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Sample records for aboard mars global

  1. Mars Odyssey Seen by Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-19

    This view is an enlargement of an image of NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA Mars Global Surveyor while the two spacecraft were about 90 kilometers 56 miles apart.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at KSC, installation is under way of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The MOC is one of a suite of six scientific instruments that will gather data about Martian topography, mineral distribution and weather during a two-year period. The Mars Global Surveyor is slated for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Nov. 6, the beginning of a 20-day launch period.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-08-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at KSC, installation is under way of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The MOC is one of a suite of six scientific instruments that will gather data about Martian topography, mineral distribution and weather during a two-year period. The Mars Global Surveyor is slated for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Nov. 6, the beginning of a 20-day launch period.

  3. Mars Express Seen by Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-19

    This picture of the European Space Agency Mars Express spacecraft by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA Mars Global Surveyor is from the first successful imaging of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

  4. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR LIGHTING TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In KSC's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers are conducting a solar illumination test of the solar panels on the Mars Global Surveyor. The Surveyor is outfitted with two solar arrays, each featuring two panels, that provide electrical power for operating the spacecraft's electronic equipment and scientific instruments, as well as charging two nickel hydrogen batteries that provide power when the spacecraft is in the dark. For launch, the solar arrays will be folded against the side of the spacecraft. The Mars Global Surveyor is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a launch window opening Nov. 6.

  5. THE MARS ORBITER CAMERA IS INSTALLED ON THE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at KSC, installation is under way of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The MOC is one of a suite of six scientific instruments that will gather data during a two-year period about Martian topography, mineral distribution and weather. The Mars Global Surveyor is slated for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on November 6, the beginning of a 20-day launch period.

  6. Global View of Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This global map of Mars is based on topographical information collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Illumination is from the upper right. The image width is approximately 18,000 kilometers (11,185 miles). Candor Chasma forms part of the large Martian canyon system named Valles Marineris. The location of Southwest Candor Chasma is indicated in the annotated version.

  7. Mars Odyssey Seen by Mars Global Surveyor 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-19

    This stereoscopic picture of NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft was created from two views of that spacecraft taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA Mars Global Surveyor. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  8. Mars Global Surveyor Approach Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image is the first view of Mars taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC). It was acquired the afternoon of July 2, 1997 when the MGS spacecraft was 17.2 million kilometers (10.7 million miles) and 72 days from encounter. At this distance, the MOC's resolution is about 64 km per picture element, and the 6800 km (4200 mile) diameter planet is 105 pixels across. The observation was designed to show the Mars Pathfinder landing site at 19.4 N, 33.1 W approximately 48 hours prior to landing. The image shows the north polar cap of Mars at the top of the image, the dark feature Acidalia Planitia in the center with the brighter Chryse plain immediately beneath it, and the highland areas along the Martian equator including the canyons of the Valles Marineris (which are bright in this image owing to atmospheric dust). The dark features Terra Meridiani and Terra Sabaea can be seen at the 4 o`clock position, and the south polar hood (atmospheric fog and hazes) can be seen at the bottom of the image. Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor will enter Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11 shortly after 6:00 PM PDT. After Mars Orbit Insertion, the spacecraft will use atmospheric drag to reduce the size of its orbit, achieving a circular orbit only 400 km (248 mi) above the surface in early March 1998, when mapping operations will begin.

    The Mars Global Surveyor is operated by the Mars Surveyor Operations Project managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena CA. The Mars Orbiter Camera is a duplicate of one of the six instruments originally developed for the Mars Observer mission. It was built and is operated under contract to JPL by an industry/university team led by Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, CA.

  9. Mars Global Surveyor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    High resolution images that help scientists fine tune the landing site for NASA's Mars Surveyor lander mission are shown. These images reveal a smooth surface in the southern cratered highlands near the Nepenthes Mensae.

  10. Mars Global Surveyor MOC Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Images of several dust devils were captured by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during its global geodesy campaign. The images shown were taken two days apart, May 13, 1999 and May 15, 1999. Dust devils are columnar vortices of wind that move across the landscape and pick up dust. They look like mini tornadoes.

  11. Mars Global Surveyor Approach Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-04

    This image is the first view of Mars taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC). It was acquired the afternoon of July 2, 1997 when the MGS spacecraft was 17.2 million kilometers (10.7 million miles) and 72 days from encounter. At this distance, the MOC's resolution is about 64 km per picture element, and the 6800 km (4200 mile) diameter planet is 105 pixels across. The observation was designed to show the Mars Pathfinder landing site at 19.4 N, 33.1 W approximately 48 hours prior to landing. The image shows the north polar cap of Mars at the top of the image, the dark feature Acidalia Planitia in the center with the brighter Chryse plain immediately beneath it, and the highland areas along the Martian equator including the canyons of the Valles Marineris (which are bright in this image owing to atmospheric dust). The dark features Terra Meridiani and Terra Sabaea can be seen at the 4 o`clock position, and the south polar hood (atmospheric fog and hazes) can be seen at the bottom of the image. Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor will enter Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11 shortly after 6:00 PM PDT. After Mars Orbit Insertion, the spacecraft will use atmospheric drag to reduce the size of its orbit, achieving a circular orbit only 400 km (248 mi) above the surface in early March 1998, when mapping operations will begin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00606

  12. Global color views of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.; Soderblom, L. A.; Becker, T. L.; Lee, E. M.; Batson, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    About 1000 Viking Orbiter red and violet filter images have been processed to provide global color coverage of Mars at a scale of 1 km/pixel. Individual image frames acquired during a single spacecraft revolution ('rev') were first processed through radiometric calibration, cosmetic cleanup, geometric control, reprojection, and mosaicking. A total of 57 'single-rev' mosaics have been produced. Phase angles range from 13 to 85 degrees. All the mosaics are geometrically tied to the Mars digital image mosaic (MDIM), a black-and-white base map with a scale of 231 m/pixel.

  13. Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Outreach Compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    This videotape is a compilation of the best NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) videos of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions. The mission is described using animation and narration as well as some actual footage of the entire sequence of mission events. Included within these animations are the spacecraft orbit insertion; descent to the Mars surface; deployment of the airbags and instruments; and exploration by Sojourner, the Mars rover. JPL activities at spacecraft control during significant mission events are also included at the end. The spacecraft cameras pan the surrounding Mars terrain and film Sojourner traversing the surface and inspecting rocks. A single, brief, processed image of the Cydonia region (Mars face) at an oblique angle from the Mars Global Surveyor is presented. A description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, instruments, landing and deployment process, Mars approach, spacecraft orbit insertion, rover operation are all described using computer animation. Actual color footage of Sojourner as well as a 360 deg pan of the Mars terrain surrounding the spacecraft is provided. Lower quality black and white photography depicting Sojourner traversing the Mars surface and inspecting Martian rocks also is included.

  14. Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Outreach Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This videotape is a compilation of the best NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) videos of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions. The mission is described using animation and narration as well as some actual footage of the entire sequence of mission events. Included within these animations are the spacecraft orbit insertion; descent to the Mars surface; deployment of the airbags and instruments; and exploration by Sojourner, the Mars rover. JPL activities at spacecraft control during significant mission events are also included at the end. The spacecraft cameras pan the surrounding Mars terrain and film Sojourner traversing the surface and inspecting rocks. A single, brief, processed image of the Cydonia region (Mars face) at an oblique angle from the Mars Global Surveyor is presented. A description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, instruments, landing and deployment process, Mars approach, spacecraft orbit insertion, rover operation are all described using computer animation. Actual color footage of Sojourner as well as a 360 deg pan of the Mars terrain surrounding the spacecraft is provided. Lower quality black and white photography depicting Sojourner traversing the Mars surface and inspecting Martian rocks also is included.

  15. Global Color Views of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    About 1000 Viking Orbiter red- and violet-filter images have been processed to provide global color coverage of Mars at a scale of 1 km/pixel. Individual image frames acquired during a single spacecraft revolution were first processed through radiometric calibration, cosmetic cleanup, geometric control, reprojection, and mosaicing. We have produced a total of 57 'single-rev' mosaics. All of the mosaics are geometrically tied to the Mars Digital Image Mosaic, a black-and-white base map with a scale of 231 m/pixel. We selected a subset of single-rev mosaics that provide the best global coverage (least atmospheric obscuration and seasonal frost); photometric normalization was applied to remove atmospheric effects and normalize the variations in illumination and viewing angles. Finally, these normalized mosaics were combined into global mosaics. Global coverage is about 98% complete in the red-filter mosaic and 95% complete in the violet-filter mosaic. Gaps were filled by interpolation. A green-filter image was synthesized from an average of the red and violet filter data to complete a 3-color set. The Viking Orbiters acquired actual green-filter images for only about half of the Martian surface. The final mosaic has been reprojected into several map projections. The orthographic view shown here is centered at 20 degrees latitude and 60 degrees longitude. The orthographic view is most like the view seen by a distant observer looking through a telescope. The color balance selected for these images was designed to be close to natural color for the bright reddish regions such as Tharsis and Arabia, but the data have been 'stretched' such that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less reddish that their natural appearance. This stretching allows us to better see the color and brightness variations on Mars, which are related to the composition or physical structure of the surface materials, which include volcanic lava flows, wind- and water-deposited sedimentary

  16. Mars Daily Global Image from April 1999

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-08

    Twelve orbits a day provide NASA Mars Global Surveyor MOC wide angle cameras a global napshot of weather patterns across the planet. Here, bluish-white water ice clouds hang above the Tharsis volcanoes.

  17. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MARS-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification was also made which allows heights to go 'below' local terrain height and return 'realistic' pressure, density, and temperature, and not the surface values, as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local 'valley' areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch versions of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  18. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.

    1991-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification has also been made which allows heights to go below local terrain height and return realistic pressure, density, and temperature (not the surface values) as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local valley areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch version of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  19. THERESA FRANCO INSPECTS THE SOLAR PANELS OF THE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Theresa Franco of SPECTROLAB Inc. carefully inspects the solar panels of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, undergoing preflight assembly and checkout in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility in KSC's Industrial Area. The four solar array panels will play a crucial role in the Mars Global Surveyor mission by providing the electrical power required to operate the spacecraft and its complement of scientific instruments. The Surveyor is slated for launch November 6 aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle. After arriving at the Red Planet in September 1997, the Surveyor will carry out an extensive study of Mars, gathering data about the planet's topography, magnetism, mineral composition and atmosphere.

  20. Mars-Gram Validation with Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many b4ars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), while above 80 km it is based on University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science (RS) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. RS data from 2480 profiles were used, covering latitudes 75deg S to 72deg N, surface to approx. 40 km, for seasons ranging from areocentric longitude of Sun (Ls) = 70-160deg and 265-310deg. RS data spanned a range of local times, mostly 0-9 hours and 18-24 hours. For interests in aerocapture and precision landing, comparisons concentrated on atmospheric density. At a fixed height of 20 km, measured RS density varied by about a factor of 2.5 over the range of latitudes and Ls values observed. Evaluated at matching positions and times, average RS/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally lf0.05, except at heights above approx. 25 km and latitudes above approx.50deg N. Average standard deviation of RS/Mars-GRAM density ratio was 6%. TES data were used covering surface to approx. 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of Mars global dust storm). Depending on season, TES data covered latitudes 85deg S to 85deg N. Most TES data were concentrated near local times 2 hours and 14 hours. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (> 45deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approx. 90 and 180deg). Compared to TES averages for a given latitude and season, TES data had average density standard deviation about the mean of approx. 6

  1. End-To-END Performance of the Future MOMA Instrument Aboard the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, V. T.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Danell, R.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P. J.; Stalport, F.; Humeau, O.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard the 2018 ExoMars mission will be the continuation of the search for organic matter on the Mars surface. One advancement with the ExoMars mission is that the sample will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the Martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. To analyze the wide range of organic composition (volatile and non-volatile compounds) of the Martian soil, MOMA is equipped with a dual ion source ion trap mass spectrometer utilizing UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC). In order to analyze refractory organic compounds and chiral molecules during GC-ITMS analysis, samples may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). Previous experimental reports have focused on coupling campaigns between the breadboard versions of the GC, provided by the French team (LISA, LATMOS, CentraleSupelec), and the MS, provided by the US team (NASA-GSFC). This work focuses on the performance verification and optimization of the GC-ITMS experiment using the Engineering Test Unit (ETU) models which are representative of the form, fit and function of the flight instrument including a flight-like pyrolysis oven and tapping station providing by the German team (MPS). The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  2. Mars Global Surveyor Mission: Environmental Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This environmental assessment addresses the proposed action to complete the integration and launch the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida, during the launch window in November 1996. Mars Global Surveyor is part of the Solar System Exploration Program to the inner planets designed to maintain a sufficient level of scientific investigation and accomplishment so that the United States retains a leading position in solar system exploration through the end of the century. The Program consists of a specific sequence of missions, based on technological readiness, launch opportunities, rapidity of data return, and a balance of scientific disciplines. The purpose of the MGS mission would be to deliver a spacecraft platform to a low-altitude polar orbit around Mars where it would collect global observations of basic geological, geophysical, and climatological processes of the planet. To satisfy this purpose, the MGS mission would support a scientific set of objectives. Detailed global maps of surface topography, the distribution of minerals, the planet's mass, size, and shape, the characterization of Mars gravitational and magnetic fields, and the monitoring of global weather, collected over the period of one Martian year (about two Earth years), would help answer some of the questions about the evolution of Mars. Such an investigation would help scientists better understand the current state of water on Mars, the evolution of the planet's atmosphere, and the factors that led to major changes in the Martian climate. It would also provide much needed information on the magnetic field of Mars. Data collected from this mission would provide insight into the evolution of both Earth and the solar system, as well as demonstrate technological approaches that could be applicable to future Mars missions.

  3. Mars Global Surveyor: 7 Years in Orbit!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 September 2004 Today, 12 September 2004, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team celebrates 7 Earth years orbiting Mars. MGS first reached the red planet and performed its critical orbit insertion burn on 12 September 1997. Over the past 7 years, MOC has returned over 170,000 images; its narrow angle camera has covered about 4.5% of the surface, and its wide angle cameras have viewed 100% of the planet nearly everyday.

    At this time, MOC is not acquiring data because Mars is on the other side of the Sun relative to Earth. This period, known as Solar Conjunction, occurs about once every 26 months. During Solar Conjunction, no radio communications from spacecraft that are orbiting or have landed on Mars can be received. MOC was turned off on 7 September and is expected to resume operations on 25 September 2004, when Mars re-emerges from behind the Sun.

    The rotating color image of Mars shown here was compiled from MOC red and blue wide angle daily global images acquired exactly 1 Mars year ago on 26 October 2002 (Ls 86.4o). In other words, Mars today (12 September 2004) should look about the same as the view provided here. Presently, Mars is in very late northern spring, and the north polar cap has retreated almost to its summer configuration. Water ice clouds form each afternoon at this time of year over the large volcanoes in the Tharsis and Elysium regions. A discontinuous belt of clouds forms over the martian equator; it is most prominent north of the Valles Marineris trough system. In the southern hemisphere, it is late autumn and the giant Hellas Basin floor is nearly white with seasonal frost cover. The south polar cap is not visible, it is enveloped in seasonal darkness. The northern summer and southern winter seasons will begin on 20 September 2004.

  4. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard the Mars rover, Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Schaffner, J. A.; Malin, M. C.; Baker, J. M.; Dibiase, D. R.; Laramee, J.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is expected to land on Mars in 2012. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) will be used to document martian rocks and regolith with a 2-megapixel RGB color CCD camera with a focusable macro lens mounted on an instrument-bearing turret on the end of Curiosity's robotic arm. The flight MAHLI can focus on targets at working distances of 20.4 mm to infinity. At 20.4 mm, images have a pixel scale of 13.9 μm/pixel. The pixel scale at 66 mm working distance is about the same (31 μm/pixel) as that of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Microscopic Imager (MI). MAHLI camera head placement is dependent on the capabilities of the MSL robotic arm, the design for which presently has a placement uncertainty of ~20 mm in 3 dimensions; hence, acquisition of images at the minimum working distance may be challenging. The MAHLI consists of 3 parts: a camera head, a Digital Electronics Assembly (DEA), and a calibration target. The camera head and DEA are connected by a JPL-provided cable which transmits data, commands, and power. JPL is also providing a contact sensor. The camera head will be mounted on the rover's robotic arm turret, the DEA will be inside the rover body, and the calibration target will be mounted on the robotic arm azimuth motor housing. Camera Head. MAHLI uses a Kodak KAI-2020CM interline transfer CCD (1600 x 1200 active 7.4 μm square pixels with RGB filtered microlenses arranged in a Bayer pattern). The optics consist of a group of 6 fixed lens elements, a movable group of 3 elements, and a fixed sapphire window front element. Undesired near-infrared radiation is blocked using a coating deposited on the inside surface of the sapphire window. The lens is protected by a dust cover with a Lexan window through which imaging can be ac-complished if necessary, and targets can be illuminated by sunlight or two banks of two white light LEDs. Two 365 nm UV LEDs are included to search for fluores-cent materials at night. DEA

  5. New measurements of D/H on Mars using EXES aboard SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; DeWitt, C.; Richter, M. J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fouchet, T.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Bézard, B.; Atreya, S. K.; Aoki, S.; Sagawa, H.

    2018-05-01

    The global D/H ratio on Mars is an important measurement for understanding the past history of water on Mars; locally, through condensation and sublimation processes, it is a possible tracer of the sources and sinks of water vapor on Mars. Measuring D/H as a function of longitude, latitude and season is necessary for determining the present averaged value of D/H on Mars. Following an earlier measurement in April 2014, we used the Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) instrument on board the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility to map D/H on Mars on two occasions, on March 24, 2016 (Ls = 127°), and January 24, 2017 (Ls = 304°), by measuring simultaneously the abundances of H2O and HDO in the 1383-1391 cm-1 range (7.2 μm). The D/H disk-integrated values are 4.0 (+0.8, -0.6) × Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) and 4.5 (+0.7, -0.6) × VSMOW, respectively, in agreement with our earlier result. The main result of this study is that there is no evidence of strong local variations in the D/H ratio nor for seasonal variations in the global D/H ratio between northern summer and southern summer.

  6. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We are in the second year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe early mapping results, which include updating of previous northern plains mapping [3], including delineation of mainly Amazonian units and regional fault mapping, as well as other advances.

  7. MOLA: The Future of Mars Global Cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Muhleman, D. O.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    The MGS Orbiter is carrying the high-precision Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) which, when combined with precision reconstructed orbital data and telemetered attitude data, provides a tie between inertial space and Mars-fixed coordinates to an accuracy of 100 m in latitude / longitude and 10 m in radius (1 sigma), orders of magnitude more accurate than previous global geodetic/ cartographic control data. Over the 2 year MGS mission lifetime, it is expected that over 30,000 MOLA Global Cartographic Control Points will be produced to form the basis for new and re-derived map and geodetic products, key to the analysis of existing and evolving MGS data as well as future Mars exploration. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Crustal Structure of Mars from Mars Global Surveyor Topography and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, D. E.; Tyler, G. L.; Aharonson, O.; Balmino, G.; Banerdt, W. B.; Head, J. W.; Johnson, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    In this analysis we invert global models of Mars' topography from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from Doppler tracking obtained during the mapping mission of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We analyze the distribution of Martian crust and discuss implications for Mars' thermal history.

  9. A Global Electric Circuit on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    We describe conditions on the surface of Mars conducive to the formation of a martian global electric circuit, in a direct analogy to the terrestrial case where atmospheric currents and electric fields are generated worldwide through the charging in thunderstorms. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Intercalibration of Mars Global Surveyor Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard; Bergstrom, R. W.; Hollingsworth, J.; Smith, M.; Martin, T.; Hinson, D.; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The calibration and validation of satellite soundings of atmospheric variables is always a difficult prospect, but this difficulty is greatly magnified when the measurements are made at a different planet, whose meteorology is poorly known and poorly constrained, and for which there are virtually no prospects of obtaining ground truth. The Mars Global Surveyor which has been circling Mars in its mapping orbit since early 1999 includes a variety of instruments capable of making atmospheric observations: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) which takes more than 100,000 nadir-view infrared spectra per day (although these observations are confined to the 2am - 2pm time of the sun-fixed orbit); much less frequent TES limb scans (still only at 2am and 2pm); the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly measures side-looking broadband 15 micrometer radiation; Radio Science occultations at favorable seasons give high resolution temperature profiles; the Mars orbiter Camera and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have made water, dust, and carbon dioxide cloud detections. These observations are now being supplemented by high-resolution 15 micron measurements by THEMIS on Mars Odyssey. Thus, all of these observations are made at different times and places. Data assimilation techniques are being used to fuse this vast array of observations into a single dataset that best represents our understanding of the Martian atmosphere, its current meteorological state, and the relevant instrumental properties.

  11. Performances of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) GC-MS suite aboard ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Grand, N.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Humeau, O.; Danell, R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Belmahdi, I.; Coll, P. J.; Lustrement, B.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Stalport, F.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover (Pasteur) will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples collected by the rover, with a particular focus on the characterization of the organic content. Samples will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. The core of the MOMA instrument is a dual source UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC) ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) which provides the unique capability to characterize a broad range of compounds, including both of volatile and non-volatile species. Samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]) which increase the volatility of complex organic species. With the goal to optimize this instrumentation, and especially the GC-ITMS coupling, a series of tests is currently being carried out with prototypes of MOMA instrumentation and with the ETU models wich is similar to the flight model. The MOMA oven and tapping station are also part of these end-to-end experiments. Qualitative and quantitative tests has been done on gas, liquid and solid samples. The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. Both prototypes individually meet the performance requirements, but this work particularly demonstrates the capabilities of the critical GC-MS interface. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: Funding provided by the Mars Exploration Program (point of contact, George Tahu, NASA/HQ). MOMA is a collaboration between NASA and ESA (PI

  12. Global stratigraphy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Scott, David H.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to recent major advances in the definition and documentation of Martian stratigraphy and geology. Mariner 9 provided the images for the first global geologic mapping program, resulting in the recognition of the major geologic processes that have operated on the planet, and in the definition of the three major chronostratigraphic divisions: the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian Systems. Viking Orbiter images permitted the recognition of additional geologic units and the formal naming of many formations. Epochs are assigned absolute ages based on the densities of superposed craters and crater-flux models. Recommendations are made with regard to future areas of study, namely, crustal stratigraphy and structure, the highland-lowland boundary, the Tharsis Rise, Valles Marineris, channels and valley networks, and possible Martian oceans, lakes, and ponds.

  13. Aerothermodynamics of the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, Russell W.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    The aerothermodynamics characteristics of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft are investigated and reported. These results have been used by the Mars Global Surveyor mission planners to design the aerobraking phase of the mission. Analytical and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo computer codes were used with a detailed, three dimensional model of the spacecraft to evaluate spacecraft aerobraking characteristics for flight in free molecular and transitional flow regimes. The spacecraft is found to be aerodynamically stable in aerobraking and planned contingency configurations. Aerodynamic forces, moments, and heating are found to be highly dependent on atmospheric density. Accommodation coefficient. is seen to strongly influence drag coefficient. Transitional flow effects are found to reduce overall solar panel heating. Attitude control thruster plumes are shown to interact with the freestream, diminishing the effectiveness of the attitude control system and even leading to thrust reversal. These plume-freestream interaction effects are found to be highly dependent on freestream density.

  14. Preparing for Themis Controlled Global Mars Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Weller, L.; Sides, S.; Cushing, G.; Kirk, R. L.; Soderblom, L. A.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    We have begun work to prepare for producing controlled 2001 Mars Odyssey THEMIS infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) global mosaics of Mars. This effort is being coordinated with colleagues from Arizona State University and on the THEMIS team who plan to address radiometric issues in making such mosaics. We are concentrating on geometric issues. Several areas of investigation are now in progress, including: a) characterizing the absolute pointing accuracy of THEMIS images; b) investigating whether automatic tie point matching algorithms could be used to provide connections between overlapping THEMIS images; c) developing algorithms to allow for the photogrammetric (bundle) adjustment of the THEMIS IR (line scanner) camera images. Our primary goal in this pilot study effort will be to make several test control THEMIS mosaics and better determine which methods could be used, which require development, and what level of effort is required, in order to make large regional or global controlled THEMIS mosaics.

  15. Design and Performance of the WISDOM Antenna System aboard the ExoMars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Ciarletti, V.; Hamran, S.; Corbel, C.; Linke, S.; Benedix, W.

    2009-04-01

    A full polarimetric antenna system on board the ExoMars rover is part of the Experiment "Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars" (WISDOM). The WISDOM-Experiment is a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) selected to be part of the Pasteur payload aboard the rover of the ExoMars mission. The Pasteur Panoramic Instruments (wide angle camera PANCAM, infrared spectrometer MIMA and WISDOM) will perform large-scale scientific investigations at the sites the Rover will visit. Among these instruments, WISDOM is the only one that can provide a view of the subsurface structure prior to drilling. WISDOM is the first space borne GPR aboard a rover and has been designed to characterize the shallow subsurface structure of Mars. WISDOM will give for the first time access to the geological structure, electromagnetic nature, and, possibly, of hydrological state of the shallow subsurface by retrieving the layering and properties of the buried reflectors. It will address some important related science questions regarding the planet present state and past evolution. The measured data will also be used to determine the most promising locations at which to obtain underground samples with the drilling system mounted on board the rover. The instrument objective for WISDOM is to get high-resolution measurements down to 2-meters depth in the Martian crust. The radar is a gated step frequency system covering the frequency range from 500 MHz to 3 GHz. The radar is fully polarimetric and makes use of four ultra wideband Vivaldi antennas. This poster describes the requirements, the design and the realization of the WISDOM antenna system accommodated on the ExoMars rover. Simulated antenna performance and measured antenna parameters as well as preliminary antenna test measurements performed in the lab and in permafrost regions on earth will be discussed in this poster presentation. The main design requirements of the WISDOM antenna system are driven one hand by the required science

  16. Thermospheric Studies with Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Bruinsma, S.; Chin, D. S.; Forbes, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has been located in a near-circular, polar, and low-altitude mapping orbit about Mars for six years, since February 1999. The spacecraft is tracked routinely by the antennae of the Deep Space Network (DSN), using the X Band radio system of the spacecraft. These tracking data have been used for routine spacecraft navigation, and for radio science studies, such as the estimation of the static and time-varying gravity field of Mars. In this paper we describe the methodology for reduction of these data in order to estimate the Mars atmospheric density (normalized to an altitude 380 km) over half a solar cycle, where we discern the correlation of the density with the incident solar flux, and the 27-day solar rotation. The results show that the density at the MGS altitude varies from a mean of 0.7 x 10(exp -17) grams/cu cm near aphelion to a mean of 3.0 x 10(exp -17)grams/cu cm near perihelion.

  17. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a Roman candle, the exhaust from the Boeing Delta II rocket with the Mars Polar Lander aboard lights up the clouds as it hurtles skyward. The rocket was launched at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  18. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    After a year in Mars orbit, CRISM has taken enough images to allow the team to release the first parts of a global spectral map of Mars to the Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's digital library of planetary data.

    CRISM's global mapping is called the 'multispectral survey.' The team uses the word 'survey' because a reason for gathering this data set is to search for new sites for targeted observations, high-resolution views of the surface at 18 meters per pixel in 544 colors. Another reason for the multispectral survey is to provide contextual information. Targeted observations have such a large data volume (about 200 megabytes apiece) that only about 1% of Mars can be imaged at CRISM's highest resolution. The multispectral survey is a lower data volume type of observation that fills in the gaps between targeted observations, allowing scientists to better understand their geologic context.

    The global map is built from tens of thousands of image strips each about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide and thousands of kilometers long. During the multispectral survey, CRISM returns data from only 72 carefully selected wavelengths that cover absorptions indicative of the mineral groups that CRISM is looking for on Mars. Data volume is further decreased by binning image pixels inside the instrument to a scale of about 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel. The total reduction in data volume per square kilometer is a factor of 700, making the multispectral survey manageable to acquire and transmit to Earth. Once on the ground, the strips of data are mosaicked into maps. The multispectral survey is too large to show the whole planet in a single map, so the map is divided into 1,964 'tiles,' each about 300 kilometers (186 miles) across. There are three versions of each tile, processed to progressively greater levels to strip away the obscuring effects of the dusty atmosphere and to highlight mineral variations in surface materials.

    This is the first version of tile

  19. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    After a year in Mars orbit, CRISM has taken enough images to allow the team to release the first parts of a global spectral map of Mars to the Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's digital library of planetary data.

    CRISM's global mapping is called the 'multispectral survey.' The team uses the word 'survey' because a reason for gathering this data set is to search for new sites for targeted observations, high-resolution views of the surface at 18 meters per pixel in 544 colors. Another reason for the multispectral survey is to provide contextual information. Targeted observations have such a large data volume (about 200 megabytes apiece) that only about 1% of Mars can be imaged at CRISM's highest resolution. The multispectral survey is a lower data volume type of observation that fills in the gaps between targeted observations, allowing scientists to better understand their geologic context.

    The global map is built from tens of thousands of image strips each about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide and thousands of kilometers long. During the multispectral survey, CRISM returns data from only 72 carefully selected wavelengths that cover absorptions indicative of the mineral groups that CRISM is looking for on Mars. Data volume is further decreased by binning image pixels inside the instrument to a scale of about 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel. The total reduction in data volume per square kilometer is a factor of 700, making the multispectral survey manageable to acquire and transmit to Earth. Once on the ground, the strips of data are mosaicked into maps. The multispectral survey is too large to show the whole planet in a single map, so the map is divided into 1,964 'tiles,' each about 300 kilometers (186 miles) across. There are three versions of each tile, processed to progressively greater levels to strip away the obscuring effects of the dusty atmosphere and to highlight mineral variations in surface materials.

    This is the first version of tile

  20. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  1. Anomaly Trends for Missions to Mars: Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Nelson W.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    The long term flight operations of the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey spacecraft give us an excellent chance to examine the operations of two long lived spacecraft in orbit around Mars during overlapping time periods. This study examined the anomalies for each mission maintained for NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. By examining the anomalies each mission encountered during their multiyear missions, trends were identified related to when anomalies occurred during each mission, the types of anomalies encountered, and corrective actions taken to mitigate the effects of the anomalies. As has been discovered in previous studies the numbers of anomalies directly correlate with mission activity and show a decreasing trend with elapsed mission time. Trend analysis also identified a heavy emphasis on software as the source or solution to anomalies for both missions.

  2. Mars global digital dune database: MC-30

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.; Fenton, L.K.; Titus, T.N.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) provides data and describes the methodology used in creating the global database of moderate- to large-size dune fields on Mars. The database is being released in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The first report (Hayward and others, 2007) included dune fields from lat 65° N. to 65° S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1158/). The second report (Hayward and others, 2010) included dune fields from lat 60° N. to 90° N. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1170/). This report encompasses ~75,000 km2 of mapped dune fields from lat 60° to 90° S. The dune fields included in this global database were initially located using Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) Infrared (IR) images. In the previous two reports, some dune fields may have been unintentionally excluded for two reasons: (1) incomplete THEMIS IR (daytime) coverage may have caused us to exclude some moderate- to large-size dune fields or (2) resolution of THEMIS IR coverage (100 m/pixel) certainly caused us to exclude smaller dune fields. In this report, mapping is more complete. The Arizona State University THEMIS daytime IR mosaic provided complete IR coverage, and it is unlikely that we missed any large dune fields in the South Pole (SP) region. In addition, the increased availability of higher resolution images resulted in the inclusion of more small (~1 km2) sand dune fields and sand patches. To maintain consistency with the previous releases, we have identified the sand features that would not have been included in earlier releases. While the moderate to large dune fields in MGD3 are likely to constitute the largest compilation of sediment on the planet, we acknowledge that our database excludes numerous small dune fields and some moderate to large dune fields as well. Please note that the absence of mapped dune fields does not mean that dune fields do not exist and is not intended to imply a lack of saltating sand in other areas

  3. In-situ observation of Martian neutral exosphere: Results from MENCA aboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pratim Das, Tirtha; Dhanya, M. B.; Thampi, Smitha V.

    2016-07-01

    Till very recently, the only in situ measurements of the Martian upper atmospheric composition was from the mass spectrometer experiments aboard the two Viking landers, which covered the altitude region from 120 to 200 km. Hence, the exploration by the Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft of ISRO and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) experiment aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile ENvironment (MAVEN) mission of NASA are significant steps to further understand the Martian neutral exosphere and its variability. MENCA is a quadrupole based neutral mass spectrometer which observes the radial distribution of the Martian neutral exosphere. The analysis of the data from MENCA has revealed unambiguous detection of the three major constituents, which are amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (contributions from CO and N2) and amu 16 (atomic O), as well as a few minor species. Since MOM is in a highly elliptical orbit, the MENCA observations pertain to different local times, in the low-latitude region. Examples of such observations would be presented, and compared with NGIMS results. Emphasis would be given to the observations pertaining to high solar zenith angles and close to perihelion period. During the evening hours, the transition from CO2 to O dominated region is observed near 270 km, which is significantly different from the previous observations corresponding to sub-solar point and SZA of ~45°. The mean evening time exospheric temperature derived using these observations is 271±5 K. These are the first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours, which would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  4. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    After a year in Mars orbit, CRISM has taken enough images to allow the team to release the first parts of a global spectral map of Mars to the Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's digital library of planetary data.

    CRISM's global mapping is called the 'multispectral survey.' The team uses the word 'survey' because a reason for gathering this data set is to search for new sites for targeted observations, high-resolution views of the surface at 18 meters per pixel in 544 colors. Another reason for the multispectral survey is to provide contextual information. Targeted observations have such a large data volume (about 200 megabytes apiece) that only about 1% of Mars can be imaged at CRISM's highest resolution. The multispectral survey is a lower data volume type of observation that fills in the gaps between targeted observations, allowing scientists to better understand their geologic context.

    The global map is built from tens of thousands of image strips each about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide and thousands of kilometers long. During the multispectral survey, CRISM returns data from only 72 carefully selected wavelengths that cover absorptions indicative of the mineral groups that CRISM is looking for on Mars. Data volume is further decreased by binning image pixels inside the instrument to a scale of about 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel. The total reduction in data volume per square kilometer is a factor of 700, making the multispectral survey manageable to acquire and transmit to Earth. Once on the ground, the strips of data are mosaicked into maps. The multispectral survey is too large to show the whole planet in a single map, so the map is divided into 1,964 'tiles,' each about 300 kilometers (186 miles) across. There are three versions of each tile, processed to progressively greater levels to strip away the obscuring effects of the dusty atmosphere and to highlight mineral variations in surface materials.

    This is the third and most

  5. Applications of Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Supporting Mission Site Selection for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. One new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005 is the 'auxiliary profile' option. In this option, an input file of temperature and density versus altitude is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5)model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer(TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components,averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree L(s) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  6. Characterization of dust activity from Martian Year (MY) 27 to MY 32 observed by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard the Mars Express spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkenberg, Paulina; Giuranna, Marco; Aoki, Shohei; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Saggin, Bortolino; Formisano, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    More than 2,500,000 spectra have been collected by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard Mars Express spacecraft after 12 years of activity. The data span more than six Martian years, from MY26, Ls = 331°, to MY 33, Ls = 78°. This huge dataset has been used to build a new database of atmospheric parameters, including atmospheric and surface temperatures, and dust and water ice opacity. Dust aerosols suspended in the atmosphere affect its thermal structure and are a major driver of the circulation. They are always present in the Martian atmosphere, but the amount varies greatly depending on location and season. We analyze dust opacities at 1075 cm-1 retrieved from the PFS long-wavelength channel spectra to characterize the dust activity on Mars for the relevant period. The dust storm season (Ls= 185° - 310°) is monitored for each Martian year. All dust observations show a seasonal pattern, which is ruled by the occurrence of regional and/or global dust storms. Regional dust storms are observed every year, while a planet encircling dust storm occurred in MY 28, when the highest values of dust opacity are also observed (~ 2.45). We characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these regional and global dust events and investigate the effect of dust on surface and atmospheric temperatures.

  7. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander clears Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, after launch at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  8. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Silhouetted against the gray sky, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander lifts off from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  9. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust and into a gray-clouded sky , a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  10. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander into a cloud-covered sky at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  11. Evaluating Mars Science Laboratory Landing Sites with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL) [1]. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: (1) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) mapping years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results driven by observed TES dust optical depth or (2) TES mapping year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated [2] against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from TES [3]. There are several new features included in Mars-GRAM 2005. The first is the option to use input data sets from MGCM model runs that were designed to closely simulate conditions observed during the first two years of TES observations at Mars. The TES Year 1 option includes values from April 1999 through January 2001. The TES Year 2 option includes values from February 2001 through December 2002. The second new feature is the option to read and use any auxiliary profile of temperature and density versus altitude. In exercising the auxiliary profile Mars-GRAM option, values from the auxiliary profile replace data from the original MGCM databases. Some examples of auxiliary profiles include data from TES nadir or limb observations and Mars mesoscale model output at a particular

  12. Mars Global Digital Dune Database; MC-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.; Fenton, L.K.; Tanaka, K.L.; Titus, T.N.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database presents data and describes the methodology used in creating the global database of moderate- to large-size dune fields on Mars. The database is being released in a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Reports. The first release (Hayward and others, 2007) included dune fields from 65 degrees N to 65 degrees S (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1158/). The current release encompasses ~ 845,000 km2 of mapped dune fields from 65 degrees N to 90 degrees N latitude. Dune fields between 65 degrees S and 90 degrees S will be released in a future USGS Open-File Report. Although we have attempted to include all dune fields, some have likely been excluded for two reasons: (1) incomplete THEMIS IR (daytime) coverage may have caused us to exclude some moderate- to large-size dune fields or (2) resolution of THEMIS IR coverage (100m/pixel) certainly caused us to exclude smaller dune fields. The smallest dune fields in the database are ~ 1 km2 in area. While the moderate to large dune fields are likely to constitute the largest compilation of sediment on the planet, smaller stores of sediment of dunes are likely to be found elsewhere via higher resolution data. Thus, it should be noted that our database excludes all small dune fields and some moderate to large dune fields as well. Therefore, the absence of mapped dune fields does not mean that such dune fields do not exist and is not intended to imply a lack of saltating sand in other areas. Where availability and quality of THEMIS visible (VIS), Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle (MOC NA), or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) images allowed, we classified dunes and included some dune slipface measurements, which were derived from gross dune morphology and represent the prevailing wind direction at the last time of significant dune modification. It was beyond the scope of this report to look at the detail needed to discern subtle dune modification. It was also

  13. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to Evaluate Entry Probe Mission Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. The "auxiliary profile" option is one new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005. This option uses an input file of temperature and density versus altitude to replace the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. Any source of data or alternate model output can be used to generate an auxiliary profile. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components, averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree Ls bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sites are used as a sample of how Mars-GRAM' could be a valuable tool for planning of future Mars entry probe missions. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate MSL landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  14. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to Evaluate Entry Probe Mission Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL)1. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: a) TES Mapping Years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from MGCM model results driven by observed TES dust optical depth; and b) TES Mapping Year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated2 against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)

  15. Mars global reference atmosphere model (Mars-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.

    1992-01-01

    Mars-GRAM is an empirical model that parameterizes the temperature, pressure, density, and wind structure of the Martian atmosphere from the surface through thermospheric altitudes. In the lower atmosphere of Mars, the model is built around parameterizations of height, latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal variations of temperature determined from a survey of published measurements from the Mariner and Viking programs. Pressure and density are inferred from the temperature by making use of the hydrostatic and perfect gas laws relationships. For the upper atmosphere, the thermospheric model of Stewart is used. A hydrostatic interpolation routine is used to insure a smooth transition from the lower portion of the model to the Stewart thermospheric model. Other aspects of the model are discussed.

  16. Global Digital Image Mosaics of Mars: Assessment of Geodetic Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R.; Archinal, B. A.; Lee, E. M.; Davies, M. E.; Colvin, T. R.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    A revised global image mosaic of Mars (MDIM 2.0) was recently completed by USGS. Comparison with high-resolution gridded Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital image mosaics will allow us to quantify its geodetic errors; linking the next MDIM to the MOLA data will help eliminate those errors. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. 2016 Resembles Past Global Dust Storm Years on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-05

    This graphic indicates a similarity between 2016 (dark blue line) and five past years in which Mars has experienced a global dust storm (orange lines and band), compared to years with no global dust storm (blue-green lines and band). The arrow nearly midway across in the dark blue line indicates the Mars time of year in late September 2016. A key factor in the graph is the orbital angular momentum of Mars, which would be steady in a system of only one planet orbiting the sun, but varies due to relatively small effects of having other planets in the solar system. The horizontal scale is time of year on Mars, starting at left with the planet's farthest distance from the sun in each orbit. This point in the Mars year, called "Mars aphelion," corresponds to late autumn in the southern hemisphere. Numeric values on the horizontal axis are in Earth years; each Mars year lasts for about 1.9 Earth years. The vertical scale bar at left applies only to the black-line curve on the graph. The amount of solar energy entering Mars' atmosphere (in watts per square meter) peaks at the time of year when Mars is closest to the sun, corresponding to late spring in the southern hemisphere. The duration of Mars' dust storm season, as indicated, brackets the time of maximum solar input to the atmosphere. The scale bar at right, for orbital angular momentum, applies to the blue, brown and blue-green curves on the graph. The values are based on mass, velocity and distance from the gravitational center of the solar system. Additional information on the units is in a 2015 paper in the journal Icarus, from which this graph is derived. The band shaded in orange is superimposed on the curves of angular momentum for five Mars years that were accompanied by global dust storms in 1956, 1971, 1982, 1994 and 2007. Brown diamond symbols on the curves for these years in indicate the times when the global storms began. The band shaded blue-green lies atop angular momentum curves for six years when no

  18. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and Database for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Johnson, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many Mars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model, while above 80 km it is based on Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter. Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science and Thermal Emission Spectrometer data. RS data from 2480 profiles were used, covering latitudes 75 deg S to 72 deg N, surface to approximately 40 km, for seasons ranging from areocentric longitude of Sun (Ls) = 70-160 deg and 265-310 deg. RS data spanned a range of local times, mostly 0-9 hours and 18-24 hours. For interests in aerocapture and precision landing, comparisons concentrated on atmospheric density. At a fixed height of 20 km, RS density varied by about a factor of 2.5 over ranges of latitudes and Ls values observed. Evaluated at matching positions and times, these figures show average RSMars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-)0.05, except at heights above approximately 25 km and latitudes above approximately 50 deg N. Average standard deviation of RSMars-GRAM density ratio was 6%. TES data were used covering surface to approximately 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of a Mars global dust storm). Depending on season, TES data covered latitudes 85 deg S to 85 deg N. Most TES data were concentrated near local times 2 hours and 14 hours. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (greater than 45 deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approximately 90 and 180 deg. Compared to TES averages for a given latitude and season, TES data had average density standard deviation about the mean of

  19. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM 2001): Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM 2001) and its new features. As with the previous version (mars-2000), all parameterizations fro temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and season (Ls) use input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) for the surface through 80-km altitude and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for 80 to 70 km. Mars-GRAM 2001 is based on topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and includes new MGCM data at the topographic surface. A new auxiliary program allows Mars-GRAM output to be used to compute shortwave (solar) and longwave (thermal) radiation at the surface and top of atmosphere. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAN source code and data files and for running the program. It also provides sample input and output and an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  20. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8: Users Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    1999-05-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8 is presented and its new features are discussed. Mars-GRAM uses new values of planetary reference ellipsoid radii, gravity term, and rotation rate (consistent with current JPL values) and includes centrifugal effects on gravity. The model now uses NASA Ames Global Circulation Model low resolution topography. Curvature corrections are applied to winds and limits based on speed of sound are applied. Altitude of the F1 ionization peak and density scale height, including effects of change of molecular weight with altitude are computed. A check is performed to disallow temperatures below CO2 sublimination. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and running the program. Sample input and output are provided. An example of incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code is also given.

  1. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8 is presented and its new features are discussed. Mars-GRAM uses new values of planetary reference ellipsoid radii, gravity term, and rotation rate (consistent with current JPL values) and includes centrifugal effects on gravity. The model now uses NASA Ames Global Circulation Model low resolution topography. Curvature corrections are applied to winds and limits based on speed of sound are applied. Altitude of the F1 ionization peak and density scale height, including effects of change of molecular weight with altitude are computed. A check is performed to disallow temperatures below CO2 sublimination. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and running the program. Sample input and output are provided. An example of incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code is also given.

  2. The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Sjogren, W L; Tyler, G L; Balmino, G; Lemoine, F G; Konopliv, A S

    1999-10-01

    Observations of the gravity field of Mars reveal a planet that has responded differently in its northern and southern hemispheres to major impacts and volcanic processes. The rough, elevated southern hemisphere has a relatively featureless gravitational signature indicating a state of near-isostatic compensation, whereas the smooth, low northern plains display a wider range of gravitational anomalies that indicates a thinner but stronger surface layer than in the south. The northern hemisphere shows evidence for buried impact basins, although none large enough to explain the hemispheric elevation difference. The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes. The gravity signature of Valles Marineris extends into Chryse and provides an estimate of material removed by early fluvial activity.

  3. Water Vapor Reaches Mars' Middle Atmosphere During Global Dust Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    Rising air during a 2007 global dust storm on Mars lofted water vapor into the planet's middle atmosphere, researchers learned from data graphed here, derived from observations by the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The two vertical black lines in the right half of the graph (at about 260 and 310 on the horizontal scale) mark the beginning and end of the most recent global dust storm on Mars, which burst from regional scale to globe-encircling scale in July 2007. The presence of more colored dots, particularly green ones, in the upper portion of the graph between those lines, compared to the upper portion of the graph outside those lines, documents the uplift of water vapor in connection with the global dust storm. The vertical scale is altitude, labeled at left in kilometers above the surface of Mars (50 kilometers is about 30 miles; 80 kilometers is about 50 miles). The color bar below the graph gives the key to how much water vapor each dot represents, in parts per million, by volume, in Mars' atmosphere. Note that green to yellow represents about 100 times as much water as purple does. The horizontal axis of the graph is time, from January 2006 to February 2008. It is labeled with numbers representing the 360 degrees of Mars' orbit around the Sun, from zero to 360 degrees and then further on to include the first 30 degrees of the following Martian year. (The zero point is autumnal equinox -- end of summer -- in Mars' northern hemisphere.) This graph, based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observations, was used in a January 2018 paper in Nature Astronomy by Nicholas Heavens of Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia, and co-authors. The paper presents Martian dust storms' uplifting effect on water vapor as a factor in seasonal patterns that other spacecraft have detected in the rate of hydrogen escaping from the top of Mars' atmosphere. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22080

  4. NASA Ames Science Instrument Launches Aboard New Mars Rover (CheMin)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-23

    When NASA's Mars Science Laboratory lands in a region known as Gale Crater in August of 2012, it will be poised to carry out the most sophisticated chemical analysis of the Martian surface to date. One of the 10 instruments on board the rover Curiosity will be CheMin - short for chemistry and mineralogy. Developed by Ames researcher David Blake and his team, it will use new technology to analyze and identify minerals in the Martian rocks and soil. Youtube: NASA Ames Scientists Develop MSL Science Instrument

  5. MARLI: MARs LIdar for global climate measurements from orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, G. R.; Riris, H.; Sun, X.; Yu, A. W.; Abshire, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    NASA-GSFC is developing a pulsed multifunction lidar instrument to remotely measure winds in the Martian atmosphere from orbit. The key capabilities of this multifunctional atmospheric pulsed lidar will include continuous measurement of the aerosol backscatter profiles, the cross polarized (ice) backscatter profiles, the Doppler (wind profiles), and the range to the scattering surface from orbit. Our approach for MARLI is to use a direct detection lidar with efficient lasers, a large area low-mass telescope, a simple and rugged Doppler discriminator and with photon-sensitive detectors. The induced Doppler shifts on laser backscattered from aerosols in the Martian atmosphere will be detected using a time-resolved change in transmission through a solid etalon from two, slightly off-axis backscattered beams and the edge technique. In this presentation we report on the current progress of the core measurement of wind. We have demonstrated in the lab Doppler measurements down to 5m/s using a spinning target a pulsed lidar and edge technique. The laser is a seeded, pulsed-YAG in a MOPA configuration, operating at 1064nm producing pulses of 20ns and at a few mJ at 4KHz. Center frequency drift is less than 10MHz per minute. The Doppler discriminator is a solid etalon of 60 mm diameter and 40 mm thick with a peak transmission of over 65% and a bandpass of 100MHz FWHM. The detector is a cooled MCT array. We will also report on the deployment of the breadboard instrument to the GGAO to directly measure surface winds using the 48" telescope. The results from our field trials, the laser, detector and instrument will be more fully described in the presentation.

  6. Global Summary MGS TES Data and Mars-Gram Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many Mars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), while above 80 km it is based on University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topograph$ from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with a global summary data set of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. TES averages and standard deviations were assembled from binned TES data which covered surface to approx. 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of a Mars global dust storm). TES data were binned in 10-by-10 degree latitude-longitude bins (i.e. 36 longitude bins by 19 latitude bins), 12 seasonal bins (based on 30 degree increments of Ls angle). Bin averages and standard deviations were assembled at 23 data levels (temperature at 21 pressure levels, plus surface temperature and surface pressure). Two time-of day bins were used: local time near 2 or 14 hours local time). Two dust optical depth bins wereused: infrared optical depth either less than or greater than 0.25 (which corresponds to visible optical depth either less than or greater than about 0.5). For interests in aerocapture and precision entry and landing, comparisons focused on atmospheric density. TES densities versus height were computed from TES temperature versus pressure, using assumptions of perfect gas law and hydrostatics. Mars-GRAM validation studies used density ratio (TES/Mars-GRAM) evaluated at data bin center points in space and time. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (> 45 deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approx. 90 and 180deg

  7. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000): Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000) and its new features. All parameterizations for temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and L(sub s) have been replaced by input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) for the surface through 80-km altitude and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for 80 to 170 km. A modified Stewart thermospheric model is still used for higher altitudes and for dependence on solar activity. "Climate factors" to tune for agreement with GCM data are no longer needed. Adjustment of exospheric temperature is still an option. Consistent with observations from Mars Global Surveyor, a new longitude-dependent wave model is included with user input to specify waves having 1 to 3 wavelengths around the planet. A simplified perturbation model has been substituted for the earlier one. An input switch allows users to select either East or West longitude positive. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and for running the program. It also provides sample input and output and an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  8. Status of Mars Global Surveyor Science Data Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavney, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; Springer, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor has been in orbit around Mars since September 1997, completing its primary mission on January 31, 2001. As of that date the spacecraft had completed more than 8000 mapping orbits. Data from its science instruments, radio science experiment, and SPICE files have been released regularly to the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) as described in the MGS Archive Plan and Addendum and are available online. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Global Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Mustard, John F.; Poulet, François; Arvidson, Raymond; Gendrin, Aline; Gondet, Brigitte; Mangold, Nicolas; Pinet, P.; Forget, F.; OMEGA Team; Berthé, Michel; Gomez, Cécile; Jouglet, Denis; Soufflot, Alain; Vincendon, Mathieu; Combes, Michel; Drossart, Pierre; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Fouchet, Thierry; Merchiorri, Riccardo; Belluci, GianCarlo; Altieri, Francesca; Formisano, Vittorio; Capaccioni, Fabricio; Cerroni, Pricilla; Coradini, Angioletta; Fonti, Sergio; Korablev, Oleg; Kottsov, Volodia; Ignatiev, Nikolai; Moroz, Vassilli; Titov, Dimitri; Zasova, Ludmilla; Loiseau, Damien; Pinet, Patrick; Doute, Sylvain; Schmitt, Bernard; Sotin, Christophe; Hauber, Ernst; Hoffmann, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Keller, Uwe; Arvidson, Ray; Duxbury, Tom; Neukum, G.

    2006-04-01

    Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the ``phyllocian'' era) are found in the oldest terrains; sulfates were formed in a second era (the ``theiikian'' era) in an acidic environment. Beginning about 3.5 billion years ago, the last era (the ``siderikian'') is dominated by the formation of anhydrous ferric oxides in a slow superficial weathering, without liquid water playing a major role across the planet.

  10. Global ICME-Mars Interaction and Induced Atmospheric Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Ma, Y.; Manchester, W.

    2013-12-01

    Without the shielding of a strong intrinsic magnetic field, the present-day Mars atmosphere is more vulnerable to external solar wind forcing than the Earth's atmosphere. Therefore interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are expected to drive disturbances in the Mars environment in a profoundly different way, which, however, is poorly understood due to the lack of coordinated solar wind and Mars observations. In this study, three sophisticated models work in concert to simulate the physical domain extending from the solar corona to near-Mars space for the 13 May 2005 ICME event. The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) will be used to investigate the interaction of the ICME with the ambient solar wind and monitor its propagation from the Sun to the planet. A 3-D MHD model for Mars will be applied to assess the planetary atmospheric/ionospheric responses during the ICME passage of Mars. In the Mars weak magnetic field environment, the ion kinetic effects are important and will be included through the use of a 3-D Monte Carlo pickup ion transport model. These physics-based modeling efforts enable us to provide a global and time series view of the Mars response to transient solar wind disturbances and induced atmospheric loss, which is currently not possible due to the limitation of observations.

  11. Lithospheric Structure from Mars Global Surveyor Topography and Gravity and Implications for the Early Thermal Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Aharonson, Oded; Balmino, Georges; Banerdt, W. B.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2000-01-01

    Regional variations in the thickness of the elastic lithosphere on Mars derived from a combined analysis of topography and gravity anomalies determined by Mars Global Surveyor provide new insight into the planet's thermal history.

  12. Description of the REMS Ground Temperature Sensor aboard MSL NASA mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armiens, C.; Sebastian, E.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station, REMS, is part of the payload of the Mars Science Laboratory, MSL, a NASA mission to the red planet recently scheduled to launch on the fall of 2011. REMS comprises several instruments aimed at measuring ground and air temperature, wind speed and direction, ultraviolet radiation, pressure and humidity. The Ground Temperature Sensor, GTS, is a contactless multi band pyrometer. It is composed of three thermopiles measuring in different bands: 8 - 14 um, 16 - 20 um and 14.5 - 15.5 um. The first two bands are optimized for the higher and lower temperatures expected to be present on Mars during the lifetime of the mission. They also avoid the radiation generated by the rover itself, the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, RTG, and the Sun that is reflected on the ground and reaches the thermopiles, as well as the atmospheric emission originated by the CO2. The use of two different bands to measure ground temperature allows the estimation of the emissivity of the surface by means of colour pyrometry algorithms. Thus we may determine not only the brightness temperature but also the real temperature of the ground, i.e., the kinetic temperature. The estimation of the emissivity may serve also to detect changes in the composition of the ground, as, for example, the formation of frost. The third thermopile is centred in the CO2 absorption band, the main component of the Martian atmosphere. This allows the determination of the residual influence that the atmosphere may have in the other two thermopile's bands. The brightness temperature of the air may also be estimated from this third thermopile. During Martian operations, the system may be degraded due to the deposition of dust over the thermopiles' filter. In order to correct for this degradation, the system includes a calibration plate, which partially fills the field of view of the thermopiles. This plate may be heated several degrees. Analyzing the signals before and during

  13. Mars Global Coverage by Context Camera on MRO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-29

    In early 2017, after more than a decade of observing Mars, the Context Camera (CTX) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) surpassed 99 percent coverage of the entire planet. This mosaic shows that global coverage. No other camera has ever imaged so much of Mars in such high resolution. The mosaic offers a resolution that enables zooming in for more detail of any region of Mars. It is still far from the full resolution of individual CTX observations, which can reveal the shapes of features smaller than the size of a tennis court. As of March 2017, the Context Camera has taken about 90,000 images since the spacecraft began examining Mars from orbit in late 2006. In addition to covering 99.1 percent of the surface of Mars at least once, this camera has observed more than 60 percent of Mars more than once, checking for changes over time and providing stereo pairs for 3-D modeling of the surface. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21488

  14. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    We are in the third year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe mapping and unit delineation results thus far, a new unit identified in the northern plains, and remaining steps to complete the map.

  15. Global map of eolian features on Mars.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, A.W.; Doyle, K.B.; Helm, P.J.; Weisman, M.K.; Witbeck, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Ten basic categories of eolian features on Mars were identified from a survey of Mariner 9 and Viking orbiter images. The ten features mapped are 1) light streaks (including frost streaks), 2) dark streaks, 3) sand sheets or splotches, 4) barchan dunes, 5) transverse dunes, 6) crescentic dunes, 7) anomalous dunes, 8) yardangs, 9) wind grooves, and 10) deflation pits. The features were mapped in groups, not as individual landforms, and recorded according to their geographic positions and orientations on maps of 1:12.5 million or 1:25 million scale. -from Authors

  16. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34): Programmer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.; Johnson, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a programmer's guide for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34). Included are a brief history and review of the model since its origin in 1988 and a technical discussion of recent additions and modifications. Examples of how to run both the interactive and batch (subroutine) forms are presented. Instructions are provided on how to customize output of the model for various parameters of the Mars atmosphere. Detailed descriptions are given of the main driver programs, subroutines, and associated computational methods. Lists and descriptions include input, output, and local variables in the programs. These descriptions give a summary of program steps and 'map' of calling relationships among the subroutines. Definitions are provided for the variables passed between subroutines through common lists. Explanations are provided for all diagnostic and progress messages generated during execution of the program. A brief outline of future plans for Mars-GRAM is also presented.

  17. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): Release No. 2 - Overview and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, B.; Johnson, D.; Tyree, L.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM), a science and engineering model for empirically parameterizing the temperature, pressure, density, and wind structure of the Martian atmosphere, is described with particular attention to the model's newest version, Mars-GRAM, Release No. 2 and to the improvements incorporated into the Release No. 2 model as compared with the Release No. 1 version. These improvements include (1) an addition of a new capability to simulate local-scale Martian dust storms and the growth and decay of these storms; (2) an addition of the Zurek and Haberle (1988) wave perturbation model, for simulating tidal perturbation effects; and (3) a new modular version of Mars-GRAM, for incorporation as a subroutine into other codes.

  18. Aerobraking at Venus and Mars: A Comparison of the Magellan and Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Daniel T.

    2000-01-01

    On February 4, 1999 the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft became the second spacecraft to successfully aerobrake into a nearly circular orbit about another planet. This paper will highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aerobraking phases of this mission and the first mission to use aerobraking, the Magellan mission to Venus. Although the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was designed for aerobraking and the Magellan spacecraft was not, aerobraking MGS was a much more challenging task than aerobraking Magellan, primarily because the spacecraft was damaged during the initial deployment of the solar panels. The MGS aerobraking phase had to be completely redesigned to minimize the bending moment acting on a broken yoke connecting one of the solar panels to the spacecraft. Even if the MGS spacecraft was undamaged, aerobraking at Mars was more challenging than aerobraking at Venus for several reasons. First, Mars is subject to dust storms, which can significantly change the temperature of the atmosphere due to increased solar heating in the low and middle altitudes (below 50 km), which in turn can significantly increase the density at the aerobraking altitudes (above 100 km). During the first part of the MGS aerobraking phase, a regional dust storm was observed to have a significant and very rapid effect on the entire atmosphere of Mars. Computer simulations of global dust storms on Mars indicate that even larger density increases are possible than those observed during the MGS aerobraking phases. For many aerobraking missions, the duration of the aerobraking phase must be kept as short as possible to minimize the total mission cost. For Mars missions, a short aerobraking phase means that there will be less margin to accommodate atmospheric variability, so the operations team must be ready to propulsively raise periapsis by tens of kilometers on very short notice. This issue was less of a concern on Venus, where the thick lower atmosphere and

  19. Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Electron Density Profiles: Interannual Variability and Implications for the Neutral Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Engel, S.; Hinson, D. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) experiment employs an ultrastable oscillator aboard the spacecraft. The signal from the oscillator to Earth is refracted by the Martian ionosphere, allowing retrieval of electron density profiles versus radius and geopotential. The present analysis is carried out on five sets of occultation measurements: (1) four obtained near northern summer solstice (Ls = 74-116, near aphelion) at high northern latitudes (64.7-77.6N), and (2) one set of profiles approaching equinox conditions (Ls = 135- 146) at high southern latitudes (64.7-69.1S). Electron density profiles (95 to 200 km) are examined over a narrow range of solar zenith angles (76.5-86.9 degrees) for local true solar times of (1) 3-4 hours and (2) 12.1 hours. Variations spanning 1-Martian year are specifically examined in the Northern hemisphere.

  20. A Martian Telecommunications Network: UHF Relay Support of the Mars Exploration Rovers by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Barbieri, A.; Brower, E.; Estabrook, P.; Gibbs, R.; Horttor, R.; Ludwinski, J.; Mase, R.; McCarthy, C.; Schmidt, R.; hide

    2004-01-01

    NASA and ESA have established an international network of Mars orbiters, outfitted with relay communications payloads, to support robotic exploration of the red planet. Starting in January, 2004, this network has provided the Mars Exploration Rovers with telecommunications relay services, significantly increasing rover engineering and science data return while enhancing mission robustness and operability. Augmenting the data return capabilities of their X-band direct-to-Earth links, the rovers are equipped with UHF transceivers allowing data to be relayed at high rate to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express orbiters. As of 21 July, 2004, over 50 Gbits of MER data have been obtained, with nearly 95% of that data returned via the MGS and Odyssey UHF relay paths, allowing a large increase in science return from the Martian surface relative to the X-band direct-to-Earth link. The MGS spacecraft also supported high-rate UHF communications of MER engineering telemetry during the critical period of entry, descent, and landing (EDL), augmenting the very low-rate EDL data collected on the X-band direct-to-Earth link. Through adoption of the new CCSDS Proximity-1 Link Protocol, NASA and ESA have achieved interoperability among these Mars assets, as validated by a successful relay demonstration between Spirit and Mars Express, enabling future interagency cross-support and establishing a truly international relay network at Mars.

  1. Global Distribution of Dissected Duricrust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, J. F.; Cooper, C. D.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for dissected duricrust was identified in high resolution MOC images. Analysis of all available images was used to map the global distribution of this terrain. It is apparently restricted to two latitude bands: 30-60 deg. N and 30-60 deg. S.

  2. Simulation of Radar-Backscattering from Phobos - A Contribution to the Experiment MARSIS aboard MarsExpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Orosei, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plaut, J.; Picardi, G.

    2009-04-01

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) on board MarsExpress is the first and so far the only space borne radar that observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were measured for different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of the low frequency sounding of Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into the crust of Phobos. In this poster we present a numerical method that allows a very precise computation of radar echoes backscattered from the surface of large objects. The software is based on a combination of physical optics calculation of surface scattering of the radar target, and Method of Moments to calculate the radiation pattern of the whole space borne radar system. The calculation of the frequency dependent radiation pattern takes into account all relevant gain variations and coupling effects aboard the space craft. Based on very precise digital elevation models of Phobos, patch models in the resolution of lambda/10 were generated. Simulation techniques will be explained and a comparison of simulations and measurements will be shown. SURFACE BACKSCATTERING SIMULATOR FOR LARGE OBJECTS The computation of surface scattering of the electromagnetic wave incident on Phobos is based on the Physical Optics method. The scattered field can be expressed by the induced equivalent surface currents on the target. The Algorithm: The simulation program itself is split into three phases. In the first phase, an illumination test checks whether a patch will be visible from the position of the space craft. If this is not the case, the patch will be excluded from the simulation. The second phase serves as a preparation stage for the third phase. Amongst other tasks, the dyadic products for the Js and Ms surface currents are calculated. This is a time-memory trade-off: the simulation will need additional 144 bytes of RAM for every patch that passes phase one. However, the calculation of the dyads is expensive, so that considerable

  3. Anomaly Trends for Missions to Mars: Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Nelson W.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Conducted as a part of NASA Ultra-Reliability effort: Goal is to design for increased reliability in all NASA missions. Desire is to increase reliability by a factor of 10. Study provides a baseline for current technology. Analyzed anomalies for spacecraft orbiting Mars. Long lived spacecraft. Comparison with current rover missions and past orbiters. Looked for trends to assist design of future missions.

  4. Global Geometric Properties of Martian Impact Craters: A Preliminary Assessment Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Schnetzler, C.; Frawley, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Impact craters on Mars have been used to provide fundamental insights into the properties of the martian crust, the role of volatiles, the relative age of the surface, and on the physics of impact cratering in the Solar System. Before the three-dimensional information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument which is currently operating in Mars orbit aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), impact features were characterized morphologically using orbital images from Mariner 9 and Viking. Fresh-appearing craters were identified and measurements of their geometric properties were derived from various image-based methods. MOLA measurements can now provide a global sample of topographic cross-sections of martian impact features as small as approx. 2 km in diameter, to basin-scale features. We have previously examined MOLA cross-sections of Northern Hemisphere and North Polar Region impact features, but were unable to consider the global characteristics of these ubiquitous landforms. Here we present our preliminary assessment of the geometric properties of a globally-distributed sample of martian impact craters, most of which were sampled during the initial stages of the MGS mapping mission (i.e., the first 600 orbits). Our aim is to develop a framework for reconsidering theories concerning impact cratering in the martian environment. This first global analysis is focused upon topographically-fresh impact craters, defined here on the basis of MOLA topographic profiles that cross the central cavities of craters that can be observed in Viking-based MDIM global image mosaics. We have considered crater depths, rim heights, ejecta topologies, cross-sectional "shapes", and simple physical models for ejecta emplacement. To date (May, 1999), we have measured the geometric properties of over 1300 impact craters in the 2 to 350 km diameter size interval. A large fraction of these measured craters were sampled with cavity-center cross-sections during the first

  5. Oxygen Ion Energization at Mars: Comparison of MAVEN and Mars Express Observations to Global Hybrid Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvinen, R.; Brain, D. A.; Modolo, R.; Fedorov, A.; Holmström, M.

    2018-02-01

    We study oxygen ion energization in the Mars-solar wind interaction by comparing particle and magnetic field observations on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) and Mars Express missions to a global hybrid simulation. We find that large-scale structures of the Martian-induced magnetosphere and plasma environment as well as the Mars heavy ion plume as seen by multispacecraft observations are reproduced by the model. Using the simulation, we estimate the dynamics of escaping oxygen ions by analyzing their distance and time of flight as a function of the gained kinetic energy along spacecraft trajectories. In the upstream region the heavy ion energization resembles single-particle solar wind ion pickup acceleration as expected, while within the induced magnetosphere the energization displays other features including the heavy ion plume from the ionosphere. Oxygen ions take up to 80 s and travel the distance of 20,000 km after their emission from the ionosphere to the induced magnetosphere or photoionization from the neutral exosphere before they have reached energies of 10 keV in the plume along the analyzed spacecraft orbits. Lower oxygen ion energies of 100 eV are reached faster in 10-20 s over the distance of 100-200 km in the plume. Our finding suggests that oxygen ions are typically observed within the first half of their gyrophase if the spacecraft periapsis is on the hemisphere where the solar wind convection electric field points away from Mars.

  6. Interannual variability of global dust storms on Mars.

    PubMed

    Haberle, R M

    1986-10-24

    Global dust storms on Mars occur in some years but not in others. If the four Mars years of Viking data are representative, some distinguishing characteristics can be inferred. In years with global dust storms, dust is raised in the southern hemisphere and spread over much of the planet by an intensified Hadley circulation. In years without global dust storms, dust is raised in the northern hemisphere by relatively active mid-latitude storm systems but does not spread globally. In both cases the dusty season is winter in the north. Assuming that the cross-equatorial Hadley circulation plays a key role in the onset of global dust storms, it is shown from numerical simulations that a northen hemisphere dust haze weakens its intensity and, hence, its contribution to the surface stress in the southern hemisphere. This, in turn, reduces the possibility of global dust storm development. The interannual variability is therefore the result either of a competition between circulations in opposite hemispheres, in which case the variability has a random component, or it is the result of the cycling of dust between hemispheres, in which case the variability is related to the characteristics of global dust storms themselves.

  7. Marli: Mars Lidar for Global Wind Profiles and Aerosol Profiles from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Guzewich, S. D.; Smith, M. D.; Riris, H.; Sun, X.; Gentry, B. M.; Yu, A.; Allan, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Analysis Group's Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEXSAG) has recently identified atmospheric wind measurements as one of 5 top compelling science objectives for a future Mars orbiter. To date, only isolated lander observations of martian winds exist. Winds are the key variable to understand atmospheric transport and answer fundamental questions about the three primary cycles of the martian climate: CO2, H2O, and dust. However, the direct lack of observations and imprecise and indirect inferences from temperature observations leave many basic questions about the atmospheric circulation unanswered. In addition to addressing high priority science questions, direct wind observations from orbit would help validate 3D general circulation models (GCMs) while also providing key input to atmospheric reanalyses. The dust and CO2 cycles on Mars are partially coupled and their influences on the atmospheric circulation modify the global wind field. Dust absorbs solar infrared radiation and its variable spatial distribution forces changes in the atmospheric temperature and wind fields. Thus it is important to simultaneously measure the height-resolved wind and dust profiles. MARLI provides a unique capability to observe these variables continuously, day and night, from orbit.

  8. Preliminary Correlations of Gravity and Topography from Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Tyler, G. L.; Smith, D. E.; Balmino, G. S.; Johnson, G. L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Phillips, R. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft is currently in a 400-km altitude polar mapping orbit and scheduled to begin global mapping of Mars in March of 1999. Doppler tracking data collected in this Gravity Calibration Orbit prior to the nominal mapping mission combined with observations from the MGS Science Phasing Orbit in Spring - Summer 1999 and the Viking and mariner 9 orbiters has led to preliminary high resolution gravity fields. Spherical harmonic expansions have been performed to degree and order 70 and are characterized by the first high spatial resolution coverage of high latitudes. Topographic mapping by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on MGS is providing measurements of the height of the martian surface with sub-meter vertical resolution and 5-30 m absolute accuracy. Data obtained during the circular mapping phase are expected to provide the first high resolution measurements of surface heights in the southern hemisphere. The combination of gravity and topography measurements provides information on the structure of the planetary interior, i.e. the rigidity and distribution of internal density. The observations can also be used to address the mechanisms of support of surface topography. Preliminary results of correlations of gravity and topography at long planetary wavelengths will be presented and the implications for internal structure will be addressed.

  9. The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Phillips, R. J.; Head, J. W.; Garvin, J. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Muhleman, D. O.; Pettengill, G. H.; Neumann, G. A.; hide

    1999-01-01

    Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have yielded a high-accuracy global map of the topography of Mars. Dominant features include the low northern hemisphere, the Tharsis province, and the Hellas impact basin. The northern hemisphere depression is primarily a long-wavelength effect that has been shaped by an internal mechanism. The topography of Tharsis consists of two broad rises. Material excavated from Hellas contributes to the high elevation of the southern hemisphere and to the scarp along the hemispheric boundary. The present topography has three major drainage centers, with the northern lowlands being the largest. The two polar cap volumes yield an upper limit of the present surface water inventory of 3.2 to 4.7 million cubic kilometers.

  10. Mars global digital dune database and initial science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.; Mullins, K.F.; Fenton, L.K.; Hare, T.M.; Titus, T.N.; Bourke, M.C.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    A new Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) constructed using Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) infrared (IR) images provides a comprehensive and quantitative view of the geographic distribution of moderate- to large-size dune fields (area >1 kM2) that will help researchers to understand global climatic and sedimentary processes that have shaped the surface of Mars. MGD3 extends from 65??N to 65??S latitude and includes ???550 dune fields, covering ???70,000 km2, with an estimated total volume of ???3,600 km3. This area, when combined with polar dune estimates, suggests moderate- to large-size dune field coverage on Mars may total ???800,000 km2, ???6 times less than the total areal estimate of ???5,000,000 km2 for terrestrial dunes. Where availability and quality of THEMIS visible (VIS) or Mars Orbiter Camera. narrow-angle (MOC NA) images allow, we classify dunes and include dune slipface measurements, which are derived from gross dune morphology and represent the prevailing wind direction at the last time of significant dune modification. For dunes located within craters, the azimuth from crater centroid to dune field centroid (referred to as dune centroid azimuth) is calculated and can provide an accurate method for tracking dune migration within smooth-floored craters. These indicators of wind direction are compared to output from a general circulation model (GCM). Dune centroid azimuth values generally correlate to regional wind patterns. Slipface orientations are less well correlated, suggesting that local topographic effects may play a larger role in dune orientation than regional winds. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2003-12-01

    biomarkers.Recent Mars spacecraft, including the Mars Pathfinder lander/rover in 1997 and Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey now orbiting the planet, have provided significant new geochemical findings. These missions have also generated geophysical data with which to constrain geochemical models of the martian interior.

  12. History of Martian Surface Changes Observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, P. E.; Enga, M.; Mukherjee, P.

    2009-12-01

    The changing appearance of Mars has fascinated observers for centuries, yet much is still unknown about the winds and sediments that alter the albedo of vast areas of the planet’s surface. A variety of aeolian processes contribute to the deposition and erosion of dust on Mars, with distinct causes and timescales that vary with season and location. Over decadal timescales, these processes act to alter the planetary albedo distribution enough to significantly impact the climate and global circulation of winds on Mars (Geissler, JGR 110, E02001, 2005; Fenton et al., Nature 446, 646, 2007). We are documenting the extent and frequency of Martian surface changes by analyzing the rich record of observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor mission. We are currently completing a time-series of global mosaics produced from wide angle MOC images showing in detail how the planet’s surface changed in appearance between early 1999 and late 2006, a period of 4 Martian years. The MOC mosaics reveal a surprising range of temporal behavior among variable features in different regions of Mars. Episodic dust deposition followed by episodic clearing can be seen in Syrtis Major. Gradual erosion by persistent seasonal winds can be seen in many equatorial areas such as southern Alcyonius. Gradual erosion by dust-devils is prevalent at higher latitudes and notably in Nilosyrtis, where the albedo boundary dividing the high albedo tropics from the dark terrain to the north is slowly advancing southwards onto brighter terrain. Solis Planum, a high plateau south of the Valles Marineris, changes on a nearly continuous basis. Many of the moving albedo boundaries (such as those at Oxia Palus and the Southern tropical dark band) display high albedo margins that may be aprons of dust swept away by the advancing erosion. The data also show clear evidence for dust deposition onto already dust-covered regions, a phenomenon that was suspected but not demonstrated by Geissler (2005). The final MOC

  13. Proceedings of the Mars Global Network Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturms, Francis M., Jr. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on the Mars Global Network Mission held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on February 6 and 7, 1990, was attended by 68 people from JPL, National Aeronautics and Space Administration centers, universities, national laboratories, and industry. Three working sessions on science and exploration objectives, mission and system design concepts, and subsystem technology readiness each addressed three specific questions on implementation concepts for the mission. The workshop generated conclusions for each of the nine questions and also recommended several important science and engineering issues to be studied subsequent to the workshop.

  14. Mars' "White Rock" feature lacks evidence of an aqueous origin: Results from Mars Global Surveyor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, S.W.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, R.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Malin, M.C.; Bandfield, J.L.; Jakosky, B.M.; Lane, M.D.; Mellon, M.T.; Presley, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The "White Rock" feature on Mars has long been viewed as a type example for a Martian playa largely because of its apparent high albedo along with its location in a topographic basin (a crater). Data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) demonstrate that White Rock is not anomalously bright relative to other Martian bright regions, reducing the significance of its albedo and weakening the analogy to terrestrial playas. Its thermal inertia value indicates that it is not mantled by a layer of loose dust, nor is it bedrock. The thermal infrared spectrum of White Rock shows no obvious features of carbonates or sulfates and is, in fact, spectrally flat. Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera show that the White Rock massifs are consolidated enough to retain slopes and allow the passage of saltating grains over their surfaces. Material appears to be shed from the massifs and is concentrated at the crests of nearby bedforms. One explanation for these observations is that White Rock is an eroded accumulation of compacted or weakly cemented aeolian sediment. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. A Global Map of Thermal Inertia from Mars Global Surveyor Mapping-Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, M. T.; Kretke, K. A.; Smith, M. D.; Pelkey, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    TES (thermal emission spectrometry) has obtained high spatial resolution surface temperature observations from which thermal inertia has been derived. Seasonal coverage of these data now provides a nearly global view of Mars, including the polar regions, at high resolution. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Global geologic mapping of Mars: The western equatorial region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Global geologic mapping of Mars was originally accomplished following acquisition of orbital spacecraft images from the Mariner 9 mission. The mapping program represented a joint enterprise by the U.S. Geological Survey and other planetary scientists from universities in the United States and Europe. Many of the Mariner photographs had low resolution or poor albedo contrast caused by atmospheric haze and high-sun angles. Some of the early geologic maps reflect these deficiencies in their poor discrimination and subdivision of rock units. New geologic maps made from higher resolution and better quality Viking images also represent a cooperative effort, by geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona State University, and the University of London. This second series of global maps consists of three parts: 1) western equatorial region, 2) eastern equatorial region, and 3) north and south polar regions. These maps, at 1:15 million scale, show more than 60 individual rock-stratigraphic units assigned to three Martian time-stratigraphic systems. The first completed map of the series covers the western equatorial region of Mars. Accompanying the map is a description of the sequence and distribution of major tectonic, volcanic, and fluvial episodes as recorded in the stratigraphic record. ?? 1985.

  17. A Revised Thermosphere for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM Version 3.4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.; James, B. F.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the newly-revised model thermosphere for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM, Version 3.4). It also provides descriptions of other changes made to the program since publication of the programmer's guide for Mars-GRAM Version 3.34. The original Mars-GRAM model thermosphere was based on the global-mean model of Stewart. The revised thermosphere is based largely on parameterizations derived from output data from the three-dimensional Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model (MTGCM). The new thermospheric model includes revised dependence on the 10.7 cm solar flux for the global means of exospheric temperature, temperature of the base of the thermosphere, and scale height for the thermospheric temperature variations, as well as revised dependence on orbital position for global mean height of the base of the thermosphere. Other features of the new thermospheric model are: (1) realistic variations of temperature and density with latitude and time of day, (2) more realistic wind magnitudes, based on improved estimates of horizontal pressure gradients, and (3) allowance for user-input adjustments to the model values for mean exospheric temperature and for height and temperature at the base of the thermosphere. Other new features of Mars-GRAM 3.4 include: (1) allowance for user-input values of climatic adjustment factors for temperature profiles from the surface to 75 km, and (2) a revised method for computing the sub-solar longitude position in the 'ORBIT' subroutine.

  18. New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars: Deciphering the Geologic History Through Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Banks, M.; Buczkowski, D.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the mapping effort is to produce a geologic map of the Argyre basin and surrounding region at 1:5,000,000 scale in both digital and print formats that will detail the stratigraphic and crosscutting relations among rock materials and landforms (30 deg. S to 65 deg. S, 290 deg. E to 340 deg E). There has not been a detailed geologic map produced of the Argyre region since the Viking-era mapping investigation. The mapping tasks include stratigraphic mapping, crater counting, feature mapping, quantitative landform analysis, and spectroscopic/ stratigraphic investigation feature mapping. The regional geologic mapping investigation includes the Argyre basin floor and rim materials, the transition zone that straddles the Thaumasia plateau, which includes Argyre impactrelated modification, and the southeast margin of the Thaumasia plateau using important new data sets from the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The geologic information unfolded by this new mapping project will be useful to the community for constraining the regional geology, paleohydrology, and paleoclimate, which includes but is not limited to the assessment of: (1) whether the Argyre basin contained lakes, (2) the extent of reported flooding and glaciation, (3) existing interpretations of the origin of the narrow ridges located in the southeast part of the basin floor, and (4) the extent of Argyre-related tectonism and its influence on the surrounding regions.

  19. Mars Global Surveyor observations of Martian fretted terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Martian fretted terrain between latitudes 30?? and 50?? N and between 315?? and 360?? W has been reexamined in light of new Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data from Mars Global Surveyor. Much of the terrain in the 30??-50?? latitude belt in both hemispheres has a characteristic stippled or pitted texture at MOC (1.5 m) scale. The texture appears to result from partial removal of a formerly smooth, thin deposit as a result of sublimation and deflation. A complex history of deposition and exhumation is indicated by remnants of a former, thicker cover of layered deposits. In some hollows and on some slopes, particularly those facing the pole, are smooth textured deposits outlined by an outward facing escarpment. Throughout the study area are numerous escarpments with debris flows at their base. The escarpments typically have slopes in the 20??-30?? range. At the base of the escarpment is commonly a deposit with striae oriented at right angles to the escarpment. Outside this deposit is the main debris apron with a surface that typically slopes 2??-3?? and complex surface textures suggestive of compression, sublimation, and deflation. The presence of undeformed impact craters indicates that the debris flows are no longer forming. Fretted valleys contain lineated fill and are poorly graded. They likely form from fluvial valleys that were initially like those elsewhere on the planet but were subsequently widened and filled by the same mass-wasting processes that formed the debris aprons. Slope reversals indicate that downvalley flow of the lineated fill is minor. The ubiquitous presence of breaks in slope formed by mass wasting and the complex surface textures that result from mass wasting, deflation, and sublimation decreases the recognizability of the shorelines formerly proposed for this area.

  20. Charged particles radiation measurements with Liulin-MO dosimeter of FREND instrument aboard ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter during the transit and in high elliptic Mars orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkova, Jordanka; Koleva, Rositza; Benghin, Victor; Dachev, Tsvetan; Matviichuk, Yuri; Tomov, Borislav; Krastev, Krasimir; Maltchev, Stephan; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mitrofanov, Igor; Malahov, Alexey; Golovin, Dmitry; Mokrousov, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Litvak, Maxim; Kozyrev, Andrey; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Nikiforov, Sergey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Fedosov, Fedor; Grebennikova, Natalia; Zelenyi, Lev; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Drobishev, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    ExoMars is a joint ESA-Rosscosmos program for investigating Mars. Two missions are foreseen within this program: one consisting of the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), that carries scientific instruments for the detection of trace gases in the Martian atmosphere and for the location of their source regions, plus an Entry, Descent and landing demonstrator Module (EDM), launched on March 14, 2016; and the other, featuring a rover and a surface platform, with a launch date of 2020. On October 19, 2016 TGO was inserted into high elliptic Mars' orbit. The dosimetric telescope Liulin-MO for measuring the radiation environment onboard the ExoMars 2016 TGO is a module of the Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND). Here we present first results from measurements of the charged particle fluxes, dose rates, Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and estimation of dose equivalent rates in the interplanetary space during the cruise of TGO to Mars and first results from dosimetric measurements in high elliptic Mars' orbit. A comparison is made with the dose rates obtained by RAD instrument onboard Mars Science Laboratory during the cruise to Mars in 2011-2012 and with the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) count rates provided by other particle detectors currently in space. The average measured dose rate in Si from GCR during the transit to Mars for the period April 22-September 15, 2016 is 372 ± 37 μGy d-1 and 390 ± 39 μGy d-1 in two perpendicular directions. The dose equivalent rate from GCR for the same time period is about 2 ± 0.3 mSv d-1. This is in good agreement with RAD results for radiation dose rate in Si from GCR in the interplanetary space, taking into account the different solar activity during the measurements of both instruments. About 10% increase of the dose rate, and 15% increase of the dose equivalent rate for 10.5 months flight is observed. It is due to the increase of Liulin-MO particle fluxes for that period and corresponds to the overall GCR intensity

  1. After tower rollback, the Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard is ready for liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After launch tower retraction, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Mars Polar lander waits for liftoff, scheduled for 3:21 p.m. EST, at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor 98 missions.

  2. Modeling Mars' ionosphere with constraints from same-day observations by Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Michael; Lollo, Anthony; Withers, Paul; Matta, Majd; Pätzold, Martin; Tellmann, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    We have analyzed a brief period of same-day observations of the Martian ionosphere using data obtained in December 2004 from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Express (MEX) radio occultation experiments. These data were taken shortly after sunrise under solstice conditions in both hemispheres, with MGS in the summer (northern) hemisphere at high latitudes while MEX was in the winter (southern) hemisphere at midlatitudes. Such two-satellite, dual-hemisphere data sets are unique for the modern era of ionospheric observations at Mars and provide good test cases for constraints of key parameters commonly used in models of the Martian ionosphere. Several iterations of a 1-dimensional model are developed in attempts to simulate more successfully the altitudes, absolute magnitudes and shapes of the two photo-chemical layers (M1 and M2) obtained during the joint MGS-MEX observing period. Three basic processes are examined: (1) selection of the optimal model neutral atmospheres, (2) the effects due to departures from thermal equilibrium between electrons, ions and neutrals, (3) methods of handling secondary ionization. While general circulation models fully coupled to plasma transport codes are required for global simulations of the full system, the computational complexity and computer resources needed often result in the use of parameterizations relating electron and ion temperatures to neutral temperatures and secondary ionization to primary photo-ionization profiles. Here we develop such schemes and test them within the framework of same day observations in both hemispheres. The occurrence of same day, separate hemisphere, radio occultation profiles is important because the solar irradiance has to be held constant for modeling both sites, and thus this is the first study of this kind to be done. The overall results stress the dominant influence of solar zenith angle effects on production for the M2-layer via primary solar ionization, its augmentation by ˜30% due

  3. Mars Relays Satellite Orbit Design Considerations for Global Support of Robotic Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Cesarone, Robert; Cook, Richard; Knocke, Phillip; McOmber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses orbit design considerations for Mars relay satellite (MRS)support of globally distributed robotic surface missions. The orbit results reported in this paper are derived from studies of MRS support for two types of Mars robotic surface missions: 1) the mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission, which in its current definition would deploy a global network of up to 16 small landers, and 2)a Small Mars Sample Return (SMSR) mission, which included four globally distributed landers, each with a return stage and one or two rovers, and up to four additional sets of lander/rover elements in an extended mission phase.

  4. Global duricrust on Mars - Analysis of remote-sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study is conducted of the infrared thermal emission, radio thermal emission, and radar reflection data sets with the objective to obtain a simple and self-consistent model for the Mars surface. The results are compared with in situ observations at the Viking Lander sites. Attention is given to thermal inertia values, the abundance of surface rocks, radar/thermal correlations, diurnal temperature deviations, and radio emission data. It is suggested that all of the global remote-sensing data sets considered can be reconciled on the basis of variations in the degree of formation of a case-hardened crust or duricrust. On the other hand, no other model which has been proposed in conjunction with any individual data set can satisfy all of the constraints discussed.

  5. Craters on Mars: Global Geometric Properties from Gridded MOLA Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Frawley, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Impact craters serve as natural probes of the target properties of planetary crusts and the tremendous diversity of morphological expressions of such features on Mars attests to their importance for deciphering the history of crustal assembly, modification, and erosion. This paper summarizes the key findings associated with a five year long survey of the three-dimensional properties of approx. 6000 martian impact craters using finely gridded MOLA topography. Previous efforts have treated representative subpopulations, but this effort treats global properties from the largest survey of impact features from the perspective of their topography ever assimilated. With the Viking missions of the mid-1970 s, the most intensive and comprehensive robotic expeditions to any Deep Space location in the history of humanity were achieved, with scientifically stunning results associated with the morphology of impact craters. The relationships illustrated and suggest that martian impact features are remarkably sensitive to target properties and to the local depositional processes.

  6. Ancient geodynamics and global-scale hydrology on Mars.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R J; Zuber, M T; Solomon, S C; Golombek, M P; Jakosky, B M; Banerdt, W B; Smith, D E; Williams, R M; Hynek, B M; Aharonson, O; Hauck , S A

    2001-03-30

    Loading of the lithosphere of Mars by the Tharsis rise explains much of the global shape and long-wavelength gravity field of the planet, including a ring of negative gravity anomalies and a topographic trough around Tharsis, as well as gravity anomaly and topographic highs centered in Arabia Terra and extending northward toward Utopia. The Tharsis-induced trough and antipodal high were largely in place by the end of the Noachian Epoch and exerted control on the location and orientation of valley networks. The release of carbon dioxide and water accompanying the emplacement of approximately 3 x 10(8) cubic kilometers of Tharsis magmas may have sustained a warmer climate than at present, enabling the formation of ancient valley networks and fluvial landscape denudation in and adjacent to the large-scale trough.

  7. Science of Global Climate Modeling: Confirmation from Discoveries on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2012-10-01

    As early as 1993, analysis of obliquity changes on Mars revealed irregular cycles of high excursion, over 45°1. Further obliquity analyses indicated that insolation and climatic conditions vary with time, with the four most recent episodes of obliquity >45° occurring about 5.5, 8, 9, and 15 My.2 Various researchers applied global climate models, using Martian parameters and obliquity changes. The models (independent of Martian geomorphological observations) indicate exceptional climate conditions during the high-obliquity episodes at >45°3,4, with localized massive ice deposition effects east of Hellas and on the west slopes of Tharsis.5 At last year’s DPS my co-authors and I detailed evidence of unusual active glaciation in Greg crater, near the center of the predicted area of ice accumulation during high obliquity.6 We found that the timescale of glacial surface layer activity matches the general 5-15 My timescale of the last episodes of high obliquity and ice deposition. Radar results confirm ice deposits in debris aprons concentrated in the same area.7 Less direct evidence has also been found for glacial ice deposits in the west Tharsis region.8 Here I emphasize that if the models can be adjusted to Mars and then successfully indicate unusual, specific features that we see there, it is an argument for the robustness of climate modeling in general. In recent years we have see various public figures casting doubt on the validity of terrestrial global modeling. The successful match of Martian climate modeling with direct Martian geological and chronometric observations provides an interesting and teachable refutation of the attacks on climate science. References: 1. Science 259:1294-1297; 2. LPSC XXXV, Abs. 1600; 3. Nature 412:411-413; 4. Science 295:110-113; 5. Science 311:368-371; 6. EPSC-DPS Abs. 1394; 7. Science 322:1235-1238; 8. Nature 434:346-351.

  8. Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Hugh H. (Editor); Jakosky, Bruce M. (Editor); Snyder, Conway W. (Editor); Matthews, Mildred S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on Mars discusses visual, photographic and polarimetric telescopic observations, spacecraft exploration of Mars, the origin and thermal evolution of Mars, and the bulk composition, mineralogy, and internal structure of the planet. Attention is given to Martian gravity and topography, stress and tectonics on Mars, long-term orbital and spin dynamics of Mars, and Martian geodesy and cartography. Topics addressed include the physical volcanology of Mars, the canyon system on planet, Martian channels and valley networks, and ice in the Martian regolith. Also discussed are Martian aeolian processes, sediments, and features, polar deposits of Mars, dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, and the seasonal behavior of water on Mars.

  9. Variable features on Mars. II - Mariner 9 global results.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Veverka, J.; Fox, P.; Dubisch, F.; French, R.; Gierasch, P.; Quam, L.; Lederberg, J.; Levinthal, E.; Pollack, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Systematic Mariner 9 monitoring of the space and time distribution of Martian bright and dark markings, the streaks and splotches, indicates a range of global correlations. The time-variable classical dark markings owe their configurations and variability to their constituent streaks and splotches, produced by windblown dust. Streaks and splotches are consistent wind direction indicators. Correlation of global streak patterns with general circulation models shows that velocities of about 50 to 90 m/sec above the boundary layer are necessary to initiate grain motion on the surface and to produce streaks and splotches. Detailed examples of changes in Syrtis Major, Lunae Palus, and Promethei Sinus are generally consistent with removal of bright sand and dust and uncovering of darker underlying material as the active agent in such changes, although dark mobile material probably also exists on Mars. The generation of streaks and the progressive albedo changes observed require only threshold velocities of about 2 m/sec for about 1 day at the grain surface.

  10. A High Efficiency System for Science Instrument Commanding for the Mars Global Surveyor Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jr., R. N. Brooks

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission will return to Mars to re- cover most of the science lost when the ill fated Mars Observer space- craft suffered a catastrophic anomaly in its propulsion system and did not go into orbit. Described in detail are the methods employed by the MGS Sequence Team to accelerate science command processing by using standard command generation process and standard UNIX control scripts.

  11. The Mars imperative: Species survival and inspiring a globalized culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Donald C.

    2015-02-01

    Humanity has crossed a unique technological threshold enabling self-guided survival, a first in the history of life on Earth. From a human perspective the Earth may be considered as a single interconnected ecosystem, and given our tenuous understanding and control over the environment as well as our own behaviors, ever-looming specters of social collapse or even extinction dictate enacting immediate off-world diversification and self-preservation efforts. Herein, Mars is touted as the most tenable and sustainable location in which to initiate such permanent diversification. Scientific curiosity alone cannot initiate nor drive such off-world settlement and concerted impetus and public support for such an endeavor is shown to be constrained by human attention span. Lastly, the initial act of settlement uniquely serves as humanities greatest globally inspiring self-initiated endeavor, a tangible benefit capable of inspiring generations, connecting cultures and motivating college enrollments and career path choices in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in a manner similar to the dawn of human space exploration.

  12. Mars Global Surveyor TES Results: Observations of Water Ice Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, John C.; Smith, M. D.; Conrath, B. J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    On July 31, 1999, Mars Global Surveyor completed its first martian year in orbit. During this time, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment gathered extensive data on water ice clouds. We report here on three types of martian clouds. 1) Martian southern summer has long been characterized as the season when the most severe dust storms occur. It is now apparent that northern spring/summer is characterized as a time of substantial low latitude ice clouds [1]. TES observations beginning in the northern summer (Lsubs=107) show a well developed cloud belt between 10S and 30N latitude; 12 micron opacities were typically 0.15. This system decreased dramatically after Lsubs= 130. Thereafter, remnants were most persistent over the Tharsis ridge. 2) Clouds associated with major orographic features follow a different pattern [2]. Clouds of this type were present prior to the regional Noachis dust storm of 1997. They disappeared with the onset of the storm, but reappeared rather quickly following its decay. Typical infrared opacities were near 0.5. 3) Extensive, very thin clouds are also widespread [3]. Found at high altitudes (above 35 km), their opacities are typically a few hundredths. At times, such as in northern spring, these clouds are limited in their northern extent only by the southern edge of the polar vortex. We describe the distribution, infrared optical properties, and seasonal trends of these systems during the first martian year of TES operations.

  13. The thermal inertia of Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Christensen, Philip R.; Varnes, E. Stacy; Lee, Steven W.

    2000-01-01

    We have used Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer thermal emission measurements to derive the thermal inertia of the Martian surface at the ∼100-km spatial scale. We have validated the use of nighttime-only measurements to derive thermal inertia as well as the use of a single wavelength band versus bolometric thermal emission measurements. We have also reanalyzed the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data set in a similar manner in order to allow a direct comparison between the two. Within the uncertainties of the fit of the data to the model, and the uncertainties inherent in the model, the thermal inertia has not changed substantially in the 21 years between the Viking and the MGS measurements. Although some differences are seen, they are most likely due to changes in albedo during the intervening years or to residual effects of airborne dust that are not fully accounted for in the thermal models. The thermal inertia values that we derive, between about 24 and 800 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, are thought to better represent the actual thermal inertia of the Martian surface than previous estimates.

  14. Mars Global Digital Dune Database: MC2-MC29

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Mullins, Kevin F.; Fenton, L.K.; Hare, T.M.; Titus, T.N.; Bourke, M.C.; Colaprete, Anthony; Christensen, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Mars Global Digital Dune Database presents data and describes the methodology used in creating the database. The database provides a comprehensive and quantitative view of the geographic distribution of moderate- to large-size dune fields from 65? N to 65? S latitude and encompasses ~ 550 dune fields. The database will be expanded to cover the entire planet in later versions. Although we have attempted to include all dune fields between 65? N and 65? S, some have likely been excluded for two reasons: 1) incomplete THEMIS IR (daytime) coverage may have caused us to exclude some moderate- to large-size dune fields or 2) resolution of THEMIS IR coverage (100m/pixel) certainly caused us to exclude smaller dune fields. The smallest dune fields in the database are ~ 1 km2 in area. While the moderate to large dune fields are likely to constitute the largest compilation of sediment on the planet, smaller stores of sediment of dunes are likely to be found elsewhere via higher resolution data. Thus, it should be noted that our database excludes all small dune fields and some moderate to large dune fields as well. Therefore the absence of mapped dune fields does not mean that such dune fields do not exist and is not intended to imply a lack of saltating sand in other areas. Where availability and quality of THEMIS visible (VIS) or Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle (MOC NA) images allowed, we classifed dunes and included dune slipface measurements, which were derived from gross dune morphology and represent the prevailing wind direction at the last time of significant dune modification. For dunes located within craters, the azimuth from crater centroid to dune field centroid was calculated. Output from a general circulation model (GCM) is also included. In addition to polygons locating dune fields, the database includes over 1800 selected Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) infrared (IR), THEMIS visible (VIS) and Mars Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle (MOC NA

  15. Mars Global Surveyor Data Analysis Program. Origins of Small Volcanic Cones: Eruption Mechanisms and Implications for Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagents, Sarah A.; Greeley, Ronald; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to determine the origins of small volcanic cones observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, and their implications for regolith ice stores and magma volatile contents. For this 1-year study, our approach involved a combination of: Quantitative morphologic analysis and interpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data; Numerical modeling of eruption processes responsible for producing the observed features; Fieldwork on terrestrial analogs in Iceland. Following this approach, this study succeeded in furthering our understanding of (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of near-surface water ice, as defined by the distribution and sizes of rootless volcanic cones ("pseudocraters"), and (ii) the properties, eruption conditions, and volatile contents of magmas producing primary vent cones.

  16. Constraining Lithospheric Stress on Mars From Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Topography, Gravity, and Crustal Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Holt, W. E.; Haines, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    The quantification of lithospheric dynamics on Mars is of fundamental importance to the understanding of Martian geologic history and surface morphology. The global stress field associated with gravitational potential energy differences (GPE) constitutes a significant fraction of the total stress field. We have obtained 0.25 × 0.25 degree data sets of MOLA topography and crustal thickness from Zuber et al 2000. We calculate the GPE associated with the topography by vertically integrating density to a given lithospheric depth using either Airy isostasy assumptions or the crustal thickness model of Zuber et al 2000. Using a finite-element thin sheet method we solve the full 3-D force-balance equations for stress magnitudes and orientations within the lithosphere associated with the horizontal gradients in GPE. We assume ρ crust = 2900~ kg m-3, ~ρ mantle = 3500~ kg m-3, ~g = 3.7~ ms-2 and various lithospheric thicknesses. We explore both viscous and elastic rheologies. It is interesting to note that our solutions depend on the rheology only through the ratio of shear and bulk moduli for the elastic case or the shear and bulk viscosities for the viscous case. Finally, we also calculate the expected style and orientation of the associated elastic strain. To first order, all stress field solutions are consistent with a tectonically inactive region relaxing due to excess or deficit of mass. Thus topographic highs e.g., Tharsis Mons, Olympus Mons, and Alba Patera, are in deviatoric extension, while topographic lows e.g., Valles Marineras and impact basins, are in deviatoric compression. At short wavelengths, however, features are regionally supported and differences in the stress field solutions occur between the Airy isostasy and the crustal thickness models. For example, several lowlands e.g., Isidis and Argyre Planitae, are in deviatoric extension in the crustal thickness model. Increasing the lithospheric depth increases the magnitudes of stresses but does not

  17. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): Global dune distribution and wind pattern observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Fenton, Lori; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) is complete and now extends from 90°N to 90°S latitude. The recently released south pole (SP) portion (MC-30) of MGD3 adds ∼60,000 km2 of medium to large-size dark dune fields and ∼15,000 km2 of sand deposits and smaller dune fields to the previously released equatorial (EQ, ∼70,000 km2), and north pole (NP, ∼845,000 km2) portions of the database, bringing the global total to ∼975,000 km2. Nearly all NP dunes are part of large sand seas, while the majority of EQ and SP dune fields are individual dune fields located in craters. Despite the differences between Mars and Earth, their dune and dune field morphologies are strikingly similar. Bullseye dune fields, named for their concentric ring pattern, are the exception, possibly owing their distinctive appearance to winds that are unique to the crater environment. Ground-based wind directions are derived from slipface (SF) orientation and dune centroid azimuth (DCA), a measure of the relative location of a dune field inside a crater. SF and DCA often preserve evidence of different wind directions, suggesting the importance of local, topographically influenced winds. In general however, ground-based wind directions are broadly consistent with expected global patterns, such as polar easterlies. Intriguingly, between 40°S and 80°S latitude both SF and DCA preserve their strongest, though different, dominant wind direction, with transport toward the west and east for SF-derived winds and toward the north and west for DCA-derived winds.

  18. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    The new Mars-GRAM auxiliary profile capability, using data from TES observations, mesoscale model output, or other sources, allows a potentially higher fidelity representation of the atmosphere, and a more accurate way of estimating inherent uncertainty in atmospheric density and winds. Figure 3 indicates that, with nominal value rpscale=1, Mars-GRAM perturbations would tend to overestimate observed or mesoscale-modeled variability. To better represent TES and mesoscale model density perturbations, rpscale values as low as about 0.4 could be used. Some trajectory model implementations of Mars-GRAM allow the user to dynamically change rpscale and rwscale values with altitude. Figure 4 shows that an mscale value of about 1.2 would better replicate wind standard deviations from MRAMS or MMM5 simulations at the Gale, Terby, or Melas sites. By adjusting the rpscale and rwscale values in Mars-GRAM based on figures such as Figure 3 and 4, we can provide more accurate end-to-end simulations for EDL at the candidate MSL landing sites.

  19. Light-Toned, Layered Outcrops of Northern Terra Meridiani Mars: Viking, Phobos 2, and Mars Global Surveyor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    System (PDS). The main body of data examined were Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images acquired through 30 September 2002. The data also 2 include Viking orbiter images, a Phobos 2 Termoscan image, MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic observations, and the products of published Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) analyses. Through September 2002, over 126,000 MOC images had been acquired, and greater than 600 of the MOC narrow angle (1.5-12 m/pixel) images occur within the portions of Terra Meridiani and southwestern Arabia Terra.

  20. Scientific Rationale and Requirements for a Global Seismic Network on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Anderson, Don L.; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Butler, Rhett G.; Davis, Paul M.; Duennebier, Frederick K.; Nakamura, Yosio; Okal, Emile A.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1991-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the mission concepts for a Mars Global Network Mission as of the time of the workshop, we present the principal scientific objectives to be achieved by a Mars seismic network. We review the lessons for extraterrestrial seismology gained from experience to date on the Moon and on Mars. An important unknown on Mars is the expected rate of seismicity, but theoretical expectations and extrapolation from lunar experience both support the view that seismicity rates, wave propagation characteristics, and signal-to-noise ratios are favorable to the collection of a scientifically rich dataset during the multiyear operation of a global seismic experiment. We discuss how particular types of seismic waves will provide the most useful information to address each of the scientific objectives, and this discussion provides the basis for a strategy for station siting. Finally, we define the necessary technical requirements for the seismic stations.

  1. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  2. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings, such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  3. Participation in the Mars data analysis program: Global and regional studies of wind-indicators on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    Global and regional patterns on Mars were inferred from surface aeolian features, such as wind streaks and dune deposits, which were visible in Viking Orbiter images. Precise measurements of the dimensions of topographic obstacles, i.e., craters, hills, ridges, on Mars as well as their associated wind streaks were used to determine the aerodynamic shape of an obstacle affects near surface airflow. A classification of Martian wind streaks was developed on the basis of albedo contrast and the presence or absence of either topographic obstacles or sediment deposits at the point of origin of the wind streaks. It was concluded that local meteorological conditions, such as the stability of the atmospheric boundary layer, play a major role in determining why some Martian craters produce depositional wind streaks while others produce erosional ones.

  4. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  5. Mars Gravity Field Model Development from Mars Global Surveyor Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    1999-01-01

    Since Feb. 99 the MGS spacecraft has been in a near circular orbit at about 400 km altitude. The MGS has been regularly tracked by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at X-band and for a 3 week period in February was tracked almost continuously for an intensive gravity modeling activity that would form the basis of the orbital computations for the rest of the mission. The data collected during this calibration period and the earlier SPO and Hiatus periods have now been used to develop a new gravity field model for Mars that is showing considerable new detail in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Until February no data at 400 km altitude or lower had been acquired on any previous mission south of about 35S and all the previous data were of significantly lower quality. Low altitude data (-170 km) were obtained over the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere during the SPO periods but because of the high eccentricity of the orbit nothing of similar quality was obtainable for the southern hemisphere. The new models are of spherical harmonic degree and order 70 or higher and are suggesting large anomalies are often associated with the large impact features. Gravity data have also been obtained over both the northern and southern polar ice caps. The MGS orbit quality resulting from the use of these newer models is better than any previous Mars missions and is approaching the ten's of meter level that had been hoped would be eventually realizable.

  6. Global Albedo Variations on Mars from Recent MRO/MARCI and Other Space-Based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Wellington, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    Dramatic changes in Mars surface albedo have been quantified by telescopic, orbital, and surface-based observations over the last 40 years. These changes provide important inputs for global and mesoscale climate models, enabling characterization of seasonal and secular variations in the distribution of mobile surface materials (dust, sand) in the planet's current climate regime. Much of the modern record of dust storms and albedo changes comes from synoptic-scale global imaging from the Viking Orbiter, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions, as well as local-scale observations from long-lived surface platforms like the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. Here we focus on the substantial time history of global-scale images acquired from the MRO Mars Color Imager (MARCI). MARCI is a wide-angle multispectral imager that acquires daily coverage of most of the surface at up to 1 km/pixel. MARCI has been in orbit since 2006, providing six Mars years of continuous surface and atmospheric observations, and building on the nearly five previous Mars years of global-scale imaging from the MGS Mars Orbiter Camera Wide Angle (MOC/WA) imager, which operated from 1997 to 2006. While many of the most significant MARCI-observed changes in the surface albedo are the result of large dust storms, other regions experience seasonal darkening events that repeat with different degrees of annual regularity. Some of these are associated with local dust storms, while for others, frequent surface changes take place with no associated evidence for dust storms, suggesting action by seasonally-variable winds and/or small-scale storms/dust devils too small to resolve. Discrete areas of dramatic surface changes across widely separated regions of Tharsis and in portions of Solis Lacus and Syrtis Major are among the regions where surface changes have been observed without a direct association to specific detectable dust storm events

  7. Micro/Nanosatellite Mars Network for Global Lower Atmosphere Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Mike L.

    2012-01-01

    To address multiple key challenge areas for robotic exploration of Mars, to achieve scientific goals and reduce risk for future human missions, a micro/nanosatellite constellation for lower atmosphere characterization is proposed. A microsatellite design is discussed that can operate (1) in tandem with another microsat or (2) as a "mother-ship" to deploy a network of nanosatellites (CubeSats). Either configuration of the network would perform radio occultation-based atmospheric measurements. Advantages of the proposed network are low development cost based on an existing microsatellite bus, and proven performance of the bus to date. Continued efforts in miniaturization of instruments are needed to fully enable the mother-ship/nanosat version of the proposed network.

  8. Access to the Mars Global Surveyor Data Through the Planetary Image Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Duxbury, E. D.; LaVoie, S. K.; McAuley, M.; Woncik, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    We will present our latest results in providing access to the Mars Global Surveyor Data through the Planetary Image Atlas. This work is a prototype for future Internet based data distribution systems. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. A wetter, younger Mars emerging.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-08-04

    Most researchers have believed that the days were long gone when water splashed on the surface of Mars or even near it. Now continuing analyses of martian meteorites and stunning images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), which has been in orbit since 1997, are breathing new life into the Red Planet. Last month's announcement that the camera aboard MGS had spied signs of geologically recent--possibly even ongoing--water seeps has caught everyone's attention. Other, perhaps more persuasive, signs also suggest that water may even now flow on or beneath the frigid surface.

  10. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; McLennan, S. M.

    Of all the planets, Mars is the most Earthlike, inviting geochemical comparisons. Geochemical data for Mars are derived from spacecraft remote sensing, surface measurements and Martian meteorites. These analyses of exposed crustal materials enable estimates of bulk planet composition and inferences about its iron-rich mantle and core, as well as constraints on planetary differentiation and crust-mantle evolution. Mars probably had an early magma ocean, but there is no evidence for plate tectonics or crustal recycling any time in its history. The crust is basaltic in composition and lithologically heterogeneous, with radiometric crystallization ages ranging from ~4 billion years to within the last several hundred million years. Mantle sources for magmas vary considerably in incompatible element abundances. Although Mars is volatile element-rich, estimations of the amount of water delivered to the surface by volcanism are controversial. Low-temperature aqueous alteration affected the ancient Martian surface, producing clay minerals, sulfates, and other secondary minerals. Weathering and diagenetic trends are distinct from terrestrial chemical alteration, indicating different aqueous conditions. Organic matter has been found in Martian meteorites, but no geochemical signal of life has yet been discovered. Dynamic geochemical cycles for some volatile elements are revealed by stable isotope measurements. Long-term secular changes in chemical and mineralogical compositions of igneous rocks and sediments have been documented but are not well understood.

  11. Description of the University of Auckland Global Mars Mesoscale Meteorological Model (GM4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, D. R.; Austin, G. L.

    2005-08-01

    The University of Auckland Global Mars Mesoscale Meteorological Model (GM4) is a numerical weather prediction model of the Martian atmosphere that has been developed through the conversion of the Penn State University / National Center for Atmospheric Research fifth generation mesoscale model (MM5). The global aspect of this model is self consistent, overlapping, and forms a continuous domain around the entire planet, removing the need to provide boundary conditions other than at initialisation, yielding independence from the constraint of a Mars general circulation model. The brief overview of the model will be given, outlining the key physical processes and setup of the model. Comparison between data collected from Mars Pathfinder during its 1997 mission and simulated conditions using GM4 have been performed. Diurnal temperature variation as predicted by the model shows very good correspondence with the surface truth data, to within 5 K for the majority of the diurnal cycle. Mars Viking Data is also compared with the model, with good agreement. As a further means of validation for the model, various seasonal comparisons of surface and vertical atmospheric structure are conducted with the European Space Agency AOPP/LMD Mars Climate Database. Selected simulations over regions of interest will also be presented.

  12. Mars Global Geologic Mapping Progress and Suggested Geographic-Based Hierarchal Systems for Unit Grouping and Naming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the fourth year of a fiveyear effort to map the global geology of Mars at 1:20M scale using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey image and altimetry datasets. Previously, we reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. Last year, we described mapping and unit delineation results thus far, a new unit identified in the northern plains, and remaining steps to complete the map [3].

  13. The Use of Laser Altimetry in the Orbit and Attitude Determination of Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Luthcke, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    Altimetry from the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) which is carried on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been analyzed for the period of the MOS mission known as Science Phasing Orbit 1 (SPO-1). We have used these altimeter ranges to improve orbit and attitude knowledge for MGS. This has been accomplished by writing crossover constraint equations that have been derived from short passes of MOLA data. These constraint equations differ from traditional Crossover constraints and exploit the small foot print associated with laser altimetry.

  14. HUBBLE WATCHES THE RED PLANET AS MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR BEGINS AEROBRAKING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    his NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture of Mars was taken on Sept. 12, one day after the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and only five hours before the beginning of autumn in the Martian northern hemisphere. (Mars is tilted on its axis like Earth, so it has similar seasonal changes, including an autumnal equinox when the Sun crosses Mars' equator from the northern to the southern hemisphere). This Hubble picture was taken in support of the MGS mission. Hubble is monitoring the Martian weather conditions during the early phases of MGS aerobraking; in particular, the detection of large dust storms are important inputs into the atmospheric models used by the MGS mission to plan aerobraking operations. Though a dusty haze fills the giant Hellas impact basin south of the dark fin-shaped feature Syrtis Major, the dust appears to be localized within Hellas. Unless the region covered expands significantly, the dust will not be of concern for MGS aerobraking. Other early signs of seasonal transitions on Mars are apparent in the Hubble picture. The northern polar ice cap is blanketed under a polar hood of clouds that typically start forming in late northern summer. As fall progresses, sunlight will dwindle in the north polar region and the seasonal polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide will start condensing onto the surface under these clouds. Hubble observations will continue until October 13, as MGS carefully uses the drag of the Martian atmosphere to circularize its orbit about the Red Planet. After mid-October, Mars will be too close to the Sun, in angular separation, for Hubble to safely view. The image is a composite of three separately filtered colored images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Resolution is 35 miles (57 kilometers) per pixel (picture element). The Pathfinder landing site near Ares Valles is about 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) west of the center of this image, so was not visible during this observation. Mars was 158

  15. Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Observations of Dust Opacity During Aerobraking and Science Phasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Pearl, John C.; Conrath, Barney J.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) arrived at Mars in September 1997 near Mars southern spring equinox and has now provided monitoring of conditions in the Mars atmosphere for more than half a Mars year. The large majority of the spectra taken by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) are in a nadir geometry (downward looking mode) where Mars is observed through the atmosphere. Most of these contain the distinct spectral signature of atmospheric dust. For these nadir-geometry spectra we retrieve column-integrated infrared aerosol (dust) opacities. TES observations during the aerobraking and science-phasing portions of the MGS mission cover the seasonal range L(sub s)=184 deg - 28 deg. Excellent spatial coverage was obtained in the southern hemisphere. Northern hemisphere coverage is generally limited to narrow strips taken during the periapsis pass but is still very valuable. At the beginning of the mission the 9-(micron)meter dust opacity at midsouthern latitudes was low (0.15-0.25). As the season advanced through southern spring and into summer, TES observed several regional dust storms (including the Noachis dust storm of November 1997) where peak 9-(micron)meter dust opacities approached or exceeded unity, as well as numerous smaller local storms. Both large and small dust storms exhibited significant changes in both spatial coverage and intensity over a timescale of a day. Throughout southern spring and summer the region at the edge of the retreating southern seasonal polar ice cap was observed to be consistently more dusty than other latitudes.

  16. Mars Odyssey from Two Distances in One Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Why There are Two Images of Odyssey

    NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft appears twice in the same frame in this image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The camera's successful imaging of Odyssey and of the European Space Agency's Mars Express in April 2005 produced the first pictures of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are both in nearly circular, near-polar orbits. Odyssey is in an orbit slightly higher than that of Global Surveyor in order to preclude the possibility of a collision. However, the two spacecraft occasionally come as close together as 15 kilometers (9 miles).

    The images were obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor operations teams at Lockheed Martin Space System, Denver; JPL and Malin Space Science Systems.

    The two views of Mars Odyssey in this image were acquired a little under 7.5 seconds apart as Odyssey receded from a close flyby of Mars Global Surveyor. The geometry of the flyby (see Figure 1) and the camera's way of acquiring an image line-by-line resulted in the two views of Odyssey in the same frame. The first view (right) was taken when Odyssey was about 90 kilometers (56 miles) from Global Surveyor and moving more rapidly than Global Surveyor was rotating, as seen from Global Surveyor. A few seconds later, Odyssey was farther away -- about 135 kilometers (84 miles) -- and appeared to be moving more slowly. In this second view of Odyssey (left), the Mars Orbiter Camera's field-of-view overtook Odyssey.

    The Mars Orbiter Camera can resolve features on the surface of Mars as small as a few meters or yards across from Mars Global Surveyor's orbital altitude of 350 to 405 kilometers (217 to 252 miles). From a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles), the camera would be able to resolve features substantially smaller than 1 meter or yard across.

    Mars Odyssey

  17. Global warming and climate forcing by recent albedo changes on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, L.K.; Geissler, P.E.; Haberle, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    For hundreds of years, scientists have tracked the changing appearance of Mars, first by hand drawings and later by photographs. Because of this historical record, many classical albedo patterns have long been known to shift in appearance over time. Decadal variations of the martian surface albedo are generally attributed to removal and deposition of small amounts of relatively bright dust on the surface. Large swaths of the surface (up to 56 million km2) have been observed to darken or brighten by 10 per cent or more. It is unknown, however, how these albedo changes affect wind circulation, dust transport and the feedback between these processes and the martian climate. Here we present predictions from a Mars general circulation model, indicating that the observed interannual albedo alterations strongly influence the martian environment. Results indicate enhanced wind stress in recently darkened areas and decreased wind stress in brightened areas, producing a positive feedback system in which the albedo changes strengthen the winds that generate the changes. The simulations also predict a net annual global warming of surface air temperatures by ???0.65 K, enhancing dust lifting by increasing the likelihood of dust devil generation. The increase in global dust lifting by both wind stress and dust devils may affect the mechanisms that trigger large dust storm initiation, a poorly understood phenomenon, unique to Mars. In addition, predicted increases in summertime air temperatures at high southern latitudes would contribute to the rapid and steady scarp retreat that has been observed in the south polar residual ice for the past four Mars years. Our results suggest that documented albedo changes affect recent climate change and large-scale weather patterns on Mars, and thus albedo variations are a necessary component of future atmospheric and climate studies. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Global warming and climate forcing by recent albedo changes on Mars.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Lori K; Geissler, Paul E; Haberle, Robert M

    2007-04-05

    For hundreds of years, scientists have tracked the changing appearance of Mars, first by hand drawings and later by photographs. Because of this historical record, many classical albedo patterns have long been known to shift in appearance over time. Decadal variations of the martian surface albedo are generally attributed to removal and deposition of small amounts of relatively bright dust on the surface. Large swaths of the surface (up to 56 million km2) have been observed to darken or brighten by 10 per cent or more. It is unknown, however, how these albedo changes affect wind circulation, dust transport and the feedback between these processes and the martian climate. Here we present predictions from a Mars general circulation model, indicating that the observed interannual albedo alterations strongly influence the martian environment. Results indicate enhanced wind stress in recently darkened areas and decreased wind stress in brightened areas, producing a positive feedback system in which the albedo changes strengthen the winds that generate the changes. The simulations also predict a net annual global warming of surface air temperatures by approximately 0.65 K, enhancing dust lifting by increasing the likelihood of dust devil generation. The increase in global dust lifting by both wind stress and dust devils may affect the mechanisms that trigger large dust storm initiation, a poorly understood phenomenon, unique to Mars. In addition, predicted increases in summertime air temperatures at high southern latitudes would contribute to the rapid and steady scarp retreat that has been observed in the south polar residual ice for the past four Mars years. Our results suggest that documented albedo changes affect recent climate change and large-scale weather patterns on Mars, and thus albedo variations are a necessary component of future atmospheric and climate studies.

  19. Scalloped Terrain Led to Finding of Buried Ice on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-22

    This vertically exaggerated view shows scalloped depressions in Mars Utopia Planitia region, prompting using ground-penetrating radar aboard NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to check for underground ice.

  20. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Next entry to Mars (Mars Pathfinder and the microrover Sojourner). Hello, Mars, we're back! Mars Global Surveyor update. The Mars program - 2001 and beyond. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of June 11, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  1. Characterization of Terrain in the Mars Surveyor 2001 Landing Site Latitude and Elevation Region Using Mapping Phase Mars Global Surveyor MOC Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.; Parker, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    One of the original objectives of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), as proposed in 1985, was to acquire observations to be used in assessing future spacecraft landing sites. Images obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor MOC since March 1999 provide the highest resolution views (1.5-4.5 m/pixel) of the planet ever seen. We have been examining these new data to develop a general view of what Mars is like at meter-scale within the latitudes and elevations that are accessible to the Mars Surveyor 2001 lander. Our goal is to provide guidance to the 2001 landing site selection process, rather than to use MOC images to recommend a specific landing site.

  2. Early Mars Climate Revisited With a Global Probability Map of Martian Valley Network Origin and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau Galofre, A.; Jellinek, M.; Osinski, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    Valley networks are among the most arresting features on the surface of Mars. Their provocative morphologic resemblance to river valleys on Earth has lead many scientists to argue for Martian river valleys in a "warm and wet" climate scenario, with conditions similar to the terrestrial mid-to-low latitudes. However, this warm scenario is difficult to reconcile with climate models for an Early Mars receiving radiation from a fainter young Sun. Moreover, recent models suggest a colder scenario, with conditions more similar to present day Greenland or Antarctica. Here we use three independent characterization schemes to show quantitative evidence for fluvial, glacial, groundwater sapping and subglacial meltwater channels to build the first global probability map of Martian valley networks. We distinguish a SW-NE corridor of fluvial drainage networks spanning latitudes from 30ºS to 30ºN. We identify additional widespread patterns related to glaciation, subglacial drainage and channels incised by groundwater springs. This global characterization of Martian valleys has profound implications for the average climate of early Mars as well as its variability in space and time.

  3. Daily global mapping of Mars ozone column abundances with MARCI UV band imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lefèvre, Franck; Cantor, Bruce A.; Malin, Michael C.; Smith, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Since November of 2006, The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has obtained multiple-filter daily global images of Mars centered upon a local time (LT) of 3 pm. Ultraviolet imaging bands placed within (260 nm) and longward (320 nm) of Hartley band (240-300 nm) ozone (O3) absorption support retrievals of atmospheric ozone columns, with detection limits (∼1 μm-atm) appropriate to mapping elevated O3 abundances at low latitudes around Mars aphelion, and over mid-to-high latitudes during fall/winter/spring seasons. MARCI O3 maps for these regions reveal the detailed spatial (∼1° lat/long, for 8 × 8 pixel binned resolution) and temporal (daily, with substantial LT coverage at pole) behaviors of water vapor saturation conditions that force large variations in water vapor photolysis products (HOx-OH, HO2, and H) responsible for the catalytic destruction of O3 in the Mars atmosphere. A detailed description of the MARCI O3 data set, including measurement and retrieval characteristics, is provided in conjunction with comparisons to Mars Express SPICAM ozone measurements (Perrier, S. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 111) and LMD GCM simulated O3 abundances (Lefèvre, F. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 109). Presented aspects of the MARCI ozone mapping data set include aphelion increases in low latitude O3, dynamically evolving high latitude O3 maxima associated with planetary waves and weather fronts during northern early spring, and distinctive winter/spring O3 and CO increases within the Hellas Basin associated with transport of condensation-enhanced south polar air mass. Comparisons of coincident MARCI measurements and LMD simulations for ice cloud and O3 columns are considered in the context of potential heterogeneous photochemical processes (Lefèvre, F. [2008]. Nature 454, 971-975), which are not strongly evidenced in the MARCI observations. Modest interannual variations are exhibited, most notably a 20% reduction

  4. Daily Global Mapping of Mars Ozone Column Abundances with MARCI UV Band Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Wolff, Michael J.; Lefevre, Franck; Cantor, Bruce A.; Malin, Michael C.; Smith, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Since November of 2006, The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has obtained multiple-filter daily global images of Mars centered upon a local time (LT) of 3 pm. Ultraviolet imaging bands placed within (260 nm) and longward (320 nm) of Hartley band (240-300 nm) ozone (O3) absorption support retrievals of atmospheric ozone columns, with detection limits (approximately 1 micrometer-atm) appropriate to mapping elevated O3 abundances at low latitudes around Mars aphelion, and over mid-to-high latitudes during fall/winter/spring seasons. MARCI O3 maps for these regions reveal the detailed spatial (approximately 1 deg lat/long, for 8 x 8 pixel binned resolution) and temporal (daily, with substantial LT coverage at pole) behaviors of water vapor saturation conditions that force large variations in water vapor photolysis products (HOx-OH, HO2, and H) responsible for the catalytic destruction of O3 in the Mars atmosphere. A detailed description of the MARCI O3 data set, including measurement and retrieval characteristics, is provided in conjunction with comparisons to Mars Express SPICAM ozone measurements (Perrier, S. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 111) and LMD GCM simulated O3 abundances (Lefevre, F. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 109). Presented aspects of the MARCI ozone mapping data set include aphelion increases in low latitude O3, dynamically evolving high latitude O3 maxima associated with planetary waves and weather fronts during northern early spring, and distinctive winter/spring O3 and CO increases within the Hellas Basin associated with transport of condensation enhanced south polar air mass. Comparisons of coincident MARCI measurements and LMD simulations for ice cloud and O3 columns are considered in the context of potential heterogeneous photochemical processes (Lefevre, F. [2008]. Nature 454, 971-975), which are not strongly evidenced in the MARCI observations. Modest interannual variations are exhibited

  5. Lambert Reflectance Albedo And Temperature Mapping Of Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data During The Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, K. M.; Alqasim, A.; Altunaiji, E. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Smith, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this work is to create multiple sets of maps using Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data that encompass the aerobraking phase of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. This work will serve as a proof of concept for the upcoming Emirates Mars Mission, where the Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMRIS) will generate data acquired in a similar manner to that acquired by TES during aerobraking. To generate maps of these data on a global scale, python will be used in combination with the Spacecraft Planet Instrument Camera Matrix and Event (SPICE) toolkit to determine the geometry of the pixels on the planet surface. TES is an instrument within the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. It is a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer developed to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars using thermal infrared emission spectroscopy. TES consists of six detectors arranged in a 2x3 array with a nominal spot size of 3 × 6 km when in its nominal mapping orbit. Over the southern hemisphere during aerobraking the footprint is significantly larger (10s of km) due to the elliptical nature of the orbit during this phase of the mission. TES aerobraking spectra were taken between Mars Year 23, Ls=180° and Mars Year 24, Ls=30°. Here we map TES footprints to the surface during MGS aerobraking, binned by solar longitude to observe differences on the surface in both temperature and Lambert albedo.

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SEPTEMBER 2017 MARS GLOBAL AURORA EVENT AND CRUSTAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Camella-Rosa; Schneider, Nick; Connour, Kyle; Jain, Sonal; Deighan, Justin; Jakosky, Bruce; MAVEN/IUVS Team

    2018-01-01

    In September 2017, the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on the MAVEN spacecraft observed global aurora on Mars caused by a surprisingly strong solar energetic particle event. Widespread “diffuse aurora” have previously been detected on Mars through more limited observations (Schneider et al., Science 350, (2015); DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0313), but recent observations established complete coverage of the observable portion of Mars’ nightside. The aurora was global due to Mars’s lack of a global magnetic field, which allowed energetic electrons from the Sun to directly precipitate into the atmosphere. On September 11th, IUVS detected aurora more than 25 times brighter than any prior IUVS observation, with high SNR detections of aurora at the limb and against the disk of the planet. Fainter auroral emission was seen around the nightside limb over 13 orbits spanning nearly 3 days.On September 14th, during the declining phase of the event, faint linear features and patches were detected by the spacecraft, which were higher than the noise floor, with a similar spatial distribution to “discrete aurora” patches observed on Mars by the SPICAM instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., Nature 435, doi :10.1038/nature03603). Discrete aurora occur near areas of the crust affected by the magnetism left over from Mars’ once-strong dipole field. Emission is limited to regions of the crustal magnetic field where the field lines are likely to be open to solar wind interactions. Those regions are concentrated in Mars’ southern hemisphere centered on 180 degrees east longitude.We studied the localized emissions on 14 September to determine whether there might be a connection between the observed diffuse aurora event and discrete auroral processes. First, we investigated the localized emissions to confirm that the observed signal was consistent with expected auroral spectra. Second, their locations were projected on a map of the crustal magnetic

  7. A new MAP for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Price, Steve; Clark, Ben; Cantrell, Jim; Bourke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    A Mars Aerial Platform (MAP) mission capable of generating thousands of very-high-resolution (20 cm/pixel) pictures of the Martian surface is considered. The MAP entry vehicle will map the global circulation of the planet's atmosphere and examine the surface and subsurface. Data acquisition will use instruments carried aboard balloons flying at nominal altitude of about 7 km over the Martian surface. The MAP balloons will take high- and medium-resolution photographs of Mars, sound its surface with radar, and provide tracking data to chart its winds. Mars vehicle design is based on the fourth-generation NTP, NEP, SEP vehicle set that provides a solid database for determining transportation system costs. Interference analysis and 3D image generation are performed using manual system sizing and sketching in conjunction with precise CAD modeling.

  8. Unveiling Mars nightside mesosphere dynamics by IUVS/MAVEN global images of NO nightglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiepen, A.; Jain, S. K.; Schneider, N. M.; Milby, Z.; Deighan, J. I.; Gonzàlez-Galindo, F.; Gérard, J.-C.; Forget, F.; Bougher, S.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Royer, E.; Stevens, M. H.; Evans, J. S.; Chaffin, M. S.; Crismani, M.; McClintock, W. E.; Clarke, J. T.; Holsclaw, G. W.; Montmessin, F.; Lo, D. Y.

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the morphology of the ultraviolet nightglow in the Martian upper atmosphere through Nitric Oxide (NO) δ and γ bands emissions observed by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft. The seasonal dynamics of the Martian thermosphere-mesosphere can be constrained based on the distribution of these emissions. We show evidence for local (emission streaks and splotches) and global (longitudinal and seasonal) variability in brightness of the emission and provide quantitative comparisons to GCM simulations.

  9. WISDOM GPR aboard the ExoMars rover : a powerful instrument to investigate the state and distribution of water in the Martian shallow subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Clifford, S. M.; Plettemeier, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observation on Mars (WISDOM) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been selected as part of the Pasteur payload for the European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars 2018 mission. The main scientific objectives of the mission are to search for evidence of past or present life and to characterize the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. A rover equipped with a 2 meters capacity drill and a suite of instruments will land on Mars in 2018, collect and analyze samples from outcrops and at depth. The WISDOM GPR will support these activities by sounding the subsurface and provide understanding of the geologic context and evolution of the local environment. When operated on the ExoMars rover, WISDOM will offer the possibility to understand the 3D geology in terms of stratigraphy and structure, spatial heterogeneities as well as the compositional and electromagnetic properties of the subsurface. According to these scientific objectives, this radar has been designed as a polarimetric step frequency GPR, operating from 0.5 GHz to 3GHz, which allows the sounding of the first 3 meters of the subsurface with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters. The importance of this GPR is particularly enhanced by its ability to investigate the water content, state (ice or liquid) and distribution in the subsurface, which are crucial clues to constrain the possibility of life traces evidence. In addition, WISDOM will be operated at a distance of 30 cm above the ground. This configuration allows the monitoring of potential transient liquid water that could appear on Mars surface. Results from several laboratory tests and a campaign in alpine ice caves in Austria are consistent with the expected performances of WISDOM regarding the question of water characterization. The specific configuration of the antennas allows the retrieval of the first layer permittivity value from the surface echo, which is related to the water content

  10. MARs Color Imager (MARCI) Daily Global Ozone Column Mapping from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO): A Survey of 2006-2010 Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M. J.; Malin, M. C.; Cantor, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    MARCI UV band imaging photometry within (260nm) and outside (320nm) the Hartley ozone band absorption supports daily global mapping of Mars ozone column abundances. Key retrieval issues include accurate UV radiometric calibrations, detailed specifications of surface and atmospheric background reflectance (surface albedo, atmospheric Raleigh and dust scattering/absorption), and simultaneous cloud retrievals. The implementation of accurate radiative transfer (RT) treatments of these processes has been accomplished (Wolff et al., 2010) such that daily global mapping retrievals for Mars ozone columns have been completed for the 2006-2010 period of MARCI global imaging. Ozone retrievals are most accurate for high column abundances associated with mid-to-high latitude regions during fall, winter, and spring seasons. We present a survey of these MARCI ozone column retrievals versus season, latitude, longitude, and year.

  11. A Mars environmental survey (MESUR) - Feasibility of a low cost global approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1991-01-01

    In situ measurements of Mars' surface and atmosphere are the objectives of a novel network mission concept called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). As envisioned, the MESUR mission will emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of 16 landers on the Martian surface over three launch opportunites using medium-lift (Delta-class) launch vehicles. The basic concept is to deploy small free-flying probes which would directly enter the Martian atmosphere, measure the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. Data will be returned via dedicated relay orbiter or direct-to-earth transmission. The mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on Mars science while providing a solid basis for future human presence; and (4) minimize overall project cost and complexity wherever possible.

  12. Global-scale hydrology on Mars and the timing of Tharsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Bouley, S.; Matsuyama, I.; Forget, F.; Séjourné, A.; Turbet, M.; Costard, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Tharsis region is the largest volcanic complex on Mars and in the Solar System. Its growth likely induced a reorientation of the planet with respect to its spin axis (true polar wander, TPW), which is responsible for the present equatorial position of the volcanic province. Previous mapping of tectonic features suggest that Tharsis was mainly formed during the Noachian [1]. It has also been suggested that the Tharsis load on the lithosphere influenced the orientation of the Noachian/Early Hesperian (more than 3.5 billion years ago) valley networks [2] and therefore that most of the topography of Tharsis was completed before fluvial incision. We calculate the rotational figure of Mars (that is, its equilibrium shape) before Tharsis formed and show that the directions of valley networks are also consistent with topographic gradients in this configuration [3]. Thus, the observed valley networks orientations do not require the presence of the Tharsis load. Furthermore, valley networks appear to be distributed along a small circle tilted with respect to the equator. Given the fact that this pattern corresponds to a latitudinal band if the planet had a different orientation at the time of incision, we explore the idea that a Tharsis-driven TPW occurred after the incision of these valleys. We show that the paleopoles inferred from the distribution of valley networks is consistent with theoretical calculations of paleopoles when the orientation of Mars was controlled by the hemispheric dichotomy (before the growth of Tharsis). Preferential accumulation of ice or water in a south tropical band is also predicted by climate model simulations of early Mars applied to the pre-TPW topography. This analysis of the global-scale hydrology of Mars implies a late growth of Tharsis, which has several implications for the early geological history of Mars. One of the implications is the need to re-analyze tectonic features around Tharsis and the results of this analysis are

  13. From LEO, to the Moon and then Mars: Developing a Global Strategy for Exploration Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Most nations currently involved in human spaceflight, or with such ambitions, believe that space exploration will capture the imagination of our youth resulting in future engineers and scientists, advance technologies which will improve life on earth, increase the knowledge of our solar system, and strengthen bonds and relationships across the globe. The Global Exploration Strategy, published in 2007 by 14 space agencies, eloquently makes this case and presents a vision for space exploration. It argues that in order for space exploration to be sustainable, nations must work together to address the challenges and share the burden of costs. This paper will examine Mars mission scenarios developed by NASA, ESA and other agencies and show resulting conclusions regarding key challenges, needed technologies and associated mission risks. It will discuss the importance of using the International Space Station as a platform for exploration risk reduction and how the global exploration community will develop lunar exploration elements and architectures that enable the long term goal of human missions to Mars. The International Space Station (ISS) is a critical first step both from a technology and capability demonstration point of view, but also from a partnership point of view. There is much work that can be done in low earth orbit for exploration risk reduction. As the current "outpost at the edge of the frontier", the ISS is a place where we can demonstrate certain technologies and capabilities that will substantially reduce the risk of deploying an outpost on the lunar surface and Mars mission scenarios. The ISS partnership is strong and has fulfilled mission needs. Likewise, the partnerships we build on the moon will provide a strong foundation for establishing partnerships for the human Mars missions. On the moon, we build a permanently manned outpost and deploy technologies and capabilities to allow humans to stay for long periods of time. The moon is interesting from

  14. Hubble Watches the Red Planet as Mars Global Surveyor Begins Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    [RIGHT] This NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture of Mars was taken on Sept. 12, one day after the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and only five hours before the beginning of autumn in the Martian northern hemisphere. (Mars is tilted on its axis like Earth, so it has similar seasonal changes, including an autumnal equinox when the Sun crosses Mars' equator from the northern to the southern hemisphere).

    This Hubble picture was taken in support of the MGS mission. Hubble is monitoring the Martian weather conditions during the early phases of MGS aerobraking; in particular, the detection of large dust storms are important inputs into the atmospheric models used by the MGS mission to plan aerobraking operations.

    Though a dusty haze fills the giant Hellas impact basin south of the dark fin-shaped feature Syrtis Major, the dust appears to be localized within Hellas. Unless the region covered expands significantly, the dust will not be of concern for MGS aerobraking.

    Other early signs of seasonal transitions on Mars are apparent in the Hubble picture. The northern polar ice cap is blanketed under a polar hood of clouds that typically start forming in late northern summer. As fall progresses, sunlight will dwindle in the north polar region and the seasonal polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide will start condensing onto the surface under these clouds.

    Hubble observations will continue until October 13, as MGS carefully uses the drag of the Martian atmosphere to circularize its orbit about the Red Planet. After mid-October, Mars will be too close to the Sun, in angular separation, for Hubble to safely view.

    The image is a composite of three separately filtered colored images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Resolution is 35 miles (57 kilometers) per pixel (picture element). The Pathfinder landing site near Ares Valles is about 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) west of the center of this image, so was not visible during this

  15. Assessment of the global energy budget of Mars and comparison to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeleine, J.; Head, J. W.; Forget, F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The energy balance of a planet depends on its radiative environment and internal energy production. In the case of present-day Mars, the whole climate system is by far controlled by solar radiation rather than internal heat. Over the last hundreds of millions of years, changes in the orbital parameters and insolation pattern have induced various climatic excursions, during which the energy transfers within the atmosphere were different from today. On the longer term, i.e. over the last billions of years, the energy budget was even more different, as a result of the larger geothermal flux and heat provided by volcanic eruptions and impacts. Seeing the climate of Mars from an energy budget perspective provides a framework for understanding the key processes, as well as constraining climate models. The goal of this research is thus to characterize and analyze the energy budget of Mars. The first step, which is described in this communication, consists of quantifying the different components of the Mars radiation budget using the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) GCM (Global Climate Model). The LMD/GCM has been developed for more than 20 years and has now reached a level of detail that allows us to quantify the different contributions of CO2 gas, dust and clouds to the radiation budget. The general picture of the radiation budget as simulated by the GCM can be summarized as follows. First of all, the global-mean shortwave (SW) flux incident on the top of the Martian atmosphere is 148.5 W m-2. Whereas most of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by atmospheric gases on Earth, on Mars most of the sunlight is absorbed by dust particles. Our simulations show that around 15% of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by dust particles whereas 2.5% is reflected by them. Water-ice clouds also reflect around 1.5% of the solar radiation, which is much smaller than the amount of radiation reflected by clouds on Earth (around 20%). The Martian atmosphere is even

  16. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical 'cores' of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. The two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical 'simple physics' parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  17. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Cen- ter and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical "cores" of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. ne two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical "simple physics" parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  18. Mars Pathfinder meteorological observations on the basis of results of an atmospheric global circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, Francois; Hourdin, F.; Talagrand, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Meteorological Package (ASI/MET) will measure the local pressure, temperature, and winds at its future landing site, somewhere between the latitudes 0 deg N and 30 deg N. Comparable measurements have already been obtained at the surface of Mars by the Viking Landers at 22 deg N (VL1) and 48 deg N (VL2), providing much useful information on the martian atmosphere. In particular the pressure measurements contain very instructive information on the global atmospheric circulation. At the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), we have analyzed and simulated these measurements with a martian atmospheric global circulation model (GCM), which was the first to simulate the martian atmospheric circulation over more than 1 year. The model is able to reproduce rather accurately many observed features of the martian atmosphere, including the long- and short-period oscillations of the surface pressure observed by the Viking landers. From a meteorological point of view, we think that a landing site located near or at the equator would be an interesting choice.

  19. Global maps of anhydrous minerals at the surface of Mars from OMEGA/MEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ody, A.; Poulet, F.; Langevin, Y.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bellucci, G.; Altieri, F.; Gondet, B.; Vincendon, M.; Carter, J.; Manaud, N.

    2012-09-01

    We here reassess the global distribution of several key mineral species using the entire OMEGA/Mars Express VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer data set, acquired from orbit insertion in January 2004 to August 2010. Thirty-two pixels per degree global maps of ferric oxides, pyroxenes and olivines have been derived. A significant filtering process was applied in order to exclude data acquired with unfavorable observation geometries or partial surface coverage with water and CO2 frosts. Because of strong atmospheric variations over the 3.6 Martian years of observations primarily due to the interannual variability of the aerosol opacity, a new filter based on the atmospheric dust opacity calibrated by the Mars Exploration Rovers measurements has also been implemented. The Fe3+ absorption features are present everywhere on the surface, with a variety of intensities indicating distinct formation processes. The pyroxene-bearing regions are localized in low albedo regions, while the bright regions are spectrally comparable to anhydrous nanophase ferric oxides. The expanded data set increases by a factor of about 2, the number of olivine detections reported in previous OMEGA-based studies. Olivine is mainly detected in three types of areas over the Martian surface: discontinuous patches on the terraces of the three main basins; smooth inter-crater plains and smooth crater floors throughout the southern highlands; and crater sand dunes, crater ejectas and extended bedrock exposures in the northern plains. Olivine is also detected in the low albedo pyroxene-bearing dunes surrounding the northern polar cap.

  20. A Topographic Image Map of The Mc-18 Quadrangle "coprates" At 1: 2,000,000 Using Data Obtained From The Mars Orbiter Camera and The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter of Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermaier, G.; Wählisch, M.; van Gasselt, S.; Scholten, F.; Wewel, F.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Jaumann, R.

    We present a new topographic image map of Mars using 8 bit data obtained from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) [1]. The new map covers the Mars surface from 270 E (90 W) to 315 E (45 W) and from 0 North to 30 South with a resolution of 231.529 m/pixel (256 pixel/degree). For map creation, digital image processing methods have been applied. Furthermore, we managed to de- velop a general processing method for creating image mosaics based on MOC data. From a total amount of 66,081 images, 4,835 images (4,339 Context and 496 Geodesy images [3]) were finally used for the creation of the mosaic. After radiometric and brightness corrections, the images were Mars referenced [5], geometrically [6] cor- rected and sinusoidal map projected [4] using a global Martian Digital Terrain Model (DTM), developed by the DLR and based on MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic datasets [2]. Three layers of MOC mosaics were created, which were stacked afterwards. The upper layer contains the context images with a resolution < 250 m/pixel. The middle layer contains the images of the Geodesy Campaign with a resolution < 250 m/pixel. The bottom layer consists of the Geodesy Campaign im- ages with a resolution > 250 m/pixel and < 435 m/pixel. The contour lines have been extracted from the global Martian DTM, developed at DLR. The contour data were imported as vector data into Macromedia Freehand as separate layer and corrected interactively. The map format of 1,15 m × 1,39 m represents the western part of the MDIM2 j quadrangle. The map is used for geological and morphological interpreta- tions in order to review and improve our current Viking-based knowledge about the Martian surface. References: [1] www.msss.com [2] wufs.wustl.edu [3] Caplinger, M. and M. Malin, The Mars Orbiter Camera Geodesy Campaign, JGR, in press. [4] Scholten, F., Vol XXXI, Part B2, Wien, 1996, p.351-356 [5] naif.jpl.nasa.gov [6] Kirk, R.L. et al., Geometric Calibration of

  1. Simulating the Current Water Cycle with the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R. A.; Montmessin, F.

    2017-12-01

    The water cycle is a critical component of the current Mars climate system, and it is now widely recognized that water ice clouds significantly affect the nature of the simulated water cycle. Two processes are key to implementing clouds in a Mars global climate model (GCM): the microphysical processes of formation and dissipation, and their radiative effects on atmospheric heating/cooling rates. Together, these processes alter the thermal structure, change the atmospheric dynamics, and regulate inter-hemispheric transport. We have made considerable progress using the NASA Ames Mars GCM to simulate the current-day water cycle with radiatively active clouds. Cloud fields from our baseline simulation are in generally good agreement with observations. The predicted seasonal extent and peak IR optical depths are consistent MGS/TES observations. Additionally, the thermal response to the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt (ACB) is generally consistent with observations and other climate model predictions. Notably, there is a distinct gap in the predicted clouds over the North Residual Cap (NRC) during local summer, but the clouds reappear in this simulation over the NRC earlier than the observations indicate. Polar clouds are predicted near the seasonal CO2 ice caps, but the column thicknesses of these clouds are generally too thick compared to observations. Our baseline simulation is dry compared to MGS/TES-observed water vapor abundances, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. These areas of disagreement appear to be a consistent with other current water cycle GCMs. Future avenues of investigation will target improving our understanding of what controls the vertical extent of clouds and the apparent seasonal evolution of cloud particle sizes within the ACB.

  2. Potential sources of artifacts and backgrounds generated by the sample preparation of the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity Rover on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Belmahdi, Imene; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Summons, Roger; Miller, Kristen; Coll, Patrice; cabane, Michel; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Dequaire, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is one of the instruments of the MSL mission. Three analytical devices are onboard SAM: the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), the Gas Chromatography (GC) and the Mass Spectrometer (MS). To adapt the nature of a sample to the analytical devices used on SAM, a sample preparation and gas processing system is implemented with (a) a pyrolysis system, (b) wet chemistry: MTBSTFA and TMAH (c) the hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax® TA and Carbosieve G) which is employed to concentrate volatiles released from the sample prior to GC-MS analysis [1].Volatile compounds and abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons have been detected with SAM when analyzing samples collected in several sites explored by Curiosity rover. Some volatile compounds (chlorinated and non-chlorinated) come from the degradation of the MTBSTFA under high temperature or by the reaction of Martian oxychlorine compounds (present in the samples) with terrestrial carbon coming from the derivatization agent (MTBSTFA) used in SAM [2,3]. But other chlorinated compounds do not follow this pathway. For example, Chlorobenzene has been detected by SAM but it cannot be formed by the reaction of MTBSTFA and perchlorates. Then, two other reaction pathways for chlorobenzene were therefore proposed: (1) reactions between the volatile thermal degradation products of perchlorates (e.g. O2, Cl2 and HCl) and Tenax® and (2) the interaction of perchlorates (T>200°C) with organic material from Mars's soil such as benzenecarboxylates. However, even if major part of the chlorobenzene detected has been identified as Martian origin [4] it is important to list all the potential byproducts able to be released from the Tenax®.Thus, this study inventory all the possible compounds which are originated from Tenax®, MTBSTFA and their interaction with perchlorate.References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Glavin, D., A. et al. (2013), LPSC. [3] Eigenbrode, J. et al. (2013), LPSC. [4

  3. Localized Gravity/Topography Admittance and Correlation Spectra on Mars: Implications for Regional and Global Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Simons, Mark; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Aharonson, Oded; Head, James W.

    2002-01-01

    [i] From gravity and topography data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft we calculate gravity/topography admittances and correlations in the spectral domain and compare them to those predicted from models of lithospheric flexure. On the basis of these comparisons we estimate the thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere (T(sub e)) required to support the observed topographic load since the time of loading. We convert T(sub e) to estimates of heat flux and thermal gradient in the lithosphere through a consideration of the response of an elastic/plastic shell. In regions of high topography on Mars (e.g., the Tharsis rise and associated shield volcanoes), the mass-sheet (small-amplitude) approximation for the calculation of gravity from topography is inadequate. A correction that accounts for finite-amplitude topography tends to increase the amplitude of the predicted gravity signal at spacecraft altitudes. Proper implementation of this correction requires the use of radii from the center of mass (collectively known as the planetary shape ) in lieu of topography referenced to a gravitational equipotential. Anomalously dense surface layers or buried excess masses are not required to explain the observed admittances for the Tharsis Montes or Olympus Mons volcanoes when this correction is applied. Derived T, values generally decrease with increasing age of the lithospheric load, in a manner consistent with a rapid decline of mantle heat flux during the Noachian and more modest rates of decline during subsequent epochs.

  4. MIRI: Comparison of Mars Express MARSIS ionospheric data with a global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Forget, Francois; Gurnett, Donald; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel; Morgan, David D.; Nemec, Frantisek; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Diéval, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Observations and computational models are the two fundamental stones of our current knowledge of the Martian atmosphere, and both are expected to contribute to the MIRI effort. Data-model comparisons are thus necessary to identify possible bias in the models and to complement the information provided by the observations. Here we present the comparison of the ionosphere determined from Mars Express MARSIS AIS observations with that simulated by a ground-to-exosphere Global Climate Model for Mars, the LMD-MGCM. We focus the comparison on the density and altitude of the main ionospheric peak. In general, the observed latitudinal and solar zenith angle variability of these parameters is well reproduced by the model, although the model tends to slightly underestimate both the electron density and altitude of the peak. The model predicts also a latitudinal variability of the peak electron density that is not observed. We will discuss the different factors affecting the predicted ionosphere, and emphasize the importance of a good knowledge of the electronic temperature in producing a correct representation of the ionosphere by the model.

  5. Orbit-spin coupling and the interannual variability of global-scale dust storm occurrence on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, James H.; Mischna, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    A new physical hypothesis predicts that a weak coupling of the orbital and rotational motions of extended bodies may give rise to a modulation of circulatory flows within their atmospheres. Driven cycles of intensification and relaxation of large-scale circulatory flows are predicted, with the phasing of these changes linked directly to the rate of change of the orbital angular momentum, dL/dt, with respect to inertial frames. We test the hypothesis that global-scale dust storms (GDS) on Mars may occur when periods of circulatory intensification (associated with positive and negative extrema of the dL/dt waveform) coincide with the southern summer dust storm season on Mars. The orbit-spin coupling hypothesis additionally predicts that the intervening 'transitional' periods, which are characterized by the disappearance and subsequent sign change of dL/dt, may be unfavorable for the occurrence of GDS, when they occur during the southern summer dust storm season. These hypotheses are strongly supported by comparisons between calculated dynamical time series of dL/dt and historic observations. All of the nine known global-scale dust storms on Mars took place during Mars years when circulatory intensification during the dust storm season is 'retrodicted' under the orbit-spin coupling hypothesis. None of the historic global-scale dust storms of our catalog occurred during transitional intervals. Orbit-spin coupling appears to play an important role in the excitation of the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation of Mars.

  6. Updates on Modeling the Water Cycle with the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Montmessin, F.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R.; Klassen, D. R.; Wolff, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Global Circulation Models (GCMs) have made steady progress in simulating the current Mars water cycle. It is now widely recognized that clouds are a critical component that can significantly affect the nature of the simulated water cycle. Two processes in particular are key to implementing clouds in a GCM: the microphysical processes of formation and dissipation, and their radiative effects on heating/ cooling rates. Together, these processes alter the thermal structure, change the dynamics, and regulate inter-hemispheric transport. We have made considerable progress representing these processes in the NASA Ames GCM, particularly in the presence of radiatively active water ice clouds. We present the current state of our group's water cycle modeling efforts, show results from selected simulations, highlight some of the issues, and discuss avenues for further investigation.­

  7. PFS/Mars Express first results: water vapour and carbon monoxide global distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatiev, N. I.; Titov, D. V.; Formisano, V.; Moroz, V. I.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.; Fouchet, T.; Grassi, D.; Giuranna, M.; Atreya, S.; Pfs Team

    Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express, with its wide spectral range (1.2--45 um) and high spectral resolution (1.4 cm-1), makes it possible to study in a self-consistent manner the Martian atmosphere by means of simultaneous analysis of spectral features in several spectral regions. As concerned small species, we observe 30--50, 6.3, 2.56, 1.87 and 1.38 μ m H2O bands, and 4.7 and 2.35 μ m CO bands. The most favourable, with respect to the instrument performance, 2.56 μ m H2O and 4.7 μ m CO bands, are used to study the variations of column abundance of water vapour and carbon monoxide on a global scale from pole to pole. All necessary atmospheric parameters, namely temperature profiles, surface pressure, and dust density are obtained from the same spectra, whenever possible.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers lower the backshell with the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) onto the heat shield. The two components form the aeroshell that will protect the rover on its journey to Mars. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers lower the backshell with the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) onto the heat shield. The two components form the aeroshell that will protect the rover on its journey to Mars. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers check the attachment between the backshell (above) and heat shield (below) surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1). The aeroshell will protect the rover on its journey to Mars. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers check the attachment between the backshell (above) and heat shield (below) surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1). The aeroshell will protect the rover on its journey to Mars. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Assembly of the backshell and heat shield surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) is complete. The resulting aeroshell will protect the rover on its journey to Mars. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Assembly of the backshell and heat shield surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) is complete. The resulting aeroshell will protect the rover on its journey to Mars. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  11. High-Resolution Thermal Inertia Mapping from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mellon, M.T.; Jakosky, B.M.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution thermal inertia mapping results are presented, derived from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations of the surface temperature of Mars obtained during the early portion of the MGS mapping mission. Thermal inertia is the key property controlling the diurnal surface temperature variations, and is dependent on the physical character of the top few centimeters of the surface. It represents a complex combination of particle size, rock abundance, exposures of bedrock, and degree of induration. In this work we describe the derivation of thermal inertia from TES data, present global scale analysis, and place these results into context with earlier work. A global map of nighttime thermal-bolometer-based thermal inertia is presented at 14?? per pixel resolution, with approximately 63% coverage between 50??S and 70??N latitude. Global analysis shows a similar pattern of high and low thermal inertia as seen in previous Viking low-resolution mapping. Significantly more detail is present in the high-resolution TES thermal inertia. This detail represents horizontal small-scale variability in the nature of the surface. Correlation with albedo indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered surface unit of moderate-to-high thermal inertia and intermediate albedo. This new unit has a modal peak thermal inertia of 180-250 J m-2 K-1 s-12 and a narrow range of albedo near 0.24. The unit, covering a significant fraction of the surface, typically surrounds the low thermal inertia regions and may comprise a deposit of indurated fine material. Local 3-km-resolution maps are also presented as examples of eolian, fluvial, and volcanic geology. Some impact crater rims and intracrater dunes show higher thermal inertias than the surrounding terrain; thermal inertia of aeolian deposits such as intracrater dunes may be related to average particle size. Outflow channels and valleys consistently show higher thermal inertias than the

  12. Water vapor in the middle atmosphere of Mars during the 2007 global dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, Anna; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Betsis, Daria; Montmessin, Franck; Korablev, Oleg; Maltagliati, Luca; Clarke, John

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations of the Martian hydrogen corona in the UV H Ly-alpha emission by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (Clarke et al., 2014) and the SPICAM UV spectrometer on Mars Express (Chaffin et al., 2014) reported its rapid change by an order of magnitude over a short few months period in 2007 (MY28), which is inconsistent with the existing models. One proposed explanation of the observed increase of the coronal emission is that during the global dust storm water vapor from the lower atmosphere can be transported to higher altitudes, where its photodissociation rate by near-UV sunlight increases, providing an additional source of hydrogen for the upper atmosphere. In this work we study the water vapor vertical distribution in the middle atmosphere of Mars during the 2007 global dust storm based on solar occultation measurements by the SPICAM IR spectrometer onboard the Mars-Express spacecraft. The vertical profiles of H2O density and mixing ratio have been obtained for solar longitudes Ls = 255°-300° in MY28. In the Northern hemisphere from Ls = 268° to Ls = 285° the H2O density at altitudes of 60-80 km increased by an order of magnitude. During the dust storm the profiles extended up to 80 km, with an H2O density exceeding 1010 molecules/cm3 (mixing ratio ≥200 ppm). Two maxima of the H2O density were detected. The largest H2O densities observed at latitudes higher than 60°N, over Ls = 269°-275°, do not directly correlate with the aerosol loading and likely relate to the downwelling branch of the meridional circulation that was intensified during the dust storm, and transported water from the Southern hemisphere to high northern latitudes. The second smaller maximum coincides with the high dust loading at middle northern latitudes. The comparison with geographically close observations in the quiet Mars year MY32, when the H2O content in the Northern hemisphere did not exceed 2 × 1010 molecules/cm3 and 50 ppm at 60 km, showed that the global dust storm

  13. Thermal Infrared Airborne Field Studies: Applications to the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, K.; Kirkland, L.; Keim, E.; Hackwell, J.

    2002-12-01

    A primary goal of the Mars exploration program is to reconnoiter the planet from orbit using infrared remote sensing. Currently the Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the 2001 Mars Odyssey 9-band radiometer THEMIS provide this capability. Landing site selection and modeling of the geologic and climate history depend on accurate interpretations of these data sets. Interpretations use terrestrial analog remote sensing and laboratory studies. Until recently, there have been no airborne thermal infrared spectrometer ("hyspectral") data sets available to NASA researchers that are comparable to TES. As a result, studies relied on airborne multi-channel radiometer ("multispectral") measurements (e.g. TIMS, MASTER). A radiometer has the advantage that measurement of broad bands makes it easier to measure with higher sensitivity. However, radiometers lack the spectral resolution to investigate details of spectral signatures. This gap may be partially addressed using field samples collected and measured in the laboratory. However, that leaves questions unanswered about the field environment and potentially leaves important complicating issues undiscovered. Two questions that haunt thermal infrared remote sensing investigations of Mars are: (1) If a mineral is not detected in a given data set, how definitively should we state that it is not there? (2) When does the method provide quantitative mineral mapping? In order to address these questions, we began collaborating with Department of Defense (DoD) oriented researchers and drawing on the unique instrumentation they developed. Both Mars and DoD researchers have a common need to identify materials without benefit of ground truth. Such collaborations provide a fresh perspective as well as unique data. Our work addresses uncertainties in stand-off identification of solid phase surface materials when the identification must proceed without benefit of ground truth. We will report on the results applied to TES

  14. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  15. Aeroheating Thermal Model Correlation for Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; George, Benjamin E.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Spacecraft made use of aerobraking to gradually reduce its orbit period from a highly elliptical insertion orbit to its final science orbit. Aerobraking produces a high heat load on the solar arrays, which have a large surface area exposed to the airflow and relatively low mass. To accurately model the complex behavior during aerobraking, the thermal analysis needed to be tightly coupled to the spatially varying, time dependent aerodynamic heating. Also, the thermal model itself needed to accurately capture the behavior of the solar array and its response to changing heat load conditions. The correlation of the thermal model to flight data allowed a validation of the modeling process, as well as information on what processes dominate the thermal behavior. Correlation in this case primarily involved detailing the thermal sensor nodes, using as-built mass to modify material property estimates, refining solar cell assembly properties, and adding detail to radiation and heat flux boundary conditions. This paper describes the methods used to develop finite element thermal models of the MGS solar array and the correlation of the thermal model to flight data from the spacecraft drag passes. Correlation was made to data from four flight thermal sensors over three of the early drag passes. Good correlation of the model was achieved, with a maximum difference between the predicted model maximum and the observed flight maximum temperature of less than 5%. Lessons learned in the correlation of this model assisted in validating a similar model and method used for the Mars Odyssey solar array aeroheating analysis, which were used during onorbit operations.

  16. Resurfacing history of the northern plains of Mars based on geologic mapping of Mars Global Surveyor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A.; Hare, T.M.; Joyal, T.; Wenker, A.

    2003-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the northern plains of Mars, based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography and Viking and Mars Orbiter Camera images, reveals new insights into geologic processes and events in this region during the Hesperian and Amazonian Periods. We propose four successive stages of lowland resurfacing likely related to the activity of near-surface volatiles commencing at the highland-lowland boundary (HLB) and progressing to lower topographic levels as follows (highest elevations indicated): Stage 1, upper boundary plains, Early Hesperian, <-2.0 to -2.9 km; Stage 2, lower boundary plains and outflow channel dissection, Late Hesperian, <-2.7 to -4.0 km; Stage 3, Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) surface, Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian, <-3.1 to -4.1 km; and Stage 4, local chaos zones, Early Amazonian, <-3.8 to -5.0 km. At Acidalia Mensa, Stage 2 and 3 levels may be lower (<-4.4 and -4.8 km, respectively). Contractional ridges form the dominant structure in the plains and developed from near the end of the Early Hesperian to the Early Amazonian. Geomorphic evidence for a northern-plains-filling ocean during Stage 2 is absent because one did not form or its evidence was destroyed by Stage 3 resurfacing. Remnants of possible Amazonian dust mantles occur on top of the VBF. The north polar layered deposits appear to be made up of an up to kilometer-thick lower sequence of sandy layers Early to Middle Amazonian in age overlain by Late Amazonian ice-rich dust layers; both units appear to have outliers, suggesting that they once were more extensive.

  17. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global surveyor data. II. Amazonian period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolb, E.J.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) observations of Amazonian polar layered deposits' (PLD) morphology, composition, and thickness, we conclude that the PLDs are composed of porous unconsolidated layers that have not experienced significant basal melting or other glacial-type processes. Morphologic features and associations within the PLD chasmata, including preserved craters and sinuous ridges, indicate that the dominant process of chasmata formation is wind scouring. Our detailed analysis of south polar spiral-trough topography, in conjunction with the identification of similar layered stratigraphy within north polar spiral troughs, suggests that trough migration due to preferential ablation of Sun-facing slopes cannot be demonstrated. Within the layered sequences, we have not identified widespread unconformities, discontinuities, or pinch-outs that would indicate an accublation origin of the PLDs. We therefore postulate that the well-defined PLDs at both poles eventually reached and maintained their present form following deposition without extensive deformation or redeposition. Large, cuspate ridges in the Ultimi lobe of Planum Australe appear to be layered and may be unusual erosional remnants of a once thicker PLD in this area. Beneath the north polar layered deposits in Planum Boreum, we have identified a platform of older, highly degraded polar deposits as much as a kilometer thick that may have once covered an area larger than Planum Boreum. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science.

  18. Possible Juventae Chasma subice volcanic eruptions and Maja Valles ice outburst floods on Mars: Implications of Mars Global surveyor crater densities, geomorphology, and topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Gudmundsson, M.T.; Russell, A.J.; Hare, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses image, topographic, and spectral data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission that provide new information concerning the surface age, geomorphology, and topography of the Juventae Chasma/Maja Valles system. Our study utilizes data from two instruments on board MGS: images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Within Maja Valles we can now observe depositional bars with megaripples that unequivocally show catastrophic floods occurred in the channel. Viking impact crater densities indicated the chasma and channel floor areas were all one age (late Hesperian to Amazonian); however, MOC data indicate a marked difference in densities of small craters between Juventae Chasma, Maja Valles, and the channel debouchment area in Chryse Planitia basin. Although other processes may contribute to crater variability, young resurfacing events in the chasma and episodes of recent erosion at Maja Valles channel head may possibly account for the disparate crater densities along the chasma/channel system. Relatively young volcanic eruptions may have contributed to resurfacing; as in Juventae Chasma, a small possible volcanic cone of young dark material is observed. MOC data also indicate previously unknown interior layered deposit mounds in the chasma that indicate at least two periods of mound formation. Finally, MOLA topography shows that the entire floor of the chasma lies at the same elevation as the channel debouchment area in Chryse basin, resulting in a 3-km-high barrier to water flow out of the chasma. Blocked ponded water would rapidly freeze in the current (and likely past) climate of Mars. For catastrophic flow to occur in Maja Valles, some process is required to melt ice and induce floods out of the chasma. We suggest subice volcanic eruption and calculate estimates of water discharges and volumes that these eruptions might have produced.

  19. Mars Express wins unanimous support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    "The green light for Mars Express shows that Europe is perfectly capable of seizing special chances in exploring space," said Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "At a cost to ESA of 150 million ECU, Mars Express is the cheapest Mars mission ever, yet its importance and originality are far greater than the price tag suggests." Bonnet continued: "Mars Express has been advertised by the Science Programme Committee as a test case for new approaches in procuring and managing future science projects, with a view to achieving major savings. In the international arena, Mars Express will confirm Europe's interest in a major target for space research in the new century, when we make our forceful debut at the Red Planet. In fact, Mars Express is designed to be a pivotal element of an international multi-mission, global effort for the exploration of Mars." Development of the spacecraft will now proceed swiftly, to meet the deadline of an exceptionally favourable launch window early in June 2003. Mars Express will go into orbit around Mars at Christmas 2003. Seven scientific instruments on board will include a high-resolution camera, a range of spectrometers, and a radar to penetrate below the surface. For the first time in the history of the exploration of the Red Planet, scientists can hope to detect sub-surface water, whether it exists in the form of undergound rivers, pools, glaciers or permafrost. Signs of life on Mars, whether extinct or continuing today, may reveal themselves to a lander carried by Mars Express. This is Beagle 2, a project led by the Open University in the United Kingdom, with contributions from many other European countries. The lander also promises invaluable information about the chemistry of the Martian surface and atmosphere. Beagle 2 is to be independently funded. Some of the necessary funds have already been raised and ESA has agreed with the principal investigator to keep a place for Beagle 2 aboard Mars Express. The financial situation

  20. Geologic History of the Polar Regions of Mars Based on Mars Global Surveyor Data. I. Noachian and Hesperian Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kolb, Eric J.

    2001-11-01

    During the Noachian Period, the south polar region of Mars underwent intense cratering, construction of three groups of volcanoes, widespread contractional deformation, resurfacing of low areas, and local dissection of valley networks; no evidence for polar deposits, ice sheets, or glaciation is recognized. South polar Hesperian geology is broadly characterized by waning impacts, volcanism, and tectonism. Emplacement of the polar Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF) occurred during the Hesperian Period. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data and Mars Orbiter Camera images elucidate stratigraphic, morphologic, and topographic relations, permitting the dividing of the DAF into eight members, which surround and underlie about half of the Amazonian south polar layered deposits. The lobate fronts and lack of typical volcanic-flow morphology of the six plains units indicate that they may be made up of debris flows. We think that these flows, tens of meters to 200 m thick, may have originated by the discharge of huge volumes of slurry fluidized by ground water or liquid CO 2, perhaps triggered by local impacts, igneous activity, or basal melting beneath polar deposits. The cavi and rugged members include irregular depressions that penetrate the subsurface; some of the pits have raised rims. The depressions may have formed by collapse due to expulsion of subsurface material in which local explosive activity built up the raised rims. Further, smaller eruptions of volatile-rich material may have resulted in narrow, sinuous channel deposits within aggrading fine-grained unconsolidated material perhaps produced by gaseous discharge of subsurface volatiles; preferential erosion of the latter material could have produced the Dorsa Argentea-type sinuous ridges associated mainly with the DAF. Alternatively, the ridges may be eskers, but the lack of associated glacial and fluvial morphologies casts doubt on this interpretation. The knobby, degraded materials forming Scandia Colles

  1. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global survey data. I. Noachian and Hesperian Periods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kolb, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    During the Noachian Period, the south polar region of Mars underwent intense cratering, construction of three groups of volcanoes, widespread contractional deformation, resurfacing of low areas, and local dissection of valley networks; no evidence for polar deposits, ice sheets, or glaciation is recognized. South polar Hesperian geology is broadly characterized by waning impacts, volcanism, and tectonism. Emplacement of the polar Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF) occurred during the Hesperian Period. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data and Mars Orbiter Camera images elucidate stratigraphic, morphologic, and topographic relations, permitting the dividing of the DAF into eight members, which surround and underlie about half of the Amazonian south polar layered deposits. The lobate fronts and lack of typical volcanic-flow morphology of the six plains units indicate that they may be made up of debris flows. We think that these flows, tens of meters to 200 m thick, may have originated by the discharge of huge volumes of slurry fluidized by ground water or liquid CO2, perhaps triggered by local impacts, igneous activity, or basal melting beneath polar deposits. The cavi and rugged members include irregular depressions that penetrate the subsurface; some of the pits have raised rims. The depressions may have formed by collapse due to expulsion of subsurface material in which local explosive activity built up the raised rims. Further, smaller eruptions of volatile-rich material may have resulted in narrow, sinuous channel deposits within aggrading fine-grained unconsolidated material perhaps produced by gaseous discharge of subsurface volatiles; preferential erosion of the latter material could have produced the Dorsa Argentea-type ginuous ridges associated mainly with the DAF. Alternatively, the ridges may be eskers, but the lack of associated glacial and fluvial morphologies casts doubt on this interpretation. The knobby, degraded materials forming Scandia Colles

  2. Mars Topography

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-17

    These maps are global false-color topographic views of Mars at different orientations from NASA Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter MOLA. The maps are orthographic projections that contain over 200,000,000 points and about 5,000,000 altimetric crossovers.

  3. Liquid Water on the Surface of Mars Today: Present Gully Activity Observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Direction for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. N.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.

    2009-12-01

    Eight new flows in martian mid-latitude gullies have been found using the MRO Context Camera and MGS Mars Orbiter Camera. Each formed during 1999-2009. Using MRO HiRISE images, we find that the morphology and inferred emplacement behavior of these features is consistent with those of debris flows fluidized by a liquid medium and not by dry, granular flows. Evidence comes from the patterns of flow around obstacles, ponding in and subsequent overtopping of topographic depressions, and super-elevation of deposits on channel banks where the channels change direction, attributes consistent with a liquid but not with fluid-like granular flow. Additional evidence includes anastomoses in distal reaches and lobate terminations. Of the 8 flows, 3 have formation dates constrained to within a single Mars year (although not the same year); these 3 formed during autumn to early spring, demonstrating that summer warming is not participating in creating the liquid (i.e., that would melt snow or ice). The new gully deposits indicate that some gullies are currently active, suggesting that Mars has liquid water today and it occasionally appears on the planet’s surface. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program has focused on the “follow the water” theme and is now shifting toward “habitability” and life detection. Places where liquid water comes to the Martian surface today warrant detailed investigation. Martian astrobiology involves the search for evidence of extinct and extant life. Discovery of ancient sedimentary rocks shifted emphasis from the Viking-era pursuit of present-day microbial life to MSL’s focus on habitable environments. Recent descriptions of contemporary methane production have renewed interest in searching for extant life. Missions to locations of potential present day life, whether indicated by methane or liquid water, must deal with the associated planetary protection issues (they are “special regions”). More information about such locations is critical

  4. 2001 Mars Odyssey: Geologic Questions for Global Geochemical and Mineralogical Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Meyer, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    2001 Mars Odyssey has three experiments. GRS will map the surface elemental composition. MARIE will characterize the Mars radiation environment for risk to humans. THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology with a camera and thermal IR imaging. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, W.M.; Titus, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Previous observations have noted the change in albedo in a number of North Pole bright outliers and in the distribution of bright ice deposits between Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets. Changes over the summer season as well as between regions at the same season (Ls) in different years have been observed. We used the bolometric albedo and brightness temperature channels of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the MGS spacecraft to monitor north polar residual ice cap variations between Mars years and within the summer season for three northern Martian summers between July 1999 and April 2003. Large-scale brightness variations are observed in four general areas: (1) the patchy outlying frost deposits from 90 to 270??E, 75 to 80??N; (2) the large "tail" below the Chasma Boreale and its associated plateau from 315 to 45??E, 80 to 85??N, that we call the "Boreale Tongue" and in Hyperboreae Undae; (3) the troughed terrain in the region from 0 to 120??E longitude (the lower right on a polar stereographic projection) we have called "Shackleton's Grooves" and (4) the unit mapped as residual ice in Olympia Planitia. We also note two areas which seem to persist as cool and bright throughout the summer and between Mars years. One is at the "source" of Chasma Boreale (???15??E, 85??N) dubbed "McMurdo", and the "Cool and Bright Anomaly (CABA)" noted by Kieffer and Titus 2001. TES Mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap. Icarus 154, 162-180] at ???330??E, 87??N called here "Vostok". Overall defrosting occurs early in the summer as the temperatures rise and then after the peak temperatures are reached (Ls???110) higher elevations and outlier bright deposits cold trap and re-accumulate new frost. Persistent bright areas are associated with either higher elevations or higher background albedos suggesting complex feedback mechanisms including cold-trapping of frost due to albedo and elevation effects, as well as influence of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics

  6. Remote Sensing of Mars: Detection of Impact Craters on the Mars Global Surveyor DTM by Integrating Edge- and Region-Based Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassas, C. D.; Vaiopoulos, A.; Kolokoussis, P.; Argialas, D.

    2018-03-01

    This study integrates two different computer vision approaches, namely the circular Hough transform (CHT) and the determinant of Hessian (DoH), to detect automatically the largest number possible of craters of any size on the digital terrain model (DTM) generated by the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Specifically, application of the standard version of CHT to the DTM captured a great number of craters with diameter smaller than 50 km only, failing to capture larger craters. On the other hand, DoH was successful in detecting craters that were undetected by CHT, but its performance was deterred by the irregularity of the topographic surface encompassed: strongly undulated and inclined (trended) topographies hindered crater detection. When run on a de-trended DTM (and keeping the topology unaltered) DoH scored higher. Current results, although not optimal, encourage combined use of CHT and DoH for routine crater detection undertakings.

  7. A Basketball Court-Size Global Map of Mars for Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. R.; Christensen, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has acquired over 220,000 infrared images of the Martian surface at a resolution of 100 m/pixel since the start of science operations in February 2002. A global map was previously developed by mosaicking together over 24,000 high-quality full-resolution THEMIS daytime infrared images. Although the resulting map has been extremely valuable for scientific and mission operations applications, it has been difficult to communicate this value to students, citizen scientists and the general public, since their interactions with the map have been limited to computer-based geographic information system (GIS) interfaces. We determined that, in order to better communicate the value and importance of mapping the entire Martian surface at this resolution, people need to be able to physically interact with the map and experience its full scale. Therefore, the THEMIS Day IR Global Mosaic with Colorized MOLA Elevation will be printed on a 45ft x 90ft vinyl mat, which will allow observers to walk across and physically experience the map at approximately full resolution (printed at 200 pixels per inch). The size of the map was chosen to fit on a standard high school basketball court, so that a large number of schools will have a sufficiently large indoor surface on which to display the map for education events. The vinyl material and printing process selected for the map have been proven to be wear-resistant in similar applications, as long as everyone who walks on the map wears socks or similarly soft foot coverings. In order to make transportation easier, the map will be printed in two 45ft x 45ft sections, which will be joined together at events to create the full 45ft x 90ft map. The final stages of the map production will take place in early fall 2017, followed by initial education events at Arizona State University and local schools to test the educational activities associated with the map

  8. Global drainage patterns and the origins of topographic relief on Earth, Mars, and Titan.

    PubMed

    Black, Benjamin A; Perron, J Taylor; Hemingway, Douglas; Bailey, Elizabeth; Nimmo, Francis; Zebker, Howard

    2017-05-19

    Rivers have eroded the topography of Mars, Titan, and Earth, creating diverse landscapes. However, the dominant processes that generated topography on Titan (and to some extent on early Mars) are not well known. We analyzed drainage patterns on all three bodies and found that large drainages, which record interactions between deformation and erosional modification, conform much better to long-wavelength topography on Titan and Mars than on Earth. We use a numerical landscape evolution model to demonstrate that short-wavelength deformation causes drainage directions to diverge from long-wavelength topography, as observed on Earth. We attribute the observed differences to ancient long-wavelength topography on Mars, recent or ongoing generation of long-wavelength relief on Titan, and the creation of short-wavelength relief by plate tectonics on Earth. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Elevation Measurement Profile of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The elevation measurements were collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) aboard Global Surveyor during the spring and summer of 1998, as the spacecraft orbited Mars in an interim elliptical orbit. MOLA sends laser pulses toward the planet and measures the precise amount of time before the reflected signals are received back at the instrument. From this data, scientists can infer surface and cloud heights.

    During its mapping of the north polar cap, the MOLA instrument also made the first direct measurement of cloud heights on the red planet. Reflections from the atmosphere were obtained at altitudes from just above the surface to more than nine miles (approximately 15 kilometers) on about 80 percent of the laser profiles. Most clouds were observed at high latitudes, at the boundary of the ice cap and surrounding terrain.

    Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of carbon dioxide that condenses out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamic structure probably caused by winds interacting with surface topography, much as occurs on Earth when winds collide with mountains to produce turbulence.

    The principal investigator for MOLA is Dr. David E. Smith of Goddard. The MOLA instrument was designed and built by the Laser Remote Sensing Branch of Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics at Goddard. The Mars Global Surveyor Mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for the NASA Office of Space Science.

  10. Global structure and composition of the martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Korablev, O.; Fonteyn, D.; Guibert, S.; Chassefière, E.; Lefèvre, F.; Dimarellis, E.; Dubois, J. P.; Hauchecorne, A.; Cabane, M.; Rannou, P.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Cernogora, G.; Quémerais, E.; Hermans, C.; Kockarts, G.; Lippens, C.; de Maziere, M.; Moreau, D.; Muller, C.; Neefs, E.; Simon, P. C.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Talagrand, O.; Moroz, V. I.; Rodin, A.; Sandel, B.; Stern, A.

    SPectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) Light, a light-weight (4.7 kg) UV-IR instrument to be flown on Mars Express orbiter, is dedicated to the study of the atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. A UV spectrometer (118-320 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) is dedicated to nadir viewing, limb viewing and vertical profiling by stellar and solar occultation (3.8 kg). It addresses key issues about ozone, its coupling with H2O, aerosols, atmospheric vertical temperature structure and ionospheric studies. UV observations of the upper atmosphere will allow studies of the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO+, and CO2+, and its direct interaction with the solar wind. An IR spectrometer (1.0-1.7 μm, resolution 0.5-1.2 nm) is dedicated primarily to nadir measurements of H2O abundances simultaneously with ozone measured in the UV, and to vertical profiling during solar occultation of H2O, CO2, and aerosols. The SPICAM Light near-IR sensor employs a pioneering technology acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF), leading to a compact and light design. Overall, SPICAM Light is an ideal candidate for future orbiter studies of Mars, after Mars Express, in order to study the interannual variability of martian atmospheric processes. The potential contribution to a Mars International Reference Atmosphere is clear.

  11. A new look at dust and clouds in the Mars atmosphere - Analysis of emission-phase-function sequences from global Viking IRTM observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    The present analysis of emission-phase function (EPF) observations from the IR thermal mapper aboard the Viking Orbiter encompasses polar latitudes, and Viking Lander sites, and spans a wide range of solar longitudes. A multiple scattering radiative transfer model which incorporates a bidirectional phase function for the surface and atmospheric scattering by dust and clouds yields surface albedos and dust and ice optical properties and optical depths for the variety of Mars conditions. It is possible to fit all analyzed EPF sequences corresponding to dust scattering with an albedo of 0.92, rather than the 0.86 given by Pollack et al. on the bases of Viking Lander observations.

  12. On the nature of the variability in the Martian thermospheric mass density: Results from the Mars Global Surveyor Electron Reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, S.; Lillis, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of Mars' thermospheric mass density (~120--200 km altitude) is important for understanding the current state and evolution of the Martian atmosphere and for spacecraft such as the upcoming MAVEN mission that will fly through this region every orbit. Global-scale atmospheric models have been shown thus far to do an inconsistent job of matching mass density observations at these altitudes, especially on the nightside. Thus there is a clear need for a data-driven estimate of the mass density in this region. Given the wide range of conditions and locations over which these must be defined, the dataset of thermospheric mass densities derived from energy and angular distributions of super-thermal electrons measured by the MAG/ER experiment on Mars Global Surveyor, spanning 4 full Martian years, is an extremely valuable resource that can be used to enhance our prediction of these densities beyond what is given by such global-scale models. Here we present an empirical model of the thermospheric density structure based on the MAG/ER dataset. Using this new model, we assess the global-scale response of the thermosphere to dust storms in the lower atmosphere and show that this varies with latitude. Further, we examine the short- and longer-term variability of the thermospheric density and show that it exhibits a complex behavior with latitude and season that is indicative of both atmospheric conditions at lower altitudes and possible lower atmosphere wave sources.

  13. Wind-Stress Dust Lifting in a Mars Global Circulation Model: Representation across Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, R.; Lewis, S.; Balme, M. R.; Steele, L.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of Martian dust storms is believed to be driven by dust lifting by near-surface wind stress (NSWS). Accurately representing this dust lifting within Mars Global Circulation Models (MGCMs) is important in order to gain a full understanding of the Martian dust storm cycle. Parameterisations of dust lifting by NSWS exist within several MGCMs; implementations differ but they all follow a similar design, so progress within one model is relevant to the entire field. Few studies have explored in detail how the results of these parameterisations can be affected by changing the horizontal resolution of the model. An accurate parameterisation of dust lifting by NSWS will lift a representative dust mass, reproducing characteristic dust optical depths in the atmosphere. The geographical distribution of the dust lifting by NSWS will also change throughout the year, affecting patterns of dust storm formation and development. Currently, suitable values for dust lifting parameters must be identified at every new model resolution. Resolutions of 5° latitude x 5° longitude are often used to model the Martian climate, as thermal tides and long-term weather patterns can be well represented at this resolution. However, smaller scale phenomena (such as near-surface winds driven by local topography) cannot be accurately depicted at this resolution. We use the LMD-UK MGCM to complete multi-year simulations across multiple model resolutions. Our experiments range from `low' resolution 5° lat x 5° lon to `high' resolution 1° lat x 1° lon. In experiments with fixed, constant lifting parameters, we find that higher resolution simulations lift more dust, but that this trend is asymptotic. At low resolutions, dust lifting increases proportionately with the increase in number of horizontal gridboxes. However, at high resolutions, doubling the number of gridboxes results only in a 30% increase in the total dust mass lifted. Geographical and temporal distributions of dust

  14. Vertical profiles of Mars 1.27 μm O2 dayglow from MRO CRISM limb spectra: Seasonal/global behaviors, comparisons to LMDGCM simulations, and a global definition for Mars water vapor profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Smith, Michael D.; Lefèvre, Franck; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Sandor, Brad J.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lee, Steven W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Nair, Hari; Navarro, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Since July of 2009, The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectral Mapper (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has periodically obtained pole-to-pole observations (i.e., full MRO orbits) of limb scanned visible/near IR spectra (λ = 0.4 - 4.0 μ m, △λ ∼ 10 nm- Murchie et al., 2007). These CRISM limb observations support the first seasonally and spatially extensive set of Mars 1.27 μm O2(1△g) dayglow profile retrievals (∼ 1100) over ≥ 8-80 km altitudes. Their comparison to Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) global climate model (GCM) simulated O2(1△g) volume emission rate (VER) profiles, as a function of altitude, latitude, and season (solar longitude, Ls), supports several key conclusions regarding Mars atmospheric water vapor (which is derived from O2(1△g) emission rates), Mars O3, and the collisional de-excitation of O2(1△g) in the Mars CO2 atmosphere. Current (Navarro et al., 2014) LMDGCM simulations of Mars atmospheric water vapor fall 2-3 times below CRISM derived water vapor abundances at 20-40 km altitudes over low-to-mid latitudes in northern spring (Ls = 30-60°), and northern mid-to-high latitudes over northern summer (Ls = 60-140°). In contrast, LMDGCM simulated water vapor is 2-5 times greater than CRISM derived values at all latitudes and seasons above 40 km, within the aphelion cloud belt (ACB), and over high-southern to mid-southern latitudes in southern summer (Ls = 190-340°) at 15-35 km altitudes. Overall, the solstitial summer-to-winter hemisphere gradients in water vapor are reversed between the LMDGCM modeled versus the CRISM derived water vapor abundances above 10-30 km altitudes. LMDGCM-CRISM differences in water vapor profiles correlate with LMDGCM-CRISM differences in cloud mixing profiles; and likely reflect limitations in simulating cloud microphysics and radiative forcing, both of which restrict meridional transport of water from summer-to-winter hemispheres on Mars (Clancy et al., 1996

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Mobile Service Tower is rolled back at Launch Complex 17A to reveal a Delta II rocket ready to launch the Mars Exploration Rover-A mission. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Mobile Service Tower is rolled back at Launch Complex 17A to reveal a Delta II rocket ready to launch the Mars Exploration Rover-A mission. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers watch as an overhead crane begins to lift the backshell with the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) inside. The backshell will be moved and attached to the lower heat shield. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers watch as an overhead crane begins to lift the backshell with the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) inside. The backshell will be moved and attached to the lower heat shield. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  17. The backshell for the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) is moved toward the rover (foreground, left). The backshell is a protective cover for the rover. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-10

    The backshell for the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) is moved toward the rover (foreground, left). The backshell is a protective cover for the rover. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A closeup of the cruise stage to be mated to the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle. The cruise stage includes fuel tanks, thruster clusters and avionics for steering and propulsion. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-2 is scheduled to launch June 5 as MER-A aboard a Delta rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-06

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A closeup of the cruise stage to be mated to the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle. The cruise stage includes fuel tanks, thruster clusters and avionics for steering and propulsion. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-2 is scheduled to launch June 5 as MER-A aboard a Delta rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility prepare to lift and move the backshell that will cover the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) and its lander. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility prepare to lift and move the backshell that will cover the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) and its lander. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers walk with the suspended backshell/ Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) as it travels across the floor of the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The backshell will be attached to the lower heat shield. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers walk with the suspended backshell/ Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) as it travels across the floor of the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The backshell will be attached to the lower heat shield. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  1. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  2. Telecommunications systems evolution for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary; De Paula, Ramon P.; Edwards, Charles D. Jr; Komarek, Thomas; Edwards, Bernard L.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Diehl, Roger; Franklin, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of telecommunication systems at Mars. It reviews the telecommunications capabilities, technology and limiting factors of current and planned Mars orbiters from Mars Global Surveyor to the planned Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO).

  3. Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: Investigation description and surface science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, P.R.; Bandfield, J.L.; Hamilton, V.E.; Ruff, S.W.; Kieffer, H.H.; Titus, T.N.; Malin, M.C.; Morris, R.V.; Lane, M.D.; Clark, R.L.; Jakosky, B.M.; Mellon, M.T.; Pearl, J.C.; Conrath, B.J.; Smith, M.D.; Clancy, R.T.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Roush, T.; Mehall, G.L.; Gorelick, N.; Bender, K.; Murray, K.; Dason, S.; Greene, E.; Silverman, S.; Greenfield, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) investigation on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is aimed at determining (1) the composition of surface minerals, rocks, and ices; (2) the temperature and dynamics of the atmosphere; (3) the properties of the atmospheric aerosols and clouds; (4) the nature of the polar regions; and (5) the thermophysical properties of the surface materials. These objectives are met using an infrared (5.8- to 50-??m) interferometric spectrometer, along with broadband thermal (5.1-to 150-??m) and visible/near-IR (0.3- to 2.9-??m) radiometers. The MGS TES instrument weighs 14.47 kg, consumes 10.6 W when operating, and is 23.6 ?? 35.5 ?? 40.0 cm in size. The TES data are calibrated to a 1-?? precision of 2.5-6 ?? 10-8 W cm-2 sr-1/cm-1, 1.6 ?? 10-6 W cm-2 sr-1, and ???0.5 K in the spectrometer, visible/near-IR bolometer, and IR bolometer, respectively. These instrument subsections are calibrated to an absolute accuracy of ???4 ?? 10-8 W cm-2 sr-1/cm-1 (0.5 K at 280 K), 1-2%, and ???1-2 K, respectively. Global mapping of surface mineralogy at a spatial resolution of 3 km has shown the following: (1) The mineralogic composition of dark regions varies from basaltic, primarily plagioclase feldspar and clinopyroxene, in the ancient, southern highlands to andesitic, dominated by plagioclase feldspar and volcanic glass, in the younger northern plains. (2) Aqueous mineralization has produced gray, crystalline hematite in limited regions under ambient or hydrothermal conditions; these deposits are interpreted to be in-place sedimentary rock formations and indicate that liquid water was stable near the surface for a long period of time. (3) There is no evidence for large-scale (tens of kilometers) occurrences of moderate-grained (>50-??m) carbonates exposed at the surface at a detection limit of ???10%. (4) Unweathered volcanic minerals dominate the spectral properties of dark regions, and weathering products, such as clays, have not been observed anywhere above

  4. Failure Engineering Study and Accelerated Stress Test Results for the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft's Power Shunt Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark; Larson, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Due to a post launch failure of a part a new plan for the Mars Global Surveyor was developed. This new plan involved the addition of many deep thermal cycles to the Power Shunt Assemblies (PSA's). This new plan exceeds the previous acceptance cold level, and fatigue life on packaging design. This presentation reviews the experiments that were used to test the capabilities of the PSA to function in the new situation. It also reviews the analyses preformed to verify the most likely failure mechanism, and the likelihood that these failures would impact the new mission requirements.

  5. Mars approach for global sensitivity analysis of differential equation models with applications to dynamics of influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonok; Wu, Hulin

    2012-01-01

    Differential equation models are widely used for the study of natural phenomena in many fields. The study usually involves unknown factors such as initial conditions and/or parameters. It is important to investigate the impact of unknown factors (parameters and initial conditions) on model outputs in order to better understand the system the model represents. Apportioning the uncertainty (variation) of output variables of a model according to the input factors is referred to as sensitivity analysis. In this paper, we focus on the global sensitivity analysis of ordinary differential equation (ODE) models over a time period using the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) as a meta model based on the concept of the variance of conditional expectation (VCE). We suggest to evaluate the VCE analytically using the MARS model structure of univariate tensor-product functions which is more computationally efficient. Our simulation studies show that the MARS model approach performs very well and helps to significantly reduce the computational cost. We present an application example of sensitivity analysis of ODE models for influenza infection to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  6. Planetary Surface Properties, Cratering Physics, and the Volcanic History of Mars from a New Global Martian Crater Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Stuart James

    Impact craters are arguably the primary exogenic planetary process contributing to the surface evolution of solid bodies in the solar system. Craters appear across the entire surface of Mars, and they are vital to understanding its crustal properties as well as surface ages and modification events. They allow inferences into the ancient climate and hydrologic history, and they add a key data point for the understanding of impact physics. Previously available databases of Mars impact craters were created from now antiquated datasets, automated algorithms with biases and inaccuracies, were limited in scope, and/or complete only to multikilometer diameters. This work presents a new global database for Mars that contains 378,540 craters statistically complete for diameters D ≳ 1 km. This detailed database includes location and size, ejecta morphology and morphometry, interior morphology and degradation state, and whether the crater is a secondary impact. This database allowed exploration of global crater type distributions, depth, and morphologies in unprecedented detail that were used to re-examine basic crater scaling laws for the planet. The inclusion of hundreds of thousands of small, approximately kilometer-sized impacts facilitated a detailed study of the properties of nearby fields of secondary craters in relation to their primary crater. It also allowed the discovery of vast distant clusters of secondary craters over 5000 km from their primary crater, Lyot. Finally, significantly smaller craters were used to age-date volcanic calderas on the planet to re-construct the timeline of the last primary eruption events from 20 of the major Martian volcanoes.

  7. The digital global geologic map of Mars: chronostratigraphic ages, topographic and crater morphologic characteristics, and updated resurfacing history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Robbins, S.J.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Skinner, J.A.; Hare, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    A new global geologic map of Mars has been completed in a digital, geographic information system (GIS) format using geospatially controlled altimetry and image data sets. The map reconstructs the geologic history of Mars, which includes many new findings collated in the quarter century since the previous, Viking-based global maps were published, as well as other discoveries that were made during the course of the mapping using new data sets. The technical approach enabled consistent and regulated mapping that is appropriate not only for the map's 1:20,000,000 scale but also for its widespread use by diverse audiences. Each geologic unit outcrop includes basic attributes regarding identity, location, area, crater densities, and chronostratigraphic age. In turn, units are grouped by geographic and lithologic types, which provide synoptic global views of material ages and resurfacing character for the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods. As a consequence of more precise and better quality topographic and morphologic data and more complete crater-density dating, our statistical comparisons identify significant refinements for how Martian geologic terrains are characterized. Unit groups show trends in mean elevation and slope that relate to geographic occurrence and geologic origin. In comparison with the previous global geologic map series based on Viking data, the new mapping consists of half the number of units due to simpler, more conservative and globally based approaches to discriminating units. In particular, Noachian highland surfaces overall have high percentages of their areas now dated as an epoch older than in the Viking mapping. Minimally eroded (i.e., pristine) impact craters ≥3 km in diameter occur in greater proportion on Hesperian surfaces. This observation contrasts with a deficit of similarly sized craters on heavily cratered and otherwise degraded Noachian terrain as well as on young Amazonian surfaces. We interpret these as reflecting the

  8. Global distribution of bedrock exposures on Mars using THEMIS high-resolution thermal inertia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, C.S.; Bandfield, J.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Fergason, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate high thermal inertia surfaces using the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) nighttime temperature images (100 m/pixel spatial sampling). For this study, we interpret any pixel in a THEMIS image with a thermal inertia over 1200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 as "bedrock" which represents either in situ rock exposures or rock-dominated surfaces. Three distinct morphologies, ranked from most to least common, are associated with these high thermal inertia surfaces: (1) valley and crater walls associated with mass wasting and high surface slope angles; (2) floors of craters with diameters >25 km and containing melt or volcanics associated with larger, high-energy impacts; and (3) intercrater surfaces with compositions significantly more mafic than the surrounding regolith. In general, bedrock instances on Mars occur as small exposures (less than several square kilometers) situated in lower-albedo (<0.18), moderate to high thermal inertia (>350 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), and relatively dust-free (dust cover index <0.95) regions; however, there are instances that do not follow these generalizations. Most instances are concentrated in the southern highlands, with very few located at high latitudes (poleward of 45oN and 58oS), suggesting enhanced mechanical breakdown probably associated with permafrost. Overall, Mars has very little exposed bedrock with only 960 instances identified from 75oS to 75oN with likely <3500 km2 exposed, representing???1% of the total surface area. These data indicate that Mars has likely undergone large-scale surface processing and reworking, both chemically and mechanically, either destroying or masking a majority of the bedrock exposures on the planet. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Seasonal Transport in Mars' Mesosphere revealed by Nitric Oxide Nightglow vertical profiles and global images from IUVS/MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiepen, Arnaud; Stewart, Ian; Jain, Sonal; Schneider, Nicholas; Deighan, Justin; Gonzàlez-Galindo, Francisco; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Stevens, Michael; Bougher, Stephen; Milby, Zachariah; Evans, Scott; Chaffin, Michael; McClintock, William; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefèvre, Franck; Lo, Daniel; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the ultraviolet nightglow in the atmosphere of Mars through Nitric Oxide (NO) δ and γ bands emissions. On the dayside thermosphere of Mars, solar extreme ultraviolet radiation partly dissociates CO2 and N2 molecules. O(3P) and N(4S) atoms are carried by the day-to-night hemispheric transport. They preferentially descend in the nightside mesosphere in the winter hemisphere, where they can radiatively recombine to form NO(C2Π). The excited molecules promptly relax by emitting photons in the UV δ bands and in the γ bands through cascades via the A2Σ, v' = 0 state. These emissions are thus indicators of the N and O atom fluxes transported from the dayside to Mars' nightside and the winter descending circulation pattern from the nightside thermosphere to the mesosphere (e.g. Bertaux et al., 2005 ; Bougher et al., 1990 ; Cox et al., 2008 ; Gagné et al., 2013 ; Gérard et al., 2008 ; Stiepen et al., 2015). Observations of these emissions have been accumulated on a large dataset of nightside disk images and vertical profiles obtained at the limb by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2015) instrument when the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft is at its apoapsis and its periapsis phases along its orbit, respectively. We present discussion on the variability in the brightness, altitude and topside scale height of the emission with season, geographical position and local time and possible interpretation for local and global changes in the mesosphere dynamics. IUVS images and limb scans reveal unexpected complex structure of the emission. The brightest emission is observed close to the winter pole. The emission is also surprisingly more intense in some sectors located close to the equator : at 120˚ and 150˚ longitude. Observations also reveal spots and streaks, indicating irregularities in the wind circulation pattern and possible impact of waves and tides. The disk images and limb profiles are compared to

  10. President Obama Phones Mars Rover Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-13

    President Barack Obama talks on the phone with NASA Curiosity Mars rover team aboard Air Force One during a flight to Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska, Aug. 13, 2012. Official White House Photo by Pete Souza

  11. Preliminary Global Topographic Model of Mars Based on MOLA Altimetry, Earth-Based Radar, and Viking, Mariner and MGS Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    The recent altimetry data acquired by MOLA over the northern hemisphere of Mars have been combined with the Earth-based radar data obtained between 1971 and 1982, and occultation measurements of the Viking 1 and 2 Orbiters, Mariner 9, and MGS to derive a global model of the shape and topography of Mars. This preliminary model has a horizontal resolution of about 300 km. Vertical accuracy is on average a few hundred meters in the region of the data. Datasets: The altimetry and radar datasets were individually binned in 1.25 degree grids and merged with the occultation data. The Viking and Mariner occultation data in the northern hemisphere were excluded from the combined dataset where MOLA altimetry were available. The laser altimetry provided extensive and almost complete coverage of the northern hemisphere north of latitude 30 while the radar provided longitudinal coverage at several latitude bands between 23N and 23S. South of this region the only data were occultations. The majority of the occultations were obtained from Mariner 9, and the rest from Viking 1 & 2, and MGS. Earlier studies had shown that the Viking and Mariner occultations were on average only accurate to 500 meters. The recent MGS occultations are accurate to a few tens of meters. However, the highest southern latitude reached by the MGS occultations is only about 64S and data near the target region for the Mars 98 lander is limited to a few Viking and Mariner observations of relatively poor quality. In addition to the above datasets the locations of the Viking 1, Viking 2, and Pathfinder landers, obtained from the radio tracking of their signals, were included.

  12. Stealth life detection instruments aboard Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2012-10-01

    NASA has often stated (e.g. MSL Science Corner1) that it's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), "Curiosity," Mission to Mars carries no life detection experiments. This is in keeping with NASA's 36-year explicit ban on such, imposed immediately after the 1976 Viking Mission to Mars. The space agency attributes the ban to the "ambiguity" of that Mission's Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment, fearing an adverse effect on the space program should a similar "inconclusive" result come from a new robotic quest. Yet, despite the NASA ban, this author, the Viking LR Experimenter, contends there are "stealth life detection instruments" aboard Curiosity. These are life detection instruments in the sense that they can free the Viking LR from the pall of ambiguity that has held it prisoner so long. Curiosity's stealth instruments are those seeking organic compounds, and the mission's high-resolution camera system. Results from any or all of these devices, coupled with the Viking LR data, can confirm the LR's life detection claim. In one possible scenario, Curiosity can, of itself, completely corroborate the finding of life on Mars. MSL has just successfully landed on Mars. Hopefully, its stealth confirmations of life will be reported shortly.

  13. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  14. Failure Engineering Study and Accelerated Stress Test Results for the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft's Power Shunt Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark; Larson, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    An Engineering-of-Failure approach to designing and executing an accelerated product qualification test was performed to support a risk assessment of a "work-around" necessitated by an on-orbit failure of another piece of hardware on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The proposed work-around involved exceeding the previous qualification experience both in terms of extreme cold exposure level and in terms of demonstrated low cycle fatigue life for the power shunt assemblies. An analysis was performed to identify potential failure sites, modes and associated failure mechanisms consistent with the new use conditions. A test was then designed and executed which accelerated the failure mechanisms identified by analysis. Verification of the resulting failure mechanism concluded the effort.

  15. Driven by excess? Climatic implications of new global mapping of near-surface water-equivalent hydrogen on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, Asmin V.; Feldman, William C.; Prettyman, Thomas H.; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2018-02-01

    We present improved Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS) maps of near-surface Water-Equivalent Hydrogen (WEH) on Mars that have intriguing implications for the global distribution of "excess" ice, which occurs when the mass fraction of water ice exceeds the threshold amount needed to saturate the pore volume in normal soils. We have refined the crossover technique of Feldman et al. (2011) by using spatial deconvolution and Gaussian weighting to create the first globally self-consistent map of WEH. At low latitudes, our new maps indicate that WEH exceeds 15% in several near-equatorial regions, such as Arabia Terra, which has important implications for the types of hydrated minerals present at low latitudes. At high latitudes, we demonstrate that the disparate MONS and Phoenix Robotic Arm (RA) observations of near surface WEH can be reconciled by a three-layer model incorporating dry soil over fully saturated pore ice over pure excess ice: such a three-layer model can also potentially explain the strong anticorrelation of subsurface ice content and ice table depth observed at high latitudes. At moderate latitudes, we show that the distribution of recently formed impact craters is also consistent with our latest MONS results, as both the shallowest ice-exposing crater and deepest non-ice-exposing crater at each impact site are in good agreement with our predictions of near-surface WEH. Overall, we find that our new mapping is consistent with the widespread presence at mid-to-high Martian latitudes of recently deposited shallow excess ice reservoirs that are not yet in equilibrium with the atmosphere.

  16. Crater-based dating of geological units on Mars: methods and application for the new global geological map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    The new, post-Viking generation of Mars orbital imaging and topographical data provide significant higher-resolution details of surface morphologies, which induced a new effort to photo-geologically map the surface of Mars at 1:20,000,000 scale. Although from unit superposition relations a relative stratigraphical framework can be compiled, it was the ambition of this mapping project to provide absolute unit age constraints through crater statistics. In this study, the crater counting method is described in detail, starting with the selection of image data, type locations (both from the mapper’s and crater counter’s perspectives) and the identification of impact craters. We describe the criteria used to validate and analyse measured crater populations, and to derive and interpret crater model ages. We provide examples of how geological information about the unit’s resurfacing history can be retrieved from crater size–frequency distributions. Three cases illustrate short-, intermediate, and long-term resurfacing histories. In addition, we introduce an interpretation-independent visualisation of the crater resurfacing history that uses the reduction of the crater population in a given size range relative to the expected population given the observed crater density at larger sizes. From a set of potential type locations, 48 areas from 22 globally mapped units were deemed suitable for crater counting. Because resurfacing ages were derived from crater statistics, these secondary ages were used to define the unit age rather than the base age. Using the methods described herein, we modelled ages that are consistent with the interpreted stratigraphy. Our derived model ages allow age assignments to be included in unit names. We discuss the limitations of using the crater dating technique for global-scale geological mapping. Finally, we present recommendations for the documentation and presentation of crater statistics in publications.

  17. Participation in the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengil, Gordon H.; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument [1,2] carried aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has observed strong echoes from cloud tops at 1.064 microns on 61% of its orbital passes over the winter north pole (235deg L(sub S), < 315deg) and on 58% of the passes over the winter south pole (45deg < L(sub S), < 135deg). The clouds are unlikely to be composed of water ice since the vapor pressure of H2O is very low at the Martian nighttime polar temperatures measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) [3], and by an analysis of MGS radio occultations [4]. Dust clouds can also be ruled out since no correlation is seen between clouds and global dust storms. The virtually certain composition for the winter polar clouds is CO2 ice.

  18. Solar Cycle/Seasonal Variations of H, D, H2 and He Distributions and Escape on Mars as Determined by the Mars Thermosphere Global Circulation Model (MTGCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) was exercised for Ls = 90 (aphelion) solar minimum, and Ls = 270 perihelion) solar maximum conditions. Simulated MTGCM outputs (i.e. helium density distributions) were compared to those previously observed for Earth and Venus. Winter polar night bulges of helium are predicted on Mars, similar to those observed on the nightside of Venus and in the winter polar regions of Earth. A poster on this research was presented at the European Geophysical Society Meeting (EGS) in 2003. This research paves the way for what might be expected in the polar night regions of Mars during upcoming aerobraking and mapping Campaigns. Lastly, Mars thermosphere (approx. 100-130 km) winter polar warming was observed at high Northern latitudes during the perihelion season, but not at high Southern latitudes during the opposite aphelion season. Presumably, the Mars thermospheric circulation is responsible for the dynamically controlled heating needed to warm polar night temperatures above radiative equilibrium values. Again, MTGCM simulations were conducted for Ls = 90 and Ls = 270 conditions; polar temperatures were examined and found to be much warmer at Northern high latitudes (perihelion) than at Southern high latitudes (aphelion), similar to Mars aerobraking datasets. The Mars thermospheric circulation is found to be stronger during perihelion solstice conditions than during aphelion conditions, owing to both stronger seasonal solar and dust heating during Mars perihelion. An invited talk was given at the Spring AGU 2004 on this research. A forthcoming GRL paper was drafted on this same topic, but not submitted before the termination of this 1-year grant.

  19. Evolution of the global water cycle on Mars: The geological evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Gulick, V. C.

    1993-01-01

    The geological evidence for active water cycling early in the history of Mars (Noachian geological system or heavy bombardment) consists almost exclusively of fluvial valley networks in the heavily cratered uplands of the planet. It is commonly assumed that these landforms required explanation by atmospheric processes operating above the freezing point of water and at high pressure to allow rainfall and liquid surface runoff. However, it has also been documented that nearly all valley networks probably formed by subsurface outflow and sapping erosion involving groundwater outflow prior to surface-water flow. The prolonged ground-water flow also requires extensive water cycling to maintain hydraulic gradients, but is this done via rainfall recharge, as in terrestrial environments?

  20. Investigating Mars South Residual CO2 Cap with a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, M. A.; Dequaire, J.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The CO2 cycle is one of the three controlling climate cycles on Mars. One aspect of the CO2 cycle that is not yet fully understood is the existence of a residual CO2 ice cap that is offset from the south pole. Previous investigations suggest that the atmosphere may control the placement of the south residual cap (e.g., Colaprete et al., 2005). These investigations show that topographically forced stationary eddies in the south during southern hemisphere winter produce colder atmospheric temperatures and increased CO2 snowfall over the hemisphere where the residual cap resides. Since precipitated CO2 ice produces higher surface albedos than directly deposited CO2 ice, it is plausible that CO2 snowfall resulting from the zonally asymmetric atmospheric circulation produces surface ice albedos high enough to maintain a residual cap only in one hemisphere. The goal of the current work is to further evaluate Colaprete et al.'s hypothesis by investigating model-predicted seasonally varying snowfall patterns in the southern polar region and the atmospheric circulation components that control them.

  1. The Distance Between Mars and Venus: Measuring Global Sex Differences in Personality

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Booth, Tom; Irwing, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. We advance a set of guidelines for overcoming those limitations: (a) measure personality with a higher resolution than that afforded by the Big Five; (b) estimate sex differences on latent factors; and (c) assess global sex differences with multivariate effect sizes. We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality. Methodology/Principal Findings Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N = 10,261) with the 16PF Questionnaire. Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D). We found a global effect size D = 2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. Even excluding the factor showing the largest univariate ES, the global effect size was D = 1.71 (24% overlap). These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. Significance The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology. PMID:22238596

  2. The distance between Mars and Venus: measuring global sex differences in personality.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Marco; Booth, Tom; Irwing, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. We advance a set of guidelines for overcoming those limitations: (a) measure personality with a higher resolution than that afforded by the Big Five; (b) estimate sex differences on latent factors; and (c) assess global sex differences with multivariate effect sizes. We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality. Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N = 10,261) with the 16PF Questionnaire. Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D). We found a global effect size D = 2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. Even excluding the factor showing the largest univariate ES, the global effect size was D = 1.71 (24% overlap). These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology.

  3. Zapping Rocks on Mars

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2018-01-16

    Better understanding Mars means better understanding its geology. That’s why, sitting atop NASA’s Curiosity rover, is ChemCam, an instrument built by Los Alamos National Laboratory that shoots lasers at Martian rocks and analyzes the data. After nearly 1,500 rock zaps, ChemCam has uncovered some surprising facts about the Red Planet, including the discovery of igneous rocks. Soon, a new Los Alamos-built instrument—the SuperCam—will ride aboard the Mars 2020 rover and bring with it enhanced capabilities to unlock new secrets about the planet.

  4. Zapping Rocks on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    Better understanding Mars means better understanding its geology. That’s why, sitting atop NASA’s Curiosity rover, is ChemCam, an instrument built by Los Alamos National Laboratory that shoots lasers at Martian rocks and analyzes the data. After nearly 1,500 rock zaps, ChemCam has uncovered some surprising facts about the Red Planet, including the discovery of igneous rocks. Soon, a new Los Alamos-built instrument—the SuperCam—will ride aboard the Mars 2020 rover and bring with it enhanced capabilities to unlock new secrets about the planet.

  5. Mars Weather Map, 2008

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-04

    This global map of Mars was acquired on Oct. 28, 2008, by the Mars Color Imager instrument on NASA MRO. One global map is generated each day to forecast weather conditions for the entry, descent and landing of NASA Curiosity rover.

  6. Cracked Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows v-shaped troughs in the Hephaestus Fossae region of Mars. Light-toned, windblown ripples reside in the very lowest parts of the troughs, as well as on the cratered upland outside the troughs. Boulders and other types of debris, which were derived from the layered rock exposed near the top of the troughs, are seen resting on the trough floors and perched on the sloping trough walls.

    Location near: 21.1oN, 236.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  7. Cracky Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cracked, layered plains-forming material in the western part of Utopia Planitia, Mars. Investigators have speculated that ice might be -- or might once have been -- present in the ground, and changes in temperature and the amount of ice over time may have led to the formation of these cracks. But no one is certain just how these features formed.

    Location near: 45.0oN, 276.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  8. Mars Without Borders: Creating a Global Community with the HiTranslate Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoza, A.

    2013-12-01

    The HiTranslate Project by HiRISE (MRO) is the most unique outreach program for an active NASA mission. Utilizing social media, we have built up a network of volunteers across the world to translate captioned images into various languages to reach a global audience with limited-to-no English skills. The result is a volunteer group of over 150 people making over 1,000 translated HiRISE captions and counting. The HiTranslate Project has also created specific media channels for each of these audiences, including other languages not traditionally represented in American-led science outreach efforts, like Icelandic, Greek, Arabic and Hebrew. This session will outline results of the Project and how it is a model for other science-based outreach efforts that can build up a global audience and communicate more effectively with the general public to grow interest in science.

  9. Mars: Crustal pore volume, cryospheric depth, and the global occurrence of groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that most of the Martian hydrosphere resides in a porous outer layer of crust that, based on a lunar analogy, appears to extend to a depth of about 10 km. The total pore volume of this layer is sufficient to store the equivalent of a global ocean of water some 500 to 1500 m deep. Thermal modeling suggests that about 300 to 500 m of water could be stored as ice within the crust. Any excess must exist as groundwater.

  10. Mars Weather Map, Aug. 4, 2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-05

    This global map of Mars was acquired on Aug. 4, 2012, by the Mars Color Imager instrument on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to forecast weather conditions for the entry, descent and landing of NASA Curiosity rover.

  11. Global Surface Dust Distribution Changes on Mars (MY24-33)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, S.; Hayne, P. O.; Kleinboehl, A.; Edwards, C. S.; Elder, C. M.; Heavens, N. G.; Kass, D. M.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Shirley, J. H.; Smith, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Telescopic and spacecraft observations document inter-annual and inter-seasonal changes of the Martian albedo that are interpreted to result from the redistribution of surface dust in response to atmospheric events such as global or regional dust storms, dust devil activity, or seasonal winds. Based on these observations and general circulation modeling, several authors have hypothesized that a necessary condition for global dust storm initiation and growth is the presence of strategically located surface dust reservoirs replenished during inter-storm periods. If this hypothesis is valid, the cyclical accumulation and removal of thermally thick (>50 μm) layers of dust at specific locations ought to produce a distinct temperature signature, since Martian dust exhibits extremely low thermal conductivity and thermal inertia values compared to sand, gravel, rocks, and bedrock. Characterizing dust movement using temperature data presents a major advantage over mapping relying solely on albedo changes: it yields dust layer thicknesses, whose spatial and temporal integration enables the derivation of surface dust fluxes. In this work, we use global (1° per pixel resolution) seasonal (10° Ls resolution, from MY24 to 33) maps of the Martian surface albedo, atmospheric dust opacity, and ground temperature (derived from TES, THEMIS, and MCS observations) to derive apparent variations of the thermal inertia, and thereby characterize surface changes consistent with the deposition or removal of dust. We show that changes in thermal inertia for some regions are consistent with dust accumulation; whereas others seem to lose dust. We compare these maps with published GCM dust lifting predictions, and with observations of past dust storm occurrence, thereby constraining the role of surface dust availability.

  12. Life on Mars: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Mars has evidence for past liquid water, presence of an atmosphere with CO2 and N2, and potential for preservation of evidence of life. Composition of the Martian atmosphere is 95.3% Carbon dioxide, 2.7% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon, 0.3-0.1% Water Vapor, 0.13% Oxygen, and 0.07% Carbon Monoxide. Current Mars missions include: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,

  13. Estimated Radiation Dosage on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-01

    This global map of Mars, based on data from NASA Mars Odyssey, shows the estimated radiation dosages from cosmic rays reaching the surface, a serious health concern for any future human exploration of the planet.

  14. Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

    The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

  15. Mars Observer/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the integrated Mars Observer/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) payload is ready for encapsulation in the Titan III nose fairing. The TOS booster maiden flight was dedicated to Thomas O. Paine, a former NASA administrator who strongly supported interplanetary exploration and was an early backer of the TOS program. Launched September 25, 1992 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center aboard a Titan III rocket and the TOS, the Mars Observer spacecraft was to be the first U.S. spacecraft to study Mars since the Viking missions 18 years prior. Unfortunately, the Mars Observer spacecraft fell silent just 3 days prior to entering orbit around Mars.

  16. Bacterial Oxidation of Iron in Olivine: Implications for the Subsurface Biosphere, Global Chemical Cycles, and Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, M. R.; Popa, R.; Smith, A. R.; Popa, R.; Boone, J.

    2011-12-01

    levels of oxygen and nitrate as oxidants would allow them to survive below the surface of Mars. These cultured organisms, which are the first known to oxidize iron from olivine at neutral pH, may be a major component of the subsurface biosphere, may affect global chemical cycles of elements in basalt, and could potentially, live in the Martian subsurface.

  17. Mars Hand Lens Imager Sends Ultra High-Res Photo from Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-17

    This image of a U.S. penny on a calibration target was taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI aboard NASA Curiosity rover in Gale Crater on Mars. At 14 micrometers per pixel, this is the highest-resolution image that MAHLI can acquire.

  18. Modeling CO 2 ice clouds with a Mars Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouard, Joachim; Määttänen, Anni; Listowski, Constantino; Millour, Ehouarn; Forget, Francois; Spiga, Aymeric

    2016-10-01

    Since the first claimed detection of CO2 ice clouds by the Mariner campaign (Herr and Pimentel, 1970), more recent observations and modelling works have put new constraints concerning their altitude, region, time and mechanisms of formation (Clancy and Sandor, 1998; Montmessin et al., 2007; Colaprete et al., 2008; Määttänen et al., 2010; Vincendon et al., 2011; Spiga et al. 2012; Listowski et al. 2014). CO2 clouds are observed at the poles at low altitudes (< 20 km) during the winter and at high altitudes (60-110 km) in the equatorial regions during the first half of the year. However, Martian CO2 clouds's variability and dynamics remain somehow elusive.Towards an understanding of Martian CO2 clouds and especially of their precise radiative impact on the climate throughout the history of the planet, including their formation and evolution in a Global Climate Model (GCM) is necessary.Adapting the CO2 clouds microphysics modeling work of Listowski et al. (2013; 2014), we aim at implementing a complete CO2 clouds scheme in the GCM of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD, Forget et al., 1999). It covers CO2 microphysics, growth, evolution and dynamics with a methodology inspired from the water ice clouds scheme recently included in the LMD GCM (Navarro et al., 2014).Two main factors control the formation and evolution of CO2 clouds in the Martian atmosphere: sufficient supersaturation of CO2 is needed and condensation nuclei must be available. Topography-induced gravity-waves (GW) are expected to propagate to the upper atmosphere where they produce cold pockets of supersaturated CO2 (Spiga et al., 2012), thus allowing the formation of clouds provided enough condensation nuclei are present. Such supersaturations have been observed by various instruments, in situ (Schofield et al., 1997) and from orbit (Montmessin et al., 2006, 2011; Forget et al., 2009).Using a GW-induced temperature profile and the 1-D version of the GCM, we simulate the formation of CO2

  19. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  20. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  1. Observations of Martian ice clouds by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer: The first Martian year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, John C.; Smith, Michael D.; Conrath, Barney J.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2001-06-01

    Successful operation of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, beginning in September 1997 (Ls=184°), has permitted extensive observations over more than a Martian year. Initially, thin (normal optical depth <0.06 at 825 cm-1) ice clouds and hazes were widespread, showing a distinct latitudinal gradient. With the onset of a regional dust storm at Ls=224°, ice clouds vanished in the southern hemisphere, to reappear gradually after the decay of the storm. The zonally averaged cloud opacities show little difference between the beginning and end of the first Martian year. A broad low-latitude cloud belt with considerable longitudinal structure was present in early northern summer. Apparently characteristic of the northern summer season, it vanished between Ls=140° and 150°. The latitudinal extent of this feature is apparently controlled by the ascending branch of the Hadley circulation. The most opaque clouds (optical depth ~0.6) were found above the summits of major volcanic features; these showed spatial structure possibly associated with wave activity. Variety among low-lying late morning clouds suggests localized differences in circulation and microclimates. Limb observations showed extensive optically thin (optical depth <0.04) stratiform clouds at altitudes up to 55 km. Considerable latitude and altitude variations were evident in ice clouds in early northern spring (Ls=25°) near 30 km, thin clouds extended from just north of the equator to ~45°N, nearly to the north polar vortex. A water ice haze was present in the north polar night (Ls=30°) at altitudes up to 40 km. Because little dust was present this probably provided heterogeneous nucleation sites for the formation of CO2 clouds and snowfall at altitudes below ~20 km, where atmospheric temperatures dropped to the CO2 condensation point. The relatively invariant spectral shape of the water ice cloud feature over space and time indicates that ice particle radii are generally between 1 and 4 μm.

  2. Water ice clouds on Mars: a study of partial cloudiness with a global climate model and MARCI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Alizée; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, François; Wolff, Mike; Navarro, Thomas; Millour, Ehouarn; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Spiga, Aymeric; Bertrand, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    There is a large reservoir of water ice on Mars in the polar caps, that sublimates in summer and releases water vapor. Water is then advected in the atmospheric circulation that evolves seasonally. This vapor forms clouds, frost, and can also be adsorbed in the soil. In a global study of the water cycle, water ice clouds play a key part in the martian climate. There is a need to understand better their distribution and radiative effect. The tool used in this study is the global climate model (GCM) of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique. It is made up of a core that computes fluid dynamics, and a physical part that gathers a number of parametrised processes. It includes tracers and the condensation and sublimation of water in the atmosphere and on the ground, allowing a study of the complete water cycle. To improve the representation of water ice clouds in the model, a new parametrisation of partial cloudiness has been implemented and will be presented. Indeed, model cells are hundreds of kilometers wide, and it is quite unrealistic to suppose that cloud coverage is always uniform in them. Furthermore, the model was quite unstable since the implementation of the radiative effect of clouds, and partial cloudiness had the effect of reducing this instability. In practice, a subgrid temperature distribution is supposed, and the temperature computed in the model is interpreted as its mean. The subgrid scale temperature distribution is simple, and its width is a free parameter. Using this distribution, the fraction of the grid cells under the water vapor condensation temperature is interpreted as the fraction of the cell in which clouds form (or cloud fraction). From these fractions at each height a total partial cloudiness (the clouds as seen from the orbit) is deduced. The radiative transfer is computed twice, for the clear area and for the cloudy one. Observing the water cycle with this new parametrisation, some differences are seen with standard runs. These

  3. Local, Regional, and Global Albedo Variations on Mars From Recent Space-Based Observations: Implications for Future Human Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.; Wellington, D. F.

    2017-06-01

    We describe recent as well as historic albedo variations on Mars as observed by space-based telescopes, orbiters, and surface missions, and speculate that some regions might offer fewer dust-related problems for future human explorers than others.

  4. Interannual Variability in Global Dust Storm Initiation on Mars from a GCM with Orbit-Spin Coupling and Active Dust Lifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischna, M.; Shirley, J. H.; Newman, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    To first order, the occurrence and interannual variability of global dust storms (GDS) on Mars is attributable to two factors: the annual cycle of solar insolation (which delineates a specific `dust storm season'), and the changing spatial distribution and availability of dust at the surface. Recent work has now found a remarkable correspondence between the occurrence of GDS on Mars and years in which the orbital angular momentum of Mars is increasing during the dust storm season. A previously undefined acceleration term `couples' this orbital motion to the rotational motion of the planet and atmosphere, and small but persistent atmospheric accelerations (so-called `coupling term accelerations,' or CTA) change the atmospheric circulation in such a way as to seemingly be favorable to storm development. This becomes a third factor, then, that may regulate the occurrence and variability of GDS. Our prior work with the MarsWRF general circulation model (GCM) was performed either with no atmospheric dust, or with simplified, prescribed dust distributions, and illustrated the dual roles of both insolation and CTA on GDS variability. Recent advances in the MarsWRF GCM dust prescription can now tackle the remaining unaddressed factor: the role of dust availability in controlling the initiation of GDS. Simulations with both infinite and finite global sources of dust have been performed. For a prescribed dust lifting threshold, surface dust is removed from the surface, preferentially from locations with larger surface stress values, transported in the atmosphere and deposited at a later time. Compared to simulations without CTA, those with CTA show more realism in the variability of timing and magnitude of atmospheric dustiness during the dust storm season. For infinite surface dust, the primary dust lifting (peak wind stress) regions are spatially restricted, and year-to-year changes are largely due to variations in the CTA at these few locations. By contrast, in

  5. Using Crater Counts to Constrain Erosion Rates on Mars: Implications for the Global Dust Cycle, Sedimentary Rock Erosion and Organic Matter Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D. P.; Kite, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Sandblasting, aeolian infilling, and wind deflation all obliterate impact craters on Mars, complicating the use of crater counts for chronology, particularly on sedimentary rock surfaces. However, crater counts on sedimentary rocks can be exploited to constrain wind erosion rates. Relatively small, shallow craters are preferentially obliterated as a landscape undergoes erosion, so the size-frequency distribution of impact craters in a landscape undergoing steady exhumation will develop a shallower power-law slope than a simple production function. Estimating erosion rates is important for several reasons: (1) Wind erosion is a source of mass for the global dust cycle, so the global dust reservoir will disproportionately sample fast-eroding regions; (2) The pace and pattern of recent wind erosion is a sorely-needed constraint on models of the sculpting of Mars' sedimentary-rock mounds; (3) Near-surface complex organic matter on Mars is destroyed by radiation in <108 years, so high rates of surface exhumation are required for preservation of near-surface organic matter. We use crater counts from 18 HiRISE images over sedimentary rock deposits as the basis for estimating erosion rates. Each image was counted by ≥3 analysts and only features agreed on by ≥2 analysts were included in the erosion rate estimation. Erosion rates range from 0.1-0.2 {μ }m/yr across all images. These rates represent an upper limit on surface erosion by landscape lowering. At the conference we will discuss the within and between-image variability of erosion rates and their implications for recent geological processes on Mars.

  6. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  7. Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMIRS) Overview from the Emirates Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunaiji, Eman; Edwards, Christopher; Smith, Michael; Christensen, Philip; AlMheiri, Suhail; Reed, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMIRS) instrument is one of three scientific instruments aboard the Emirate Mars Mission (EMM), with the name of "Hope". EMM is United Arab Emirates' (UAE) mission to be launched in 2020, with the aim of exploring the dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars on a global scale with sampling on a diurnal and sub-seasonal time-scales. EMM has three scientific instruments selected to provide an improved understanding of circulation and weather in the Martian lower atmosphere as well as the thermosphere and exosphere. The EMIRS instrument is an interferometric thermal infrared spectrometer that is jointly developed by Arizona State University (ASU) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC), Dubai, UAE. It builds on a long heritage of thermal infrared spectrometers designed, built, and managed, by ASU's Mars Space Flight Facility, including the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES). EMIRS operates in the 6-40+ μm range with 5 cm-1 spectral sampling, enabled by a Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) diamond beam splitter and state of the art electronics. This instrument utilizes a 3×3 line array detector and a scan mirror to make high-precision infrared radiance measurements over most of the Martian hemisphere. The EMIRS instrument is optimized to capture the integrated, lower-middle atmosphere dynamics over a Martian hemisphere, using a scan-mirror to make 60 global images per week ( 20 images per orbit) at a resolution of 100-300 km/pixel while requiring no special spacecraft maneuvers.

  8. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  9. Cars on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  10. Uncovering the Mysteries of Mars Habitability

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger; Lanza, Nina; Clegg, Sam

    Los Alamos scientists are uncovering clues about the habitability of ancient Mars using the ChemCam instrument that sits atop NASA’s Mars Curiosity rover. ChemCam has discovered 25 different elements on Mars—including manganese and boron—providing important information about conditions that could potentially have supported life on the Red Planet. Los Alamos is now developing a new instrument called SuperCam that will ride aboard the Mars 2020 rover and provide greater detail about the mineralogy and the presence of compounds related to the possibility of life on the surface of Mars.

  11. Six Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The landing site chosen for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, at about 68 degrees north latitude, is much farther north than the sites where previous spacecraft have landed on Mars.

    Color coding on this map indicates relative elevations based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Red is higher elevation; blue is lower elevation. In longitude, the map extends from 70 degrees (north) to minus 70 degrees (south).

  12. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  13. Application of a global solar wind/planetary obstacle interaction computational model: Earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The investigations undertaken in this report relate to studies of various solar wind interaction phenomena with Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. A computational model is developed for the determination of the detailed plasma and magnetic field properties associated with various planetary obstacles throughout the solar system.

  14. Sensitivity of simulated Martian atmospheric temperature to prescribed dust opacity distribution: Comparison of model results with reconstructed data from Mars Exploration Rover missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Murali; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Richardson, Mark I.; McConnochie, Timothy H.

    2015-11-01

    We use the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) general circulation model to simulate the atmospheric structure corresponding to the landing location and time of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit (A) and Opportunity (B) in 2004. The multiscale capability of MarsWRF facilitates high-resolution nested model runs centered near the landing site of each of the rovers. Dust opacity distributions based on measurements by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, and those from an old version of the Mars Climate Database (MCD v3.1 released in 2001) are used to study the sensitivity of the model temperature profile to variations in the dust prescription. The reconstructed entry, descent, and landing (EDL) data from the rover missions are used for comparisons. We show that the model using dust opacity from TES limb and nadir data for the year of MER EDL, Mars Year 26 (MY26), yields temperature profiles in closer agreement with the reconstructed data than the prelaunch EDL simulations and models using other dust opacity specifications. The temperature at 100 Pa from the model (MY26) and the reconstruction are within 5°K. These results highlight the role of vertical dust opacity distribution in determining the atmospheric thermal structure. Similar studies involving data from past missions and models will be useful in understanding the extent to which atmospheric variability is captured by the models and in developing realistic preflight characterization required for future lander missions to Mars.

  15. Mars Weather Map, Aug. 5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-10

    This global map of Mars was acquired on Aug. 5, 2012, by the Mars Color Imager instrument on NASA MRO. One global map is generated each day to forecast weather conditions for the entry, descent and landing of NASA Curiosity rover.

  16. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  17. Locations of Ice-Exposing Fresh Craters on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-10

    This map of Mars indicates locations of new craters that have excavated ice blue and those that have not red. Albedo information comes from NASA Mars Odyssey orbiter, and the map comes from NASA Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

  18. Global Geometric Properties of Martian Impact Craters: An Assessment from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Frawley, J. J.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Schnetzler, C.

    2000-01-01

    Global geometric characteristics of topographically fresh impact craters have been assessed, for the first time, from gridded MOLA topography. Global trends of properties such as depth/diameter differ from previous estimates. Regional differences are observed.

  19. Mars Weather Map, Aug. 2, 2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-04

    This global map of Mars was acquired on Aug. 2, 2012, by the Mars Color Imager instrument on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. One global map is generated each day to forecast weather conditions for the entry, descent and landing of NASA Curiosity.

  20. NASA's Mars 2020 Rover Artist's Concept #2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    This artist's rendition depicts NASA's Mars 2020 rover studying a Mars rock outrcrop. The mission will not only seek out and study an area likely to have been habitable in the distant past, but it will take the next, bold step in robotic exploration of the Red Planet by seeking signs of past microbial life itself. Mars 2020 will use powerful instruments to investigate rocks on Mars down to the microscopic scale of variations in texture and composition. It will also acquire and store samples of the most promising rocks and soils that it encounters, and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth. Mars 2020 is targeted for launch in July/August 2020 aboard an Atlas V-541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22105

  1. NASA's Mars 2020 Rover Artist's Concept #4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    This artist's concept depicts NASA's Mars 2020 rover exploring Mars. The mission will not only seek out and study an area likely to have been habitable in the distant past, but it will take the next, bold step in robotic exploration of the Red Planet by seeking signs of past microbial life itself. Mars 2020 will use powerful instruments to investigate rocks on Mars down to the microscopic scale of variations in texture and composition. It will also acquire and store samples of the most promising rocks and soils that it encounters, and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth. Mars 2020 is targeted for launch in July/August 2020 aboard an Atlas V-541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22107

  2. NASA's Mars 2020 Rover Artist's Concept #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-23

    This artist's concept depicts NASA's Mars 2020 rover on the surface of Mars. The mission takes the next step by not only seeking signs of habitable conditions on Mars in the ancient past, but also searching for signs of past microbial life itself. The Mars 2020 rover introduces a drill that can collect core samples of the most promising rocks and soils and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth. Mars 2020 is targeted for launch in July/August 2020 aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21635

  3. Phoenix Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-30

    The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog.

  4. Solar radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  5. Solar radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  6. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  7. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission: From Launch to the Primary Science Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Martin D.; Graf, James E.; Zurek, Richard W.; Eisen, Howard J.; Jai, Benhan; Erickson, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA, aboard an Atlas V-401 launch vehicle on August 12, 2005. The MRO spacecraft carries a very sophisticated scientific payload. Its primary science mission is to to provide global, regional survey, and targeted observations from a low altitude orbit for one Martian year (687 Earth days). After a seven month interplanetary transit, the spacecraft fired its six main engines and established a highly elliptical capture orbit at Mars. During the post-MOI early check-out period, four instruments acquired engineering-quality data. This was followed by five months of aerobraking operations. After aerobraking was terminated, a series of propulsive maneuvers were used to establish the desired low altitude science orbit. As the spacecraft is readied for its primary science mission, spacecraft and instrument checkout and deployment activities have continued.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) , air bags are installed on the lander. The airbags will inflate to cushion the landing of the spacecraft on the surface of Mars. When it stops bouncing and rolling, the airbags will deflate and retract, the petals will open to bring the lander to an upright position, and the rover will be exposed. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) , air bags are installed on the lander. The airbags will inflate to cushion the landing of the spacecraft on the surface of Mars. When it stops bouncing and rolling, the airbags will deflate and retract, the petals will open to bring the lander to an upright position, and the rover will be exposed. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) is seen after installation of the air bags on the outside of the lander. The airbags will inflate to cushion the landing of the spacecraft on the surface of Mars. When it stops bouncing and rolling, the airbags will deflate and retract, the petals will open to bring the lander to an upright position, and the rover will be exposed. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) is seen after installation of the air bags on the outside of the lander. The airbags will inflate to cushion the landing of the spacecraft on the surface of Mars. When it stops bouncing and rolling, the airbags will deflate and retract, the petals will open to bring the lander to an upright position, and the rover will be exposed. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  10. MarA, SoxS and Rob of Escherichia coli - Global regulators of multidrug resistance, virulence and stress response.

    PubMed

    Duval, Valérie; Lister, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have a great capacity for adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental changes by linking extracellular stimuli to the regulation of genes by transcription factors. By working in a co-operative manner, transcription factors provide a rapid response to external threats, allowing the bacteria to survive. This review will focus on transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob in Escherichia coli , three members of the AraC family of proteins. These homologous proteins exemplify the ability to respond to multiple threats such as oxidative stress, drugs and toxic compounds, acidic pH, and host antimicrobial peptides. MarA, SoxS and Rob recognize similar DNA sequences in the promoter region of more than 40 regulatory target genes. As their regulons overlap, a finely tuned adaptive response allows E. coli to survive in the presence of different assaults in a co-ordinated manner. These regulators are well conserved amongst Enterobacteriaceae and due to their broad involvement in bacterial adaptation in the host, have recently been explored as targets to develop new anti-virulence agents. The regulators are also being examined for their roles in novel technologies such as biofuel production.

  11. From Global Reconnaissance to Sample Return: A Proposal for a Post-2009 Strategy to Follow the Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; George, J. A.; Stoker, C. R.; Briggs, G.

    2003-01-01

    Since the mid-1990's, the stated strategy of the Mars Exploration Program has been to Follow the Water. Although this strategy has been widely publicized, its degree of influence -- and the logic behind its current implementation (as reflected in mission planning, platform and instrument selection, and allocation of spacecraft resources) remains unclear. In response to this concern, we propose an integrated strategy for the post-2009 exploration of Mars that identifies the scientific objectives, rationale, sequence of missions, and specific investigations, that we believe provides the maximum possible science return by pursuing the most direct, cost-effective, and technically capable approach to following the water. This strategy is based on the orbital identification, high-resolution surface investigation, and ultimate sampling of the highest priority targets: near-surface liquid water and massive ground ice (potentially associated with the discharge of the outlflow channels or the relic of a former ocean). The analysis of such samples, in conjunction with the data acquired by the necessary precursor investigations (to identify the locations and characterize the environments of the optimum sampling sites), is expected to address a majority of the goals and high priority science objectives identified by MEPAG.

  12. How relevant is heterogeneous chemistry on Mars? Strong tests via global mapping of water and ozone (sampled via O2 dayglow)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    Ozone and water are powerful tracers of photochemical processes on Mars. Considering that water is a condensable with a multifaceted hydrological cycle and ozone is continuously being produced / destroyed on short-time scales, their maps can test the validity of current 3D photochemical and dynamical models. Comparisons of modern GCM models (e.g., Lefèvre et al. 2004) with certain datasets (e.g., Clancy et al. 2012; Bertaux et al. 2012) point to significant disagreement, which in some cases have been related to heterogeneous (gas-dust) chemistry beyond the classical gas-gas homogeneous reactions.We address these concerns by acquiring full 2D maps of water and ozone (via O2 dayglow) on Mars, employing high spectral infrared spectrometers at ground-based telescopes (CRIRES/VLT and CSHELL/NASA-IRTF). By performing a rotational analysis on the O2 lines, we derive molecular temperature maps that we use to derive the vertical level of the emission (e.g., Novak et al. 2002). Our maps sample the full observable disk of Mars on March/25/2008 (Ls=50°, northern winter) and on Jan/29/2014 (Ls=83°, northern spring). The maps reveal a strong dependence of the O2 emission and water burden on local orography, while the temperature maps are in strong disagreement with current models. Could this be the signature of heterogeneous chemistry? We will present the global maps and will discuss possible scenarios to explain the observations.This work was partially funded by grants from NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program (344-32-51-96), NASA’s Mars Fundamental Research Program (203959.02.02.20.29), NASA’s Astrobiology Program (344-53-51), and the NSF-RUI Program (AST-805540). We thank the administration and staff of the European Southern Observatory/VLT and NASA-IRTF for awarding observing time and coordinating our observations.Bertaux, J.-L., Gondet, B., Lefèvre, F., et al. 2012. J. Geophys. Res. Pl. 117. pp. 1-9.Clancy, R.T., Sandor, B.J., Wolff, M.J., et al. 2012. J. Geophys. Res

  13. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  14. Mars at Ls 288°: Syrtis Major

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-09-21

    This picture, released 21 September 2005, is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288° occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, are a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360° around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0°, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

  15. Global HRSC Image Mosaics of Mars: Dodging for High-Pass Filtering, Combined with Low-Pass-Filtered OMEGA Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, P. C.; Walter, S. H. G.; van Gasselt, S.; Dumke, A.; Dunker, T.; Gross, C.; Michael, G.; Wendt, L.; Audouard, J.; Ody, A.; Poulet, F.

    2014-07-01

    We discuss our approach towards automatically mosaicking hundreds of the HRSC panchromatic or RGB images together. Our best results consist of adding a high-pass-filtered HRSC mosaic to a low-pass-filtered OMEGA global mosaic.

  16. The impact of resolution on the dynamics of the martian global atmosphere: Varying resolution studies with the MarsWRF GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, Anthony D.; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Claire E.; Richardson, Mark I.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the circulation and thermal structure of the martian atmosphere to numerical model resolution in a general circulation model (GCM) using the martian implementation (MarsWRF) of the planetWRF atmospheric model. We provide a description of the MarsWRF GCM and use it to study the global atmosphere at horizontal resolutions from 7.5° × 9° to 0.5° × 0.5°, encompassing the range from standard Mars GCMs to global mesoscale modeling. We find that while most of the gross-scale features of the circulation (the rough location of jets, the qualitative thermal structure, and the major large-scale features of the surface level winds) are insensitive to horizontal resolution over this range, several major features of the circulation are sensitive in detail. The northern winter polar circulation shows the greatest sensitivity, showing a continuous transition from a smooth polar winter jet at low resolution, to a distinct vertically “split” jet as resolution increases. The separation of the lower and middle atmosphere polar jet occurs at roughly 10 Pa, with the split jet structure developing in concert with the intensification of meridional jets at roughly 10 Pa and above 0.1 Pa. These meridional jets appear to represent the separation of lower and middle atmosphere mean overturning circulations (with the former being consistent with the usual concept of the “Hadley cell”). Further, the transition in polar jet structure is more sensitive to changes in zonal than meridional horizontal resolution, suggesting that representation of small-scale wave-mean flow interactions is more important than fine-scale representation of the meridional thermal gradient across the polar front. Increasing the horizontal resolution improves the match between the modeled thermal structure and the Mars Climate Sounder retrievals for northern winter high latitudes. While increased horizontal resolution also improves the simulation of the northern high

  17. The stratigraphy of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1986-01-01

    A global stratigraphy of Mars was developed from a global geologic map series derived from Viking images; the stratigraphy is composed of three maps. A new chronostratigraphic classification system which consists of lower, middle, and upper Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian systems is described. The crater-density boundaries of the chronostratigraphic units and the absolute ages of the Martian epochs aer estimated. The relative ages of major geologic units and featues are calculated and analyzed. The geologic history of Mars is summarized on the maps in terms of epochs.

  18. The Mars Sample Return Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, W. J.; Cazaux, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles. c 2000 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the protective wrapping on the Mars Polar Lander to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  20. Mars Polar Lander arrives at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Polar Landerspacecraft is lifted off the trailer of that transported it to the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  1. Mars on 25 December 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    8 January 2004 This is how Mars appeared to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle system on 25 December 2003, the day that Beagle 2 and Mars Express reached the red planet. The large, dark region just left of center is Syrtis Major, a persistent low albedo terrain known to astronomers for nearly four centuries before the first spacecraft went to Mars. Immediately to the right (east) of Syrtis Major is the somewhat circular plain, Isidis Planitia. Beagle 2 arrived in Isidis Planitia only about 18 minutes before Mars Global Surveyor flew over the region and acquired a portion of this global view. Relative to other global images of Mars acquired by MGS over the past several martian years, the surface features were not as sharp and distinct on 25 December 2003 because of considerable haze kicked up by large dust storms in the western and southern hemispheres during th previous two weeks. The picture is a composite of several MGS MOC red and blue daily global images that have been map-projected and digitally wrapped to a sphere. Although the effect here is minor, inspection of this mosaic shows zones that appear smudged or blurry. The high dust opacity on 25 December impacted MOC's oblique viewing geometry toward the edges of each orbit's daily global mapping image, thus emphasizing the 'blurry' zones between images acquired on successive orbits.

  2. NASA's Mars 2020 Rover Artist's Concept #7

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover looks at the horizon in this artist's concept. The mission will not only seek out and study an area likely to have been habitable in the distant past, but it will take the next, bold step in robotic exploration of the Red Planet by seeking signs of past microbial life itself. Mars 2020 will use powerful instruments to investigate rocks on Mars down to the microscopic scale of variations in texture and composition. It will also acquire and store samples of the most promising rocks and soils that it encounters, and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth. Mars 2020 is targeted for launch in July/August 2020 aboard an Atlas V-541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22110

  3. NASA's Mars 2020 Rover Artist's Concept #5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    This artist's concept shows a close-up of NASA's Mars 2020 rover studying an outcrop. The mission will not only seek out and study an area likely to have been habitable in the distant past, but it will take the next, bold step in robotic exploration of the Red Planet by seeking signs of past microbial life itself. Mars 2020 will use powerful instruments to investigate rocks on Mars down to the microscopic scale of variations in texture and composition. It will also acquire and store samples of the most promising rocks and soils that it encounters, and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth. Mars 2020 is targeted for launch in July/August 2020 aboard an Atlas V-541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22108

  4. NASA's Mars 2020 Rover Artist's Concept #3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    This artist's rendition depicts NASA's Mars 2020 rover studying rocks with its robotic arm. The mission will not only seek out and study an area likely to have been habitable in the distant past, but it will take the next, bold step in robotic exploration of the Red Planet by seeking signs of past microbial life itself. Mars 2020 will use powerful instruments to investigate rocks on Mars down to the microscopic scale of variations in texture and composition. It will also acquire and store samples of the most promising rocks and soils that it encounters, and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth. Mars 2020 is targeted for launch in July/August 2020 aboard an Atlas V-541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22106

  5. NASA's Mars 2020 Rover Artist's Concept #6

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    This artist's rendition depicts NASA's Mars 2020 rover studying its surroundings. The mission will not only seek out and study an area likely to have been habitable in the distant past, but it will take the next, bold step in robotic exploration of the Red Planet by seeking signs of past microbial life itself. Mars 2020 will use powerful instruments to investigate rocks on Mars down to the microscopic scale of variations in texture and composition. It will also acquire and store samples of the most promising rocks and soils that it encounters, and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth. Mars 2020 is targeted for launch in July/August 2020 aboard an Atlas V-541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22109

  6. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a electrical and functional tests of its pyrotechic petal deployer system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers and technicians in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). In the background is the Pathfinder cruise stage, which the lander will be mated to once its functional tests are complete. The lander will remain attached to this stage during its six-to-seven-month journey to Mars. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the Sojourner autonomous rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  7. The climate of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, R. M.

    1986-05-01

    The composition of the primitive Martian atmosphere and its development into the present environment are described. The primitive atmosphere consisted of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen released from rocks; the greenhouse effect which maintained the surface temperature above the frost point of water is examined. Volcanic activity reduced the greenhouse effect and along with CO2 removal from the atmosphere caused a lowering of the planet temperature. The global circulation patterns on earth and Mars are compared; the similarities in the circulation patterns and Mars' seasonal variations are studied. The carbon dioxide and water cycles on Mars are analyzed; the carbon dioxide cycle determines seasonal variations in surface pressure and the behavior of the water cycle. The behavior of the atmospheric dust and the relationship between the seasonal dust cycle and Hadley circulation are investigated. The periodic variations in the three orbital parameters of Mars, which affect the climate by changing the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar energy are discussed

  8. The cascade from local to global dust storms on Mars: Temporal and spatial thresholds on thermal and dynamical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, Anthony D.; Richardson, Mark I.; Wang, Huiqun; Guzewich, Scott D.; Newman, Claire E.

    2018-03-01

    We use the MarsWRF general circulation model to examine the temporal and spatial response of the atmosphere to idealized local and regional dust storm radiative heating. The ability of storms to modify the atmosphere away from the location of dust heating is a likely prerequisite for dynamical feedbacks that aid the growth of storms beyond the local scale, while the ability of storms to modify the atmosphere after the cessation of dust radiative heating is potentially important in preconditioning the atmosphere prior to large scale storms. Experiments were conducted over a range of static, prescribed storm sizes, durations, optical depth strengths, locations, and vertical extents of dust heating. Our results show that for typical sizes (order 105 km2) and durations (1-10 sols) of local dust storms, modification of the atmosphere is less than the typical variability of the unperturbed (storm-free) state. Even if imposed on regional storm length scales (order 106 km2), a 1-sol duration storm similarly does not significantly modify the background atmosphere. Only when imposed for 10 sols does a regional dust storm create a significant impact on the background atmosphere, allowing for the possibility of self-induced dynamical storm growth. These results suggest a prototype for how the subjective observational categorization of storms may be related to objective dynamical growth feedbacks that only become available to storms after they achieve a threshold size and duration, or if they grow into an atmosphere preconditioned by a prior large and sustained storm.

  9. Mars Navigator: An Interactive Multimedia Program about Mars, Aerospace Engineering, Astronomy, and the JPL Mars Missions. [CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramoll, Kurt

    This CD-ROM introduces basic astronomy and aerospace engineering by examining the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions to Mars. It contains numerous animations and narrations in addition to detailed graphics and text. Six interactive laboratories are included to help understand topics such as the…

  10. Albedo models for the residual south polar cap on Mars: Implications for the stability of the cap under near-perihelion global dust storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, Boncho P.; Hansen, Gary B.; Glenar, David A.; James, Philip B.; Bjorkman, Jon E.

    2008-02-01

    It is uncertain whether the residual (perennial) south polar cap on Mars is a transitory or a permanent feature in the current Martian climate. While there is no firm evidence for complete disappearance of the cap in the past, clearly observable changes have been documented. Observations suggest that the perennial cap lost more CO 2 material in the spring/summer season prior to the Mariner 9 mission than in those same seasons monitored by Viking and Mars Global Surveyor. In this paper we examine one process that may contribute to these changes - the radiative effects of a planet encircling dust storm that starts during late Martian southern spring on the stability of the perennial south polar cap. To approach this, we model the radiative transfer through a dusty planetary atmosphere bounded by a sublimating CO 2 surface. A critical parameter for this modeling is the surface albedo spectrum from the near-UV to the thermal-IR, which was determined from both space-craft and Earth-based observations covering multiple wavelength regimes. Such a multi-wavelength approach is highly desirable since one spectral band by itself cannot tightly constrain the three-parameter space for polar surface albedo models, namely photon "scattering length" in the CO 2 ice and the amounts of intermixed water and dust. Our results suggest that a planet-encircling dust storm with onset near solstice can affect the perennial cap's stability, leading to advanced sublimation in a "dusty" year. Since the total amount of solid CO 2 removed by a single storm may be less than the total CO 2 thickness, a series of dust storms would be required to remove the entire residual CO 2 ice layer from the south perennial cap.

  11. Correlations Between Olivine Abundance and Thermal Inertia: Implications for Global Weathering and/or Alteration on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.; McDowell, M. L.; Koeppen, W. C.

    2010-03-01

    TES data show no global trend between thermal inertia and olivine abundance. But it is premature to conclude that all dark surfaces were once more mafic OR that olivine is not preferentially removed from olivine-enriched outcrops as they erode.

  12. Gale Crater is Low on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-02

    Gale Crater on Mars, where NASA Curiosity rover is set to land, belongs to a family of large, very old craters shown here on this elevation map. The data come from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA Mars Global Surveyor.

  13. Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

  14. MGS images of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) camera captured images of a pit formed when a straight-walled trough collapsed. The heart shaped pit is about 2.3 kilometers (1.4 miles) wide. It is located on the east flank of the Alba Patera volcano in northern Tharsis.

  15. Mars Observer: Mission toward a basic understanding of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission will provide a spacecraft platform about Mars from which the entire Martian surface and atmosphere will be observed and mapped by remote sensing instruments for at least 1 Martian year. The scientific objectives for the Mission emphasize qualitative and quantitative determination of the elemental and mineralogical composition of the surface; measurement of the global surface topography, gravity field, and magnetic field; and the development of a synoptic data base of climatological conditions. The Mission will provide basic global understanding of Mars as it exists today and will provide a framework for understanding its past.

  16. Three-and-a-Half Mars Years of Surface Albedo Changes Observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MARCI Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellington, D. F.; Bell, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) wide-angle camera aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has gathered over three-and-a-half Mars years' worth of observations at approximately 1 km/pixel resolution. The MARCI instrument has seven bands in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared, five of which (the longer wavelength 420, 550, 600, 650, and 750 nm bands) are amenable to observations of surface albedo (the two short-wave ultraviolet bands are primarily intended for ozone measurements). MRO's near-polar orbit and MARCI's wide angle field-of-view (180°) allows it to make almost daily observations of large portions of the planet. As a global multi-year dataset, the MARCI observations are well-suited to examining surface albedo changes on both local and regional scales, including investigating any repeatability and seasonality in such changes. Because Mars displays considerable interannual variability, long-term continuous observations such as MARCI's are necessary in order to adequately describe and distinguish typical surface variance from unusual and longer-term secular changes. We have produced time-lapse animations of sections of the Martian surface from calibrated, map-projected, and mosaicked MARCI observations, altogether comprising the surface of Mars within +/- 65 degrees of the equator. These animations show many albedo changes that have occurred on the surface since 2006, including changes in traditionally variable regions such as Syrtis Major, Alcyonius, Hyblaeus, and Cerberus, as well as a dramatic brightening of Propontis and variations in the appearance and orientation of mesoscale linear streaks in Amazonis. Many regions show alternating periods of dust deposition and removal that, while not producing a persistent change in the surface albedo, nevertheless yield information on the local near-surface conditions that drive these variations. We present a descriptive classification of the types and locations of surface albedo changes observed on Mars

  17. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, technicians secure the backshell with the Phoenix Mars Lander inside onto a spin table for spin testing. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  18. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, technicians lower a crane over the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft. The crane will be used to remove the heat shield from around the Phoenix. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  19. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, an overhead crane lifts the heat shield from the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  20. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    This closeup shows the spin test of the Phoenix Mars Lander in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  1. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers help guide the heat shield onto a platform. The heat shield was removed from the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft.. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  2. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the Phoenix Mars Lander (foreground) can be seen inside the backshell. In the background, workers are helping place the heat shield, just removed from the Phoenix, onto a platform. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  3. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers watch as an overhead crane lowers the heat shield toward a platform. The heat shield was removed from the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  4. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, technicians attach a crane to the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft. The crane will be used to remove the heat shield from around the Phoenix. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  5. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    An overhead crane lowers the backshell with the Phoenix Mars Lander inside toward a spin table for spin testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  6. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, an overhead crane moves the heat shield toward a platform at left. The heat shield was removed from the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft at right. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  7. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    This closeup shows the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft nestled inside the backshell. The spacecraft is ready for spin testing on the spin table to which it is attached in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  8. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    An overhead crane lifts the backshell with the Phoenix Mars Lander inside off its work stand in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The spacecraft is being moved to a spin table (back left) for spin testing. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  9. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    This closeup shows the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft nestled inside the backshell. The spacecraft will undergo spin testing on the spin table to which it is attached in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA’s Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  10. Operational Data Reduction Procedure for Determining Density and Vertical Structure of the Martian Upper Atmosphere from Mars Global Surveyor Accelerometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancro, George J.; Tolson, Robert H.; Keating, Gerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The success of aerobraking by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was partly due to the analysis of MGS accelerometer data. Accelerometer data was used to determine the effect of the atmosphere on each orbit, to characterize the nature of the atmosphere, and to predict the atmosphere for future orbits. To interpret the accelerometer data, a data reduction procedure was developed to produce density estimations utilizing inputs from the spacecraft, the Navigation Team, and pre-mission aerothermodynamic studies. This data reduction procedure was based on the calculation of aerodynamic forces from the accelerometer data by considering acceleration due to gravity gradient, solar pressure, angular motion of the MGS, instrument bias, thruster activity, and a vibration component due to the motion of the damaged solar array. Methods were developed to calculate all of the acceleration components including a 4 degree of freedom dynamics model used to gain a greater understanding of the damaged solar array. The total error inherent to the data reduction procedure was calculated as a function of altitude and density considering contributions from ephemeris errors, errors in force coefficient, and instrument errors due to bias and digitization. Comparing the results from this procedure to the data of other MGS Teams has demonstrated that this procedure can quickly and accurately describe the density and vertical structure of the Martian upper atmosphere.

  11. Mars Rover Concept Vehicle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-05

    The scientifically-themed Mars rover concept vehicle operates on an electric motor, powered by solar panels and a 700-volt battery. The rover separates in the middle with the front area designed for scouting and equipped with a radio and navigation provided by the Global Positioning System. The back section serves as a full laboratory which can disconnect for autonomous research. The "Summer of Mars" promotion is designed to provide guests with a better understanding of NASA's studies of the Red Planet. The builders of the rover, Parker Brothers Concepts of Port Canaveral, Florida, incorporated input into its design from NASA subject matter experts.

  12. Mars Says 'hi'!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 October 2004 Although one might argue that most of the 'i' is missing, and part of the 'h' has been eroded away, this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Sinus Meridiani that almost seem to spell out the word, 'hi'. This natural graffiti is all that remains of a suite of sedimentary rock that once covered the area shown here. The 400 meter scale bar is about 437 yards long. The features are located near 1.8oN, 357.2oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Strengthening the Mars Telecommunications Network

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    On Nov. 22, 2016, a NASA radio aboard the European Space Agency's (ESA's) Trace Gas Orbiter, which arrived at Mars the previous month, succeeded in its first test of receiving data transmitted from NASA Mars rovers, both Opportunity and Curiosity. This graphic depicts the geometry of Opportunity transmitting data to the orbiter, using the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band of radio wavelengths. The orbiter received that data using one of its twin Electra UHF-band radios. Data that the orbiter's Electra received from the two rovers was subsequently transmitted from the orbiter to Earth, using the orbiter's main X-band radio. The Trace Gas Orbiter is part of ESA's ExoMars program. During the initial months after its Oct. 19, 2016, arrival, it is flying in a highly elliptical orbit. Each loop takes 4.2 days to complete, with distances between the orbiter and the planet's surface ranging from about 60,000 miles (about 100,000 kilometers) to less than 200 miles (less than 310 kilometers). Later, the mission will reshape the orbit to a near-circular path about 250 miles (400 kilometers) above the surface of Mars. Three NASA orbiters and one other ESA orbiter currently at Mars also have relayed data from Mars rovers to Earth. This strategy enables receiving much more data from the surface missions than would be possible with a direct-to-Earth radio link from rovers or stationary landers. Successful demonstration of the capability added by the Trace Gas Orbiter strengthens and extends the telecommunications network at Mars for supporting future missions to the surface of the Red Planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21139

  14. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers maneuver the Mars Polar Lander onto a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  15. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) lift the Mars Polar Lander to move it to a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  16. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the Mars Polar Lander is lowered toward a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  17. Measuring Mars' Atmospheric Neutral Density from 160 to 220km with the MGS Electron Reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, R.; Engel, J.; Mitchell, D.; Brain, D.; Lin, R.; Bougher, S.; Acuna, M.

    2005-08-01

    The Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) experiment aboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) samples the local electron population's distribution in energy and pitch angle (angle between electron velocity and local magnetic field direction) at the mapping orbit altitude of ˜400km. We develop a single-particle model of the electrons' interaction with the neutral atmosphere and motion along open field-lines connecting the solar wind to remnant crustal magnetization. Electron reflection from magnetic gradients and absorption due to inelastic collisons with atmospheric neutrals results in characteristic pitch angle (PA) distributions for open field lines. By assuming the validity of spherical harmonic expansions (Cain et al, 2003) in the strongest field regions of Mars (such as Terra Sirenum), we trace the electron paths and fit these PA distributions to our model to constrain the scale height and density of the neutral atmosphere in the region of greatest absorption, 160-220km. We analyse almost 3 martian years of MGS mapping Orbit Data and present the first measurements of Mars' neutral density above 180km. Although the uncertainties in single measurements are quite large, averaging over many measurements over a period of weeks allows us to see long-term trends. Major results are: 1) a mean density of 0.03 kg/km3 at 160km with a month-averaged variation of ˜40%, 2) a very strong annual seasonal variation, confirmed by periodogram and least-squares fit and 3) increasing seasonal density variability with distance from the equator. We see broad general agreement with predictions from Mars Thermosphere Global Circulation Model (MTGCM) simulations [Bougher et al, 2004] and with inferred densities from MGS Doppler tracking data [Tracadas et al, 2001]. Our results will help to constrain the upper boundaries of GCMs and assist orbital decay calculations for low-orbiting spacecraft, such as the 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We thank the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  18. Evidence for subsurface water ice in Korolev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, J.C.; Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Following the work of Kieffer and Titus (2001, Icarus 154, 162-180), we present results of thermal IR observations of Korolev crater, located at ???73?? latitude in the martian northern polar region. Similar to techniques employed by Titus et al. (2003, Science 299, 1048-1050), we use infrared images from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey to identify several regions within the crater basin with distinct thermal properties that correlate with topography. The THEMIS results show these regions exhibit temperature variations, spatially within the crater and throughout the martian year. In addition to the variations identified in the THEMIS observations, Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations show differences in albedo and temperature of these regions on both daily and seasonal cycles. Modeling annual temperature variations of the surface, we use TES observations to examine the thermal properties of these regions. This analysis reveals the crater interior deposits are likely thick layers (several meters) of high thermal inertia material (water ice, or extremely ice-rich regolith). Spatial variations of the physical properties of these regions are likely due to topography and possibly variations in the subsurface material itself. The nature of these deposits may help constrain polar processes, as well as provide context for the polar lander mission, Phoenix. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M.; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M.; hide

    2005-01-01

    The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick.

  20. MARS PATHFINDER INSPECTED BY ENGINEER LINDA ROBECK IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility, engineer Linda Robeck of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory inspects the Mars Pathfinder lander. The spacecraft arrived at Kennedy Space Center from Pasadena, CA on Aug. 13, 1996. The petals of the lander will be opened for checkout of the spacecraft and the installation of the small rover. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  1. Spiders from Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-426, 19 July 2003

    No, this is not a picture of a giant, martian spider web. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of polygonal features on the floor of a northern hemisphere impact crater near 65.6oN, 327.7oW. The picture was acquired during spring, after the seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap had largely migrated through the region. At the time the picture was taken, remnants of seasonal frost remained on the crater rim and on the edges of the troughs that bound each of the polygons. Frost often provides a helpful hint as to where polygons and patterned ground occur. The polygons, if they were on Earth, would indicate the presence of freeze-thaw cycles in ground ice. Although uncertain, the same might be true of Mars. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis poses proudly with a banner displaying the names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers -- "Spirit" and "Opportunity" -- during a press conference. Participating in the press conference are, from left, Brad Justus, LEGO Co. senior vice president; Sofi Collis, a third grade student from Arizona; Dr. John Marburger, science advisor to the President and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; and NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. The names Sofi suggested were selected from more than 10,000 student entries in an essay contest managed for NASA by the LEGO Company. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis poses proudly with a banner displaying the names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers -- "Spirit" and "Opportunity" -- during a press conference. Participating in the press conference are, from left, Brad Justus, LEGO Co. senior vice president; Sofi Collis, a third grade student from Arizona; Dr. John Marburger, science advisor to the President and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; and NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. The names Sofi suggested were selected from more than 10,000 student entries in an essay contest managed for NASA by the LEGO Company. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis poses proudly with a banner displaying the names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers -- "Spirit" and "Opportunity" -- during a press conference. Participating in the press conference are, from left, Brad Justus, LEGO Co. senior vice president; Sofi Collis, third grade student from Arizona; Dr. John Marburger, science advisor to the President and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; and NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. The names Sofi suggested were selected from more than 10,000 student entries in an essay contest managed for NASA by the LEGO Company. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis poses proudly with a banner displaying the names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers -- "Spirit" and "Opportunity" -- during a press conference. Participating in the press conference are, from left, Brad Justus, LEGO Co. senior vice president; Sofi Collis, third grade student from Arizona; Dr. John Marburger, science advisor to the President and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; and NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. The names Sofi suggested were selected from more than 10,000 student entries in an essay contest managed for NASA by the LEGO Company. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis unveils the names of the Mars Exploration Rovers -- "Spirit" and "Opportunity" -- during a press conference. Participating in the press conference are, from left, Dr. John Marburger, science advisor to the President and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe; Sofi Collis, a third grade student from Arizona; and Brad Justus, LEGO Co. senior vice president. The names Sofi suggested were selected from more than 10,000 student entries in an essay contest managed for NASA by the LEGO Company. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis unveils the names of the Mars Exploration Rovers -- "Spirit" and "Opportunity" -- during a press conference. Participating in the press conference are, from left, Dr. John Marburger, science advisor to the President and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe; Sofi Collis, a third grade student from Arizona; and Brad Justus, LEGO Co. senior vice president. The names Sofi suggested were selected from more than 10,000 student entries in an essay contest managed for NASA by the LEGO Company. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis is introduced to the media at a press conference. The Siberian-born Arizona resident wrote the winning entry in the Name the Rovers Contest sponsored by NASA and the Lego Co., a Denmark-based toymaker, with collaboration from the Planetary Society, Pasadena, Calif. The names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers are "Spirit" and "Opportunity." The third grader's essay was chosen from more than 10,000 American student entries. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis is introduced to the media at a press conference. The Siberian-born Arizona resident wrote the winning entry in the Name the Rovers Contest sponsored by NASA and the Lego Co., a Denmark-based toymaker, with collaboration from the Planetary Society, Pasadena, Calif. The names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers are "Spirit" and "Opportunity." The third grader's essay was chosen from more than 10,000 American student entries. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis (left) shares a light moment with NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe at a press conference. The Siberian-born Arizona resident wrote the winning entry in the Name the Rovers Contest sponsored by NASA and the Lego Co., a Denmark-based toymaker, with collaboration from the Planetary Society, Pasadena, Calif. The names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers are "Spirit" and "Opportunity." The third grader's essay was chosen from more than 10,000 American student entries. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis (left) shares a light moment with NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe at a press conference. The Siberian-born Arizona resident wrote the winning entry in the Name the Rovers Contest sponsored by NASA and the Lego Co., a Denmark-based toymaker, with collaboration from the Planetary Society, Pasadena, Calif. The names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers are "Spirit" and "Opportunity." The third grader's essay was chosen from more than 10,000 American student entries. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis (left) is introduced to the media by NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe at a press conference. The Siberian-born Arizona resident wrote the winning entry in the Name the Rovers Contest sponsored by NASA and the Lego Co., a Denmark-based toymaker, with collaboration from the Planetary Society, Pasadena, Calif. The names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers are "Spirit" and "Opportunity." The third grader's essay was chosen from more than 10,000 American student entries. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Nine-year-old Sofi Collis (left) is introduced to the media by NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe at a press conference. The Siberian-born Arizona resident wrote the winning entry in the Name the Rovers Contest sponsored by NASA and the Lego Co., a Denmark-based toymaker, with collaboration from the Planetary Society, Pasadena, Calif. The names she selected for the Mars Exploration Rovers are "Spirit" and "Opportunity." The third grader's essay was chosen from more than 10,000 American student entries. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-A, with the rover Spirit aboard, is scheduled to launch on June 8 at 2:06 p.m. EDT, with two launch opportunities each day during a launch period that closes on June 24.

  8. Mars Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-04

    Colin Dundas, a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, speaks during a briefing, Thursday, Aug. 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Observations from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have revealed possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars. Dark, finger-like features appear and extend down some Martian slopes during late spring through summer, fade in winter, and return during the next spring. Repeated observations have tracked the seasonal changes in these recurring features on several steep slopes in the middle latitudes of Mars' southern hemisphere. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. Intimations of water on Mars.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    This photo essay contains images of Mars that propose evidence of the possible present or past existence of liquid water on Mars. Images were taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera. Images presented include: Polar Wall Pit region, consisting of gully landforms possibly caused by seepage and runoff of liquid water; Noachis Terra region, an area of gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater, where channels and related debris are seen, possibly formed by seepage, runoff, and debris flow; two images of Gorgonum Chaos region, one a series of troughs and layers of gullies and the other of gullies in a specific layer forming an alcove similar to an aquifer; Sirenum Fossae/Gorgonum Chaos mosaic of two images from this region of the southern hemisphere of Mars, showing 20 different channels coming down from a trough and their associated debris fans. Images and their enhancements are from NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science System.

  10. NASA's Mars 2020 Rover Artist's Concept #1 (Updated)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    This artist's concept depicts NASA's Mars 2020 rover exploring Mars. The mission will not only seek out and study an area likely to have been habitable in the distant past, but it will take the next, bold step in robotic exploration of the Red Planet by seeking signs of past microbial life itself. Mars 2020 will use powerful instruments to investigate rocks on Mars down to the microscopic scale of variations in texture and composition. It will also acquire and store samples of the most promising rocks and soils that it encounters, and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth. Mars 2020 is targeted for launch in July/August 2020 aboard an Atlas V-541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22111

  11. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  12. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  13. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  14. Estimated Radiation on Mars, Hits per Cell Nucleus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-01

    This global map of Mars, based on data from NASA Mars Odyssey, shows estimates for amounts of high-energy-particle cosmic radiation reaching the surface, a serious health concern for any future human exploration of the planet.

  15. Mars Image Collection Mosaic Builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian; Hare, Trent

    2008-01-01

    A computer program assembles images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) collection to generate a uniform-high-resolution, georeferenced, uncontrolled mosaic image of the Martian surface. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the mosaic covered 7 percent of the Martian surface and contained data from more than 50,000 source images acquired under various light conditions at various resolutions.

  16. Imaging spectroscopy of Mars in the thermal infrared: seasonal variations of H2O2 and mapping of the D/H ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Therese; DeWitt, Curtis; Richter, Matthew; Greathouse, Thomas; Fouchet, Thierry; Lefevre, Franck; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, Francois; Bezard, Bruno; Atreya, Sushil

    2017-04-01

    Since 2002, we have been monitoring the spatial distribution and the seasonal variations of H2O2 on Mars, using high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Maunakea Observatory (Hawaii). These observations have shown that a better agreement with global climate models is obtained when heterogeneous chemistry is introduced in the photochemical model (Encrenaz et al. 2015, AA 578, A127). In addition, in April 2014, we have obtained a map of D/H on Mars using the Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) aboard the stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA; Encrenaz et al. 2015, AA 586, A62). In 2016, new observations have been obtained on H2O2 with TEXES and on D/H with EXES, allowing us to better analyze the seasonal variations of these parameters. These data will be presented and compared with previous measurements.

  17. Evaluation of optical data for Mars approach navigation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerath, N.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of several optical data types which can be obtained from science and engineering instruments normally aboard interplanetary spacecraft. TV cameras are assumed to view planets or satellites and stars for celestial references. Also, spacecraft attitude sensors are assumed to yield celestial references. The investigation of approach phases of typical Mars missions showed that the navigation accuracy was greatly enhanced with the addition of optical data to radio data. Viewing stars and the planet Mars was found most advantageous ten days before Mars encounter, and viewing Deimos or Phobos and stars was most advantageous within ten days of encounter.

  18. Mars Thermal Inertia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the global thermal inertia of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 5000 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The pattern of inertia variations observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).

    The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  19. Mars Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, G. J.; Greenberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    Over the next decade, international plans and commitments are underway to develop an infrastructure at Mars to support future exploration of the red planet. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide reliable global communication and navigation coverage for on-approach, landed, roving, and in-flight assets at Mars. The claim is that this infrastructure will: 1) eliminate the need of these assets to carry Direct to Earth (DTE) communications equipment, 2) significantly increase data return and connectivity, 3) enable small mission exploration of Mars without DTE equipment, 4) provide precision navigation i.e., 10 to 100m position resolution, 5) supply timing reference accurate to 10ms. This paper in particular focuses on two CCSDS recommendations for that infrastructure: CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A key aspect of Mars exploration will be the ability of future missions to interoperate. These protocols establish a framework for interoperability by providing standard communication, navigation, and timing services. In addition, these services include strategies to recover gracefully from communication interruptions and interference while ensuring backward compatibility with previous missions from previous phases of exploration.

  20. New constraints on Mars rotation determined from radiometric tracking of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchynka, Petr; Folkner, William M.; Konopliv, Alex S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Park, Ryan S.; Le Maistre, Sebastien; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-02-01

    The Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover remained stationary between January and May 2012 in order to conserve solar energy for running its survival heaters during martian winter. While stationary, extra Doppler tracking was performed in order to allow an improved estimate of the martian precession rate. In this study, we determine Mars rotation by combining the new Opportunity tracking data with historic tracking data from the Viking and Pathfinder landers and tracking data from Mars orbiters (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). The estimated rotation parameters are stable in cross-validation tests and compare well with previously published values. In particular, the Mars precession rate is estimated to be -7606.1 ± 3.5 mas/yr. A representation of Mars rotation as a series expansion based on the determined rotation parameters is provided.

  1. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  2. Mars at Ls 12o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurred in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  3. Mars at Ls 193°: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-12

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193° occurs in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360° around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0°, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Location near: 47.3°N, 294.0°W Image width: ~3 km (~1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07837

  4. Mars at Ls 53o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    23 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  5. Mars at Ls 12o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 25o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurred in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  7. Mars at Ls 53o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    9 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Mars at Ls 230o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurred in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Mars at Ls 160o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 160o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 160o occurred in mid-February 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o--the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  10. Mars at Ls 249o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurred in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  11. Mars at Ls 66o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  12. Mars at Ls 176°: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-08

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176° occurs in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360° around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0°, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07443

  13. Mars at Ls 288o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  14. Mars at Ls 324o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  15. Mars at Ls 306o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  16. Mars at Ls 211o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurred in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  17. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  18. Mars at Ls 341o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurred in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Mars at Ls 211o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurs in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  20. Mars at Ls 324o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  1. Mars at Ls 107o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurred in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  2. Mars at Ls 193o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 April 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193o occurred in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  3. Mars at Ls 25o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  4. Mars at Ls 176o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurs in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  5. Mars at Ls 288o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 357o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  7. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Mars at Ls 230o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurs in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Mars at Ls 269o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  10. Mars at Ls 160o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 February 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 160o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 160o occurs in mid-February 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o--the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  11. Mars at Ls 93o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    8 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  12. Mars at Ls 269o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  13. Mars at Ls 306o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurred in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  14. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  15. Mars at Ls 107o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  16. Mars at Ls 66o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurred in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Mars at Ls 357o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  18. Mars at Ls 249o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  19. Mars at Ls 211°: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-24

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211° occurred in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360° around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0°, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07988

  20. Modeling Martian Dust Using Mars-GRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: TES Mapping Years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from MGCM model results driven by observed TES dust optical depth TES Mapping Year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES).

  1. Acidalia and Chryse Plains, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-14

    Somewhere down there sits the Mars Pathfinder lander and Sojourner rover. This Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera view of the red planet shows the region that includes Ares Vallis and the Chryse Plains upon which both Mars Pathfinder and the Viking 1 landed in 1997 and 1976, respectively. Acidalia Planitia is the dark surface that dominates the center left. The Pathfinder site is immediately south of Acidalia, just left of center in this view. Also shown--the north polar cap is at the top, and Arabia Terra and Sinus Meridiani are to the right. The bluish-white features are clouds. This is a color composite of 9 red and 9 blue image strips taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera on 9 successive orbits from pole-to-pole during the calibration phase of the mission in March 1999. The color is computer-enhanced and is not shown as it would actually appear to the human eye. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02000

  2. Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L. (Editor); Bell, J. F., III (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop E convened in Tucson, Arizona, in October 1997 by popular demand slightly over two years following the first successful Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held in Ithaca, New York, in August 1995. Experts on Mars from the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States were present. Twenty-eight oral presentations were made and generous time allotted for useful discussions among participants. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize active groundbased observing programs and evaluate them in the context of current and future space missions to Mars, (2) discuss new technologies and instrumentation in the context of changing emphasis of observations and theory useful for groundbased observing, and (3) more fully understand capabilities of current and planned Mars missions to better judge which groundbased observations are and will continue to be of importance to our overall Mars program. In addition, the exciting new discoveries presented from the Pathfinder experiments and the progress report from the Mars Global Surveyor infused the participants with satisfaction for the successes achieved in the early stages of these missions. Just as exciting was the enthusiasm for new groundbased programs designed to address new challenges resulting from mission science results. We would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as Dr. David Black, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the staff of the Institute's Publications and Program Services Department for providing logistical, administrative, and publication support services for this workshop.

  3. Solar radiation on Mars: Update 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data are presented from which the daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. Given the optical depth of the Mars atmosphere, the global radiation is calculated from the normalized net flux function based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The direct beam was derived from the optical depth using Beer's law, and the diffuse component was obtained from the difference of the global and the direct beam radiation. The optical depths of the Mars atmosphere were derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the cameras used on the two Viking Landers.

  4. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Polar Lander spacecraft is lowered to mate it with the Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch it on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  5. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers mate the Mars Polar Lander (top) to the Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket is scheduled to launch Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  6. Micro Weather Stations for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

  7. Mars sedimentary rock erosion rates constrained using crater counts, with applications to organic-matter preservation and to the global dust cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Mayer, David P.

    2017-04-01

    Small-crater counts on Mars light-toned sedimentary rock are often inconsistent with any isochron; these data are usually plotted then ignored. We show (using an 18-HiRISE-image, > 104-crater dataset) that these non-isochron crater counts are often well-fit by a model where crater production is balanced by crater obliteration via steady exhumation. For these regions, we fit erosion rates. We infer that Mars light-toned sedimentary rocks typically erode at ∼102 nm/yr, when averaged over 10 km2 scales and 107-108 yr timescales. Crater-based erosion-rate determination is consistent with independent techniques, but can be applied to nearly all light-toned sedimentary rocks on Mars. Erosion is swift enough that radiolysis cannot destroy complex organic matter at some locations (e.g. paleolake deposits at SW Melas), but radiolysis is a severe problem at other locations (e.g. Oxia Planum). The data suggest that the relief of the Valles Marineris mounds is currently being reduced by wind erosion, and that dust production on Mars < 3 Gya greatly exceeds the modern reservoir of mobile dust.

  8. The Solsticial Pause on Mars. Part 1; A Planetary Wave Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Stephen R.; Mulholland, David P.; Read, Peter L.; Montabone, Luca; Wilson, R. John; Smith, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale planetary waves are diagnosed from an analysis of profiles retrieved from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during its scientific mapping phase. The analysis is conducted by assimilating thermal profiles and total dust opacity retrievals into a Mars global circulation model. Transient waves are largest throughout the northern hemisphere autumn, winter and spring period and almost absent during the summer. The southern hemisphere exhibits generally weaker transient wave behavior. A striking feature of the low-altitude transient waves in the analysis is that they show a broad subsidiary minimum in amplitude centred on the winter solstice, a period when the thermal contrast between the summer hemisphere and the winter pole is strongest and baroclinic wave activity might be expected to be strong. This behavior, here called the 'solsticial pause,' is present in every year of the analysis. This strong pause is under-represented in many independent model experiments, which tend to produce relatively uniform baroclinic wave activity throughout the winter. This paper documents and diagnoses the transient wave solsticial pause found in the analysis; a companion paper investigates the origin of the phenomenon in a series of model experiments.

  9. Localized Gravity/Topography Admittances on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Admittances from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) gravity and topography yield estimates of lithosphere thickness on Mars: central Tharsis > 100 km, Alba Patera = 50 km, southern highlands < 20 km (but south polar cap > 50 km). Alba Patera and Elysium Rise are similar structures.

  10. Hydrated Minerals Exposed at Lyot, Northern Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-24

    This view of Lyot Crater is a combined mapping by NASA Project Viking with elevation information from Mars Global Surveyor showing at least one of the nine craters in the northern lowlands of Mars with exposures of hydrated minerals detected from orbit.

  11. Artificial structures on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Flandern, T.

    2002-05-01

    Approximately 70,000 images of the surface of Mars at a resolution of up to 1.4 meters per pixel, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, are now in public archives. Approximately 1% of those images show features that can be broadly described as `special shapes', `tracks, trails, and possible vegetation', `spots, stripes, and tubes', `artistic imagery', and `patterns and symbols'. Rather than optical illusions and tricks of light and shadow, most of these have the character that, if photographed on Earth, no one would doubt that they were the products of large biology and intelligence. In a few cases, relationships, context, and fulfillment of a priori predictions provide objective evidence of artificiality that is exempt from the influence of experimenter biases. Only controlled test results can be trusted because biases are strong and operate both for and against artificiality.

  12. Chemical composition of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical composition of Mars is estimated from the cosmochemical model of Ganapathy and Anders (1974) with additional petrological and geophysical constraints. The model assumes that planets and chondrites underwent the same fractionation processes in the solar nebula, and constraints are imposed by the abundance of the heat-producing elements, U, Th and K, the volatile-rich component and the high density of the mantle. Global abundances of 83 elements are presented, and it is noted that the mantle is an iron-rich garnet wehrlite, nearly identical to the bulk moon composition of Morgan at al. (1978) and that the core is sulfur poor (3.5% S). The comparison of model compositions for the earth, Venus, Mars, the moon and a eucrite parent body suggests that volatile depletion correlates mainly with size rather than with radial distance from the sun.

  13. Global Map of Thermal Neutrons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-28

    Observations by NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a global view of Mars in low energy, or thermal, neutrons. Thermal neutrons are sensitive to the presence of hydrogen and the presence of carbon dioxide, in this case dry ice frost.

  14. Climate Change on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Today, Mars is cold and dry. With a 7 mbar mean surface pressure, its thin predominantly CO2 atmosphere is not capable of raising global mean surface temperatures significantly above its 217K effective radiating temperature, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is equivalent to a global ocean only 10 microns deep. Has Mars always been in such a deep freeze? There are several lines of evidence that suggest it has not. First, there are the valley networks which are found throughout the heavily cratered terrains. These features are old (3.8 Gyr) and appear to require liquid water to form. A warm climate early in Mars' history has often been invoked to explain them, but the precise conditions required to achieve this have yet to be determined. Second, some of the features seen in orbiter images of the surface have been interpreted in terms of glacial activity associated with an active hydrological cycle some several billion years ago. This interpretation is controversial as it requires the release of enormous quantities of ground water and enough greenhouse warming to raise temperatures to the melting point. Finally, there are the layered terrains that characterize both polar regions. These terrains are geologically young (10 Myr) and are believed to have formed by the slow and steady deposition of dust and water ice from the atmosphere. The individual layers result from the modulation of the deposition rate which is driven by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. The ongoing research into each of these areas of Martian climate change will be reviewed, and similarities to the Earth's climate system will be noted.

  15. Successful Mars remote sensors, MO THEMIS and MER Mini-TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Steven; Christensen, Phil

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes results of the calibration of the miniature thermal emission spectrometer (Mini-TES) and the thermal emission imaging system (THEMIS) built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) under contract to Arizona State University (ASU). This paper also serves as an update to an earlier paper (Silverman et al., 2003) for mission description and instrument designs (Schueler et al., 2003). A major goal of the Mars exploration program is to help determine whether life ever existed on Mars via detailed in situ studies and surface sample return. It is essential to identify landing sites with the highest probability of containing samples indicative of early pre-biotic or biotic environments. Of particular interest are aqueous and/or hydrothermal environments in which life could have existed, or regions of current near-surface water or heat sources [Exobiology_Working_Group, 1995, An Exobiological Strategy for Mars Exploration, NASA Headquarters]. The search requires detailed geologic mapping and accurate interpretations of site composition and history in a global context. THEMIS and Mini-TES were designed to do this and builds upon a wealth of data from previous experiments. Previous experiments include the Mariner 6/7 Mars infrared radiometer (MIR) and infrared spectrometer [G.C. Pimentel, P.B. Forney, K.C. Herr, Evidence about hydrate and solid water in the martian surface from the 1969 Mariner infrared spectrometer, Journal of Geophysical Research 79(11) (1974) 1623 1634], the Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) [B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Kunde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9, Journal of Geophysical Research 78 (1973) 4267 4278], the Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) [H.H. Kieffer, T.Z. Martin, A.R. Peterfreund, B.M. Jakosky, E.D. Miner, F.D. Palluconi, Thermal and albedo mapping of Mars during the Viking

  16. New Perspectives on Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Aharonson, O.; Aurnou, J. M.; Banerdt, W. B.; Carr, M. H.; Dombard, A. J.; Frey, H. V.; Golombek, M. P.; Hauck, S. A., II; Head, J. W., III

    2004-01-01

    Global data sets returned by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express spacecraft and recent analyses of Martian meteorites suggest that most of the major geological events of Martian history occurred within the first billion years of solar system formation. This period was a time of heavy impact bombardment of the inner solar system, a process that strongly overprinted much of the Martian geological record from that time. Geophysical signatures nonetheless remain from that period in the Martian crust, and several geochemical tracers of early events are found in Martian meteorites. Collectively, these observations provide insight into the earliest era in Martian history when the conditions favoring life were best satisfied.

  17. Mars at Ls 53°: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-09

    This picture is a composite of MOC daily global images acquired at Ls 53° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53° occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars

  18. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Dale; Barnes, Timothy; Bryant, Woody; Chowdhury, Parveen; Dillard, Joe; Gardner, Vernadette; Gregory, George; Harmon, Cheryl; Harrell, Brock; Hilton, Sherrill

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual design for a permanently manned, self-sustaining Martian facility, to accommodate a crew of 20 people. The goal is to incorporate the major functions required for long term habitation in the isolation of a barren planet into a thriving ecosystem. These functions include living, working, service, and medical facilities as well as a green house. The main design task was to focus on the internal layout while investigating the appropriate structure, materials, and construction techniques. The general concept was to create a comfortable, safe living environment for the crew members for a stay of six to twelve months on Mars. Two different concepts were investigated, a modular assembly reusable structure (MARS) designated Lavapolis, and a prefabricated space frame structure called Hexamars. Both models take into account factors such as future expansion, radiation shielding, and ease of assembly.

  19. Mars: Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The atmosphere of MARS is much thinner than the terrestrial one. However, even the simplest visual telescopic observations show a set of atmospheric events such as seasonal exchange of material between polar caps, temporal appearance of clouds and changes of visibility of dark regions on the disk of the planet. In 1947 the prominent CO2 bands in the near-infrared part of the Martian spectrum were...

  20. Independent Verification of Mars-GRAM 2010 with Mars Climate Sounder Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, Kerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission and engineering applications. Applications of Mars-GRAM include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Atmospheric influences on landing site selection and long-term mission conceptualization and development can also be addressed utilizing Mars-GRAM. Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte Carlo mode, to perform high-fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing. Mars-GRAM is an evolving software package resulting in improved accuracy and additional features. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Above 80 km, Mars-GRAM is based on the University of Michigan Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The most recent release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes an update to Fortran 90/95 and the addition of adjustment factors. These adjustment factors are applied to the input data from the MGCM and the MTGCM for the mapping year 0 user-controlled dust case. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), latitude and areocentric solar longitude (Ls).

  1. Dynamic Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-30

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows a channel system flowing to the southwest toward the huge Hellas impact basin. Click on the image for larger version The scarp at the edge of the North Polar layered deposits of Mars is the site of the most frequent frost avalanches seen by HiRISE. At this season, northern spring, frost avalanches are common and HiRISE monitors the scarp to learn more about the timing and frequency of the avalanches, and their relationship to the evolution of frost on the flat ground above and below the scarp. This picture managed to capture a small avalanche in progress, right in the color strip. See if you can spot it in the browse image, and then click on the cutout to see it at full resolution. The small white cloud in front of the brick red cliff is likely carbon dioxide frost dislodged from the layers above, caught in the act of cascading down the cliff. It is larger than it looks, more than 20 meters across, and (based on previous examples) it will likely kick up clouds of dust when it hits the ground. The avalanches tend to take place at a season when the North Polar region is warming, suggesting that the avalanches may be triggered by thermal expansion. The avalanches remind us, along with active sand dunes, dust devils, slope streaks and recurring slope lineae, that Mars is an active and dynamic planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19961

  2. Lessons Learned from Coordinating Relay Activities at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy E.; Hwang, Pauline; Waggoner, Bruce; McLaughlin, Bruce; Fieseler, Paul; Thomas, Reid; Bigwood, Maria; Herrera, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Mission Management Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was tasked with coordinating the relay of data between multiple spacecraft at Mars in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Missions in early 2004. The confluence of three orbiters (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express), two rovers (Spirit and Opportunity), and one lander (Beagle 2) has provided a challenging operational scenario that required careful coordination between missions to provide the necessary support and to avoid potential interference during simultaneous relay sessions. As these coordination efforts progressed, several important lessons were learned that should be applied to future Mars relay activities.

  3. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Wilson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ?5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ?2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ?14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI?s resolution is comparable at ?30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  4. Recent studies of the optical properties of dust and cloud particles in the Mars atmosphere and the interannual frequency of global dust storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Muhleman, D. O.

    1991-01-01

    The results of research with two distinctly separate sets of observations yield new information on the optical properties of particulate scatterers in the Mars atmosphere, and on the interannual variability of the abundance of such scatterers in the Mars atmosphere. The first set of observations were taken by the IRTM (Infrared Thermal Mapper) instrument onboard the Viking Orbiters, during the period 1976 to 1980. Several hundred emission phase function (EPF) sequences were obtained over the Viking mission, in which the IRTM visual brightness channel observed the same area of surface/atmosphere as the spacecraft passed overhead. The 1 to 2 percent accuracy of calibration and the phase-angle coverage that characterizes these data make them ideally suited to determining both the optical depths and optical properties of dust and cloud scatterers in the Mars atmosphere versus latitude, longitude, seasons (L sub s), and surface elevation over the extended period of Viking observations. The EPF data were analyzed with a multiple scattering radiative transfer code to determine dust single scattering albedos which are distinctly higher than indicated by the Viking Lander observations. The second set of observations regard ground-based observations of the 1.3 to 2.6 mm rotational transitions of CO in the Martian atmosphere. The low-to-mid latitude average of the atmospheric temperature profile (0 to 70 km altitude) were derived from a number of such observations over the 1980 to 1990 period.

  5. MARS15

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai

    MARS is a Monte Carlo code for inclusive and exclusive simulation of three-dimensional hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, muon, heavy-ion and low-energy neutron transport in accelerator, detector, spacecraft and shielding components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV. Recent developments in the MARS15 physical models of hadron, heavy-ion and lepton interactions with nuclei and atoms include a new nuclear cross section library, a model for soft pion production, the cascade-exciton model, the quark gluon string models, deuteron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus interaction models, detailed description of negative hadron and muon absorption and a unified treatment ofmore » muon, charged hadron and heavy-ion electromagnetic interactions with matter. New algorithms are implemented into the code and thoroughly benchmarked against experimental data. The code capabilities to simulate cascades and generate a variety of results in complex media have been also enhanced. Other changes in the current version concern the improved photo- and electro-production of hadrons and muons, improved algorithms for the 3-body decays, particle tracking in magnetic fields, synchrotron radiation by electrons and muons, significantly extended histograming capabilities and material description, and improved computational performance. In addition to direct energy deposition calculations, a new set of fluence-to-dose conversion factors for all particles including neutrino are built into the code. The code includes new modules for calculation of Displacement-per-Atom and nuclide inventory. The powerful ROOT geometry and visualization model implemented in MARS15 provides a large set of geometrical elements with a possibility of producing composite shapes and assemblies and their 3D visualization along with a possible import/export of geometry descriptions created by other codes (via the GDML format) and CAD systems (via the STEP format). The built-in MARS

  6. Density of Mars' south polar layered deposits.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Smith, David E; Smrekar, Suzanne E

    2007-09-21

    Both poles of Mars are hidden beneath caps of layered ice. We calculated the density of the south polar layered deposits by combining the gravity field obtained from initial results of radio tracking of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter with existing surface topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and basal topography from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding on the Mars Express spacecraft. The results indicate a best-fit density of 1220 kilograms per cubic meter, which is consistent with water ice that has approximately 15% admixed dust. The results demonstrate that the deposits are probably composed of relatively clean water ice and also refine the martian surface-water inventory.

  7. The NASA environmental models of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. I.

    1991-01-01

    NASA environmental models are discussed with particular attention given to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and the Mars Terrain simulator. The Mars-GRAM model takes into account seasonal, diurnal, and surface topography and dust storm effects upon the atmosphere. It is also capable of simulating appropriate random density perturbations along any trajectory path through the atmosphere. The Mars Terrain Simulator is a software program that builds pseudo-Martian terrains by layering the effects of geological processes upon one another. Output pictures of the constructed surfaces can be viewed from any vantage point under any illumination conditions. Attention is also given to the document 'Environment of Mars, 1988' in which scientific models of the Martian atmosphere and Martian surface are presented.

  8. Parameterization of Rocket Dust Storms on Mars in the LMD Martian GCM: Modeling Details and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Forget, François; Bertrand, Tanguy; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Navarro, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the detached dust layers observed by the Mars Climate Sounder aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is still debated. Spiga et al. (2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20046) revealed that deep mesoscale convective "rocket dust storms" are likely to play an important role in forming these dust layers. To investigate how the detached dust layers are generated by this mesoscale phenomenon and subsequently evolve at larger scales, a parameterization of rocket dust storms to represent the mesoscale dust convection is designed and included into the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) Martian Global Climate Model (GCM). The new parameterization allows dust particles in the GCM to be transported to higher altitudes than in traditional GCMs. Combined with the horizontal transport by large-scale winds, the dust particles spread out and form detached dust layers. During the Martian dusty seasons, the LMD GCM with the new parameterization is able to form detached dust layers. The formation, evolution, and decay of the simulated dust layers are largely in agreement with the Mars Climate Sounder observations. This suggests that mesoscale rocket dust storms are among the key factors to explain the observed detached dust layers on Mars. However, the detached dust layers remain absent in the GCM during the clear seasons, even with the new parameterization. This implies that other relevant atmospheric processes, operating when no dust storms are occurring, are needed to explain the Martian detached dust layers. More observations of local dust storms could improve the ad hoc aspects of this parameterization, such as the trigger and timing of dust injection.

  9. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  10. Tectonic implications of Mars crustal magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuña, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Kletetschka, G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.

    2005-01-01

    Mars currently has no global magnetic field of internal origin but must have had one in the past, when the crust acquired intense magnetization, presumably by cooling in the presence of an Earth-like magnetic field (thermoremanent magnetization). A new map of the magnetic field of Mars, compiled by using measurements acquired at an ≈400-km mapping altitude by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, is presented here. The increased spatial resolution and sensitivity of this map provide new insight into the origin and evolution of the Mars crust. Variations in the crustal magnetic field appear in association with major faults, some previously identified in imagery and topography (Cerberus Rupes and Valles Marineris). Two parallel great faults are identified in Terra Meridiani by offset magnetic field contours. They appear similar to transform faults that occur in oceanic crust on Earth, and support the notion that the Mars crust formed during an early era of plate tectonics. PMID:16217034

  11. Tectonic implications of Mars crustal magnetism.

    PubMed

    Connerney, J E P; Acuña, M H; Ness, N F; Kletetschka, G; Mitchell, D L; Lin, R P; Reme, H

    2005-10-18

    Mars currently has no global magnetic field of internal origin but must have had one in the past, when the crust acquired intense magnetization, presumably by cooling in the presence of an Earth-like magnetic field (thermoremanent magnetization). A new map of the magnetic field of Mars, compiled by using measurements acquired at an approximately 400-km mapping altitude by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, is presented here. The increased spatial resolution and sensitivity of this map provide new insight into the origin and evolution of the Mars crust. Variations in the crustal magnetic field appear in association with major faults, some previously identified in imagery and topography (Cerberus Rupes and Valles Marineris). Two parallel great faults are identified in Terra Meridiani by offset magnetic field contours. They appear similar to transform faults that occur in oceanic crust on Earth, and support the notion that the Mars crust formed during an early era of plate tectonics.

  12. Exobiological exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    Klein, H P; DeVincenzi, D L

    1995-03-01

    Of all the other planets in the solar system, Mars remains the most promising for further elucidating concepts about chemical evolution and the origin of life. Strategies were developed to pursue three exobiological objectives for Mars exploration: determining the abundance and distribution of the biogenic elements and organic compounds, detecting evidence of an ancient biota on Mars, and determining whether indigenous organisms exist anywhere on the planet. The three strategies are quite similar and, in fact, share the same sequence of phases. In the first phase, each requires global reconnaissance and remote sensing by orbiters to select sites of interest for detailed in situ analyses. In the second phase, lander missions are conducted to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the selected sites. The third phase involves conducting "critical" experiments at sites whose properties make them particularly attractive for exobiology. These critical experiments would include, for example, identification of organics, detection of fossils, and detection of extant life. The fourth phase is the detailed analysis of samples returned from these sites in Earth-based laboratories to confirm and extend previous discoveries. Finally, in the fifth phase, human exploration is needed to establish the geological settings for the earlier findings or to discover and explore sites that are not accessible to robotic spacecraft.

  13. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Heat Shield Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-11

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft undergoes spin testing. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA's Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  14. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Heat Shield Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-11

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, technicians complete the installation of the heat shield on the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA's Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  15. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Heat Shield Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-11

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, technicians prepare to install the heat shield on the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA's Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  16. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Heat Shield Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-11

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the heat shield for the Phoenix Mars Lander is moved into position for installation on the spacecraft. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA's Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  17. Phoenix Mars Lander Spacecraft Heat Shield Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-11

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, technicians install the heat shield on the Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft. The Phoenix mission is the first project in NASA's first openly competed program of Mars Scout missions. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. It will serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars and open the door to a renewed search for carbon-bearing compounds, last attempted with NASA's Viking missions in the 1970s. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while the other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes can reveal features as small as one one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  18. Mars at Ls 137o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 November 2006 These images capture what Mars typically looks like in mid-afternoon at Ls 137o. In other words, with the exception of occasional differences in weather and polar frost patterns, this is what the red planet looks like this month (November 2006).

    Six views are shown, including the two polar regions. These are composites of 24-26 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global mapping images acquired at red and blue wavelengths. The 'hole' over the south pole is an area where no images were obtained, because this polar region is enveloped in wintertime darkness.

    Presently, it is summer in the northern hemisphere and winter in the southern hemisphere. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Northern summer/southern winter begins at Ls 90o, northern autumn/southern spring start at Ls 180o, and northern winter/southern summer begin at Ls 270o.

    Ls 137o occurs in the middle of this month (November 2006). The pictures show how Mars appeared to the MOC wide angle cameras at a previous Ls 137o in March 2001. The six views are centered on the Tharsis region (upper left), Acidalia and Mare Eyrthraeum (upper right), Syrtis Major and Hellas (middle left), Elysium and Mare Cimmeria (middle right), the north pole (lower left), and the south pole (lower right).

  19. Mars at Ls 121o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    1 October 2006 These images capture what Mars typically looks like in mid-afternoon at L s 121o. In other words, with the exception of occasional differences in weather and polar frost patterns, this is what the red planet looks like this month (October 2006).

    Six views are shown, including the two polar regions. These are composites of 24-26 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global mapping images acquired at red and blue wavelengths. The 'hole' over the south pole is an area where no images were obtained, because this polar region is enveloped in wintertime darkness.

    Presently, it is summer in the northern hemisphere and winter in the southern hemisphere. Ls, solar longitude, a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Northern summer/southern winter begins at Ls 90o, northern autumn/southern spring start at Ls 180o, and northern winter/southern summer begin at Ls 270o.

    Ls 121o occurs in the middle of this month (October 2006). The pictures show how Mars appeared to the MOC wide angle cameras at a previous Ls 121o in February 2001. The six views are centered on the Tharsis region (upper left), Acidalia and Mare Eyrthraeum (upper right), Syrtis Major and Hellas (middle left), Elysium and Mare Cimmeria (middle right), the north pole (lower left), and the south pole (lower right).

  20. Mars Aerocapture and Validation of Mars-GRAM with TES Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is a widely-used engineering- level Mars atmospheric model. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Typical Mars aerocapture periapsis altitudes (for systems with rigid-aeroshell heat shields) are about 50 km. This altitude is above the 0-40 km height range covered by Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) nadir observations. Recently, TES limb sounding data have been made available, spanning more than two Mars years (more than 200,000 data profiles) with altitude coverage up to about 60 km, well within the height range of interest for aerocapture. Results are presented comparing Mars-GRAM atmospheric density with densities from TES nadir and limb sounding observations. A new Mars-GRAM feature is described which allows individual TES nadir or limb profiles to be extracted from the large TES databases, and to be used as an optional replacement for standard Mars-GRAM background (climatology) conditions. For Monte-Carlo applications such as aerocapture guidance and control studies, Mars-GRAM perturbations are available using these TES profile background conditions.

  1. Mars @ ASDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  2. The NASA Mars Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiber, Duke B.

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space.

  3. Mars Helicopter Technology Demonstration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-11

    The Mars Helicopter is a technology demonstration that will fly as a secondary payload with the Mars 2020 mission. It will demonstrate the potential of aerial flight on Mars, which may enable more ambitious missions in the future.

  4. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  5. Mars Program Independent Assessment Team Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Thomas; Arnold, James; Brackey, Thomas; Carr, Michael; Dwoyer, Douglas; Fogleman, Ronald; Jacobson, Ralph; Kottler, Herbert; Lyman, Peter; Maguire, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter failed to achieve Mars orbit on September 23, 1999. On December 3, 1999, Mars Polar Lander and two Deep Space 2 microprobes failed. As a result, the NASA Administrator established the Mars Program Independent Assessment Team (MPIAT) with the following charter: 1) Review and analyze successes and failures of recent Mars and Deep Space Missions which include: a) Mars Global Surveyor, b) Mars Climate Orbiter, c) Pathfinder, d) Mars Polar Lander, e) Deep Space 1, and f) Deep Space 2; 2) Examine the relationship between and among, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), NASA Headquarters, and industry partners; 3) Assess effectiveness of involvement of scientists; 4) Identify lessons learned from successes and failures; 5) Review revised Mars Surveyor Program to assure lessons learned are utilized; 6) Oversee Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 failure reviews; and 7) Complete by March 15, 2000. In-depth reviews were conducted at NASA Headquarters, JPL, and Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA). Structured reviews, informal sessions with numerous Mars Program participants, and extensive debate and discussion within the MPIAT establish the basis for this report. The review process began on January 7, 2000, and concluded with a briefing to the NASA Administrator on March 14, 2000. This report represents the integrated views of the members of the MPIAT who are identified in the appendix. In total, three related reports have been produced: a summary report, this report entitled "Mars Program Independent Assessment Team Report," and the "Report on the Loss of the Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Missions".

  6. One Mars year: viking lander imaging observations.

    PubMed

    Jones, K L; Arvidson, R E; Guinness, E A; Bragg, S L; Wall, S D; Carlston, C E; Pidek, D G

    1979-05-25

    Throughout the complete Mars year during which they have been on the planet, the imaging systems aboard the two Viking landers have documented a variety of surface changes. Surface condensates, consisting of both solid H(2)O and CO(2), formed at the Viking 2 lander site during the winter. Additional observations suggest that surface erosion rates due to dust redistribution may be substantially less than those predicted on the basis of pre-Viking observations. The Viking 1 lander will continue to acquire and transmit a predetermined sequence of imaging and meteorology data as long as it is operative.

  7. Mars Exploration Using Biomorphic Flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakoor, S.; Chahl, J.; Srinivasan, M.; Cabrol, N.; Young, L.; Hine, B.; Zornetzer, S.

    Mars imagery obtained by the Mariner, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions suggests the previous existence of abundant liquid water (considered essential for life as we know it). It is not clear what transpired on the Martian climate to have turned the planet in to the desert that it is today. Developing a comprehensive understanding of the past and present climatic events for our sister planet Mars may provide important information relevant to the future health and well being of our own planet. Following and exploring water flow features is a valuable strategy in the search for extant or extinct life, it satisfies our fundamental scientific curiosity, and could provide answers to the fundamental questions surrounding the question of the origins of life in our solar system. Low altitude air-borne exploration of Mars offers a means for covering large areas, perhaps up to several hundred kilometers, quickly and efficiently. Aerial exploration should provide a close-up birds eye view of the planetary terrain. Exploration that can only be imagined today could become a reality if we develop methods to fly on Mars and navigate through its difficult terrain to image/study sites of interest. Mars offers a substantial challenge to conventional flight due to its thin atmosphere (about a hundredth that on Earth); lack of magnetic compassing for navigation, and the limited telecommunications or navigational infrastructure. To meet and overcome these challenges, we are adapting for Mars exploration principles proven successful in nature to achieve stable flight control and navigation. By incorporating engineering solutions modeled on successful biological solutions we will provide novel and highly effective micro flyer capabilities suitable for aerial surveillance of Mars. We will describe a few example sites on Mars whose exploration absolutely requires the ability to cover several hundred kilometers. We will illustrate how autonomous biomorphic

  8. Orbitally-Induced, Quasi-Periodic Climate Change on Mars: Modelling Changes in the Global Cycling of Water and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischna, M. A.; Richardson, M. I.; Wilson, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    Mars' orbital parameters (obliquity, eccentricity and argument of perihelion) are thought to have varied substantially on time scales >105 years. Such variations, especially in obliquity, may drastically affect the circulation of the atmosphere and volatile cycling. In this study, we focus on the response of the water and carbon dioxide cycles to changes in these orbital parameters, chiefly obliquity. The study employs the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars General Circulation Model, conducting simulations over a range of orbital states to examine changes in the cycling and deposition of these volatiles. This model contains full 3D accounting of atmospheric water and carbon dioxide as well as a basic dust cycle. The present martian obliquity is 25°, though it is believed to have recently varied between 15 and 45 degrees. Our simulations look at present martian conditions, only with obliquity varying between 5 and 60 degrees. Simulations are run out until water and carbon dioxide budgets have reached equilibrium--typically 30-40 years. As expected, volatile cycling on Mars increases with obliquity, as the polar caps are exposed to increased insolation, leading to greater seasonal ice caps and ultimately development of surface water ice in the now thermally favorible low latitudes. By 45°, water ice is stable in a broad band just north of the equator. Such an ice distribution has potential implications for the surface wind pattern through the ice-albedo effect on surface heating. Permanent polar CO2 caps are not stable under present conditions, but we find CO2 cap growth and corresponding atmospheric deflation to be evident at very low obliquities. We find that for most choices of orbital conditions, the northern hemisphere remains the stable pole for water ice, a result of the martian topographic dichotomy. We have begun to look at the impact of desorbed CO2 and H2O ice from the regolith on climatic conditions. Present estimates of the volatile abundance

  9. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  10. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers lower the heat shield onto the Mars Polar Lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  11. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Climate Orbiter is free of the protective canister that surrounded it during the move to the pad. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  12. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers place aside a piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  13. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the last piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  14. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers get ready to lift the heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander off the workstand before attaching it to the lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  15. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers remove the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  16. Design, Development and Testing of Airplanes for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The opportunity for a piggyback mission to Mars aboard an Ariane 5 rocket in the early spring of 1999 set off feverish design activity at several NASA centers. This report describes the contract work done by faculty, students, and consultants at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo California (Cal poly/SLO) to support the NASA/Ames design, construction and test efforts to develop a simple and robust Mars Flyer configuration capable of performing a practical science mission on Mars. The first sections will address the conceptual design of a workable Mars Flyer configuration which started in the spring and summer of 1999. The following sections will focus on construction and flight test of two full-scale vehicles. The final section will reflect on the overall effort and make recommendations for future work.

  17. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  18. Scientists Track 'Perfect Storm' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Two dramatically different faces of our Red Planet neighbor appear in these comparison images showing how a global dust storm engulfed Mars with the onset of Martian spring in the Southern Hemisphere. When NASA's Hubble Space Telescope imaged Mars in June, the seeds of the storm were caught brewing in the giant Hellas Basin (oval at 4 o'clock position on disk) and in another storm at the northern polar cap.

    When Hubble photographed Mars in early September, the storm had already been raging across the planet for nearly two months obscuring all surface features. The fine airborne dust blocks a significant amount of sunlight from reaching the Martian surface. Because the airborne dust is absorbing this sunlight, it heats the upper atmosphere. Seasonal global Mars dust storms have been observed from telescopes for over a century, but this is the biggest storm ever seen in the past several decades.

    Mars looks gibbous in the right photograph because it is 26 million miles farther from Earth than in the left photo (though the pictures have been scaled to the same angular size), and our viewing angle has changed. The left picture was taken when Mars was near its closest approach to Earth for 2001 (an event called opposition); at that point the disk of Mars was fully illuminated as seen from Earth because Mars was exactly opposite the Sun.

    Both images are in natural color, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  19. Known Locations of Carbonate Rocks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Green dots show the locations of orbital detections of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars, determined by analysis of targeted observations by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) acquired through January 2008. The spectrometer is on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The base map is color-coded global topography (red is high, blue is low) overlain on mosaicked daytime thermal infrared images. The topography data are from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The thermal infrared imagery is from the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

    The CRISM team, led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. Arizona State University, Tempe, operates the Thermal Emission Imaging System, which the university developed in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey projects for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiters.

  20. Mars-GRAM Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Mars-Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) and its new features. One important new feature is the "auxiliary profile" option, whereby a simple input file is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) for three candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites (Terby Crater, Melas Chasma, and Gale Crater). A global Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) database has also been generated for purposes of making 'Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components, averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude bins and 15 degree L(sub S) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Comparisons show reasonably good consistency between Mars-GRAM with low dust optical depth and both TES observed and mesoscale model simulated density at the three study sites. Mean winds differ by a more significant degree. Comparisons of mesoscale and TES standard deviations' with conventional Mars-GRAM values, show that Mars-GRAM density perturbations are somewhat conservative (larger than observed variability), while mesoscale-modeled wind variations are larger than Mars-GRAM model estimates. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  1. MAHLI on Mars: lessons learned operating a geoscience camera on a landed payload robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Ravine, Michael A.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.

    2016-06-01

    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) is a 2-megapixel, color camera with resolution as high as 13.9 µm pixel-1. MAHLI has operated successfully on the Martian surface for over 1150 Martian days (sols) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. During that time MAHLI acquired images to support science and science-enabling activities, including rock and outcrop textural analysis; sand characterization to further the understanding of global sand properties and processes; support of other instrument observations; sample extraction site documentation; range-finding for arm and instrument placement; rover hardware and instrument monitoring and safety; terrain assessment; landscape geomorphology; and support of rover robotic arm commissioning. Operation of the instrument has demonstrated that imaging fully illuminated, dust-free targets yields the best results, with complementary information obtained from shadowed images. The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow satisfactory night imaging but do not improve daytime shadowed imaging. MAHLI's combination of fine-scale, science-driven resolution, RGB color, the ability to focus over a large range of distances, and relatively large field of view (FOV), have maximized the return of science and science-enabling observations given the MSL mission architecture and constraints.

  2. MARS PATHFINDER CAMERA TEST IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are conducting a systems test of the imager for the Mars Pathfinder. Mounted on the Pathfinder lander, the imager (the white cylindrical element the worker is touching) is a specially designed camera featuring a stereo-imaging system with color capability provided by a set of selectable filters. It is mounted on an extendable mast that will pop up after the lander touches down on the Martian surface. The imager will transmit images of the terrain, allowing engineers back on Earth to survey the landing site before the Pathfinder rover is deployed to explore the area. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2. JPL manages the Pathfinder project for NASA.

  3. Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

    2006-01-01

    The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

  4. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 154(i), 154(j), 157(a), 302(a), 303(c), 303(e), 303(f), 303(g... Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service...-orbit space stations operating in the 10.95-11.2 GHz, 11.45-11.7 GHz, 11.7-12.2 GHz and 14.0-14.5 GHz...

  5. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians lower the Mars Polar Lander onto a workstand. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. The solar-powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The Lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  6. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER REMOVED FROM SHIPPING CONTAINER IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from Jet Propulsion Laboratory remove the Mars Pathfinder lander from its shipping container, still covered in protective wrapping. Pictured from L-R, Linda Robeck, Jerry Gutierrez, Lorraine Garcia, Chuck Foehlinger of JPL. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  7. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), a KSC technician takes part in testing science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems on the Mars Polar Lander. The solar- powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  8. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians look over the Mars Polar Lander. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. Targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The Lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  9. NASA Software Lets You Explore Mars, the Asteroid Vesta and the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-06

    NASA wants you to use your web browser to explore Mars, the Moon and the asteroid Vesta! The three portals are some of NASA's planetary mapping and modeling web portals. It makes it easy for mission planners, scientists, students and the public to visualize details on the surface of Mars, the Moon and Vesta, as seen with a variety of instruments aboard a number of spacecraft.

  10. Mars exploration advances: Missions to Mars - Mars base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, Fred R.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of Mars missions and related planning with attention given to four mission architectures in the light of significant limitations. Planned unpiloted missions are discussed including the Mars Orbital Mapping Mission, the Mars Rover Sample Return, the Mars Aeronomy Orbiter, and the Mars Environmental Survey. General features relevant to the missions are mentioned including launch opportunities, manned-mission phases, and propulsion options. The four mission architectures are set forth and are made up of: (1) the Mars-exploration infrastructures; (2) science emphasis for the moon and Mars; (3) the moon to stay and Mars exploration; and (4) space resource utilization. The possibility of robotic missions to the moon and Mars is touched upon and are concluded to be possible by the end of the century. The ramifications of a Mars base are discussed with specific reference to habitability and base activities, and the human missions are shown to require a heavy-lift launcher and either chemical/aerobrake or nuclear-thermal propulsion system.

  11. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  12. Mars Exploration Rovers: 4 Years on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This January, the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are starting their fifth year of exploring the surface of Mars, well over ten times their nominal 90-day design lifetime. This lecture discusses the Mars Exploration Rovers, presents the current mission status for the extended mission, some of the most results from the mission and how it is affecting our current view of Mars, and briefly presents the plans for the coming NASA missions to the surface of Mars and concepts for exploration with robots and humans into the next decade, and beyond.

  13. Computer processing of Mars Odyssey THEMIS IR imaging, MGS MOLA altimetry and Mars Express stereo imaging to locate Airy-0, the Mars prime meridian reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Thomas; Neukum, Gerhard; Smith, David E.; Christensen, Philip; Neumann, Gregory; Albee, Arden; Caplinger, Michael; Seregina, N. V.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    The small crater Airy-0 was selected from Mariner 9 images to be the reference for the Mars prime meridian. Initial analyses were made in year 2000 to tie Viking Orbiter and Mars Orbiter Camera images of Airy-0 to the evolving Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model to improve the location accuracy of Airy-0. Based upon this tie and radiometric tracking of landers / rovers from earth, new expressions for the Mars spin axis direction, spin rate and prime meridian epoch value were produced to define the orientation of the Martian surface in inertial space over time. Now that the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model are complete, a more exhaustive study has been performed to determine the location of Airy-0 relative to the global terrain grid. THEMIS IR image cubes of the Airy and Gale crater regions were tied to the global terrain grid using precision stereo photogrammetric image processing techniques. The Airy-0 location was determined to be within 50 meters of the currently defined IAU prime meridian, with this offset at the limiting absolute accuracy of the global terrain grid. Additional outputs of this study were a controlled multi-band photomosaic of Airy, precision alignment and geometric models of the ten THEMIS IR bands and a controlled multi-band photomosaic of Gale crater used to validate the Mars Surface Laboratory operational map products supporting their successful landing on Mars.

  14. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Observes Changes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-08

    NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been observing Mars in sharp detail for more than a decade, enabling it to document many types of changes, such as the way winds alter the appearance of this recent impact site. The space-rock impact that created this blast zone occurred sometime between September 2005 and February 2006, as bracketed by observations made with the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The location is between two large volcanos, named Ascraeus Mons and Pavonis Mons, in a dusty area of the Tharsis region of Mars. During the period from 2007 to 2012, winds blowing through the pass between the volcanoes darkened some regions and brightened others, probably by removing and depositing dust. The view covers an area about 1.0 mile (1.6 kilometers) across, at 7 degrees north latitude, 248 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top. An animation is availalble at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21267

  15. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  16. NASA Mars 2020 Rover Mission: New Frontiers in Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is the next step in NASAs robotic exploration of the red planet. The rover, based on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover now on Mars, will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.Like the Mars Science Laboratory rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012, the Mars 2020 spacecraft will use a guided entry, descent, and landing system which includes a parachute, descent vehicle, and, during the provides the ability to land a very large, heavy rover on the surface of Mars in a more precise landing area. The Mars 2020 mission is designed to accomplish several high-priority planetary science goals and will be an important step toward meeting NASAs challenge to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The mission will conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the habitability of the environment, search for signs of ancient Martian life, and assess natural resources and hazards for future human explorers. The science instruments aboard the rover also will enable scientists to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth in the future. The rover also may help designers of a human expedition understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which could be a valuable resource for producing oxygen and rocket fuel.

  17. Mars Atmosphere Resource Verification INsitu (MARVIN) - In Situ Resource Demonstration for the Mars 2020 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Araghi, Koorosh; Ess, Kim M.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Calle, Carlos I.; Clark, Larry; Iacomini, Christie

    2014-01-01

    The making of oxygen from resources in the Martian atmosphere, known as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), has the potential to provide substantial benefits for future robotic and human exploration. In particular, the ability to produce oxygen on Mars for use in propulsion, life support, and power systems can provide significant mission benefits such as a reducing launch mass, lander size, and mission and crew risk. To advance ISRU for possible incorporation into future human missions to Mars, NASA proposed including an ISRU instrument on the Mars 2020 rover mission, through an announcement of opportunity (AO). The purpose of the the Mars Atmosphere Resource Verification INsitu or (MARVIN) instrument is to provide the first demonstration on Mars of oxygen production from acquired and stored Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide, as well as take measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature, and of suspended dust particle sizes and amounts entrained in collected atmosphere gases at different times of the Mars day and year. The hardware performance and environmental data obtained will be critical for future ISRU systems that will reduce the mass of propellants and other consumables launched from Earth for robotic and human exploration, for better understanding of Mars dust and mitigation techniques to improve crew safety, and to help further define Mars global circulation models and better understand the regional atmospheric dynamics on Mars. The technologies selected for MARVIN are also scalable for future robotic sample return and human missions to Mars using ISRU.

  18. THEMIS Global Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, N. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed techniques to make seamless, controlled global mosaics from the more than 50,000 multi-spectral infrared images of the Mars returned by the THEMIS instrument aboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. These images cover more than 95% of the surface at 100m/pixel resolution at both day and night local times. Uncertainties in the position and pointing of the spacecraft, varying local time, and imaging artifacts make creating well-registered mosaics from these datasets a challenging task. In preparation for making global mosaics, many full-resolution regional mosaics have been made. These mosaics typically cover an area 10x10 degrees or smaller, and are constructed from only a few hundred images. To make regional mosaics, individual images are geo-rectified using the USGS ISIS software. This dead-reckoning is sufficient to approximate position to within 400m in cases where the SPICE information was downlinked. Further coregistration of images is handled in two ways: grayscale differences minimization in overlapping regions through integer pixel shifting, or through automatic tie-point generation using a radial symmetry transformation (RST). The RST identifies points within an image that exhibit 4-way symmetry. Martian craters tend to to be very radially symmetric, and the RST can pin-point a crater center to sub-pixel accuracy in both daytime and nighttime images, independent of lighting, time of day, or seasonal effects. Additionally, the RST works well on visible-light images, and in a 1D application, on MOLA tracks, to provide precision tie-points across multiple data sets. The RST often finds many points of symmetry that aren't related to surface features. These "false-hits" are managed using a clustering algorithm that identifies constellations of points that occur in multiple images, independent of scaling or other affine transformations. This technique is able to make use of data in which the "good" tie-points comprise even less than 1% of total

  19. MECA Workshop on Dust on Mars 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steven (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Articles and abstracts of articles presented at this workshop are given. It was the goal of the workshop to stimulate cooperative research on, and discussion of, dust related processes on Mars, and to provide background information and help in planning of the Mars Observer mission. These topics are considered: How is dust ejected from the Martian surface into the atmosphere; How does the global atmospheric circulation affect the redistribution of dust on Mars; Are there sources and sinks of dust on Mars, if so, where are they and how do they vary in time; and How many components of dust are there on Mars, and what are their properties. There were four primary discussion sessions: (1) Dust in the atmosphere; (2) Dust on the surface; (3) Dust properties; and (4) Dust observations from future spacecraft missions.

  20. Report on the Loss of the Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden; Battel, Steven; Brace, Richard; Burdick, Garry; Casani, John; Lavell, Jeffrey; Leising, Charles; MacPherson, Duncan; Burr, Peter; Dipprey, Duane

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) began in 1994 with plans to send spacecraft to Mars every 26 months. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), a global mapping mission, was launched in 1996 and is currently orbiting Mars. Mars Surveyor '98 consisted of Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) and Mars Polar Lander (MPL). Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) was the prime contractor for Mars Surveyor '98. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Surveyor Program for NASA's Office of Space Science. MPL was developed under very tight funding constraints. The combined development cost of MPL and MCO, including the cost of the two launch vehicles, was approximately the same as the development cost of the Mars Pathfinder mission, including the cost of its single launch vehicle. The MPL project accepted the challenge to develop effective implementation methodologies consistent with programmatic requirements.

  1. MARS PATHFINDER CAMERA TEST IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are conducting a systems test of the imager for the Mars Pathfinder. The imager (white and metallic cylindrical element close to hand of worker at left) is a specially designed camera featuring a stereo- imaging system with color capability provided by a set of selectable filters. It is mounted atop an extendable mast on the Pathfinder lander. Visible to the far left is the small rover which will be deployed from the lander to explore the Martian surface. Transmitting back to Earth images of the trail left by the rover will be one of the mission objectives for the imager. To the left of the worker standing near the imager is the mast for the low-gain antenna; the round high-gain antenna is to the right. Visible in the background is the cruise stage that will carry the Pathfinder on a direct trajectory to Mars. The Mars Pathfinder is one of two Mars-bound spacecraft slated for launch aboard Delta II expendable launch vehicles this year.

  2. MARS PATHFINDER CAMERA TEST IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers conduct a systems test of the Mars Pathfinder imager, installed atop the Pathfinder lander (with JPL insignia). The imager is the white cyclindrical structure close to the worker's gloved hand. At left is the small rover that will be deployed from the lander to explore the Martian surface. The rover is mounted on one of three petals that will be attached to the lander. The two-pronged mast extending upward from the lander is for the low-gain antenna. The imager is mounted on a mast that will be extended after the lander touches down on Mars, affording a better view of the area. The imager is a camera that will transmit images of the Martian surface as well as the trail left by the rover, helping researchers to better understand the composition of the soil. It also is equipped with selectable filters for gathering data about the atmosphere of the Red Planet. JPL manages the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA. The journey to Mars is scheduled to begin with liftoff Dec. 2 aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle.

  3. Mars Up Close

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    Guest attending the National Geographic “Mars Up Close” panel discussion, look at full scale models of the Spirit/Opportunity, left, and Curiosity, Mars rovers, Tuesday, August 5, 2014, at the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington. Guest listened to a panel of distinguished space scientists and Mars experts involved in current Mars exploration that shared what we’ve learned from Curiosity and the other Mars rovers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The exploration of Mars has long been a prime scientific objective of the U.S. planetary exploration program. Yet no U.S. spacecraft has successfully made measurements at Mars since the Viking missions of the late 1970s. Mars Observer, which was designed to conduct global observations from orbit, failed just before orbit insertion in 1993. The Russian spacecraft Phobos 2 did succeed in making some observations of the planet in 1989, but it was designed primarily to observe Phobos, the innermost satellite of Mars; the spacecraft failed 2 months after insertion into Mars orbit during the complex maneuvers required to rendezvous with the martian satellite. In fall 1996 NASA plans to launch Mars Pathfinder for a landing on the martian surface in mid-1997. This spacecraft is one of the first two missions in NASA's Discovery program that inaugurates a new style of planetary exploration in which missions are low-cost (less than $150 million) and have very focused science objectives. As can be seen in the comparative data presented in Box 1, this mission is considerably smaller in terms of cost, mass, and scope than NASA's previous Mars missions. NASA's FY 1995 budget initiated a continuing Mars exploration program, called Mars Surveyor, that involves multiple launches of spacecraft as small as or smaller than Mars Pathfinder to Mars over the next several launch opportunities, which recur roughly every 26 months. The first mission in the program, Mars Global Surveyor, set for launch late in 1996, is intended to accomplish many of the objectives of the failed Mars Observer. Like the Discovery program, Mars Surveyor is a continuing series of low-cost missions, each of which has highly focused science objectives. See Box 1 for comparative details of those Surveyor missions currently defined. Around the same time that the Mars Surveyor series was chosen as the centerpiece of NASA's solar system exploration program, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX

  5. Mars Observer Lecture: Mars Orbit Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, Suzanne R. (Personal Name)

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a lecture by Suzanne R. Dodd, the Mission Planning Team Chief for the Mars Observer Project. Ms Dodd begins with a brief overview of the mission and the timeline from the launch to orbital insertion. Ms Dodd then reviews slides showing the trajectory of the spacecraft on its trip to Mars. Slides of the spacecraft being constructed are also shown. She then discusses the Mars orbit insertion and the events that will occur to move the spacecraft from the capture orbit into a mapping orbit. During the trip to Mars, scientists at JPL had devised a new strategy, called Power In that would allow for an earlier insertion into the mapping orbit. The talk summarizes this strategy, showing on a slide the planned transition orbits. There are shots of the Martian moon, Phobos, taken from the Viking spacecraft, as Ms Dodd explains that the trajectory will allow the orbiter to make new observations of that moon. She also explains the required steps to prepare for mapping after the spacecraft has achieved the mapping orbit around Mars. The lecture ends with a picture of Mars from the Observer on its approach to the planet.

  6. Examining Mars at Many Levels (Artist Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-23

    This artist's concept represents the "Follow the Water" theme of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. The orbiter's science instruments monitor the present water cycle in the Mars atmosphere and the associated deposition and sublimation of water ice on the surface, while probing the subsurface to see how deep the water-ice reservoir detected by Mars Odyssey extends. At the same time, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will search for surface features and minerals (such as carbonates and sulfates) that record the extended presence of liquid water on the surface earlier in the planet's history. The instruments involved are the Shallow Subsurface Radar, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, the Mars Color Imager, the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, the Context Camera and the Mars Climate Sounder. To the far left, the radar antenna beams down and "sees" into the first few hundred feet (up to 1 kilometer) of Mars' crust. Just to the right of that, the next beam highlights the data received from the imaging spectrometer, which identifies minerals on the surface. The next beam represents the high-resolution camera, which can "zoom in" on local targets, providing the highest-resolution orbital images yet of features such as craters and gullies and rocks. The beam that shines almost horizontally is that of the Mars Climate Sounder. This instrument is critical to analyzing the current climate of Mars since it observes the temperature, humidity, and dust content of the martian atmosphere, and their seasonal and year-to-year variations. Meanwhile, the Mars Color Imager observes ice clouds, dust clouds and hazes, and the ozone distribution, producing daily global maps in multiple colors to monitor daily weather and seasonal changes. The electromagnetic spectrum is represented on the top right and individual instruments are placed where their capability lies. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07241

  7. Validation of Mars-GRAM and Planned New Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    For altitudes below 80 km, Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is based on output climatology from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). At COSPAR 2002, results were presented of validation tests of Mars-GRAM versus data from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Radio Science (RS) experiment. Further validation tests are presented comparing Mars- GRAM densities with those from the European Mars Climate Database (MCD), and comparing densities from both Mars-GRAM and MCD against TES observations. Throughout most of the height and latitude range of TES data (040 km and 70s to 70N), good agreement is found between atmospheric densities from Mars-GRAM and MCD. However, at the season and latitude zone for Mars Phoenix arrival and landing (Ls = 65 to 80 degrees and latitude 65 to 75N), Mars-GRAM densities are about 30 to 45 percent higher than MCD densities near 40 km altitude. Further evaluation is warranted concerning potential impact of these model differences on planning for Phoenix entry and descent. Three planned features for Mars-GRAM update are also discussed: (1) new MGCM and Thermospheric General Circulation Model data sets to be used as a revised basis for Mars-GRAM mean atmosphere, (2) a new feature to represent planetary-scale traveling waves for upper altitude density variations (such as found during Mars Odyssey aerobraking), and (3) a new model for effects of high resolution topographic slope on winds near the surface (0 to 4.5 km above MOLA topography level). Mars-GRAM slope winds will be computed from a diagnostic (algebraic) relationship based on Ye, Segal, and Pielke (1990). This approach differs from mesoscale models (such as MRAMS and Mars MM5), which use prognostic, full-physics solutions of the time- and space-dependent differential equations of motion. As such, slope winds in Mars-GRAM will be consistent with its "engineering-level" approach, and will be extremely fast and easy to evaluate

  8. Styles and Timing of Volatile-driven Activity in the Eastern Hellas Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, D. A.; Bleamaster, L. F., III; Mest, S. C.; Teneva, L. T.

    2005-03-01

    Current research integrates geologic studies of the basin floor and east rim using Viking Orbiter, Mars Global Surveyor, and Mars Odyssey datasets to provide a synthesis of the history of volatiles in the region.

  9. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Seepage Sites in Aerobraking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-22

    The first clue that there might be places on Mars where liquid groundwater seeps out onto the surface came from a picture taken by NASA Mars Global Surveyor. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  10. Solar radiation for Mars power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  11. Robotic missions to Mars - Paving the way for humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, D. S.; Bourke, R. D.; Cunningham, G. E.; Golombek, M. P.; Sturms, F. M.; Kahl, R. C.; Lance, N.; Martin, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is in the planning stages of a program leading to the human exploration of Mars. A critical element in that program is a set of robotic missions that will acquire information on the Martian environment and test critical functions (such as aerobraking) at the planet. This paper presents some history of Mars missions, as well as results of recent studies of the Mars robotic missions that are under consideration as part of the exploration program. These missions include: (1) global synoptic geochemical and climatological characterization from orbit (Mars Observer), (2) global network of small meteorological and seismic stations, (3) sample returns, (4) reconnaissance orbiters and (5) rovers.

  12. Formation and deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers the formation and deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars. The rate limiting step in sulfate aerosol formation on Mars is the gas phase oxidation of SO2 by chemical reactions with O, OH, and HO2; submicron aerosol particles would circuit Mars and then be removed from the atmosphere by gravitational forces, globally dispersed, and deposited over a range of equatorial and mid-latitudes. Volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars consist of liquid droplets and slurries containing sulfuric acid; aerosol deposition on a global or hemispheric scale could account for the similar concentrations of sulfur within surficial soils at the two Viking lander sites.

  13. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of water-soluble cations and anions in the Martian regolith has been the subject of speculation for some time. Viking lander data provided evidence for salt-cemented crusts on the Martian surface. If the crusts observed at the two Viking landing sites are, in fact, cemented by salts, and these crusts are globally widespread, as IRTM-derived thermal inertia studies of the Martian surface seem to suggest, then evaporite deposits, probably at least in part derived from brines, are a major component of the Martian regolith. The composition of liquid brines in the subsurface, which not only may be major agents of physical weathering but may also presently constitute a major deep subsurface liquid reservoir, is currently unconstrained by experimental work. A knowledge of the chemical identity and rate of production of Martian brines is a critical first-order step toward understanding the nature of both these fluids and their precipitated evaporites. Laboratory experiments are being conducted to determine the identity and production rate of water-soluble ions that form in initially pure liquid water in contact with Mars-mixture gases and unaltered Mars-analog minerals.

  14. Topside ionosphere of Mars: Variability, transient layers, and the role of crustal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopika, P. G.; Venkateswara Rao, N.

    2018-04-01

    The topside ionosphere of Mars is known to show variability and transient topside layers. In this study, we analyzed the electron density profiles measured by the radio occultation technique aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft to study the topside ionosphere of Mars. The electron density profiles that we used in the present study span between 1998 and 2005. All the measurements are done from the northern high latitudes, except 220 profiles which were measured in the southern hemisphere, where strong crustal magnetic fields are present. We binned the observations into six measurement periods: 1998, 1999-north, 1999-south, 2000-2001, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005. We found that the topside ionosphere in the southern high latitudes is more variable than that from the northern hemisphere. This feature is clearly seen with fluctuations of wavelengths less than 20 km. Some of the electron density profiles show a transient topside layer with a local maximum in electron density between 160 km and 210 km. The topside layer is more prone to occur in the southern hemispheric crustal magnetic field regions than in the other regions. In addition, the peak density of the topside layer is greater in regions of strong crustal magnetic fields than in other regions. The variability of the topside ionosphere and the peak density of the topside layer, however, do not show one-to-one correlation with the strength of the crustal magnetic fields and magnetic field inclination. The results of the present study are discussed in the light of current understanding on the topside ionosphere, transient topside layers, and the role of crustal magnetic fields on plasma motions.

  15. The humanation of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, L. W.

    Early developments related to human excursions to Mars are examined, taking into account plans considered by von Braun, and the 'ambitious goal of a manned flight to Mars by the end of the century', proposed at the launch of Apollo 11. In response to public reaction, plans for manned flights to Mars in the immediate future were given up, and unmanned reconnaissance of Mars was continued. An investigation is conducted concerning the advantages of manned exploration of Mars in comparison to a study by unmanned space probes, and arguments regarding a justification for interplanetary flight to Mars are discussed. Attention is given to the possibility to consider Mars as a 'back-up' planet for preserving earth life, an international Mars expedition as a world peace project, the role of Mars in connection with resource utilization considerations, and questions of exploration ethics.

  16. MarCOs, Mars and Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-29

    An artist's rendering of the twin Mars Cube One (MarCO) spacecraft flying over Mars with Earth in the distance. The MarCOs will be the first CubeSats -- a kind of modular, mini-satellite -- flown in deep space. They're designed to fly along behind NASA's InSight lander on its cruise to Mars. If they make the journey, they will test a relay of data about InSight's entry, descent and landing back to Earth. Though InSight's mission will not depend on the success of the MarCOs, they will be a test of how CubeSats can be used in deep space. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22316

  17. Forced Forward Smoldering Experiments Aboard The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Bar-Ilan, A.; Rein, G.; Urban, D. L.; Torero, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Smoldering is a basic combustion problem that presents a fire risk because it is initiated at low temperatures and because the reaction can propagate slowly in the material interior and go undetected for long periods of time. It yields a higher conversion of fuel to toxic compounds than does flaming, and may undergo a transition to flaming. To date there have been a few minor incidents of overheated and charred cables and electrical components reported on Space Shuttle flights. With the establishment of the International Space Station, and the planning of a potential manned mission to Mars, there has been an increased interest in the study of smoldering in microgravity. The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a spacecraft environment. The aim of the experiment is to provide a better fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering combustion under normal- and microgravity conditions. This in turn will aid in the prevention and control of smolder originated fires, both on earth and in spacecrafts. The microgravity smoldering experiments have to be conducted in a space-based facility because smoldering is a very slow process and consequently its study in a microgravity environment requires extended periods of time. The microgravity experiments reported here were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle. The most recent tests were conducted during the STS-105 and STS-108 missions. The results of the forward smolder experiments from these flights are reported here. In forward smolder, the reaction front propagates in the same direction as the oxidizer flow. The heat released by the heterogeneous oxidation reaction is transferred ahead of the reaction heating the unreacted fuel. The resulting increase of the virgin fuel temperature leads to the onset of the smolder reaction, and propagates through the fuel. The MSC data are compared with normal gravity

  18. Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Mars-GRAM Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The poster provides an overview of techniques to improve the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) sensitivity. It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) when used for sensitivity studies for TES MapYear = 0 and large optical depth values such as tau = 3 is less than realistic. A preliminary fix has been made to Mars-GRAM by adding a density factor value that was determined for tau = 0.3, 1 and 3.

  19. Mars At Opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope views provide the most detailed complete global coverage of the red planet Mars ever seen from Earth. The pictures were taken on February 25, 1995, when Mars was at a distance of 65 million miles (103 million km).

    To the surprise of researchers, Mars is cloudier than seen in previous years. This means the planet is cooler and drier, because water vapor in the atmosphere freezes out to form ice-crystal clouds. Hubble resolves Martian surface features with a level of detail only exceeded by planetary probes, such as impact craters and other features as small as 30 miles (50 kilometers) across.

    [Tharsis region] - A crescent-shaped cloud just right of center identifies the immense shield volcano Olympus Mons, which is 340 miles (550 km) across at its base. Warm afternoon air pushed up over the summit forms ice-crystal clouds downwind from the volcano. Farther to the east (right) a line of clouds forms over a row of three extinct volcanoes which are from north to south: Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, Arsia Mons. It's part of an unusual, recurring 'W'-shaped cloud formation that once mystified earlier ground-based observers.

    [Valles Marineris region] - The 16 mile-high volcano Ascraeus Mons pokes through the cloud deck along the western (left) limb of the planet. Other interesting geologic features include (lower left) Valles Marineris, an immense rift valley the length of the continental United States. Near the image center lies the Chryse basin made up of cratered and chaotic terrain. The oval-looking Argyre impact basin (bottom) appears white due to clouds or frost.

    [Syrtis Major region] - The dark 'shark fin' feature left of center is Syrtis Major. Below it the giant impact basin Hellas. Clouds cover several great volcanos in the Elysium region near the eastern (right) limb. As clearly seen in the Hubble images, past dust storms in Mars' southern hemisphere have scoured the plains of fine light dust and transported the dust

  20. Workshop on Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The opening session of the Workshop focused on one of the most debated areas of Mars volatiles research-the size of the planet's past and present bulk water content. Current estimates of the inventory of H2O on Mars range from an equivalent layer of liquid 10-1000 meters deep averaged over the planet's surface. The most recent of these estimates, presented at the Workshop, is based on the now popular belief that the SNC class of meteorites represent actual samples of the Martian crust. From a model of planetary accretion and degassing founded on this assumption, it was determined that the present inventory of H2O on Mars is equivalent to a global layer no more than 50 meters deep. During the discussion generated by this estimate, several investigators expressed reservations about an H2O inventory as small as a few tens of meters, for it appears to directly contradict the seemingly abundant morphologic evidence that Mars is (or has been) water rich. Others, however, argued that the interpretation of much of this morphologic evidence is at best equivocal and that the case for a wet Mars is far from established. Atmospheric water vapor measurements, compiled by Earth based telescopes and the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD), now span a period of over six Martian years. Analysis of this data suggests that the seasonal cycle is governed by both the sublimation and condensation of H2O at the poles and by its adsorption/desorption within the regolith. So far, efforts to simulate the seasonal vapor cycle have failed to reproduce the observed behavior.

  1. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  2. Mars scouts: an overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matousek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars program institutes the Mars Scout Missions in order to address science goals in the program not otherwise covered in the baseline Mars plan. Mars Scout Missions will be Principle-Investigator (PI) led science missions. Analogous to the Discovery Program, PI led investigations optimize the use of limited resources to accomplish the best focused science and allow the flexibility to quickly respond to discoveries at Mars. Scout missions also require unique investments in technology and reliance upon Mars-based infrastructure such as telecom relay orbiters.

  3. Seasonal and Static Gravity Field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k 2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k 2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k 2 of 0.1697 +/-0.0027 (3- sigma). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C 30 and, for the first time, C 50 . Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C 30 for approx.1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics ( l = 60–80) than previous solutions.

  4. Seasonal and static Gravity Field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k(sub 2) Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k(sub 2) solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k(sub 2) of 0.1697 +/- 0.0027 (3- sigma). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C(sub 30) and, for the first time, C 50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C(sub 30) for approximately 1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics ( l = 60-80) than previous solutions.

  5. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM has been utilized during previous aerobraking operations in the atmosphere of Mars. Mars-GRAM has also been used in the prediction and validation of Mars Pathfinder hypersonic aerodynamics, the aerothermodynamic and entry dynamics studies for Mars Polar Lander, the landing site selection process for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the Mars Aerocapture System Study (MASS) as well as the Aerocapture Technology Assessment Group (TAG). Most recently, Mars-GRAM 2010 was used to develop the onboard atmospheric density estimator that is part of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. The most recent release of Mars-GRAM 2010 contains several changes including an update to Fortran 90/95 and the addition of adjustment factors. Following the completion of a comparison analysis between Mars-GRAM, Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), as well as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) aerobraking density data, adjustment factors were added to Mars-GRAM 2010 that alter the input data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the University of Michigan Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for the mapping year 0 user-controlled dust case. The addition of adjustment factors resolved the issue of previous versions of Mars-GRAM being less than realistic when used for sensitivity studies for mapping year 0 and large optical depth values, such as tau equal to 3. Mars-GRAM was evaluated at locations and times of TES limb observations and adjustment factors were determined. For altitudes above 80 km and below 135 km, Mars-GRAM (MTGCM) densities were compared to aerobraking densities measured by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) to determine the adjustment

  6. Radiation Measurements on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-09

    Micrograys are unit of measurement for absorbed radiation dose. The vertical axis is in micrograys per day. The RAD instrument on NASA Curiosity Mars rover monitors the natural radiation environment at the surface of Mars.

  7. Mars Up Close

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    Marc Kaufman, space news writer, National Geographic and The Washington Post, and author of the new National Geographic book “Mars Up Close”, kicks off a panel discussion of Mars experts involved in current Mars exploration, Tuesday, August 5, 2014, at the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington. The panelist shared what we’ve learned from Curiosity and the other Mars rovers surveying the red planet. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Evidence for persistent flow and aqueous sedimentation on early Mars.

    PubMed

    Malin, Michael C; Edgett, Kenneth S

    2003-12-12

    Landforms representative of sedimentary processes and environments that occurred early in martian history have been recognized in Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System images. Evidence of distributary, channelized flow (in particular, flow that lasted long enough to foster meandering) and the resulting deposition of a fan-shaped apron of debris indicate persistent flow conditions and formation of at least some large intracrater layered sedimentary sequences within fluvial, and potentially lacustrine, environments.

  9. Measurements of Oxychlorine species on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, B.; Quinn, R. C.; Archer, P. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Glotch, T. D.; Kounaves, S. P.; Osterloo, M. M.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.

    2017-07-01

    Mars landed and orbiter missions have instrumentation capable of detecting oxychlorine phases (e.g. perchlorate, chlorate) on the surface. Perchlorate (~0.6 wt%) was first detected by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory in the surface material at the Phoenix Mars Landing site. Subsequent analyses by the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyser aboard the same lander detected an oxygen release (~465°C) consistent with the thermal decomposition of perchlorate. Recent thermal analysis by the Mars Science Laboratory's Sample Analysis at Mars instrument has also indicated the presence of oxychlorine phases (up to 1.2 wt%) in Gale Crater materials. Despite being at detectable concentrations, the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffractometer has not detected oxychlorine phases. This suggests that Gale Crater oxychlorine may exist as poorly crystalline phases or that perchlorate/chlorate mixtures exist, so that individual oxychlorine concentrations are below CheMin detection limits (~1 wt%). Although not initially designed to detect oxychlorine phases, reinterpretation of Viking Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer data also suggest that oxychlorine phases are present in the Viking surface materials. Remote near-infrared spectral analyses by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument indicate that at least some martian recurring slope lineae (RSL) have spectral signatures consistent with the presence of hydrated perchlorates or chlorates during the seasons when RSL are most extensive. Despite the thermal emission spectrometer, Thermal Emission Imaging System, Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité and CRISM detection of hundreds of anhydrous chloride (~10-25 vol%) deposits, expected associated oxychlorine phases (>5-10 vol%) have not been detected. Total Cl and oxychlorine data sets from the Phoenix Lander and the Mars Science Laboratory missions could be used to develop oxychlorine versus total Cl correlations, which

  10. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of the...

  11. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of the...

  12. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of the...

  13. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of the...

  14. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful interference...

  15. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful interference...

  16. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful interference...

  17. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of the...

  18. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  19. Pegasus XL CYGNSS Prepared for Launch Aboard Orbital ATK's L-101

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-10

    At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Skid Strip the Orbital ATK L-1011 Stargazer aircraft is being prepared to launch NASA's Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, or CYGNSS, spacecraft. The eight micro satellites are aboard an Orbital ATK Pegasus XL rocket strapped to the underside of the Stargazer. CYGNSS is scheduled for its airborne launch aboard the Pegasus XL rocket from the Skid Strip on Dec. 12. CYGNSS will make frequent and accurate measurements of ocean surface winds throughout the life cycle of tropical storms and hurricanes. The data that CYGNSS provides will enable scientists to probe key air-sea interaction processes that take place near the core of storms, which are rapidly changing and play a critical role in the beginning and intensification of hurricanes.

  20. Mars: 2010 - 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Mars Exploration program for the current decade and beyond. The potential items for procurements for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are discussed, as well as future technology investments to enable to continued development of exploration of Mars by rovers and orbiters that are planned and envisioned for future missions.