. In the first phase, an illumination test checks whether a patch will be visible from the position of the space craft. If this is not the case, the patch will be excluded from the simulation. The second phase serves as a preparation stage for the third phase. Amongst other tasks, the dyadic products for the Js and Ms surface currents are calculated. This is a time-memory trade-off: the simulation will need additional 144 bytes of RAM for every patch that passes phase one. However, the calculation of the dyads is expensive, so that considerable

  3. Analysis of high-altitude planetary ion velocity space distributions detected by the Ion Mass Analyzer aboard Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fraenz, M.; Curry, S.; Mitchell, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    We present observations of planetary ion velocity space distributions from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard Mars Express (MEX). The magnetometer data from Mars Global Surveyor is used to obtain a rough estimate of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Characteristic features of the velocity space distributions will be examined and discussed for orbits aligned with the convective electric field and those in the Mars terminator plane. This study will focus on the high (keV) energy ions, as well as the relative importance of a high-altitude magnetosheath source of escaping planetary ions. Furthermore, this paper will examine various methods for converting the IMA detector counts to species-specific fluxes. After mimicking the methods previously used by researchers, we apply each of these methods of species extraction to data collected during the same time intervals. We discuss the implications for planetary ion motion around Mars, using the details of the velocity space observations to better understand the solar wind interaction with Mars. Comparisons to virtual detections using a test particle simulation will also provide insight into ion origins and trajectories.

  4. Characterization of dust activity from Martian Year (MY) 27 to MY 32 observed by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard the Mars Express spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkenberg, Paulina; Giuranna, Marco; Aoki, Shohei; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Saggin, Bortolino; Formisano, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    More than 2,500,000 spectra have been collected by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard Mars Express spacecraft after 12 years of activity. The data span more than six Martian years, from MY26, Ls = 331°, to MY 33, Ls = 78°. This huge dataset has been used to build a new database of atmospheric parameters, including atmospheric and surface temperatures, and dust and water ice opacity. Dust aerosols suspended in the atmosphere affect its thermal structure and are a major driver of the circulation. They are always present in the Martian atmosphere, but the amount varies greatly depending on location and season. We analyze dust opacities at 1075 cm-1 retrieved from the PFS long-wavelength channel spectra to characterize the dust activity on Mars for the relevant period. The dust storm season (Ls= 185° - 310°) is monitored for each Martian year. All dust observations show a seasonal pattern, which is ruled by the occurrence of regional and/or global dust storms. Regional dust storms are observed every year, while a planet encircling dust storm occurred in MY 28, when the highest values of dust opacity are also observed (~ 2.45). We characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these regional and global dust events and investigate the effect of dust on surface and atmospheric temperatures.

  5. Mars Express: exploration of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    The ESA Mars Express Orbiter will be nearly polar and have an initial orbital period of 7.6 hours for the first 440 days and then will reduce its period to 6.7 hours. As periapsis of the elliptical orbit walks around Mars every 2 years, the ascending and descending nodes of the Mars Express orbit on the Mars equatorial plane will have the same radius as the orbit of Phobos and close encounters of Phobos will occur when Phobos is near the node as Mars Express passes.

  6. Ionosphere of Mars observed by Mars Express.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, Eduard; Fraenz, Markus; Andrews, Dave; Morgan, Dave

    2016-04-01

    The Martian ionosphere is studied at different solar zenith angles using the local electron number densities and total electron content (TEC) derived from the observations by MARSIS onboard Mars Express. The data are complemented by the ASPERA-3 observations which provide us with the information about upward/downward velocity of the low-energy ions and electron precipitation. We consider the Mars Express observations at different solar cycle intervals. Different factors which influence the ionosphere dynamics are analyzed. The focus is made on a role of the crustal magnetic field on the Martian ionosphere and its influence on ion escape.

  7. End-To-END Performance of the Future MOMA Instrument Aboard the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, V. T.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Danell, R.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P. J.; Stalport, F.; Humeau, O.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard the 2018 ExoMars mission will be the continuation of the search for organic matter on the Mars surface. One advancement with the ExoMars mission is that the sample will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the Martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. To analyze the wide range of organic composition (volatile and non-volatile compounds) of the Martian soil, MOMA is equipped with a dual ion source ion trap mass spectrometer utilizing UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC). In order to analyze refractory organic compounds and chiral molecules during GC-ITMS analysis, samples may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). Previous experimental reports have focused on coupling campaigns between the breadboard versions of the GC, provided by the French team (LISA, LATMOS, CentraleSupelec), and the MS, provided by the US team (NASA-GSFC). This work focuses on the performance verification and optimization of the GC-ITMS experiment using the Engineering Test Unit (ETU) models which are representative of the form, fit and function of the flight instrument including a flight-like pyrolysis oven and tapping station providing by the German team (MPS). The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  8. Enantiomeric derivatization on the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard ExoMars 2018: how to unravel martian chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Morisson, M.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Brinckerhoff, W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of homochirality in life on Earth remains unknown. The answer to this question lies in the study of chirality elsewhere in the Solar System. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment aboard Curiosity established the presence of organic molecules indigenous to a clay-rich sample on Mars [1]. However, SAM does not have the ability to separate between the enantiomers of potential medium- or high- molecular weight organic molecules. One of the wet chemistry experiments to be used in the MOMA instrument of the Exomars mission is designed for the extraction and identification of refractory organic chemical components in solid samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), while keeping the chiral center of the molecules intact [2]. This derivatization technique, using dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as a reagent, will allow MOMA to separate the enantiomers of molecules of interest for astrobiology, such as amino acids, sugars or carboxylic acids. We present here the results of laboratory experiments which display the feasability and limitations of the detection of an enantiomeric excess of complex organic molecules in various analog samples, depending on the mineralogy of the Mars analog solid sample.

  9. Mars Express 10 years at Mars: Observations by the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Tyler, G. L.; Andert, T.; Asmar, S. W.; Bird, M. K.; Dehant, V.; Hinson, D. P.; Rosenblatt, P.; Simpson, R. A.; Tellmann, S.; Withers, P.; Beuthe, M.; Efimov, A. I.; Hahn, M.; Kahan, D.; Le Maistre, S.; Oschlisniok, J.; Peter, K.; Remus, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Express spacecraft is operating in Mars orbit since early 2004. The Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) employs the spacecraft and ground station radio systems (i) to conduct radio occultations of the atmosphere and ionosphere to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, neutral number densities and electron density, (ii) to conduct bistatic radar experiments to obtain information on the dielectric and scattering properties of the surface, (iii) to investigate the structure and variation of the crust and lithosphere in selected target areas, (iv) to determine the mass, bulk and internal structure of the moon Phobos, and (v) to track the MEX radio signals during superior solar conjunction to study the morphology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Here we report observations, results and discoveries made in the Mars environment between 2004 and 2014 over almost an entire solar cycle.

  10. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard the Mars rover, Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Schaffner, J. A.; Malin, M. C.; Baker, J. M.; Dibiase, D. R.; Laramee, J.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is expected to land on Mars in 2012. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) will be used to document martian rocks and regolith with a 2-megapixel RGB color CCD camera with a focusable macro lens mounted on an instrument-bearing turret on the end of Curiosity's robotic arm. The flight MAHLI can focus on targets at working distances of 20.4 mm to infinity. At 20.4 mm, images have a pixel scale of 13.9 μm/pixel. The pixel scale at 66 mm working distance is about the same (31 μm/pixel) as that of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Microscopic Imager (MI). MAHLI camera head placement is dependent on the capabilities of the MSL robotic arm, the design for which presently has a placement uncertainty of ~20 mm in 3 dimensions; hence, acquisition of images at the minimum working distance may be challenging. The MAHLI consists of 3 parts: a camera head, a Digital Electronics Assembly (DEA), and a calibration target. The camera head and DEA are connected by a JPL-provided cable which transmits data, commands, and power. JPL is also providing a contact sensor. The camera head will be mounted on the rover's robotic arm turret, the DEA will be inside the rover body, and the calibration target will be mounted on the robotic arm azimuth motor housing. Camera Head. MAHLI uses a Kodak KAI-2020CM interline transfer CCD (1600 x 1200 active 7.4 μm square pixels with RGB filtered microlenses arranged in a Bayer pattern). The optics consist of a group of 6 fixed lens elements, a movable group of 3 elements, and a fixed sapphire window front element. Undesired near-infrared radiation is blocked using a coating deposited on the inside surface of the sapphire window. The lens is protected by a dust cover with a Lexan window through which imaging can be ac-complished if necessary, and targets can be illuminated by sunlight or two banks of two white light LEDs. Two 365 nm UV LEDs are included to search for fluores-cent materials at night. DEA

  11. Europe's eye on Mars: first spectacular results from Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Although the seven scientific instruments on board Mars Express are still undergoing a thorough calibration phase, they have already started collecting amazing results. The first high-resolution images and spectra of Mars have already been acquired. This first spectacular stereoscopic colour picture was taken on 14 January 2004 by ESA’s Mars Express satellite from 275 km above the surface of Mars by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). This image is available on the ESA portal at: http://mars.esa.int The picture shows a portion of a 1700 km long and 65 km wide swath which was taken in south-north direction across the Grand Canyon of Mars (Valles Marineris). It is the first image of this size that shows the surface of Mars in high resolution (12 metres per pixel), in colour, and in 3D. The total area of the image on the Martian surface (top left corner) corresponds to 120 000 km². The lower part of the picture shows the same region in perspective view as if seen from a low-flying aircraft. This perspective view was generated on a computer from the original image data. One looks at a landscape which has been predominantly shaped by the erosional action of water. Millions of cubic kilometres of rock have been removed, and the surface features seen now such as mountain ranges, valleys, and mesas, have been formed. The HRSC is just one of the instruments to have collected exciting data. To learn more about the very promising beginning to ESA's scientific exploration of Mars, media representatives are invited to attend a press conference on Friday, 23 January 2004, at 11:00 CET at ESA’s Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany, and in video-conference with the other ESA centres. There, under the auspices of ESA Council Chair at Ministerial level, Germany's Minister for Education and Research, Mrs Edelgard Bulmahn, ESA's Director of the Scientific Programme, Prof. David Southwood and the Principal Investigators of all instruments on board Mars Express will

  12. A map of D/H on Mars in the thermal infrared using EXES aboard SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; DeWitt, C.; Richter, M. J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fouchet, T.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Forget, F.; Bézard, B.; Atreya, S. K.; Case, M.; Ryde, N.

    2016-02-01

    On a planetary scale, the D/H ratio on Mars is a key diagnostic for understanding the past history of water on the planet; locally, it can help to constrain the sources and sinks of water vapor through the monitoring of condensation and sublimation processes. To obtain simultaneous measurements of H2O and HDO lines, we have used the Echelle Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) instrument aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility to map the abundances of these two species over the Martian disk. High-resolution spectra (R = 6 × 104) were recorded in the 1383-1390 cm-1 range (7.2 μm) on April 08, 2014. Mars was very close to opposition and near northern summer solstice (Ls = 113°). Maps of the H2O and HDO mixing ratios were retrieved from the line depth ratios of weak H2O and HDO transitions divided by a weak CO2 line. As expected for this season, the H2O and HDO maps show a distinct enhancement toward polar regions, and their mixing ratios are consistent with previous measurements and with predictions by the global climate models, except at the north pole where the EXES values are weaker. We derive a disk-integrated D/H ratio of 6.8 (+1.6, -1.0) × 10-4. It is higher than the value in Earth's oceans by a factor 4.4 (+1.0, -0.6). The D/H map also shows an enhancement from southern to northern latitudes, with values ranging from about 3.5 times to 6.0 times the VSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) value. The D/H distribution shows a depletion over the Tharsis mountains and is consistent with observed latitudinal variations. The variations in D/H with latitude and altitude agree with the models and with the isotope fractionation expected from condensation and sublimation processes.

  13. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a Roman candle, the exhaust from the Boeing Delta II rocket with the Mars Polar Lander aboard lights up the clouds as it hurtles skyward. The rocket was launched at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  14. Mars Express Observations During Comet Siding Spring Mars Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, H.; Witasse, O. G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bibring, J. P.; Giuranna, M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Holmstrom, M.; Jaumann, R.; Montmessin, F.; Morgan, D. D.; Orosei, R.

    2014-12-01

    The fly-by of Mars by Comet Siding Spring provides an absolutely unique opportunity both to study at close range an Oort Cloud comet, and to study from short distance and even in situ, the interaction of cometary gas and dust with a planetary atmosphere. Mars Express has been in orbit around Mars since December 2003 and the spacecraft and its instruments are still performing very well. After an initial worry about the safety of the spacecraft it has now been established that the risk for damage to the spacecraft is acceptable. A small phasing of the orbit was done in June in order to "hide" the spacecraft behind Mars during the time of the closest approach of the comet. Apart from that no special precautions are planned and a full set of observations of the comet and of Mars will be performed during the days around the closest approach. The cometary activity is being closely monitored and if new information of a possible increased risk appears, a safe spacecraft pointing and switching off non-essential instruments and sub-systems can be performed at a late stage. The planned observations include imaging and taking spectral data of the comet nucleus and the coma, stellar occultation measurements through the coma, and observations of the Martian atmosphere and ionosphere. In situ observations of energetic particles and local plasma density measurements will be performed at several occasions and topside ionospheric sounding will be done. Detection of direct impacts on the spacecraft will be attempted as well as optical detection of meteor showers in the Martian atmosphere and remote observations of the hydrogen corona. Mars Express instruments involved in the observations include HRSC, SpicaM, Omega, Aspera, MARSIS and PFS.

  15. In-situ observation of Martian neutral exosphere: Results from MENCA aboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pratim Das, Tirtha; Dhanya, M. B.; Thampi, Smitha V.

    2016-07-01

    Till very recently, the only in situ measurements of the Martian upper atmospheric composition was from the mass spectrometer experiments aboard the two Viking landers, which covered the altitude region from 120 to 200 km. Hence, the exploration by the Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft of ISRO and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) experiment aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile ENvironment (MAVEN) mission of NASA are significant steps to further understand the Martian neutral exosphere and its variability. MENCA is a quadrupole based neutral mass spectrometer which observes the radial distribution of the Martian neutral exosphere. The analysis of the data from MENCA has revealed unambiguous detection of the three major constituents, which are amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (contributions from CO and N2) and amu 16 (atomic O), as well as a few minor species. Since MOM is in a highly elliptical orbit, the MENCA observations pertain to different local times, in the low-latitude region. Examples of such observations would be presented, and compared with NGIMS results. Emphasis would be given to the observations pertaining to high solar zenith angles and close to perihelion period. During the evening hours, the transition from CO2 to O dominated region is observed near 270 km, which is significantly different from the previous observations corresponding to sub-solar point and SZA of ~45°. The mean evening time exospheric temperature derived using these observations is 271±5 K. These are the first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours, which would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  16. Mars Express en route for the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    The probe, weighing in at 1 120 kg, was built on ESA’s behalf by a European team led by Astrium. It set out on its journey to Mars aboard a Soyuz-Fregat launcher, under Starsem operational management. The launcher lifted off from Baïkonur in Kazakhstan on 2 June at 23.45 local time (17:45 GMT). An interim orbit around the Earth was reached following a first firing of the Fregat upper stage. One hour and thirty-two minutes after lift off the probe was injected into its interplanetary orbit. "Europe is on its way to Mars to stake its claim in the most detailed and complete exploration ever done of the Red Planet. We can be very proud of this and of the speed with which have achieved this goal", said David Southwood, ESA's Director of Science witnessing the launch from Baikonur. Contact with Mars Express has been established by ESOC, ESA’s satellite control centre, located in Darmstadt, Germany. The probe is pointing correctly towards the Sun and has deployed its solar panels. All on-board systems are operating faultlessly. Two days from now, the probe will perform a corrective manœuvre that will place it in a Mars-bound trajectory, while the Fregat stage, trailing behind, will vanish into space - there will be no risk of it crashing into and contaminating the Red Planet. Mars Express will then travel away from Earth at a speed exceeding 30 km/s (3 km/s in relation to the Earth), on a six-month and 400 million kilometre journey through the solar system. Once all payload operations have been checked out, the probe will be largely deactivated. During this period, the spacecraft will contact Earth only once a day. Mid-journey correction of its trajectory is scheduled for September. There in time for Christmas Following reactivation of its systems at the end of November, Mars Express will get ready to release Beagle 2. The 60 kg capsule containing the tiny lander does not incorporate its own propulsion and steering system and will be released into a collision

  17. Hurry along please, for the Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Why the hurry? The deadline is set in the form of a favourable launch opportunity just five years from now. The positions of Earth and Mars in their orbits at that time will mean that a spacecraft can reach Mars more quickly, carrying a greater weight of instruments, than from any other launch date in the next decade. A decision to proceed taken towards the end of 1998 would leave less than five years to create, test and launch a complex spacecraft and meet that deadline. Most judgements about Mars Express and its instruments have therefore to be made in advance if the engineers and scientists are to make sure that everything is ready for lift-off in June 2003. The brisk pace is also fitting for the prototype of a new class of Flexi (flexible) missions. Mars Express is the first of what should become a series of relatively inexpensive and quick projects introduced into ESA's space science, to seize special opportunities to broaden the programme. At about one-quarter of the cost of the major Cornerstone missions, which have long lead-times, the Flexi missions replace the previous class of Medium missions, in ESA's forward planning. Streamlined management procedures for the Flexi missions help to keep down the costs to ESA while placing more responsibility on the industrial contractors and the participating scientists. Space scientists advising ESA recognized the special opportunity for Mars Express after the failure of the Russian Mars 96 mission, in November 1996. It left a gap in the international programme for the exploration of Mars, and some of the key instruments which fell into the Pacific Ocean with Mars 96 had been devised by space scientists in ESA member states. The strong scientific interest in Mars within Europe, and the predicted advantage of the mid-2003 launch, led to the proposal to add Mars Express to ESA's programme. A distinctive role in exploring Mars The search for water is one of the main tasks foreseen for Mars Express. The discovery of

  18. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Silhouetted against the gray sky, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander lifts off from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  19. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander clears Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, after launch at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  20. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust and into a gray-clouded sky , a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  1. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander into a cloud-covered sky at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  2. Mars Express: The Exploration of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, Thomas C.; Chicarro, A.; Neukum, G.; Bibring, J. -P.; Formasano, V.; Picardi, G.; Plaut, J.; Barabash, S.; Berteau, J. -L.; Paetzold, M.; Hoffman, H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin, structure and composition of Phobos are essentially still unresolved issue, with major outcomes for understanding the origin and evolution of the Solar system, and of the Mars system. Several missions have been designed with this unique body the only target. Is Phobos a captured small body (and in this case, can we identify the degree of differentiation such a small object has undergone ?), or is there any co-generic process with Mars involved ? Are there still volatile species trapped, and if so where, and in what form ? What are the reciprocal contributions of Mars and Phobos material accreted in the other body? The number of key clues for deciphering the early solar system processes, the Mars-Phobos binary evolution, and the role Phobos could play in the future of Mars exploration (including human expeditions), are numerous, and exciting for a large community. Part of the answers are in the high resolution coverage of this object (optical and IR, for composition variation), and in its full spectral analysis, from UV to thermal IR : Mars Express is the unique mission to provide this opportunity, and orbit 756, August 22, a totally unique opportunity to approach Phobos so closely. OMEGA should provide all across Stickney, the deepest accessible material, and over more than 20 km along, a spatial resolution less than 200 m, and assess the composition (and possibly their variations) wrt silicates (mafic materials), oxides, and eventually hydrated minerals and organics. By no means we should miss this opportunity: no one would understand the rationale not to turn the instruments ON while so close, and pointing them towards the Phobos surface.

  3. Simultaneous Mars Express / MGS observations of plasma near Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, D.; Luhmann, J.; Halekas, J.; Frahm, R.; Winningham, D.; Barabash, S.

    2006-12-01

    Since late 2003, Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) have been making complementary in situ measurements (in terms of both instrument and orbit) of the Martian plasma environment. Study of MGS and MEX data in tandem provides an opportunity to mitigate the shortcomings of each dataset and increase our overall understanding of the Martian solar wind interaction and atmospheric escape. Close passes of spacecraft (conjunctions) are one particularly powerful means of increasing the utility of measurements, as evidenced by the Cluster mission at Earth. At Mars, conjunctions might be used to obtain more complete simultaneous and/or co-located plasma measurements, which can be used to study a variety of phenomena, including measurements of auroral-like particle acceleration near crustal fields and the three-dimensional motion and shape of plasma boundaries. We will present an analysis of approximately forty conjunctions (instances with instantaneous spacecraft separation smaller than 400 km) of MEX and MGS identified between January 2004 and February 2006. The closest pass was ~40~km, near the South Pole. Conjunctions occur both at mid-latitudes (when the surface-projected orbit tracks of the two spacecraft nearly overlap), and at the poles. We will present comparisons of MEX Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) data with MGS Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) data for these events. Our case studies include intercomparison of MEX and MGS electron data, the addition of MGS magnetic field and MEX ion data, and the inclusion of solar wind proxy information to establish context. In addition to these close conjunctions, we will present the preliminary results of a search for times when MEX and MGS pass through the same region of space separated by a delay (for time evolution of plasma populations in certain regions), and times when they occupy the same flux tube (for spatial evolution of particle distributions). Continued study of

  4. Mars Express en route for the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    The probe, weighing in at 1 120 kg, was built on ESA’s behalf by a European team led by Astrium. It set out on its journey to Mars aboard a Soyuz-Fregat launcher, under Starsem operational management. The launcher lifted off from Baïkonur in Kazakhstan on 2 June at 23.45 local time (17:45 GMT). An interim orbit around the Earth was reached following a first firing of the Fregat upper stage. One hour and thirty-two minutes after lift off the probe was injected into its interplanetary orbit. "Europe is on its way to Mars to stake its claim in the most detailed and complete exploration ever done of the Red Planet. We can be very proud of this and of the speed with which have achieved this goal", said David Southwood, ESA's Director of Science witnessing the launch from Baikonur. Contact with Mars Express has been established by ESOC, ESA’s satellite control centre, located in Darmstadt, Germany. The probe is pointing correctly towards the Sun and has deployed its solar panels. All on-board systems are operating faultlessly. Two days from now, the probe will perform a corrective manœuvre that will place it in a Mars-bound trajectory, while the Fregat stage, trailing behind, will vanish into space - there will be no risk of it crashing into and contaminating the Red Planet. Mars Express will then travel away from Earth at a speed exceeding 30 km/s (3 km/s in relation to the Earth), on a six-month and 400 million kilometre journey through the solar system. Once all payload operations have been checked out, the probe will be largely deactivated. During this period, the spacecraft will contact Earth only once a day. Mid-journey correction of its trajectory is scheduled for September. There in time for Christmas Following reactivation of its systems at the end of November, Mars Express will get ready to release Beagle 2. The 60 kg capsule containing the tiny lander does not incorporate its own propulsion and steering system and will be released into a collision

  5. OMEGA / Mars Express observations of Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, B.

    2013-12-01

    The OMEGA / Mars Express instrument [1] has acquired a number of image-cubes, in both the visible and the NIR, at a variety of seasons, local times and spatial resolution. Specifically, it has been monitoring the Curiosity landing and exploring sites over the past months. We shall present some of the major outcomes, with a focus on i) the spectral characterization in the range (0.35 to 1.0 μm), which enables a comparison with the in situ ChemCam [2] and Mastcam [3] relevant measurements; ii) the day and night thermal inertia, extending to a variety of local times the maps produced by the THEMIS/Odyssey instrument and iii) limbs campaign, just initiated, designed to constrain the mechanism of the formation of CO2 ice clouds, by identifying the nucleation grains [4,5]. (in parallel with nadir observations) [1] Bibring, J.P. ., et al., OMEGA: Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité, ESA SP 1240, 37-49, 2004a [2] Johnson J.R. et al LPSC 2013 #1372 [3] Johnson J.R. et al LPSC 2013 #1374 [4] Vincendon, M:. New near-IR observations of mesospheric CO2 and HO2 clouds on Mars 2012, JGR, VOL 116 [5] Gondet et al Mars CO2 ice clouds: observations by Omega/Mex EPSC 2012

  6. Mars EXpress: status and recent findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitri; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Cardesin, Alejandro; Duxbury, Tom; Forget, Francois; Giuranna, Marco; Holmstroem, Mats; Jaumann, Ralf; Martin, Patrick; Montmessin, Franck; Orosei, Roberto; Paetzold, Martin; Plaut, Jeff; MEX SGS Team

    2016-04-01

    Mars Express has entered its second decade in orbit in excellent health. The mission extension in 2015-2016 aims at augmenting of the surface coverage by imaging and spectral imaging instruments, continuing monitoring of the climate parameters and their variability, study of the upper atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind in collaboration with NASA's MAVEN mission. Characterization of geological processes and landforms on Mars on a local-to-regional scale by HRSC camera constrained the martian geological activity in space and time and suggested its episodicity. Six years of spectro-imaging observations by OMEGA allowed correction of the surface albedo for presence of the atmospheric dust and revealed changes associated with the dust storm seasons. Imaging and spectral imaging of the surface shed light on past and present aqueous activity and contributed to the selection of the Mars-2018 landing sites. More than a decade long record of climatological parameters such as temperature, dust loading, water vapor, and ozone abundance was established by SPICAM and PFS spectrometers. Observed variations of HDO/H2O ratio above the subliming North polar cap suggested seasonal fractionation. The distribution of aurora was found to be related to the crustal magnetic field. ASPERA observations of ion escape covering a complete solar cycle revealed important dependences of the atmospheric erosion rate on parameters of the solar wind and EUV flux. Structure of the ionosphere sounded by MARSIS radar and MaRS radio science experiment was found to be significantly affected by the solar activity, crustal magnetic field as well as by influx of meteorite and cometary dust. The new atlas of Phobos based on the HRSC imaging was issued. The talk will give the mission status and review recent science highlights.

  7. Mars Express radar ready to work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    closest to the surface (around the pericentre). During this phase, it will cover the areas of Mars between 15° S and 70° N latitude. This includes interesting features such as the northern plains and the Tharsis region, so there is a small chance of exciting discoveries being made early on. On 4 July, when the commissioning operations end, MARSIS will start its nominal science observations. In the initial phase, it will operate in survey mode. It will make observations of the Martian globe’s night-side. This is favourable to deep subsurface sounding, because during the night the ionosphere of Mars does not interfere with the lower-frequency signals needed by the instrument to penetrate the planet's surface, down to a depth of 5 kilometres. Through to mid-July, the radar will look at all Martian longitudes between 30° S and 60° N latitude, in nadir pointing mode. This area, which includes the smooth northern plains, may have once contained large amounts of water. The MARSIS operation altitudes are up to 800 kilometres for subsurface sounding and up to 1200 kilometres for studying the ionosphere. From mid-July, the orbit's closest approach point will enter the day-side of Mars and stay there until December. In this phase, using higher frequency radio waves, the instrument will continue shallow probing of the subsurface and start atmospheric sounding. “Overcoming all the technical challenges to operate an instrument like MARSIS, which had never flown in space before this mission, has been made possible thanks to magnificent cooperation between experts on both sides of the Atlantic,” said Professor David Southwood, ESA's Science Programme Director. “The effort is indeed worthwhile as, with MARSIS now at work, whatever we find, we are moving into new territory; ESA’s Mars Express is now well and truly one of the most important scientific missions to Mars to date,” he concluded. Note to editors The MARSIS instrument was developed by the University of Rome, Italy

  8. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H, Jr.; Arroyo, B.; Butman, S.; Jepsen, P. L.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Wessen, R.; Vaisnys, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Express/NASA Project supports ESA's Mars Express Mission by providing portions of MARSIS, and via US Co-Investigators, software, and studies. The Discovery Program supports developments for ASPERA. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Arroyo, B.; Butman, S.; Jepsen, P. L.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; Vaisnys, A.

    2003-01-01

    ESA's Mars Express Mission is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European space agencies with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a junior partner. The primary objective of the mission is to conduct a search for potential hydrologic resources from orbit and on the surface of Mars. Launch will be from Baikonur, Kazakhstan in late May 2003; arrival at Mars will be in late December 2003.

  10. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Arroyo, B.; Barbieri, A. J.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.

    2004-01-01

    ESA's Mars Express Mission is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European space agencies with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a junior partner. The primary objective of the mission is to conduct a search for potential hydrologic resources from orbit and on the surface of Mars. Launch was from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on June 2, 2003; arrival at Mars was on December 25, 2003.

  11. Mars Express radar collects first surface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    the middle of August, when the night-time portion of the observations will have almost ended. After that, observation priority will be given to other Mars Express instruments that are best suited to operating in daytime, such as the HRSC camera and Omega mapping spectrometer. However, Marsis will continue its surface and ionospheric investigations in daytime, with ionospheric sounding being reserved for more than 20% of all Mars Express orbits, under all possible Sun illumination conditions. In December, the Mars Express orbit pericentre will enter night-time again. By then, the pericentre will have moved closer to the south pole, allowing Marsis to carry out optimal probing of the subsurface once again, this time in the southern hemisphere. Note to editors The first commissioning phase was given over to testing the Marsis electronics and software and the two 20m-long antennas (dipole). The second commissioning phase, lasting about ten days, will be spent calibrating the 7m ‘monopole’ antenna. This antenna is to be used in conjunction with the Marsis dipole to correct any surface roughness effects caused by the radio waves emitted by the dipole and reflected by an irregular surface. The monopole will find its best use during investigations of areas where surface roughness is greater. The Marsis instrument was developed within the framework of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It was developed by Alenia Spazio under ASI management and the scientific supervision of University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, in partnership with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Iowa. JPL provided the antenna manufactured by Astro Aerospace. It is the first instrument designed to actually look below the surface of Mars. Its major goals are to characterise the subsurface layers of sediments and possibly detect underground water or ice, conduct large-scale altimetry mapping and provide data on the planet’s ionosphere. For

  12. Mars Express scientists find a different Mars underneath the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Observations by MARSIS, the first subsurface sounding radar used to explore a planet, strongly suggest that ancient impact craters lie buried beneath the smooth, low plains of Mars' northern hemisphere. The technique uses echoes of radio waves that have penetrated below the surface. MARSIS found evidence that these buried impact craters - ranging from about 130 to 470 kilometres in diameter - are present under much of the northern lowlands. The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature. With MARSIS "it's almost like having X-ray vision," said Thomas R. Watters of the National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, and lead author of the results. "Besides finding previously unknown impact basins, we've also confirmed that some subtle, roughly circular, topographic depressions in the lowlands are related to impact features." Studies of how Mars evolved help in understanding early Earth. Some signs of the forces at work a few thousand million years ago are harder to detect on Earth because many of them have been obliterated by tectonic activity and erosion. The new findings bring planetary scientists closer to understanding one of the most enduring mysteries about the geological evolution and history of Mars. In contrast to Earth, Mars shows a striking difference between its northern and southern hemispheres. Almost the entire southern hemisphere has rough, heavily cratered highlands, while most of the northern hemisphere is smoother and lower in elevation. Since the impacts that cause craters can happen anywhere on a planet, the areas with fewer craters are generally interpreted as younger surfaces where geological processes have erased the impact scars. The surface of Mars' northern plains is young and smooth, covered by vast amounts of volcanic lava and sediment. However, the new MARSIS data indicate that the underlying crust is extremely old. “The number of buried impact craters larger than 200

  13. Solar Wind Interaction With Mars: From Phobos to MGS, Mars Express, and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, S.

    2008-12-01

    Since 1964 there were only 7 successful / partially successful missions to Mars from 33 attempted carrying instrumentations to study the solar wind interaction. So far there have not been any successful dedicated missions to investigate the near - Mars environment. Nevertheless, earlier American and Soviet missions including Phobos-2 launched in 1988 provided us with basic description of the interaction and helped to formulate detailed scientific objectives for following-on missions. It is MGS and Mars Express launched in 1996 and 2003 respectively that conducted most detailed measurements finding answers to longstanding questions on the Martian magnetic field and dynamic of planetary ions. In this talk I review the MGS and Mars Express results and discuss the outstanding open issues. Those are: dependence of the atmospheric erosion rate on solar / solar wind conditions, mechanisms of planetary ion acceleration and ion extraction from the ionosphere, and effects of magnetic anomalies.

  14. Ion Escape from Mars - Mars Express Data in the Light of MAVEN Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränz, Markus; Dubinin, Eduard; Andrews, David; Nilsson, Hanns; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Measuring the escape of ions from Mars has been one of the main targets of the ASPERA-3 experiment on Mars Express since orbit insertion in 2004. But the Mars Express spacecraft is not optimized for this measurement since it lacks a magnetometer and a Langmuir probe to observe magnetic field and total plasma densities. Nevertheless over the last 10 years several studies have been published attempting to determine the total escape flux and its variation with external parameters from ASPERA-3 observations. Since October 2014 the MAVEN spacecraft is in orbit around Mars with a much larger instrumental suite optimized for measuring the ion outflow. In this paper we reassess observations made by the MEX ASPERA-3 and MARSIS experiments in the light of recently published MAVEN observations.

  15. A Martian Telecommunications Network: UHF Relay Support of the Mars Exploration Rovers by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Barbieri, A.; Brower, E.; Estabrook, P.; Gibbs, R.; Horttor, R.; Ludwinski, J.; Mase, R.; McCarthy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Theisinger, P.; Thorpe, T.; Waggoner, B.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and ESA have established an international network of Mars orbiters, outfitted with relay communications payloads, to support robotic exploration of the red planet. Starting in January, 2004, this network has provided the Mars Exploration Rovers with telecommunications relay services, significantly increasing rover engineering and science data return while enhancing mission robustness and operability. Augmenting the data return capabilities of their X-band direct-to-Earth links, the rovers are equipped with UHF transceivers allowing data to be relayed at high rate to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express orbiters. As of 21 July, 2004, over 50 Gbits of MER data have been obtained, with nearly 95% of that data returned via the MGS and Odyssey UHF relay paths, allowing a large increase in science return from the Martian surface relative to the X-band direct-to-Earth link. The MGS spacecraft also supported high-rate UHF communications of MER engineering telemetry during the critical period of entry, descent, and landing (EDL), augmenting the very low-rate EDL data collected on the X-band direct-to-Earth link. Through adoption of the new CCSDS Proximity-1 Link Protocol, NASA and ESA have achieved interoperability among these Mars assets, as validated by a successful relay demonstration between Spirit and Mars Express, enabling future interagency cross-support and establishing a truly international relay network at Mars.

  16. Are you ready for Mars? - Main media events surrounding the arrival of ESA's Mars Express at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz launcher operated by Starsem, the European probe -built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet’s structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin explored uncharted areas of the Earth in 1830, will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On Christmas Eve the Mars Express orbiter will be steered on a course taking it into an elliptical orbit, where it will safely circle the planet for a minimum of almost 2 Earth years. The Beagle 2 lander - which will have been released from the mother craft a few days earlier (on 19 December) - instead will stay on a collision course with the planet. It too should also be safe, being designed for atmospheric entry and geared for a final soft landing due to a sophisticated system of parachutes and airbags. On arrival, the Mars Express mission control team will report on the outcome of the spacecraft's delicate orbital insertion manoeuvre. It will take some time for Mars Express to manouvre into position to pick communications from Beagle 2. Hence, initially, other means will be used to check that Beagle 2 has landed: first signals from the Beagle 2 landing are expected to be available throughout Christmas Day, either through pick-up and relay of Beagle 2 radio signals by NASA’s Mars Odyssey, or by direct pick-up by the Jodrell Bank radio telescope in the UK. Mars Express will then pass over Beagle 2 in early January 2004, relaying data and images back to Earth. The first images from the cameras of Beagle 2 and Mars Express are expected to be available between the end of the year and the beginning of January 2004. The key dates

  17. The Martian Neutral Atmosphere from the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Tyler, G. L.; Hinson, D. P.

    2008-09-01

    The Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express is sounding the Martian atmosphere and ionosphere using the spacecraft radio signals at Xband and S-band in Earth occultation geometry. MaRS relies on the observation of the phase, amplitude, polarisation and propagation times of radio signals transmitted from the spacecraft and received on Earth. The signals are affected by the different dispersive media through which they propagate (atmospheres, ionospheres, interplanetary medium, solar corona), by gravitational influences of planets and by the classical Doppler shift resulting from the relative motion of spacecraft, Earth and Mars. A simultaneous and coherent dual-frequency downlink at X- and S-band via the Spacecraft's High Gain Antenna (HGA) is required to separate effects of dispersive media from the classical Doppler shift. The bending of the radio carrier ray paths in the Martian atmosphere prior to the occultation of the spacecraft by the planetary disc as seen from the Earth is used to derive vertical profiles of density, pressure and temperature. The bending is caused by atmospheric refractivity and vertical density and temperature profiles can be retrieved assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and ideal gas law. The elliptical orbit of Mars Express allows to investigate a large range of local times and locations and can therefore be used to study latitudinal, diurnal and seasonal variations. The data set retrieved since March 2004 is quite complementary to the Mars Global Surveyor profiles with regard to the local times and the geographical distribution of the measurements. This presentation will compare the MaRS results with model data and data from other Mars missions.

  18. Mars Express - ESA sets ambitious goals for the first European mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Mars has always fascinated human beings. No other planet has been visited so many times by spacecraft. And still, it has not been easy to unveil its secrets. Martian mysteries seem to have increased in quantity and complexity with every mission. When the first spacecraft were sent - the Mariner series in 1960s - the public was expecting an Earth ‘twin’, a green, inhabited planet full of oceans. Mariner shattered this dream by showing a barren surface. This was followed by the Viking probes which searched for life unsuccessfully in 1976. Mars appeared dry, cold and uninhabited: the Earth’s opposite. Now, two decades later, modern spacecraft have changed that view, but they have also returned more questions. Current data show that Mars was probably much warmer in the past. Scientists now think that Mars had oceans, so it could have been a suitable place for life in the past. “We do not know what happened to the planet in the past. Which process turned Mars into the dry, cold world we see today?” says Agustin Chicarro, ESA’s Mars Express project scientist. “With Mars Express, we will find out. Above all, we aim to obtain a complete global view of the planet - its history, its geology, how it has evolved. Real planetology!” Mars Express will reach the Red Planet by the end of December 2003, after a trip of just over six months. Six days before injection into its final orbit, Mars Express will eject the lander, Beagle 2, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin found inspiration to formulate his theory of evolution. The Mars Express orbiter will observe the planet and its atmosphere from a near-polar orbit, and will remain in operation for at least a whole Martian year (687 Earth days). Beagle 2 will land in an equatorial region that was probably flooded in the past, and where traces of life may have been preserved. The Mars Express orbiter carries seven advanced experiments, in addition to the Beagle 2 lander. The orbiter’s instruments have been

  19. Wetlab-2 - Quantitative PCR Tools for Spaceflight Studies of Gene Expression Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlab-2 is a research platform for conducting real-time quantitative gene expression analysis aboard the International Space Station. The system enables spaceflight genomic studies involving a wide variety of biospecimen types in the unique microgravity environment of space. Currently, gene expression analyses of space flown biospecimens must be conducted post flight after living cultures or frozen or chemically fixed samples are returned to Earth from the space station. Post-flight analysis is limited for several reasons. First, changes in gene expression can be transient, changing over a timescale of minutes. The delay between sampling on Earth can range from days to months, and RNA may degrade during this period of time, even in fixed or frozen samples. Second, living organisms that return to Earth may quickly re-adapt to terrestrial conditions. Third, forces exerted on samples during reentry and return to Earth may affect results. Lastly, follow up experiments designed in response to post-flight results must wait for a new flight opportunity to be tested.

  20. Observations of Mars Neutral Atmosphere during the Polar Night by the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, G. L.; Pätzold, M.; Tellmann, S.; Häusler, B.; Hinson, D. P.

    2006-09-01

    The Radio Science Experiment on Mars Express (MaRS) sounds the Martian atmophere and ionosphere making use of spacecraft radio signals at 3.6 and 13 cm-wavelength and an Earth-Mars occultation geometry. Vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, and density in the neutral atmosphere are obtained with an altitude resolution of only a few hundred meters. The elliptical orbit of Mars Express permits examination of a large range of local times and locations and therefore can be used to investigate latitudinal, diurnal, and seasonal variations of Mars atmosphere. Daytime atmospheric profiles collected from both hemispheres since March 2004 allow us to study the development of the atmosphere in the early morning and the polar night. The second occultation season, December 2004, produced 32 profiles located in the southern polar latitudes at an average solar longitude of about 130°. Approximately 30 profiles obtained during the fourth occultation season, July 2005-April 2006, provide data on the north polar region at latitudes above 70° and a solar longitude of about 271°. The polar night at 75° north shows a 142-145 K isothermal atmosphere up to an altitude of 40 km, which is at or close to the condensation line of CO2. A similar behavior is observed during the southern polar night at 80° south, but with a significant warming at longitudes passing through Hellas. Model calculations of a Martian General Circulation Model (GCM) developed by the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique de C.N.R.S. (LMD) support the interpretation of the observed atmospheric phenomena. The MaRS investigation is funded by the DLR Grant 50QP9909 and by the NASA Mars Program.

  1. Mars Express Forward Link Capabilities for the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Wallick, Michael N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This software provides a new capability for landed Mars assets to perform forward link relay through the Mars Express (MEX) European Union orbital spacecraft. It solves the problem of standardizing the relay interface between lander missions and MEX. The Mars Operations Relay Service (MaROS) is intended as a central point for relay planning and post-pass analysis for all Mars landed and orbital assets. Through the first two phases of implementation, MaROS supports relay coordination through the Odyssey orbiter and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). With this new software, MaROS now fully integrates the Mars Express spacecraft into the relay picture. This new software generates and manages a new set of file formats that allows for relay request to MEX for forward and return link relay, including the parameters specific to MEX. Existing MEX relay planning interactions were performed via email exchanges and point-to-point file transfers. By integrating MEX into MaROS, all transactions are managed by a centralized service for tracking and analysis. Additionally, all lander missions have a single, shared interface with MEX and do not have to integrate on a mission-by mission basis. Relay is a critical element of Mars lander data management. Landed assets depend largely upon orbital relay for data delivery, which can be impacted by the availability and health of each orbiter in the network. At any time, an issue may occur to prevent relay. For this reason, it is imperative that all possible orbital assets be integrated into the overall relay picture.

  2. Mars surface diversity as revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express observations.

    PubMed

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Gendrin, Aline; Gondet, Brigitte; Poulet, François; Berthé, Michel; Soufflot, Alain; Arvidson, Ray; Mangold, Nicolas; Mustard, John; Drossart, P

    2005-03-11

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) investigation, on board the European Space Agency Mars Express mission, is mapping the surface composition of Mars at a 0.3- to 5-kilometer resolution by means of visible-near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imagery. The data acquired during the first 9 months of the mission already reveal a diverse and complex surface mineralogy, offering key insights into the evolution of Mars. OMEGA has identified and mapped mafic iron-bearing silicates of both the northern and southern crust, localized concentrations of hydrated phyllosilicates and sulfates but no carbonates, and ices and frosts with a water-ice composition of the north polar perennial cap, as for the south cap, covered by a thin carbon dioxide-ice veneer.

  3. Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

    The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

  4. A two-spacecraft investigation of plasma boundaries at Mars: simultaneous Rosetta and Mars Express observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edberg, Niklas; Eriksson, Anders I.; Auster, Uli; Lester, Mark; Cowley, Stanley W. H.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Boesswetter, Alexander; Nilsson, Hans; Lundin, Rickard; Carr, Christoffer M.; Goldstein, Raymond

    We present the first two-spacecraft near-simultaneous observations of the Martian bow shock (BS) and magnetic pileup boundary (MPB), obtained by the plasma instruments onboard Rosetta and Mars Express during the Rosetta Mars flyby on February 25, 2007. Our observations are consistent with shape models for the BS and MPB derived from previous statistical studies. The MPB is found at its expected position but the BS is at this event found signifi- cantly closer to the planet than expected for the rather slow solar wind. Cross-calibration of the density measurements on the two spacecraft gives a density profile through the magnetosheath, indicating an increasing solar wind flux during the Rosetta passage which is consistent with the multiple BS crossings at the Rosetta exit.

  5. Mars Water Ice and Carbon Dioxide Seasonal Polar Caps: GCM Modeling and Comparison with Mars Express Omega Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, F.; Levrard, B.; Montmessin, F.; Schmitt, B.; Doute, S.; Langevin, Y.; Bibring, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the behavior of the Mars CO2 ice seasonal polar caps, and in particular interpret the the Mars Express Omega observations of the recession of the northern seasonal cap, we present some simulations of the Martian Climate/CO2 cycle/ water cycle as modeled by the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) global climate model.

  6. Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Hugh H. (Editor); Jakosky, Bruce M. (Editor); Snyder, Conway W. (Editor); Matthews, Mildred S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on Mars discusses visual, photographic and polarimetric telescopic observations, spacecraft exploration of Mars, the origin and thermal evolution of Mars, and the bulk composition, mineralogy, and internal structure of the planet. Attention is given to Martian gravity and topography, stress and tectonics on Mars, long-term orbital and spin dynamics of Mars, and Martian geodesy and cartography. Topics addressed include the physical volcanology of Mars, the canyon system on planet, Martian channels and valley networks, and ice in the Martian regolith. Also discussed are Martian aeolian processes, sediments, and features, polar deposits of Mars, dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, and the seasonal behavior of water on Mars.

  7. Mars Express - Science summary after four years in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, Agustin

    The ESA Mars Express mission, launched on 02 June 2003 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket, includes an orbiter spacecraft which was placed in a polar martian orbit. In addition to global studies of the surface, subsurface and atmosphere of Mars, with an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, the unifying theme of the mission is the search for water in its various states everywhere on the planet by all instruments using different techniques. A summary of scientific results from all experiments after more than four terrestrial years in orbit is given below. The High-Resolution Stereo Colour Imager (HRSC) has shown breathtaking views of the planet from both hemispheres, pointing to very young ages for both glacial and volcanic processes, from hundreds of thousands to a few million years old, respectively. The IR Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer (OMEGA) has provided unprecedented maps of H2O ice and CO2 ice in the polar regions, and determined that the alteration products (phyllosilicates) in the early history of Mars correspond to abundant liquid water, while the post-Noachian products (sulfates and iron oxides) suggest a colder, drier planet with only episodic water on the surface. The Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) has confirmed the presence of methane for the first time, which would indicate current volcanic activity and/or biological processes. The UV and IR Atmospheric Spectrometer (SPICAM) has provided the first complete vertical profile of CO2 density and temperature, and has discovered the existence of nightglow, as well as that of auroras over mid-latitude regions with paleomagnetic signatures and very high-altitude CO2 clouds. The Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyser (ASPERA) has identified solar wind scavenging of the upper atmosphere down to 270 km altitude as one of the main culprits of atmospheric degassing and determine the current rate of atmospheric escape. The Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) has studied the surface

  8. Mars Express - Scientific summary after five years in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A.

    2009-04-01

    The ESA Mars Express mission, launched on 02 June 2003 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket, includes an orbiter spacecraft which was placed in a polar martian orbit. In addition to global studies of the surface, subsurface and atmosphere of Mars, with an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, the unifying theme of the mission is the search for water in its various states everywhere on the planet by all instruments using different techniques. A summary of scientific results from all experiments after more than four terrestrial years in orbit is given below. The High-Resolution Stereo Colour Imager (HRSC) has shown breathtaking views of the planet from both hemispheres, pointing to very young ages for both glacial and volcanic processes, from hundreds of thousands to a few million years old, respectively. The IR Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer (OMEGA) has provided unprecedented maps of H2O ice and CO2 ice in the polar regions, and determined that the alteration products (phyllosilicates) in the early history of Mars correspond to abundant liquid water, while the post-Noachian products (sulfates and iron oxides) suggest a colder, drier planet with only episodic water on the surface. The Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) has confirmed the presence of methane for the first time, which would indicate current volcanic activity and/or biological processes. The UV and IR Atmospheric Spectrometer (SPICAM) has provided the first complete vertical profile of CO2 density and temperature, and has discovered the existence of nightglow, as well as that of auroras over mid-latitude regions with paleomagnetic signatures and very high-altitude CO2 clouds. The Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyser (ASPERA) has identified solar wind scavenging of the upper atmosphere down to 270 km altitude as one of the main culprits of atmospheric degassing and determine the current rate of atmospheric escape. The Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) has studied the surface

  9. Green light for deployment of ESA's Mars Express radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    ESA's decision to deploy MARSIS follows eight months of intensive computer simulations and technical investigations on both sides of the Atlantic. These were to assess possible harmful boom configurations during deployment and to determine any effects on the spacecraft and its scientific instruments. The three radar booms of MARSIS were initially to have been deployed in April 2004, towards the end of the Mars Express instrument commissioning phase. They consist of a pair of 20-metre hollow cylinders, each 2.5 centimetres in diameter, and a 7-metre boom. No satisfactory ground test of deployment in flight conditions was possible, so that verification of the booms' performance had to rely on computer simulation. Just prior to their scheduled release, improved computer simulations carried out by the manufacturer, Astro Aerospace (California), revealed the possibility of a whiplash effect before they locked in their final outstretched positions, so that they might hit the spacecraft. Following advice from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which contributed the boom system to the Italian-led MARSIS radar instrument, and the Mars Express science team, ESA put an immediate hold on deployment until a complete understanding of the dynamics was obtained. JPL led a comprehensive investigation, including simulations, theoretical studies and tests on representative booms, the latter to assess potential aging of the boom material. European experts, from ESA and the former spacecraft prime contractor, Astrium SAS, France, worked closely with JPL throughout the entire investigation. An independent engineering review board, composed of ESA and industry experts, met in January to evaluate the findings and advise on ‘if and when’ to proceed with deployment. The ESA review board, at its final meeting on 25 January, recommended deployment of the MARSIS booms. The rationale for the decision was based on the results of the analyses, which showed the possible impact scenarios

  10. Mars thermospheric scale height: CO Cameron and CO2+ dayglow observations from Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiepen, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Bougher, S.; Montmessin, F.; Hubert, B.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    The CO Cameron (170-270 nm) and CO2+ ultraviolet doublet (298 and 299 nm) emissions have been observed on the Mars dayside with Mars Express Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) instrument in the limb viewing mode. These ultraviolet emissions ultimately arise from the excitation of the neutral atmosphere by solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. We analyze a wide dataset covering the years 2003-2013 to determine the scale height of the thermosphere and its variability. We show under which conditions the neutral thermospheric temperature is derived from the CO Cameron and CO2+ emission topside scale height of the limb profiles. We show that emission scale heights are highly variable, ranging from 8.4 to 21.8 km and analyze possible differences between CO Cameron and CO2+-derived scale heights. These large variations appear to dominate over the long-term control exerted by the solar flux reaching the top of the atmosphere during the SPICAM observing period when solar minimum to moderate conditions prevailed. Solar heating impacting the topside thermosphere scale height is apparently overwhelmed by other forcing processes (e.g. waves and tides) during this observing period. It also appears that the crustal residual magnetic field does not significantly influence the scale height of the thermosphere. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that local variations in the thermospheric scale height and associated temperature are equal to or larger than seasonal-latitudinal variability.

  11. New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars: Deciphering the Geologic History Through Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Banks, M.; Buczkowski, D.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the mapping effort is to produce a geologic map of the Argyre basin and surrounding region at 1:5,000,000 scale in both digital and print formats that will detail the stratigraphic and crosscutting relations among rock materials and landforms (30 deg. S to 65 deg. S, 290 deg. E to 340 deg E). There has not been a detailed geologic map produced of the Argyre region since the Viking-era mapping investigation. The mapping tasks include stratigraphic mapping, crater counting, feature mapping, quantitative landform analysis, and spectroscopic/ stratigraphic investigation feature mapping. The regional geologic mapping investigation includes the Argyre basin floor and rim materials, the transition zone that straddles the Thaumasia plateau, which includes Argyre impactrelated modification, and the southeast margin of the Thaumasia plateau using important new data sets from the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The geologic information unfolded by this new mapping project will be useful to the community for constraining the regional geology, paleohydrology, and paleoclimate, which includes but is not limited to the assessment of: (1) whether the Argyre basin contained lakes, (2) the extent of reported flooding and glaciation, (3) existing interpretations of the origin of the narrow ridges located in the southeast part of the basin floor, and (4) the extent of Argyre-related tectonism and its influence on the surrounding regions.

  12. The effect of the induced magnetic field on the electron density vertical profile of the Mars' ionosphere: A Mars Express MARSIS radar data analysis and interpretation, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Nicolás, M.; Sánchez-Cano, B.; Witasse, O.; Blelly, P.-L.; Vázquez, L.; Lester, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report the indirect detection of an induced magnetic field in the ionosphere of Mars and its effects on the electron density behaviour. The observations were made by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) aboard Mars Express, in its Active Ionospheric Sounding mode. During several orbits on June 2006, the ionosphere showed an unusual behaviour, characterised by a compression of the plasma above the main ionospheric peak as observed by the topside total electron content, the plasma scale height, and the local plasma in the Mars Express surroundings. The compression was most likely due to an induced magnetic field originating from the solar wind and measured by the MARSIS antennas, which was able to penetrate into the ionosphere. In particular, for several profiles, the density distribution can be clearly defined by two different plasma scale heights, which indicates a transition region between both of them. From the balance of magnetic and thermal plasma pressures and from a comparison with a numerical model of the Martian ionosphere, the hypothesis of a penetrating induced magnetic field down to a transition altitude around 150 km is confirmed. This compressed ionosphere has also been compared with data from other orbits in the same location and at the same time period, i.e. 18.5 days of difference between first and last orbits, where there is no measured induced magnetic field, and the orbits show a clearly different behaviour.

  13. Mars Express Scientific Overview After One Martian Year in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2005-12-01

    The ESA Mars Express mission was successfully launched on 02 June 2003 from Baikonur, Kazakh-stan, onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket with a Fregat upper stage. The mission comprises an orbiter space-craft, which has been placed in a polar martian orbit, and the small Beagle-2 lander, due to land in Isidis Planitia but whose fate remains unknown. In addition to global studies of the surface, subsurface and at-mosphere of Mars, with an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, the unifying theme of the mis-sion is the search for water in its various states everywhere on the planet. Following the Mars Express spacecraft commissioning in January 2004, most experiments onboard be-gan their own calibration and testing phase already acquiring scientific data. This phase lasted until June 2004 when all the instruments started their routine operations. The MARSIS radar antennas, however, were deployed in May-June 2005, following comprehensive simulations of boom deployment and mitiga-tion of potential risks, to benefit from nightime conditions required for subsurface sounding before the pericentre natural drift in latitude, when illumination conditions become favourable to the other instru-ments. Initial science results are summarised below. The High-Resolution Stereo Colour Imager (HRSC) has shown breathtaking views of the planet, in particular of karstic regions near the Valles Marineris canyon (pointing to liquid water as the erosional agent responsible for modifying tectonic and impact features in the area) and of several large volcanoes (Olympus Mons caldera and glaciation features surrounding Hecates Tholus). The IR Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer (OMEGA) has provided unprecedented maps of water ice and CO2 ice occurrence in the South pole, showing where the two ices mix and where they do not. The Planetary Fourier Spec-trometer (PFS) has confirmed the presence of methane for the first time, which would indicate current volcanic activity and/or biological

  14. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  15. Solar cycle variations in the ionosphere of Mars as seen by multiple Mars Express data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Cano, B.; Lester, M.; Witasse, O.; Milan, S. E.; Hall, B. E. S.; Cartacci, M.; Peter, K.; Morgan, D. D.; Blelly, P.-L.; Radicella, S.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.; Orosei, R.; Pätzold, M.

    2016-03-01

    The response of the Martian ionosphere to solar activity is analyzed by taking into account variations in a range of parameters during four phases of the solar cycle throughout 2005-2012. Multiple Mars Express data sets have been used (such as Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) in Active Ionospheric Sounding, MARSIS subsurface, and MaRS Radio Science), which currently cover more than 10 years of solar activity. The topside of the main ionospheric layer behavior is empirically modeled through the neutral scale height parameter, which describes the density distribution in altitude, and can be used as a dynamic monitor of the solar wind-Martian plasma interaction, as well as of the medium's temperature. The main peak, the total electron content, and the relationship between the solar wind dynamic pressure and the maximum thermal pressure of the ionosphere with the solar cycle are assessed. We conclude that the neutral scale height was different in each phase of the solar cycle, having a large variation with solar zenith angle during the moderate-ascending and high phases, while there is almost no variation during the moderate-descending and low phases. Between end-2007 and end-2009, an almost permanent absence of secondary layer resulted because of the low level of solar X-rays. Also, the ionosphere was more likely to be found in a more continuously magnetized state. The induced magnetic field from the solar wind, even if weak, could be strong enough to penetrate more than at other solar cycle phases.

  16. A system for generating multi-resolution Digital Terrain Models of Mars based on the ESA Mars Express and NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yershov, V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a processing system for generating multiresolution digital terrain models (DTM) of Mars within the the iMars project of the European Seventh Framework Programme. This system is based on a non-rigorous sensor model for processing highresolution stereoscopic images obtained fromthe High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera and Context Camera (CTX) onboard the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. The system includes geodetic control based on the polynomial fit of the input CTX images with respect to to a reference image obtained from the ESA Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). The input image processing is based on the Integrated Software for Images and Spectrometers (ISIS) and the NASA Ames stereo pipeline. The accuracy of the produced CTX DTM is improved by aligning it with the reference HRSC DTMand the altimetry data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The higher-resolution HiRISE imagery data are processed in the the same way, except that the reference images and DTMs are taken from the CTX results obtained during the first processing stage. A quality assessment of image photogrammetric registration is demonstrated by using data generated by the NASA Ames stereo pipeline and the BAE Socet system. Such DTMs will be produced for all available stereo-pairs and be displayed asWMS layers within the iMarsWeb GIS.

  17. Limb clouds and dust on Mars from VMC-Mars Express images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Chen, Hao Chen; Ordoñez-Etxeberria, Iñaki; Hueso, Ricardo; Cardesin, Alejandro; Titov, Dima; Wood, Simon

    2016-10-01

    We have used the large image database generated by the Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard Mars Express to first search and then study, the properties of projected features (dust and water clouds) on the planet limb. VMC is a small camera serving since 2007 for public education and outreach (Ormston et al., 2011). The camera consists of a CMOS sensor with a Bayer filter mosaic providing color images in the wavelength range 400-900 nm. Since the observations were performed in an opportunistic mode (nor planned on a science base) the captured events occurred in a random mode. In total 17 limb features were observed in the period spanning from April 2007 to August 2015. Their extent at limb varies from about 100 km for the smaller ones to 2,000 km for the major ones. They showed a rich morphology consisting in series of patchy elements with a uniform top layer located at altitudes ranging from 30 to 85 km. The features are mostly concentrated between latitudes 45 deg North and South covering most longitudes although a greater concentration occurs around -90 to +90 deg. from the reference meridian (i.e. longitude 0 degrees, East or West). Most events in the southern hemisphere occurred for orbital longitudes 0-90 degrees (autumnal season) and in the north for orbital longitudes 330-360 (winter season). We present a detailed study of two of these events, one corresponding to a dust storm observed also with the MARCI instrument onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and a second one corresponding to a water cloud.

  18. Martian variable features: New insight from the Mars Express Orbiter and the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Arvidson, Raymond; Bell, Jim F.; Christensen, Phil; Foley, Daniel; Haldemann, Albert; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Landis, Geoff; Neakrase, Lynn D. V.; Neukum, Gerhard; Squyres, Steve W.; Sullivan, Robert; Thompson, Shane D.; Whelley, Patrick L.; Williams, David

    2005-06-01

    Linear, low-albedo patterns (termed dark wind streaks) formed on the floor of Gusev crater between September 2003 and February 2004, as seen on High Resolution Stereo Camera images taken on board the Mars Express Orbiter. Pancam images from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit show that the rover crossed a dark streak during its traverse to Bonneville crater. Spirit Microscopic Imager data reveal that sand grains within the dark wind streak are relatively free of dust, whereas grains outside the streak are mantled with dust. During the September 2004 solar conjunction, Spirit remained in one location from sol 240 to sol 260. Comparison of images taken before and after the conjunction shows that patches of soil beneath the rover darkened with respect to the adjacent soils, suggesting removal of relatively bright material. Two MI mosaics taken 18 sols apart of the surface within 0.5 m of the nearest dark patch show that some larger (1-2 mm) sand grains moved as far as 0.7 mm. These observations support the hypothesis that some dark surface patterns result from the removal and/or repositioning of fine-grained material by winds, exposing a relatively lower albedo substrate, such as coarse sand grains. Other variable features on the Gusev floor seen from orbit faded between September 2003 and February 2004 and are interpreted to represent settling of dust from the atmosphere, consistent with the accumulation of dust observed on Spirit. The observation of dark streaks fading with time, while some dark streaks were newly formed, is consistent with local wind gusts or the passage of dust devils that locally sweep dust from the surface or cause a redistribution of fine grains among larger particles.

  19. Elevation of transgene expression level by flanking matrix attachment regions (MAR) is promoter dependent: a study of the interactions of six promoters with the RB7 3' MAR.

    PubMed

    Mankin, S Luke; Allen, George C; Phelan, Thomas; Spiker, Steven; Thompson, William F

    2003-02-01

    We have analyzed effects of a matrix attachment region (MAR) from the tobacco RB7 gene on transgene expression from six different promoters in stably transformed tobacco cell cultures. The presence of MARs flanking the transgene increased expression of constructs based on the constitutive CaMV 35S, NOS, and OCS promoters. Expression from an induced heat shock promoter was also increased and MARs did not cause expression in the absence of heat shock. There was also no effect of MARs on the pea ferredoxin promoter, which is not normally expressed in this cell line. Importantly, most transgenes flanked by RB7 MAR elements showed a large reduction in the number of low expressing GUS transformants relative to control constructs without MARs. PMID:12650520

  20. The imaging performance of the SRC on Mars Express

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberst, J.; Schwarz, G.; Behnke, T.; Hoffmann, H.; Matz, K.-D.; Flohrer, J.; Hirsch, H.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Hauber, E.; Brinkmann, B.; Jaumann, R.; Williams, D.; Kirk, R.; Duxbury, T.; Leu, C.; Neukum, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Express spacecraft carries the pushbroom scanner high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and its added imaging subsystem super resolution channel (SRC). The SRC is equipped with its own optical system and a 1024??1024 framing sensor. SRC produces snapshots with 2.3 m ground pixel size from the nominal spacecraft pericenter height of 250 km, which are typically embedded in the central part of the large HRSC scenes. The salient features of the SRC are its light-weight optics, a reliable CCD detector, and high-speed read-out electronics. The quality and effective visibility of details in the SRC images unfortunately falls short of what has been expected. In cases where thermal balance cannot be reached, artifacts, such as blurring and "ghost features" are observed in the images. In addition, images show large numbers of blemish pixels and are plagued by electronic noise. As a consequence, we have developed various image improving algorithms, which are discussed in this paper. While results are encouraging, further studies of image restoration by dedicated processing appear worthwhile. The SRC has obtained more than 6940 images at the time of writing (1 September 2007), which often show fascinating details in surface morphology. SRC images are highly useful for a variety of applications in planetary geology, for studies of the Mars atmosphere, and for astrometric observations of the Martian satellites. This paper will give a full account of the design philosophy, technical concept, calibration, operation, integration with HRSC, and performance, as well as science accomplishments of the SRC. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mars CO2 ice clouds: results of 5 Martian years of monitoring by OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.-P.; Vincendon, M.

    2012-09-01

    An important achievement of the ESA/MarsExpress mission is the detection of mesospheric CO2 ice clouds, by indirect (PFS [1] and SPICAM [2]) and direct (OMEGA [3,4] and HRSC [5]) observations, as suggested by Clancy et al. [6]. These clouds have been recently detected by CRISM [7] and MCS [8] on board MRO.

  2. A case study of proton precipitation at Mars: Mars Express observations and hybrid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diéval, C.; Kallio, E.; Barabash, S.; Stenberg, G.; Nilsson, H.; Futaana, Y.; Holmström, M.; Fedorov, A.; Frahm, R. A.; Jarvinen, R.; Brain, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    Using the data from the Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) experiment on board Mars Express and hybrid simulations, we have investigated the entry of protons into the Martian induced magnetosphere. We discuss one orbit on the dayside with observations of significant proton fluxes at altitudes down to 260 km on 27 February 2004. The protons observed below the induced magnetosphere boundary at an altitude of less than 700 km have energies of a few keV, travel downward, and precipitate onto the atmosphere. The measured energy flux and particle flux are 108-109 eV cm-2 s-1 and 105-106 H+ cm-2 s-1, respectively. The proton precipitation occurs because the Martian magnetosheath is small with respect to the heated proton gyroradius in the subsolar region. The data suggest that the precipitation is not permanent but may occur when there are transient increases in the magnetosheath proton temperature. The higher-energy protons penetrate deeper because of their larger gyroradii. The proton entry into the induced magnetosphere is simulated using a hybrid code. A simulation using a fast solar wind as input can reproduce the high energies of the observed precipitating protons. The model shows that the precipitating protons originate from both the solar wind and the planetary exosphere. The precipitation extends over a few thousand kilometers along the orbit of the spacecraft. The proton precipitation does not necessarily correlate with the crustal magnetic anomalies.

  3. Mesospheric CO2 ice clouds on Mars observed by Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Giuranna, Marco; Sato, Yuki; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Sato, Takao M.; Wolkenberg, Paulina; Murata, Isao; Kasaba, Yasumasa

    2016-04-01

    We investigate mesospheric CO2 ice clouds on Mars detected by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard Mars Express (MEx). The relatively high spectral resolution of PFS allows firm identification of the clouds' reflection spike. A total of 279 occurrences of the CO2 ice clouds features has been detected at the bottom of 4.3 μm CO2 band from the MEx/PFS data during the period from MY27 to MY32. 115 occurrences out of them are also confirmed by simultaneous observations by MEx/OMEGA imaging spectrometer. The spatial and seasonal distributions of the CO2 ice clouds observed by PFS are consistent with the previous studies: the CO2 ice clouds are only observed between Ls=0° and 140° at distinct longitudinal corridors around the equatorial region (±20°N). The CO2 ice clouds are preferentially detected at local time between 15-17h. The relatively high spectral resolution of PFS allows us to investigate the spectral shape of the CO2 ice clouds features. The CO2 ice clouds reflection spike is peaked between 4.24 and 4.29 μm, with no evidence of the secondary peak at 4.32-4.34 μm observed by MEx/OMEGA (Määttänen et al., 2010). In most of the cases (about 75%), the peak is present between 4.245 and 4.255 μm. Moreover, small secondary peaks are found around 4.28 μm (about 15 occurrences). These spectral features cannot be reproduced by the synthetic spectra with the assumption of a spherical particle shape in our radiative transfer model (DISORT). This can be due to the fact that the available CO2 ice reflective indexes are either inaccurate or inappropriate for the mesospheric temperatures, or that the particle shape is not spherical. Accurate measurements of the reflective index depending on temperature and detailed comparison with the model taking into account non-spherical shapes will give a clue to solve this issue.

  4. Inter-annual Variability of Mars Polar Processes as Observed by OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Y.; Bibring, J.-P.; Plaut, J.; Vincendon, M.; Gondet, B.; Poulet, F.; Schmidt, F.

    2010-05-01

    Mars Express has now been operated successfully more than 6 earth years after orbit insertion in late 2003. Thanks to a much longer than expected lifetime of the cryocoolers, which still perform nominally, the coverage of polar regions by OMEGA now spans more than three full Mars years, from Ls 338°, M-year 26 to Ls 85°, M-year 30. Therefore, the South perennial cap (Ls 310° to Ls 0°), the South seasonal cap (Ls 0° to Ls 310°) and the North seasonal cap (Ls 170° to Ls 90°) have been observed over four successive Mars year while the North perennial cap (Ls 90° to Ls 170°) has been observed over three successive martian years. Due to the precession of the pericenter and of the orbit plane of the elliptical orbit of the satellite, the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board this mission obtained data on polar regions at resolutions ranging from 300 m to 10 km over a wide range of Ls and local times [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. This provides an excellent data set for comparing the evolution of seasonal caps and the spectral characteristics of the perennial caps over different Martian years. For both the perennial cap and the seasonal cap, the CO2 ice signatures dominate in the South while H2O ice signatures dominate in the North. The lag by a few weeks of the retreat of the seasonal caps observed by OMEGA between different Martian years is consistent with that of the "Crocus lines" derived from TES temperature data in 1999 - 2001 [6], with a possible link with dust storm activity in 2007. The spectral component which is not dominant (H2O in the South, CO2 in the North) shows overall consistency but significant year to year variability. CRISM/MRO observations at a much higher spatial resolution support these conclusions. In late 2009, OMEGA observations of the South cap at the time of minimum extent (Ls 340°) showed a much larger extent of H2O ice signatures compared to what had been observed in early 2004 [1]. As these regions show only weak albedo contrast, the observed

  5. [Regulatory potential of S/MAR elements in transient expression].

    PubMed

    Sass, A V; Ruda, V M; Akopov, S B; Snezhkov, E V; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2005-01-01

    S/MARs (scaffold/matrix attachment regions) are the DNA regions that are involved in the interaction with the nuclear matrix and are identified by in vitro methods. According to the available information, S/MARs possess an insulating activity, i.e., the ability to block the interaction between the enhancer and promoter in vivo, and are, probably, intact insulators or their fragments. Nevertheless, there is still no direct proof for this correspondence. To obtain additional information on the insulator activity of S/MARs, we selected five DNA fragments of different lengths and affinities for the nuclear matrix from the previously constructed library of S/MARs and tested their ability to serve as insulators. Two of five elements exhibited an insulator (enhancer-blocking) activity upon the transient transfection of CHO cells. None of the S/MARs displayed either promoter or enhancer/silencer activities in these cells. PMID:15787217

  6. Loss of Water From Mars: What Can We Expect From Mars Express and Nozomi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammer, H.; Lichtenegger, H.; Kolb, C.

    In 1969 UV spectrometers on board of NASA`s Mariner 6 and 7 spacecraft observed the Lyman-alpha dayglow of atomic hydrogen atoms in an altitude range between 200 and 24000 kilometers. It is suggested that these hydrogen atoms originate from the planetary water inventory hidden in subsurface ice and permafrost. When water evap- orates from the Martian surface and subsurface ice reservoirs, its vapour reaches the upper atmosphere where solar UV radiation can break up the molecules into hydro- gen and oxygen. The hydrogen atoms and molecules can escape by Jeans escape but they can also be transformed into ions via charge exchange reactions resulting in ion loss not studied by the Mariner 10 observations. On the other hand solar wind pro- tons can be transformed into energetic hydrogen atoms and thus also contribute to the observed neutral H flux and are therefore interpreted as planetary atoms. For getting a better idea of how much water is really lost to space we re-evaluated all known es- cape rates and processes of hydrogen and oxygen ions and atoms by using a Monte Carlo model where we can study particles in the upper Martian atmosphere. Further a test particle model which involves the motion in the external electric and magnetic fields allowing the separation between the planetary and solar wind atoms. We discuss also relevant atmosphere-surface interaction processes which may result in a perma- nent loss of oxygen into the Martian soil and surface layers. We show that correlated observations of various atmospheric parameters by ESA`s Mars Express and Japan`s Nozomi spacecraft should give us the possibility to adjust our models resulting in a better understanding of the Martian atmospheric evolution with respect to its water inventory.

  7. Mars Express — how to be fastest to the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Mars Express is the first example of ESA’s new style of developing scientific missions: faster, smarter and more cost-effective, but without compromising reliability and quality - there have been no cuts in tests or pre-launch preparations. Mars Express will face demanding technical challenges during its trip to the Red Planet and ESA engineers have worked hard to make sure it meets them. "With Mars Express, Europe is building its own expertise in many fields. This ranges from the development of science experiments and new technologies - new for European industry - to the control of a mission that includes landing on another planet. We have never done this before,” says Rudi Schmidt, Mars Express Project Manager. Quicker, smarter…safe! Mars Express’s design and development phase has taken about four years, compared with about six years for previous similar missions. And its cost, 300 million euros, is much less than other comparable planetary missions. The ‘magic’ lies in the new managerial approach being used. This new approach includes the reuse of existing hardware and instruments. Also, the mission was developed by a smaller ESA team, who gave more responsibility to industry. Mars Express has been built by a consortium of 24 companies from ESA’s 15 Member States and the United States, led by Astrium as prime contractor. However, mission safety was never compromised. “Although we were under heavy pressure towards the end of the project, we did not drop any of the planned tests to save time. I call this a fast design phase, followed by thorough testing activity,” says Schmidt. This new streamlined development method will continue with Venus Express and probably other future missions. Launch Mars Express will be launched on 2 June on board a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The mission consists of an orbiter and a lander, called Beagle 2. In its launch configuration, Mars Express is a honeycombed aluminium box that

  8. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; McLennan, S. M.

    Of all the planets, Mars is the most Earthlike, inviting geochemical comparisons. Geochemical data for Mars are derived from spacecraft remote sensing, surface measurements and Martian meteorites. These analyses of exposed crustal materials enable estimates of bulk planet composition and inferences about its iron-rich mantle and core, as well as constraints on planetary differentiation and crust-mantle evolution. Mars probably had an early magma ocean, but there is no evidence for plate tectonics or crustal recycling any time in its history. The crust is basaltic in composition and lithologically heterogeneous, with radiometric crystallization ages ranging from ~4 billion years to within the last several hundred million years. Mantle sources for magmas vary considerably in incompatible element abundances. Although Mars is volatile element-rich, estimations of the amount of water delivered to the surface by volcanism are controversial. Low-temperature aqueous alteration affected the ancient Martian surface, producing clay minerals, sulfates, and other secondary minerals. Weathering and diagenetic trends are distinct from terrestrial chemical alteration, indicating different aqueous conditions. Organic matter has been found in Martian meteorites, but no geochemical signal of life has yet been discovered. Dynamic geochemical cycles for some volatile elements are revealed by stable isotope measurements. Long-term secular changes in chemical and mineralogical compositions of igneous rocks and sediments have been documented but are not well understood.

  9. Follow the Mars Express launch from one of ESA's establishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Europe’s first mission to the Red Planet will reach its target in December, after a six-month journey. Mars Express will help scientists answer questions about the Martian landscape, atmosphere and the origin of life that remain open, although a wealth of information is already available. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, or ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy and the Italian Space Agency, ASI, are organising a joint event at the University of Rome. ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) and the CDTI, the Spanish institution in charge of space issues, are organising a joint event in Spain at the Museo Principe Felipe de la Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias in Valencia. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 19:15 and 22:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22 Msymb/s FEC: 5/6 Service ID: 61950 Service name: ESA TXT: none Details of the transmission schedule and satellite details for the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/marsexpresslaunch starting at 19:15 hrs. Here you can also find the launch diary, news, press releases, videos, images and more.

  10. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Tilman; Sohl, Frank; Breuer, Doris

    Mars is the fourth planet out from the sun. It is a terrestrial planet with a density suggesting a composition roughly similar to that of the Earth. Its orbital period is 687 days, its orbital eccentricity is 0.093 and its rotational period is about 24 hours. Mars has two small moons of asteroidal shapes and sizes (about 11 and 6 km mean radius), the bigger of which, Phobos, orbits with decreasing semimajor orbit axis. The decrease of the orbit is caused by the dissipation of tidal energy in the Martian mantle. The other satellite, Deimos, orbits close to the synchronous position where the rotation period of a planet equals the orbital period of its satellite and has hardly evolved with time. Mars has a tenous atmosphere composed mostly of CO2 with strong winds and with large scale aeolian transport of surface material during dust storms and in sublimation-condensation cycles between the polar caps. The planet has a small magnetic field, probably not generated by dynamo action in the core but possibly due to remnant magnetization of crustal rock acquired earlier from a stronger magnetic field generated by a now dead core dynamo. A dynamo powered by thermal power alone would have ceased a few billions of years ago as the core cooled to an extent that it became stably stratified. Mars' topography and its gravity field are dominated by the Tharsis bulge, a huge dome of volcanic origin. Tharsis was the major center of volcanic activity, a second center is Elysium about 100° in longitude away. The Tharsis bulge is a major contributor to the non-hydrostaticity of the planet's figure. The moment of inertia factor together with the mass and the radius presently is the most useful constraint for geophysical models of the Martian interior. It has recently been determined by Doppler range measurements to the Mars Pathfinder Lander to be 0.3662 +/- 0.0017 (Folkner et al. 1997). In addition, models of the interior structure use the chemistry of the SNC meteorites which are

  11. High energy particles at Mars and Venus: Phobos-2, Mars Express and Venus Express observations and their interpretation by hybrid model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Kallio, Esa; Fram, Rudy A.; Alho, Markku; Jarvinen, Riku; Dyadechkin, Sergey; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Zhang, Tielong; Collinson, Glyn A.; Futaana, Yoshifumi

    2013-04-01

    Mars and Venus can both be reached by Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Such high energy particles (protons, multiply charged heavy ions, electrons) penetrate the upper atmospheres of Mars and Venus because, in contrast to Earth, these bodies do not have a significant, global, intrinsic magnetic field to exclude them. One especially well documented, complex and prolonged SEP took in place in early 1989 (Solar Cycle 23) when the Phobos-2 spacecraft was orbiting Mars. This spacecraft had a dedicated high energy particle instrument onboard (SLED), which measured particles with energies in the keV range up to a few tens of MeV. There was in addition a magnetometer as well as solar wind plasma detectors onboard which together provided complementary data to support contemporaneous studies of the background SEP environment. Currently, while the Sun is displaying maximum activity (Solar Cycle 24), Mars and Venus are being individually monitored by instrumentation flown onboard the Mars Express (MEX) and Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft. Neither of these spacecraft carry a high energy particle instrument but their Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) experiments (ASPERA-3 on MEX and ASPERA-4 on VEX), can be used to study SEPs integrated over E ≥ ~30 MeV which penetrate the instrument hardware and form background counts in the plasma data. In the present work we present SEP events measured at Mars and Venus based on Phobos-2, 1989 data and on, more recent, MEX and VEX (identified from particle background) observations. We further introduce numerical global SEP simulations of the measured events based on 3-D self-consistent hybrid models (HYB-Mars and HYB-Venus). Through comparing the in situ SEP observations with these simulations, new insights are provided into the properties of the measured SEPs as well as into how their individual planetary bow shocks and magnetospheres affect the characteristics of their ambient Martian and Venusian SEP environments.

  12. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Media representatives are invited to INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September to learn about the mission and attend a ceremony at which a container filled with Ferrari's distinctive 'Rosso Corsa' red paint will be integrated with the spacecraft. Mr Antonio Rodotà (ESA Director General), Professor David Southwood (ESA Director of Science), senior representatives of the space industry and a representative from Ferrari will be giving presentations. Together with the ESA Mars Express project manager and project scientist, they will be available for interviews. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September are kindly requested to complete the accreditation form and fax it to: Franco Bonacina, Head of Media Relations ESA/HQ, Paris, France Tel. +33 (0) 1 53697155 Fax. +33 (0) 1 53697690 Notes for Editors: 1. On 18 September at INTESPACE, Toulouse, ESA will integrate a sample of Ferrari's 'Rosso Corsa' red paint with the Mars Express spacecraft. This event is part of a new ESA communication policy aimed mainly at the general public. Ferrari have much to celebrate: the outstanding success of the Scuderia Ferrari, winning their fourth consecutive Formula One constructors' championship and Michael Schumacher his fifth Formula One drivers' championship. Responding to an ESA proposal, Ferrari have agreed to send the symbol of their winning formula on the ESA mission to the Red Planet. When Mars Express blasts into orbit next summer at 10 800 kilometres per hour, it will be the fastest that Ferrari's distinctive red paint has ever travelled. Following successful completion of a series of rigorous tests, the Ferrari red paint sample will be officially certified 'space qualified' at a ceremony at INTESPACE. Housed in a specially constructed glass globe known as FRED, it will then be formally integrated with the Mars Express craft. 2. The main objective of the Mars Express mission is to detect the presence of water below the

  13. The Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Mapping Mars and Implications for Geological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf; Tirsch, Daniela; Hauber, Ernst; Hoffmann, Harald; Neukum, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    After 10 years of ESA's Mars Express orbiting the planet its High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) covered about 90 % of the surface in stereo and color with resolutions up to 10 m/pixel. Digital elevation models of up to 50 m grid spacing [1], generated from all suitable datasets of the stereo coverage, currently cover about 40 % of the surface [2]. The geomorphological analysis of surface features, observed by the HRSC indicate major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes on all scales. Endogenic landforms (e.g., tectonic rifts, small basaltic shield volcanoes) were found to be very similar to their equivalents on Earth, suggesting that no unique processes are required to explain their formation. Volcanism may have been active up to the very recent past or even to the present, putting important constraints on thermal evolution models [e.g., 3]. The analysis of diverse landforms produced by aqueous processes revealed that surface water activity was likely episodic, but ranged in age from very ancient to very recent [e.g., 3]. Particularly important is prominent glaciation and periglacial features at several latitudes, including mountain glaciers [e.g., 3]. The identification of aqueous alteration minerals and their geological context has enabled a better understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions and pedogenetic processes [e.g., 4]. Dark dunes contain volcanic material and are evidence for the significantly dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [e.g., 3, 5]. Since basically all geologic interpretations of extraterrestrial features require profound knowledge of the Earth as key reference, studies of terrestrial analogues are mandatory in planetary geology. Field work in Antarctica, Svalbard and Iceland [e.g., 6] provided a basis for the analysis of periglacial and volcanic processes, respectively. References: [1] Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55, 928-952; [2] Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294

  14. "Depend on, Rely on, Count on": Economic Subjectivities Aboard "The Polar Express"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Christmas literature and film produced for children is an important, albeit under-researched, site for the production of cultural values and norms. This paper analyses Chris Van Allsburg's 1985 picture book "The Polar Express", the 2004 Warner Brothers feature film of the same title, the film's official website, and resources for teachers…

  15. Deployment of the MARSIS Radar Antennas On-Board Mars Express

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Michel; Moorhouse, A.; Smith, A.; McKay, Mike; Fischer, J.; Jayaraman, P.; Mounzer, Z.; Schmidt, R.; Reddy, J.; Ecale, E.; Horttor, R.; Adams, D.; Flamini, E.

    2006-01-01

    On the first European planetary mission, the deployment of the two 20-meter long MARSIS antennas onboard the ESA Mars Express spacecraft has represented an unprecedented technological challenge, in the middle of a successful science mission. While Mars Express was already performing regular observations at Mars, a complex process has been performed on Earth, involving the ESA Project, coordination between ESA, NASA and ASI, the Mars Science community, the spacecraft manufacturer EADS Astrium and the Mission Control Centre at ESOC. This paper describes the steps that led from an initial nogo in 2004 to deployment one year later, as well as the conditions and difficulties encountered during the actual deployment. It provides insights in the technical and managerial processes that made it a success, and analyses the rationale behind the decisions.

  16. Role of the mar-sox-rob regulon in regulating outer membrane porin expression.

    PubMed

    Chubiz, Lon M; Rao, Christopher V

    2011-05-01

    Multiple factors control the expression of the outer membrane porins OmpF and OmpC in Escherichia coli. In this work, we investigated the role of the mar-sox-rob regulon in regulating outer membrane porin expression in response to salicylate. We provide both genetic and physiological evidence that MarA and Rob can independently activate micF transcription in response to salicylate, leading to reduced OmpF expression. MarA was also found to repress OmpF expression through a MicF-independent pathway. In the case of OmpC, we found that its transcription was moderately increased in response to salicylate. However, this increase was independent of MarA and Rob. Finally, we found that the reduction in OmpF expression in a tolC mutant is due primarily to Rob. Collectively, this work further clarifies the coordinated role of MarA and Rob in regulating the expression of the outer membrane porins.

  17. Plasma Boundary Locations as Measured Simultaneously by Rosetta and Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edberg, Niklas; Eriksson, A. I.; Auster, U.; Barabash, S.; Boesswetter, A.; Brain, D. A.; Carr, C. M.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Cupido, E.; Fränz, M.; Glassmeier, K.; Goldstein, R.; Lester, M.; Lundin, R.; Modolo, R.; Nilsson, H.; Richter, I.; Samara, M.; Trotignon, J.

    2008-09-01

    We present the first two-spacecraft simultaneous observations of the Martian bow shock (BS) and magnetic pileup boundary (MPB), obtained by the plasma instruments onboard Rosetta and Mars Express during the Rosetta Mars flyby on February 25, 2007. We compare the positions of these two boundaries with models based on previous measurements by Mars Global Surveyor. The BS is found to be compressed despite a low solar wind dynamical pressure whereas the MPB is found at its average position. We also show the result of a single case study of the effects of extreme solar wind conditions on the location of the above boundaries. A long-lasting ( 24 hours) solar wind structure with high magnetic field strength and variability as well as high solar wind density and velocity is observed in Rosetta (far downtail of Mars) and Mars Express (close to the terminator) data simultaneously. The fortunate orbital configuration of Mars Express at this time makes it possible to observe how the BS and MPB becomes asymmetric during the passage of this solar wind structure: the BS and MPB observed in the southern/dawn hemisphere is found significantly further out than in the northern/dusk hemisphere.

  18. Evidence from the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera for a frozen sea close to Mars' equator.

    PubMed

    Murray, John B; Muller, Jan-Peter; Neukum, Gerhard; Werner, Stephanie C; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hauber, Ernst; Markiewicz, Wojciech J; Head, James W; Foing, Bernard H; Page, David; Mitchell, Karl L; Portyankina, Ganna

    2005-03-17

    It is thought that the Cerberus Fossae fissures on Mars were the source of both lava and water floods two to ten million years ago. Evidence for the resulting lava plains has been identified in eastern Elysium, but seas and lakes from these fissures and previous water flooding events were presumed to have evaporated and sublimed away. Here we present High Resolution Stereo Camera images from the European Space Agency Mars Express spacecraft that indicate that such lakes may still exist. We infer that the evidence is consistent with a frozen body of water, with surface pack-ice, around 5 degrees north latitude and 150 degrees east longitude in southern Elysium. The frozen lake measures about 800 x 900 km in lateral extent and may be up to 45 metres deep--similar in size and depth to the North Sea. From crater counts, we determined its age to be 5 +/- 2 million years old. If our interpretation is confirmed, this is a place that might preserve evidence of primitive life, if it has ever developed on Mars.

  19. Effects of a strong ICME on the Martian ionosphere as detected by Mars Express and Mars Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. D.; Diéval, C.; Gurnett, D. A.; Duru, F.; Dubinin, E. M.; Fränz, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Uluşen, D.; Mitrofanov, I.; Plaut, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    We present evidence of a substantial ionospheric response to a strong interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) detected by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) on board the Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. A powerful ICME impacted the Martian ionosphere beginning on 5 June 2011, peaking on 6 June, and trailing off over about a week. This event caused a strong response in the charged particle detector of the High-Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) on board the Odyssey spacecraft. The ion mass spectrometer of the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms instrument on MEX detected an increase in background counts, simultaneous with the increase seen by HEND, due to the flux of solar energetic particles (SEPs) associated with the ICME. Local densities and magnetic field strengths measured by MARSIS and enhancements of 100 eV electrons denote the passing of an intense space weather event. Local density and magnetosheath electron measurements and remote soundings show compression of ionospheric plasma to lower altitudes due to increased solar wind dynamic pressure. MARSIS topside sounding of the ionosphere indicates that it is extended well beyond the terminator, to about 116° solar zenith angle, in a highly disturbed state. This extension may be due to increased ionization due to SEPs and magnetosheath electrons or to plasma transport across the terminator. The surface reflection from both ionospheric sounding and subsurface modes of the MARSIS radar was attenuated, indicating increased electron content in the Mars ionosphere at low altitudes, where the atmosphere is dense.

  20. Mars Express and Venus Express Data Retention In-Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrédonchel, J.; Rombeck, F.-J.

    2007-08-01

    Venus, Mars and Earth, three out of the four inner or 'rocky' planets of the Solar System, have a lot in common: a solid surface you could walk on, a comparable surface composition, an atmosphere and a weather system. European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express (MEx) and Venus Express (VEx) pioneer scientific missions aim at exploring these two neighbours of the Earth, in order to enrich our knowledge of our planet and of the Solar System. Both projects are based on the same spacecraft bus, and in particular on 'sister' Solid State Mass Memory (SSMM) units, in charge of the acquisition, storage and retrieval of all on board data, relevant both to the platform and to the instruments. This paper recalls the common SSMM design and the inner fault tolerant memory array module architecture based on Computer Off The Shelf (COTS) Samsung 64 Mbit Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) chips, and presents the comparative in-flight data retention performance for both MEx and Vex units, since their respective June 2003 and November 2005 launches. Both units have shown to successfully withstand the radiative deep space environment, including during the outstanding October 2003 solar flare, and no uncorrectable data corruption was ever reported. Beyond this stable retention performance over time, the memory scrubbing correctable error accounting feedback allows evaluating the deep space Single Event Upset (SEU) rates, to be compared with the theoretical SSMM radiation assessment as well as with other previous missions in-flight qualitative reference performance records, and finally enables to derive a couple of recommendations from the lessons' learnt.

  1. Stationary Planetary Waves in the Mars Winter Atmosphere as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellmann, Silvia; Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Tyler, Leonard G.; Hinson, David P.

    2015-11-01

    Stationary (Rossby) Waves are excited by the interaction of the zonally varying topography with the strong eastward winter jets. They lead to distinctive longitudinal temperature variations which contribute significantly to the asymmetry of the seasonal polar CO2 ice caps and are also important for the dust redistribution in the planetary atmosphere.Radio Science profiles from the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment MaRS at northern and southern high latitudes are used to gain insight into winter stationary wave structures on both hemispheres.Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation measurements from the same season and year with their exceptionally good longitudinal and temporal coverage can be used to estimate the influence of transient eddies. Transient waves are especially important in the northern winter hemisphere.Wave number 2 stationary waves, driven by topography, are dominant in the northern winter latitudes while the wave number 1 wave is the most significant wave number during southern winter. The wave amplitudes peak around winter solstice on both hemispheres.Radio occultation measurements provide the unique opportunity to determine simultaneous measurements of temperature and geopotential height structures. Assuming geostrophic balance, these measurements can be used to determine meridional winds and eddy heat fluxes which provide further insight into the contribution of stationary waves to the heat exchange between the poles and the lower latitudes.

  2. Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M.; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M.; Federico, Costanzo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Gurnett, Donald A.; Hagfors, Tor; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Huff, Richard L.; Ivanov, Anton B.; Johnson, William T. K.; Jordan, Rolando L.; Kirchner, Donald L.; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Nielsen, Erling; Orosei, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick.

  3. Investigation of winds in Venus mesosphere by digital method using UV images from VMC aboard Venus Express.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsaeva, Marina; Khatuntsev, Igor; Ignatiev, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of winds at the top cloud layer is important for understanding the global circulation of the Venus atmosphere. The Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) aboard Venus Express has acquired a huge number of UV (365 nm) images. UV images of top cloud layer are customary to obtain the wind velocity due to their high contrast. Visual estimation of wind velocities is a labor intensive procedure. Authors have developed a digital method to estimate velocities of shifts of cloud details. The method is based on analysis of correlations between two UV images acquired at different moments. The method takes into account the change of a correlation function due to latitudinal peculiarities of cloud morphology and eliminates image regions which are far from the sub-spacecraft point. The digital method provides with good vector coverage of the Venus day side (9-16 local time) from the equator to high latitudes. The best agreement between the digital and visual methods is observed at low latitudes (below 35S). The discrepancy at higher latitudes is related to complicated cloud morphology, namely domination of streaks, which increases errors in the zonal wind speed. The method is productive for long-scale circulation at the top cloud layer. Sizes of regions for correlation were chosen empirically as a trade-off of sensitivity against noise immunity and varies from 10x7.5 ° to 20x10 ° depending on grid step. 580 orbits covering ten Venus years have been processed by using the digital method. The database of shift vectors counts about 400000 records. The mean wind speed at low latitudes is about 100 m/s. Wind vector fields were obtained for every orbit. The zonal wind speed in the equatorial region exhibits short-period (about 4.8 days) and long-period variations (long-term trend). Vector field averaged by all orbits show deviations of the main stream up to 5 degrees poleward in the early afternoon (12.5-14.5h) at 45-55S. The mean absolute value of the wind speed increases from

  4. Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte

    2005-03-11

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer observed the northern circumpolar regions of Mars at a resolution of a few kilometers. An extended region at 240 degrees E, 85 degrees N, with an area of 60 kilometers by 200 kilometers, exhibits absorptions at wavelengths of 1.45, 1.75, 1.94, 2.22, 2.26, and 2.48 micrometers. These signatures can be unambiguously attributed to calcium-rich sulfates, most likely gypsum. This region corresponds to the dark longitudinal dunes of Olympia Planitia. These observations reveal that water alteration played a major role in the formation of the constituting minerals of northern circumpolar terrains.

  5. Summer evolution of the north polar cap of Mars as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Y; Poulet, F; Bibring, J-P; Schmitt, B; Douté, S; Gondet, B

    2005-03-11

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) visible-infrared imaging spectrometer extensively observed regions of Mars with latitudes above 70 degrees N in late 2004 (heliocentric longitude from Ls 93 degrees to Ls 127 degrees ). The extent of water ice at the surface and the size of ice grains were monitored as a function of time. Bright, small-grained frost, which initially covered a large fraction of the polar cap, waned in favor of large-grained ice. In outlying regions, dominated by large-grained ice, the albedo increased over the period. Evaluating the dust content was model dependent. However, contamination of ice by dust was low.

  6. Evolution of Science Operations after 10 years of the Mars Express Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Martin, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    The Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and has been providing great amounts of data since its arrival to Mars in Christmas 2003, covering a wide range of science objectives at all levels, from the surface and sub-surface geology, atmosphere dynamics and composition, up to the interaction with the magnetosphere and the characterization of the Martian sytem including its two moons, Phobos and Deimos. In these last 10 years, the Mars Express Science Operations Center has been responsible for the coordination of the scientific requirements and the implementation of the science plan, aiming to obtain the maximum scientific return of the mission while respecting the operational constraints. In this contribution we will show some of the operational challenges of the mission, focusing on the improvements and adaptations of the past years, not only in terms of technical and scientific requirements which have been varying with time, but also the optimization of the interfaces with all the teams involved.

  7. O2 abundances in the Martian atmosphere determined using Mars Express SPICAM UV stellar occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, N. K.; Sandel, B. R.; Yelle, R. V.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Montmessin, F.; Quémerais, E.

    2008-09-01

    The distribution of O2 with altitude, latitude, and season is an important factor in the evolution and current stability of Mars' CO2 rich atmosphere. CO2 is photolyzed in the Martian atmosphere to form CO and O according to the following process: CO2 + hn→ CO + O. The atomic oxygen then preferentially recombines to form O2. If this simple reaction is indeed the dominant process in the Martian atmosphere then O2 should be more abundant than the currently accepted value of 0.12 percent [1]. Nair et al. (1994) present a detailed photochemical model of the Martian atmosphere, which shows that the abundance of O2 is largely controlled by reactions with odd hydrogen radicals from photolyzed water in the lower atmosphere. While the Nair et al. (1994) model certainly helps to explain the major photochemical processes at work in theMartian atmosphere, it assumes the abundance of O2 does not vary with latitude and season and is roughly constant with altitude. Our study probes the abundance of O2 in theMartian atmosphere during winter in the southern hemisphere (Ls=90-180) when CO2 condenses out of the atmosphere to form a polar cap. This enrichment of O2 with respect to CO2 during southern Martian winter allows for a more robust detection of O2 in addition to probing the effect of seasonal variations on the photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere. The European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft was placed in orbit around Mars on 25 December 2003. The SPICAM (Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars) instrument aboard Mars Express measures stellar occultations in the 118-320 nm wavelength region [2]. The stellar occultation technique determines the abundance of chemical species by comparing a reference stellar spectrum (I0) to the same stellar spectrum attenuated by the planetary atmosphere (I). The slant densities, Ni(z), are related to the transmission, Tz(l), through (1) where z is the minimum altitude along the line of

  8. Farewell to the Earth and the Moon -ESA's Mars Express successfully tests its instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    The routine check-outs of Mars Express's instruments and of the Beagle-2 lander, performed during the last weeks, have been very successful. "As in all space missions little problems have arisen, but they have been carefully evaluated and solved. Mars Express continues on its way to Mars performing beautifully", comments Chicarro. The views of the Earth/Moon system were taken on 3 July 2003 by Mars Express's High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), when the spacecraft was 8 million kilometres from Earth. The image taken shows true colours; the Pacific Ocean appears in blue, and the clouds near the Equator and in mid to northern latitudes in white to light grey. The image was processed by the Instrument Team at the Institute of Planetary Research of DLR, Berlin (Germany). It was built by combining a super resolution black and white HRSC snap-shot image of the Earth and the Moon with colour information obtained by the blue, green, and red sensors of the instrument. “The pictures and the information provided by the data prove the camera is working very well. They provide a good indication of what to expect once the spacecraft is in its orbit around Mars, at altitudes of only 250-300 kilometres: very high resolution images with brilliant true colour and in 3D,” says the Principal Investigator of the HRSC, Gerhard Neukum, of the Freie Universität of Berlin (Germany). This camera will be able to distinguish details of up to 2 metres on the Martian surface. Another striking demonstration of Mars Express's instruments high performance are the data taken by the OMEGA spectrometer. Once at Mars, this instrument will provide the best map of the molecular and mineralogical composition of the whole planet, with 5% of the planetary surface in high resolution. Minerals and other compounds such as water will be charted as never before. As the Red Planet is still too far away, the OMEGA team devised an ingenious test for their instrument: to detect the Earth’s surface

  9. Water in the Martian regolith from OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouard, Joachim; Poulet, François; Vincendon, Mathieu; Milliken, Ralph E.; Jouglet, Denis; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves

    2014-08-01

    Here we discuss one of the current reservoirs of water on Mars, the regolith and rocks exposed at the surface. This reservoir is characterized by the presence of H2O- and OH-bearing phases that produce a broad absorption at a wavelength of ~3 µm in near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra. This absorption is present in every ice-free spectrum of the Martian surface obtained thus far by orbital NIR spectrometers. We present a quantitative analysis of the global distribution of the 3 µm absorption using the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer that has been mapping the surface of Mars at kilometer scale for more than 10 years. Based on laboratory reflectance spectra of a wide range of hydrous minerals and phases, we estimate a model-dependent water content of 4 ± 1 wt % in the equatorial and midlatitudes. Surface hydration increases with latitude, with an asymmetry in water content between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The surface hydration is compared to various parameters (albedo, dust, geological units, time, relative humidity, atmospheric water pressure, and in situ measurements performed by Phoenix and Curiosity) to constrain the nature of the reservoir. We conclude that the nature of the surface hydration of the Martian low latitudes is not adsorbed water but rather more tightly bound water molecules and hydroxyl groups in the structure of the materials of the near-top surface. A frost-related process best explains the implementation of water into and onto the first microns of the high-latitude Martian regolith.

  10. Coordinated Observations of Aeolian Features from the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera and Other Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Thompson, S. D.; Whelley, P. L.; Squyres, S.; Neukum, G.; Arvidson, R.; Malin, M.; Kuzmin, R.; Christensen, P.; Rafkin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Surface features associated with aeolian (wind) processes at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites for Spirit (Gusev crater) and Opportunity (Sinus Meridiani) were observed from the surface and from orbit through coordinated observations by the rovers and the Mars Express orbiter High Resolution Stereo Camera and compared with features seen in other orbiter data and with wind vectors predicted by a numerical mesoscale model of the atmosphere.

  11. Mars Surface Compositional Units and Some Geological Implications from the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, T. B.; Combe, J.-P.; Hayne, P. O.

    OMEGA [2]. The present work extends the analysis to other regions in order to constrain better the general geology and climate of Mars. References: [1] McCord T. B., et al. (2006). The Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera spectrophotometric data: Characteristics and science analysis, JGR, submitted. [2] Gendrin, A., N. Mangold, J-P. Bibring, Y. Langevin, B. Gondet, F. Poulet, G. Bonello, C. Quantin, J. Mustard, R. Arvidson, S. LeMouelic (2005), Sulfates in Martian layered terrains: The OMEGA/Mars Express View, Science, 307, 1587-1591

  12. CO2 non-LTE limb emissions in Mars' atmosphere as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccialli, A.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Määttänen, A.; González-Galindo, F.; Audouard, J.; Altieri, F.; Forget, F.; Drossart, P.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    We report on daytime limb observations of Mars upper atmosphere acquired by the OMEGA instrument on board the European spacecraft Mars Express. The strong emission observed at 4.3 μm is interpreted as due to CO2 fluorescence of solar radiation and is detected at a tangent altitude in between 60 and 110 km. The main value of OMEGA observations is that they provide simultaneously spectral information and good spatial sampling of the CO2 emission. In this study we analyzed 98 dayside limb observations spanning over more than 3 Martian years, with a very good latitudinal and longitudinal coverage. Thanks to the precise altitude sounding capabilities of OMEGA, we extracted vertical profiles of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission at each wavelength and we studied their dependence on several geophysical parameters, such as the solar illumination and the tangent altitude. The dependence of the non-LTE emission on solar zenith angle and altitude follows a similar behavior to that predicted by the non-LTE model. According to our non-LTE model, the tangent altitude of the peak of the CO2 emission varies with the thermal structure, but the pressure level where the peak of the emission is found remains constant at ˜0.03 ± 0.01 Pa, . This non-LTE model prediction has been corroborated by comparing SPICAM and OMEGA observations. We have shown that the seasonal variations of the altitude of constant pressure levels in SPICAM stellar occultation retrievals correlate well with the variations of the OMEGA peak emission altitudes, although the exact pressure level cannot be defined with the spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus (SPICAM) nighttime data. Thus, observed changes in the altitude of the peak emission provide us information on the altitude of the 0.03 Pa pressure level. Since the pressure at a given altitude is dictated by the thermal structure below, the tangent altitude of the peak emission represents

  13. Valles Marineris, Mars: High-Resolution Digital Terrain Model on the basis of Mars-Express HRSC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumke, A.; Spiegel, M.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: Since December 2003, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars Express (MEX) orbiter has been investigating Mars. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), one of the scientific experiments onboard MEX, is a pushbroom stereo color scanning instrument with nine line detectors, each equipped with 5176 CCD sensor elements. Five CCD lines operate with panchromatic filters and four lines with red, green, blue and infrared filters at different observation angles [1]. MEX has a highly elliptical near-polar orbit and reaches a distance of 270 km at periapsis. Ground resolution of image data predominantly varies with respect to spacecraft altitude and the chosen macro-pixel format. Usually, although not exclusively, the nadir channel provides full resolution of up to 10 m per pixel. Stereo-, photometry and color channels generally have a coarser resolution. One of the goals for MEX HRSC is to cover Mars globally in color and stereoscopically at high-resolution. So far, HRSC has covered almost half of the surface of Mars at a resolution better than 20 meters per pixel. Such data are utilized to derive high resolution digital terrain models (DTM), ortho-image mosaics and additionally higher-level 3D data products such as 3D views. Standardized high-resolution single-strip digital terrain models (using improved orientation data) have been derived at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin-Adlershof [2]. Those datasets, i.e. high-resolution digital terrain models as well as ortho-image data, are distributed as Vicar image files (http://www-mipl.jpl.nasa.gov/external/vicar.html) via the HRSCview web-interface [3], accessible at http://hrscview.fu-berlin.de. A systematic processing workflow is described in detail in [4,5]. In consideration of the scientific interest, the processing of the Valles Marineris region will be discussed in this paper. The DTM mosaic was derived from 82 HRSC orbits at approximately -22° S to 1° N and 250° to 311° E. Methods: Apart from

  14. Tracking of Mars Express and Venus Express spacecraft with VLBI radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molera Calvés, G.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Wagner, J.; Cimò, G.; Gurvits, L.; Duev, D.

    2010-12-01

    The ESA Mars Express and Venus Express spacecraft (S/C) have been observed for the last two years with the European VLBI radio telescopes of Metsähovi (FI), Wettzell (GE), Yebes (SP), Medicina, Matera, Noto (IT), Puschino (RU) and Onsala (SW). The campaign is in the framework of the assessment study and preparation of the European VLBI Network to the upcoming ESA and other deep space missions. It also offers new opportunities for applications of radio astronomy techniques to planetary science, geophysics and geodesy. Observations are carried out either in single- or multi-dish modes when S/C is locked to the ESA’s ESTRACK ground stations (Cebreros or New Nortia) observing the two way link. Data are recorded locally at the stations using standard VLBI equipment and transferred to the Metsähovi for processing. Further on, the data are transferred from Metsähovi to Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe for further post-analysis. High dynamic range of the S/C signal detections allowed us to determine the apparent topocentric frequency of the S/C carrier line and accompanying ranging tones down to milli-Hz spectral accuracy and to extract the phase of the S/C signal carrier line. With multi-station observations, the respective phases can be calibrated on the per-baseline basis using VLBI phase referencing technique and observations of background quasars close to S/C in their celestial position using far-field VLBI delay model for quasars and near-field model for S/C. The post-analysis of the S/C tracking data enables us to study several parameters of the S/C signals. Of these, the phase fluctuations of the signal can be used for characterization of the interplanetary plasma density fluctuations along the signal propagation line at different spatial and temporal scales and different solar elongations. These fluctuations are well represented by a near-Kolmogorov spectrum. Multi-station observations can distinguish the contributions of propagation effects in the plasma

  15. PDS Release of Phobos data from HRSC on Mars Express: Shape Model, Orthoimages and Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, K.; Wählisch, M.; Oberst, J.

    2015-10-01

    We are pleased to announce the delivery of geodetic data products of Phobos derived from images of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express to the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), which include a new Phobos shape model, large sets of orthoimages as well as maps. The new data will help prepare new missions to Phobos and Deimos and resolve open questions on the origins and evolutions of the two satellites [1].

  16. GeoMEx: Geographic Information System (GIS) Prototype for Mars Express Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Frigeri, A.; Ivanov, A. B.

    2013-09-01

    As of today almost a decade of observational data have been returned by the multidisciplinary instruments on-board the ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. All data are archived into the ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which is the central repository for all ESA's Solar System missions [1]. Data users can perform advanced queries and retrieve data from the PSA using graphical and map-based search interfaces, or via direct FTP download [2]. However the PSA still offers limited geometrical search and visualisation capabilities that are essential for scientists to identify their data of interest. A former study has shown [3] that this limitation is mostly due to the fact that (1) only a subset of the instruments observations geometry information has been modeled and ingested into the PSA, and (2) that the access to that information from GIS software is impossible without going through a cumbersome and undocumented process. With the increasing number of Mars GIS data sets available to the community [4], GIS software have become invaluable tools for researchers to capture, manage, visualise, and analyse data from various sources. Although Mars Express surface imaging data are natural candidates for use in a GIS environment, other non-imaging instruments data (subsurface, atmosphere, plasma) integration is being investigated [5]. The objective of this work is to develop a GIS prototype that will integrate all the Mars Express instruments observations geometry information into a spatial database that can be accessed from external GIS software using standard WMS and WFS protocols. We will firstly focus on the integration of surface and subsurface instruments data (HRSC, OMEGA, MARSIS). In addition to the geometry information, base and context maps of Mars derived from surface mapping instruments data will also be ingested into the system. The system back-end architecture will be implemented using open-source GIS frameworks: PostgreSQL/PostGIS for the database, and Map

  17. Potential sources of artifacts and backgrounds generated by the sample preparation of the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity Rover on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Belmahdi, Imene; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Summons, Roger; Miller, Kristen; Coll, Patrice; cabane, Michel; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Dequaire, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is one of the instruments of the MSL mission. Three analytical devices are onboard SAM: the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), the Gas Chromatography (GC) and the Mass Spectrometer (MS). To adapt the nature of a sample to the analytical devices used on SAM, a sample preparation and gas processing system is implemented with (a) a pyrolysis system, (b) wet chemistry: MTBSTFA and TMAH (c) the hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax® TA and Carbosieve G) which is employed to concentrate volatiles released from the sample prior to GC-MS analysis [1].Volatile compounds and abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons have been detected with SAM when analyzing samples collected in several sites explored by Curiosity rover. Some volatile compounds (chlorinated and non-chlorinated) come from the degradation of the MTBSTFA under high temperature or by the reaction of Martian oxychlorine compounds (present in the samples) with terrestrial carbon coming from the derivatization agent (MTBSTFA) used in SAM [2,3]. But other chlorinated compounds do not follow this pathway. For example, Chlorobenzene has been detected by SAM but it cannot be formed by the reaction of MTBSTFA and perchlorates. Then, two other reaction pathways for chlorobenzene were therefore proposed: (1) reactions between the volatile thermal degradation products of perchlorates (e.g. O2, Cl2 and HCl) and Tenax® and (2) the interaction of perchlorates (T>200°C) with organic material from Mars's soil such as benzenecarboxylates. However, even if major part of the chlorobenzene detected has been identified as Martian origin [4] it is important to list all the potential byproducts able to be released from the Tenax®.Thus, this study inventory all the possible compounds which are originated from Tenax®, MTBSTFA and their interaction with perchlorate.References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Glavin, D., A. et al. (2013), LPSC. [3] Eigenbrode, J. et al. (2013), LPSC. [4

  18. Comparison of HIPWAC and Mars Express SPICAM Observations of Ozone on Mars 2006-2008 and Variation from 1993 IRHS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Lefevre, Frank; Hewagama, Tilak; Livengood, Timothy A.; Delgado, Juan D.; Annen, John; Sonnabend, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Ozone is a tracer of photochemistry in the atmosphere of Mars and an observable used to test predictions of photochemical models. We present a comparison of retrieved ozone abundances on Mars using ground-based infrared heterodyne measurements by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) and space-based Mars Express Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) ultraviolet measurements. Ozone retrievals from simultaneous measurements in February 2008 were very consistent (0.8 microns-atm), as were measurements made close in time (ranging from less than 1 to greater than 8 microns-atm) during this period and during opportunities in October 2006 and February 2007. The consistency of retrievals from the two different observational techniques supports combining the measurements for testing photochemistry-coupled general circulation models and for investigating variability over the long-term between spacecraft missions. Quantitative comparison with ground-based measurements by NASA'GSFC's Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (IRHS) in 1993 reveals 2-4 times more ozone at low latitudes than in 2008 at the same season, and such variability was not evident over the shorter period of the Mars Express mission. This variability may be due to cloud activity.

  19. Radiation Environment at Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 8, 2003

    This graphic shows the radiation dose equivalent as measured by Odyssey's martian radiation environment experiment at Mars and by instruments aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station (ISS), for the 18-month period from April 2002 through October 2003. The accumulated total in Mars orbit is just over two times larger than that aboard the Space Station. The bars where the Mars instrument's measurements are well above the average (as shown by the orange line) are months when there was significant solar activity, which increases the dose equivalent. Dose equivalent is expressed in units of milliSieverts per day.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. The radiation experiment was provided by the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Simultaneous measurements of Martian plasma boundaries by Rosetta and Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edberg, N. J. T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Auster, U.; Barabash, S.; Bößwetter, A.; Carr, C. M.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Cupido, E.; Fränz, M.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Goldstein, R.; Lester, M.; Lundin, R.; Modolo, R.; Nilsson, H.; Richter, I.; Samara, M.; Trotignon, J. G.

    2009-07-01

    We present the first two-spacecraft near-simultaneous observations of the Martian bow shock (BS), magnetic pileup boundary (MPB) and photo-electron boundary (PEB) obtained by the plasma instruments onboard Rosetta and Mars Express during the Rosetta Mars flyby on February 25, 2007. Our observations are compared with shape models for the BS and MPB derived from previous statistical studies. The MPB is found at its expected position but the BS for this event is found significantly closer to the planet than expected for the rather slow and moderately dense solar wind. Cross-calibration of the density measurements on the two spacecraft gives a density profile through the magnetosheath, indicating an increasing solar wind flux during the Rosetta passage which is consistent with the multiple BS crossings at the Rosetta exit.

  1. Dense Image Matching for Mars Express HRSC Imagery Based on Precise Point Prediction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, X.; Xu, Q.; Miao, J.; Hou, Y. F.; Xing, S.; Lan, C. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Currently, Mars Express HRSC imagery is an essential data source to derive high accuracy Mars topographic data. In view of the characteristics of Martian surface satellite imagery, a dense image matching scheme for HRSC imagery based on precise point prediction method is proposed. The image matching strategies of our method are elaborated in detail. Based on the proposed method, DEM and DOM of Martian surface are derived and compared with those published by ESA. The experiment results show that the root mean square error in planar direction is about three pixels, while the root mean square error in height direction is about one pixel. Moreover, the mean square error in plane direction show a certain systematic error and the reasons are analysed. Experiment results also demonstrate that the point prediction accuracy for corresponding points is up to 1-3 pixels.

  2. Proba-1 And Mars Express: An ABSL Lithium-Ion Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, Didem Z.; Thwaite, Carl

    2011-10-01

    Proba-1 and Mars Express were trailblazer missions, being the first LEO and Mars satellites to implement lithium-ion batteries. As such, The European Space Agency (ESA) and ABSL Space Products have been at the forefront of lithium-ion in space. This paper summarises the correlations for both missions with the latest in-orbit telemetry available. Further,ABSL unveilsthetransientmodel, demonstrating the improved correlation and prediction capability of ABSL in-house tools. Through the analysis of the in-orbit telemetry, ABSL demonstrates, once again, that ABSL's simulation tools are invaluable when it comes to predicting battery performance. This paper quantifies the usefulness of these predictive tools for longer-term and complex mission profiles.

  3. Mars Odyssey from Two Distances in One Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Why There are Two Images of Odyssey

    NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft appears twice in the same frame in this image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The camera's successful imaging of Odyssey and of the European Space Agency's Mars Express in April 2005 produced the first pictures of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are both in nearly circular, near-polar orbits. Odyssey is in an orbit slightly higher than that of Global Surveyor in order to preclude the possibility of a collision. However, the two spacecraft occasionally come as close together as 15 kilometers (9 miles).

    The images were obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor operations teams at Lockheed Martin Space System, Denver; JPL and Malin Space Science Systems.

    The two views of Mars Odyssey in this image were acquired a little under 7.5 seconds apart as Odyssey receded from a close flyby of Mars Global Surveyor. The geometry of the flyby (see Figure 1) and the camera's way of acquiring an image line-by-line resulted in the two views of Odyssey in the same frame. The first view (right) was taken when Odyssey was about 90 kilometers (56 miles) from Global Surveyor and moving more rapidly than Global Surveyor was rotating, as seen from Global Surveyor. A few seconds later, Odyssey was farther away -- about 135 kilometers (84 miles) -- and appeared to be moving more slowly. In this second view of Odyssey (left), the Mars Orbiter Camera's field-of-view overtook Odyssey.

    The Mars Orbiter Camera can resolve features on the surface of Mars as small as a few meters or yards across from Mars Global Surveyor's orbital altitude of 350 to 405 kilometers (217 to 252 miles). From a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles), the camera would be able to resolve features substantially smaller than 1 meter or yard across.

    Mars Odyssey

  4. Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera spectrophotometric data: Characteristics and science analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, T. B.; Adams, J. B.; Bellucci, G.; Combe, J.-P.; Gillespie, A. R.; Hansen, G.; Hoffmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Pinet, P.; Poulet, F.; Stephan, K.

    2007-06-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express (MEx) spacecraft in orbit about Mars is delivering images of the Mars surface and atmosphere from its high-inclination, elliptical orbit that are intended to cover most of the Mars surface by the end of the mission. These are acquired in four specific spectral passbands that sample the scene at different parts of the extended visual spectrum from near 0.4 μm to about 1μm and in five additional channels, four used for stereo and one nadir, that use the same fifth spectral passband. These channels view from different angles and can be used for photometric and spectral analysis. The data allow a variety of studies of the surface and atmosphere of Mars, but these require detailed understanding of the data characteristics, as there are several effects, including of the observation geometry and the atmosphere, that need to be treated. This article is a report to the science community on the current understanding of the HRSC color data after an initial analysis and also a demonstration of their capabilities for study of Mars, which, from this study, appear to be considerable. We first discuss the characteristics and calibration of the HRSC spectral data. The atmospheric influence on the photometric appearance of the surface materials is explored, and methods of compensating are considered. Reflectances are calculated for surface units by assuming the dark material is basalt and scaling the entire HRSC scene using a laboratory basalt spectrum for the selected dark material area; the results and the correction factors for different orbits are compared. We present several examples of what could become a large volume of future science results utilizing the HRSC spectrophotometric data in conjunction with photo-interpretation. For example, we find relatively few but very important distinct spectral components at the HRSC resolution, including what we interpret as iron oxide-rich material, unoxidized basalt, and

  5. Transient subsurface features in Mars Express radar data: An explanation based on ionospheric holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Mark Vinton

    2012-01-01

    This study was motivated by the discovery of semi-circular subsurface craters, or basins, at multiple locations on Mars by the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding) radar sounder on board the Mars Express spacecraft. The nature of these subsurface structures was called into question when it was realized that some of the radar observations were not repeatable on subsequent passes over the same region. If they were true geological structures, such as ancient craters buried by dust, one would expect to always see them when the spacecraft passes over these regions. The transient nature of the observations led to the suggestion that these structures were actually of ionospheric origin. In this paper we will provide evidence, including a proof-of-concept result, that these features are produced by holes in the ionosphere, and not by subsurface structures. We discuss the possibility that the ionospheric holes are caused by an interaction of the ionosphere with local crustal magnetic fields. We introduce the ionospheric model which we used to simulate the MARSIS sounder moving and pulsing radio waves through the Martian ionosphere, and show that the results of ray tracing through this density profile are consistent with data seen in the MARSIS radargrams.

  6. The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) on ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO): Building on orbital imaging from MRO and Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Thomas, N.; Cremonese, G.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Bridges, J.; Byrne, S.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; El Maarry, M. R.; Hauber, E.; Hansen, C. J.; Ivanov, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Kirk, R. L.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Mangold, N.; Marinangeli, L.; Markiewicz, W.; Massironi, M.; Okubo, C. H.; Orleanski, P.; Pommerol, A.; Tornabene, L. L.; Wajer, P.; Wray, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    TGO launch is expected in early 2016. Why do we need more orbital imaging of Mars given the near-global coverage by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express and the Context Camera (CTX) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), plus the very high-resolution coverage by MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE)? CaSSIS extends the monitoring of past missions to future years to track longer-term changes, and provides contemporaneous imaging of regions that may have unique signatures such as trace gases detected by other experiments on TGO. CaSSIS will provide the highest resolution (~4.6 m/pixel) coverage of Mars everywhere except the ~2% of Mars' surface covered by HiRISE (and only ~0.5% in colour or stereo) and another few percent covered by the Mars Orbital Camera (MOC). Although CTX has a similar imaging scale (~5.5 m/pixel), it does not provide colour images and useful stereo coverage is ~10% of Mars; CaSSIS uses a rotation mechanism to acquire along-track stereo with matching illumination of the surface. HRSC has provided >90% global stereo and colour coverage, but the highly elliptical orbit and wide-angle optics result in >10 m/pixel scale. Also, the HRSC images are acquired at different emission and phase angles per colour. The 72 degree inclined orbit of TGO means that it rotates through all local times of day several times per Mars season, so CaSSIS will have the unique ability to monitor how surfaces change with time of day as well as season, which could prove important to understanding recurring slope lineae (RSL) and frost distributions. This orbit also provides more opportunities to monitor the middle latitudes, for example to find new impacts that expose shallow clean ice. The 4 CaSSIS colour bands include matches to the 3 HiRISE colour bands, to extend monitoring of key sites. In summary, CaSSIS is by design complementary to past/continuing orbital imaging experiments.

  7. Coordinated observations of the Martian ionosphere and induced magnetosphere with Mars Express and MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. J.; Brain, D. A.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Holmstrom, M.; Lillis, R. J.; Witasse, O. G.; Morgan, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission is scheduled to launch in November 2013, and arrive in Mars orbit in September 2014. Meanwhile, the ESA Mars Express (MEX) mission is expected to be conducting its 10th year of scientific operations. The presence of both spacecraft simultaneously orbiting Mars, with complementary suites of scientific instruments, affords an excellent opportunity to study the Martian plasma environment in unprecedented detail. We present an overview of the coordinated measurements that are planned to be undertaken with MEX and MAVEN. The polar orbits of MEX (86 degree inclination, 300×10,000 km altitude, 7.5 h period) and MAVEN (76 degree inclination, 150×6200 km, 4.5 h period) will provide near-continuous measurements within the solar wind, along with frequent passages through the magnetosheath and ionosphere. The differing orbital parameters will provide a range of relative orbital configurations of the two spacecraft during the one-year MAVEN prime mission. A significant overlap exists between the scientific payloads of both missions, while each spacecraft also possesses unique instruments (e.g., the MAG vector magnetometer on MAVEN, and the MARSIS radar on MEX). Near continual monitoring of the solar wind bulk parameters will provide a new opportunity to understand the response of the Martian system to variable upstream conditions. Opportunities will also be present to cross-calibrate measurements made with different instruments on both spacecraft. During fortuitous close conjunctions, use of two spacecraft measurements will resolve spatial-temporal ambiguities in the dynamics of plasma boundaries and ionospheric structures. Two-spacecraft measurements will provide higher-cadence measurements of the numerous classes of anomalous or transient structures seen already at Mars, such as a large ionospheric flux ropes, outflow plumes and plasma density structures and boundaries. Throughout multiple ';deep-dip campaigns

  8. Analysis of OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral images with a linear unmixing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sotin, C.; Le Deit, L.; Gendrin, A.; Mustard, J.; Bibring, J.-P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Pinet, P.

    The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express has completed a near global coverage of Mars in 352 spectral channels from 0.3 to 5.1 µm at a spatial resolution ranging from 300 m to 4 km. This unprecedented data set provides the opportunity to investigate the mineralogy of the surface of Mars by looking at diagnostic spectral features in the visible and near infrared domains [1]. We have focused our data reduction approach on the linear unmixing strategies. Working on a pixel by pixel basis, we find the best linear combination of a suite of laboratory spectra of pure minerals which match the OMEGA data. A spectrally flat and dark artificial component is introduced to account for shading effects. Similarly, we use two pure positive and negative slopes to account at first order for continuum slope variations linked to scattering, grain size and photometric effects. This approach allows us to draw several conclusions on the overall mineralogy of the observed regions. In particular, the Syrtis Major area appears dominated by a mixing between low and high Calcium pyroxenes in various amounts, with localized exposures of iron-rich olivines. At a global scale, the southern hemisphere appears enriched in both low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxenes. Signatures of iron oxides are detected in the bright regions of the northern hemisphere. These results agree with those obtained with different approaches such as MGM or ratio images [1,2]. The advantages and limits of the unmixing approach applied to OMEGA hyperspectral images will be discussed. References: [1] Bibring et al. (2005), Science, vol. 307, 5715, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard et al., Science (2005), vol. 307, 5715, 1594-1597.

  9. SAM Overview: The Habitability of Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Featuring an interview with Paul Mahaffy, SAM's Principal Investigator, this video gives a general overview of SAM's mission aboard the Mars Science Laboratory, otherwise known as the Curiosity rover.

  10. MIRI: Comparison of Mars Express MARSIS ionospheric data with a global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Forget, Francois; Gurnett, Donald; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel; Morgan, David D.; Nemec, Frantisek; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Diéval, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Observations and computational models are the two fundamental stones of our current knowledge of the Martian atmosphere, and both are expected to contribute to the MIRI effort. Data-model comparisons are thus necessary to identify possible bias in the models and to complement the information provided by the observations. Here we present the comparison of the ionosphere determined from Mars Express MARSIS AIS observations with that simulated by a ground-to-exosphere Global Climate Model for Mars, the LMD-MGCM. We focus the comparison on the density and altitude of the main ionospheric peak. In general, the observed latitudinal and solar zenith angle variability of these parameters is well reproduced by the model, although the model tends to slightly underestimate both the electron density and altitude of the peak. The model predicts also a latitudinal variability of the peak electron density that is not observed. We will discuss the different factors affecting the predicted ionosphere, and emphasize the importance of a good knowledge of the electronic temperature in producing a correct representation of the ionosphere by the model.

  11. Coronal Radio Sounding Experiments with Mars Express: Scintillation Spectra during Low Solar Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Efimov, A. I.; Lukanina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Rudash, V. K.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Tellmann, S.

    2010-03-25

    Coronal radio sounding observations were carried out with the radio science experiment MaRS on the ESA spacecraft Mars Express during the period from 25 August to 22 October 2004. Differential frequency and log-amplitude fluctuations of the dual-frequency signals were recorded during a period of low solar activity. The data are applicable to low heliographic latitudes, i.e. to slow solar wind. The mean frequency fluctuation and power law index of the frequency fluctuation temporal spectra are determined as a function of heliocentric distance. The radial dependence of the frequency fluctuation spectral index alpha reflects the previously documented flattening of the scintillation power spectra in the solar wind acceleration region. Temporal spectra of S-band and X-band normalized log-amplitude fluctuations were investigated over the range of fluctuation frequencies 0.01 Hz

  12. Quantifying geological processes on Mars-Results of the high resolution stereo camera (HRSC) on Mars express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Tirsch, D.; Hauber, E.; Ansan, V.; Di Achille, G.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Head, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Mangold, N.; Michael, G. G.; Neukum, G.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pondrelli, M.; Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Williams, D. A.; Adeli, S.; Baratoux, D.; de Villiers, G.; Foing, B.; Gupta, S.; Gwinner, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoffmann, H.; Deit, L. Le; Marinangeli, L.; Matz, K.-D.; Mertens, V.; Muller, J. P.; Pasckert, J. H.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Scholten, F.; Sowe, M.; Voigt, J.; Warner, N.

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the use of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data as an instrumental tool and its application in the analysis of geological processes and landforms on Mars during the last 10 years of operation. High-resolution digital elevations models on a local to regional scale are the unique strength of the HRSC instrument. The analysis of these data products enabled quantifying geological processes such as effusion rates of lava flows, tectonic deformation, discharge of water in channels, formation timescales of deltas, geometry of sedimentary deposits as well as estimating the age of geological units by crater size-frequency distribution measurements. Both the quantification of geological processes and the age determination allow constraining the evolution of Martian geologic activity in space and time. A second major contribution of HRSC is the discovery of episodicity in the intensity of geological processes on Mars. This has been revealed by comparative age dating of volcanic, fluvial, glacial, and lacustrine deposits. Volcanic processes on Mars have been active over more than 4 Gyr, with peak phases in all three geologic epochs, generally ceasing towards the Amazonian. Fluvial and lacustrine activity phases spread a time span from Noachian until Amazonian times, but detailed studies show that they have been interrupted by multiple and long lasting phases of quiescence. Also glacial activity shows discrete phases of enhanced intensity that may correlate with periods of increased spin-axis obliquity. The episodicity of geological processes like volcanism, erosion, and glaciation on Mars reflects close correlation between surface processes and endogenic activity as well as orbit variations and changing climate condition.

  13. The Climate History of Mars: Contributions from Gerhard Neukum and the Mars Express High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James

    2015-04-01

    Mars is currently a cold, hyper-arid global desert and water is sequestered in the regolith-cryosphere, with the major surface reservoir residing in the extensive polar caps, and very small amounts in the atmosphere. In its past history, Mars has been characterized by significant variations in its spin-axis/orbital elements (obliquity, eccentricity and precession) and these variations have led to the redistribution of water in the polar ice deposits to lower latitudes to create ice ages and their related deposits. HRSC data have been instrumental in the documentation of the presence of glacial deposits and landforms due to the global coverage, high-resolution stereo capability and the resulting DEM products, and the complementarity of HRSC products with data from other instruments. HRSC data have been one of the most important contributors to the newly derived understanding of glacial processes. We describe the general deposits and relationships that have been established for glacial units and features and focus on several specific examples to illustrate the compelling evidence for their interpretation as glacial landforms. We treat these chronologically, starting with the Amazonian and working back to earlier Mars history, examining evidence for Late Noachian glaciation and meltwater processes to produce valley networks and open-basin lakes.

  14. Mars and Venus - The Express Way : Evolution and Heritage in Flexi Type Missions Concerning Model Philosophy and Environmental Test Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustichelli, S.; McCoy, D.; Florino, T.; Pereira, J.; Pendaries, M.

    2004-08-01

    Mars Express is the first example of ESA's "Flexible Missions", a new and more economic way of building space science missions based on maximum use of existing technology that is either 'off-the-shelf' or technology that has already been developed for other programs. The high level of recurrence in the design, the re-use of existing hardware and the implementation of new project management practices made possible to Mars Express to meet the objective of shortening the time from original concept to launch, being built unusually quickly to meet its narrow launch window in June 2003. The objective of being assembled, fully tested and prepared for launch in a record time, 30% faster than other comparable missions and with reduced financial funding, could be achieved only with a thorough re- thinking of the model philosophy and environmental test design. The encouraging results obtained with Mars Express are the basis of the AIV program of the second ESA's Flexible Mission, Venus Express. Highly recurrent of Mars Express, even if with important peculiarities due to the different mission and planetary environment, this Project will benefit of the qualifications achieved on its predecessor, allowing a single module approach where the AIT campaign will start directly on the PFM. This paper presents the innovative concepts implemented in the definition of Mars Express Model Philosophy and Environmental Test campaigns, showing the influence of the adopted solutions on the in-flight performances. An overview of Venus Express Test Campaign is also given, focusing on the effects of the previous experience and the lessons learned as well as the peculiarities of the new mission.

  15. Observation of CO2 ice cloud in the Martian mesosphere using PFS onboard Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Giuranna, M.; Aoki, S.; Nakagawa, H.; Kuroda, T.

    2014-04-01

    We succeeded in detecting CO2 ice clouds using Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on board Mars Express. The spectra obtained by PFS showed the spectral signature of CO2 ice clouds, which exhibits single distinct spike at 4.26 μm [3]. However, The spike feature was appeared at 4.25 μm with high spectral resolution of PFS. We confirmed that the spike feature of spectra was the signature of CO2 ice clouds by simultaneous observation between PFS and OMEGA. In some case, the peak of spectra was resolved into two parts, at 4.25 μm and 4.28 μm. These two types of spectral characteristics may suggest difference of cloud features for example, size distribution of cloud particle, particle shape and cloud condensation nuclei. Thus observations with high spectral resolution of PFS can address the optical properties of CO2 ice clouds.

  16. New View of Mars After Two Years of Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera Data Acquisition and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, G.

    2005-12-01

    By December 2005 after two years in orbit the HRSC will have covered ~ 30% of Mars at 10-20 m/pxl resolution in stereo and color. The data are being analyzed by a large international co-investigator team during the proprietary phase (1/2 year after reception on the ground). All data of the first year have been archived in the ESA science data archive and in parallel in the NASA PDS and can be freely accessed and utilized by the science community at large. From the investigations of the HRSC data, we can confirm that Mars experienced long-lasting volcanic activity, starting more than 4 Ga ago and continuing over billions of years. The volcanic activity peaked around 3.5 Ga ago, but went on until very recently in some areas, especially in Tharsis and Elysium. On Olympus Mons we found lava flows as young as 2 Ma. Mars appears to have started out as a wet planet with Earth-like erosional rates, but very early, around 3.5 Ga ago, fell dry rapidly on a global scale. After that point in time, there were no longer-living large open bodies of water on Mars anymore. Erosional levels dropped by eight or nine orders of magnitude on average around or soon after 3.5 Ga ago. Most small channels appear to have fallen dry completely 3.5 Ga ago or soon after, outflow channel activity levels dropped down tremendously at that time, residual activity later was confined to the major parts of the outflow channels, flows turned from fluvial to mainly glacial; no major contributions in terms of drainage to the northern lowlands happened anymore. The northern lowlands also had essentially fallen dry and were covered by lava between 3.5 and 3 Ga ago. Residual fluvial/glacial activity in the investigated outflow channels ended between 1.3 Ga and 1.5 Ga ago (with the exception of some minor local recent activity in Kasei). This is coincident in time with some major volcanic activity coming to an end of most highland volcanoes and with the emplacement of the Medusae Fossae Formation. Over the

  17. SPICAM on Mars Express: a 10 year in-depth survey of the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmessin, Franck

    2015-04-01

    The SPICAM experiment onboard Mars Express has accumulated over the last decade a wealth of observations that has permitted a detailed characterization of the atmospheric composition and activity from the near-surface to above the exosphere. SPICAM is dual ultraviolet (110 to 320 nm)-infrared (1 to 1.7 μm) spectrometer specifically designed to retrieve the major and minor species abundances of the Martian atmosphere [1]. SPICAM has the distinct capability of ob-serving with a variety of geometrical configurations; monitoring the column-integrated abundances of ozone, water vapor as well as aerosols in a nadir-looking mode, characterizing their vertical distribution in either stellar or solar occultation modes so as to constrain their presence above typically 10 km up to 140 km of altitude (for CO2) [2,3,4]. In a dedicated limb staring mode, SPICAM can infer the density of hydrogen atoms from 200 up to 10 000 km of altitude while using the resonantly scattered solar photons at the Lyman-alpha emission line of Hydrogen [5,6].Since the beginning of its operations at Mars, SPICAM has performed several thousands of stellar and solar occultations and has provided a multi-annual tracking in nadir mode. Here, we present a synthesis of the observations collected to date in order to assemble a single, coherent picture of the Martian atmosphere specifically adressing the issue of water decomposition into its lighter component (hydrogen) that can escape to space. In doing so, we propose a different angle for the long-term evolution of water and hydrogen on Mars. References: [1] Bertaux, J.-L., et al., (2006), JGR 111, E10S90 [2] Forget, F., et al., (2009), JGR, 114, E01004. [3] Lebonnois, S., et al., (2006), JGR, 111, E09S05. [4] Montmessin, F., et al., (2006), JGR, 111, E09S09. [5] Chau-fray, J.-Y., et al., (2008), Icarus, 195, pp. 598-613. [6] Chafin, M. S., et al., (2014), GRL, 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058578.

  18. Mars' ultraviolet dayglow observations by IUVS/MAVEN: Structure and variability of Martian upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deighan, J.; Jain, S.; Stewart, I. F.; Schneider, N. M.; Stiepen, A.; Evans, J. S.; Stevens, M. H.; Chaffin, M.; Crismani, M. M. J.; McClintock, B.; Clarke, J. T.; Holsclaw, G.; Lo, D.; Lefèvre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Thiemann, E.; Epavier, F.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mars has been studied extensively at ultraviolet wavelengths starting from Mariner 6 and 7 (Barth et al. JGR, 1971; Stewart, JGR, 1972), Mariner 9 (Barth et al., Icaurs, 1972; Stewart et al. Icarus, 1972), and more recently by SPICAM aboard Mars Express (Leblanc et al., JGR, 2006). The results from these measurements reveal a large variability in the composition and structure of Martian upper atmosphere. However, due to the lack of simultaneous measurements of energy input in the atmosphere, such as solar electromagnetic and particle flux as well as limitations in the observation geometry and data itself, this variability is still not fully understood. We report a comprehensive study of Mars dayglow observations by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) satellite, focusing on upper atmospheric structure and seasonal variability. The dayglow emission spectra show features similar to previous UV measurements at Mars. The IUVS detected a second, low-altitude peak in the emission profile of OI 297.2 nm, confirmation of the prediction that the absorption of solar Lyman alpha emission is an important energy source there. We find a significant drop in thermospheric scale height and temperature between Ls = 218° and Ls = 337 - 352°, attributed primarily to the decrease in solar activity and increase in heliocentric distance. The CO2+ UVD peak intensity is well correlated with simultaneous observations of solar 17 - 22 nm irradiance at Mars by Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor (EUVM) aboard MAVEN. I will present and discuss the variability in Martian UV dayglow, its dependence on solar EUV irradiance, and the importance of IUVS observations in our current understanding of Mars' thermosphere.

  19. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  20. Stealth life detection instruments aboard Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2012-10-01

    NASA has often stated (e.g. MSL Science Corner1) that it's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), "Curiosity," Mission to Mars carries no life detection experiments. This is in keeping with NASA's 36-year explicit ban on such, imposed immediately after the 1976 Viking Mission to Mars. The space agency attributes the ban to the "ambiguity" of that Mission's Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment, fearing an adverse effect on the space program should a similar "inconclusive" result come from a new robotic quest. Yet, despite the NASA ban, this author, the Viking LR Experimenter, contends there are "stealth life detection instruments" aboard Curiosity. These are life detection instruments in the sense that they can free the Viking LR from the pall of ambiguity that has held it prisoner so long. Curiosity's stealth instruments are those seeking organic compounds, and the mission's high-resolution camera system. Results from any or all of these devices, coupled with the Viking LR data, can confirm the LR's life detection claim. In one possible scenario, Curiosity can, of itself, completely corroborate the finding of life on Mars. MSL has just successfully landed on Mars. Hopefully, its stealth confirmations of life will be reported shortly.

  1. Estimation of soil cation exchange capacity using Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emamgolizadeh, S.; Bateni, S. M.; Shahsavani, D.; Ashrafi, T.; Ghorbani, H.

    2015-10-01

    The soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is one of the main soil chemical properties, which is required in various fields such as environmental and agricultural engineering as well as soil science. In situ measurement of CEC is time consuming and costly. Hence, numerous studies have used traditional regression-based techniques to estimate CEC from more easily measurable soil parameters (e.g., soil texture, organic matter (OM), and pH). However, these models may not be able to adequately capture the complex and highly nonlinear relationship between CEC and its influential soil variables. In this study, Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) were employed to estimate CEC from more readily measurable soil physical and chemical variables (e.g., OM, clay, and pH) by developing functional relations. The GEP- and MARS-based functional relations were tested at two field sites in Iran. Results showed that GEP and MARS can provide reliable estimates of CEC. Also, it was found that the MARS model (with root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 0.318 Cmol+ kg-1 and correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.864) generated slightly better results than the GEP model (with RMSE of 0.270 Cmol+ kg-1 and R2 of 0.807). The performance of GEP and MARS models was compared with two existing approaches, namely artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The comparison indicated that MARS and GEP outperformed the MLP model, but they did not perform as good as ANN. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the most and the least influential variables affecting CEC. It was found that OM and pH have the most and least significant effect on CEC, respectively.

  2. 12 years of atmospheric monitoring by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuranna, Marco; Grassi, Davide; Aronica, Alessandro; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Saggin, Bortolino; Aoki, Shohei; Wolkenberg, Paulina; Formisano, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    We use thermal-infrared spectra returned by the Mars Express Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS-MEx) to retrieve atmospheric and surface temperature, and dust and water ice aerosol optical depth. More than 2,500,000 spectra have been used to build this new dataset, covering the full range of season, latitude, longitude, and local time. The data presented here span more than six Martian years (from MY26, Ls = 331°, 10 January 2004 to MY 33, Ls = 78°, 6 December 2015). We successfully retrieved atmospheric temperatures and aerosols opacity in the polar regions, including the polar nights. By exploiting PFS/MEx capability to perform observations at different local times (LT), this dataset allows investigation of the daily cycles of suspended dust and ice. We present an overview of the seasonal and latitudinal dependence of atmospheric quantities during the relevant period, as well as an assessment of the interannual variability in the current Martian climate, including spatial, daily (LT), seasonal, and interannual variations of the aphelion equatorial cloud belt. With unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage and details revealed, this dataset offers new challenges to the GCMs and, at the same time, a new reference for the MYs complementary to those observed by MGS-TES.

  3. The morphology of the topside ionosphere of Mars under different solar wind conditions: Results of a multi-instrument observing campaign by Mars Express in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul; Matta, M.; Lester, M.; Andrews, D.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Nilsson, H.; Opgenoorth, H.; Curry, S.; Lillis, R.; Dubinin, E.; Fränz, M.; Han, X.; Kofman, W.; Lei, L.; Morgan, D.; Pätzold, M.; Peter, K.; Opitz, A.; Wild, J. A.; Witasse, O.

    2016-01-01

    Since the internally-generated magnetic field of Mars is weak, strong coupling is expected between the solar wind, planetary magnetosphere, and planetary ionosphere. However, few previous observational studies of this coupling incorporated data that extended from the solar wind to deep into the ionosphere. Here we use solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere data obtained by the Mars Express spacecraft during March/April 2010 to investigate this coupling. We focus on three case studies, each centered on a pair of ionospheric electron density profiles measured by radio occultations, where the two profiles in each pair were obtained from the same location at an interval of only a few days. We find that high dynamic pressures in the solar wind are associated with compression of the magnetosphere, heating of the magnetosheath, reduction in the vertical extent of the ionosphere, and abrupt changes in electron density at the top of the ionosphere. The first three of these associations are analogous to the behavior of the plasma environment of Venus, but the final one is not. These results reinforce the notion that changes in solar forcing influence the behaviors of all of the tightly coupled regions within the Martian plasma environment.

  4. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of Mars Express and its approach to science analysis and mapping for Mars and its satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinner, K.; Jaumann, R.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Heipke, C.; Oberst, J.; Neukum, G.; Ansan, V.; Bostelmann, J.; Dumke, A.; Elgner, S.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoekzema, N. M.; Kersten, E.; Loizeau, D.; Matz, K.-D.; McGuire, P. C.; Mertens, V.; Michael, G.; Pasewaldt, A.; Pinet, P.; Preusker, F.; Reiss, D.; Roatsch, T.; Schmidt, R.; Scholten, F.; Spiegel, M.; Stesky, R.; Tirsch, D.; van Gasselt, S.; Walter, S.; Wählisch, M.; Willner, K.

    2016-07-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars. The camera, in particular its Super Resolution Channel (SRC), also obtains images of Phobos and Deimos on a regular basis. As HRSC is a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of 3D points derived from stereo analysis allows producing DTMs with grid size of up to 50 m and height accuracy on the order of one image ground pixel and better, as well as corresponding orthoimages. Such data products have been produced systematically for approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far, while global shape models and a near-global orthoimage mosaic could be produced for Phobos. HRSC is also unique because it bridges between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of non-stereo datasets. This paper, in addition to an overview of the status and evolution of the experiment, provides a review of relevant methods applied for 3D reconstruction and mapping, and respective achievements. We will also review the methodology of specific approaches to science analysis based on joint analysis of DTM and orthoimage information, or benefitting from high accuracy of co-registration between multiple datasets, such as studies using multi-temporal or multi-angular observations, from the fields of geomorphology, structural geology, compositional mapping, and atmospheric science. Related exemplary results from analysis of HRSC data will be discussed. After 10 years of operation, HRSC covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 97% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, we also

  5. Water vapor in the Martian atmosphere by SPICAM IR/Mars-Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokhimovskiy, Alexander; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Villard, Eric; Rodin, Alexander V.

    Introduction SPICAM experiment along with PFS and OMEGA spectrometers on Mars Express has a capability to sound the water vapor in the atmosphere. The results of H2O measurements have been intensively published during last years [1-6]. Here we present the new analysis of SPICAM IR water vapor measurements, covering two Martian years. The near-IR channel of SPICAM experiment on Mars Express spacecraft is a 800-g acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based spectrometer operating in the spectral range of 1-1.7 m with resolving power of 2000 [7, 8]. The nadir measurements of H2O in the 1.37-m spectral band is one of the main objectives of the experiment. Data treatment As compared with previous analysis of water vapor presented in [4] we used the spectroscopic database HITRAN2004 [9] instead of HITRAN 2000 and the most recent measurements of the water line-width broadening in CO2 atmosphere. Latest version HITRAN2008 doesn't have any meaningful changes in water vapour lines, which are used for retrievment. Martian Climate Database V4.2 [10] was adopted for modelling of synthetic spectra and a scenario based on TES MY24 was used. The spare model of SPICAM IR instrument was recalibrated in June 2007 in Reims, to analyze specifically the sensitivity to the H2O vapor band. According to laboratory measurements, a leakage from the AOTF is responsible up to 5 Radiative transfer modelling and results Sensitivity of retrieval to aerosol scattering and different vertical distributions of aerosol and water vapor was analyzed for H2O absorption band at 1.38 m and 2.56 m for different dust particles. Dependences of equivalent width of the H2O band on the water vapor abundance and aerosol optical depth for different vertical distribution of water vapor and aerosol optical depth are obtained. A number of orbits processed with "honest" aerosol account, in some cases difference to clear atmosphere approach is meaningful. Open questions for further processing are great demand in computer

  6. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  7. Observations of corotating solar wind structures at radio sounding by signals of the Rosetta and Mars Express spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, A. I.; Lukanina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, M. K.; Pätzold, M.

    2016-05-01

    In the implementation of the space projects Rosetta and Mars Express, a large-scale series of experiments has been carried out on radio sounding circumsolar plasma by decimeter ( S-band) and centimeter ( X-band) signals of the Rosetta comet probe (from October 3 to October 31, 2010) and the Mars Express satellite of Mars (from December 25, 2010 to March 27, 2011). It was found that in the phase of ingress the spacecraft behind the Sun, the intensity of the frequency fluctuations increases in accordance with a power function whose argument is the solar offset distance of radio ray path, and when the spacecraft is removed from the Sun (the egress phase), frequency fluctuations are reduced. Periodic strong increases in the fluctuation level, exceeding by a factor of 3-12 the background values of this value determined by the regular radial dependences, are imposed on the regular dependences. It was found that increasing the fluctuations of radio waves alternates with the periodicity m × T or n × T, where m = 1/2, n = 1, and T is the synodic period of the Sun's rotation ( T ≈ 27 days). It was shown that the corotating structures associated with the interaction regions of different speed fluxes are formed in the area of solar wind acceleration and at distances of 6-20 solar radii already have a quasi-stationary character.

  8. Distinguishing Na, K, and H3O+ Jarosite and Alunite on Mars using VNIR, Emittance and Mossbauer Spectroscopy on the MER and Mars Express/OMEGA Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Rothstein, Y.; Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Klima, R. L.; Brophy, G. P.

    2005-12-01

    Jarosite has been identified in layered outcrops in Meridiani by the MER Mossbauer spectrometer [Klingelhofer, et al., 2004] and may be present elsewhere on Mars. We are studying VNIR, emittance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of synthetic and natural samples of jarosite and alunite from the Brophy collection [e.g. Brophy and Sheridan, 1965]. The characteristic NIR overtones and combination bands in this group differ not only depending on the trivalent cation (e.g. Al for alunite and Fe for jarosite), but also depending on the type of monovalent cation (typically K, Na and/or H3O). The VNIR spectrum of K-jarosite exhibits an OH stretching band at 1.47 um, an OH stretch + 2 bend combination doublet at 1.849 and 1.864 um, plus an OH stretch + bend combination triplet at 2.215, 2.265, and 2.300 um and additional OH and SO4 combination features near 2.40, 2.46, 2.50, 2.60 and 2.62 um. H3O- and Na-jarosite spectra exhibit broader features and the doublet is less resolvable. The spectrum of Na-jarosite contains a band at 1.48 um, a broad asymmetric band near 1.85 um and a triplet near 2.235, 2.275, and 2.310 um, plus additional features near 2.42, 2.47, 2.52, 2.62 and 2.64 um. Band assignments for jarosite and alunite spectra are from Bishop and Murad [2005]. We are in the process of comparing these spectra with the mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of this jarosite group sample suite in order to perform coordinated analyses for this sulfate group on Mars using the MER and Mars Express datasets. References: Bishop, J. L., and E. Murad (2005), The visible and infrared spectral properties of jarosite and alunite, Am. Miner., 90, 1100-1107. Brophy, G. P., and M. F. Sheridan (1965), Sulfate studies IV: The jarosite-natrojarosite-hydronium jarosite solid solution series, Am. Miner., 50, 1595-1607. Klingelhofer, G., et al. (2004), Jarosite and hematite at Meridiani Planum from Opportunity's Mossbauer spectrometer, Science, 306, 1740-1745.

  9. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  10. Proteomic analysis of the nuclear matrix in the early stages of rat liver carcinogenesis: Identification of differentially expressed and MAR-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Barboro, Paola; D'Arrigo, Cristina; Repaci, Erica; Bagnasco, Luca; Orecchia, Paola; Carnemolla, Barbara; Patrone, Eligio; Balbi, Cecilia

    2009-01-15

    Tumor progression is characterized by definite changes in the protein composition of the nuclear matrix (NM). The interactions of chromatin with the NM occur via specific DNA sequences called MARs (matrix attachment regions). In the present study, we applied a proteomic approach along with a Southwestern assay to detect both differentially expressed and MAR-binding NM proteins, in persistent hepatocyte nodules (PHN) in respect with normal hepatocytes (NH). In PHN, the NM undergoes changes both in morphology and in protein composition. We detected over 500 protein spots in each two dimensional map and 44 spots were identified. Twenty-three proteins were differentially expressed; among these, 15 spots were under-expressed and 8 spots were over-expressed in PHN compared to NH. These changes were synchronous with several modifications in both NM morphology and the ability of NM proteins to bind nuclear RNA and/or DNA containing MARs sequences. In PHN, we observed a general decrease in the expression of the basic proteins that bound nuclear RNA and the over-expression of two species of Mw 135 kDa and 81 kDa and pI 6.7-7.0 and 6.2-7.4, respectively, which exclusively bind to MARs. These results suggest that the deregulated expression of these species might be related to large-scale chromatin reorganization observed in the process of carcinogenesis by modulating the interaction between MARs and the scaffold structure.

  11. Interplanetary journey of a coronal mass ejection to Mars and to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, Olivier; Kajdic, Primoz; Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Mays, Leila; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Espley, Jared; Goetz, Charlotte; Richter, Ingo; Koenders, Christoph; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Nilsson, Hans; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Andrews, David; Lester, Mark; Edberg, Niklas; Zouganelis, Yannis; Intzekara, Dimitra; Kuulkers, Erik; Turc, Lucile; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2016-04-01

    We discuss observations of a large coronal mass ejection (CME) ejected on 14 October 2014, which hit Mars on 17 October 2014, 1.5 days before the Mars close encounter with the Siding Spring comet. Clear disturbances of the Mars' upper atmosphere are identified in the Mars Express and MAVEN data sets. Interestingly, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was perfectly aligned with the Sun and Mars at 1.7 AU behind Mars, with the Rosetta spacecraft orbiting at 10 km above the cometary surface. The Rosetta plasma package and the radiation monitor detected the event on 22 October 2014. We describe the propagation of this CME from the Sun to Rosetta and show comparison with dedicated WSA-ENLIL (large-scale, physics-based prediction model of the heliosphere) simulations. CME effects on the Mars and comet 67P environments are reported. In particular, large and similar Forbush effects - a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity- were observed at both places, as recorded by the MSL RAD instrument aboard the Curiosity rover at the surface of Mars and by the Radiation Environment Monitor aboard Rosetta. Fortuitously, the New Horizons spacecraft was also along the propagation direction of the CME, which can take 3-5 months to reach the distance of 31.7 AU. By the time the solar wind travels that far from the Sun, the fast solar wind parcels have interacted with slower wind parcels emitted at an earlier time along the same radial line. We investigate if the CME observed at Mars and Rosetta has a unique signature at New Horizons. This presents a challenge since many solar structures can either be worn down as they propagate, or they can merge into larger ones. We present also preliminary 3D WSA-ENLIL simulations out to 40 AU showing the evolution of the CME, including other CMEs during this period.

  12. Identification of the Energetic Plume Ion Escape Channel at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fraenz, M.; Barabash, S.

    2013-12-01

    Mars lacks a global dipole magnetic field. The resulting induced magnetosphere arising from Mars' atmosphere's direct interaction with the solar wind differs significantly from that of Venus. The weak gravitational field of Mars creates scale heights so large that the exosphere extends out beyond the Induced Magnetosphere Boundary (IMB), where newly ionized exospheric oxygen is exposed to high speed shocked solar wind flow and the associated strong convective electric field (E). The weaker Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) at Mars, combined with this strong electric field, should be expected to result in heavy pickup ions with gyroradii much larger than the radius of Mars. Test particle models and hybrid models have predicted that these pickup ions create an energetic plume of escaping planetary ions that may have a flux on the same order of magnitude as the flow of planetary ions down the central tail loss channel. This study presents an analysis of data from the Ion Mass Analyzer aboard European Space Agency's Mars Express (MEX) to identify the presence of this energetic ion plume. We searched through the time period when Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was operating simultaneously with MEX, and selected hundreds of time intervals when IMF proxies from MGS show the convective electric field to be aligned with the orbit of MEX. We then examined plots of the MEX orbit during these intervals and selected times when MEX was positioned on the +E side of Mars and outside the nominal IMB. Finally, from these intervals we identified the cases in which oxygen ions were detected with energies above 2 keV. The result is a set of several direct measurements of the energetic plume.

  13. Image and spectral image compression for four experiments on the ROSETTA and Mars Express missions of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Yves; Forni, O.

    2000-12-01

    The output rates of imaging scientific experiments on planetary missions far exceed the few 10 kbits/s provided by X or Ka band downlink. This severely restricts the duration and frequency of observations. Space applications present specific constraints for compression methods: space qualified ROM and fast RAM chips have limited capacity and large power requirements. Real time compression is therefore preferable (no large local data buffer) but requires a large processing throughput. Wavelet compression provides a fast and efficient method for lossy data compression, when combined with tree- coding algorithms such as that of Said and Pearlman. We have developed such an algorithm for four instruments on ROSETTA (ESA cometary rendez-vous mission) and Mars Express (ESA Mars Orbiter and Lander mission), building on the experience from two experiments on CASSINI and MARS 96 for which lossless compression was implemented. Modern Digital Signal Processors using a pipeline architecture provide the required high computing capability. The Said-Pearlman tree-coding algorithm has been optimized for speed and code size by reducing branching and bit manipulation, which are very costly in terms of processor cycles. Written in C with a few assembly language modules, the implementation on a DSP of this new version of the Said-Pearlman algorithm provides a processing capability of 500 kdata/s (imaging), which is adequate for our applications. Compression ratios of at least 10 can be achieved with acceptable data quality.

  14. ESA's Mars Program: European Plans for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, Francois

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the European Space Agency Mars Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) History:Mars Exploration in Europe; 2) A few preliminary results from Mars Express; 3) A new instrument:Radar MARSIS; and 4) European Mars Exploration in the future?

  15. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative multiple antibiotic resistance repressor protein (MarR) from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Zhi-Le; Li, Juo-Ning; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Gao, Fei Philip; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-07-01

    A putative repressor for the multiple antibiotic resistance operon from a plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å with good quality. The multiple antibiotic resistance operon (marRAB) is a member of the multidrug-resistance system. When induced, this operon enhances resistance of bacteria to a variety of medically important antibiotics, causing a serious global health problem. MarR is a marR-encoded protein that represses the transcription of the marRAB operon. Through binding with salicylate and certain antibiotics, however, MarR can derepress and activate the marRAB operon. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1739, a putative MarR repressor protein present in the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, are described. The XC1739 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.8 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 54.2 and c = 139.5 Å, respectively. They contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit from calculation of the self-rotation function.

  16. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) technique: A test case of the Mars Express Phobos fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duev, D. A.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Cimò, G.; Molera Calvés, G.; Bocanegra Bahamón, T. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Kettenis, M. M.; Kania, J.; Tudose, V.; Rosenblatt, P.; Marty, J.-C.; Lainey, V.; de Vicente, P.; Quick, J.; Nickola, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Ploetz, C.; Haas, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Orlati, A.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kharinov, M. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Stevens, J.; Gulyaev, S. A.; Natush, T.; Weston, S.; Wang, W. H.; Xia, B.; Yang, W. J.; Hao, L.-F.; Kallunki, J.; Witasse, O.

    2016-09-01

    Context. The closest ever fly-by of the Martian moon Phobos, performed by the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft, gives a unique opportunity to sharpen and test the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) technique in the interest of studying planet-satellite systems. Aims: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a technique of providing high precision positional and Doppler measurements of planetary spacecraft using the Mars Express spacecraft. The technique will be used in the framework of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments in various planetary missions, in particular in fly-by mode. Methods: We advanced a novel approach to spacecraft data processing using the techniques of Doppler and phase-referenced very long baseline interferometry spacecraft tracking. Results: We achieved, on average, mHz precision (30 μm/s at a 10 s integration time) for radial three-way Doppler estimates and sub-nanoradian precision for lateral position measurements, which in a linear measure (at a distance of 1.4 AU) corresponds to ~50 m.

  17. O2(a1Δg) dayglow limb observations on Mars by SPICAM IR on Mars-Express and connection to water vapor distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guslyakova, S.; Fedorova, A. A.; Lefèvre, F.; Korablev, O. I.; Montmessin, F.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2014-09-01

    The 1.27-μm O2(a1Δg) dayglow on Mars is a product of the ozone photolysis by solar UV radiation. The intensity of the O2(a1Δg) emission rate depends on ozone concentration, atmospheric density and kinetic parameters of involved photochemical reactions. In turn, the distribution of ozone is sensitive to the vertical and spatial distribution of water vapor, which is an effective destructor of O3. SPICAM IR on the Mars-Express mission measures the O2(1Δg) dayglow with spectral resolving power of 2200. The results of 147 limb observations from 2004 to 2013 are reported. Limb resolution of the instrument is variable and exceeds the scale height of the atmosphere. The slant emission rate reaches a maximum at the high Northern latitudes at northern and southern springs Ls = 0-50° and 160-190°, respectively and a minimum in middle and low latitudes at southern summer Ls = 200-300°. We have compared the SPIVAM O2(a1Δg) limb profiles with the General Circulation Model simulation by the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD GCM, Lefèvre, F., Lebonnois, S., Montmessin, F., Forget, F. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E07004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JE002268; Lefèvre, F., et al. [2008]. Nature 454(7207), 971-975) reduced to the vertical resolution of the instrument. The GCM includes the radiative effect of the water clouds and an interactive dust scheme, and well reproduces Martian Climate Sounder (MCS) temperature profiles (Clancy, R. Todd et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res. 117, 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JE004018). The model underestimates the emission for Ls = 0-50°, Ls = 160-180° and overestimates it from Ls = 60° to Ls = 150° at high Northern latitudes. In the Southern hemisphere the model underestimates the emission for Ls = 170-200° and overestimates it for Ls = 200-230° at high Southern latitudes. The disagreement could be related to the water vapor distribution as the model reproduces it. The most recent version of the LMD GCM including

  18. Concurrent observations of ultraviolet aurora and energetic electron precipitation with Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, J.-C.; Soret, L.; Libert, L.; Lundin, R.; Stiepen, A.; Radioti, A.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The database of the Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) instrument between late January 2004 and Mars 2014 has been searched to identify signatures of CO Cameron and CO2+ doublet ultraviolet auroral emissions. This study has almost doubled the number of auroral detections based on SPICAM spectra. Auroral emissions are located in the vicinity of the statistical boundary between open and closed field lines. From a total of 113 nightside orbits with SPICAM pointing to the nadir in the region of residual magnetic field, only nine nightside orbits show confirmed auroral signatures, some with multiple detections along the orbital track, leading to a total of 16 detections. The mean energy of the electron energy spectra measured during concurrent Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms/Electron Spectrometer observations ranges from 150 to 280 eV. The ultraviolet aurora may be displaced poleward or equatorward of the region of enhanced downward electron energy flux by several tens of seconds and shows no proportionality with the electron flux at the spacecraft altitude. The absence of further UV auroral detection in regions located along crustal magnetic field structures where occasional aurora has been observed indicates that the Mars aurora is a time-dependent feature. These results are consistent with the scenario of acceleration of electrons by transient parallel electric field along semiopen magnetic field lines.

  19. Developing an Updated, Integrated Understanding of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, Bethany; Beaty, David; Meyer, Michael

    2014-09-01

    More than 650 scientists from 21 countries gathered in mid-July at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to debate and examine the status of our exploration of the Red Planet. Since the Seventh International Conference on Mars in 2007, seven Mars missions—Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit/Opportunity), Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity)—have been returning data, augmented by telescopic observations, studies of Martian meteorites, laboratory work, and modeling studies.

  20. Life on Mars: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Mars has evidence for past liquid water, presence of an atmosphere with CO2 and N2, and potential for preservation of evidence of life. Composition of the Martian atmosphere is 95.3% Carbon dioxide, 2.7% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon, 0.3-0.1% Water Vapor, 0.13% Oxygen, and 0.07% Carbon Monoxide. Current Mars missions include: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,

  1. Mars Express observations of high altitude planetary ion beams and their relation to the "energetic plume" loss channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Johnson, Blake C.; Fränz, Markus; Barabash, Stas

    2014-12-01

    This study presents observational evidence of high-energy (ions >2 keV) beams of planetary ions above Mars' induced magnetospheric boundary (IMB) and relates them with the energetic plume loss channel calculated from numerical models. A systematic search of the Mars Express (MEX) ion data using an orbit filtering criteria is described, using magnetometer data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) to determine the solar wind motional electric field (Esw) direction. Two levels of statistical survey are presented, one focused on times when the MEX orbit was directly in line with the Esw and another for all angles between the MEX location and the Esw. For the first study, within the 3 year overlap of MGS and MEX, nine brief intervals were found with clear and unambiguous high-energy O+ observations consistent with the energetic plume loss channel. The second survey used a point-by-point determination of MEX relative to the E-field and contained many thousands of 192 s measurements. This study yielded only a weak indication for an Esw-aligned plume. Furthermore, the y-z components of the weighted average velocities in the bins of this y-z spatial domain survey do not systematically point in the Esw direction. The first survey implies the existence of this plume and shows that its characteristics are seemingly consistent with the expected energy and flight direction from numerical studies; the second study softens the finding and demonstrates that there are many planetary ions beyond the IMB moving in unexpected directions. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed.

  2. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  3. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  4. On the properties of O + and O 2+ ions in a hybrid model and in Mars Express IMA/ASPERA-3 data: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, E.; Fedorov, A.; Budnik, E.; Barabash, S.; Jarvinen, R.; Janhunen, P.

    2008-07-01

    We have performed a numerical simulation to analyze the energy spectra of escaping planetary O + and O 2+ ions at Mars. The simulated time-energy spectrograms were generated along orbit no. 555 (June 27, 2004) of Mars Express when its Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA)/ASPERA-3 ion instrument detected escaping planetary ions. The simulated time-energy spectrograms are in general agreement with the hypothesis that planetary O + and O 2+ ions far from Mars are accelerated by the convective electric field. The HYB-Mars hybrid model simulation also shows that O + ions originating from the ionized hot oxygen corona result in a high-energy ( E>1 keV) O + ion population that exists very close to Mars. In addition, the simulation also results in a low-energy ( E<0.1 keV) planetary ion population near the pericenter. In the analyzed orbit, IMA did not observe a clear high-energy planetary ion or a clear low-energy planetary ion population near Mars. One possible source for this discrepancy may be the Martian magnetic crustal anomalies because MEX passed over a strong crustal field region near the pericenter, but the hybrid model does not include the magnetic crustal anomalies.

  5. Interior channels in Martian valleys: Constraints on fluvial erosion by measurements of the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Frei, S.; Neukum, G.; Scholten, F.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Mertens, V.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Kohler, U.; Head, J.W.; Hiesinger, H.; Carr, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    In High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images of the Mars Express Mission a 130 km long interior channel is identified within a 400 km long valley network system located in the Lybia Montes. Ages of the valley floor and the surroundings as derived from crater counts define a period of ???350 Myrs during which the valley might have been formed. Based on HRSC stereo measurements the discharge of the interior channel is estimated at ???4800 in m3/S, corresponding to a runoff production rate of ??? cm/day. Mass balances indicate erosion rates of a few cm/year implying the erosion activity in the valley to a few thousand years for continuous flow, or one or more orders of magnitude longer time spans for more intermittent flows. Therefore, during the Hesperian, relatively brief but recurring episodes of erosion intervals are more likely than sustained flow. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  7. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  8. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR LIGHTING TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In KSC's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers are conducting a solar illumination test of the solar panels on the Mars Global Surveyor. The Surveyor is outfitted with two solar arrays, each featuring two panels, that provide electrical power for operating the spacecraft's electronic equipment and scientific instruments, as well as charging two nickel hydrogen batteries that provide power when the spacecraft is in the dark. For launch, the solar arrays will be folded against the side of the spacecraft. The Mars Global Surveyor is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a launch window opening Nov. 6.

  9. Mineral Mapping of High Priority Landing Sites for MSL and Beyond Using Mars Express OMEGA and HRSC Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J.; Bibring, J.; Poulet, F.; Mangold, N.; Loizeau, D.; Hauber, E.; Altieri, F.; Carrozzo, G.

    2008-12-01

    High priority candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission have been proposed by various researchers, their significance based largely on spectroscopic and geomorphic evidence for aqueous processes. Specifically, seven candidate landing sites are under consideration for MSL at the time of this writing: Mawrth Vallis, Nili Fossae, southern Meridiani Planum, Eberswalde Crater, Holden Crater, Gale Crater, and Miyamoto Crater. While only one of these sites can be visited by MSL, the other sites remain among the most compelling localities on Mars for future in-situ exploration by ESA's ExoMars mission or an international Mars sample return mission. We have produced regional scale mineral maps of these sites using data from the Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA). Visible images from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) are used as a map base. OMEGA infrared band parameters are used to identify and map pyroxene, olivine, oxides, sulfates, phyllosilicates, and other hydrated phases. OMEGA visible channel data also provide color information, which gives an estimate of dust cover and additional insights into the mineralogy of altered deposits. The dustiest site is Gale Crater and the least dusty is Nili Fossae. The strongest signature of phyllosilicates occurs in Mawrth Vallis, followed by Nili Fossae. However, Nili Fossae also has some of the strongest olivine signatures on the planet. One fundamental difference between the Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis sites is that in Mawrth Vallis, phyllosilicate-bearing, light-toned rocks contain no evidence for primary phases in OMEGA data, but in the Nili Fossae area, phyllosilicates, olivine, and pyroxene are mixed at the subpixel level. South Meridiani Planum shows hydrated plains in contact with ancient, pyroxene-bearing, slightly altered, older bedrock. Patchy deposits of phyllosilicates are found in Miyamoto Crater, but their geologic context is

  10. Eight-year climatology of dust optical depth on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, L.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Wilson, R. J.; Lewis, S. R.; Cantor, B.; Kass, D.; Kleinböhl, A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from martian year 24-31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure that is weighted in space, time, and retrieval quality. The lack of observations at certain times and locations introduces missing grid points in the maps, which therefore may result in irregularly gridded (i.e. incomplete) fields. In order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we compare with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. We have statistically analyzed the irregularly gridded maps to provide an overview of the dust climatology on Mars over eight years, specifically in relation to its interseasonal and interannual variability, in addition to provide a basis for instrument intercomparison. Finally, we have produced regularly gridded maps of CDOD by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These complete maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modeling

  11. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR MOVED TO WORK STAND IN PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In KSC's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), workers are transferring the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft to a handling dolly from an alignment stand where alignment of spacecraft instrumentation was performed. The Mars Global Surveyor is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a launch window opening Nov. 6. The spacecraft represents the first venture in NASA's Mars Surveyor Program, a new series of missions to explore the Red Planet.

  12. Study by Mars Express of the Response of the Martian Ionosphere to a Strong CME Directly Detected by MAVEN on March 8th, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Morgan, D. D.; Halekas, J. S.; DeJong, W.; Ertl, C.; Venable, A.; Wilkinson, C.; Lundin, R. N. A.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, D.; Plaut, J. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    This study summarizes the effects of a strong coronal mass ejection (CME) on Mars as detected by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) in the solar wind and by Mars Express (MEX) in the nightside ionosphere. The Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) onboard MAVEN identified a strong CME on March 8th, 2015, characterized by an increase in the solar wind density and solar wind speeds up to about 800 km/s. Simultaneously with the MAVEN observations, the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on MEX detected unusually high local electron density and local magnetic field values in the nightside Martian ionosphere. The Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) on Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) instrument, also on MEX, saw a sharp CME front followed by an increase in the ion speed and a sharp enhancement in the electron flux seen by the ASPERA-3 Electron Spectrometer (ELS) signals the CME. ASPERA-3 data also suggest an increase in the plasma temperature when the shock hits Mars. Finally, the peak ionospheric density obtained with MARSIS remote sounding exhibits a discrete enhancement over a period of about 30 hrs around the same latitude and local time. We believe that this high density ionospheric plasma is forced by the CME from dayside to the nightside towards high altitudes.

  13. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  14. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, Matthew; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our "lessons learned" from formative evaluation, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  15. Mars Polar Lander arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Mars Polar Lander is loaded onto a truck after its flight aboard an Air Force C-17 cargo plane that carried it from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, CO. The lander is being transported to the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2(SAEF-2) in the KSC Industrial Area for testing, including a functional test of the science instruments and the basic spacecraft subsystems. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars Polar Lander spacecraft is planned for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999.

  16. Astrometric observations of Phobos with the SRC on Mars Express. New data and comparison of different measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasewaldt, A.; Oberst, J.; Willner, K.; Beisembin, B.; Hoffmann, H.; Matz, K. D.; Roatsch, T.; Michael, G.; Cardesín-Moinelo, A.; Zubarev, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: From April 2008 to August 2011 Mars Express carried out 74 Phobos flybys at distances between 669 and 5579 km. Images taken with the Super Resolution Channel (SRC) were used to determine the spacecraft-centered right ascension and declination of this Martian moon. Methods: Image positions of Phobos were measured using the limb-fit and control-point measurement techniques. Camera pointing and pointing drift were controlled by means of background star observations that were compared to corresponding positions from reference catalogs. Blurred and noisy images were restored by applying an image-based point spread function in a Richardson-Lucy deconvolution. Results: Here, we report on a set of 158 Phobos astrometric observations with estimated accuracies between 0.224 and 3.405 km circular w.r.t. the line of sight to the satellite. Control point measurements yield slightly more accurate results than the limb fit ones. Our observations are in good agreement with the current Phobos ephemerides by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) with mean offsets of up to 335 m. Our data can be used for the maintenance and update of these models. Tables A.1 and A.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A28

  17. Solar wind dependent models for the shapes of the Martian plasma boundaries based on Mars Express measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstad, Robin; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmstrom, Mats

    2016-10-01

    The long operational life (2003-) of Mars Express (MEX) has allowed the spacecraft to make plasma measurements in the Martian environment over a wide range of upstream conditions. We have analyzed ~5000 MEX orbits, covering three orders of magnitude in solar wind dynamic pressure, with data from the on-board Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Particles (ASPERA-3) package, mapping the locations where MEX crosses the main plasma boundaries; induced magnetosphere boundary (IMB), ionosphere boundary (IB) and bow shock (BS). A coincidence scheme was employed, where data from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) and the Electron Spectrometer (ELS) had to agree for a positive boundary identification, which resulted in crossings from 882 orbit segments that were used to create dynamic 2-parameter (solar wind density, nsw, and velocity vsw dependent global dynamic models for the IMB, IB and BS. The modeled response is found to be individual to each boundary; the BS is stationary for all but extremely thin and slow solar wind, the IMB scales solely dependent on dynamic pressure and the IB changes morphology with different trends for nsw and vsw. We find no significant trend in IMB location with changing EUV intensities when the upstream solar wind is constrained to nominal conditions. Finally, the IMB model is used to extrapolate the solar wind stand-off distance in the ancient (0.7 Ga old) solar wind.

  18. Expression of the meningococcal adhesin NadA is controlled by a transcriptional regulator of the MarR family.

    PubMed

    Schielke, Stephanie; Huebner, Claudia; Spatz, Carolin; Nägele, Virginie; Ackermann, Nikolaus; Frosch, Matthias; Kurzai, Oliver; Schubert-Unkmeir, Alexandra

    2009-05-01

    Two closely related pathogenic species have evolved in the genus Neisseria: N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae, which occupy different host niches and cause different clinical entities. In contrast to the pathogen N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis is a commensal and only rarely becomes invasive. Little is known about the genetic background of the entirely different lifestyles in these closely related species. Meningococcal NMB1843 encodes a transcriptional regulator of the MarR family. The gonococcal homologue FarR regulates expression of farAB, mediating fatty acid resistance. We show that NmFarR also directly interacts with NmfarAB. Yet, by contrast to N. gonorrhoeae, no significant sensitivity to fatty acids was observed in a DeltafarR mutant due to intrinsic resistance of meningococci. Further analyses identified an NmFarR-repressed protein absent from N. gonorrhoeae. This protein is the meningococcus-specific adhesin and vaccine component NadA that has most likely been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. NmFarR binds to a 16 base pair palindromic repeat within the nadA promoter. De-repression of nadA resulted in significantly higher association of a DeltafarR strain with epithelial cells. Hence NmFarR has gained control over a meningococcus-specific gene involved in host colonization and thus contributed to divergent niche adaptation in pathogenic Neisseriae.

  19. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the protective wrapping on the Mars Polar Lander to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  20. Mars Polar Lander arrives at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Polar Landerspacecraft is lifted off the trailer of that transported it to the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  1. Roles of the outer membrane protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the control of marRAB expression and invasion of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ana I; Hernández, Sara B; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-06-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of approximately 70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA(+) and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.

  2. Search for methane on Mars: Observations, interpretation and future work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Thérèse

    2008-07-01

    The detection of methane on Mars has been reported by three different teams in 2004. Two of them used ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared range. The third one used the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard Mars Express. Among the data sets, two of them reported a mean CH4 mixing ratio of 10 ppb. However, these are marginal detections, which should be considered as tentative. The third (ground-based) data set, unpublished so far, seems to show evidence for strong localized sources of CH4, corresponding to mixing ratios as high as 250 ppb in some cases. However, the high values reported in 2003 were not confirmed by subsequent observations performed by the PFS instrument in 2004. In the absence of a refereed publication, it is difficult to judge if the high values are indeed correct. Assuming that they are, the lack of their confirmation by the PFS could have several explanations, including, among others, localized transient vents, or time variations in the methane destruction rate. A biogenic source was first suggested for the martian methane. However, later studies showed that an abiotic source such as hydrogeology can be just as effective. Further dedicated observations are obviously needed to firm up the detection and distribution of methane on Mars.

  3. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a electrical and functional tests of its pyrotechic petal deployer system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers and technicians in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). In the background is the Pathfinder cruise stage, which the lander will be mated to once its functional tests are complete. The lander will remain attached to this stage during its six-to-seven-month journey to Mars. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the Sojourner autonomous rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  4. Mars Odyssey Seen by Mars Global Surveyor (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This stereoscopic picture of NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft was created from two views of that spacecraft taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The camera's successful imaging of Odyssey and of the European Space Agency's Mars Express in April 2005 produced the first pictures of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

    Mars Global Surveyor acquired this image of Mars Odyssey on April 21, 2005. The stereoscopic picture combines one view captured while the two orbiters were 90 kilometers (56 miles) apart with a second view captured from a slightly different angle when the two orbiters were 135 kilometers (84 miles) apart. For proper viewing, the user needs '3-D' glasses with red over the left eye and blue over the right eye.

    The Mars Orbiter Camera can resolve features on the surface of Mars as small as a few meters or yards across from Mars Global Surveyor's orbital altitude of 350 to 405 kilometers (217 to 252 miles). From a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles), the camera would be able to resolve features substantially smaller than 1 meter or yard across.

    Mars Odyssey was launched on April 7, 2001, and reached Mars on Oct. 24, 2001. Mars Global Surveyor left Earth on Nov. 7, 1996, and arrived in Mars orbit on Sept. 12, 1997. Both orbiters are in an extended mission phase, both have relayed data from the Mars Exploration Rovers, and both are continuing to return exciting new results from Mars. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages both missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

  5. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles.

  6. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles. PMID:11708368

  7. The effect of matrix attached regions (MAR) and specialized chromatin structure (SCS) on the expression of gene constructs in cultured cells and in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Attal, J; Cajero-Juarez, M; Petitclerc, D; Théron, M C; Stinnakre, M G; Bearzotti, M; Kann, G; Houdebine, L M

    The flanking sequences of several genes have been shown to direct a position independent expression of transgenes. Attempts to completely identify the insulating sequences have failed so far. Some of these sequences contain a matrix attached region (MAR) located in the flanking part of the genes. This article will show that the MARs in cultured cells located in the 3' OH region of the human apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100) and within the SV40 genome were unable to stimulate and insultate transgene expression directed by the promoters from a rabbit whey acidic protein (WAP) gene or from human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) early genes. In transgenic mice, the MAR from the Apo B100 and SV40 genes did not enhance the expression of a transgene containing the rabbit whey acid protein (WAP) promotor, the late gene SV40 intron (VP1 intron), the bovine growth hormone (bGH) cDNA and the SV40 late gene terminator. This construct was even toxic for embryos. Similarly, the specialized chromatin structure (SCS) from the Drosophila 87A7 HSP70 gene reduced chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) activity when added between a cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer and a Herpes simplex thymidine kinase (TK) gene promoter. This inhibitory action was almost complete when a second SCS sequence was added before the CMV enhancer. Sequences from the firefly luciferase and from the human gene cathepsin D cDNA used as control unexpectedly showed a similar inhibitory effect when added to the CMVTKCAT construct instead of SCS. When added before the CMV enhancer and after the transcription terminator in the CMVTKCAT construct, the SCS sequence was unable to insulate the integrated gene as seen by the fact that the level of CAT in cell extracts were by no means correlated with the number of copies in individual clones. From these data, it is concluded that i) a MAR containing the canonical AT rich sequences does not amplify the expression of all gene constructs ii) At rich MAR sequences do not have per se an

  8. Mapping Geological Units on Mars by Analyzing the Spectral Properties of the Surface from the Mars-Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, J.; Adams, J. B.; McCord, T. B.

    2006-12-01

    Geological units at the surface of Mars can be investigated through the analysis of spatial changes of both its composition and its superficial structural properties. The color images provided by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) are a multispectral dataset with an unprecedented high spatial resolution. We focused this study on the western chasmas of Valles Marineris with the neighboring plateau. Using the four-wavelength spectra of HRSC, the two types of surface color units (bright red and dark bluish material) plus a shade/shadow component can explain most of the variations [1]. An objective is to provide maps of the relative abundances that are independent of shade [2]. The spectral shape of the shade spectrum is calculated from the data. Then, Spectral Mixture Analysis of the two main materials and shade is performed. The shade gives us indications about variations in the surface roughness in the context of the mixtures of spectral/mineralogical materials. For mapping the different geological units at the surface at high spatial resolution, a correspondence between the color and the mineralogy is needed, aided by direct and more precise identifications of the composition of Mars. The joint analysis of HRSC and results from the OMEGA imaging spectrometer makes the most of their respective abilities [1]. Ferric oxides are present in bright red materials both in the chasmas and on the plateau [1] and they are often mixed with dark materials identified as basalts containing pyroxenes [4]. In Valles Marineris, salt deposits (bright) have been reported by using OMEGA [3], along with ferric oxides [4, 5] that appear relatively dark. The detailed spatial distribution of these materials is a key to understand the geology. Examples will be presented. [1] McCord T. B., et al. 2006, JGR, submitted. [2] Adams J. B. And Gillespie A. R., 2006, Cambridge University Press, 362 pp. [3] Le Mouelic S. et al., 2006, LPSC #1409. [4] Gendrin et al. (2005), LPSC #1858. [5

  9. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  10. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubov, D.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, launching in December 1996 and landing on Mars on July 4, 1997, will demonstrate a low-cost delivery system to the surface of Mars for follow-on landers. Objectives are the return of engineering data, panoramic images of the Martian surface, microrover experiments, etc. A technical mission description is included.

  11. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  12. ISS Update: Science Aboard Kounotori3

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Pete Hasbrook, associate program scientist, about the experiments traveling to the International Space Station aboard the H-II Transfer Vehicle...

  13. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER COVER REMOVED IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory work to remove the cover from the shipping container containing the lander portion of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  14. MARS PATHFINDER INSPECTED BY ENGINEER LINDA ROBECK IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility, engineer Linda Robeck of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory inspects the Mars Pathfinder lander. The spacecraft arrived at Kennedy Space Center from Pasadena, CA on Aug. 13, 1996. The petals of the lander will be opened for checkout of the spacecraft and the installation of the small rover. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  15. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER PROTECTIVE WRAPPING REMOVED IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from Jet Propulsion Laboratory remove the protective wrapping from the Mars Pathfinder lander after it was placed on a moveable test stand. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  16. Combination of the SRC images and radio-tracking data of Mars Express for improving the Phobos' gravity field determination from close flyby(s).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, Pascal; Lainey, Valery; Oberst, Juergen; Hoffmann, Harald; Neukum, Gerhard; Dehant, Veronique; Marty, Jean-Charles; Witasse, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The determination of the gravity field of Phobos up to second-order terms is the main objective of future close flybys of the Martian moon by Mars Express (MEX). Such flybys at close distance (typically less than 60 km from the center) are needed to obtain the signature of the second-degree coefficients of the gravity field of the moon in the spacecraft orbit. However, a major issue is that a precise knowledge of the position of Phobos at the time of each flyby is critical in order to avoid significant biases on the retrieval of the gravity field coefficients from the reconstruction of the MEX orbit. In order to overcome this problem, we have proposed in the frame of the European FP7 ESPaCE network the idea to perform a series of astrometric measurements of Phobos around the Mars Express flyby(s), with the Super-Resolution-Channel (SRC) of the HRSC camera onboard MEX. Based on these measurements, an improved ephemeris of Phobos' orbit specifically designed around the flyby is generated. Then, it can be used in a global inversion scheme with radio-tracking data of the spacecraft acquired during and around the flyby, in order to obtain a very precise and accurate solution of the gravity field of Phobos. In this study, we present this innovative methodology that may be used for future Mars Express flybys. Numerical simulations are run to quantify the error on the determination of the gravity field as a function of the uncertainty on its orbit. A strategy to optimize the use of the SRC operation is also developed.

  17. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers maneuver the Mars Polar Lander onto a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  18. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) lift the Mars Polar Lander to move it to a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  19. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the Mars Polar Lander is lowered toward a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  20. Biological experiments - The Viking Mars Lander.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Lederberg, J.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    From the biological point of view, the Viking 1975 mission might be regarded as a test of the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis concerning the chemical evolution of living systems. Mars is a planet whose early history was probably similar to that of the earth and whose present environmental conditions may be compatible with the maintenance of living organisms. Thus, the biological experiments aboard the Viking I spacecraft are primarily concerned with the question of whether chemical evolution on Mars took place, and, if so, whether the process reached a level of complexity characteristic of replicating systems.

  1. Expression of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene under control of the 5'-regulatory sequence of the goat alpha-S1-casein gene with and without a MAR element in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Burkov, I A; Serova, I A; Battulin, N R; Smirnov, A V; Babkin, I V; Andreeva, L E; Dvoryanchikov, G A; Serov, O L

    2013-10-01

    Expression of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene under the control of the 5'-regulatory sequence of the goat alpha-S1-casein gene with and without a matrix attachment region (MAR) element from the Drosophila histone 1 gene was studied in four and eight transgenic mouse lines, respectively. Of the four transgenic lines carrying the transgene without MAR, three had correct tissues-specific expression of the hGM-CSF gene in the mammary gland only and no signs of cell mosaicism. The concentration of hGM-CSF in the milk of transgenic females varied from 1.9 to 14 μg/ml. One line presented hGM-CSF in the blood serum, indicating ectopic expression. The values of secretion of hGM-CSF in milk of 6 transgenic lines carrying the transgene with MAR varied from 0.05 to 0.7 μg/ml, and two of these did not express hGM-CSF. Three of the four examined animals from lines of this group showed ectopic expression of the hGM-CSF gene, as determined by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses, as well as the presence of hGM-CSF in the blood serum. Mosaic expression of the hGM-CSF gene in mammary epithelial cells was specific to all examined transgenic mice carrying the transgene with MAR but was never observed in the transgenic mice without MAR. The mosaic expression was not dependent on transgene copy number. Thus, the expected "protective or enhancer effect" from the MAR element on the hGM-CSF gene expression was not observed.

  2. Water supersaturation and water-dust cycle interaction in the atmosphere of Mars. One year of observations of vertical distribution of water vapor by the SPICAM spectrometer onboard Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltagliati, L.; Montmessin, F.; Fedorova, A.; Forget, F.; Lefevre, F.; Bertaux, J.; Korablev, O.

    2011-12-01

    The SPICAM instrument onboard Mars Express observes routinely the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars. This dataset fills an important void in the observation of the Martian water cycle. The H2O vertical profile is one of the most important diagnostics to determine the active mechanisms that shape the Martian water cycle, but is also one of the least known. Before SPICAM, only the Auguste spectrometer on Phobos-2 allowed for the direct retrieval of the water vapor vertical distribution, but with limited spatial and temporal coverage due to the short life of the spacecraft (Rodin et al. 1997). Knowledge of the water profile on Mars relied mostly on indirect observations (e.g. Tschimmel et al. 2008) or GCM predictions. The SPICAM infrared channel retrieves simultaneously the vertical profiles of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and aerosol optical depth by means of the solar occultation technique. The first results have been presented in Fedorova et al. (2009). Here the results for the vertical distribution of water vapor obtained during a complete Martian year, MY 29, will be shown and analyzed. This dataset includes ~ 150 orbits, by far the most extensive dataset on water vapor profiling in the Martian atmosphere ever presented. The two campaigns cover two crucial periods for the Martian seasonal water cycle: the aphelion season, when the maximum of the annual water vapor activity develops, and northern autumn, that coincides with the peak of the Martian dust cycle (Fig. 1). SPICAM results cast new light on the behavior of water vapor along the atmosphere. The comparison between the SPICAM profiles and GCM predictions indicates that models currently do not take into account phenomena that are relevant in driving the vertical distribution of water vapor. The discovery of water supersaturation in the middle atmosphere points out at a bigger role of aerosol microphysics on the water cycle than previously thought. A stricter relationship between

  3. Multihued Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at JPL shows the panoramic camera used onboard both Mars Exploration Rovers. The panel to the lower right highlights the multicolored filter wheel that allows the camera to see a rainbow of colors, in addition to infrared bands of light. By seeing Mars in all its colors, scientists can gain insight into the different minerals that constitute its rocks and soil.

  4. High LMD GCM Resolution Modeling of the Seasonal Evolution of the Martian Northern Permanent Cap: Comparison with Mars Express OMEGA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levrard, B.; Forget, F.; Montmessin, F.; Schmitt, B.; Doute, S.; Langevin, Y.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J. P.; Gondet, B.

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of imaging data from Mariner, Viking and MGS have shown that surface properties (albedo, temperature) of the northern cap present significant differences within the summer season and between Mars years. These observations include differential brightening and/or darkening between polar areas from the end of the spring to midsummer. These differences are attributed to changes in grain size or dust content of surface ice. To better understand the summer behavior of the permanent northern polar cap, we perfomed a high resolution modeling (approximately 1 deg x 1 deg.) of northern cap in the Martian Climate/water cycle as simulated by the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) global climate model. We compare the predicted properties of the surface ice (ice thickness, temperature) with the Mars Express Omega summer observations of the northern cap. albedo and thermal inertia svariations model. In particular, albedo variations could be constrained by OMEGA data. Meteorological predictions of the LMD GCM wil be presented at the conference to interpret the unprecedently resolved OMEGA observations. The specific evolution of regions of interest (cap center, Chasma Boreal...) and the possibility of late summer global cap brightening will be discussed.

  5. Emissivity measurements of analogue materials for the interpretation of data from PFS on Mars Express and MERTIS on Bepi-Colombo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Witzke, A.; Moroz, L.

    2006-09-01

    The Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard the Mars Express Mission provides thermal infrared, hyperspectral images of Mars and in the future the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), part of the selected payload for the Bepi-Colombo Mission, will collect analogous data for Mercury. To interpret these remote sensing data it is essential to understand the spectral emittance of planetary analogue materials and a spectral library of emissivity measurements is needed. Here we introduce the emissivity device built at DLR (Berlin). The device is coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker IFS 88), purged with dry air and equipped with a cooled MCT-detector. We discuss theoretical background of our thermal emission measurements and describe our standard experimental procedures, which are being used to create the Berlin emissivity database (BED). This study presents and discuss the 6.3-22 μm thermal emission spectra of fine-grained feldspar separates ranging from <25 to 90-125 μm. We discuss diagnostic potential of the features present in the emission spectra of plagioclase and alkali feldspars and the particle size effects.

  6. Radar sounding of the Medusae Fossae Formation Mars: equatorial ice or dry, low-density deposits?

    PubMed

    Watters, Thomas R; Campbell, Bruce; Carter, Lynn; Leuschen, Carl J; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Picardi, Giovanni; Orosei, Roberto; Safaeinili, Ali; Clifford, Stephen M; Farrell, William M; Ivanov, Anton B; Phillips, Roger J; Stofan, Ellen R

    2007-11-16

    The equatorial Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is enigmatic and perhaps among the youngest geologic deposits on Mars. They are thought to be composed of volcanic ash, eolian sediments, or an ice-rich material analogous to polar layered deposits. The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) instrument aboard the Mars Express Spacecraft has detected nadir echoes offset in time-delay from the surface return in orbits over MFF material. These echoes are interpreted to be from the subsurface interface between the MFF material and the underlying terrain. The delay time between the MFF surface and subsurface echoes is consistent with massive deposits emplaced on generally planar lowlands materials with a real dielectric constant of approximately 2.9 +/- 0.4. The real dielectric constant and the estimated dielectric losses are consistent with a substantial component of water ice. However, an anomalously low-density, ice-poor material cannot be ruled out. If ice-rich, the MFF must have a higher percentage of dust and sand than polar layered deposits. The volume of water in an ice-rich MFF deposit would be comparable to that of the south polar layered deposits.

  7. Radar Sounding of the Medusae Fossae Formation Mars: Equatorial Ice or Dry, Low-Density Deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Campbell, Bruce; Carter, Lynn; Leuschen, Carl J.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Picardi, Giovanni; Orosei, Roberto; Safaeinili, Ali; Clifford, Stephen M.; Farrell, William M.; Ivanov, Anton B.; Phillips, Roger J.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    2007-11-01

    The equatorial Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is enigmatic and perhaps among the youngest geologic deposits on Mars. They are thought to be composed of volcanic ash, eolian sediments, or an ice-rich material analogous to polar layered deposits. The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) instrument aboard the Mars Express Spacecraft has detected nadir echoes offset in time-delay from the surface return in orbits over MFF material. These echoes are interpreted to be from the subsurface interface between the MFF material and the underlying terrain. The delay time between the MFF surface and subsurface echoes is consistent with massive deposits emplaced on generally planar lowlands materials with a real dielectric constant of ~2.9 ± 0.4. The real dielectric constant and the estimated dielectric losses are consistent with a substantial component of water ice. However, an anomalously low-density, ice-poor material cannot be ruled out. If ice-rich, the MFF must have a higher percentage of dust and sand than polar layered deposits. The volume of water in an ice-rich MFF deposit would be comparable to that of the south polar layered deposits.

  8. Bacillus subtilis spore survival and expression of germination-induced bioluminescence after prolonged incubation under simulated Mars atmospheric pressure and composition: implications for planetary protection and lithopanspermia.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Schuerger, Andrew C

    2005-08-01

    Bacterial endospores in the genus Bacillus are considered good models for studying interplanetary transfer of microbes by natural or human processes. Although spore survival during transfer itself has been the subject of considerable study, the fate of spores in extraterrestrial environments has received less attention. In this report we subjected spores of a strain of Bacillus subtilis, containing luciferase resulting from expression of an sspB-luxAB gene fusion, to simulated martian atmospheric pressure (7-18 mbar) and composition (100% CO(2)) for up to 19 days in a Mars simulation chamber. We report here that survival was similar between spores exposed to Earth conditions and spores exposed up to 19 days to simulated martian conditions. However, germination-induced bioluminescence was lower in spores exposed to simulated martian atmosphere, which suggests sublethal impairment of some endogenous spore germination processes.

  9. Bacillus subtilis spore survival and expression of germination-induced bioluminescence after prolonged incubation under simulated Mars atmospheric pressure and composition: implications for planetary protection and lithopanspermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial endospores in the genus Bacillus are considered good models for studying interplanetary transfer of microbes by natural or human processes. Although spore survival during transfer itself has been the subject of considerable study, the fate of spores in extraterrestrial environments has received less attention. In this report we subjected spores of a strain of Bacillus subtilis, containing luciferase resulting from expression of an sspB-luxAB gene fusion, to simulated martian atmospheric pressure (7-18 mbar) and composition (100% CO(2)) for up to 19 days in a Mars simulation chamber. We report here that survival was similar between spores exposed to Earth conditions and spores exposed up to 19 days to simulated martian conditions. However, germination-induced bioluminescence was lower in spores exposed to simulated martian atmosphere, which suggests sublethal impairment of some endogenous spore germination processes.

  10. Mars Polar Lander arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Mars Polar Lander is rolled from the Air Force C-17 cargo plane that carried it from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, CO. The Mars Polar Lander is targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  11. Examining Mars with SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.

    1999-01-01

    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  12. Ionospheric storms on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Woch, J.; Duru, F.; Gurnett, D.; Modolo, R.; Barabash, S.; Lundin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements made by the ASPERA-3 and MARSIS experiments on Mars Express have shown that space weather effects related to the impact of a dense and high pressure solar wind on Mars cause strong perturbations in the martian induced magnetosphere and ionosphere. The magnetic barrier formed by pile-up of the draped interplanetary magnetic field ceases to be a shield for the incoming solar wind. Large blobs of solar wind plasma penetrate to the magnetosphere and sweep out dense plasma from the ionosphere. The topside martian ionosphere becomes very fragmented consisting of intermittent cold/low energy and energized plasmas. The scavenging effect caused by the intrusions of solar wind plasma clouds enhances significantly the losses of volatile material from Mars.

  13. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Next entry to Mars (Mars Pathfinder and the microrover Sojourner). Hello, Mars, we're back! Mars Global Surveyor update. The Mars program - 2001 and beyond. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of June 11, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  14. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers mate the Mars Polar Lander (top) to the Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket is scheduled to launch Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  15. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Polar Lander spacecraft is lowered to mate it with the Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch it on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  16. Mars Bowling

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  17. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  18. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  19. Mars resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-05-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  20. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  1. Ovarian Tumor Cells Studied Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In August 2001, principal investigator Jeanne Becker sent human ovarian tumor cells to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the STS-105 mission. The tumor cells were cultured in microgravity for a 14 day growth period and were analyzed for changes in the rate of cell growth and synthesis of associated proteins. In addition, they were evaluated for the expression of several proteins that are the products of oncogenes, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. This photo, which was taken by astronaut Frank Culbertson who conducted the experiment for Dr. Becker, shows two cell culture bags containing LN1 ovarian carcinoma cell cultures.

  2. MarsExpress High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Multi-orbit Data Products: Methodology, Mapping Concepts and Performance for the first Quadrangle (MC-11E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express mission is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars. As the surface areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, the HRSC team has recently started a coordinated effort for the systematic mapping of Mars by multi-orbit digital terrain models (DTMs) and image mosaics, using the complete HRSC mission data record. We present the DTM and orthoimage mosaic obtained for the first half-tile, MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus), together with results of a performance analysis for this data set. The geomorphological analysis of surface features observed by HRSC has allowed to characterize major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes at different scales. Such studies (in the field of geomorphology, but also compositional mapping and atmospheric science) have been based on joint analysis of DTM and orthoimage information, and have benefitted from the high accuracy of co-registration between multiple datasets, which is particularly important for multi-temporal and multi-angular observations. HRSC is unique because it bridges the gap between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of stereo and non-stereo datasets. As HRSC is a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of 3D points derived from stereo analysis allows producing DTMs with grid sizes of up to 50 m and a height accuracy on the order of one pixel on the ground and better, as well as corresponding orthoimages. Such data products have been produced for individual HRSC strips covering approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far. After more than 10 years of operation, HRSC covered about 70% of the surface by

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars All Over: Geologic Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles presented in this session include: 1) 'Geology of Noachian Martian Highlands Surrounding the Gusev Crater'; 2) 'The History of Deposition and Nature of Material in Hellas Basin, Mars'; 3) 'Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars'; 4) 'Geology of the Aram Chaos from MGS-Mars Odyssey Missions and Mars Express HRSC Data'; 5) 'Toward a Comprehensive Stratigraphic Column of Mars'; 6 'The Olympus Mons Aureole Deposits: Constraints on Emplacement Scenarios Based on Remotely Sensed Data'.

  4. The Martian atmospheric ion escape rate dependence on solar wind and solar EUV conditions: 1. Seven years of Mars Express observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstad, Robin; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Nilsson, Hans; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Holmström, Mats

    2015-07-01

    More than 7 years of ion flux measurements in the energy range 10 eV-15 keV have allowed the ASPERA-3/IMA (Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Ions/Ion Mass Analyzer) instrument on Mars Express to collect a large database of ion measurements in the Mars environment, over a wide range of upstream solar wind (density and velocity) and radiation (solar EUV intensity) conditions. We investigate the influence of these parameters on the Martian atmospheric ion escape rate by integrating IMA heavy ion flux measurements taken in the Martian tail at similar (binned) solar wind density (nsw), velocity (vsw), and solar EUV intensity (IEUV) conditions. For the same solar wind velocity and EUV intensity ranges (vsw and Is constrained), we find a statistically significant decrease of up to a factor of 3 in the atmospheric ion escape rate with increased average solar wind density (5.6 × 1024s-1 to 1.9 × 1024s-1 for 0.4 cm-3 and 1.4 cm-3, respectively). For low solar wind density (0.1-0.5 cm-3) and low EUV intensity, the escape rate increases with increasing solar wind velocity from 2.4 × 1024s-1 to 5.6 × 1024s-1. During high solar EUV intensities the escape fluxes are highly variable, leading to large uncertainties in the estimated escape rates; however, a statistically significant increase in the escape rate is found between low/high EUV for similar solar wind conditions. Empirical-analytical models for atmospheric escape are developed by fitting calculated escape rates to all sufficiently sampled upstream conditions.

  5. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Wilson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ?5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ?2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ?14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI?s resolution is comparable at ?30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  6. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Willson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ˜5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ˜2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ˜14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI's resolution is comparable at ˜30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  7. Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These maps are global false-color topographic views of Mars at different orientations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The maps are orthographic projections that contain over 200,000,000 points and about 5,000,000 altimetric crossovers. The spatial resolution is about 15 kilometers at the equator and less at higher latitudes. The vertical accuracy is less than 5 meters. The right hand image view features the Hellas impact basin (in purple, with red annulus of high standing material). The left hand features the Tharsis topographic rise (in red and white). Note also the subtle textures associated with resurfacing of the northern hemisphere lowlands in the vicinity of the Utopia impact basin. These data were compiled by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Team led by David Smith at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD.

  8. Cracky Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cracked, layered plains-forming material in the western part of Utopia Planitia, Mars. Investigators have speculated that ice might be -- or might once have been -- present in the ground, and changes in temperature and the amount of ice over time may have led to the formation of these cracks. But no one is certain just how these features formed.

    Location near: 45.0oN, 276.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  9. The Martian Geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    One major reason for exploring Mars is the similarity of surface features to those present on Earth. Among the most important are morphological and mineralogical indicators that liquid water has existed on Mars at various locations over the entire history of the planet, albeit in decreasing abundance with time. Due to the strong evidence for aqueous processes at or near the surface, Mars is the most Earth-like body in the Solar System. The HRSC instrument is designed to simultaneously map the morphology, topography, structure and geologic context of the surface as well as atmospheric phenomena [1]. After 10 years of ESA's Mars Express orbiting the planet its High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) has covered about 90 % of the surface in stereo and color with resolutions up to 10 m/pixel. Digital elevation models of up to 30-50 m grid spacing [1], generated from all suitable datasets of the stereo coverage, currently cover about 40% of the surface [1,2]. The geomorphological analyses of surface features, observed by the HRSC indicate major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes at all scales. Endogenic landforms (e.g., tectonic rifts, small basaltic shield volcanoes) were found to be very similar to their equivalents on Earth [1,3,4,5,6,7]. Volcanism may have been active up to the very recent past or even to the present, putting important constraints on thermal evolution models [6,7]. The analysis of diverse landforms produced by aqueous processes revealed that surface water activity was likely episodic, but ranged in age from very ancient to very recent [1,8-16]. Particularly important are prominent glacial and periglacial features at several latitudes, including mountain glaciers and a frozen sea [17-21]. The identification of aqueous alteration minerals and their geological context has enabled a better understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions and pedogenetic processes [23-25]. Dark dunes contain volcanic material and are evidence for the

  10. Merry Christmas from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    This morning, after a journey lasting 205 days and covering 400 million km, the European Mars Express space probe fired its main engine at 03:47 CET for a 37-minute burn in order to enter an orbit around the Mars. This firing gave the probe a boost so that it could match the higher speed of the planet on its orbit around the Sun and be captured by its gravity field, quite like climbing in a spinning merry-go-round. This orbit insertion manoeuvre was a complete success. This is a great achievement for Europe on its first attempt to send a space probe into orbit around another planet. At approximately the same time, the Beagle 2 lander, protected by a thermal shield, entered the Martian atmosphere at high velocity and is expected to have reached the surface at about 03:52 CET. However, the first attempt to communicate with Beagle 2, three hours after landing, via NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter, did not establish radio contact. The next contact opportunity will be tonight at 23h40 CET. The tiny lander was released from the orbiter six days ago on a collision course towards the planet. Before separation, its onboard computer was programmed to operate the lander as from its arrival on the surface, by late afternoon (Martian time). According to the schedule, the solar panels must deploy to recharge the onboard batteries before sunset. The same sequence also tells Beagle 2 to emit a signal in a specific frequency for which the Jodrell Bank Telescope, UK, will be listening late tonight. Further radio contacts are scheduled in the days to come. In the course of the coming week, the orbit of Mars Express will be gradually adjusted in order to prepare for its scientific mission. Mars Express is currently several thousand kilometres away from Mars, in a very elongated equatorial orbit. On 30 December, ESA's ground control team will send commands to fire the spacecraft's engines and place it in a polar, less elongated orbit (about 300 km pericenter, 10000 apocenter, 86

  11. Giant saltation on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Murilo P.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    Saltation, the motion of sand grains in a sequence of ballistic trajectories close to the ground, is a major factor for surface erosion, dune formation, and triggering of dust storms on Mars. Although this mode of sand transport has been matter of research for decades through both simulations and wind tunnel experiments under Earth and Mars conditions, it has not been possible to provide accurate measurements of particle trajectories in fully developed turbulent flow. Here we calculate the motion of saltating grains by directly solving the turbulent wind field and its interaction with the particles. Our calculations show that the minimal wind velocity required to sustain saltation on Mars may be surprisingly lower than the aerodynamic minimal threshold measurable in wind tunnels. Indeed, Mars grains saltate in 100 times higher and longer trajectories and reach 5-10 times higher velocities than Earth grains do. On the basis of our results, we arrive at general expressions that can be applied to calculate the length and height of saltation trajectories and the flux of grains in saltation under various physical conditions, when the wind velocity is close to the minimal threshold for saltation. PMID:18443302

  12. The second Mars microprobe is unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), Chris Voorhees (left) and Satish Krishnan (right), from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, remove the second Mars microprobe from a drum. Two microprobes will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars.

  13. The first Mars microprobe is unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory open the drums containing the Mars microprobes that will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander. From left, they are Satish Krishnan, Charles Cruzan, Chris Voorhees and Arden Acord. Scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars.

  14. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER IS EXAMINED IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory prepare to open the petals of the Mars Pathfinder lander to begin its checkout. Pictured are Lorrain Garcia, Chuck Foehlinger, James Pierson, Don Benson and Larry Broms. The spacecraft is planned to be launched aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket from Pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral on December 2, 1996.

  15. Design, Development and Testing of Airplanes for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The opportunity for a piggyback mission to Mars aboard an Ariane 5 rocket in the early spring of 1999 set off feverish design activity at several NASA centers. This report describes the contract work done by faculty, students, and consultants at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo California (Cal poly/SLO) to support the NASA/Ames design, construction and test efforts to develop a simple and robust Mars Flyer configuration capable of performing a practical science mission on Mars. The first sections will address the conceptual design of a workable Mars Flyer configuration which started in the spring and summer of 1999. The following sections will focus on construction and flight test of two full-scale vehicles. The final section will reflect on the overall effort and make recommendations for future work.

  16. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers place aside a piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  17. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers remove the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  18. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers lower the heat shield onto the Mars Polar Lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  19. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the last piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  20. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers get ready to lift the heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander off the workstand before attaching it to the lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  1. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Climate Orbiter is free of the protective canister that surrounded it during the move to the pad. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  2. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER REMOVED FROM SHIPPING CONTAINER IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from Jet Propulsion Laboratory remove the Mars Pathfinder lander from its shipping container, still covered in protective wrapping. Pictured from L-R, Linda Robeck, Jerry Gutierrez, Lorraine Garcia, Chuck Foehlinger of JPL. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  3. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), a KSC technician takes part in testing science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems on the Mars Polar Lander. The solar- powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  4. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians look over the Mars Polar Lander. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. Targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The Lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  5. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians lower the Mars Polar Lander onto a workstand. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. The solar-powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The Lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  6. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...), and (d) published at 78 FR 14920 on March 8, 2013, are effective on November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER...-161, published at 78 FR 14920, March 8, 2013. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1187. The Commission... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  7. Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

    2006-01-01

    The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

  8. MARS PATHFINDER CAMERA TEST IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are conducting a systems test of the imager for the Mars Pathfinder. Mounted on the Pathfinder lander, the imager (the white cylindrical element the worker is touching) is a specially designed camera featuring a stereo-imaging system with color capability provided by a set of selectable filters. It is mounted on an extendable mast that will pop up after the lander touches down on the Martian surface. The imager will transmit images of the terrain, allowing engineers back on Earth to survey the landing site before the Pathfinder rover is deployed to explore the area. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2. JPL manages the Pathfinder project for NASA.

  9. High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express - a decade of PR/EO activities at Freie Universität Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar, Heike; Dumke, Alexander; van Gasselt, Stephan; Gross, Christoph; Michael, Gregory; Musiol, Stefanie; Neu, Dominik; Platz, Thomas; Rosenberg, Heike; Schreiner, Björn; Walter, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003 the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) experiment on the Mars Express mission is in orbit around Mars. First images were sent to Earth on January 14th, 2004. The goal-oriented HRSC data dissemination and the transparent representation of the associated work and results are the main aspects that contributed to the success in the public perception of the experiment. The Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin (FUB) offers both, an interactive web based data access, and browse/download options for HRSC press products [www.fu-berlin.de/planets]. Close collaborations with exhibitors as well as print and digital media representatives allows for regular and directed dissemination of, e.g., conventional imagery, orbital/synthetic surface epipolar images, video footage, and high-resolution displays. On a monthly basis we prepare press releases in close collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) [http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/en/geol/fachrichtungen/planet/press/index.html]. A release comprises panchromatic, colour, anaglyph, and perspective views of a scene taken from an HRSC image of the Martian surface. In addition, a context map and descriptive texts in English and German are provided. More sophisticated press releases include elaborate animations and simulated flights over the Martian surface, perspective views of stereo data combined with colour and high resolution, mosaics, and perspective views of data mosaics. Altogether 970 high quality PR products and 15 movies were created at FUB during the last decade and published via FUB/DLR/ESA platforms. We support educational outreach events, as well as permanent and special exhibitions. Examples for that are the yearly "Science Fair", where special programs for kids are offered, and the exhibition "Mars Mission and Vision" which is on tour until 2015 through 20 German towns, showing 3-D movies, surface models, and images of the HRSC

  10. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Dale; Barnes, Timothy; Bryant, Woody; Chowdhury, Parveen; Dillard, Joe; Gardner, Vernadette; Gregory, George; Harmon, Cheryl; Harrell, Brock; Hilton, Sherrill

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual design for a permanently manned, self-sustaining Martian facility, to accommodate a crew of 20 people. The goal is to incorporate the major functions required for long term habitation in the isolation of a barren planet into a thriving ecosystem. These functions include living, working, service, and medical facilities as well as a green house. The main design task was to focus on the internal layout while investigating the appropriate structure, materials, and construction techniques. The general concept was to create a comfortable, safe living environment for the crew members for a stay of six to twelve months on Mars. Two different concepts were investigated, a modular assembly reusable structure (MARS) designated Lavapolis, and a prefabricated space frame structure called Hexamars. Both models take into account factors such as future expansion, radiation shielding, and ease of assembly.

  11. Independent Verification of Mars-GRAM 2010 with Mars Climate Sounder Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, Kerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission and engineering applications. Applications of Mars-GRAM include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Atmospheric influences on landing site selection and long-term mission conceptualization and development can also be addressed utilizing Mars-GRAM. Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte Carlo mode, to perform high-fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing. Mars-GRAM is an evolving software package resulting in improved accuracy and additional features. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Above 80 km, Mars-GRAM is based on the University of Michigan Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The most recent release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes an update to Fortran 90/95 and the addition of adjustment factors. These adjustment factors are applied to the input data from the MGCM and the MTGCM for the mapping year 0 user-controlled dust case. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), latitude and areocentric solar longitude (Ls).

  12. Assessing the Distribution and State of Subsurface Water on Mars: Theoretical Expectations, the Geologic Evidence, and Potential Geophysical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of water on Mars has important implications for understanding the planet's geologic, hydrologic, and climatic history; the potential origin and continued survival of life; and the accessibility of a critical in-situ resource for sustaining future human explorers. For this reason, the search for water has become a key objective of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Evidence of water, both past and present, is found almost everywhere, but most persuasively in the form of the planet's outflow channels -- broad scoured depressions hundreds of kilometers long that emerge abruptly from large areas of collapsed and disrupted terrain, the apparent result of a massive release of subpermafrost groundwater. Based on a conservative estimate of the volume of water required to erode the channels, Carr (Icarus, 68, 187-216, 1986) has estimated that Mars may possess a total planetary inventory of water equivalent to a global ocean 0.5 - 1 km deep. Of this global inventory, ~0.000001% is found in the atmosphere, while ~5-10% is visible as ice in the perennial polar caps. This leaves ~90-95% of the planetary inventory of water unaccounted for, the vast bulk of which is believed to reside, as ground ice and groundwater, within the planet's crust. Theoretical and geomorphic approaches to assessing the current distribution and state of subsurface water on Mars face numerous obstacles -- thus geophysical techniques hold the most promise. The first such investigation, the Gamma-Ray Neutron Spectrometer aboard the Mars Odyssey Orbiter, arrived at Mars in 2001. It revealed that the top half-meter of the Martian regolith is rich in hydrogen at latitudes above ~40-degrees, an observation consistent with the presence of near-surface ground ice. Assessing the distribution of water at greater depths (up to several kilometers) is one of the chief objectives of the MARSIS experiment on ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. MARSIS is a low-frequency (1-5 MHz) orbital radar

  13. Radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kirchner, D L; Huff, R L; Morgan, D D; Persoon, A M; Averkamp, T F; Duru, F; Nielsen, E; Safaeinili, A; Plaut, J J; Picardi, G

    2005-12-23

    We report the first radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars with the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) instrument on board the orbiting Mars Express spacecraft. Several types of ionospheric echoes are observed, ranging from vertical echoes caused by specular reflection from the horizontally stratified ionosphere to a wide variety of oblique and diffuse echoes. The oblique echoes are believed to arise mainly from ionospheric structures associated with the complex crustal magnetic fields of Mars. Echoes at the electron plasma frequency and the cyclotron period also provide measurements of the local electron density and magnetic field strength.

  14. Lessons Learned from Coordinating Relay Activities at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy E.; Hwang, Pauline; Waggoner, Bruce; McLaughlin, Bruce; Fieseler, Paul; Thomas, Reid; Bigwood, Maria; Herrera, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Mission Management Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was tasked with coordinating the relay of data between multiple spacecraft at Mars in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Missions in early 2004. The confluence of three orbiters (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express), two rovers (Spirit and Opportunity), and one lander (Beagle 2) has provided a challenging operational scenario that required careful coordination between missions to provide the necessary support and to avoid potential interference during simultaneous relay sessions. As these coordination efforts progressed, several important lessons were learned that should be applied to future Mars relay activities.

  15. Strategies to Support Exploration of Mars' Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, L.; Sykes, M.; Farr, T.; Adams, J.; Blaney, D.

    2003-01-01

    Surface Visible infrared spectroscopy has a long history of providing fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system. However, we are entering a new era of Mars exploration in which missions will take place nearly every 2 years.The visible infrared spectral community thus faces a more rapid influx in data volume and variety than it has previously handled.Visible- infrared instruments are on the 1996 Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, 2003 Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; and likely on the 2007 and 2009 missions. Interpretations of those data sets provide a critical foundation for geologic and climatic interpretations as well as an opportunity to select landing sites.

  16. Density of Mars' south polar layered deposits.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Smith, David E; Smrekar, Suzanne E

    2007-09-21

    Both poles of Mars are hidden beneath caps of layered ice. We calculated the density of the south polar layered deposits by combining the gravity field obtained from initial results of radio tracking of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter with existing surface topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and basal topography from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding on the Mars Express spacecraft. The results indicate a best-fit density of 1220 kilograms per cubic meter, which is consistent with water ice that has approximately 15% admixed dust. The results demonstrate that the deposits are probably composed of relatively clean water ice and also refine the martian surface-water inventory.

  17. NASA Mars 2020 Rover Mission: New Frontiers in Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is the next step in NASAs robotic exploration of the red planet. The rover, based on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover now on Mars, will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.Like the Mars Science Laboratory rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012, the Mars 2020 spacecraft will use a guided entry, descent, and landing system which includes a parachute, descent vehicle, and, during the provides the ability to land a very large, heavy rover on the surface of Mars in a more precise landing area. The Mars 2020 mission is designed to accomplish several high-priority planetary science goals and will be an important step toward meeting NASAs challenge to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The mission will conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the habitability of the environment, search for signs of ancient Martian life, and assess natural resources and hazards for future human explorers. The science instruments aboard the rover also will enable scientists to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth in the future. The rover also may help designers of a human expedition understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which could be a valuable resource for producing oxygen and rocket fuel.

  18. NASA Mars Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space.

  19. The Martian geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, T.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Tirsch, D.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Di Achille, G.; Duxbury, T. C.; Erkeling, G.; vanGasselt, S.; Gupta, S.; Head, J. W., III; Hiesinger, H.; Ip, W. H.; Keller, H. U.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Kneissl, T.; McCord, T. B.; Muller, P.; Murray, J.; Pondrelli, M.; Platz, T.; Pinet, P. C.; Reiss, D.; Rossi, A. P.; Wendt, L.; Williams, D. A.; Mangold, N.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    After 10 years of ESA's Mars Express orbiting the planet its High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) covered about 90 % of the surface in stereo and color with resolutions up to 10 m/pixel. Digital elevation models of up to 50 m grid spacing [1], generated from all suitable datasets of the stereo coverage, currently cover about 40 % of the surface [2]. The geomorphological analysis of surface features, observed by the HRSC indicate major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes on all scales. Endogenic landforms (e.g., tectonic rifts, small basaltic shield volcanoes) were found to be very similar to their equivalents on Earth, suggesting that no unique processes are required to explain their formation. Volcanism may have been active up to the very recent past or even to the present, putting important constraints on thermal evolution models [e.g. 3]. The analysis of diverse landforms produced by aqueous processes revealed that surface water activity was likely episodic, but ranged in age from very ancient to very recent [e.g. 3]. Particularly important is prominent glaciation and periglacial features at several latitudes, including mountain glaciers [e.g. 3]. The identification of aqueous alteration minerals and their geological context has enabled a better understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions and pedogenetic processes [e.g. 4]. Dark dunes contain volcanic material and are evidence for the significantly dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [e.g. 3]. Since basically all geologic interpretations of extraterrestrial features require profound knowledge of the Earth as key reference, studies of terrestrial analogues are mandatory in planetary geology. Field work in Antarctica, Svalbard and Iceland [e.g. 5] provided a basis for the analysis of periglacial and volcanic processes, respectively. References: [1] Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2] Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3] Jaumann et al

  20. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  1. MARS PATHFINDER CAMERA TEST IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers conduct a systems test of the Mars Pathfinder imager, installed atop the Pathfinder lander (with JPL insignia). The imager is the white cyclindrical structure close to the worker's gloved hand. At left is the small rover that will be deployed from the lander to explore the Martian surface. The rover is mounted on one of three petals that will be attached to the lander. The two-pronged mast extending upward from the lander is for the low-gain antenna. The imager is mounted on a mast that will be extended after the lander touches down on Mars, affording a better view of the area. The imager is a camera that will transmit images of the Martian surface as well as the trail left by the rover, helping researchers to better understand the composition of the soil. It also is equipped with selectable filters for gathering data about the atmosphere of the Red Planet. JPL manages the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA. The journey to Mars is scheduled to begin with liftoff Dec. 2 aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle.

  2. THERESA FRANCO INSPECTS THE SOLAR PANELS OF THE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Theresa Franco of SPECTROLAB Inc. carefully inspects the solar panels of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, undergoing preflight assembly and checkout in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility in KSC's Industrial Area. The four solar array panels will play a crucial role in the Mars Global Surveyor mission by providing the electrical power required to operate the spacecraft and its complement of scientific instruments. The Surveyor is slated for launch November 6 aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle. After arriving at the Red Planet in September 1997, the Surveyor will carry out an extensive study of Mars, gathering data about the planet's topography, magnetism, mineral composition and atmosphere.

  3. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER IS INSPECTED IN SAEF-2 WITH CRUISE STAGE IN BACKGROUND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory begin checkout of the lander portion of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft. Later the small rover known as 'Sojourner' will be integrated with the lander before it is enclosed in the aeroshell and mated to the cruise stage (background) for the journey to Mars. Pictured are JPL personnel Lorraine Garcia, Don Benson, Larry Broms, Chuck Foehlinger, Linda Robeck and James Pierson. Mars Pathfinder is planned to be launched aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket from Pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral on December 2, 1996.

  4. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  5. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  6. The Martian geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Roatsch, T.; Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Di Achille, G.; Duxbury, T.; Erkeling, G.; van Gasselt, S.; Gupta, S.; Head, J. W.; Hiesinger, H.; Ip, W.; Keller, H.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Kneissl, T.; Le Deit, L.; McCord, T. B.; Muller, J.; Murray, J. J.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pinet, P. C.; Reiss, D.; Rossi, A.; Spohn, T.; Tirsch, D.; Williams, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the strong evidence for aqueous processes at or near the surface, Mars is the most Earth-like body in the Solar System. After 10 years of ESA's Mars Express orbiting the planet its High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) covered about 90 % of the surface in stereo and color with resolutions up to 10 m/pixel [1]. Digital elevation models of up to 50 m grid spacing, generated from all suitable datasets of the stereo coverage, currently cover about 40 % of the surface [2]. The geomorphological analysis of surface features, observed by the HRSC indicate major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes on all scales. Endogenic landforms (e.g., tectonic rifts, small basaltic shield volcanoes) were found to be very similar to their equivalents on Earth [1,3,4,5,6,7], suggesting that no unique processes are required to explain their formation. Volcanism may have been active up to the very recent past or even to the present, putting important constraints on thermal evolution models [6,7]. The analysis of diverse landforms produced by aqueous processes revealed that surface water activity was likely episodic, but ranged in age from very ancient to very recent [1,8-16]. Particularly important is prominent glaciation and periglacial features at several latitudes, including mountain glaciers [17-21]. The identification of aqueous alteration minerals and their geological context has enabled a better understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions and pedogenetic processes [23-25]. Dark dunes contain volcanic material and are evidence for the significantly dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [26]. Since basically all geologic interpretations of extraterrestrial features require profound knowledge of the Earth as key reference, studies of terrestrial analogues are mandatory in planetary geology. Field work in Antarctica, Svalbard and Iceland [5,6,21,22,27] provided a basis for the analysis of periglacial

  7. Seasonal dynamic of water on the surface of Mars during MY27 and M28 apheleon and pre-aphelion seasons based on the OMEGA/Mars-Express data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, Nadezda; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Rodin, Alexander V.; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    OMEGA is a mapping spectrometer of the visible and near-infrared ranges. The instrument began its scientific phase on Mars orbit since January 2005 and it is till providing data. The instrument has 3 spectral ranges and we take into account two of them: 0.3-1 and 1-2.5 µm. In this study we focus on changes in the surface composition and structures concerned with global water redistribution during martian year - ices, water vapour, frost, as well as rocks and soils, which possess bound and adsorbed water. We have compared two aphelion seasons, the MY41 and M42 aphelion campaigns, that resulted in global mapping of Mars. Data treatment procedure involved atmospheric corrections, including correction of minor instrumental effects such as pixel-to-pixel nonlinearity and digital noise, and elimination of CO2 and water vapor absorption, based on the European Mars Climate Model,. For mapping of water ice, frosts and water bearing minerals we use features in the 1-2.5 µm spectral range. Spectral imaging data have been treated to retrieve maps of spectral indices related to surface water ice, based on 1.03, 1.2 and 1.5 bands, with the relationships between three H2 O ice features implying the estimate of ice grain size. We used model for BRF calculation (Mishchenko et al,1999) to infer possible water ice grain size variations. So, we studied the evolution of icy polar cap during spring and summer for 2 years. Bound water has been estimated based on the 1.93 feature. The zonal distribution of water ice and bound water around the North pole, frost microphysical structure and its seasonal variations suggest the strong contribution of stationary and quasistationary planetary atmospheric waves residing in the circumpolar vortex, to the water cycle during the aphelion season. Also we analyzed the latitudinal global redistribution of bound water. The results are consistent with simulations of the Mars water cycle we carried out with help of the GFDL General Circulation model

  8. Cartographic Mapping of Mars Landing Sites: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    Initial mapping of Mars began with the early Mariner 4, 6 and 7 flybys in the 1960's. Mariner 9 obtained the first global coverage of Mars in 1971. Viking Orbiters 1 and 2 added new and higher resolution global coverage. The US Geological Survey produced the first digital global cartographic map products in black and white and in color, the mosaicked digital image models (MDIMs). In 1989, the Phobos 88 mission added imaging as well as multispectral mapping of Mars in the equatorial region. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) added to the black and white and color global coverage. The most important development for Mars cartography occurred on MGS with its global coverage of Mars using the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOL A) producing precision ground control in latitude, longitude and radius. The next version of the MDIM was produced at 230 m spatial resolution using MOLA precision cartographic control. The Mars Odyssey mission THEMIS instrument has completed its global infrared mapping of Mars at 100 m spatial resolution. The Mars Express mission is completing its global coverage of Mars in stereo at 100 m spatial resolution or better. MGS, Odyssey and Mars Express continue to provide limited surface coverage at the 1 to 20 m resolution. Currently the new Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is producing images at the 10's of cm level. All of these datasets provide a rich and historic perspective of Mars covering nearly five decades and allow global cartographic map products to be produced in visual and infrared at the 100 m level with specialized cartographic maps being produced for landing sites at the meter or sub-meter spatial resolution level. This work was produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NAS 7-7120.5d, within the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program and the MGS, Odyssey, Mars Express and MRO Participating Scientist Programs.

  9. Mars Exploration Rovers: 4 Years on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This January, the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are starting their fifth year of exploring the surface of Mars, well over ten times their nominal 90-day design lifetime. This lecture discusses the Mars Exploration Rovers, presents the current mission status for the extended mission, some of the most results from the mission and how it is affecting our current view of Mars, and briefly presents the plans for the coming NASA missions to the surface of Mars and concepts for exploration with robots and humans into the next decade, and beyond.

  10. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  11. Identification of hydrated silicate minerals on Mars using MRO-CRISM: Geologic context near Nili Fossae and implications for aqueous alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehlmann, B.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Bishop, J.L.; Poulet, F.; Des Marais, D.J.; Roach, L.H.; Milliken, R.E.; Wray, J.J.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Murchie, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Noachian terrain west of the Isidis basin hosts a diverse collection of alteration minerals in rocks comprising varied geomorphic units within a 100,000 km2 region in and near the Nili Fossae. Prior investigations in this region by the Observatoire pour l'Min??ralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activit?? (OMEGA) instrument on Mars Express revealed large exposures of both mafic minerals and iron magnesium phyllosilicates in stratigraphic context. Expanding on the discoveries of OMEGA, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has found more spatially widespread and mineralogically diverse alteration minerals than previously realized, which represent multiple aqueous environments. Using CRISM near-infrared spectral data, we detail the basis for identification of iron and magnesium smectites (including both nontronite and more Mg-rich varieties), chlorite, prehnite, serpentine, kaolinite, potassium mica (illite or muscovite), hydrated (opaline) silica, the sodium zeolite analcime, and magnesium carbonate. The detection of serpentine and analcime on Mars is reported here for the first time. We detail the geomorphic context of these minerals using data from high-resolution imagers onboard MRO in conjunction with CRISM. We find that the distribution of alteration minerals is not homogeneous; rather, they occur in provinces with distinctive assemblages of alteration minerals. Key findings are (1) a distinctive stratigraphy, in and around the Nili Fossae, of kaolinite and magnesium carbonate in bedrock units always overlying Fe/Mg smectites and (2) evidence for mineral phases and assemblages indicative of low-grade metamorphic or hydrothermal aqueous alteration in cratered terrains. The alteration minerals around the Nili Fossae are more typical of those resulting from neutral to alkaline conditions rather than acidic conditions, which appear to have dominated much of Mars. Moreover, the mineralogic

  12. MarsSat: assured communication with Mars.

    PubMed

    Gangale, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The author developed the MarsSat concept during the 1990s. For this task, he designed a class of orbits to solve the problem of communicating with crews on Mars when the planet is in solar conjunction as seen from Earth, a planetary configuration that occurs near the midpoint of a conjunction class mission to Mars. This type of orbit minimizes the distance between Mars and the communications satellite; thus, minimizing the size, weight, and power requirements, while providing a simultaneous line-of-sight to both Earth and Mars. The MarsSat orbits are solar orbits that have the same period as Mars, but are inclined a few degrees out of the plane of the Mars orbit and also differ in eccentricity from the orbit of Mars. These differences cause a spacecraft in this orbit to rise North of Mars, then fall behind Mars, then drop South of Mars, and then pull ahead of Mars, by some desired distance in each case-typically about 20 million kilometers-in order to maintain an angular separation of a couple of degrees as seen from a point in the orbit of Earth on the opposite side of the Sun. A satellite in this type of orbit would relay communications between Earth and Mars during the period of up to several weeks, when direct communication is blocked by the Sun. These orbits are far superior for this purpose when compared to stationing a satellite at one of the Sun-Mars equilateral Lagrangian points, L(4) or L(5), for two reasons. First, L(4) and L(5) are 228 million kilometers from Mars, about 10 times the distance of a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits, and by virtue of the inverse-square law, all other things being equal, the signal strength received at L(4) or L(5) would be one percent of the signal strength received by a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits. Thus, a relay satellite stationed at L(4) or L(5) would have to be that much more powerful to receive data at the same rate, with concomitant increases in spacecraft size and weight. Second, a number of

  13. New Perspectives on Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Aharonson, O.; Aurnou, J. M.; Banerdt, W. B.; Carr, M. H.; Dombard, A. J.; Frey, H. V.; Golombek, M. P.; Hauck, S. A., II; Head, J. W., III

    2004-01-01

    Global data sets returned by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express spacecraft and recent analyses of Martian meteorites suggest that most of the major geological events of Martian history occurred within the first billion years of solar system formation. This period was a time of heavy impact bombardment of the inner solar system, a process that strongly overprinted much of the Martian geological record from that time. Geophysical signatures nonetheless remain from that period in the Martian crust, and several geochemical tracers of early events are found in Martian meteorites. Collectively, these observations provide insight into the earliest era in Martian history when the conditions favoring life were best satisfied.

  14. Relay Support for the Mars Science Laboratory and the Coming Decade of Mars Relay Network Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Arnold, Bradford W.; Bell, David J.; Bruvold, Kristoffer N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Ilott, Peter A.; Lee, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, an evolving network of Mars relay orbiters has provided telecommunication relay services to the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the Mars Phoenix Lander, enabling high-bandwidth, energy-efficient data transfer and greatly increasing the volume of science data that can be returned from the Martian surface, compared to conventional direct-to-Earth links. The current relay network, consisting of NASA's Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and augmented by ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, stands ready to support the Mars Science Laboratory, scheduled to arrive at Mars on Aug 6, 2012, with new capabilities enabled by the Electra and Electra-Lite transceivers carried by MRO and MSL, respectively. The MAVEN orbiter, planned for launch in 2013, and the ExoMars/Trace Gas Orbiter, planned for launch in 2016, will replenish the on-orbit relay network as the current orbiter approach their end of life. Currently planned support scenarios for this future relay network include an ESA EDL Demonstrator Module deployed by the 2016 ExoMars/TGO orbiter, and the 2018 NASA/ESA Joint Rover, representing the first step in a multimission Mars Sample Return campaign.

  15. A technician works on the Mars Climate Orbiter in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), a technician works on the Mars Climate Orbiter which is scheduled to launch on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. The Mars Climate Orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  16. Topographic, spectral and thermal inertia analysis of interior layered deposits in Iani Chaos, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Catling, D. C.; Wood, S. E.; Grindrod, P. M.; Teanby, N. A.

    2012-09-01

    We present an analysis of Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) in Iani Chaos using visible, infrared, hyperspectral and topographic datasets acquired by instruments aboard NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft. We focus on four main regions where ILDs outcrop in Iani Chaos. Deposits span a ∼2 km range of elevations and exhibit moderate to high albedos, layering at sub-decameter scales, thermal inertias of 300-800 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a range of surface textures. Thermal inertia calculations use slope and azimuth corrections from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) topography. Spectral features in hyperspectral data acquired by NASA’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) suggest that gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and kieserite (MgSO4·H2O) are present in most deposits. We report absorptions typically exhibited by alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) and jarosite KFe33+(OH)6(SO4)2 as well as a number of features that may be attributable to a wide range of mono- and polyhydrated sulphates and hydroxyl-sulphates bearing a number of cations, including Mg2+, Fe2+, Fe3+ and Ca2+. Spectral features similar to those of ammonium sulphates may also be present. Analysis of a HiRISE stereo DEM shows planar layering in some ILDs, favouring a sedimentary deposition origin. Stratigraphic mapping of hydration and sulphate spectral features in flat ILDs in central Iani Chaos suggest that specific elevation intervals in the stratigraphic column were subject to different levels of hydration, perhaps during episodes of water table elevation. This is consistent with formation models for ILDs and hydrological modelling. Geomorphic characteristics of deposits in northern and southern Iani Chaos suggest their relatively recent exhumation and significant erosion by aeolian processes. We conclude that any formation theory for ILDs in Iani Chaos should support mechanisms for different hydration states at different

  17. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... produce, potable water. (b) The Commissioner of Food and Drugs may base his approval or disapproval of...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... health authorities of contiguous foreign nations. (c) Overboard water treated on vessels shall be from... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs...

  19. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  20. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  1. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  2. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  3. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  4. Low energy neutron measurements aboard encounter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Trottet, G.

    Neutrons in the MeV to GeV range are produced by interaction of flare accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere. Because of their lifetime, only high energy neutrons (> 100 MeV) have a high probability to be detected at earth's orbit. So far, around fifteen solar neutron events have been observed either by high energy detectors aboard spacecrafts at 1 AU or by ground based neutron monitors. Neutrons between 10 and 100 MeV have also been detected for a few events through their proton decay. Measurements of solar neutrons closer to the Sun aboard encounter missions will allow to probe for the first time the MeV neutrons which are produced by the nuclear reactions of energetic ions with thresholds around 1 MeV/nuc and will provide information on the accelerated ion spectrum in the energy range between ˜ 1 MeV and 100 MeV/nuc in complementarity with what can be deduced from γ -ray line emission. The close proximity of the Sun would allow to measure neutron events for many more flares opening a new field of solar physics. Combined with near in-situ ion measurements and γ -ray observations, neutrons will bring information on the link between interacting and escaping ions while getting rid of most of the transport effects.

  5. Mars Global Surveyor: Cruising to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Glenn E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was launched on November 7, 1996, and is now cruising to Mars. While the launch was excellent, and the spacecraft and its science payload are in perfect operating condition, a broken deployment damper on one of the two solar arrays has posed some concern relative to the use of that solar array as a drag surfae during aerobraking operations at Mars.

  6. MNSM - A Future Mars Network Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    Following ESA' s successful Mars Express mission, European efforts in Mars Exploration are now taking place within the joint ESA-NASA Mars Exploration Programme, starting in 2016 with the Trace Gases Orbiter (TGO) focusing on atmospheric trace gases and in particular methane, and with the Entry and Descent Module (EDM). In 2018, a joint NASA-ESA rover will perform sample caching as well as geological, geochemical and exobiological measurements of the surface and the subsurface of Mars. A number of missions for 2020 and beyond are currently under study. Among those, a possible candidate is a Mars Network Science Mission (MNSM) of 3-6 surface stations, to investigate the interior of the planet, its rotational parameters and its atmospheric dynamics. These important science goals have not been fully addressed by Mars exploration so far and can only be achieved with simultaneous measurements from a number of landers located on the surface of the planet such as a Mars Network mission. In addition, the geology, mineralogy and astrobiological significance of each landing site would be addressed, as three new locations on Mars would be reached. Such Mars Network Science Mission has been considered a significant priority by the planetary science community worldwide for the past two decades. In fact, a Mars Network mission concept has a long heritage, as it was studied a number of times by ESA, NASA and CNES (e.g., Marsnet, Intermarsnet, Netlander and MarsNEXT mission studies) since 1990. Study work has been renewed in ESA recently with MNSM Science and Engineering Teams being set up to update the scientific objectives of the mission and to evaluate its technical feasibility, respectively. The current mission baseline includes three ESA-led small landers with a robotic arm to be launched with a Soyuz rocket and direct communications to Earth (no need of a dedicated orbiter). However, a larger network could be put in place through international collaboration, as several

  7. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission. The instrument is currently in orbit around Mars and has so far returned remarkable data.

  8. Mars exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Seiji

    1991-07-01

    Mars exploration scenarios are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on scientific exploration. The review and evaluation results are reported for the following items: (1) orbit plans for Mars surface exploration missions that begin in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); (2) powered and aerodynamic capturing payloads from the transfer orbit to a Mars revolving orbit; and (3) a penetrator system as a Mars landing vehicle. Proposed Mars transfer orbits have the following advantages over Hohmann orbits: (1) transfer time and angle are less; (2) the inclination between the orbital planes of Earth and Mars is considered; and (3) velocity variations are not required to change orbit plane.

  9. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  10. Evolved Gas Analyses of Sedimentary Materials in Gale Crater, Mars: Results of the Curiosity Rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument from Yellowknife Bay to the Stimson Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; McAdam, A. C.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover has analyzed 10 samples from Gale Crater. All SAM evolved gas analyses have yielded a multitude of volatiles (e.g, H2O, SO2, H2S, CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC1). The objectives of this work are to 1) Characterize the evolved H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2 gas traces of sediments analyzed by SAM through sol 1178, 2) Constrain sediment mineralogy/composition based on SAM evolved gas analysis (SAM-EGA), and 3) Discuss the implications of these results releative to understanding the geochemical history of Gale Crater.

  11. Oxygen foreshock of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Frahm, R. A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Holmström, M.; Barabash, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mars Express (MEX) has operated for more than 10 years in the environment of Mars, providing solar wind ion observations from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms experiment's Ion Mass Analyser (IMA). On 21 September 2008, MEX/IMA detected foreshock-like discrete distributions of oxygen ions at around 1 keV in the solar wind attached to the bow shock and this distribution was observed continuously up to more than 2000 km from the bow shock. Foreshock-like protons are also observed but at a shifted location from the oxygen by about 1000 km, at a slightly higher energy, and flowing in a slightly different direction than the oxygen ions. Both protons and oxygen ions are flowing anti-sunward at different angles with respect to the solar wind direction. This is the first time that a substantial amount of planetary oxygen is observed upstream of the bow shock. Although rare, this is not the only IMA observation of foreshock-like oxygen: oxygen ions are sometimes observed for a short period of time (<5 min) inside the foreshock region. These observations suggest a new escape channel for planetary ions through the acceleration in the bow shock-magnetosheath region.

  12. The H Corona of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael Scott

    The atmosphere of every planet is surrounded by a tenuous cloud of hydrogen gas, referred to as a hydrogen corona. At Mars, a substantial fraction of the H present in the corona is moving fast enough to escape the planet's gravity, permanently removing H from the Martian atmosphere. Because this H is ultimately derived from lower atmospheric water, loss of H from Mars is capable of drying and oxidizing the planet over geologic time. Understanding the processes that supply the H corona and control its escape is therefore essential for a complete understanding of the climate history of Mars and for assessing its habitability. In this thesis, I present the most complete analysis of the H corona ever attempted, surveying eight years of data gathered by the ultraviolet spectrograph SPICAM on Mars Express. Using a coupled radiative transfer and physical density model, I interpret brightness measurements of the corona in terms of escape rates of H from the planet, uncovering an order-of-magnitude variability in the H escape rate never before detected. These variations are interpreted using a completely new photochemical model of the atmosphere, demonstrating that newly discovered high altitude water vapor layers are sufficient to produce the observed variation. Finally, I present first results of the SPICAM successor instrument IUVS, an imaging ultraviolet spectrograph carried by NASA's MAVEN spacecraft. IUVS measurements are producing the most complete dataset ever gathered for the Martian H corona, enabling supply and loss processes to be assessed in more complete detail than ever before. This dataset will allow present-day loss rates to be extrapolated into the past, determining the absolute amount of water Mars has lost to space over the course of its history. Planets the size of Mars may be common throughout the universe; the work of this thesis is one step toward assessing the habitability of such planets in general.

  13. Workshop on Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The opening session of the Workshop focused on one of the most debated areas of Mars volatiles research-the size of the planet's past and present bulk water content. Current estimates of the inventory of H2O on Mars range from an equivalent layer of liquid 10-1000 meters deep averaged over the planet's surface. The most recent of these estimates, presented at the Workshop, is based on the now popular belief that the SNC class of meteorites represent actual samples of the Martian crust. From a model of planetary accretion and degassing founded on this assumption, it was determined that the present inventory of H2O on Mars is equivalent to a global layer no more than 50 meters deep. During the discussion generated by this estimate, several investigators expressed reservations about an H2O inventory as small as a few tens of meters, for it appears to directly contradict the seemingly abundant morphologic evidence that Mars is (or has been) water rich. Others, however, argued that the interpretation of much of this morphologic evidence is at best equivocal and that the case for a wet Mars is far from established. Atmospheric water vapor measurements, compiled by Earth based telescopes and the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD), now span a period of over six Martian years. Analysis of this data suggests that the seasonal cycle is governed by both the sublimation and condensation of H2O at the poles and by its adsorption/desorption within the regolith. So far, efforts to simulate the seasonal vapor cycle have failed to reproduce the observed behavior.

  14. Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Special Session: Mars Missions" contained the following reports:Initial Results from the MER Athena Science Investigation at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum; Geomorphology of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) Landing Site from Observations by the Spirit Rover; Geology of Meridiani Planum as Inferred from Mars Exploration Rover: Observations;Preliminary Mineralogy and Geochemistry Results at the MER-A Landing Site in Gusev; A First Look at the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the MER-B Landing Site in Meridiani Planum; Mini-TES Observations of the Gusev and Meridiani Landing Sites; Preliminary Results of the Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity; Pancam Imaging of the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum; Atmospheric Science with the Mars Exploration Rovers: Things are Looking Up; The Mars Express Mission:Initial Scientific Results from Orbit; The HRSC Experiment in Mars Orbit: First Results; The OMEGA/Mars Express First Results; and SPICAM on Mars Express: First Results and First Observations of Water Ice at South.

  16. The Upper Atmospheric Wave Structure of Mars as Determined by Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Keating, G. M.; Forbes, J. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Wilson, R. J.; Withers, P. G.

    2001-12-01

    The best coverage of the Mars upper atmoshere available to date was obtained during recent Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) aerobraking exercises. Measurements from the MGS z-axis accelerometer (ACC) aboard MGS have provided more than 1200 vertical structures of the Mars thermospheric density and derived temperature and pressure [Keating et al. 1998; 2001]. These data have been obtained over two distinct Mars seasons : (Phase 1) approaching perihelion (Ls = 180 to 300), and (Phase 2) near aphelion (Ls = 30 to 95). The ubiquitous presence of planetary scale waves that appear fixed in longitude at lower thermospheric altitudes (90-150 km) was unexpected. Throughout both Phase 1 and 2 of aerobraking, the dominance of wave-2 and 3 features throughout low-to-mid-latitudes is evident, while wave-3 features seem to prevail in the mass density and electron density data at high Northern latitudes [Keating et al. 2000; Withers et al. 2000; Forbes and Hagan, 2000; Wilson, 2000; Bougher et al. 2001]. The diurnal coverage of the ACC data (day-night variations) is rather poor, limited to day-night data at the end of Phase 2 aerobraking. Recent data-model comparisons show that the observed density variations can be identified as eastward propagating non-migrating thermal tides with large vertical wavelengths. Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM), and Mars Global Scale Wave Model (MGSWM) simulations have been performed. The general indication is that the simulated wave-2 variation is dominated by a diurnal period, wave-1 Kelvin mode (DK1) which is principally forced by the modulation of the migrating diurnal tide by wave-2 Mars topography. This interpretation is consistent with the observed phase reversal between day and night side wave-2 components. The principal components of the simulated zonal wave-3 structure are a diurnal period wave-2 Kelvin mode (DK2) and a wave-1 semidiurnal tide (SW1). The characterization of these waves

  17. MAVEN's Trajectory to Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the cruise trajectory of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, which was launched on Nov. 18, 2013. It will arrive at Mars on Sept. 21, 2014, to explore th...

  18. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  19. Mars Meteorolgical Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Spann, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring and ultimately establishing a permanent presence on the surface of Mars will necessitate an understanding the weather conditions and the ability to forecast its dynamic behavior. The meteorology of Mars will need to be developed. This abstract puts forth a concept for a Mars Meteorological Network that will be used to investigate the Mars atmosphere behavior, explore the surface environment, and prepare for operational activities. It is proposed that the long term and the dynamic nature of the lower atmosphere and surface of Mars be observed with a distributed global array of simple automated surface nodes. The data would be ingested into the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and other research tools for analyses to gain a better understanding of the atmospheric conditions on Mars.

  20. The Mars Chamber

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Mars chamber is a box about the size of a refrigerator that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scie...

  1. Phoenix's Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog. The brighter area at the top of the beam is due to enhanced scattering of the laser light in a cloud. The Canadian-built lidar instrument emits pulses of laser light and records what is scattered back.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Assessment of the probability of contaminating Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, B. R.; North, D. W.; Pezier, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    New methodology is proposed to assess the probability that the planet Mars will by biologically contaminated by terrestrial microorganisms aboard a spacecraft. Present NASA methods are based on the Sagan-Coleman formula, which states that the probability of contamination is the product of the expected microbial release and a probability of growth. The proposed new methodology extends the Sagan-Coleman approach to permit utilization of detailed information on microbial characteristics, the lethality of release and transport mechanisms, and of other information about the Martian environment. Three different types of microbial release are distinguished in the model for assessing the probability of contamination. The number of viable microbes released by each mechanism depends on the bio-burden in various locations on the spacecraft and on whether the spacecraft landing is accomplished according to plan. For each of the three release mechanisms a probability of growth is computed, using a model for transport into an environment suited to microbial growth.

  3. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  4. Biological investigations aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tairbekov, M. G.; Parfyonov, G. P.; Platonova, R. W.; Abramova, V. M.; Golov, V. K.; Rostopshina, A. V.; Lyubchenko, V. Yu.; Chuchkin, V. G.

    Experiments on insects, higher plants and lower fungi were carried out aboard the biological satellite Cosmos-1129, in Earth orbit, from 25 September to 14 October 1979. The main objective of these experiments was to gain more profound knowledge of the effect of weightlessness on living organisms and to study the mechanisms by which these various organisms with different life cycles can adjust and develop in weightlessness. Experiments on insects (Drosophila melanogaster) were made with a view towards understanding gravitational preference in flies, the life cycle of which took place on board the biosatellite under conditions of artificial gravity. Experiments on higher plants (Zea mays, Arabidopsis taliana, Lycopersicum esculentum) and lower fungi (Physarum polycephalum) were performed.

  5. Saltation transport on Mars.

    PubMed

    Parteli, Eric J R; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-05-11

    We present the first calculation of saltation transport and dune formation on Mars and compare it to real dunes. We find that the rate at which grains are entrained into saltation on Mars is 1 order of magnitude higher than on Earth. With this fundamental novel ingredient, we reproduce the size and different shapes of Mars dunes, and give an estimate for the wind velocity on Mars.

  6. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  7. Constitutive SoxS Expression in a Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Strain with a Truncated SoxR Protein and Identification of a New Member of the marA-soxS-rob Regulon, mdtG▿

    PubMed Central

    Fàbrega, Anna; Martin, Robert G.; Rosner, Judah L.; Tavio, M. Mar; Vila, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Elevated levels of fluoroquinolone resistance are frequently found among Escherichia coli clinical isolates. This study investigated the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of strain NorE5, derived in vitro by exposing an E. coli clinical isolate, PS5, to two selection steps with increasing concentrations of norfloxacin. In addition to the amino acid substitution in GyrA (S83L) present in PS5, NorE5 has an amino acid change in ParC (S80R). Furthermore, we now find by Western blotting that NorE5 has a multidrug resistance phenotype resulting from the overexpression of the antibiotic resistance efflux pump AcrAB-TolC. Microarray and gene fusion analyses revealed significantly increased expression in NorE5 of soxS, a transcriptional activator of acrAB and tolC. The high soxS activity is attributable to a frameshift mutation that truncates SoxR, rendering it a constitutive transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, microarray and reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that mdtG (yceE), encoding a putative efflux pump, is overexpressed in the resistant strain. SoxS, MarA, and Rob activated an mdtG::lacZ fusion, and SoxS was shown to bind to the mdtG promoter, showing that mdtG is a member of the marA-soxS-rob regulon. The mdtG marbox sequence is in the backward or class I orientation within the promoter, and its disruption resulted in a loss of inducibility by MarA, SoxS, and Rob. Thus, chromosomal mutations in parC and soxR are responsible for the increased antibiotic resistance of NorE5. PMID:20008776

  8. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  9. Mars: The Viking Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This booklet describes the results of NASA's Viking spacecraft on Mars. It is intended to be useful for the teacher of basic courses in earth science, space science, astronomy, physics, or geology, but is also of interest to the well-informed layman. Topics include why we should study Mars, how the Viking spacecraft works, the winds of Mars, the…

  10. Mars: 2010 - 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Mars Exploration program for the current decade and beyond. The potential items for procurements for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are discussed, as well as future technology investments to enable to continued development of exploration of Mars by rovers and orbiters that are planned and envisioned for future missions.

  11. Visual Target Tracking on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Ali, Khaled

    2008-01-01

    Visual target tracking (VTT) software has been incorporated into Release 9.2 of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) flight software, now running aboard the rovers Spirit and Opportunity. In the VTT operation (see figure), the rover is driven in short steps between stops and, at each stop, still images are acquired by actively aimed navigation cameras (navcams) on a mast on the rover (see artistic rendition). The VTT software processes the digitized navcam images so as to track a target reliably and to make it possible to approach the target accurately to within a few centimeters over a 10-m traverse.

  12. Mars Ozone Mapping with MAVEN IUVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Schneider, N. M.; Deighan, J.; Jain, S.; Stewart, I. F.; Stiepen, A.; Chaffin, M.; McClintock, W. E.; Lo, D.; Clarke, J. T.; Holsclaw, G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone (O3) on Mars is a product of the CO2 photolysis by ultraviolet radiation. It is destroyed with a timescale of less than ~1 hour during the day by the H, OH, and HO2 radicals. This tight coupling between O3 and HOx species makes ozone a sensitive tracer of the odd hydrogen chemistry that stabilizes the CO2 atmosphere of Mars, and ozone measurements offer a powerful constraint for photochemical models. Ozone is also expected to be anti-correlated to water vapour, the source of hydrogen radicals HOx. At high latitudes in winter, the absence of H2O prevents the production of HOx and the chemical lifetime of ozone may increase up to several days. In these conditions, the ozone column abundance usually reaches its largest values of the Martian year and ozone turns into a measurable tracer of the polar vortex dynamics. The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) is one of nine science instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft. In the apoapse imaging phase, the spacecraft motion carries the IUVS lines-of-sight across the Martian disk while the scan mirror is used to make transverse swaths. This observation mode allows mapping the ozone vertically-integrated column from its signature in the solar ultraviolet flux backscattered by the surface and the atmosphere. This paper will present an overview of the first year of ozone mapping by IUVS. We will describe in particular the last Mars northern winter (2015) when the largest ozone columns have been observed since the beginning of the MAVEN mission. The data will be compared to prior Earth-based observations and to the SPICAM and MARCI ozone datasets. We will also test our quantitative understanding of the Martian ozone by comparing the IUVS observations to our three-dimensional model with photochemistry.

  13. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  14. Mars Polar Lander mated with third stage of rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Polar Lander is suspended from a crane in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) before being lowered to a workstand. There it will be mated to the third stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket before it is transported to Launch Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  15. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the protective covering on the Mars Polar Lander is lifted up and out of the way. The lander, in the opening below, is being mated to the Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch it on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  16. Mars Polar Lander mated with third stage of rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the Mars Polar Lander is lowered onto the third stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket before it is transported to Launch Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  17. Mars Polar Lander mated with third stage of rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers mate the Mars Polar Lander to the third stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket before it is transported to Launch Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  18. Planetary Protection Provisions for the Mars 2020 Mission: Enabling Discovery by Constraining Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Conley, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 2013-2022 NRC Decadal Survey named its #1 Flagship priority as a large, capable Mars rover that would be the first of a three-mission, multi-decadal effort to return samples from Mars. More recently, NASA's Mars Program has stated that a Mars rover mission known as 'Mars 2020' would be flown to Mars (in 2020) to accomplish a subset of the goals specified by the NRC, and the recent report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT) has recommended that the mission accomplish broad and rigorous in situ science, including seeking biosignatures, acquiring a diverse set of samples intended to address a range of Mars science questions and storing them in a cache for potential return to Earth at a later time, and other engineering goals to constrain costs and support future human exploration. In some ways Mars 2020 will share planetary protection requirements with the Mars Science Laboratory mission that landed in 2012, which included landing site constraints based on the presence of a perennial heat source (the MMRTG) aboard the lander/rover. In a very significant way, however, the presence of a sample-cache and the potential that Mars 2020 will be the first mission in the chain that will return a sample from Mars to Earth. Thus Mars 2020 will face more stringent requirements aimed at keeping the mission from returning Earth contamination with the samples from Mars. Mars 2020 will be looking for biosignatures of ancient life, on Mars, but will also need to be concerned with the potential to detect extant biosignatures or life itself within the sample that is eventually returned. If returned samples are able to unlock wide-ranging questions about the geology, surface processes, and habitability of Mars that cannot be answered by study of meteorites or current mission data, then either the returned samples must be free enough of Earth organisms to be releasable from a quarantine facility or the planned work of sample scientists, including high- and low

  19. The Salmonella typhimurium mar locus: molecular and genetic analyses and assessment of its role in virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Sulavik, M C; Dazer, M; Miller, P F

    1997-01-01

    The marRAB operon is a regulatory locus that controls multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli. marA encodes a positive regulator of the antibiotic resistance response, acting by altering the expression of unlinked genes. marR encodes a repressor of marRAB transcription and controls the production of MarA in response to environmental signals. A molecular and genetic study of the homologous operon in Salmonella typhimurium was undertaken, and the role of marA in virulence in a murine model was assessed. Expression of E. coli marA (marAEC) present on a multicopy plasmid in S. typhimurium resulted in a multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype, suggesting that a similar regulon exists in this organism. A genomic plasmid library containing S. typhimurium chromosomal sequences was introduced into an E. coli strain that was deleted for the mar locus and contained a single-copy marR'-'lacZ translational fusion. Plasmid clones that contained both S. typhimurium marR (marRSt) and marA (marASt) genes were identified as those that were capable of repressing expression of the fusion and which resulted in a Mar phenotype. The predicted amino acid sequences of MarRSt, MarASt, and MarBSt were 91, 86, and 42% identical, respectively, to the same genes from E. coli, while the operator/promoter region of the operon was 86% identical to the same 98-nucleotide-upstream region in E. coli. The marRAB transcriptional start sites for both organisms were determined by primer extension, and a marRABSt transcript of approximately 1.1 kb was identified by Northern blot analysis. Its accumulation was shown to be inducible by sodium salicylate. Open reading frames flanking the marRAB operon were also conserved. An S. typhimurium marA disruption strain was constructed by an allelic exchange method and compared to the wild-type strain for virulence in a murine BALB/c infection model. No effect on virulence was noted. The endogenous S. typhimurium plasmid that is associated with virulence

  20. Expression, Functional Characterization and X-ray Analysis of HosA, A Member of MarR Family of Transcription Regulator from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ajit; Reddi, Ravikumar; Sawhney, Bhavik; Ghosh, Debasish Kumar; Addlagatta, Anthony; Ranjan, Akash

    2016-08-01

    Regulators belonging to multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family are widespread in prokaryotes and are involved in regulation of genes that are responsible for virulence and pathogenicity in most of the clinically important pathogens. Here we report the transcriptional, biophysical, and X-ray analyses of homologue of SlyA (HosA), a member of MarR family that is predominantly present in the pathogenic strains of Enterobacteriaceae family. The initiation of hosA transcription was observed to occur at two independent start sites and subsequent binding study has revealed that the purified HosA interacts with its upstream region suggesting a probable autoregulation. The secondary structure analysis through circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that HosA is predominantly composed of the alpha helix with higher thermal stability. To further understand the three-dimensional structure, HosA was crystallized and the crystals were diffracted to maximum of 2.9 Ǻ on exposure to X-rays. Analysis of the X-ray crystallographic data suggested a primitive space group (P 6 ? 2 2), with unit cell parameters a = b = 64.19 Å and c = 244.25 Å. The solvent content and Matthews coefficient were 41 % and 2.11 Å(3) Da(-1), respectively, which indicated the existence of two molecules of HosA in the asymmetric unit of crystal. PMID:27325406

  1. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  2. Solar Power on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun.

    The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani).

    The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  3. A LANL Scientist's Dream Takes Off to Zap Rocks on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Roger Wiens, with a team of 40 people at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the collaboration of the French space institute IRAP, created ChemCam, a laser spectrometer and telescope device aboard the Curiosity rover. ChemCam will blast rocks from as far as 7 meters, vaporize bits of their surfaces, and spectroscopically determine their chemical composition, aiding in the search for life on Mars, and making this scientist's boyhood dream a reality.

  4. A LANL Scientist's Dream Takes Off to Zap Rocks on Mars

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Roger Wiens, with a team of 40 people at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the collaboration of the French space institute IRAP, created ChemCam, a laser spectrometer and telescope device aboard the Curiosity rover. ChemCam will blast rocks from as far as 7 meters, vaporize bits of their surfaces, and spectroscopically determine their chemical composition, aiding in the search for life on Mars, and making this scientist's boyhood dream a reality.

  5. The Mars Climate Orbiter arrives at KSC to begin final preparations for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard an Air Force C-17 cargo plane early this morning following its flight from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, Colo. When the spacecraft arrives at the red planet, it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (1.8 Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The scheduled launch date for the Mars Climate Orbiter is Dec. 10, 1998, on a Delta II 7425 rocket.

  6. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We are in the second year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe early mapping results, which include updating of previous northern plains mapping [3], including delineation of mainly Amazonian units and regional fault mapping, as well as other advances.

  7. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  8. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander is lifted to a vertical position on Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  9. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander is lifted to the top of the gantry on Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  10. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a solid rocket booster is raised to a vertical position for mating with the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  11. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the gantry holding the solid rocket boosters is moved into place next to the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  12. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a solid rocket booster hangs in place between two other rocket boosters waiting to be mated with the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  13. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the gantry on Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander waits to be lowered into the white room. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  14. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers monitor the solid rocket booster before its being lifted to mate with the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  15. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives at Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  16. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a solid rocket booster waits for mating with the Delta II rocket (in background) carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  17. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians check underneath the Mars Polar Lander as it sits on a workstand. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. The solar-powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  18. Participation in the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengil, Gordon H.; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument [1,2] carried aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has observed strong echoes from cloud tops at 1.064 microns on 61% of its orbital passes over the winter north pole (235deg L(sub S), < 315deg) and on 58% of the passes over the winter south pole (45deg < L(sub S), < 135deg). The clouds are unlikely to be composed of water ice since the vapor pressure of H2O is very low at the Martian nighttime polar temperatures measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) [3], and by an analysis of MGS radio occultations [4]. Dust clouds can also be ruled out since no correlation is seen between clouds and global dust storms. The virtually certain composition for the winter polar clouds is CO2 ice.

  19. Beagle 2: Seeking the Signatures of Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency s 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars in December 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 11.5 deg.N and 275 deg.W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 is completed and undergoing integration with the Mars Express orbiter prior to launch.

  20. Improved data analysis for EPHIN aboard SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasa, Christoph; Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; Klassen, Andreas; Müller-Mellin, Reinhold; Heber, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    The COSTEP instrument aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft consists of two separate energetic particle detectors, the Low Energy Ion and Electron Instrument (LION) and the Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN). These detectors allow measurement of electrons, protons and helium of solar, interplanetary or galactic origin in the energy range of 44 keV per particle up to several tens of MeV per nucleon. The objectives of these instruments are the study of particle emissions from the Sun, the galaxy and the heliosphere. EPHIN is collecting data since the launch of the mission in December 1995 covering more than a full 11-year solar cycle. Late in 1996 one of the semiconductor detectors became noisy, affecting the quality of the data in the upper energy range. We used the energy-range empiric relation by Goulding et al. to resconstruct the energy loss of nuclei in the affected detector. New dynamic spectra and long-term quiet time spectra using these techniques are presented.

  1. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  2. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  3. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-06-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  4. Mars Science with Small Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvin, W. M.; Miralles, C.; Clark, B. C.; Wilson, G. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars program has articulated a strategy to answer the question "Could Life have arisen on Mars?" by pursuing an in depth understanding of the location, persistence and expression of water in the surface and sub-surface environments. In addition to the need to understand the role of water in climate and climate history, detailed understanding of the surface and interior of the planet is required as well. Return of samples from the Martian surface is expected to provide key answers and site selection to maximize the science gleaned from samples becomes critical. Current and past orbital platforms have revealed a surface and planetary history of surprising complexity. While these remote views significantly advance our understanding of the planet it is clear that detailed regional surveys can both answer specific open questions as well as provide initial reconnaissance for subsequent landed operations.

  5. Mars nightside electrons over strong crustal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, Alexander D.; Xu, Shaosui; Liemohn, Michael W.; Mitchell, David L.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated 7 years worth of data from the electron reflectometer and magnetometer aboard Mars Global Surveyor to quantify the deposition of photoelectron and solar wind electron populations on the nightside of Mars, over the strong crustal field region located in the southern hemisphere. Just under 600,000 observations, each including energy and pitch angle distributions, were examined. For solar zenith angles (SZA) less than 110°, photoelectrons have the highest occurrence rate; beyond that, plasma voids occur most often. In addition, for SZA >110°, energy deposition of electrons mainly occurs on vertical field lines with median pitch angle averaged energy flux values on the order of 107-108 eV cm-2 s-1. The fraction of downward flux that is deposited at a given location was typically low (16% or smaller), implying that the majority of precipitated electrons are magnetically reflected or scattered back out. The average energy of the deposited electrons is found to be 20-30 eV, comparable to typical energies of photoelectrons and unaccelerated solar wind electrons. Median electron flux values, from near-vertical magnetic field lines past solar zenith angle of 110°, calculated in this study produced a total electron content of 4.2 × 1014 m-2 and a corresponding peak density of 4.2 × 103 cm-3.

  6. Mars at Ls 341o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a banded surface in Argyre Planitia, the second largest impact basin in the martian southern hemisphere. The bands are the erosional expression of layered, perhaps sedimentary, rock.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  7. Mars is just around the corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    At 9:31 CET, ESA's ground control team at Darmstadt (Germany) will send the command for the Beagle 2 lander to separate from Mars Express. A pyrotechnic device will be fired to slowly release a loaded spring, which will gently push Beagle 2 away from the mother spacecraft. Data on the spacecraft's position and speed will be used by mission engineers to assess whether the lander was successfully released. In addition, the onboard Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) should provide an image showing the lander slowly moving away. The image is expected to be available mid-afternoon. Beagle 2 will then continue its journey towards the surface of Mars, where it is expected to land on 25 December, early in the morning. At the same time, the Mars Express orbiter should be manoeuvring to enter into orbit around Mars. In view of the complexity of this operation, the Mars Express control team has been trained to deal with the eventuality that separation might not be achieved at the first attempt. If that did turn out to be the case, there is a series of procedures that has already been set up and tested for completing the manoeuvre successfully within the subsequent 40 hours. The "separation" event can be followed live at ESA/ESOC on Friday 19 December from 8:30 to 15:00. A videoconference will link the control centre at Darmstadt with ESA Headquarters in Paris (F), and ESA/ESRIN at Frascati (I). Media wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. Every day throughout December, you can follow the countdown to arrival at Mars at: http://mars.esa.int Here you will find live streaming of key events, news, features, images, videos and more.

  8. Quick trips to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a Mars Mission Vehicle that would have to be launched by two very heavy lift launch vehicles is described along with plans for a mission to Mars. The vehicle has three nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) boosters with a fourth in the center that acts as a dual mode system. The fourth generates electrical power while in route, but it also helps lift the vehicle out of earth orbit. A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a Mars transfer vehicle stage, and a Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) are located on the front end of this vehicle. Other aspects of this research including aerobraking, heat shielding, nuclear thermal rocket engines, a mars mission summary, closed Brayton cycle with and without regeneration, liquid hydrogen propellant storage, etc. are addressed.

  9. Cars on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  10. Mars Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars, both robotic and human, rely on solar arrays for the primary power system. Mars presents a number of challenges for solar power system operation, including a dusty atmosphere which modifies the spectrum and intensity of the incident solar illumination as a function of time of day, degradation of the array performance by dust deposition, and low temperature operation. The environmental challenges to Mars solar array operation will be discussed and test results of solar cell technology operating under Mars conditions will be presented, along with modeling of solar cell performance under Mars conditions. The design implications for advanced solar arrays for future Mars missions is discussed, and an example case, a Martian polar rover, are analyzed.

  11. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  12. Spacecraft exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Conway W.; Moroz, Vasilii I.

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and American spacecraft exploration of Mars over the past quarter century is reviewed. Data on the earliest Soviet attempts to send spacecraft to observe the planet are presented. Of the series of spacecraft that were announced (designated Mars 1 to Mars 7), none fulfilled all its scientific goals, but some good photographs and other important data were obtained. Of the six spacecraft in the Mariner series, two failed, but Mariner 4 first revealed the cratered surface of Mars, and Mariner 9 discovered all the major geologic features. The Viking mission, with its two Orbiters, two Landers, and its 6-yr duration, surpassed in quantity and variety of data all other missions combined. The Phobos mission ended in two failures, but the second of the two spacecraft acquired significant new data about Mars and Phobos. An appendix listing special issues of journals containing collections of papers about Mars is provided.

  13. Surface Reflectance of Mars Observed by CRISM-MRO: 1. Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations (mars-reco)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceamanos, Xavier; Doute, S.; Fernando, J.; Pinet, P.; Lyapustin, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the correction for aerosol effects in near-simultaneous multiangle observations acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. In the targeted mode, CRISM senses the surface of Mars using 11 viewing angles, which allow it to provide unique information on the scattering properties of surface materials. In order to retrieve these data, however, appropriate strategies must be used to compensate the signal sensed by CRISM for aerosol contribution. This correction is particularly challenging as the photometric curve of these suspended particles is often correlated with the also anisotropic photometric curve of materials at the surface. This article puts forward an innovative radiative transfer based method named Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations (MARS-ReCO). The proposed method retrieves photometric curves of surface materials in reflectance units after removing aerosol contribution. MARS-ReCO represents a substantial improvement regarding previous techniques as it takes into consideration the anisotropy of the surface, thus providing more realistic surface products. Furthermore, MARS-ReCO is fast and provides error bars on the retrieved surface reflectance. The validity and accuracy of MARS-ReCO is explored in a sensitivity analysis based on realistic synthetic data. According to experiments, MARS-ReCO provides accurate results (up to 10 reflectance error) under favorable acquisition conditions. In the companion article, photometric properties of Martian materials are retrieved using MARS-ReCO and validated using in situ measurements acquired during the Mars Exploration Rovers mission.

  14. Mars at Opposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  15. Mars: The Viking discoveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the Viking Mars probe is presented. The Viking spacecraft is described and a brief history of the earlier observations and exploration of Mars is provided. A number of the Viking photographs of the Martian surface are presented and a discussion of the experiments Viking performed including a confirmation of the general theory of relativity are reported. Martian surface chemistry is discussed and experiments to study the weather on Mars are reported.

  16. Mars Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is dynamically similar to the Earth's. Its spin-axis rotation rate is only minutes longer than Earth's so the Coriolois force is nearly identical to Earth's. The inclination of its spin axis is also similar to Earth's giving it similarity in seasonal change. And the Martian atmosphere is nearly transparent to solar radiation (except during dust periods) such that it is heated primarily by upwelling infrared radiation from the surface. These characteristics make Mars an ideal laboratory for studying the dynamics of rapidly rotating differentially heated atmospheres. This talk reviews what we have learned about Mars atmospheric dynamics and how if compares with Earth. The source of information to make such a comparison comes from observations and models. The former are sparse and that the latter have played a major role in shaping our thinking about the general circulation on Mars. However, the models need validation. Fortunately, the first two orbiters in NASA's Mars Surveyor Program have instrumentation to address many of the issues related to the general circulation and climate of Mars. The first, Mars Global Surveyor, is already at Mars gathering data. The second, the Mars 98 Orbiter to be launched later this year, carries a dedicated atmospheric sounder. Thus, much will be learned about Mars' atmosphere in the next few years.

  17. Digital cartography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    A medium-resolution Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars is being compiled. A DIM is a mosaic of radiometrically corrected, photometrically modelled spacecraft images displaying accurate reflectance properties at uniform resolution, and geometrically tied to the best available control. The Mars medium-resolution DIM contains approximately 4700 Viking Orbiter image frames that were used to compile the recently completed 1:2,000,000-scale controlled photomosaic series of Mars. This DIM provides a planimetric control base to which all other Mars maps will be registered. A similar control base of topographic elevations (Digital Terrain Model, or DTM) is also being compiled. These products are scheduled for completion in 1989.

  18. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    1992-01-01

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  19. Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Asphaug, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Moore and Howard [1] reported the discovery of large alluvial fans in craters on Mars. Their initial survey from 0-30 S found that these fans clustered in three distinct regions and occurred at around the +1 km MOLA defined Mars datum. However, due to incomplete image coverage, Moore and Howard [1]could not conduct a comprehensive survey. They also recognized, though did not quantitatively address, gravity scaling issues. Here, we briefly discuss the identification of alluvial fans on Mars, then consider the general equations governing the deposition of alluvial fans and hypothesize a method for learning about grain size in alluvial fans on Mars.

  20. A Mars base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    This study was initiated to provide an approach to the development of a permanently manned Mars base. The objectives for a permanently manned Mars base are numerous. Primarily, human presence on Mars will allow utilization of new resources for the improvement of the quality of life on Earth, allowing for new discoveries in technologies, the solar system, and human physiology. Such a mission would also encourage interaction between different countries, increasing international cooperation and leading to a stronger unification of mankind. Surface studies of Mars, scientific experiments in the multiple fields, the research for new minerals, and natural resource production are more immediate goals of the Mars mission. Finally, in the future, colonization of Mars will ensure man's perpetual presence in the universe. Specific objectives of this study were: (1) to design a Mars habitat that minimizes the mass delivered to the Mars surface, provides long-stay capability for the base crew, and accommodates future expansion and modification; (2) to develop a scenario of the construction of a permanently manned Mars base; and (3) to incorporate new and envisioned technologies.

  1. Mars Museum Visualization Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohus, A. M.; Viotti, M. A.; de Jong, E. M.

    2004-11-01

    The Mars Museum Visualization Alliance is a collaborative effort funded by the Mars Public Engagement Office and supported by JPL's Informal Education staff and the Solar System Visualization Project to share the adventure of exploration and make Mars a real place. The effort started in 2002 with a small working group of museum professionals to learn how best to serve museum audiences through informal science educators. By the time the Mars Exploration Rovers landed on Mars in January 2004, over 100 organizations were partners in the Alliance, which has become a focused community of Mars educators. The Alliance provides guaranteed access to images, information, news, and resources for use by the informal science educators with their students, educators, and public audiences. Thousands of people have shared the adventure of exploring Mars and now see it as a real place through the efforts of the Mars Museum Visualization Alliance partners. The Alliance has been lauded for "providing just the right inside track for museums to do what they do best," be that webcasts, live presentations with the latest images and information, high-definition productions, planetarium shows, or hands-on educational activities. The Alliance is extending its mission component with Cassini, Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust. The Mars Exploration and Cassini Programs, as well as the Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust Projects, are managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

  2. Climatic change on Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Toon, O. B.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that Mars is the only known planet with a major atmospheric constituent condensable at typical surface temperatures. The temperatures range from 290 K at equatorial noon to a temperature at the cold pole of 145 K in polar winter. There may be three different periods of climatic variation on Mars. Aspects of reversible climatic instability might possibly explain the channels and other features suggestive of the extensive occurrence of liquid water on Mars. An aqueous epoch on Mars would have important biological and other geological implications. Putative Martian organisms which flourish in the aqueous epoch may now be in cryptobiotic repose.

  3. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  4. Mars heavy ion precipitating flux as measured by MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.

    2015-12-01

    Mars' atmospheric escape induced by heavy planetary ions accelerated by the solar wind and reimpacting Mars' atmosphere has been suggested to occur. The sputtering of Mars' atmosphere has been even suggested to lead to a significant cumulated loss along Mars' history. Up to now, only a limited number of observations have been possible. ASPERA-3/Mars Express observed such precipitation only during extreme solar conditions events suggesting that sputtering might be not as intense as theoretically predicted. Based on MAVEN first six months of observations, we here show that precipitation of heavy ions also occur during quiet solar conditions and that the average precipitating flux during this period is significant and globally in good agreement with predictions. From these measured precipitating flux, we propose a first estimate of the atmospheric escape induced by sputtering. Up to 8.8×105 O/cm2/s was lost by Mars' atmosphere between November 2014 and April 2015.

  5. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  6. Preparing for Mars: The Evolvable Mars Campaign 'Proving Ground' Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Rob P.; Sibille, Laurent; Vangen, Scott; Williams-Byrd, Julie

    2015-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit, we are in the early stages of planning missions within the framework of an Evolvable Mars Campaign. Initial missions would be conducted in near-Earth cis-lunar space and would eventually culminate in extended duration crewed missions on the surface of Mars. To enable such exploration missions, critical technologies and capabilities must be identified, developed, and tested. NASA has followed a principled approach to identify critical capabilities and a "Proving Ground" approach is emerging to address testing needs. The Proving Ground is a period subsequent to current International Space Station activities wherein exploration-enabling capabilities and technologies are developed and the foundation is laid for sustained human presence in space. The Proving Ground domain essentially includes missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that will provide increasing mission capability while reducing technical risks. Proving Ground missions also provide valuable experience with deep space operations and support the transition from "Earth-dependence" to "Earth-independence" required for sustainable space exploration. A Technology Development Assessment Team identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support the cadence of exploration missions. Discussions among mission planners, vehicle developers, subject-matter-experts, and technologists were used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of required technologies and capabilities. Within System Maturation Teams, known challenges were identified and expressed as specific performance gaps in critical capabilities, which were then refined and activities required to close these critical gaps were identified. Analysis was performed to identify test and demonstration opportunities for critical technical capabilities across the Proving Ground spectrum of missions. This suite of critical capabilities is expected to

  7. Dust Removal on Mars Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Anderson, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    Dust coatings on the surface of Mars complicate and, if sufficiently thick, mask the spectral characteristics and compositional determination of underlying material from in situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) portion of the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instrument, aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, will be the first active remote sensing technique deployed on Mars able to remove dust. ChemCam utilizes a 5 ns pulsed 1067 nm high-powered laser focused to less than 400 m diameter on targets at distances up to 7 m [1,2]. With multiple laser pulses, dust and weathering coatings can be remotely analyzed and potentially removed using this technique [2,3]. A typical LIBS measurement during MSL surface operations is planned to consist of 50 laser pulses at 14 mJ, with the first 5 to 10 pulses used to analyze as well as remove any surface coating. Additionally, ChemCam's Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) is capable of resolving 200 m details at a distance of 2 m, or 1 mm at 10 m [1,4]. In this study, we report on initial laboratory experiments conducted to characterize the removal of dust coatings using similar LIBS parameters as ChemCam under Mars-like conditions. These experiments serve to better understand the removal of surface dust using LIBS and to facilitate the analysis of ChemCam LIBS spectral data and RMI images.

  8. Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Contents include the following: Executive Summary; Introduction; Scientific Goals for the Exploration of Mars; Overview of Mars Surveyor and Others Mars Missions; Key Issues for NASA's Mars Exploration Program; and Assessment of the Scientific Potential of NASA's Mars Exploration Program.

  9. The MarR family transcription factor Rv1404 coordinates adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to acid stress via controlled expression of Rv1405c, a virulence-associated methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Healy, Claire; Golby, Paul; MacHugh, David E; Gordon, Stephen V

    2016-03-01

    Coordinated regulation of gene expression is essential for pathogen adaptation in vivo. Understanding the control of these virulence circuits in the TB pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a key challenge if we are to increase our basic understanding of how this organism establishes infection. In this study we focused on the transcriptional regulator Rv1404 that shows similarity to the MarR family of transcriptional repressors. Rv1404 derepresses a set of genes in vivo that have been implicated in virulence and may therefore allow adaptation of M. tuberculosis to the intracellular environment. We used a combination of ChIP-qPCR and Electromobility Band Shift Assays (EMSA) to show that Rv1404 coordinates gene expression in response to stresses such as low pH in M. tuberculosis. Two genes regulated by Rv1404, rv1403c and rv1405c, encode putative SAM-dependent methyltransferases. To elucidate gene function, M. tuberculosis rv1403c and rv1405c mutants were constructed. The mutants showed attenuated growth in response to in vitro stress conditions that mimic the intracellular milieu. Our data sheds new light on the function of a novel regulon controlled by Rv1404 that coordinates adaptation of M. tuberculosis to the in vivo environment and reveals the Rv1405c and Rv1403c methyltransferases as playing a role in this adaptive process.

  10. Systematic targeted mutagenesis of the MarR/SlyA family members of Dickeya dadantii 3937 reveals a role for MfbR in the modulation of virulence gene expression in response to acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Sylvie; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique; Effantin, Géraldine; Zghidi-Abouzid, Ouafa; Nasser, William

    2010-11-01

    Pathogenicity of Dickeya dadantii is a process involving several factors, such as plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and adaptation systems to adverse conditions encountered in the apoplast. Regulators of the MarR family control a variety of biological processes, including adaptation to hostile environments and virulence. Analysis of the members of this family in D. dadantii led to the identification of a new regulator, MfbR, which controls virulence. MfbR represses its own expression but activates genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Purified MfbR increases the binding of RNA polymerase at the virulence gene promoters and inhibits transcription initiation at the mfbR promoter. MfbR activity appeared to be modulated by acidic pH, a stress encountered by pathogens during the early stages of infection. Expression of mfbR and its targets, during infection, showed that MfbR is unable to activate virulence genes in acidic conditions at an early step of infection. In contrast, alkalinization of the apoplast, during an advanced stage of infection, led to the potentialization of MfbR activity resulting in plant cell wall degrading enzyme production. This report presents a new example of how pathogens adjust virulence-associated factors during the time-course of an infection. PMID:21062374

  11. Detection of Phyllosilicates on Mars from PFS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; D'Amore, M.

    2009-12-01

    In the last few years the OMEGA instrument on the ESA Mars Express mission detected diverse phyllosilicates on Mars’ various locations. These deposits are important to improve our knowledge of the planet evolution, since they formed on Mars in the Noachian period, when moderate pH and large amount of available water occurred. On the same Mars Express mission another spectrometer is flying: the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS), measuring the Mars radiation in the spectral range between 1 and 50 microns. We used the PFS data, together with a surface-atmosphere separation algorithm and a linear deconvolution method to infer the surface composition on the same Mars regions where OMEGA detected the phyllosilicates, confirming their findings. The spectral library used for the surface linear deconvolution is the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED), containing emissivity spectra in the [1-50] µm spectral region, measured in the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR in Berlin.

  12. Is Mars Red Hot?

    NASA Video Gallery

    What would it feel like if you could stand on Mars – toasty warm, or downright chilly? Find out more about the temperature on Mars in this 60-second video from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  14. Viking Mars encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Various phases of planetary operations related to the Viking mission to Mars are described. Topics discussed include: approach phase, Mars orbit insertion, prelanding orbital activities, separation, descent and landing, surface operations, surface sampling and operations starting, orbiter science and radio science, Viking 2, Deep Space Network and data handling.

  15. Plasma engineering for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Baldwin, D.E.; Barr, W.L.

    1983-03-24

    The two-year Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in the conceptual design of a commercial, electricity-producing fusion reactor based on tandem mirror confinement. The physics basis for the MARS reactor was developed through work in two highly coupled areas of plasma engineering: magnetics and plasma performance.

  16. Mars' grand finale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. C.; Beish, J. D.; Hernandez, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    Results are presented from observations of the 1988 Mars apparition. Consideration is given to observations of the Martian south polar cap, meteorological activity on the planet, and changes in the surface features of Mars during the apparition. Also, the Martian dust storms observed in November 1988 are described.

  17. Dust devils on Mars.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Gierasch, P J

    1985-10-11

    Columnar, cone-shaped, and funnel-shaped clouds rising 1 to 6 kilometers above the surface of Mars have been identified in Viking Orbiter images. They are interpreted as dust devils, confirming predictions of their occurrence on Mars and giving evidence of a specific form of dust entrainment.

  18. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  19. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  20. Rat on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's rock abrasion tool, also known as 'rat' (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  1. Mars ice caps.

    PubMed

    Leovy, C

    1966-12-01

    Minimum atmospheric temperatures required to prevent CO(2) condensatio in the Mars polar caps are higher than those obtained in a computer experiment to simulate the general circulation of the Mars atmosphere. This observation supports the view that the polar caps are predominantly solid CO(2). However, thin clouds of H(2)0 ice could substantially reduce the surface condensation rate.

  2. Microscope on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  3. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  4. Surface Drainage on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Vidal, A.

    2001-01-01

    The role of water on Mars bears directly on investigations crossing a wide range of disciplines, including geomorphology, geochemistry, and biology. We have calculated the potential flow patterns of water using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Project Genesis: Mars in situ propellant technology demonstrator mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Francisco Garcia; Anderson, Scott; Andrews, Jason; Deger, Matt; Hedman, Matt; Kipp, Jared; Kobayashi, Takahisa; Marcelo, Mohrli; Mark, Karen; Matheson, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Project Genesis is a low cost, near-term, unmanned Mars mission, whose primary purpose is to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. The essence of the mission is to use indigenously produced fuel and oxidizer to propel a ballistic hopper. The Mars Landing Vehicle/Hopper (MLVH) has an Earth launch mass of 625 kg and is launched aboard a Delta 117925 launch vehicle into a conjunction class transfer orbit to Mars. Upon reaching its target, the vehicle performs an aerocapture maneuver and enters an elliptical orbit about Mars. Equipped with a ground penetrating radar, the MLVH searches for subsurface water ice deposits while in orbit for several weeks. A deorbit burn is then performed to bring the MLVH into the Martian atmosphere for landing. Following aerobraking and parachute deployment, the vehicle retrofires to a soft landing on Mars. Once on the surface, the MLVH begins to acquire scientific data and to manufacture methane and oxygen via the Sabatier process. This results in a fuel-rich O2/CH4 mass ratio of 2, which yields a sufficiently high specific impulse (335 sec) that no additional oxygen need be manufactured, thus greatly simplifying the design of the propellant production plant. During a period of 153 days the MLVH produces and stores enough fuel and oxidizer to make a 30 km ballistic hop to a different site of scientific interest. At this new location the MLVH resumes collecting surface and atmospheric data with the onboard instrumentation. Thus, the MLVH is able to provide a wealth of scientific data which would otherwise require two separate missions or separate vehicles, while proving a new and valuable technology that will facilitate future unmanned and manned exploration of Mars. Total mission cost, including the Delta launch vehicle, is estimated to be $200 million.

  6. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  7. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  8. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  9. [Dentists on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    The oral health of astronauts, last studied in the mid- 1970s on Skylab, has not been a priority area of study for NASA due to the short length of shuttle stays. But with longer stays on the International Space Station, and planning for a trip to Mars, investigations into how spaceflight affects oral health are needed. The objective of this symposium is to introduce the dental research community to changes occurring in humans who go into space, and how these changes might impact oral health. Dr. Millie Hughes-Fulford, an astronaut-scientist, will review what happens to humans who go into space, and the difficulties of living, and carrying out experiments in space. She will then discuss her research on cell cultures of osteoblasts in space, and in hypergravity Dr. Gerald Sonnenfeld will review immunological changes that occur in spaceflight, and relate the observed decreases in various types of immunological responses to possible effects on oral immunological factors. Dr. Marian Lewis will discuss the effects of spaceflight on gene expression using results from her spaceflight experiments on various cell types. Dr. Jack van Loon, fiom the Dutch Experiment Support Center, will review what is known about bone loss in humans and rats and metatarsal cultures which go into space, and review ground based models (head down bedrest, and tail suspension) that simulate the unloading of spaceflight. Attendees will gain a knowledge of spaceflight research, and information on getting their own experiments in space. The symposium is supported by the NASA Office of Bioastronautics

  10. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  11. The Search for Nitrates on Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer C.; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Chirstopher P.; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Coll, Partice J.; Glavin, Daniel Patrick; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Wong, Mike; Atreya, Sushiil K.; Wray, James J.; Steele, Andrew; Prats, Benito D.; Szopa, Cyril; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Buch, Arnaud; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ming, Douglas W.; Conrad, Pamela Gales; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Grotzinger, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere as N2 but it was lost by sputtering and photochemical loss to space, impact erosion, and chemical oxidation to nitrates. A nitrogen cycle may exist on Mars where nitrates, produced early in Mars' history, may have been later decomposed back into N2 by the current impact flux. Nitrates are a fundamental source of nitrogen for terrestrial microorganisms, and they have evolved metabolic pathways to perform both oxidation and reduction to drive a complete biological nitrogen cycle. Therefore, the characterization of nitrogen in Martian soils is important to assess habitability of the Martian environment, particularly with respect to the presence of nitrates. The only previous mission that was designed to search for soil nitrates was the Phoenix mission but N-containing species were not detected by TEGA or the MECA WCL. Nitrates have been tentatively identified in Nakhla meteorites, and if nitrogen was oxidized on Mars, this has important implications for the habitability potential of Mars. Here we report the results from the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite aboard the Curiosity rover during the first year of surface operations in Gale Crater. Samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit and sedimentary rocks (John Klein) were heated to approx 835degC under helium flow and the evolved gases were analyzed by MS and GC-MS. Two and possibly three peaks may be associated with the release of m/z 30 at temperatures ranging from 180degC to 500degC. M/z 30 has been tentatively identified as NO; other plausible contributions include CH2O and an isotopologue of CO, 12C18O. NO, CH2O, and CO may be reaction products of reagents (MTBSTFA/DMF) carried from Earth for the wet chemical derivatization experiments with SAM and/or derived from indigenous soil nitrogenated organics. Laboratory analyses indicate that it is also possible that <550degC evolved NO is produced via reaction of HCl with

  12. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  13. MAVEN Imaging UV Spectrograph Results on the Mars Atmosphere and Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefevre, Franck; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Stiepen, Arnaud; Crismani, Matteo; Mayyasi, Majd; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Mike; Yelle, Roger; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) is one of nine science instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft, whose payload is dedicated to exploring the upper atmosphere of Mars and understanding the magnitude and drivers of Mars' atmospheric escape rate. IUVS uses ultraviolet light to investigate the lower and upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. The instrument is among the most powerful spectrographs sent to another planet, with several key capabilities: (1) separate Far-UV & Mid-UV channels for stray light control, (2) a high resolution echelle mode to resolve deuterium and hydrogen emission, (3) internal instrument pointing and scanning capabilities to allow complete mapping and nearly continuous operation, and (4) optimization for airglow studies. IUVS, along with other MAVEN instruments, obtains a comprehensive picture of the current state of the Mars upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes that control atmospheric escape. We present an overview of selected IUVS results, including (1) the discovery of diffuse aurora at Mars, and its contrast with previously detected discrete aurora localized near crustal magnetic fields; (2) widespread detection of mesospheric clouds; (3) Significant seasonal and short-timescale variability in thermospheric composition; (4) Global ozone maps spanning six months of seasonal evolution; and (5) mapping of the Mars H and O coronas, deriving the escape rates of H and O and their variability. This last is of particular importance for understanding the long term evolution of Mars and its atmosphere, with the observed preset escape of H potentially capable of removing a large fraction of Mars' initial water inventory, and the differential escape of O relative to H potentially providing a net source of oxidizing power to the atmosphere and planet at present, in contrast with a photochemical theory that predicts stoichiometrically balanced escape. The atmospheric and escape

  14. Mars: A reassessment of its interest to biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    Of all the planets in the solar system, Mars is certainly the one that has inspired the most speculation concerning extraterrestrial life. Observers had long ago noticed that Mars exhibits changes in its polar caps and alterations in its surface coloration that parallel seasonal changes on Earth. The fascination with Mars and the possibility of life on Mars continued into the spacecraft era and was directly expressed in the Viking Missions. These highly successful missions had the search for life on Mars as one of their principal goals. A review of Viking Missions experiments is presented. Results of these investigations are summarized. While the Viking Missions returned a negative answer to the question of life on Mars, they also showed that many years ago Mars was a very different place and enjoyed conditions that may have been conducive to the origin of life - life that may have long since become extinct. Evidence for the existence of water on Mars in the past is presented. Techniques used to study early life on Earth, which may also be used for similar studies on Mars, are described.

  15. Relay Telecommunications for the Coming Decade of Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, C.; DePaula, R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an evolving network of relay-equipped orbiters has advanced our capabilities for Mars exploration. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), as well as ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, have provided telecommunications relay services to the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the 2007 Phoenix Lander. Based on these successes, a roadmap for continued Mars relay services is in place for the coming decade. MRO and Odyssey will provide key relay support to the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, including capture of critical event telemetry during entry, descent, and landing, as well as support for command and telemetry during surface operations, utilizing new capabilities of the Electra relay payload on MRO and the Electra-Lite payload on MSL to allow significant increase in data return relative to earlier missions. Over the remainder of the decade a number of additional orbiter and lander missions are planned, representing new orbital relay service providers and new landed relay users. In this paper we will outline this Mars relay roadmap, quantifying relay performance over time, illustrating planned support scenarios, and identifying key challenges and technology infusion opportunities.

  16. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with respect to employees rendering watchman or similar service aboard a vessel in port. Members of the crew... crew rendering watchman or similar services aboard the vessel during this period would not appear to...

  17. ExoMars 2016 arrives at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; ExoMars Team

    2016-10-01

    The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the Schiaparelli Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Model (EDM) will arrive at Mars on 19 October 2016. The TGO and the EDM are part of the first step of the ExoMars Programme. They will be followed by a Rover and a long lived Surface Platform to be launched in 2020.The EDM is attached to the TGO for the full duration of the cruise to Mars and will be separated three days before arrival at Mars. After separation the TGO will perform a deflection manoeuvre and, on 19 October (during the EDM landing), enter into a highly elliptical near equatorial orbit. TGO will remain in this parking orbit until January 2017, when the orbital plane inclination will be changed to 74 degrees and aerobraking to the final 400 km near circular orbit will start. The final operational orbit is expected to be reached at the end of 2017.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The main objective of the EDM is to demonstrate the capability of performing a safe entry, descent and landing on the surface, but it does carry a descent camera and a small battery powered meteorological package that may operate for a few days on the surface.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and

  18. Mars Aerobot Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J.; Bachelder, A.; Cameron, J.; Patzold, J.; Quadrelli, M.; Yavrouian, A.; Cantrell, J.; Lachenmeier, T.; Smith, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Balloon Validation Program (MABVAP) was initiated in August 1997 to develop and validate key technologies needed for aerobot missions on Mars. The major elements of the program are the development of balloons for flight on Mars, robust techniques for deployment and inflation and modeling and simulation of balloon flight paths. selection, development and tests of available balloon materials, design and fabrication of balloons (both superpressure and solar- heated), design and fabrication of deployment and inflation systems for aerial deployment, design and fabrication of avionics to control deployment/inflation process and to get telemetry and video data. Modeling of main processes during deployment and actual flight is also a part of MABVAP. In order to validate deployment and inflation, MABVAP applies experience from previous Mars balloon development or study activities the Russian-French Mars Aerostat Project (1988-1995), Mars Aerial Platform Study (1994) and Mars Aerobot/Balloon Study (1996). The program includes laboratory, wind tunnel, vacuum chamber tests of the system components and a number of tropospheric and stratospheric flight tests of deployment and inflation of lightfilm balloons in a simulated Martian environment.

  19. Global climatic change on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kargel, J S; Strom, R G

    1996-11-01

    The authors examine evidence from Mariner and Viking probes of the Martian environment to support theories of a global climate change on Mars. Similarities between some geographical features on Earth and Mars are used to suggest a warmer climate on Mars in the past. An overview of planned Mars exploration missions is included.

  20. Third International Colloquium on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of papers concerning the geology and geophysics of Mars, volcanism on Mars, the Mars atmosphere, and the long term history of the atmosphere-cap-regolith volatile regime are presented. Formation of the Mars surface, climatology, gravity and magnetism, atmospheric boundary layers, and interpretation of Viking imagery and Earth-based observations are considered.

  1. Scientific considerations in the design of the Mars observer gamma-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R. ); Boynton, W.V. ); Englert, P. ); Feldman, W.C. ); Metzger, A.E. ); Reedy, R.C. ); Squyres, S.W. ); Trombka, J.I. )

    1989-05-15

    Cosmic-ray primary and secondary particles induce characteristic gamma-ray and neutron emissions from condensed bodies in our solar system. These characteristic emissions can be used to obtain qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses of planetary surfaces from orbital altitudes. Remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy has been successfully used to obtain elemental composition of the Moon and Mars during United States Apollo 15 and 16 missions and the Soviet Luna and Mars missions. A remote sensing gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer will be included aboard the United States Mars Observer Mission. If proper care is not taken in the design of the spectrometer and choice of materials in the construction of the detector system and spacecraft, the sensitivity of these remote sensing spectrometers can be greatly degraded. A discussion of these design and material selection problems is presented.

  2. Scientific considerations in the design of the Mars observer gamma-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Englert, P.; Feldman, W.C.; Metzger, A.E.; Reedy, R.C.; Squyres, S.W.; Trombka, J.I.; Wanke, H.

    1987-01-01

    Cosmic-ray primary and secondary particles induce characteristic gamma-ray and neutron emissions from condensed bodies in our solar system. These characteristic emissions can be used to obtain qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses of planetary surfaces from orbital altitudes. Remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy has been successfully used to obtain elemental composition of the Moon and Mars during United States Apollo 15 and 16 missions and the Soviet Luna and Mars missions. A remote sensing gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer will be included aboard the United States Mars Observer Mission. If proper care is not taken in the design of the spectrometer and choice of materials in the construction of the detector system and spacecraft, the sensitivity of these remote sensing spectrometers can be greatly degraded. A discussion of these design and material selection problems is presented. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. MARS PATHFINDER ENTRY VEHICLE MATED TO CRUISE STAGE IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The critical task of mating the Mars Pathfinder entry vehicle with its cruise stage is under way in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). Mechanical mating is completed first and then electrical connections between the two elements are established. The cone-shaped aeroshell is being moved upward into the cruise stage, the uppermost element. Inside the protective aeroshell is the Pathfinder lander, and inside the lander is the Sojourner rover that will explore the Martian terrain. The aeroshell, lander and rover together comprise the entry vehicle. The cruise stage will deliver the entry vehicle directly to Mars, a journey expected to last approximately seven months, and then is jettisoned before the entry vehicle makes its final descent to the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a 24-day launch period that opens Dec. 2, 1996.

  4. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), workers prepare the Mars Climate Orbiter for a spin test. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. At the extreme right can be seen the lander in another work area. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  5. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), a worker maneuvers the Mars Climate Orbiter, suspended by an overhead crane, to the spin test equipment at lower right. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  6. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), the Mars Climate Orbiter is lifted from the workstand to move it to another site for a spin test. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  7. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), the Mars Climate Orbiter is in place for its spin test. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  8. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), workers lower the Mars Climate Orbiter into place on the spin test equipment. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  9. Entry-probe studies of the atmospheres of earth, Mars, and Venus - A review (Von Karman Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper overviews the history (since 1963) of the exploration of planetary atmospheres by use of entry probes. The techniques used to measure the compositions of the atmospheres of the earth, Mars, and Venus are described together with the key results obtained. Attention is also given to the atmosphere-structure experiment aboard the Galileo Mission, launched on October 17, 1989 and now under way on its 6-yr trip to Jupiter, and to future experiments.

  10. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander is lowered toward the rocket waiting below. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  11. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander is prepared for lowering toward the rocket below. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  12. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  13. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-12-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  14. Mars surface transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, Jeffrey M.; Alred, John W.

    1986-01-01

    As the number of scientific experiments for the surface of Mars grows, the need for effective surface transportation becomes critical. Because of the diversity of the experiments proposed, as well as the desire to explore Mars from the equator to the poles, the optimum surface vehicle configuration is not obvious. Five candidate vehicles are described, with an estimate of their size and performance. In order to maximize the success of a manned Mars mission, it appears that two vehicles should be designed for surface transportation: an advanced long-range rover, and a remotely-piloted airplane.

  15. Human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwynne, Owen; Mckay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  16. Mars Aerocapture Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Oh, David Y.; Westhelle, Carlos H.; Fisher, Jody L.; Dyke, R. Eric; Edquist, Karl T.; Brown, James L.; Justh, Hilary L.; Munk, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Mars Aerocapture Systems Study (MASS) is a detailed study of the application of aerocapture to a large Mars robotic orbiter to assess and identify key technology gaps. This study addressed use of an Opposition class return segment for use in the Mars Sample Return architecture. Study addressed mission architecture issues as well as system design. Key trade studies focused on design of aerocapture aeroshell, spacecraft design and packaging, guidance, navigation and control with simulation, computational fluid dynamics, and thermal protection system sizing. Detailed master equipment lists are included as well as a cursory cost assessment.

  17. Exploring Mars in 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beish, J. D.; Parker, D. C.

    1988-04-01

    During September 19-26, 1988, Mars will be 23.8 arcsec wide; this is fully 95 percent as large as Mars can ever possibly become, and only 1 arcsec smaller than it attained during the last very favorable apparition, in 1971. In the case of the 1988 apparition, Mars will be 20 deg higher in the sky than in either 1971 or 1986, offering observers in the Northern Hemisphere a much better view. The south polar cap is discussed as well as clouds and hazes, yellow dust storms, and seasonable trends.

  18. Solar radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  19. Mars tectonics and volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1990-01-01

    The focus of this research was on three broad areas: (1) the relation between lithospheric stress in the vicinity of a growing volcano and the evolution of eruption characteristics and tectonic faulting; (2) the relation between elastic lithosphere thickness and thermal structure; and (3) a synthesis of constraints on heat flow and internal dynamics on Mars. The two reports presented are: (1) Heterogeneities in the Thickness of the Elastic Lithosphere of Mars--Constraints on Heat Flow and Internal Dynamics; and (2) State of Stress, Faulting, and Eruption Characteristics of Large Volcanoes on Mars.

  20. Airbag Tracks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The circular shapes seen on the martian surface in these images are 'footprints' left by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's airbags during landing as the spacecraft gently rolled to a stop. Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24, 2004, Earth-received time. The circular region of the flower-like feature on the right is about the size of a basketball. Scientists are studying the prints for more clues about the makeup of martian soil. The images were taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity.

  1. Exobiology on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L. (Editor); Marshall, J. R. (Editor); Andersen, D. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Descriptions of several instrument concepts that were generated during a workshop entitled, Exobiology Instrument Concepts for a Soviet Mars 94/94 Mission, held at NASA Ames Research Center in 1989 are presented. The objective was to define and describe instrument concepts for exobiology and related science that would be compatible with the mission types under discussion for the 1994 and 1996 Soviet Mars missions. Experiments that use existing technology were emphasized. The concepts discussed could also be used on U.S. missions that follow Mars Observer.

  2. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  3. Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

    2000-01-01

    With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

  4. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  5. Apollo 9 crewmen arrive aboard U.S.S. Guadelcanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 9 crewmen arrive aboard the U.S.S. Guadelcanal as they step from a helicopter to receive a red-carpet welcome. Two of the crewmen salute the crowd of newsmen, Navy and NASA personnel gathered to greet them. Left to right are Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, David R. Scott, and James A. McDivitt.

  6. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.217 Suppression...

  7. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.217 Suppression...

  8. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.217 Suppression...

  9. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.217 Suppression...

  10. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.217 Suppression...

  11. Predicting Airborne Particle Levels Aboard Washington State School Buses.

    PubMed

    Adar, Sara D; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Liu, L-J Sally

    2008-10-01

    School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission-reducing retrofits.To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM(2.5) data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least square regression models for PM(2.5) onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM(2.5) levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics.Concentrations aboard school buses (21 mug/m(3)) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM(2.5) levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 mug/m(3) originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM(2.5), bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust.These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics.

  12. The global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Maurice, S.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Squyres, Steven W.; Boynton, W. V.; Elphic, R. C.; Funsten, H. O.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Tokar, R. L.; Moore, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prime objectives of the neutron spectrometer (NS) component of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments aboard Mars Odyssey are to identify the major reservoirs of hydrogen on Mars, determine their relative contributions to its total water inventory, and estimate the portion of the current inventory that is near the surface. Although more information is required than is currently available, epithermal neutron currents alone can provide a significant lower bound of hydrogen abundances on Mars. Observations from Viking 1, Viking 2, and Mars Pathfinder positively identified two of these reservoirs. By far the largest near-surface reservoir is comprised of the two residual polar caps, which together are sufficient to cover Mars with a global ocean about 30 m deep. The second is contained in the atmosphere, which if deposited on the surface, would cover Mars with a thin film of water about 10{sup -5} m deep. Although negligible in comparison, the fact that an atmospheric reservoir exists shows that it can provide a conduit that couples transient reservoirs of near-surface water ice. It has long been speculated that Mars has had, and may still retain, a far larger reservoir of water. Topographic features such as rampart craters, collapsed chaotic terrain, massive outflow channels, and valley networks provide strong support for the past existence of large bodies of surface water. Measurements of the areal size and depth of all paleo-water and volcanic features led to an estimate of a total water inventory equivalent to a global ocean that was between 100 and 500 m thick. Measurements of the D/H ratio have allowed predictions that between 5 and 50 m of this inventory was lost to space. Altogether, these estimates lead to between 20 and 465 m of water from the juvenile Martian inventory that is not accounted for. First analyses of Mars Odyssey neutron and gamma-ray data showed that reservoirs of hydrogen do indeed exist poleward of about {+-}50{sup o} latitude. Mars

  13. ENA diagnostics of auroral activity at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, W.-H.

    2012-04-01

    One prominent feature of solar wind - Mars interaction has to do with the presence of strong crustal magnetic fields, especially, in the southern hemisphere. This physical property has set Mars apart from Venus as far as the kinetic effect in detail. In this paper, we review briefly the recent particles-and-fields measurements at Mars in connection to the auroral activity driven by magnetic field reconnection between the crustal magnetic fields and the interplanetary fields. It is suggested that the subsolar ENA (energetic neutral atoms) jets discovered by the NPD instrument of Mars Express could be resulting from charge exchange effect of the shocked solar wind protons at the magnetopause-like regions of the Martian mini-magnetospheres and at the cusp regions of the crustal magnetic fields. It also means that ENA and LENA (low energy neutral atom) detectors could be important experiments for diagnostics of the auroral process unique to Mars, which might contribute to the overall atmospheric loss budget.

  14. Ion flux profiles observed at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, C. M.; Andersson, L.; Lundin, R. N.; Frahm, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    How Mars lost it's water and atmosphere is still an important question. Many studies have investigated high-energy ion fluxes (>10 eV) surrounding the planet and derived ion outflow rates in order to determine atmospheric loss. These rates suggest that the outflow from high-energy ions is not the dominant escape path for atmospheric loss. Over the years increasing evidence has indicated that the loss of low-energy ions are more important than the high-energy ion loss. In this presentation ion observations (down to the spacecraft potential) from the Mars Express (MEX) mission (2010/11), are used to describe the ion altitude distribution at Mars. The focus of this study is below the altitude of ~1000 km. Within the Mars environment, using the MEX electron observations different plasma regions was identified. Supported by electron identification, different altitude profiles of ion fluxes have been analyzed from the different plasma regions. One of the results from this study is that the altitude profile of the ion flux observed below the photoelectron boundary is different when comparing the northern and the southern hemispheres. The ion distributions, resulting altitude profile, the influence of the crustal magnetic field at Mars, and the implications relating to plasma outflow will be discussed in this presentation.

  15. Claritas rise, Mars: Pre-Tharsis magmatism?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Ruiz, J.; McGuire, P.C.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wang, R.; Scharenbroich, L.; Hare, T.M.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Baker, V.R.; Wheelock, S.J.; Ferris, J.C.; Miyamoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Claritas rise is a prominent ancient (Noachian) center of tectonism identified through investigation of comprehensive paleotectonic information of the western hemisphere of Mars. This center is interpreted to be the result of magmatic-driven activity, including uplift and associated tectonism, as well as possible hydrothermal activity. Coupled with its ancient stratigraphy, high density of impact craters, and complex structure, a possible magnetic signature may indicate that it formed during an ancient period of Mars' evolution, such as when the dynamo was in operation. As Tharsis lacks magnetic signatures, Claritas rise may pre-date the development of Tharsis or mark incipient development, since some of the crustal materials underlying Tharsis and older parts of the magmatic complex, respectively, could have been highly resurfaced, destroying any remanent magnetism. Here, we detail the significant characteristics of the Claritas rise, and present a case for why it should be targeted by the Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Express spacecrafts, as well as be considered as a prime target for future tier-scalable robotic reconnaissance. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  17. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  18. Explore Mars With Curiosity

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the approximate true position of NASA’s Curiosityrover on Mars. A 3-D virtual model of Curiosity is shown inside GaleCrater, near Mount Sharp, Curiosity’s ultimate destin...

  19. Walking on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, G. A.; Willems, P. A.; Heglund, N. C.

    1998-06-01

    Sometime in the near future humans may walk in the reduced gravity of Mars. Gravity plays an essential role in walking. On Earth, the body uses gravity to `fall forwards' at each step and then the forward speed is used to restore the initial height in a pendulum-like mechanism. When gravity is reduced, as on the Moon or Mars, the mechanism of walking must change. Here we investigate the mechanics of walking on Mars onboard an aircraft undergoing gravity-reducing flight profiles. The optimal walking speed on Mars will be 3.4 km h-1 (down from 5.5 km h-1 on Earth) and the work done per unit distance to move the centre of mass will be half that on Earth.

  20. The Mars Observer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission is to be the first in a series of modest-cost inner-planet missions. Launch is planned for the August/September 1990 Mars opportunity with arrival at Mars one year later. The geoscience/climatology objectives are to be met during a mapping mission over the course of one Mars year (687 days). The mapping orbit will be near-polar (93 degree orbital inclination), sun-synchronous (2 PM sunward equator crossing), and near-circular (350 km orbit altitude, 116 minute period). The spacecraft, to be selected in late 1985, will be a modified version of an existing commercial design which, in the mapping orbit, will maintain a nadir orientation. Experiments and instruments will be selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) process with release of the AO in April 1985, and selection in early 1986. A description of current planning for this mission, with emphasis on climatology, is presented here.

  1. Atmospheric Electricity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G.; Farrell, W.

    2011-10-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is one compelling example in our solar system that should possess active electrical processes, where dust storms are known to occur on local, regional, and global scales. Laboratory experiments and simulations all indicate that these events are expected to generate substantial quasi-static electric fields via triboelectric (i.e., frictional) charging, perhaps up to the breakdown potential of the Martian atmosphere. However current observations of potential electrical activity on Mars from both ground-based and orbital platforms have yielded conflicting results. If present, significant atmospheric electricity could be an important source of atmospheric chemistry on Mars, and thus impact our understanding of the evolution of the atmosphere and its past or present astrobiological potential. Here we review the current state of understanding regarding atmospheric electricity on Mars, and discuss its implications pending the results of future measurements.

  2. Retrograde Motion of Mars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knappenberger, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an activity whereby students describe the path of Mars through a background starfield. Includes purpose, materials, pre-lab, and procedure. Also provides guidelines for making a dial-a-planet wheel. (MA)

  3. Mars' Inner Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows a cross-section of the planet Mars revealing an inner, high density core buried deep within the interior. Dipole magnetic field lines are drawn in blue, showing the global scale magnetic field that one associates with dynamo generation in the core. Mars must have one day had such a field, but today it is not evident. Perhaps the energy source that powered the early dynamo has shut down. The differentiation of the planet interior - heavy elements like iron sinking towards the center of the planet - can provide energy as can the formation of a solid core from the liquid.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. From Siberia to Mars

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Friedmann, E I; Meyer, M A

    1991-01-01

    Because Mars is so similar to Earth, planetary scientists looking for answers to questions like these often use analogous environments on Earth to help them design future Mars missions. Such terrestrial sites, however remote, are still much more accessible than Mars. Field studies in such places give us a chance to test and refine instruments and procedures, develop overall concepts and collect baseline data to compare with actual results from Mars. Perhaps the best terrestrial analogue to the martian permafrost lies in northeastern Siberia. Freezing conditions have persisted here for over 3 million years. Although young by martian standards, these are among the oldest continuously frozen localities on Earth. They also hold something remarkable: not only organic residues, but also large numbers of viable bacteria (up to 100 million per gram of frozen soil), preserved for 3 million years in ice.

  5. The Cruise to Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The long journey to Mars through the harsh environment of spaceconfronts the Curiosity navigation team with a long list of challengesto get the spacecraft safely to its destination.› Mission site

  6. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  7. Mars' core and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D J

    2001-07-12

    The detection of strongly magnetized ancient crust on Mars is one of the most surprising outcomes of recent Mars exploration, and provides important insight about the history and nature of the martian core. The iron-rich core probably formed during the hot accretion of Mars approximately 4.5 billion years ago and subsequently cooled at a rate dictated by the overlying mantle. A core dynamo operated much like Earth's current dynamo, but was probably limited in duration to several hundred million years. The early demise of the dynamo could have arisen through a change in the cooling rate of the mantle, or even a switch in convective style that led to mantle heating. Presently, Mars probably has a liquid, conductive outer core and might have a solid inner core like Earth.

  8. Mars Acoustic Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a very high performance anemometer (wind gauge) for use at Mars. This instrument has great scientific as well as strategic reasons to be included on all future missions to the surface of Mars. We will discuss why we set out to develop this instrument, as well as why the previous wind sensors for Mars are insufficient to meet the scientific and strategic needs at Mars. We will also discuss how the instrument works, and how it differs from terrestrial counterparts. Additionally, we will discuss the current status of the instrument. Measuring winds at Mars is important to better understand the atmospheric circulation at Mars, as well as exchange between the surface and atmosphere. The main conduit of transport of water, and hence its current stability at any particular location on Mars is controlled by these atmospheric motions and the exchange between surface and atmosphere. Mars' large-scale winds are moderately well understood from orbital observations, but the interaction with the surface can only be addressed adequately in situ. Previous anemometers have been 2-D (with the exception of REMS on MSL) and slow response (typically <1Hz), and relatively low sensitivity/accuracy (>1 m/s). Our instrument is capable of fully 3-D measurements, with fast response (>20 Hz) and great sensitivity/accuracy (~3 cm/s). This significant step forward in performance is important for the surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat, momentum and volatiles. In particular, our instrument could directly measure the heat and momentum fluxes between surface and atmosphere using eddy-flux techniques proven terrestrially. When combined with a fast response volatile analysis instrument (e.g., a TLS) we can also measure eddy fluxes of volatile transport. Such a study would be nearly impossible to carry out with preceding anemometers sent to Mars with insufficient response time and sensitivity to adequately sample the turbulent eddies. Additionally, our instrument, using acoustics

  9. Environment of Mars, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David I. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    A compilation of scientific knowledge about the planet Mars is provided. Information is divided into three categories: atmospheric data, surface data, and astrodynamic data. The discussion of atmospheric data includes the presentation of nine different models of the Mars atmosphere. Also discussed are Martian atmospheric constituents, winds, clouds, and solar irradiance. The great dust storms of Mars are presented. The section on Mars surface data provides an in-depth examination of the physical and chemical properties observed at the two Viking landing sites. Bulk densities, dielectric constants, and thermal inertias across the planet are then described and related back to those specific features found at the Viking landing sites. The astrodynamic materials provide the astronomical constants, time scales, and reference coordinate frames necessary to perform flightpath analysis, navigation design, and science observation design.

  10. The atmosphere of Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Calcutt, S. B.; Taylor, F. W.; McCleese, D. J.

    Mars, one of the most Earth-like of the planets, is today a cold, dry and barren world. However, there is good evidence that it may have been much warmer and wetter in the past and perhaps even supported life. The public interest aroused by these findings and by recent studies of `SNC' meteorites, believed to have come from Mars, with their claims of the evidence of ancient Martian life, has focused attention on the ambitious programme of Mars Exploration currently being undertaken by NASA and ESA and has provided additional impetus. Improved measurements of the conditions on Mars' surface and in its atmosphere are central to both agencies' plans, and current atmospheric missions are reviewed in this paper together with possible future designs.

  11. Bringing Life to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    A suitable long-term goal for human exploration of Mars is the determination of whether or not a self-sustainable bio-sphere could be constructed on Mars, a process called Terraforming. Preliminary considerations of the conditions on a habitable Mars suggest that there are two potentially habitable states: one -characterized by an atmosphere of 1-3 bars of CO2 - would be habitable for plants and microorganisms and another which would be habitable by humans. It may be possible to warm the planet by selective introduction of trace gases to enhance the greenhouse effect. Energy balance considerations suggest that warming Mars would take on the order of 100 years with a much longer time required to produce a breathable atmosphere.

  12. Future Mars outpost architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. D.; Owens, J.; Easter, R. W.; Mireles, O. R.; Ramsey, S. A.; Palko, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an outpost designed with the JPL Mars Long Range Planning Team's goals in mind. The design focuses on subsurface mapping and characterization, accomplished through seismic mapping and deep drilling.

  13. Wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Aeolian activity was predicted for Mars from earth based observations of changing surface patterns that were interpreted as dust storms. Mariner 9 images showed conclusive evidence for aeolian processes in the form of active dust storms and various aeolian landforms including dunes and yardangs. Windspeeds to initiate particle movement are an order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth because of the low atmospheric density on Mars. In order to determine rates of abrasion by wind blown particles, knowledge of three factors is required: (1) particle parameters such as numbers and velocities of windblown grains as functions of windspeeds at various heights above the surface; (2) the susceptibility to abrasion of various rocks and minerals; and (3) wind frequencies and speeds. For estimates appropriate to Mars, data for the first two parameters can be determined through lab and wind tunnel tests; data for the last two factors are available directly from the Viking Lander meteorology experiments for the two landing sites.

  14. The climate of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The composition of the primitive Martian atmosphere and its development into the present environment are described. The primitive atmosphere consisted of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen released from rocks; the greenhouse effect which maintained the surface temperature above the frost point of water is examined. Volcanic activity reduced the greenhouse effect and along with CO2 removal from the atmosphere caused a lowering of the planet temperature. The global circulation patterns on earth and Mars are compared; the similarities in the circulation patterns and Mars' seasonal variations are studied. The carbon dioxide and water cycles on Mars are analyzed; the carbon dioxide cycle determines seasonal variations in surface pressure and the behavior of the water cycle. The behavior of the atmospheric dust and the relationship between the seasonal dust cycle and Hadley circulation are investigated. The periodic variations in the three orbital parameters of Mars, which affect the climate by changing the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar energy are discussed

  15. Internal constitution of Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Models of the internal structure of Mars consistent with the mass, radius and moment of inertia of the planet are constructed. The models assume that the radius of the core is between 0.36 and 0.60 of the radius of the planet, that the zero-pressure density of the mantle is between 3.54 and 3.49 g/cu cm, and that the planet contains 25 to 28% iron. Meteorite models of Mars containing 25 wt % iron and 12 wt % core are also proposed. It is maintained that Mars in contrast to the earth is an incompletely differentiated planet with a core substantially richer in sulfur than the core of the earth. The absence of a magnetic field on Mars is possibly linked with lack of lunar precessional torque and the small size and high resistivity of the Martian core.

  16. Methane Plumes on Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spectrometer instruments attached to several telescopes detect plumes of methane emitted from Mars during its summer and spring seasons. High levels of methane are indicated by warmer colors. The m...

  17. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  18. Mars Exploration Zones

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation shows just one of many potential concepts for how the first human landing site on Mars might evolve throughout the course of multiple human expeditions to the Red Planet over...

  19. Discovery concepts for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Brace, L. H.; Nagy, A. F.; Jakosky, B. M.; Barth, C. A.; Waite, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Two focused Mars missions that would fit within the guidelines for the proposed Discovery line are discussed. The first mission would deal with the issue of the escape of the atmosphere (Mars') to space. A complete understanding of this topic is crucial to deciphering the evolution of the atmosphere, climate change, and volatile inventories. The second mission concerns the investigation of remanent magnetization of the crust and its relationship to the ionosphere and the atmosphere.

  20. Mars Observer Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Footage shows Bob MacMillin, NASA's Public Information Office, as he introduces the Mars Observer Project Manager, Glen Cunningham. Glen is shown addressing the current status of the Mars Observer communication system, the inability of NASA to establish contact, and the action that is currently being taken to establish contact with the spacecraft. Glen is also seen answering questions from both the audience as well as other NASA Centers.

  1. North Polar Layers, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows the basal layers of Mars' north polar layered deposits. The floor of Chasma Boreale is at the bottom of the image. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 64 centimeters (25 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 568 meters (621 yards) wide.

  2. Mars Exploration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, James F.; Miller, Sylvia L.

    2000-01-01

    The architecture of NASA's program of robotic Mars exploration missions received an intense scrutiny during the summer months of 1998. We present here the results of that scrutiny, and describe a list of Mars exploration missions which are now being proposed by the nation's space agency. The heart of the new program architecture consists of missions which will return samples of Martian rocks and soil back to Earth for analysis. A primary scientific goal for these missions is to understand Mars as a possible abode of past or present life. The current level of sophistication for detecting markers of biological processes and fossil or extant life forms is much higher in Earth-based laboratories than possible with remotely deployed instrumentation, and will remain so for at least the next decade. Hence, bringing Martian samples back to Earth is considered the best way to search for the desired evidence. A Mars sample return mission takes approximately three years to complete. Transit from Earth to Mars requires almost a single year. After a lapse of time of almost a year at Mars, during which orbital and surface operations can take place, and the correct return launch energy constraints are met, a Mars-to-Earth return flight can be initiated. This return leg also takes approximately one year. Opportunities to launch these 3-year sample return missions occur about every 2 years. The figure depicts schedules for flights to and from Mars for Earth launches in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. Transits for less than 180 deg flight angle, measured from the sun, and more than 180 deg are both shown.

  3. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  4. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  5. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  6. Retraction: erbB expression changes in ethanol and 7,12- dimethylbenz (a)anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Mar 1;18(2):e325-31.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The authors (Garcia Carrancá A, Zentero Galindo E, Jiménez Farfán MD and Hernandez Guerrero JC) express that one of the figures of the original article (Jacinto-Alemán LF, García-Carrancá A, Leyba-Huerta ER, Zenteno-Galindo E, Jiménez-Farfán MD, Hernández-Guerrero JC. erbB expression changes in ethanol and 7,12- dimethylbenz (a)anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Mar 1;18(2):e325-31.) corresponding to Western blots have not been found and the voluntary alteration of this figure is evident. The coauthors Alejandro García Carranca, Edgar Zenteno Galindo, Maria Dolores Jiménez Farfán and Juan Carlos Hernández Guerrero have made the decision to take back what has been published, as they have come to the conclusion, that at least this result is false. The editor declare that the journal had the signed copyright by the authors when the article was initially published. This copyright document certifies that the undersigned authors warrants that the article is original; is not under consideration by another publication; and its tables or figures have not been previously published. The authors confirmed that the final article had been read and each author's contribution had been approved by the appropriate author. The editor has made the decision to retract the article due to the above comments of some authors against the rest. The editors apologize to the readers and reviewers of Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal for the inconvenience caused by the authors of the article.

  7. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  8. Southern Mars: It's Spring!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

    The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  9. Why exobiology on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, A.

    1996-11-01

    Processing of organic molecules by liquid water was probably an essential requirement towards the emergence of terrestrial primitive life. According to Oparin's hypothesis, organic building blocks required for early life were produced from simple organic molecules formed in a primitive reducing atmosphere. Geochemists favour now a less reducing atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide. In such an atmosphere very few building blocks are formed. Import of extra-terrestrial organic molecules may represent an alternative supply. Experimental support for such an alternative scenario is examined in comets, meteorites and micrometeorites. The early histories of Mars and Earth clearly show similarities. Liquid water was once stable on the surface of Mars attesting the presence of an atmosphere capable of deccelerating C-rich micrometeorites. Therefore, primitive life may have developed on Mars as well. Liquid water disappeared from the surface of Mars very early, about 3.8 Ga ago. The Viking missions did not find, at the surface of the Martian soil, any organic molecules or clear-cut evidence for microbial activities such as photo-synthesis, respiration or nutrition. The results can be explained referring to an active photochemistry of Martian soil driven by the high influx of solar UV. These experiments do not exclude the existence of organic molecules and fossils of micro-organisms which developed on early Mars until liquid water disappeared. Mars may store below its surface some well preserved clues of a still hypothetical primitive life.

  10. Why exobiology on Mars?

    PubMed

    Brack, A

    1996-11-01

    Processing of organic molecules by liquid water was probably an essential requirement towards the emergence of terrestrial primitive life. According to Oparin's hypothesis, organic building blocks required for early life were produced from simple organic molecules formed in a primitive reducing atmosphere. Geochemists favour now a less reducing atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide. In such an atmosphere, very few building blocks are formed. Import of extraterrestrial organic molecules may represent an alternative supply. Experimental support for such an alternative scenario is examined in comets, meteorites and micrometeorites. The early histories of Mars and Earth clearly show similarities. Liquid water was once stable on the surface of Mars attesting the presence of an atmosphere capable of decelerating C-rich micro-meteorites. Therefore, primitive life may have developed on Mars, as well. Liquid water disappeared from the surface of Mars very early, about 3.8 Ga ago. The Viking missions did not find, at the surface of the Martian soil, any organic molecules or clear-cut evidence for microbial activities such as photosynthesis, respiration or nutrition. The results can be explained referring to an active photochemistry of Martian soil driven by the high influx of solar UV. These experiments do not exclude the existence of organic molecules and fossils of micro-organisms which developed on early Mars until liquid water disappeared. Mars may store below its surface some well preserved clues of a still hypothetical primitive life.

  11. Paleolakes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, R. A. Jr; Crosby, J. M.; McKay, C. P.; Rice, J. W. Jr; Wharton RA, ,. J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Observational evidence such as outflow channels and valley networks suggest that in the past there was flowing water on Mars. The images of fluvial features on Mars logically suggest that there must exist downstream locations in which the water pooled and the sediment load deposited (i.e. lakes). Sediments and morphological features associated with the martian paleolakes are believed to occur in Valles Marineris, and several large basins including Amazonis, Chryse and Elysium planitia. As Mars became progressively colder over geological time, any lakes on its surface would have become seasonally, and eventually perennially ice-covered. We know from polar lakes on Earth that ice-covered lakes can persist even when the mean annual temperature falls below freezing. Thus, the most recent lacustrine sediments on Mars were probably deposited in ice-covered lakes. While life outside of the Earth's atmosphere has yet to be observed, there is a general consensus among exobiologists that the search for extraterrestrial life should be based upon liquid water. The inference that there was liquid water on Mars during an earlier epoch is the primary motivation for considering the possibility of life during this time. It would be of enormous interest from both an exobiological and paleolimnological perspective to discover lakes or the evidence of former lakes on another planet such as Mars. Limnology would then become an interplanetary science.

  12. The Mars Observer database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1988-01-01

    Mars Observer will study the surface, atmosphere, and climate of Mars in a systematic way over an entire Martian year. The observations of the surface will provide a database that will be invaluable to the planning of a future Mars sample return mission. Mars Observer is planned for a September 1992 launch from the Space Shuttle, using an upper-stage. After the one year transit the spacecraft is injected into orbit about Mars and the orbit adjusted to a near-circular, sun-synchronous low-altitude, polar orbit. During the Martian year in this mapping orbit the instruments gather both geoscience data and climatological data by repetitive global mapping. The scientific objectives of the mission are to: (1) determine the global elemental and mineralogical character of the surface material; (2) define globally the topography and gravitational field; (3) establish the nature of the magnetic field; (4) determine the time and space distribution, abundance, sources, and sinks of volatile material and dust over a seasonal cycle; and (5) explore the structure and aspects of the circulation of the atmosphere. The science investigations and instruments for Mars Observer have been chosen with these objectives in mind. These instruments, the principal investigator or team leader and the objectives are discussed.

  13. Transportation: Destination Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eoff, Bill

    1998-01-01

    As the agency space transportation lead center, Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting transportation assessments for future robotic and human Mars missions to identify critical technologies. Five human Mars options are currently under assessment with each option including all transportation requirements from Earth to Mars and return. The primary difference for each option is the propulsion source from Earth to Mars. In case any of the options require heavy launch capability that is not currently projected as available, an in-house study has been initiated to determine the most cost effective means of providing such launch capability. This assessment is only considering launch architectures that support the overall human Mars mission cost goal of $25B. The guidelines for the launch capability study included delivery of 80 metric ton (176 KLB) payloads, 25 feet diameter x 92 feet long, to 220 nmi orbits at 28.5 degrees. The launch vehicle concept of the study was designated "Magnum" to differentiate from prior heavy launch vehicle assessments. This assessment along with the assessment of options for all transportation phases of a Mars mission are on-going.

  14. Mars Rover RTG Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-11-27

    This report summarizes the results of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of the Mars Rover and Sample Return mission under investigation at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Presented at the 40th Congress of the IAF, Oct. 7-13, 1989 in Torremolinos, Malaga-Spain. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the Mars Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space for the U.S. DOE in support of the JPL MRSR Project. The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It summarizes the baseline RTG's mass breakdown, and presents a detailed description of its thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost. Cross Reference CID #7135 dated 10/1989. There is a duplicate copy. This document is not relevant to the OSTI Library. Do not send.

  15. Real Time Mars Approach Navigation Aided by the Mars Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Mogensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A NASA Mars technology project is described that is building a prototype embedded real time Mars approach navigation capability which can be hosted on the Mars Network's Electra transceiver. The paper motivates the reason for doing real time Mars approach navigation via a set of analyses demonstrating its utility for enabling Mars pin-point landing (< 1-km landing error). The development approach, software design, and test results are discussed. Finally, the way forward towards a flight demonstration on the Mars Science Laboratory is presented.

  16. Real Time Mars Approach Navigation Aided by the Mars Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Mogensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A NASA Mars technology project is described that is building a prototype embedded real time Mars approach navigation capability which can be hosted on the Mars Network's Electra transceiver. The paper motivates the reason for doing real time Mars approach navigation via a set of analyses demonstrating its utility for enabling Mars pin-point landing (less than 1-km landing error). The development approach, software design, and test results are discussed. Finally, the way forward towards a flight demonstration on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is presented.

  17. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    PubMed

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  18. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    PubMed

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations. PMID:24823799

  19. Mars at Ls 211o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    31 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurred in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  20. Mars Telecommunications Orbiter, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This illustration depicts a concept for NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter in flight around Mars. The orbiter is in development to be the first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet. The project's plans call for launch in September 2009, arrival at Mars in August 2010 and a mission of six to 10 years while in orbit. Mars Telecommunication Orbiter would serve as the Mars hub for an interplanetery Internet, greatly increasing the information payoff from other future Mars missions. The mission is designed to orbit Mars more than 10 times farther from the planet than orbiters dedicated primarily to science. The high-orbit design minimizes the time that Mars itself blocks the orbiter from communicating with Earth and maximizes the time that the orbiter is above the horizon -- thus capable of communications relay -- for rovers and stationary landers on Mars' surface.

  1. Mars at Ls 357o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    31 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. Mars at Ls 324o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  3. Mars - Pathway to the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, J. A., Jr.; Buden, D.

    Mars has and will continue to play a key role in our exploration and conquest of the Solar System. Within the context of the creation of humanity's extraterrestrial civilization, the major technical features of the following Mars programs are reviewed: the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter; the Mars Aeronomy Orbiter; the Mars airplane; the Mars Penetrator Network; Mars surface rovers and mobility systems; human exploration of Mars; and permanent Martian bases and settlements. Mars properly explored and utilized opens the way to the resources of the asteroid belt and the outer planets; supports the creation of smart machines for space exploration and exploitation; and encourages the creation of autonomous niches of intelligent life within heliocentric space. All of these developments, in turn, establish the technological pathway for the first interstellar missions.

  4. Mars is close to venus--female reproductive proteins are expressed in the fat body and reproductive tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones.

    PubMed

    Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees.

  5. Mars is close to venus--female reproductive proteins are expressed in the fat body and reproductive tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones.

    PubMed

    Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees. PMID:20600084

  6. The Sample Analysis At Mars Gas Chromatograph (sam-gc) Ability To Detect Organic Molecules At The Mars Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Pascaline; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Sternberg, R.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2012-10-01

    The environmental conditions on Mars might have been favorable for the emergence of Life. The search for clues of a prebiotic chemistry or a biological activity represents one of the main objectives of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The Sample Analysis at Mars Gas Chromatograph (SAM-GC), aboard Curiosity rover, is dedicated to organic molecules research in atmospheric and solid samples. This instrument is constituted of six complementary chromatographic columns which have been selected to provide a broad range of separation and detection capability (volatile, refractory and chiral molecules). In order to treat and interpret the SAM-GC in situ results, it is necessary: (1) to determine the instrument ability to detect targets molecules under the instrument operating conditions and (2) to create a chromatographic and mass spectra data base to help their identification. With this aim we first selected molecules which might be analyzed with SAM-GC using the following criteria: (1) abundance at the Mars surface (2) astrobiological interest, (3) formation during the sample preparation. Then we characterized these target molecules on a laboratory gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) using a Chirasildex (30m x 0,25mm x 0,25µm) column dedicated to the enantiomeric separation and a CLP (30m x 0,25mm x 0,25µm) generalist columns which will be probably the first to be used on Mars. In a second step, we will use a SAM-GC mock-up to mimick the environmental conditions (pressure and temperature) inside Curiosity rover and study its variation impact on analyzes. Finally, we will present a study carried out on a Martian analogs, as Atacama samples.

  7. MAR characteristic motifs mediate episomal vector in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Li, Zhaoxi; Wang, Tianyun; Wang, Xiaoyin; Wang, Li; Dong, Weihua; Jing, Changqin; Yang, Xianjun

    2015-04-01

    An ideal gene therapy vector should enable persistent transgene expression without limitations in safety and reproducibility. Recent researches' insight into the ability of chromosomal matrix attachment regions (MARs) to mediate episomal maintenance of genetic elements allowed the development of a circular episomal vector. Although a MAR-mediated engineered vector has been developed, little is known on which motifs of MAR confer this function during interaction with the host genome. Here, we report an artificially synthesized DNA fragment containing only characteristic motif sequences that served as an alternative to human beta-interferon matrix attachment region sequence. The potential of the vector to mediate gene transfer in CHO cells was investigated. The short synthetic MAR motifs were found to mediate episomal vector at a low copy number for many generations without integration into the host genome. Higher transgene expression was maintained for at least 4 months. In addition, MAR was maintained episomally and conferred sustained EGFP expression even in nonselective CHO cells. All the results demonstrated that MAR characteristic sequence-based vector can function as stable episomes in CHO cells, supporting long-term and effective transgene expression.

  8. Methane on Mars: Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Photochemical Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Summers, M. E.; Ewell, M.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars by Mars Express and Earth-based spectroscopy is very surprising, very puzzling, and very intriguing. On Earth, about 90% of atmospheric ozone is produced by living systems. A major question concerning methane on Mars is its origin - biological or geological. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicated that methane cannot be produced by atmospheric chemical/photochemical reactions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for three gases, methane, ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the Earth s atmosphere are summarized in Table 1. The calculations indicate that these three gases should not exist in the Earth s atmosphere. Yet they do, with methane, ammonia and nitrous oxide enhanced 139, 50 and 12 orders of magnitude above their calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentration due to the impact of life! Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations have been performed for the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars based on the assumed composition of the Mars atmosphere shown in Table 2. The calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentrations of the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars is shown in Table 3. Clearly, based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, methane should not be present in the atmosphere of Mars, but it is in concentrations approaching 30 ppbv from three distinct regions on Mars.

  9. Relay communications strategies for Mars exploration through 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. D., Jr.; Arnold, B.; Depaula, R.; Kazz, G.; Lee, C.; Noreen, G.

    2006-07-01

    Mars exploration poses significant telecommunications challenges, including the return of large data volumes from high-resolution surface instruments, highly constrained mass, power, and energy for surface spacecraft, frequent telemetry and command sessions for supporting complex surface operations, and high-risk mission events such as entry, descent, and landing for which the capture of engineering telemetry is deemed critical. Relay telecommunication via Mars-orbiting spacecraft offers significant advantages in meeting these challenges, relative to conventional direct-to-Earth communications. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters, along with ESA's Mars Express orbiter, represent an initial relay telecommunications infrastructure that has successfully supported the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. With the arrival of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2006, this expanded relay network will provide key support to the 2007 Phoenix Lander and 2009 Mars Science Laboratory missions later this decade. Second-decade mission concepts will introduce new communications challenges; the provision of relay payloads on science orbiters provides a cost-effective means to sustain and evolve the Mars relay network.

  10. The Scientific Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Fredric W.

    2009-12-01

    Part I. Views of Mars, From the Beginning to the Present Day: 1. The dawn of Mars exploration; 2. The first space missions to Mars; 3. After Viking: the 20-year hiatus; 4. The modern era; Part II. The Big Science: Motivation to Continue the Quest: 5. The origin and evolution of planet Mars; 6. The changing climate of Mars; 7. The search for life; Part III. Plans and Visions for the Future: 8. The future of the unmanned programme; 9. Towards human expeditions; 10. The first footfall on Mars; Appendixes; Index.

  11. Telecommunications systems evolution for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary; De Paula, Ramon P.; Edwards, Charles D. Jr; Komarek, Thomas; Edwards, Bernard L.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Diehl, Roger; Franklin, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of telecommunication systems at Mars. It reviews the telecommunications capabilities, technology and limiting factors of current and planned Mars orbiters from Mars Global Surveyor to the planned Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO).

  12. Ultra-Low-Frequency Waves at Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.

    2016-02-01

    Mars and Venus have no global magnetic field. The solar wind interacts directly with their ionospheres and atmospheres, inducing magnetospheres by a pileup of the interplanetary magnetic field. The first measurements of the ultra-low-frequency activity on Mars were made by the Phobos-2 spacecraft. This chapter investigates the wave observations recently supplied by the Mars Global Surveyor, Venus Express, and Mars Express. Coherent wave structures are a typical feature of the Martian magnetosheath. It is likely that the periodic compressional waves generated upstream of the bow shock are transported to the magnetosheath. At Venus, there has often been observed a penetration of the field oscillations downward to the ionosphere. Periodic oscillations of the escaping oxygen ions were typically observed in the Martian tail by MEX. It seems reasonable to suggest that the observed oscillations take their origin in the foreshock/magnetosheath and then propagate to the ionosphere and further to the tail.

  13. Mars digital terrain model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    The Mars Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is the result of a new project to: (1) digitize the series of 1:2,000,000-scale topographic maps of Mars, which are being derived photogrammetically under a separate project, and (2) reformat the digital contour information into rasters of elevation that can be readily registered with the Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars. Derivation of DTM's involves interpolation of elevation values into 1/64-degree resolution and transformation of them to a sinusoidal equal-area projection. Digital data are produced in blocks corresponding with the coordinates of the original 1:2,000,000-scale maps, i.e., the dimensions of each block in the equatorial belt are 22.5 deg of longitude and 15 deg of latitude. This DTM is not only compatible with the DIM, but it can also be registered with other data such as geologic units or gravity. It will be the most comprehensive record of topographic information yet compiled for the Martian surface. Once the DTM's are established, any enhancement of Mars topographic information made with updated data, such as data from the planned Mars Observer Mission, will be by mathematical transformation of the DTM's, eliminating the need for recompilation.

  14. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor '98 Climate Orbiter is shown here during acoustic tests that simulate launch conditions. The orbiter was to conduct a two year primary mission to profile the Martian atmosphere and map the surface. To carry out these scientific objectives, the spacecraft carried a rebuilt version of the pressure modulated infrared radiometer, lost with the Mars Observer spacecraft, and a miniaturized dual camera system the size of a pair of binoculars, provided by Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., San Diego, California. During its primary mission, the orbiter was to monitor Mars atmosphere and surface globally on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years), observing the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterizing seasonal changes of the planet's surface. Imaging of the surface morphology would also provide important clues about the planet's climate in its early history. The mission was part of NASA's Mars Surveyor program, a sustained program of robotic exploration of the red planet, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. Lockheed Martin Astronautics was NASA's industrial partner in the mission. Unfortunately, Mars Climate Orbiter burned up in the Martian atmosphere on September 23, 1999, due to a metric conversion error that caused the spacecraft to be off course.

  15. Simulating "Mars on Earth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    By now, everyone who's heard of the Haughton-Mars Project knows that we travel to Devon Island to learn how people will live and work on Mars. But how do we learn about Mars operations from what happens in the Arctic? We must document our experience--traverses, life in the hab, instrument deployment, communications, and so on. Then we must analyze and formally model what happens. In short, while most scientists are studying the crater, other scientists must be studying the expedition itself. That's what I have done in the past four field seasons. I study field science, both as it naturally occurs at Haughton (unconstrained by a "Mars Sam") and as a constrained experiment using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station. During the second week of July 2001, I lived and worked in the hab as part of the Phase 2 crew of six. Besides participating in all activities, I took many photographs and time lapse video. The result of my work will be a computer simulation of how we lived and worked in the hab. It won't be a model of particular people or even my own phase per se, but a pastiche that demonstrates (a proof of concept) that we have appropriate tools for simulating the layout of the hab and daily routines followed by the group and individual scientists. Activities-how people spend their time-are the focus of my observations for building such a simulation model.

  16. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  17. Mars Rover RTG Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-10-01

    Presented at the 40th Congress of the IAF, Oct. 7-13, 1989 in Torremolinos, Malaga-Spain. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the Mars Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space for the U.S. DOE in support of the JPL MRSR Project. The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It summarizes the baseline RTG's mass breakdown, and presents a detailed description of its thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost. There is a duplicate copy and three copies in the file.

  18. Indian Mars-Colour-Camera captures far-side of the Deimos: A rarity among contemporary Mars orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, A. S.; Manthira Moorthi, S.; Rajasekhar, R. P.; Sarkar, S. S.; Sur, Koyel; Aravind, B.; Gambhir, Rajdeep K.; Misra, Indranil; Patel, V. D.; Srinivas, A. R.; Patel, Kamlesh K.; Chauhan, Prakash; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Mars and Deimos are tidally locked so one would always get to view the same side of Deimos from Mars. Most of the contemporary functional satellites orbiting Mars viz. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter , Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, MAVEN etc. are positioned between Mars and Deimos, hence they always view only one side of Deimos i.e the Mars-side, while the far-side is always looking outward with respect to all these satellites. However the maiden Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is an exception as it has a very large elliptical orbit and goes behind the orbit of Deimos. This has enabled MOM to view the far-side of Deimos which has not been viewed for last few decades by any Mars orbiter. Mars Colour Camera (MCC), onboard MOM acquired four image-frames of the Deimos, the farthest of two natural satellites of Mars, on October 14, 2014 at around 13:05 UT. These four images of MCC have been used to generate an High Dynamic Range (HDR) product so as to enhance the image details. The two well-known craters of near-side are missing in this HDR image and the shape of far-side, recently updated and reported models of Deimos proposed by other researchers, matches with the shape of Deimos in MCC images thus confirming that the far-side view of Deimos has been captured by MCC of Mars Orbiter Mission. The magnitude of Deimos has also been computed from this far-side image, which varies by a small margin from the known magnitude of Deimos. This could probably be due to possible difference in the near and far side surface characteristics, which needs further detailed investigation and more imaging of far-side in future. However, there could be reasons other than the physical characteristics of the Deimos. Thus far-side sighting has generated a scientific interest to understand it holistically. This note is a brisk or rapid communication regarding sighting of the far-side of the Deimos by MCC after a long spell of more than three decades by any other Mars mission, including the

  19. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  20. Journey of a Lifetime -- Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA wants you to be part of the Journey to Mars. Today, NASA is pushing the boundaries of technology and innovation. NASA’s fleet of robotic scientific explorers at Mars are paving the way for hu...

  1. Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

  2. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  3. Crewmen of the Gemini 7 spacecraft arrive aboard aircraft carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., (left), pilot, and Frank Borman, command pilot, are shown just after they arrived aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Greeting the astronauts are Donald Stullken (at Lovell's right), Recovery Operations Branch, Landing and Recovery Division; Dr. Howard Minners (standing beside Borman), Flight Medicine Branch, Cneter Medical Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, and Bennett James (standing behind Borman), a NASA Public Affairs Officer.

  4. Study of balloon and thermal control material degradation aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letton, Alan; Rock, Neil I.; Williams, Kevin D.; Strganac, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The initial results of analysis performed on a number of polymeric materials which were exposed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are discussed. These materials include two typical high altitude balloon films (a polyester and a polyethylene) and silver-backed Teflon from thermal control blanket samples. The techniques used for characterizing changes in mechanical properties, chemical structure and surface morphology include Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  5. Apollo 10 crewmembers arrive aboard U.S.S. Princeton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 10 crewmembers arrive aboard the U.S.S. Princeton as they step from a helicopter to receive a red carpet welcome. Left to right, are Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot; Thomas P. Stafford, commander; and John W. Young, command module pilot. Standing in left foreground is Dr. Donald E. Stullken, Chief, Recovery Operations Branch, Landing and Recovery Division, Manned Spacecraft Center.

  6. Predicting Airborne Particle Levels Aboard Washington State School Buses

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Sara D.; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R.; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Liu, L.-J. Sally

    2008-01-01

    School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM2.5) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission-reducing retrofits. To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM2.5 data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least square regression models for PM2.5 onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM2.5 levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics. Concentrations aboard school buses (21 μg/m3) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM2.5 levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 μg/m3 originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM2.5, bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust. These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics. PMID:18985175

  7. Mars lander survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, William R.; Babb, Gus R.; Davis, Hubert P.

    1986-01-01

    The requirements, issues, and design options are reviewed for manned Mars landers. Issues such as high 1/d versus low 1/d shape, parking orbit, and use of a small Mars orbit transfer vehicle to move the lander from orbit to orbit are addressed. Plots of lander mass as a function of Isp, destination orbit, and cargo up and down, plots of initial stack mass in low Earth orbit as a function of lander mass and parking orbit, detailed weight statements, and delta V tables for a variety of options are included. Lander options include a range from minimum landers up to a single stage reusable design. Mission options include conjunction and Venus flyby trajectories using all-cryogenic, hybrid, NERVA, and Mars orbit aerobraking propulsion concepts.

  8. Dynamics of Mars' magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.; Moses, S. L.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    1989-08-01

    If Mars has a small intrinsic magnetic moment, Mars' magnetosphere could vary on time scales of a few minutes due to reconnection with the solar wind magnetic field. The day-side magnetopause will be one or two reflected-ion Larmor radii from the bow shock. Substorms will have scale-times of about six minutes. Mars' high ionospheric conductance will virtually stop polar cap convection, and create a magnetic 'topological crisis' unless convecting magnetic flux finds a dissipative way to return to the day-side. The strong magnetic shear induced by magnetospheric convection above the ionosphere could be tearing unstable. The magnetic field might diffusively 'percolate' through the tearing layer. This shearing also draws field aligned currents from the ionosphere which could inject few KeV heavy ionospheric ions into the magnetotail.

  9. Mars Spark Source Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanderWal, Randall L.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware has been developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma that will allow their identification and quantification. Trace metal measurements are vital for the assessment of the potential toxicity of the Martian environment for human exploration. The current method of X-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations only of major species. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. This paper describes the Mars Spark Source Prototype hardware, the results of the characterization tests, and future plans for hardware development.

  10. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  11. Spiders from Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-426, 19 July 2003

    No, this is not a picture of a giant, martian spider web. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of polygonal features on the floor of a northern hemisphere impact crater near 65.6oN, 327.7oW. The picture was acquired during spring, after the seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap had largely migrated through the region. At the time the picture was taken, remnants of seasonal frost remained on the crater rim and on the edges of the troughs that bound each of the polygons. Frost often provides a helpful hint as to where polygons and patterned ground occur. The polygons, if they were on Earth, would indicate the presence of freeze-thaw cycles in ground ice. Although uncertain, the same might be true of Mars. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  12. UBV photometry of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    A critical analysis of selected high-quality photometric observations of Mars indicates that: (1) the phase function is concave upward out to at least 40-deg phase. No sudden brightening occurs at opposition, but the curvature increases at small phase; (2) large systematic differences (0.1-0.2 mag.) exist between different observers' data. However, the small random scatter attributable to Mars (0.01-0.02 mag.) in the better series suggests that these differences represent systematic errors in data reduction, not variations in the planet's brightness; (3) the disentangling of seasonal, diurnal, and phase effects leaves considerable ambiguity; more observations are needed, over a long time, with a stable instrumental system. However, even the present data are sufficient to expose substantial errors in published phase curves of Mars (and consequently, in interpretations based on them).

  13. Remanent magnetism at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a strong case can be made for an intrinsic magnetic field of dynamo origin for Mars earlier in its history. The typical equatorial magnetic field intensity would have been equal to about 0.01-0.1 gauss. The earlier dynamo activity is no longer extant, but a significant remanent magnetic field may exist. A highly non-dipole magnetic field could result from the remanent magnetization of the surface. Remanent magnetization may thus play an important role in the Mars solar wind interactions, in contrast to Venus with its surface temperatures above the Curie point. The anomalous characteristics of Mars'solar wind interaction compared to that of Venus may be explicable on this basis.

  14. Climatic change on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sagan, C; Toon, O B; Gierasch, P J

    1973-09-14

    The equatorial sinuous channels on Mars detected by Mariner 9 point to a past epoch of higher pressures and abundant liquid water. Advective instability of the martian atmosphere permits two stable climates-one close to present conditions, the other at a pressure of the order of 1 bar depending on the quantity of buried volatiles. Variations in the obliquity of Mars, the luminosity of the sun, and the albedo of the polar caps each appear capable of driving the instability between a current ice age and more clement conditions. Obliquity driving alone implies that epochs of much higher and of much lower pressure must have characterized martian history. Climatic change on Mars may have important meteorological, geological, and biological implications.

  15. Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William; Vano, Andrew; Rutherford, Dave

    1992-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Advanced Space Design Program has developed a sample Mars exploration scenario. The purpose of the design project is to enhance NASA and university interaction, to provide fresh ideas to NASA, and to provide real world design problems to engineering students. The Mars Transportation System in this paper is designed to transport a crew of six astronauts to the Martian surface and return them to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) starting in the year 2016. The proposed vehicle features such advanced technologies as nuclear propulsion, nuclear power generation, and aerobraking. Three missions are planned. Orbital trajectories are of the conjunction class with an inbound Venus swingby providing a 60-day surface stay at Mars and an average total trip time of 520 days.

  16. The atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is essentially a pure carbon dioxide atmosphere that contains a small and seasonably varying amount of water vapor. A number of minor constituents which arise from the interactions of solar radiation with water vapor and carbon dioxide include carbon monoxide, atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, ozone, and atomic hydrogen. At the surface of Mars the atmospheric pressure is less than one hundredth of the pressure at the surface of the earth. Extensive cloud systems appear on Mars. The structure of the lower Martian atmosphere is discussed together with variations in the lower atmosphere and the characteristics of the upper atmosphere. Reactions of photochemistry are considered along with the atmospheric escape and interactions between the atmosphere and the polar caps.

  17. Biological instrumentation for the Viking 1975 mission to Mars.

    PubMed

    Klein, H P; Vishniac, W

    1972-01-01

    A brief introduction is given on why Mars is of interest from a biological point of view, along with an overview of the Viking 1975 mission. Details are given about the four biology instruments aboard the spacecraft and the experiments for which they are to be used. These are: the carbon assimilation experiment to determine whether the soil is biologically active, by incubation in presence of 14C-labelled CO and CO2 (known to be present in the Martian atmosphere); the label release experiment to detect metabolic activity by the release of radioactive CO2, from 14C-labelled simple organic substrates; the gas exchange experiment to detect biological activity by repeated gas chromatography analysis of soil samples; the light scattering experiment, where increase of scattering and decrease of light transmission would indicate the growth of organisms. Examples are given of data obtained with terrestrial soils in these experiments.

  18. Marooned on Mars: Mind-Spinning Books for Software Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Dragonfly - NASA and the Crisis Aboard MIR (New York: HarperCollins Publishers), the story of the Russian-American misadventures on MIR. An expose with almost embarrassing detail about the inner-workings of Johnson Space Center in Houston, this book is best read with the JSC organization chart in hand. Here's the real world of engineering and life in extreme environments. It makes most other accounts of "requirements analysis" appear glib and simplistic. The book vividly portrays the sometimes harrowing experiences of the American astronauts in the web of Russian interpersonal relations and literally in the web of MIR's wiring. Burrough's exposition reveals how handling bureaucratic procedures and bulky facilities is as much a matter of moxie and goodwill as technical capability. Lessons from MIR showed NASA that getting to Mars required a different view of knowledge and improvisation-long-duration missions are not at all like the scripted and pre-engineered flights of Apollo or the Space Shuttle.

  19. Biological instrumentation for the Viking 1975 mission to Mars.

    PubMed

    Klein, H P; Vishniac, W

    1972-01-01

    A brief introduction is given on why Mars is of interest from a biological point of view, along with an overview of the Viking 1975 mission. Details are given about the four biology instruments aboard the spacecraft and the experiments for which they are to be used. These are: the carbon assimilation experiment to determine whether the soil is biologically active, by incubation in presence of 14C-labelled CO and CO2 (known to be present in the Martian atmosphere); the label release experiment to detect metabolic activity by the release of radioactive CO2, from 14C-labelled simple organic substrates; the gas exchange experiment to detect biological activity by repeated gas chromatography analysis of soil samples; the light scattering experiment, where increase of scattering and decrease of light transmission would indicate the growth of organisms. Examples are given of data obtained with terrestrial soils in these experiments. PMID:11898839

  20. Planetary astronomy of Mars. Mars data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    Grant #NAGW-1408 was specifically awarded to obtain telescopic visible and near-IR spectral imaging of Mars during the 1988 apparition (9/28/88). The observing program was highly successful producing approximately 2 Gbytes of data, but was only funded for one year and virtually all of the funds were spent in data acquisition. The follow-up grant was funded the following year for reduction of these data into a scientifically productive form, which because of the size and nature of our observations, was a non-trivial task. A more detailed scientific analysis of these data (fully reduced) is in progress now and will take a number of years. Extended geologic analyses of the astronomical data are being funded by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics program. The objective was to produce detailed reflectance spectra for contiguous, spatially resolved surface elements covering most of the planet (about +50 degrees to -90 degrees latitude, all longitudes). A total of 6 observing runs, of 3-4 days duration each, were conducted on the University of Arizona's 1.5m telescope on Mt. Bigelow. We present a sketch map showing the approximate total extent of our spectral image coverage. Nearly all of Mars south of 40 degrees N was observed at least once. About half of the area shown was observed multiple times. South of 65 degrees S, including the south polar cap, our coverage is heavily redundant. The first run was conducted June 29 - July 1, 1988 (all dates are UT) to serve as a baseline prior to possible dust storm activity on Mars. The other observing runs were closer to opposition: Sept. 3-6, 13-15, 24-26, and Oct. 5-7 and 16-18. The September and October observations were scheduled to provide maximum longitudinal coverage. This was also intended to provide a balance between surface observations and observations of predicted dust storm activity. No global dust storm developed in 1988, so we have a large volume of data for the surface of Mars.