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Sample records for aboard mars global

  1. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR LIGHTING TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In KSC's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers are conducting a solar illumination test of the solar panels on the Mars Global Surveyor. The Surveyor is outfitted with two solar arrays, each featuring two panels, that provide electrical power for operating the spacecraft's electronic equipment and scientific instruments, as well as charging two nickel hydrogen batteries that provide power when the spacecraft is in the dark. For launch, the solar arrays will be folded against the side of the spacecraft. The Mars Global Surveyor is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a launch window opening Nov. 6.

  2. Mars global surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The design and performance of a highly reliable, 20 volt nickel hydrogen battery compatible with existing NiCad Mars observer based spacecraft components and an 800 psi, zirconium wall wick Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) are discussed. The objectives of the design process are: to meet or exceed all PD requirements by using existing technologies; to have high reliability hardware and parallel fabrication of components; and low schedule risk configurations. This paper discusses the tests performed on the batteries (capacity, charge retention, random vib., pyro shock, energy density, and packing factor) and the results of the tests. In addition to the design discussion, a brief introduction on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Satellite objectives (NASA`s next interplanetary mission) is also presented.

  3. Global View of Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This global map of Mars is based on topographical information collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Illumination is from the upper right. The image width is approximately 18,000 kilometers (11,185 miles). Candor Chasma forms part of the large Martian canyon system named Valles Marineris. The location of Southwest Candor Chasma is indicated in the annotated version.

  4. On the evening time exosphere of Mars: Result from MENCA aboard Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Thampi, Smitha V.; Das, Tirtha Pratim; Dhanya, M. B.; Naik, Neha; Vajja, Dinakar Prasad; Pradeepkumar, P.; Sreelatha, P.; Supriya, G.; Abhishek J., K.; Mohankumar, S. V.; Thampi, R. Satheesh; Yadav, Vipin K.; Sundar, B.; Nandi, Amarnath; Padmanabhan, G. Padma; Aliyas, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a quadrupole mass spectrometer which provides in situ measurement of the composition of the low-latitude Martian neutral exosphere. The altitude profiles of the three major constituents, i.e., amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (N2 + CO), and amu 16 (O) in the Martian exosphere during evening (close to sunset terminator) hours are reported using MENCA observations from four orbits of MOM during late December 2014, when MOM's periapsis altitude was the lowest. The altitude range of the observation encompasses the diffusively separated region much above the well-mixed atmosphere. The transition from CO2 to O-dominated region is observed near 270 km. The mean exospheric temperature derived using these three mass numbers is 271 ± 5 K. These first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  5. Global color views of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.; Soderblom, L. A.; Becker, T. L.; Lee, E. M.; Batson, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    About 1000 Viking Orbiter red and violet filter images have been processed to provide global color coverage of Mars at a scale of 1 km/pixel. Individual image frames acquired during a single spacecraft revolution ('rev') were first processed through radiometric calibration, cosmetic cleanup, geometric control, reprojection, and mosaicking. A total of 57 'single-rev' mosaics have been produced. Phase angles range from 13 to 85 degrees. All the mosaics are geometrically tied to the Mars digital image mosaic (MDIM), a black-and-white base map with a scale of 231 m/pixel.

  6. A map of D/H on Mars in the thermal infrared using EXES aboard SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; DeWitt, C.; Richter, M. J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fouchet, T.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Forget, F.; Bézard, B.; Atreya, S. K.; Case, M.; Ryde, N.

    2016-02-01

    On a planetary scale, the D/H ratio on Mars is a key diagnostic for understanding the past history of water on the planet; locally, it can help to constrain the sources and sinks of water vapor through the monitoring of condensation and sublimation processes. To obtain simultaneous measurements of H2O and HDO lines, we have used the Echelle Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) instrument aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility to map the abundances of these two species over the Martian disk. High-resolution spectra (R = 6 × 104) were recorded in the 1383-1390 cm-1 range (7.2 μm) on April 08, 2014. Mars was very close to opposition and near northern summer solstice (Ls = 113°). Maps of the H2O and HDO mixing ratios were retrieved from the line depth ratios of weak H2O and HDO transitions divided by a weak CO2 line. As expected for this season, the H2O and HDO maps show a distinct enhancement toward polar regions, and their mixing ratios are consistent with previous measurements and with predictions by the global climate models, except at the north pole where the EXES values are weaker. We derive a disk-integrated D/H ratio of 6.8 (+1.6, -1.0) × 10-4. It is higher than the value in Earth's oceans by a factor 4.4 (+1.0, -0.6). The D/H map also shows an enhancement from southern to northern latitudes, with values ranging from about 3.5 times to 6.0 times the VSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) value. The D/H distribution shows a depletion over the Tharsis mountains and is consistent with observed latitudinal variations. The variations in D/H with latitude and altitude agree with the models and with the isotope fractionation expected from condensation and sublimation processes.

  7. Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Outreach Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This videotape is a compilation of the best NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) videos of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions. The mission is described using animation and narration as well as some actual footage of the entire sequence of mission events. Included within these animations are the spacecraft orbit insertion; descent to the Mars surface; deployment of the airbags and instruments; and exploration by Sojourner, the Mars rover. JPL activities at spacecraft control during significant mission events are also included at the end. The spacecraft cameras pan the surrounding Mars terrain and film Sojourner traversing the surface and inspecting rocks. A single, brief, processed image of the Cydonia region (Mars face) at an oblique angle from the Mars Global Surveyor is presented. A description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, instruments, landing and deployment process, Mars approach, spacecraft orbit insertion, rover operation are all described using computer animation. Actual color footage of Sojourner as well as a 360 deg pan of the Mars terrain surrounding the spacecraft is provided. Lower quality black and white photography depicting Sojourner traversing the Mars surface and inspecting Martian rocks also is included.

  8. Initial Mars Upper Atmospheric Structure Results from the Accelerometer Science Experiment aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Theriot, M. E.; Tolson, R. H.; Blanchard, R. C.; Zurek, R. W.; Forbes, J. M.; Murphy, J.

    2006-12-01

    subsurface to exosphere may be equally critical. Comparisons of accelerometer data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), MO and MRO will help characterize key temporal and spatial cycles. During the Odyssey Aerobraking we discovered a very strong winter polar warming near 100km, where temperatures were found to be up to 100K higher than expected near the North Pole. However, with MRO we detected only a very weak winter polar warming at the South Pole. It is expected that the polar warming results from cross equatorial meridional flow from the summer hemisphere into the winter hemisphere with adiabatic heating near the winter pole. The discovery from MRO of a very weak winter warming near aphelion in the southern winter polar region compared to the very strong winter warming near perihelion in the northern winter polar region is apparently due to a weaker input of solar energy into the meridional circulation resulting in less adiabatic heating near aphelion in the winter polar region. Results are also shown of global scale measurements of non- migrating tides and of global density and temperature distributions.

  9. Global Color Views of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    About 1000 Viking Orbiter red- and violet-filter images have been processed to provide global color coverage of Mars at a scale of 1 km/pixel. Individual image frames acquired during a single spacecraft revolution were first processed through radiometric calibration, cosmetic cleanup, geometric control, reprojection, and mosaicing. We have produced a total of 57 'single-rev' mosaics. All of the mosaics are geometrically tied to the Mars Digital Image Mosaic, a black-and-white base map with a scale of 231 m/pixel. We selected a subset of single-rev mosaics that provide the best global coverage (least atmospheric obscuration and seasonal frost); photometric normalization was applied to remove atmospheric effects and normalize the variations in illumination and viewing angles. Finally, these normalized mosaics were combined into global mosaics. Global coverage is about 98% complete in the red-filter mosaic and 95% complete in the violet-filter mosaic. Gaps were filled by interpolation. A green-filter image was synthesized from an average of the red and violet filter data to complete a 3-color set. The Viking Orbiters acquired actual green-filter images for only about half of the Martian surface. The final mosaic has been reprojected into several map projections. The orthographic view shown here is centered at 20 degrees latitude and 60 degrees longitude. The orthographic view is most like the view seen by a distant observer looking through a telescope. The color balance selected for these images was designed to be close to natural color for the bright reddish regions such as Tharsis and Arabia, but the data have been 'stretched' such that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less reddish that their natural appearance. This stretching allows us to better see the color and brightness variations on Mars, which are related to the composition or physical structure of the surface materials, which include volcanic lava flows, wind- and water-deposited sedimentary

  10. THERESA FRANCO INSPECTS THE SOLAR PANELS OF THE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Theresa Franco of SPECTROLAB Inc. carefully inspects the solar panels of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, undergoing preflight assembly and checkout in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility in KSC's Industrial Area. The four solar array panels will play a crucial role in the Mars Global Surveyor mission by providing the electrical power required to operate the spacecraft and its complement of scientific instruments. The Surveyor is slated for launch November 6 aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle. After arriving at the Red Planet in September 1997, the Surveyor will carry out an extensive study of Mars, gathering data about the planet's topography, magnetism, mineral composition and atmosphere.

  11. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.

    1991-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification has also been made which allows heights to go below local terrain height and return realistic pressure, density, and temperature (not the surface values) as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local valley areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch version of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  12. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MARS-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification was also made which allows heights to go 'below' local terrain height and return 'realistic' pressure, density, and temperature, and not the surface values, as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local 'valley' areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch versions of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  13. Mars-Gram Validation with Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many b4ars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), while above 80 km it is based on University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science (RS) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. RS data from 2480 profiles were used, covering latitudes 75deg S to 72deg N, surface to approx. 40 km, for seasons ranging from areocentric longitude of Sun (Ls) = 70-160deg and 265-310deg. RS data spanned a range of local times, mostly 0-9 hours and 18-24 hours. For interests in aerocapture and precision landing, comparisons concentrated on atmospheric density. At a fixed height of 20 km, measured RS density varied by about a factor of 2.5 over the range of latitudes and Ls values observed. Evaluated at matching positions and times, average RS/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally lf0.05, except at heights above approx. 25 km and latitudes above approx.50deg N. Average standard deviation of RS/Mars-GRAM density ratio was 6%. TES data were used covering surface to approx. 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of Mars global dust storm). Depending on season, TES data covered latitudes 85deg S to 85deg N. Most TES data were concentrated near local times 2 hours and 14 hours. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (> 45deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approx. 90 and 180deg). Compared to TES averages for a given latitude and season, TES data had average density standard deviation about the mean of approx. 6

  14. End-To-END Performance of the Future MOMA Instrument Aboard the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, V. T.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Danell, R.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P. J.; Stalport, F.; Humeau, O.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard the 2018 ExoMars mission will be the continuation of the search for organic matter on the Mars surface. One advancement with the ExoMars mission is that the sample will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the Martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. To analyze the wide range of organic composition (volatile and non-volatile compounds) of the Martian soil, MOMA is equipped with a dual ion source ion trap mass spectrometer utilizing UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC). In order to analyze refractory organic compounds and chiral molecules during GC-ITMS analysis, samples may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). Previous experimental reports have focused on coupling campaigns between the breadboard versions of the GC, provided by the French team (LISA, LATMOS, CentraleSupelec), and the MS, provided by the US team (NASA-GSFC). This work focuses on the performance verification and optimization of the GC-ITMS experiment using the Engineering Test Unit (ETU) models which are representative of the form, fit and function of the flight instrument including a flight-like pyrolysis oven and tapping station providing by the German team (MPS). The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  15. Enantiomeric derivatization on the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard ExoMars 2018: how to unravel martian chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Morisson, M.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Brinckerhoff, W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of homochirality in life on Earth remains unknown. The answer to this question lies in the study of chirality elsewhere in the Solar System. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment aboard Curiosity established the presence of organic molecules indigenous to a clay-rich sample on Mars [1]. However, SAM does not have the ability to separate between the enantiomers of potential medium- or high- molecular weight organic molecules. One of the wet chemistry experiments to be used in the MOMA instrument of the Exomars mission is designed for the extraction and identification of refractory organic chemical components in solid samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), while keeping the chiral center of the molecules intact [2]. This derivatization technique, using dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as a reagent, will allow MOMA to separate the enantiomers of molecules of interest for astrobiology, such as amino acids, sugars or carboxylic acids. We present here the results of laboratory experiments which display the feasability and limitations of the detection of an enantiomeric excess of complex organic molecules in various analog samples, depending on the mineralogy of the Mars analog solid sample.

  16. The Upper Atmospheric Wave Structure of Mars as Determined by Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Keating, G. M.; Forbes, J. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Wilson, R. J.; Withers, P. G.

    2001-12-01

    The best coverage of the Mars upper atmoshere available to date was obtained during recent Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) aerobraking exercises. Measurements from the MGS z-axis accelerometer (ACC) aboard MGS have provided more than 1200 vertical structures of the Mars thermospheric density and derived temperature and pressure [Keating et al. 1998; 2001]. These data have been obtained over two distinct Mars seasons : (Phase 1) approaching perihelion (Ls = 180 to 300), and (Phase 2) near aphelion (Ls = 30 to 95). The ubiquitous presence of planetary scale waves that appear fixed in longitude at lower thermospheric altitudes (90-150 km) was unexpected. Throughout both Phase 1 and 2 of aerobraking, the dominance of wave-2 and 3 features throughout low-to-mid-latitudes is evident, while wave-3 features seem to prevail in the mass density and electron density data at high Northern latitudes [Keating et al. 2000; Withers et al. 2000; Forbes and Hagan, 2000; Wilson, 2000; Bougher et al. 2001]. The diurnal coverage of the ACC data (day-night variations) is rather poor, limited to day-night data at the end of Phase 2 aerobraking. Recent data-model comparisons show that the observed density variations can be identified as eastward propagating non-migrating thermal tides with large vertical wavelengths. Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM), and Mars Global Scale Wave Model (MGSWM) simulations have been performed. The general indication is that the simulated wave-2 variation is dominated by a diurnal period, wave-1 Kelvin mode (DK1) which is principally forced by the modulation of the migrating diurnal tide by wave-2 Mars topography. This interpretation is consistent with the observed phase reversal between day and night side wave-2 components. The principal components of the simulated zonal wave-3 structure are a diurnal period wave-2 Kelvin mode (DK2) and a wave-1 semidiurnal tide (SW1). The characterization of these waves

  17. Mars Global Surveyor Mission: Environmental Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This environmental assessment addresses the proposed action to complete the integration and launch the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida, during the launch window in November 1996. Mars Global Surveyor is part of the Solar System Exploration Program to the inner planets designed to maintain a sufficient level of scientific investigation and accomplishment so that the United States retains a leading position in solar system exploration through the end of the century. The Program consists of a specific sequence of missions, based on technological readiness, launch opportunities, rapidity of data return, and a balance of scientific disciplines. The purpose of the MGS mission would be to deliver a spacecraft platform to a low-altitude polar orbit around Mars where it would collect global observations of basic geological, geophysical, and climatological processes of the planet. To satisfy this purpose, the MGS mission would support a scientific set of objectives. Detailed global maps of surface topography, the distribution of minerals, the planet's mass, size, and shape, the characterization of Mars gravitational and magnetic fields, and the monitoring of global weather, collected over the period of one Martian year (about two Earth years), would help answer some of the questions about the evolution of Mars. Such an investigation would help scientists better understand the current state of water on Mars, the evolution of the planet's atmosphere, and the factors that led to major changes in the Martian climate. It would also provide much needed information on the magnetic field of Mars. Data collected from this mission would provide insight into the evolution of both Earth and the solar system, as well as demonstrate technological approaches that could be applicable to future Mars missions.

  18. The global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Maurice, S.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Squyres, Steven W.; Boynton, W. V.; Elphic, R. C.; Funsten, H. O.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Tokar, R. L.; Moore, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prime objectives of the neutron spectrometer (NS) component of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments aboard Mars Odyssey are to identify the major reservoirs of hydrogen on Mars, determine their relative contributions to its total water inventory, and estimate the portion of the current inventory that is near the surface. Although more information is required than is currently available, epithermal neutron currents alone can provide a significant lower bound of hydrogen abundances on Mars. Observations from Viking 1, Viking 2, and Mars Pathfinder positively identified two of these reservoirs. By far the largest near-surface reservoir is comprised of the two residual polar caps, which together are sufficient to cover Mars with a global ocean about 30 m deep. The second is contained in the atmosphere, which if deposited on the surface, would cover Mars with a thin film of water about 10{sup -5} m deep. Although negligible in comparison, the fact that an atmospheric reservoir exists shows that it can provide a conduit that couples transient reservoirs of near-surface water ice. It has long been speculated that Mars has had, and may still retain, a far larger reservoir of water. Topographic features such as rampart craters, collapsed chaotic terrain, massive outflow channels, and valley networks provide strong support for the past existence of large bodies of surface water. Measurements of the areal size and depth of all paleo-water and volcanic features led to an estimate of a total water inventory equivalent to a global ocean that was between 100 and 500 m thick. Measurements of the D/H ratio have allowed predictions that between 5 and 50 m of this inventory was lost to space. Altogether, these estimates lead to between 20 and 465 m of water from the juvenile Martian inventory that is not accounted for. First analyses of Mars Odyssey neutron and gamma-ray data showed that reservoirs of hydrogen do indeed exist poleward of about {+-}50{sup o} latitude. Mars

  19. Global map based on the FIMS observations aboard STSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyoung Wook

    2016-07-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS), a dual-channel instrument with 900 - 1150 A and 1350 - 1750 A passbands, was launched aboard the Korean microsatellite STSAT-1 on 2003 September 27. FIMS, with moderate spectral and angular resolutions while maintaining large fields of view, was optimized for observations of diffuse emissions such as those from hot gases in our Galaxy. About 70 percent of the sky was covered after 18 months of survey with sufficient exposure time for the long wavelength band. The dataset has been used to study the interaction between the hot gas and the cold component as well as the molecular hydrogen fluorescence emission for a variety of targets. Furthermore, it was successfully used to determine the optical properties of dust scattering and thereby the distances for several prominent clouds from the continuum observations. In the present paper, the global distribution of ion and molecular hydrogen lines will be presented although the coverage of the sky is somewhat limited. For example, topics such as the ion lines distribution in the Galactic halo regions and correlation of molecular hydrogen with dust or CO will be discussed.

  20. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We are in the second year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe early mapping results, which include updating of previous northern plains mapping [3], including delineation of mainly Amazonian units and regional fault mapping, as well as other advances.

  1. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard the Mars rover, Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Schaffner, J. A.; Malin, M. C.; Baker, J. M.; Dibiase, D. R.; Laramee, J.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is expected to land on Mars in 2012. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) will be used to document martian rocks and regolith with a 2-megapixel RGB color CCD camera with a focusable macro lens mounted on an instrument-bearing turret on the end of Curiosity's robotic arm. The flight MAHLI can focus on targets at working distances of 20.4 mm to infinity. At 20.4 mm, images have a pixel scale of 13.9 μm/pixel. The pixel scale at 66 mm working distance is about the same (31 μm/pixel) as that of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Microscopic Imager (MI). MAHLI camera head placement is dependent on the capabilities of the MSL robotic arm, the design for which presently has a placement uncertainty of ~20 mm in 3 dimensions; hence, acquisition of images at the minimum working distance may be challenging. The MAHLI consists of 3 parts: a camera head, a Digital Electronics Assembly (DEA), and a calibration target. The camera head and DEA are connected by a JPL-provided cable which transmits data, commands, and power. JPL is also providing a contact sensor. The camera head will be mounted on the rover's robotic arm turret, the DEA will be inside the rover body, and the calibration target will be mounted on the robotic arm azimuth motor housing. Camera Head. MAHLI uses a Kodak KAI-2020CM interline transfer CCD (1600 x 1200 active 7.4 μm square pixels with RGB filtered microlenses arranged in a Bayer pattern). The optics consist of a group of 6 fixed lens elements, a movable group of 3 elements, and a fixed sapphire window front element. Undesired near-infrared radiation is blocked using a coating deposited on the inside surface of the sapphire window. The lens is protected by a dust cover with a Lexan window through which imaging can be ac-complished if necessary, and targets can be illuminated by sunlight or two banks of two white light LEDs. Two 365 nm UV LEDs are included to search for fluores-cent materials at night. DEA

  2. Crustal Structure of Mars from Mars Global Surveyor Topography and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, D. E.; Tyler, G. L.; Aharonson, O.; Balmino, G.; Banerdt, W. B.; Head, J. W.; Johnson, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    In this analysis we invert global models of Mars' topography from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from Doppler tracking obtained during the mapping mission of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We analyze the distribution of Martian crust and discuss implications for Mars' thermal history.

  3. MOLA: The Future of Mars Global Cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Muhleman, D. O.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    The MGS Orbiter is carrying the high-precision Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) which, when combined with precision reconstructed orbital data and telemetered attitude data, provides a tie between inertial space and Mars-fixed coordinates to an accuracy of 100 m in latitude / longitude and 10 m in radius (1 sigma), orders of magnitude more accurate than previous global geodetic/ cartographic control data. Over the 2 year MGS mission lifetime, it is expected that over 30,000 MOLA Global Cartographic Control Points will be produced to form the basis for new and re-derived map and geodetic products, key to the analysis of existing and evolving MGS data as well as future Mars exploration. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. A Global Electric Circuit on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    We describe conditions on the surface of Mars conducive to the formation of a martian global electric circuit, in a direct analogy to the terrestrial case where atmospheric currents and electric fields are generated worldwide through the charging in thunderstorms. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Intercalibration of Mars Global Surveyor Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard; Bergstrom, R. W.; Hollingsworth, J.; Smith, M.; Martin, T.; Hinson, D.; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The calibration and validation of satellite soundings of atmospheric variables is always a difficult prospect, but this difficulty is greatly magnified when the measurements are made at a different planet, whose meteorology is poorly known and poorly constrained, and for which there are virtually no prospects of obtaining ground truth. The Mars Global Surveyor which has been circling Mars in its mapping orbit since early 1999 includes a variety of instruments capable of making atmospheric observations: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) which takes more than 100,000 nadir-view infrared spectra per day (although these observations are confined to the 2am - 2pm time of the sun-fixed orbit); much less frequent TES limb scans (still only at 2am and 2pm); the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly measures side-looking broadband 15 micrometer radiation; Radio Science occultations at favorable seasons give high resolution temperature profiles; the Mars orbiter Camera and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have made water, dust, and carbon dioxide cloud detections. These observations are now being supplemented by high-resolution 15 micron measurements by THEMIS on Mars Odyssey. Thus, all of these observations are made at different times and places. Data assimilation techniques are being used to fuse this vast array of observations into a single dataset that best represents our understanding of the Martian atmosphere, its current meteorological state, and the relevant instrumental properties.

  6. Performances of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) GC-MS suite aboard ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Grand, N.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Humeau, O.; Danell, R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Belmahdi, I.; Coll, P. J.; Lustrement, B.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Stalport, F.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover (Pasteur) will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples collected by the rover, with a particular focus on the characterization of the organic content. Samples will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. The core of the MOMA instrument is a dual source UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC) ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) which provides the unique capability to characterize a broad range of compounds, including both of volatile and non-volatile species. Samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]) which increase the volatility of complex organic species. With the goal to optimize this instrumentation, and especially the GC-ITMS coupling, a series of tests is currently being carried out with prototypes of MOMA instrumentation and with the ETU models wich is similar to the flight model. The MOMA oven and tapping station are also part of these end-to-end experiments. Qualitative and quantitative tests has been done on gas, liquid and solid samples. The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. Both prototypes individually meet the performance requirements, but this work particularly demonstrates the capabilities of the critical GC-MS interface. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: Funding provided by the Mars Exploration Program (point of contact, George Tahu, NASA/HQ). MOMA is a collaboration between NASA and ESA (PI

  7. Mars Global Surveyor: Aerobraking and Observations Support Using a Mars Global Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Harberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. Using a global atmospheric circulation model for Mars, the focus of this JRI has been to provide support for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft aerobraking activities and interpretation guidance of preliminary observations. ne primary atmospheric model applied in this investigation has been a high-top version of the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Comparisons with an atmospheric model designed primarily for engineering purposes (Mars-GRAM) has also been carried out. From a suite of MGCM simulations, we have assessed plausible spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric density at high altitudes (e.g., 70-110 km) for seasonal dates and locations during Phase 1 aerobraking. Diagnostic tools have been developed to analyze circulation fields from the MGCM simulations, and these tools have been applied in the creation of a Mars climate catalogue database. Throughout Phase 1 aerobraking activities, analysis products have been provided to the MGS aerobraking atmospheric advisory group (AAG). Analyses of circulation variability at the coupling level between the MGCM and a Mars thermospheric global circulation model (MTGCM) has also been assessed. Finally, using a quasi-geostrophic dynamical formulation with the MGCM simulations, diagnosis of breaking planetary (Rossby) waves in Mars' middle atmosphere has been carried out. Titles of papers presented at scientific workshops and seminars, and a publication in the scientific literature are provided.

  8. Mars Global Surveyor: Aerobraking and Observations Support Using a Mars Global Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. Using a global atmospheric circulation model for Mars, the focus of this JRI has been to provide support for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft aerobraking activities and interpretation guidance of preliminary observations. The primary atmospheric model applied in this investigation has been a high-top version of the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Comparisons with an atmospheric model designed primarily for engineering purposes (Mars-GRAM) has also been carried out. From a suite of MGCM simulations, we have assessed plausible spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric density at high altitudes (e.g., 70-1 10 km) for seasonal dates and locations during Phase 1 aerobraking. Diagnostic tools have been developed to analyze circulation fields from the MGCM simulations, and these tools have been applied in the creation of a Mars climate catalogue database. Throughout Phase I aerobraking activities, analysis products have been provided to the MGS aerobraking atmospheric advisory group (AAG). Analyses of circulation variability at the coupling level between the MGCM and a Mars thermospheric global circulation model (MTGCM) has also been assessed. Finally, using a quasi-geostrophic dynamical formulation with the MGCM simulations, diagnosis of breaking planetary (Rossby) waves in Mars middle atmosphere has been carried out. Titles of papers presented at scientific workshops and seminars, and a publication in the scientific literature are provided.

  9. Mars Global Surveyor: Aerobraking and Observations Support Using a Mars Global Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. Using a global atmospheric circulation model for Mars, the focus of this JRI has been to provide support for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft aerobraking activities and interpretation guidance of preliminary observations. The primary atmospheric model applied in this investigation has been a high-top version of the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Comparisons with an atmospheric model designed primarily for engineering purposes (Mars-GRAM) has also been carried out. From a suite of MGCM simulations, we have assessed plausible spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric density at high altitudes (e.g., 70-110 km) for seasonal dates and locations during Phase I aerobraking. Diagnostic tools have been developed to analyze circulation fields from the MGCM simulations, and these tools have been applied in the creation of a Mars climate catalogue database. Throughout Phase I aerobraking activities, analysis products have been provided to the MGS aerobraking atmospheric advisory group (AAG). Analyses of circulation variability at the coupling level between the MGCM and a Mars thermospheric global circulation model (MTGCM) has also been assessed. Finally, using a quasi-geostrophic dynamical formulation with the MGCM simulations, diagnosis of breaking planetary (Rossby) waves in Mars' middle atmosphere has been carried out. Titles of papers presented at scientific workshops and seminars, and a publication in the scientific literature are provided.

  10. Aerothermodynamics of the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, Russell W.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    The aerothermodynamics characteristics of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft are investigated and reported. These results have been used by the Mars Global Surveyor mission planners to design the aerobraking phase of the mission. Analytical and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo computer codes were used with a detailed, three dimensional model of the spacecraft to evaluate spacecraft aerobraking characteristics for flight in free molecular and transitional flow regimes. The spacecraft is found to be aerodynamically stable in aerobraking and planned contingency configurations. Aerodynamic forces, moments, and heating are found to be highly dependent on atmospheric density. Accommodation coefficient. is seen to strongly influence drag coefficient. Transitional flow effects are found to reduce overall solar panel heating. Attitude control thruster plumes are shown to interact with the freestream, diminishing the effectiveness of the attitude control system and even leading to thrust reversal. These plume-freestream interaction effects are found to be highly dependent on freestream density.

  11. Preparing for Themis Controlled Global Mars Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Weller, L.; Sides, S.; Cushing, G.; Kirk, R. L.; Soderblom, L. A.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    We have begun work to prepare for producing controlled 2001 Mars Odyssey THEMIS infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) global mosaics of Mars. This effort is being coordinated with colleagues from Arizona State University and on the THEMIS team who plan to address radiometric issues in making such mosaics. We are concentrating on geometric issues. Several areas of investigation are now in progress, including: a) characterizing the absolute pointing accuracy of THEMIS images; b) investigating whether automatic tie point matching algorithms could be used to provide connections between overlapping THEMIS images; c) developing algorithms to allow for the photogrammetric (bundle) adjustment of the THEMIS IR (line scanner) camera images. Our primary goal in this pilot study effort will be to make several test control THEMIS mosaics and better determine which methods could be used, which require development, and what level of effort is required, in order to make large regional or global controlled THEMIS mosaics.

  12. Global stratigraphy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Scott, David H.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to recent major advances in the definition and documentation of Martian stratigraphy and geology. Mariner 9 provided the images for the first global geologic mapping program, resulting in the recognition of the major geologic processes that have operated on the planet, and in the definition of the three major chronostratigraphic divisions: the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian Systems. Viking Orbiter images permitted the recognition of additional geologic units and the formal naming of many formations. Epochs are assigned absolute ages based on the densities of superposed craters and crater-flux models. Recommendations are made with regard to future areas of study, namely, crustal stratigraphy and structure, the highland-lowland boundary, the Tharsis Rise, Valles Marineris, channels and valley networks, and possible Martian oceans, lakes, and ponds.

  13. Thermospheric Studies with Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Bruinsma, S.; Chin, D. S.; Forbes, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has been located in a near-circular, polar, and low-altitude mapping orbit about Mars for six years, since February 1999. The spacecraft is tracked routinely by the antennae of the Deep Space Network (DSN), using the X Band radio system of the spacecraft. These tracking data have been used for routine spacecraft navigation, and for radio science studies, such as the estimation of the static and time-varying gravity field of Mars. In this paper we describe the methodology for reduction of these data in order to estimate the Mars atmospheric density (normalized to an altitude 380 km) over half a solar cycle, where we discern the correlation of the density with the incident solar flux, and the 27-day solar rotation. The results show that the density at the MGS altitude varies from a mean of 0.7 x 10(exp -17) grams/cu cm near aphelion to a mean of 3.0 x 10(exp -17)grams/cu cm near perihelion.

  14. Design and Performance of the WISDOM Antenna System aboard the ExoMars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Ciarletti, V.; Hamran, S.; Corbel, C.; Linke, S.; Benedix, W.

    2009-04-01

    A full polarimetric antenna system on board the ExoMars rover is part of the Experiment "Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars" (WISDOM). The WISDOM-Experiment is a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) selected to be part of the Pasteur payload aboard the rover of the ExoMars mission. The Pasteur Panoramic Instruments (wide angle camera PANCAM, infrared spectrometer MIMA and WISDOM) will perform large-scale scientific investigations at the sites the Rover will visit. Among these instruments, WISDOM is the only one that can provide a view of the subsurface structure prior to drilling. WISDOM is the first space borne GPR aboard a rover and has been designed to characterize the shallow subsurface structure of Mars. WISDOM will give for the first time access to the geological structure, electromagnetic nature, and, possibly, of hydrological state of the shallow subsurface by retrieving the layering and properties of the buried reflectors. It will address some important related science questions regarding the planet present state and past evolution. The measured data will also be used to determine the most promising locations at which to obtain underground samples with the drilling system mounted on board the rover. The instrument objective for WISDOM is to get high-resolution measurements down to 2-meters depth in the Martian crust. The radar is a gated step frequency system covering the frequency range from 500 MHz to 3 GHz. The radar is fully polarimetric and makes use of four ultra wideband Vivaldi antennas. This poster describes the requirements, the design and the realization of the WISDOM antenna system accommodated on the ExoMars rover. Simulated antenna performance and measured antenna parameters as well as preliminary antenna test measurements performed in the lab and in permafrost regions on earth will be discussed in this poster presentation. The main design requirements of the WISDOM antenna system are driven one hand by the required science

  15. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a Roman candle, the exhaust from the Boeing Delta II rocket with the Mars Polar Lander aboard lights up the clouds as it hurtles skyward. The rocket was launched at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  16. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    After a year in Mars orbit, CRISM has taken enough images to allow the team to release the first parts of a global spectral map of Mars to the Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's digital library of planetary data.

    CRISM's global mapping is called the 'multispectral survey.' The team uses the word 'survey' because a reason for gathering this data set is to search for new sites for targeted observations, high-resolution views of the surface at 18 meters per pixel in 544 colors. Another reason for the multispectral survey is to provide contextual information. Targeted observations have such a large data volume (about 200 megabytes apiece) that only about 1% of Mars can be imaged at CRISM's highest resolution. The multispectral survey is a lower data volume type of observation that fills in the gaps between targeted observations, allowing scientists to better understand their geologic context.

    The global map is built from tens of thousands of image strips each about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide and thousands of kilometers long. During the multispectral survey, CRISM returns data from only 72 carefully selected wavelengths that cover absorptions indicative of the mineral groups that CRISM is looking for on Mars. Data volume is further decreased by binning image pixels inside the instrument to a scale of about 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel. The total reduction in data volume per square kilometer is a factor of 700, making the multispectral survey manageable to acquire and transmit to Earth. Once on the ground, the strips of data are mosaicked into maps. The multispectral survey is too large to show the whole planet in a single map, so the map is divided into 1,964 'tiles,' each about 300 kilometers (186 miles) across. There are three versions of each tile, processed to progressively greater levels to strip away the obscuring effects of the dusty atmosphere and to highlight mineral variations in surface materials.

    This is the first version of tile

  17. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    After a year in Mars orbit, CRISM has taken enough images to allow the team to release the first parts of a global spectral map of Mars to the Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's digital library of planetary data.

    CRISM's global mapping is called the 'multispectral survey.' The team uses the word 'survey' because a reason for gathering this data set is to search for new sites for targeted observations, high-resolution views of the surface at 18 meters per pixel in 544 colors. Another reason for the multispectral survey is to provide contextual information. Targeted observations have such a large data volume (about 200 megabytes apiece) that only about 1% of Mars can be imaged at CRISM's highest resolution. The multispectral survey is a lower data volume type of observation that fills in the gaps between targeted observations, allowing scientists to better understand their geologic context.

    The global map is built from tens of thousands of image strips each about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide and thousands of kilometers long. During the multispectral survey, CRISM returns data from only 72 carefully selected wavelengths that cover absorptions indicative of the mineral groups that CRISM is looking for on Mars. Data volume is further decreased by binning image pixels inside the instrument to a scale of about 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel. The total reduction in data volume per square kilometer is a factor of 700, making the multispectral survey manageable to acquire and transmit to Earth. Once on the ground, the strips of data are mosaicked into maps. The multispectral survey is too large to show the whole planet in a single map, so the map is divided into 1,964 'tiles,' each about 300 kilometers (186 miles) across. There are three versions of each tile, processed to progressively greater levels to strip away the obscuring effects of the dusty atmosphere and to highlight mineral variations in surface materials.

    This is the first version of tile

  18. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  19. Mars global surveyor navigation and aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, P.; Alwar, V.; Demcak, S.; Graat, E.; Johnston, M.; Mase, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was successfully inserted into an elliptical orbit around Mars on 9/12/97, 01:53:49 UTC. This orbit was near polar (inclination = 93.26 deg) with an orbital period of 44.993 hours and apoapsis and periapsis altitudes of 54,025.9 km and 262.9 km respectively. After a short aerobraking (AB) initiation interval (9/12/97 to 10/2/97), the main phase of AB or orbit period reduction was established. However shortly thereafter, a significant problem with the minus-Y axis solar array developed which necessitated a temporary suspension of AB. Ultimately, this forced the Project to abandon the original plan to complete AB on 1/18/98 and establish the mapping orbit on 3/15/98. The revised plan called for a reduced level of AB, thus subjecting the solar array and yoke assembly to less aerodynamic stress. After 201 orbits and 196 days after MOI, the first phase of AB has ended, the orbital period was 11.64 hours with apoapsis and periapsis altitudes of 17,870.3 and 170.7 km respectively. At present, MGS is in a science phasing orbit (SPO) and shall acquire science data from 3/28/98 to 9/11/98. Thereafter the second phase of AB shall begin and is expected to end during Feb 1999 when the orbital period shall be 1.9 hours and the orbit's descending node shall be at the 2:00 am (local mean solar time) orientation.

  20. In-situ observation of Martian neutral exosphere: Results from MENCA aboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pratim Das, Tirtha; Dhanya, M. B.; Thampi, Smitha V.

    2016-07-01

    Till very recently, the only in situ measurements of the Martian upper atmospheric composition was from the mass spectrometer experiments aboard the two Viking landers, which covered the altitude region from 120 to 200 km. Hence, the exploration by the Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft of ISRO and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) experiment aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile ENvironment (MAVEN) mission of NASA are significant steps to further understand the Martian neutral exosphere and its variability. MENCA is a quadrupole based neutral mass spectrometer which observes the radial distribution of the Martian neutral exosphere. The analysis of the data from MENCA has revealed unambiguous detection of the three major constituents, which are amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (contributions from CO and N2) and amu 16 (atomic O), as well as a few minor species. Since MOM is in a highly elliptical orbit, the MENCA observations pertain to different local times, in the low-latitude region. Examples of such observations would be presented, and compared with NGIMS results. Emphasis would be given to the observations pertaining to high solar zenith angles and close to perihelion period. During the evening hours, the transition from CO2 to O dominated region is observed near 270 km, which is significantly different from the previous observations corresponding to sub-solar point and SZA of ~45°. The mean evening time exospheric temperature derived using these observations is 271±5 K. These are the first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours, which would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  1. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    After a year in Mars orbit, CRISM has taken enough images to allow the team to release the first parts of a global spectral map of Mars to the Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's digital library of planetary data.

    CRISM's global mapping is called the 'multispectral survey.' The team uses the word 'survey' because a reason for gathering this data set is to search for new sites for targeted observations, high-resolution views of the surface at 18 meters per pixel in 544 colors. Another reason for the multispectral survey is to provide contextual information. Targeted observations have such a large data volume (about 200 megabytes apiece) that only about 1% of Mars can be imaged at CRISM's highest resolution. The multispectral survey is a lower data volume type of observation that fills in the gaps between targeted observations, allowing scientists to better understand their geologic context.

    The global map is built from tens of thousands of image strips each about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide and thousands of kilometers long. During the multispectral survey, CRISM returns data from only 72 carefully selected wavelengths that cover absorptions indicative of the mineral groups that CRISM is looking for on Mars. Data volume is further decreased by binning image pixels inside the instrument to a scale of about 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel. The total reduction in data volume per square kilometer is a factor of 700, making the multispectral survey manageable to acquire and transmit to Earth. Once on the ground, the strips of data are mosaicked into maps. The multispectral survey is too large to show the whole planet in a single map, so the map is divided into 1,964 'tiles,' each about 300 kilometers (186 miles) across. There are three versions of each tile, processed to progressively greater levels to strip away the obscuring effects of the dusty atmosphere and to highlight mineral variations in surface materials.

    This is the third and most

  2. A map of D/H on Mars using high-resolution spectroscopy with EXES aboard SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Richter, M.; DeWitt, C.; Greathouse, T.; Fouchet, T.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Bézard, B.; Atreya, S.; Case, M.; Ryde, N.

    2015-10-01

    We have obtained a map of D/H on Mars on April 8, 2014, when the planet was close to opposition (15.3" in diameter) and close to northern summer solstice (Ls = 113°). Data were recorded with the EXES (Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph) imaging spectrometer aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). A preliminary reduction indicates an increase of the D/H ratio from south to north, with a disk-integrated value of about 6.5 times the terrestrial value.

  3. Characterization of dust activity from Martian Year (MY) 27 to MY 32 observed by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard the Mars Express spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkenberg, Paulina; Giuranna, Marco; Aoki, Shohei; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Saggin, Bortolino; Formisano, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    More than 2,500,000 spectra have been collected by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard Mars Express spacecraft after 12 years of activity. The data span more than six Martian years, from MY26, Ls = 331°, to MY 33, Ls = 78°. This huge dataset has been used to build a new database of atmospheric parameters, including atmospheric and surface temperatures, and dust and water ice opacity. Dust aerosols suspended in the atmosphere affect its thermal structure and are a major driver of the circulation. They are always present in the Martian atmosphere, but the amount varies greatly depending on location and season. We analyze dust opacities at 1075 cm-1 retrieved from the PFS long-wavelength channel spectra to characterize the dust activity on Mars for the relevant period. The dust storm season (Ls= 185° - 310°) is monitored for each Martian year. All dust observations show a seasonal pattern, which is ruled by the occurrence of regional and/or global dust storms. Regional dust storms are observed every year, while a planet encircling dust storm occurred in MY 28, when the highest values of dust opacity are also observed (~ 2.45). We characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these regional and global dust events and investigate the effect of dust on surface and atmospheric temperatures.

  4. Applications of Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Supporting Mission Site Selection for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. One new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005 is the 'auxiliary profile' option. In this option, an input file of temperature and density versus altitude is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5)model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer(TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components,averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree L(s) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  5. Global map of eolian features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, A. W.; Doyle, K. B.; Helm, P. J.; Weisman, M. K.; Witbeck, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of common eolian features on Mars have been identified from a survey of Mariner 9 and Viking orbiter images, and their regional and global distributions and orientations are discussed. Ten features have been mapped including: light and dark streaks, splotches, barchan and transverse dunes, crescentric and anomalous dunes, yardangs, wind grooves, and deflation pits. The north polar region shows a complex wind regime. Dunes and other ephemeral features reveal winds from the northwest and northeast. In the middle and low northern latitudes, northeasterly winds are the most effective winds. Southeast winds are the effective winds in most southern latitudes. Erosional features in bedrock indicate long-term and perhaps ancient wind trends, whereas depositional features may record relatively more recent winds. Deflation pits in the mantled terrain may contain the best record of both ancient and present-day winds.

  6. Global map of eolian features on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. W.; Doyle, K. B.; Helm, P. J.; Weisman, M. K.; Witbeck, N. E.

    1985-02-01

    A variety of common eolian features on Mars have been identified from a survey of Mariner 9 and Viking orbiter images, and their regional and global distributions and orientations are discussed. Ten features have been mapped including: light and dark streaks, splotches, barchan and transverse dunes, crescentric and anomalous dunes, yardangs, wind grooves, and deflation pits. The north polar region shows a complex wind regime. Dunes and other ephemeral features reveal winds from the northwest and northeast. In the middle and low northern latitudes, northeasterly winds are the most effective winds. Southeast winds are the effective winds in most southern latitudes. Erosional features in bedrock indicate long-term and perhaps ancient wind trends, whereas depositional features may record relatively more recent winds. Deflation pits in the mantled terrain may contain the best record of both ancient and present-day winds.

  7. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander clears Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, after launch at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  8. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Silhouetted against the gray sky, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander lifts off from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  9. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust and into a gray-clouded sky , a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  10. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander into a cloud-covered sky at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  11. Evaluating Mars Science Laboratory Landing Sites with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL) [1]. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: (1) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) mapping years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results driven by observed TES dust optical depth or (2) TES mapping year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated [2] against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from TES [3]. There are several new features included in Mars-GRAM 2005. The first is the option to use input data sets from MGCM model runs that were designed to closely simulate conditions observed during the first two years of TES observations at Mars. The TES Year 1 option includes values from April 1999 through January 2001. The TES Year 2 option includes values from February 2001 through December 2002. The second new feature is the option to read and use any auxiliary profile of temperature and density versus altitude. In exercising the auxiliary profile Mars-GRAM option, values from the auxiliary profile replace data from the original MGCM databases. Some examples of auxiliary profiles include data from TES nadir or limb observations and Mars mesoscale model output at a particular

  12. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to Evaluate Entry Probe Mission Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. The "auxiliary profile" option is one new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005. This option uses an input file of temperature and density versus altitude to replace the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. Any source of data or alternate model output can be used to generate an auxiliary profile. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components, averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree Ls bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sites are used as a sample of how Mars-GRAM' could be a valuable tool for planning of future Mars entry probe missions. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate MSL landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  13. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to Evaluate Entry Probe Mission Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL)1. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: a) TES Mapping Years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from MGCM model results driven by observed TES dust optical depth; and b) TES Mapping Year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated2 against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)

  14. Global Digital Image Mosaics of Mars: Assessment of Geodetic Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R.; Archinal, B. A.; Lee, E. M.; Davies, M. E.; Colvin, T. R.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    A revised global image mosaic of Mars (MDIM 2.0) was recently completed by USGS. Comparison with high-resolution gridded Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital image mosaics will allow us to quantify its geodetic errors; linking the next MDIM to the MOLA data will help eliminate those errors. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Global-scale external magnetic fields at Mars from Mars Global Surveyor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among those of the terrestrial planets. It is the net result of the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere. Internal fields of crustal origin have been the subject of extensive studies; the focus of our work is identification and characterization of contributions from external magnetic fields using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data. We investigate the magnitude, average spatial structure and temporal variability of the external magnetic field at the MGS mapping altitude of 400 km by first subtracting expected contributions from crustal fields using existing global crustal field models. We identify contributions to the residual dayside fields from two sources: the draped IMF and a source that we interpret to be of ionospheric origin. As observed in previous work, nightside external fields are minimal at mapping orbit altitudes. The IMF contribution changes polarity every 13 days due to the geometry of the heliospheric magnetic field and Mars' orbit. This allows us to calculate the amplitude of the IMF at mapping orbit altitudes. The ionospheric contribution results in a quasi-steady dayside signal in the MGS observations because of the limited local time sampling of the MGS mapping orbit. The ionospheric contribution can be isolated by averaging the external fields over timescales longer than several Carrington rotations, to average out the IMF contribution. We present a global average of the ionopsheric field for the duration of the mapping orbit (2000-2006) and analyze daytime and nightime fields separately. We show that some structure in the time-averaged ionospheric field is organized in the Mars body-fixed frame, due for example, to the influence of crustal fields. We also show that the ionospheric fields vary in amplitude and geometry with martian season. Broader local time coverage over a restricted latitude

  16. Mars global reference atmosphere model (Mars-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.

    1992-01-01

    Mars-GRAM is an empirical model that parameterizes the temperature, pressure, density, and wind structure of the Martian atmosphere from the surface through thermospheric altitudes. In the lower atmosphere of Mars, the model is built around parameterizations of height, latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal variations of temperature determined from a survey of published measurements from the Mariner and Viking programs. Pressure and density are inferred from the temperature by making use of the hydrostatic and perfect gas laws relationships. For the upper atmosphere, the thermospheric model of Stewart is used. A hydrostatic interpolation routine is used to insure a smooth transition from the lower portion of the model to the Stewart thermospheric model. Other aspects of the model are discussed.

  17. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and Database for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Johnson, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many Mars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model, while above 80 km it is based on Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter. Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science and Thermal Emission Spectrometer data. RS data from 2480 profiles were used, covering latitudes 75 deg S to 72 deg N, surface to approximately 40 km, for seasons ranging from areocentric longitude of Sun (Ls) = 70-160 deg and 265-310 deg. RS data spanned a range of local times, mostly 0-9 hours and 18-24 hours. For interests in aerocapture and precision landing, comparisons concentrated on atmospheric density. At a fixed height of 20 km, RS density varied by about a factor of 2.5 over ranges of latitudes and Ls values observed. Evaluated at matching positions and times, these figures show average RSMars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-)0.05, except at heights above approximately 25 km and latitudes above approximately 50 deg N. Average standard deviation of RSMars-GRAM density ratio was 6%. TES data were used covering surface to approximately 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of a Mars global dust storm). Depending on season, TES data covered latitudes 85 deg S to 85 deg N. Most TES data were concentrated near local times 2 hours and 14 hours. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (greater than 45 deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approximately 90 and 180 deg. Compared to TES averages for a given latitude and season, TES data had average density standard deviation about the mean of

  18. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8: Users Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    1999-05-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8 is presented and its new features are discussed. Mars-GRAM uses new values of planetary reference ellipsoid radii, gravity term, and rotation rate (consistent with current JPL values) and includes centrifugal effects on gravity. The model now uses NASA Ames Global Circulation Model low resolution topography. Curvature corrections are applied to winds and limits based on speed of sound are applied. Altitude of the F1 ionization peak and density scale height, including effects of change of molecular weight with altitude are computed. A check is performed to disallow temperatures below CO2 sublimination. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and running the program. Sample input and output are provided. An example of incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code is also given.

  19. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8 is presented and its new features are discussed. Mars-GRAM uses new values of planetary reference ellipsoid radii, gravity term, and rotation rate (consistent with current JPL values) and includes centrifugal effects on gravity. The model now uses NASA Ames Global Circulation Model low resolution topography. Curvature corrections are applied to winds and limits based on speed of sound are applied. Altitude of the F1 ionization peak and density scale height, including effects of change of molecular weight with altitude are computed. A check is performed to disallow temperatures below CO2 sublimination. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and running the program. Sample input and output are provided. An example of incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code is also given.

  20. Magnetic Field and Plasma Observations at Mars: Initial Results of the Mars Global Surveyor Mission

    PubMed

    Acuña; Connerney; Wasilewski; Lin; Anderson; Carlson; McFadden; Curtis; Mitchell; Reme; Mazelle; Sauvaud; d'Uston; Cros; Medale; Bauer; Cloutier; Mayhew; Winterhalter; Ness

    1998-03-13

    The magnetometer and electron reflectometer investigation (MAG/ER) on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has obtained magnetic field and plasma observations throughout the near-Mars environment, from beyond the influence of Mars to just above the surface (at an altitude of approximately 100 kilometers). The solar wind interaction with Mars is in many ways similar to that at Venus and at an active comet, that is, primarily an ionospheric-atmospheric interaction. No significant planetary magnetic field of global scale has been detected to date (<2 x 10(21) Gauss-cubic centimeter), but here the discovery of multiple magnetic anomalies of small spatial scale in the crust of Mars is reported. PMID:9497279

  1. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM 2001): Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM 2001) and its new features. As with the previous version (mars-2000), all parameterizations fro temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and season (Ls) use input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) for the surface through 80-km altitude and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for 80 to 70 km. Mars-GRAM 2001 is based on topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and includes new MGCM data at the topographic surface. A new auxiliary program allows Mars-GRAM output to be used to compute shortwave (solar) and longwave (thermal) radiation at the surface and top of atmosphere. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAN source code and data files and for running the program. It also provides sample input and output and an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  2. Design and fabrication of lenses for the color science cameras aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi, F. Tony

    2009-10-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover is the third-generation robotic vehicle planned for Mars exploration, scheduled to land on Mars in 2012. There are 15 cameras on board the rover, 10 of which have engineering functions and 5 of which are designed for scientific investigations. Four of the five science cameras are built by Malin Space Science Systems to acquire color images via an RGB Bayer pattern 1600×1200 pixel charge-coupled device. These cameras are categorized into three types: Mast Camera (Mastcam), of which two different versions will be flown; Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI); and Mars Descent Imager (MARDI). These cameras will investigate Martian geology and geomorphology and provide the first color views of the Martian surface that are identical to the natural color provided by typical consumer digital cameras. The author designed and built the lenses for these MSL science cameras, Mastcam utilizes a 34-mm focal length F/8 and a 100-mm focal length F/10 lens; MAHLI utilizes a lens that varies from a 18.4-mm focal length F/9.8 (close focus) to 21.4-mm focal length F/8.5 (infinity focus); and MARDI utilizes a 9.7-mm focal length F/3 lens. The requirements, design, and performance of these lenses are described.

  3. Analysis of high-altitude planetary ion velocity space distributions detected by the Ion Mass Analyzer aboard Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fraenz, M.; Curry, S.; Mitchell, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    We present observations of planetary ion velocity space distributions from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard Mars Express (MEX). The magnetometer data from Mars Global Surveyor is used to obtain a rough estimate of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Characteristic features of the velocity space distributions will be examined and discussed for orbits aligned with the convective electric field and those in the Mars terminator plane. This study will focus on the high (keV) energy ions, as well as the relative importance of a high-altitude magnetosheath source of escaping planetary ions. Furthermore, this paper will examine various methods for converting the IMA detector counts to species-specific fluxes. After mimicking the methods previously used by researchers, we apply each of these methods of species extraction to data collected during the same time intervals. We discuss the implications for planetary ion motion around Mars, using the details of the velocity space observations to better understand the solar wind interaction with Mars. Comparisons to virtual detections using a test particle simulation will also provide insight into ion origins and trajectories.

  4. Global Summary MGS TES Data and Mars-Gram Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many Mars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), while above 80 km it is based on University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topograph$ from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with a global summary data set of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. TES averages and standard deviations were assembled from binned TES data which covered surface to approx. 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of a Mars global dust storm). TES data were binned in 10-by-10 degree latitude-longitude bins (i.e. 36 longitude bins by 19 latitude bins), 12 seasonal bins (based on 30 degree increments of Ls angle). Bin averages and standard deviations were assembled at 23 data levels (temperature at 21 pressure levels, plus surface temperature and surface pressure). Two time-of day bins were used: local time near 2 or 14 hours local time). Two dust optical depth bins wereused: infrared optical depth either less than or greater than 0.25 (which corresponds to visible optical depth either less than or greater than about 0.5). For interests in aerocapture and precision entry and landing, comparisons focused on atmospheric density. TES densities versus height were computed from TES temperature versus pressure, using assumptions of perfect gas law and hydrostatics. Mars-GRAM validation studies used density ratio (TES/Mars-GRAM) evaluated at data bin center points in space and time. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (> 45 deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approx. 90 and 180deg

  5. Status of Mars Global Surveyor Science Data Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavney, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; Springer, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor has been in orbit around Mars since September 1997, completing its primary mission on January 31, 2001. As of that date the spacecraft had completed more than 8000 mapping orbits. Data from its science instruments, radio science experiment, and SPICE files have been released regularly to the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) as described in the MGS Archive Plan and Addendum and are available online. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000): Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000) and its new features. All parameterizations for temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and L(sub s) have been replaced by input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) for the surface through 80-km altitude and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for 80 to 170 km. A modified Stewart thermospheric model is still used for higher altitudes and for dependence on solar activity. "Climate factors" to tune for agreement with GCM data are no longer needed. Adjustment of exospheric temperature is still an option. Consistent with observations from Mars Global Surveyor, a new longitude-dependent wave model is included with user input to specify waves having 1 to 3 wavelengths around the planet. A simplified perturbation model has been substituted for the earlier one. An input switch allows users to select either East or West longitude positive. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and for running the program. It also provides sample input and output and an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  7. Lithospheric Structure from Mars Global Surveyor Topography and Gravity and Implications for the Early Thermal Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Aharonson, Oded; Balmino, Georges; Banerdt, W. B.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2000-01-01

    Regional variations in the thickness of the elastic lithosphere on Mars derived from a combined analysis of topography and gravity anomalies determined by Mars Global Surveyor provide new insight into the planet's thermal history.

  8. Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Electron Density Profiles: Interannual Variability and Implications for the Neutral Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Engel, S.; Hinson, D. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) experiment employs an ultrastable oscillator aboard the spacecraft. The signal from the oscillator to Earth is refracted by the Martian ionosphere, allowing retrieval of electron density profiles versus radius and geopotential. The present analysis is carried out on five sets of occultation measurements: (1) four obtained near northern summer solstice (Ls = 74-116, near aphelion) at high northern latitudes (64.7-77.6N), and (2) one set of profiles approaching equinox conditions (Ls = 135- 146) at high southern latitudes (64.7-69.1S). Electron density profiles (95 to 200 km) are examined over a narrow range of solar zenith angles (76.5-86.9 degrees) for local true solar times of (1) 3-4 hours and (2) 12.1 hours. Variations spanning 1-Martian year are specifically examined in the Northern hemisphere.

  9. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David; Lillis, Robert J.; Mitchell, David L.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    2012-06-01

    We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron Reflectometer also measured particles with energies >30 MeV that penetrated the aluminum housing of the instrument and were detected directly by microchannel plates in the instrument interior. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental results, we show how the Electron Reflectometer microchannel plates recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with ˜45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar energetic particles were detected by the same mechanism as galactic cosmic rays; however, their flux levels are far more uncertain due to shielding effects and the energy-dependent response of the microchannel plates. Using the solar energetic particle data, we have developed a catalog of energetic particle events at Mars associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which includes the identification of interplanetary shocks. MGS observations of energetic particles at varying geometries between the Earth and Mars that include shocks produced by halo, limb, and backsided events provide a unique data set for use by the heliophysics modeling community.

  10. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    We are in the third year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe mapping and unit delineation results thus far, a new unit identified in the northern plains, and remaining steps to complete the map.

  11. Understanding Mars meteorology using a "new generation" Mars Global Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, F.; Madeleine, J.-B.; Millour, E.; Colaitis, A.; Spiga, A.; Montabone, L.; Chaufray, J.-Y.; Lefèvre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Määttänen, A.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Lopez-Valverde, M.-A.

    2011-10-01

    For more than 20 years, several teams around the world have developed GCMs (Mars General Circulation Model or Mars Global Climate) to simulate the environment on Mars. The GCM developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique in collaboration with several teams in Europe (LATMOS, France, University of Oxford, The Open University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia), and with the support of ESA and CNES. is currently used for many kind of applications. It has become a "Mars System Model" which, for instance, includes the water cycle, the dust cycle, several photochemistry cycles, the release and transport of Radon, water isotopes cycles, a therrmosphere and a Ionosphere. It can also be used to explore Mars past climates. Moreover the outputs of the GCM are available to the community and to engineers through the Mars Climate Database, a tool available on a DVD-Rom and used by more than 150 teams around the world. For all these applications, it is more important than ever that the model accurately simulates the "fundamentals" of the Martian meteorology: pressure, temperature, winds. However, several recent studies have revealed that to simulate the details of Mars meteorology one must take into account several processes previously neglected like the radiative effect of water ice clouds, complex variations in the vertical distribution of dust including the formation of detached layers of dust, complex coupling in the CO2 cycle which control the pressure cycle and the temperatures at high latitude, etc.

  12. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34): Programmer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.; Johnson, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a programmer's guide for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34). Included are a brief history and review of the model since its origin in 1988 and a technical discussion of recent additions and modifications. Examples of how to run both the interactive and batch (subroutine) forms are presented. Instructions are provided on how to customize output of the model for various parameters of the Mars atmosphere. Detailed descriptions are given of the main driver programs, subroutines, and associated computational methods. Lists and descriptions include input, output, and local variables in the programs. These descriptions give a summary of program steps and 'map' of calling relationships among the subroutines. Definitions are provided for the variables passed between subroutines through common lists. Explanations are provided for all diagnostic and progress messages generated during execution of the program. A brief outline of future plans for Mars-GRAM is also presented.

  13. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): Release No. 2 - Overview and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, B.; Johnson, D.; Tyree, L.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM), a science and engineering model for empirically parameterizing the temperature, pressure, density, and wind structure of the Martian atmosphere, is described with particular attention to the model's newest version, Mars-GRAM, Release No. 2 and to the improvements incorporated into the Release No. 2 model as compared with the Release No. 1 version. These improvements include (1) an addition of a new capability to simulate local-scale Martian dust storms and the growth and decay of these storms; (2) an addition of the Zurek and Haberle (1988) wave perturbation model, for simulating tidal perturbation effects; and (3) a new modular version of Mars-GRAM, for incorporation as a subroutine into other codes.

  14. Surface Dust Redistribution on Mars as Observed by the Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szwast, M. A.; Richardson, M. I.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    The global redistribution of dust by the atmosphere is geologically and climatologically important. Dust deposition and removal at the surface represents ongoing sedimentary geology: a vestige of aeolian processes responsible for the concentration of vast dustsheets and potentially for ancient layered units at various locations on Mars. The varying amount of dust on the surface has also long been hypothesized as a factor in determining whether regional or global dust storms occur in a given year. Indeed, the atmosphere has a very short, sub-seasonal time-scale (or memory) and as such, any inter-annual variability in the climate system that is not simply ascribable to stochastic processes, must involve changing conditions on the surface. An excellent, multi-year dataset is provided by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Orbiter Camera Wide Angle imager (MOC-WA). This dataset allows investigation into the degree to which surface dust deposits on Mars really change: over decadal time scales, over the course of the annual cycle, and as a result of global and regional dust storms. The MGS mapping orbit data set extends over almost 3 Martian years at the time of writing. These data sets include one global dust storm and smaller regional storms (one in the first TES mapping year and two in the third).

  15. MOLA: The New Approach for Mars Global Cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    The MGS Orbiter is carrying the high-precision Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) which, when combined with telemetered latitude data, provides a tie between inertial space and Mars-fixed coordinates to an accuracy of 100 m in latitude/longitude and 10 m in radius (1 sigma), orders of magnitude more accurate than previous global geodetic/ cartographic control data. Over the 2 year MGS mission lifetime, it is expected that over 30,000 MOLA Global Cartographic Control Points will be produced to form the basis for new and re-derived map and geodetic products, key to the analysis of existing and evolving MGS data as well as future Mars exploration.

  16. Aerobraking at Venus and Mars: A Comparison of the Magellan and Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Daniel T.

    2000-01-01

    On February 4, 1999 the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft became the second spacecraft to successfully aerobrake into a nearly circular orbit about another planet. This paper will highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aerobraking phases of this mission and the first mission to use aerobraking, the Magellan mission to Venus. Although the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was designed for aerobraking and the Magellan spacecraft was not, aerobraking MGS was a much more challenging task than aerobraking Magellan, primarily because the spacecraft was damaged during the initial deployment of the solar panels. The MGS aerobraking phase had to be completely redesigned to minimize the bending moment acting on a broken yoke connecting one of the solar panels to the spacecraft. Even if the MGS spacecraft was undamaged, aerobraking at Mars was more challenging than aerobraking at Venus for several reasons. First, Mars is subject to dust storms, which can significantly change the temperature of the atmosphere due to increased solar heating in the low and middle altitudes (below 50 km), which in turn can significantly increase the density at the aerobraking altitudes (above 100 km). During the first part of the MGS aerobraking phase, a regional dust storm was observed to have a significant and very rapid effect on the entire atmosphere of Mars. Computer simulations of global dust storms on Mars indicate that even larger density increases are possible than those observed during the MGS aerobraking phases. For many aerobraking missions, the duration of the aerobraking phase must be kept as short as possible to minimize the total mission cost. For Mars missions, a short aerobraking phase means that there will be less margin to accommodate atmospheric variability, so the operations team must be ready to propulsively raise periapsis by tens of kilometers on very short notice. This issue was less of a concern on Venus, where the thick lower atmosphere and

  17. Horizon Science Experiment for Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T. Z.

    1997-07-01

    The Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly on the MGS orbiter monitors the orientation of the spacecraft relative to the limb by sensing atmospheric emission in the 15 mu m CO2 band. These data are used to maintain nadir pointing for the remote sensing instrument suite. The set of 5.5deg tall triangular fields of view normally straddle the limb, and cover quadrants 90deg apart around the limb. As an engineering device, the MHSA benefits from Mars' atmosphere being spatially bland at 15 mu m. However, these data will carry information about the thermal state of the atmosphere, which is subject to diurnal, seasonal, latitudinal, and dust-storm related variations, as well as possible wave effects. The Mariner 7 IRS, Mariner 9 IRIS, and Viking IRTM all demonstrated such variability. The Horizon Science Experiment (HORSE) is intended to glean new insight into atmospheric variation from the MGS horizon sensors, with continuous data flow to the Earth in the engineering stream, and a rapid buildup of spatial coverage. MHSA data will also be used to monitor atmospheric thermal behavior during the aerobraking of MGS in late 1997.

  18. Global Geometric Properties of Martian Impact Craters: A Preliminary Assessment Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Schnetzler, C.; Frawley, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Impact craters on Mars have been used to provide fundamental insights into the properties of the martian crust, the role of volatiles, the relative age of the surface, and on the physics of impact cratering in the Solar System. Before the three-dimensional information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument which is currently operating in Mars orbit aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), impact features were characterized morphologically using orbital images from Mariner 9 and Viking. Fresh-appearing craters were identified and measurements of their geometric properties were derived from various image-based methods. MOLA measurements can now provide a global sample of topographic cross-sections of martian impact features as small as approx. 2 km in diameter, to basin-scale features. We have previously examined MOLA cross-sections of Northern Hemisphere and North Polar Region impact features, but were unable to consider the global characteristics of these ubiquitous landforms. Here we present our preliminary assessment of the geometric properties of a globally-distributed sample of martian impact craters, most of which were sampled during the initial stages of the MGS mapping mission (i.e., the first 600 orbits). Our aim is to develop a framework for reconsidering theories concerning impact cratering in the martian environment. This first global analysis is focused upon topographically-fresh impact craters, defined here on the basis of MOLA topographic profiles that cross the central cavities of craters that can be observed in Viking-based MDIM global image mosaics. We have considered crater depths, rim heights, ejecta topologies, cross-sectional "shapes", and simple physical models for ejecta emplacement. To date (May, 1999), we have measured the geometric properties of over 1300 impact craters in the 2 to 350 km diameter size interval. A large fraction of these measured craters were sampled with cavity-center cross-sections during the first

  19. Description of the REMS Ground Temperature Sensor aboard MSL NASA mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armiens, C.; Sebastian, E.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station, REMS, is part of the payload of the Mars Science Laboratory, MSL, a NASA mission to the red planet recently scheduled to launch on the fall of 2011. REMS comprises several instruments aimed at measuring ground and air temperature, wind speed and direction, ultraviolet radiation, pressure and humidity. The Ground Temperature Sensor, GTS, is a contactless multi band pyrometer. It is composed of three thermopiles measuring in different bands: 8 - 14 um, 16 - 20 um and 14.5 - 15.5 um. The first two bands are optimized for the higher and lower temperatures expected to be present on Mars during the lifetime of the mission. They also avoid the radiation generated by the rover itself, the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, RTG, and the Sun that is reflected on the ground and reaches the thermopiles, as well as the atmospheric emission originated by the CO2. The use of two different bands to measure ground temperature allows the estimation of the emissivity of the surface by means of colour pyrometry algorithms. Thus we may determine not only the brightness temperature but also the real temperature of the ground, i.e., the kinetic temperature. The estimation of the emissivity may serve also to detect changes in the composition of the ground, as, for example, the formation of frost. The third thermopile is centred in the CO2 absorption band, the main component of the Martian atmosphere. This allows the determination of the residual influence that the atmosphere may have in the other two thermopile's bands. The brightness temperature of the air may also be estimated from this third thermopile. During Martian operations, the system may be degraded due to the deposition of dust over the thermopiles' filter. In order to correct for this degradation, the system includes a calibration plate, which partially fills the field of view of the thermopiles. This plate may be heated several degrees. Analyzing the signals before and during

  20. Improved Gravitational Models of Mars from Radio Tracking of Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Chinn, Douglas S.

    1999-01-01

    After a long period of aerobraking, Mars Global Surveyor entered a low altitude, near-circular and polar orbit about Mars on February 4, 1999. Since that time, the spacecraft has been tracked routinely by the antennae of the Deep Space Network (DSN). The X band tracking data for the first time provide us: with uniform low-altitude coverage over the entire planet. In terms of both quality and geographic distribution, these data supersede the S Band tracking obtained by the Viking Orbiters and Mariner 9. We have used all available tracking obtained by Mars Global Surveyor to determine improved models; of the Man geopotential to 70 x 70 in spherical harmonies. The new models provide an order of magnitude improvement in both accuracy and detail. For instance, the Valles Marimeris canyon system clearly appears in the gravity anomaly maps: with the new model. In this paper, we discuss the derivation of these new models, and we evaluate their performance in terms of observed features and orbit quality. We also discuss the use of altimeter data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) in the form of altimeter crossovers, and how these data can contribute to the determination of geopotential models for Mars.

  1. Hubble and Mars Global Surveyor Views of Dust Storm on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera (HST/WFPC) and the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MGS/MOC) shows the progress of a regional dust storm within the Valles Marineris canyons on Mars. The first HST image (left), taken in mid-May, shows no dust within the canyons. The most recent HST image (center), taken on 27 June in support of the Mars Pathfinder landing activities, shows a dust storm filling part of the canyon system and extending into the chaotic terrains at the eastern end of the canyons. The MGS/MOC image (right), acquired on July 2, shows that bright dust continues to fill the valleys. However, it does not appear to have moved significantly north of the previously observed position, suggesting that the storm remains confined to the canyon region, and does not appear to directly threaten the Pathfinder landing site (small black circle).

    The HST images shown here have been reduced in scale to match that of the MGS/MOC image. Although the HST is 10 times farther from Mars than MGS, its images are sharper because its resolving power is 15 times better than the MOC, and the light gathering area is almost 50 times greater. However, MGS is presently 45,000 times farther from Mars than it will be when the MOC begins its primary photography mission. At 400 km above the martian surface, the MOC wide angle camera will collect daily images at a resolution of 7.5 km/pixel, compared to HST's best of about 20 km/pixel. The narrow angle camera will observe portions of Mars at better than 1.5 m/pixel.

    The Mars Global Surveyor is operated by the Mars Surveyor Operations Project managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena CA. The Mars Orbiter Camera is a duplicate of one of the six instruments originally developed for the Mars Observer mission. It was built and is operated under contract to JPL by an industry/university team led by Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, CA.

  2. Global Views of Mars in late Northern Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbits around the red planet 12 times a day. Each orbit goes from pole to pole. Over the course of a single day, the wide angle cameras of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) system take 24 pictures--12 red and 12 blue--that are assembled to create a daily global map. Such global views are used to monitor the martian weather and observe changes in the patterns of frost and dust distribution on the surface. These two pictures are examples of what Mars looks like in late northern summer, which is also late southern winter. At this time of year, the south polar cap (bottom, white feature in each image) is very large, extending from the south pole northward to 60oS. Also at this time of year, clouds of water ice crystals are common over the four largest volcanoes in Tharsis. The picture on the right shows Tharsis, with the four volcanoes forming a triangle resembling the pattern of holes on a bowling ball. The image on the left is centered on Syrtis Major, a dark, windswept volcanic plain so large that it has been known to science since the first telescopes were turned toward Mars in the 1600s. The elliptical bright feature at lower-center in the left image is the Hellas Basin, the largest unequivocal impact basin (formed by an asteroid or comet) on the planet. Hellas is approximately 2200 km (1,370 mi) across.

  3. A Martian Telecommunications Network: UHF Relay Support of the Mars Exploration Rovers by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Barbieri, A.; Brower, E.; Estabrook, P.; Gibbs, R.; Horttor, R.; Ludwinski, J.; Mase, R.; McCarthy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Theisinger, P.; Thorpe, T.; Waggoner, B.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and ESA have established an international network of Mars orbiters, outfitted with relay communications payloads, to support robotic exploration of the red planet. Starting in January, 2004, this network has provided the Mars Exploration Rovers with telecommunications relay services, significantly increasing rover engineering and science data return while enhancing mission robustness and operability. Augmenting the data return capabilities of their X-band direct-to-Earth links, the rovers are equipped with UHF transceivers allowing data to be relayed at high rate to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express orbiters. As of 21 July, 2004, over 50 Gbits of MER data have been obtained, with nearly 95% of that data returned via the MGS and Odyssey UHF relay paths, allowing a large increase in science return from the Martian surface relative to the X-band direct-to-Earth link. The MGS spacecraft also supported high-rate UHF communications of MER engineering telemetry during the critical period of entry, descent, and landing (EDL), augmenting the very low-rate EDL data collected on the X-band direct-to-Earth link. Through adoption of the new CCSDS Proximity-1 Link Protocol, NASA and ESA have achieved interoperability among these Mars assets, as validated by a successful relay demonstration between Spirit and Mars Express, enabling future interagency cross-support and establishing a truly international relay network at Mars.

  4. Interannual variability of global dust storms on Mars.

    PubMed

    Haberle, R M

    1986-10-24

    Global dust storms on Mars occur in some years but not in others. If the four Mars years of Viking data are representative, some distinguishing characteristics can be inferred. In years with global dust storms, dust is raised in the southern hemisphere and spread over much of the planet by an intensified Hadley circulation. In years without global dust storms, dust is raised in the northern hemisphere by relatively active mid-latitude storm systems but does not spread globally. In both cases the dusty season is winter in the north. Assuming that the cross-equatorial Hadley circulation plays a key role in the onset of global dust storms, it is shown from numerical simulations that a northen hemisphere dust haze weakens its intensity and, hence, its contribution to the surface stress in the southern hemisphere. This, in turn, reduces the possibility of global dust storm development. The interannual variability is therefore the result either of a competition between circulations in opposite hemispheres, in which case the variability has a random component, or it is the result of the cycling of dust between hemispheres, in which case the variability is related to the characteristics of global dust storms themselves. PMID:17792018

  5. Meridiani Planum and the global hydrology of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Phillips, Roger J.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2007-03-01

    The Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover found evidence for groundwater activity in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars in the form of aeolian and fluvial sediments composed of sulphate-rich grains. These sediments appear to have experienced diagenetic modification in the presence of a fluctuating water table. In addition to the extensive secondary aqueous alteration, the primary grains themselves probably derive from earlier playa evaporites. Little is known, however, about the hydrologic processes responsible for this environmental history-particularly how such extensive evaporite deposits formed in the absence of a topographic basin. Here we investigate the origin of these deposits, in the context of the global hydrology of early Mars, using numerical simulations, and demonstrate that Meridiani is one of the few regions of currently exposed ancient crust predicted to have experienced significant groundwater upwelling and evaporation. The global groundwater flow would have been driven primarily by precipitation-induced recharge and evaporative loss, with the formation of the Tharsis volcanic rise possibly playing a role through the burial of aquifers and induced global deformation. These results suggest that the deposits formed as a result of sustained groundwater upwelling and evaporation, rather than ponding within an enclosed basin. The evaporite formation coincided with a transition to more arid conditions that increased the relative impact of a deep-seated, global-scale hydrology on the surface evolution.

  6. Simulation of Radar-Backscattering from Phobos - A Contribution to the Experiment MARSIS aboard MarsExpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Orosei, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plaut, J.; Picardi, G.

    2009-04-01

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) on board MarsExpress is the first and so far the only space borne radar that observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were measured for different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of the low frequency sounding of Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into the crust of Phobos. In this poster we present a numerical method that allows a very precise computation of radar echoes backscattered from the surface of large objects. The software is based on a combination of physical optics calculation of surface scattering of the radar target, and Method of Moments to calculate the radiation pattern of the whole space borne radar system. The calculation of the frequency dependent radiation pattern takes into account all relevant gain variations and coupling effects aboard the space craft. Based on very precise digital elevation models of Phobos, patch models in the resolution of lambda/10 were generated. Simulation techniques will be explained and a comparison of simulations and measurements will be shown. SURFACE BACKSCATTERING SIMULATOR FOR LARGE OBJECTS The computation of surface scattering of the electromagnetic wave incident on Phobos is based on the Physical Optics method. The scattered field can be expressed by the induced equivalent surface currents on the target. The Algorithm: The simulation program itself is split into three phases. In the first phase, an illumination test checks whether a patch will be visible from the position of the space craft. If this is not the case, the patch will be excluded from the simulation. The second phase serves as a preparation stage for the third phase. Amongst other tasks, the dyadic products for the Js and Ms surface currents are calculated. This is a time-memory trade-off: the simulation will need additional 144 bytes of RAM for every patch that passes phase one. However, the calculation of the dyads is expensive, so that considerable

  7. Schmidt Crater: Using Data from the Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Fred

    2001-10-01

    In the Physics Department at Sinclair Community College in Dayton, the most popular general-education course is a three-quarter astronomy sequence. The course is designed to incorporate significant elements of conceptual physics, scientific methods, and quantitative reasoning, along with the content of astronomy. In cooperation with faculty from mathematics and sociology, the author developed new lab activities that engage students in making "practical" plans for the colonization of Mars. The activities are intended to be low-cost, to be suitable for either on-campus or distance-learning environments, and to be fun for both students and instructors. The Schmidt Crater region, an Ohio-sized area near the South Pole of Mars, was selected as a potential site for obtaining large quantities of water. Topographic data for the region was extracted from the 36 CD's of laser altimeter data obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor, and ArcView was used to produce detailed maps. Wide and narrow angle photos of the region from the Mars Orbiter Camera were integrated with the topographic maps. Both the maps and the photographs were therefore made accessible to students who can use free software packages, such as ArcExplorer and Scion Image With access to up-to-date data for this region, students complete a series of "authentic learning tasks" that include calculating water needs for a Martian city, identifying likely water sources, planning transportation methods, and selecting a "homestead" for their own personal use.

  8. The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Phillips, R. J.; Head, J. W.; Garvin, J. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Muhleman, D. O.; Pettengill, G. H.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Abshire, J. B.; Aharonson, O.; Brown, C. D.; Hauck, S. A.; Ivanov, A. B.; McGovern, P. J.; Zwally, H. J.; Duxbury, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have yielded a high-accuracy global map of the topography of Mars. Dominant features include the low northern hemisphere, the Tharsis province, and the Hellas impact basin. The northern hemisphere depression is primarily a long-wavelength effect that has been shaped by an internal mechanism. The topography of Tharsis consists of two broad rises. Material excavated from Hellas contributes to the high elevation of the southern hemisphere and to the scarp along the hemispheric boundary. The present topography has three major drainage centers, with the northern lowlands being the largest. The two polar cap volumes yield an upper limit of the present surface water inventory of 3.2 to 4.7 million cubic kilometers.

  9. The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Zuber, M T; Solomon, S C; Phillips, R J; Head, J W; Garvin, J B; Banerdt, W B; Muhleman, D O; Pettengill, G H; Neumann, G A; Lemoine, F G; Abshire, J B; Aharonson, O; Brown, C D; Hauck, S A; Ivanov, A B; McGovern, P J; Zwally, H J; Duxbury, T C

    1999-05-28

    Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have yielded a high-accuracy global map of the topography of Mars. Dominant features include the low northern hemisphere, the Tharsis province, and the Hellas impact basin. The northern hemisphere depression is primarily a long-wavelength effect that has been shaped by an internal mechanism. The topography of Tharsis consists of two broad rises. Material excavated from Hellas contributes to the high elevation of the southern hemisphere and to the scarp along the hemispheric boundary. The present topography has three major drainage centers, with the northern lowlands being the largest. The two polar cap volumes yield an upper limit of the present surface water inventory of 3.2 to 4.7 million cubic kilometers. PMID:10348732

  10. Mars Global Digital Dune Database and initial science results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Mullins, Kevin F.; Fenton, Lori K.; Hare, Trent M.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bourke, Mary C.; Colaprete, Anthony; Christensen, Philip R.

    2007-11-01

    A new Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) constructed using Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) infrared (IR) images provides a comprehensive and quantitative view of the geographic distribution of moderate- to large-size dune fields (area >1 km2) that will help researchers to understand global climatic and sedimentary processes that have shaped the surface of Mars. MGD3 extends from 65°N to 65°S latitude and includes ~550 dune fields, covering ~70,000 km2, with an estimated total volume of ~3,600 km3. This area, when combined with polar dune estimates, suggests moderate- to large-size dune field coverage on Mars may total ~800,000 km2, ~6 times less than the total areal estimate of ~5,000,000 km2 for terrestrial dunes. Where availability and quality of THEMIS visible (VIS) or Mars Orbiter Camera narrow-angle (MOC NA) images allow, we classify dunes and include dune slipface measurements, which are derived from gross dune morphology and represent the prevailing wind direction at the last time of significant dune modification. For dunes located within craters, the azimuth from crater centroid to dune field centroid (referred to as dune centroid azimuth) is calculated and can provide an accurate method for tracking dune migration within smooth-floored craters. These indicators of wind direction are compared to output from a general circulation model (GCM). Dune centroid azimuth values generally correlate to regional wind patterns. Slipface orientations are less well correlated, suggesting that local topographic effects may play a larger role in dune orientation than regional winds.

  11. The Global and Local Characters of Mars Perihelion Cloud Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M. J.; Smith, M. D.; Cantor, B. A.; Spiga, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the seasonal and spatial distribution of Mars perihelion cloud trails as mapped from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) MARCI (Mars Color Imager) imaging observations in 2 ultraviolet and 3 visible filters. The extended 2007-2013 period of MARCI daily global image maps reveals the widespread distribution of these high altitude clouds, which are somewhat paradoxically associated with specific surface regions. They appear as longitudinally extended (300-700 km) cloud trails with distinct leading plumes of substantial ice cloud optical depths (0.02-0.2) for such high altitudes of occurrence (40-50 km, from cloud surface shadow measurements). These plumes generate small ice particles (Reff~1 to <0.2 microns) that become entrained in the strong westward mesospheric zonal wind regime of the perihelion (southern summer ) season, although the specific dynamics and cloud microphysics for these plumes are not determined. They are clearly tied to maximum surface heating on Mars, in terms of season (perihelion), local time (early afternoon), and surface latitude/albedo/elevation. The most persistent expressions of these clouds are found in association with two Valles Marineris locations (Clancy et al., 2009). However, a broader survey of MARCI observations reveals many specific regions of occurrence over Ls=200-300. Furthermore, MRO CRISM limb observations indicate a haze of such fine water ice particles characterizes the full southern hemisphere mesosphere at this time. Hence, the behavior of perihelion cloud trails appears to reflect locally elevated mesospheric water ice formation that may impact the global expression of mesospheric water ice aerosols.

  12. Mars global digital dune database and initial science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.; Mullins, K.F.; Fenton, L.K.; Hare, T.M.; Titus, T.N.; Bourke, M.C.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    A new Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) constructed using Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) infrared (IR) images provides a comprehensive and quantitative view of the geographic distribution of moderate- to large-size dune fields (area >1 kM2) that will help researchers to understand global climatic and sedimentary processes that have shaped the surface of Mars. MGD3 extends from 65??N to 65??S latitude and includes ???550 dune fields, covering ???70,000 km2, with an estimated total volume of ???3,600 km3. This area, when combined with polar dune estimates, suggests moderate- to large-size dune field coverage on Mars may total ???800,000 km2, ???6 times less than the total areal estimate of ???5,000,000 km2 for terrestrial dunes. Where availability and quality of THEMIS visible (VIS) or Mars Orbiter Camera. narrow-angle (MOC NA) images allow, we classify dunes and include dune slipface measurements, which are derived from gross dune morphology and represent the prevailing wind direction at the last time of significant dune modification. For dunes located within craters, the azimuth from crater centroid to dune field centroid (referred to as dune centroid azimuth) is calculated and can provide an accurate method for tracking dune migration within smooth-floored craters. These indicators of wind direction are compared to output from a general circulation model (GCM). Dune centroid azimuth values generally correlate to regional wind patterns. Slipface orientations are less well correlated, suggesting that local topographic effects may play a larger role in dune orientation than regional winds. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Simulation of Radar-Backscattering from Phobos - A Contribution to the Experiment MARSIS aboard MarsExpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Orosei, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plaut, J.; Picardi, G.

    2009-04-01

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) on board MarsExpress is the first and so far the only space borne radar that observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were measured for different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of the low frequency sounding of Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into the crust of Phobos. In this poster we present a numerical method that allows a very precise computation of radar echoes backscattered from the surface of large objects. The software is based on a combination of physical optics calculation of surface scattering of the radar target, and Method of Moments to calculate the radiation pattern of the whole space borne radar system. The calculation of the frequency dependent radiation pattern takes into account all relevant gain variations and coupling effects aboard the space craft. Based on very precise digital elevation models of Phobos, patch models in the resolution of lambda/10 were generated. Simulation techniques will be explained and a comparison of simulations and measurements will be shown. SURFACE BACKSCATTERING SIMULATOR FOR LARGE OBJECTS The computation of surface scattering of the electromagnetic wave incident on Phobos is based on the Physical Optics method. The scattered field can be expressed by the induced equivalent surface currents on the target. The Algorithm: The simulation program itself is split into three phases. In the first phase, an illumination test checks whether a patch will be visible from the position of the space craft. If this is not the case, the patch will be excluded from the simulation. The second phase serves as a preparation stage for the third phase. Amongst other tasks, the dyadic products for the Js and Ms surface currents are calculated. This is a time-memory trade-off: the simulation will need additional 144 bytes of RAM for every patch that passes phase one. However, the calculation of the dyads is expensive, so that considerable

  14. Proceedings of the Mars Global Network Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturms, Francis M., Jr. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on the Mars Global Network Mission held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on February 6 and 7, 1990, was attended by 68 people from JPL, National Aeronautics and Space Administration centers, universities, national laboratories, and industry. Three working sessions on science and exploration objectives, mission and system design concepts, and subsystem technology readiness each addressed three specific questions on implementation concepts for the mission. The workshop generated conclusions for each of the nine questions and also recommended several important science and engineering issues to be studied subsequent to the workshop.

  15. A Global Map of Thermal Inertia from Mars Global Surveyor Mapping-Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, M. T.; Kretke, K. A.; Smith, M. D.; Pelkey, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    TES (thermal emission spectrometry) has obtained high spatial resolution surface temperature observations from which thermal inertia has been derived. Seasonal coverage of these data now provides a nearly global view of Mars, including the polar regions, at high resolution. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Interannual variability of global dust storms on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    Global dust storms on Mars occur in some years but not in others. In years with global dust storms, dust is raised in the Southern Hemisphere and spread over much of the planet by an intensified Hadley circulation. In years without global dust storms, dust is raised in the Northern Hemisphere by relatively active midlatitude storm systems, but does not spread globally. In both cases the dusty season is winter in the north. It is shown from numerical simulations that a Northern Hemisphere dust haze weakens the intensity of the cross equatorial Hadley circulation and the contribution it makes to the surface stress in the Southern Hemisphere. This, in turn, reduces the possibility of global dust storm development. The interannual variability is the result either of a competition between circulation in opposite hemispheres, in which case the variability has a random component; or it is the result of the cycling of dust between hemispheres, in which case the variability is related to the characteristics of global dust storms themselves.

  17. Orbit Determination for Mars Global Surveyor During Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Rowlands, D. D.; Smith, D. E.; Pavlis, D. E.; Chinn, D. S.; Luthcke, S. B.; Neumann, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft reached a low-altitude circular orbit on February 4, 1999, after the termination of the second phase of aerobraking. The MGS spacecraft carries the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) whose primary goal is to derive a global, geodetically referenced 0.2 deg x 0.2 deg topographic grid of Mars with a vertical accuracy of better than 30 meters. During the interim science orbits in the' Hiatus mission phase (October - November 1997), and the Science Phasing Orbits (March - April, 1998, and June - July 1998) 208 passes of altimeter data were collected by the MOLA instrument. On March 1, 1999 the first ten orbits of MOLA altimeter data from the near-circular orbit were successfully returned from MGS by the Deep Space Network (DSN). Data will be collected from MOLA throughout the Mapping phase of the MCS mission, or for at least one Mars year (687 days). Whereas the interim orbits of Hiatus and SPO were highly eccentric, and altimeter data were only collected near periapsis when the spacecraft was below 785 km, the Mapping orbit of MGS is near circular, and altimeter data will be collected continuously at a rate of 10 Hz. The proper analysis of the altimeter data requires that the orbit of the MGS spacecraft be known to an accuracy comparable to that of the quality of the altimeter data. The altimeter has an ultimate precision of 30 cm on mostly flat surfaces, so ideally the orbits of the MGS spacecraft should be known to this level. This is a stringent requirement, and more realistic goals of orbit error for MGS are ten to thirty meters. In this paper we will discuss the force and measurement modelling required to achieve this objective. Issues in force modelling include the proper modelling of the gravity field of Mars, and the modelling of non-conservatives forces, including the development of a 'macro-model', in a similar fashion to TOPEX/POSEIDON and TDRSS. During Cruise and Aerobraking, the high gain antenna (HGA) was stowed

  18. Automatic feature extraction for panchromatic Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter camera imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, Catherine S.; Brumby, Steven P.; Leovy, Conway B.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has produced tens of thousands of images, which contain a wealth of information about the surface of the planet Mars. Current manual analysis techniques are inadequate for the comprehensive analysis of such a large dataset, while development of handwritten feature extraction algorithms is laborious and expensive. This project investigates application of an automatic feature extraction approach to analysis of the MOC narrow angle panchromatic dataset, using an evolutionary computation software package called GENIE. GENIE uses a genetic algorithm to assemble feature extraction tools from low-level image operators. Each generated tool is evaluated against training data provided by the user. The best tools in each generation are allowed to 'reproduce' to produce the next generation, and the population of tools is permitted to evolve until it converges to a solution or reaches a level of performance specified by the user. Craters are one of the most scientifically interesting and most numerous features in the MOC data set, and present a wide range of shapes at many spatial scales. We now describe preliminary results on development of a crater finder algorithm using the GENIE software.

  19. Mars' "White Rock" feature lacks evidence of an aqueous origin: Results from Mars Global Surveyor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, S.W.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, R.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Malin, M.C.; Bandfield, J.L.; Jakosky, B.M.; Lane, M.D.; Mellon, M.T.; Presley, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The "White Rock" feature on Mars has long been viewed as a type example for a Martian playa largely because of its apparent high albedo along with its location in a topographic basin (a crater). Data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) demonstrate that White Rock is not anomalously bright relative to other Martian bright regions, reducing the significance of its albedo and weakening the analogy to terrestrial playas. Its thermal inertia value indicates that it is not mantled by a layer of loose dust, nor is it bedrock. The thermal infrared spectrum of White Rock shows no obvious features of carbonates or sulfates and is, in fact, spectrally flat. Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera show that the White Rock massifs are consolidated enough to retain slopes and allow the passage of saltating grains over their surfaces. Material appears to be shed from the massifs and is concentrated at the crests of nearby bedforms. One explanation for these observations is that White Rock is an eroded accumulation of compacted or weakly cemented aeolian sediment. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2003-12-01

    biomarkers.Recent Mars spacecraft, including the Mars Pathfinder lander/rover in 1997 and Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey now orbiting the planet, have provided significant new geochemical findings. These missions have also generated geophysical data with which to constrain geochemical models of the martian interior.

  1. An Overview of Observations of Mars' North Polar Region From the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    1998-01-01

    Since its arrival at Mars on September l5, 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been in a near-polar elliptical orbit, with the orbital eccentricity decreasing during orbital periapse passes where the spacecraft aerobrakes through the martian atmosphere. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), an instrument on the MGS, has the ability to range to the martian surface during nonaerobraking passes. MOLA can operate whenever the range from the spacecraft to the surface is less than 786 km, with the limit determined by the number of bits encoded for the range measurement During the capture orbit, aerobraking hiatus, and science phasing orbit (SPO) mission phases, MOLA acquired approximately 200 profiles across the northern hemisphere of Mars and provided more than 2,000,000 measurements of the radius of the planet. These observations cover the region from the north pole to about 10 degrees S latitude with a precision of a few tens of centimeters and an accuracy (at present) of about 30 in. Absolute accuracy of the elevations is limited by the knowledge of the MGS orbits; these should improve later in the mission due to a more optimal tracking geometry, an improved gravitational field, and the use of the high-gain antenna once the spacecraft achieves its approximately 400-km-altitude circular mapping orbit. MOLA measurements so far show a planet with a low, flat high-latitude region in the north and a higher, topographically rougher terrain nearer the equator. The north polar cap stands approximately 2-3 km above the surrounding terrain and displays deep chasms and complex structure. MOLA measurements of elevation, 1064-nm reflectivity, and backscattered pulse width indicate that the layered terrains are composed mainly of ice.

  2. The Global Distribution of Weathered Glass on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B.; Chojnacki, M.; Lai, J.; Clarke, D.; Joseph, J.; Bell, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Weathered iron-bearing glass has been identified as the primary phase in over ten million square kilometers of low-albedo deposits in the northern lowlands of Mars, based on visible to near-infrared (0.36-2.5 μm) spectra from the OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express (Horgan and Bell, 2012). The glass exhibits a concave blue slope in the near-infrared that is consistent with a leached glass rind. This rind is formed during exposure of glass to at least slightly acidic fluids under water-limited conditions, and is commonly observed in dry volcanic environments on Earth. The proposed origin for these materials is explosive volcanism, potentially triggered due to ice-magma interactions in the late Hesperian or Amazonian, followed by post-depositional acidic weathering at the surface. A possible analog for these glass-rich sedimentary terrains are the extensive sand plains, dune fields, and flood plains of Iceland, which are composed of glass-rich (50-90%) volcaniclastic sediments formed during sub-glacial eruptions. The large scale of the martian deposits suggests widespread (and potentially ice-related) explosive volcanism either in the northern lowlands or near the dichotomy boundary. This possibility raises the question: How widespread are glass-rich deposits on Mars globally? To address this question, we have developed a global set of visible/near-infrared OMEGA mosaics at 1 km/pixel resolution. Preliminary analysis of this data set indicates that the concave spectral slope that we associate with weathered glass is present in large portions of the Syrtis Major region, within Mawrth Vallis, and in several dozen dune fields in the regions of Syrtis Major, Arabia Terra, Valles Marineris, and the Argyre Basin. Higher resolution CRISM observations of several Valles Marineris dune fields appear to confirm these preliminary results, as spectra within the dune fields are consistent with iron-bearing glass (Chojnacki et al., 2012). We are currently working to

  3. Global geologic mapping of Mars: The western equatorial region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Global geologic mapping of Mars was originally accomplished following acquisition of orbital spacecraft images from the Mariner 9 mission. The mapping program represented a joint enterprise by the U.S. Geological Survey and other planetary scientists from universities in the United States and Europe. Many of the Mariner photographs had low resolution or poor albedo contrast caused by atmospheric haze and high-sun angles. Some of the early geologic maps reflect these deficiencies in their poor discrimination and subdivision of rock units. New geologic maps made from higher resolution and better quality Viking images also represent a cooperative effort, by geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona State University, and the University of London. This second series of global maps consists of three parts: 1) western equatorial region, 2) eastern equatorial region, and 3) north and south polar regions. These maps, at 1:15 million scale, show more than 60 individual rock-stratigraphic units assigned to three Martian time-stratigraphic systems. The first completed map of the series covers the western equatorial region of Mars. Accompanying the map is a description of the sequence and distribution of major tectonic, volcanic, and fluvial episodes as recorded in the stratigraphic record. ?? 1985.

  4. The structure of the upper atmosphere of mars: In situ accelerometer measurements from mars global surveyor

    PubMed

    Keating; Bougher; Zurek; Tolson; Cancro; Noll; Parker; Schellenberg; Shane; Wilkerson; Murphy; Hollingsworth; Haberle; Joshi; Pearl; Conrath; Smith; Clancy; Blanchard; Wilmoth; Rault; Martin; Lyons; Esposito; Johnston; et

    1998-03-13

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) z-axis accelerometer has obtained over 200 vertical structures of thermospheric density, temperature, and pressure, ranging from 110 to 170 kilometers, compared to only three previous such vertical structures. In November 1997, a regional dust storm in the Southern Hemisphere triggered an unexpectedly large thermospheric response at mid-northern latitudes, increasing the altitude of thermospheric pressure surfaces there by as much as 8 kilometers and indicating a strong global thermospheric response to a regional dust storm. Throughout the MGS mission, thermospheric density bulges have been detected on opposite sides of the planet near 90 degreesE and 90 degreesW, in the vicinity of maximum terrain heights. This wave 2 pattern may be caused by topographically-forced planetary waves propagating up from the lower atmosphere. PMID:9497278

  5. A Revised Thermosphere for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM Version 3.4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.; James, B. F.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the newly-revised model thermosphere for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM, Version 3.4). It also provides descriptions of other changes made to the program since publication of the programmer's guide for Mars-GRAM Version 3.34. The original Mars-GRAM model thermosphere was based on the global-mean model of Stewart. The revised thermosphere is based largely on parameterizations derived from output data from the three-dimensional Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model (MTGCM). The new thermospheric model includes revised dependence on the 10.7 cm solar flux for the global means of exospheric temperature, temperature of the base of the thermosphere, and scale height for the thermospheric temperature variations, as well as revised dependence on orbital position for global mean height of the base of the thermosphere. Other features of the new thermospheric model are: (1) realistic variations of temperature and density with latitude and time of day, (2) more realistic wind magnitudes, based on improved estimates of horizontal pressure gradients, and (3) allowance for user-input adjustments to the model values for mean exospheric temperature and for height and temperature at the base of the thermosphere. Other new features of Mars-GRAM 3.4 include: (1) allowance for user-input values of climatic adjustment factors for temperature profiles from the surface to 75 km, and (2) a revised method for computing the sub-solar longitude position in the 'ORBIT' subroutine.

  6. New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars: Deciphering the Geologic History Through Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Banks, M.; Buczkowski, D.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the mapping effort is to produce a geologic map of the Argyre basin and surrounding region at 1:5,000,000 scale in both digital and print formats that will detail the stratigraphic and crosscutting relations among rock materials and landforms (30 deg. S to 65 deg. S, 290 deg. E to 340 deg E). There has not been a detailed geologic map produced of the Argyre region since the Viking-era mapping investigation. The mapping tasks include stratigraphic mapping, crater counting, feature mapping, quantitative landform analysis, and spectroscopic/ stratigraphic investigation feature mapping. The regional geologic mapping investigation includes the Argyre basin floor and rim materials, the transition zone that straddles the Thaumasia plateau, which includes Argyre impactrelated modification, and the southeast margin of the Thaumasia plateau using important new data sets from the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The geologic information unfolded by this new mapping project will be useful to the community for constraining the regional geology, paleohydrology, and paleoclimate, which includes but is not limited to the assessment of: (1) whether the Argyre basin contained lakes, (2) the extent of reported flooding and glaciation, (3) existing interpretations of the origin of the narrow ridges located in the southeast part of the basin floor, and (4) the extent of Argyre-related tectonism and its influence on the surrounding regions.

  7. Mars Relays Satellite Orbit Design Considerations for Global Support of Robotic Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Cesarone, Robert; Cook, Richard; Knocke, Phillip; McOmber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses orbit design considerations for Mars relay satellite (MRS)support of globally distributed robotic surface missions. The orbit results reported in this paper are derived from studies of MRS support for two types of Mars robotic surface missions: 1) the mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission, which in its current definition would deploy a global network of up to 16 small landers, and 2)a Small Mars Sample Return (SMSR) mission, which included four globally distributed landers, each with a return stage and one or two rovers, and up to four additional sets of lander/rover elements in an extended mission phase.

  8. Mars Global Surveyor observations of Martian fretted terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Martian fretted terrain between latitudes 30?? and 50?? N and between 315?? and 360?? W has been reexamined in light of new Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data from Mars Global Surveyor. Much of the terrain in the 30??-50?? latitude belt in both hemispheres has a characteristic stippled or pitted texture at MOC (1.5 m) scale. The texture appears to result from partial removal of a formerly smooth, thin deposit as a result of sublimation and deflation. A complex history of deposition and exhumation is indicated by remnants of a former, thicker cover of layered deposits. In some hollows and on some slopes, particularly those facing the pole, are smooth textured deposits outlined by an outward facing escarpment. Throughout the study area are numerous escarpments with debris flows at their base. The escarpments typically have slopes in the 20??-30?? range. At the base of the escarpment is commonly a deposit with striae oriented at right angles to the escarpment. Outside this deposit is the main debris apron with a surface that typically slopes 2??-3?? and complex surface textures suggestive of compression, sublimation, and deflation. The presence of undeformed impact craters indicates that the debris flows are no longer forming. Fretted valleys contain lineated fill and are poorly graded. They likely form from fluvial valleys that were initially like those elsewhere on the planet but were subsequently widened and filled by the same mass-wasting processes that formed the debris aprons. Slope reversals indicate that downvalley flow of the lineated fill is minor. The ubiquitous presence of breaks in slope formed by mass wasting and the complex surface textures that result from mass wasting, deflation, and sublimation decreases the recognizability of the shorelines formerly proposed for this area.

  9. Global and regional/seasonal color mosaics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1993-01-01

    Four regional mosaics of Mars acquired during different seasons, along with their composite as a single global mosaic, have been completed in two colors (red and violet) at scales of 1/16 and 1/64 degrees/pixel. These mosaics were put together from a set of 51 separate mosaics, each acquired from a single Viking orbiter spacecraft orbital revolution. Special techniques were developed and applied to suppress large variations between mosaics introcued by highly variable, optically thin, condensate hazes. The techniques utilize a combination of the spatial characteristics of the hazes (generally broad, low-frequency) along with their modulation of the reginal color ratios (strongly enhancing the violet/red ratios). Photometric-function normalization was applied following the haze removal. Most of the single-orbit mosaics consist of red and violet or red, green, and violet filters, but a few mosaics with only red-filter data were included to fill gaps in global coverage at high northern latitudes. Global coverage is approximately 99 percent complete in red-filter mosaics and approximately 95 percent and approximately 60 percent complete in corresponding violet- and green-filter mosaics, respectively. All of the mosaics are geometrically tied to the 1/256 deg per pixel Mars Digital Image Map (MDIM), which is available on Compact Disk (CD), and which will be used as the base map for Mars Observer data sets. Early in 1993, the single-orbit color mosaics will be distributed to the science community in a six-volume set of CDs. Perhaps the most scientifically interesting parts of this dataset are the overlap regions, which show significant temporal variations in surface and atmospheric features. Surface changes can be categorized as (1) changes that probably occurred during the great dust storms of 1977; (2) changes that occurred soon after 1977 storms due to removal of redistribution of recently deposited dust; (3) changes in the northern lowlands that probably occurred

  10. Global simulation of UV atmospheric emissions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Galindo, Francisco; Ángel López-Valverde, Miguel; Forget, Francois; Montmessin, Franck; Stiepen, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Mars UV atmospheric emissions such as the CO2+ UV doublet, the CO Cameron bands (both in the dayside) and the NO bands (in the nightside) are systematically observed by SPICAM on board Mars Express and IUVS on board MAVEN. The study of these atmospheric emissions allows the determination of the temperature and density in the Martian upper atmosphere, and helps to constrain the thermospheric circulation. While different models have been developed to study these atmospheric emissions, most of them are one dimensional and make a number of assumptions concerning the underlying neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. Within the H2020 project UPWARDS we aim at including models of these atmospheric emissions into a state-of-the-art Global Climate Model for the Martian atmosphere, the LMD-MGCM. This will allow for a self-consistent description of these atmospheric emissions and for the characterizion of their different variability sources. Comparisons with observations will allow to retrieve information about the temperature and density in the Martian upper atmosphere. Here we will present the first results concerning the simulation of these UV emissions and the first comparisons with observations. Acknowledgemnt: This work is supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme under grant agreement UPWARDS-633127

  11. Craters on Mars: Global Geometric Properties from Gridded MOLA Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Frawley, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Impact craters serve as natural probes of the target properties of planetary crusts and the tremendous diversity of morphological expressions of such features on Mars attests to their importance for deciphering the history of crustal assembly, modification, and erosion. This paper summarizes the key findings associated with a five year long survey of the three-dimensional properties of approx. 6000 martian impact craters using finely gridded MOLA topography. Previous efforts have treated representative subpopulations, but this effort treats global properties from the largest survey of impact features from the perspective of their topography ever assimilated. With the Viking missions of the mid-1970 s, the most intensive and comprehensive robotic expeditions to any Deep Space location in the history of humanity were achieved, with scientifically stunning results associated with the morphology of impact craters. The relationships illustrated and suggest that martian impact features are remarkably sensitive to target properties and to the local depositional processes.

  12. Science of Global Climate Modeling: Confirmation from Discoveries on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2012-10-01

    As early as 1993, analysis of obliquity changes on Mars revealed irregular cycles of high excursion, over 45°1. Further obliquity analyses indicated that insolation and climatic conditions vary with time, with the four most recent episodes of obliquity >45° occurring about 5.5, 8, 9, and 15 My.2 Various researchers applied global climate models, using Martian parameters and obliquity changes. The models (independent of Martian geomorphological observations) indicate exceptional climate conditions during the high-obliquity episodes at >45°3,4, with localized massive ice deposition effects east of Hellas and on the west slopes of Tharsis.5 At last year’s DPS my co-authors and I detailed evidence of unusual active glaciation in Greg crater, near the center of the predicted area of ice accumulation during high obliquity.6 We found that the timescale of glacial surface layer activity matches the general 5-15 My timescale of the last episodes of high obliquity and ice deposition. Radar results confirm ice deposits in debris aprons concentrated in the same area.7 Less direct evidence has also been found for glacial ice deposits in the west Tharsis region.8 Here I emphasize that if the models can be adjusted to Mars and then successfully indicate unusual, specific features that we see there, it is an argument for the robustness of climate modeling in general. In recent years we have see various public figures casting doubt on the validity of terrestrial global modeling. The successful match of Martian climate modeling with direct Martian geological and chronometric observations provides an interesting and teachable refutation of the attacks on climate science. References: 1. Science 259:1294-1297; 2. LPSC XXXV, Abs. 1600; 3. Nature 412:411-413; 4. Science 295:110-113; 5. Science 311:368-371; 6. EPSC-DPS Abs. 1394; 7. Science 322:1235-1238; 8. Nature 434:346-351.

  13. Mars Global Surveyor Meteorology by Sequential Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, H.; Weeks, C. L.

    2003-05-01

    Mars Global Surveyor has produced a wealth of atmospheric data, including hundreds of millions of Thermal Emission Spectrometer infrared spectra. The scientific value of these individual observations is enhanced by data assimilation, wherein retrievals of the spectra are constrained by the laws of physics as embodied in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The result is a four-dimensional, global dataset including temperatures, winds, and surface pressure. We have previously used a four-dimensional, variational assimilation technique. Data is accumulated in 12-orbit (approximately one sol) periods, and the initial state of the model that can best reproduce the observations over that time is determined. Observed spectra are accurately modeled; other fields agree with independent atmospheric measurements and are consistent with the meteorology generated by free-running GCMs. However, there are some drawbacks to this methodology. The division of data into 12-orbit chunks is artificial. Each sol's analysis is independent of the previous sol, causing discontinuities in the assimilated fields. The computed diabatic forcing overcompensates for errors in the model state. We are therefore turning to a sequential approach to data assimilation. All data are used to update the model at the time of observation. The GCM is run only in the forward direction. The process cycles between observational updates and model predictions. We expect improved forecast skill from this approach and that all quantities will converge to their true physical values. By calculating model forecast errors in the observation space, we avoid the lengthy computations normally associated with sequential assimilation using the Kalman filter. This procedure can be applied to the most complex GCMs. Using it, we expect to produce the most accurate possible picture of Martian meteorology, suitable for detailed intercomparisons between different observation systems and models. Supported by the Mars

  14. After tower rollback, the Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard is ready for liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After launch tower retraction, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Mars Polar lander waits for liftoff, scheduled for 3:21 p.m. EST, at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor 98 missions.

  15. Global distribution of crustal magnetization discovered by the mars global surveyor MAG/ER experiment

    PubMed

    Acuna; Connerney; Ness; Lin; Mitchell; Carlson; McFadden; Anderson; Reme; Mazelle; Vignes; Wasilewski; Cloutier

    1999-04-30

    Vector magnetic field observations of the martian crust were acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) magnetic field experiment/electron reflectometer (MAG/ER) during the aerobraking and science phasing orbits, at altitudes between approximately 100 and 200 kilometers. Magnetic field sources of multiple scales, strength, and geometry were observed. There is a correlation between the location of the sources and the ancient cratered terrain of the martian highlands. The absence of crustal magnetism near large impact basins such as Hellas and Argyre implies cessation of internal dynamo action during the early Naochian epoch ( approximately 4 billion years ago). Sources with equivalent magnetic moments as large as 1.3 x 10(17) ampere-meter2 in the Terra Sirenum region contribute to the development of an asymmetrical, time-variable obstacle to solar wind flow around Mars. PMID:10221908

  16. A High Efficiency System for Science Instrument Commanding for the Mars Global Surveyor Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jr., R. N. Brooks

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission will return to Mars to re- cover most of the science lost when the ill fated Mars Observer space- craft suffered a catastrophic anomaly in its propulsion system and did not go into orbit. Described in detail are the methods employed by the MGS Sequence Team to accelerate science command processing by using standard command generation process and standard UNIX control scripts.

  17. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR SPACECRAFT ERECTION AT LC-17A AT CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR SPACECRAFT ERECTION AT LC-17A AT CCAS KSC-96C-11617.7 Workers at Launch Pad 17A on Cape Canaveral Air Station prepare for the delicate task of hoisting the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and its upper stage booster to stack it atop the Delta II launch vehicle that will loft the spacecraft on its interplanetary journey. Tucked safely inside the protective canister shown here, the Surveyor was transferred from the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility on KSC to the Cape, completing the final Earth-bound leg of its journey into space. The Mars Global Surveyor is the first of two U.S. missions to Mars scheduled for launch from Launch Complex 17 this year, with liftoff to occur Nov. 6 at the beginning of a 20-day launch period. In December, the Mars Pathfinder will follow the Surveyor on a journey to the Red Planet.

  18. A Global Observing System for Mars: The dual satellite Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Lyons, J.; Newman, C.; Richardson, M. I.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    We summarize a planetary decadal survey white paper describing the rationale for and key elements of a dual satellite orbiting mission (DSM) concept called the Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO). MACO uses mm-wavelength satellite to satellite (sat-sat) occultations in combination with solar occultations (SO) to answer and strongly constrain many key lower and middle atmosphere Mars science questions previously considered unachievable from orbit. On the climate side, MACO would focus on the hydrological, dust and energy cycles of Mars. MACO would measure the transport of water in the present Martian climate, identify sources and sinks and constrain processes in order to better understand present and past Martian climate and glacial and subsurface water reservoirs. Dust-penetrating, satellite-to-satellite mm-wave occultations would profile water vapor to 3%, temperature to 0.4K, geopotential height of pressure to 10 m, line of sight winds to < 2 m/s and balanced winds via pressure gradients, as well turbulence and certain trace constituents with 60 meter diffraction limited vertical resolution and high precision extending down to the surface. A prototype mm-wave occultation instrument will be demonstrated in 2010 via high altitude aircraft to aircraft occultations. MACO will make coincident thermal IR and shortwave measurements to characterize airborne dust to understand dust storm initiation and evolution and how atmospheric dust concentrations are maintained in general. The combination of sensitivity, accuracy and vertical resolution from the satellite to satellite occultation is simply not possible with radiometers and will provide ~30,000 globally distributed near-entry probe quality profiles each Martian year profiling the boundary layer and exchange between the atmosphere and surface. A near-IR solar occultation instrument, such as the French SOIR or a derivative of the Canadian ACE FTIR instrument, would survey chemical trace species such as

  19. Marsoweb: A Collaborative Web Facility for Mars Landing Site and Global Data Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, D. G.; Gulick, V. C.; Briggs, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    Marsoweb is an evolving collaborative web environment for interactive 2D and 3D graphical analysis of data for Mars landing site studies, as well as for global Mars datasets of general scientific interest. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. The Mars imperative: Species survival and inspiring a globalized culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Donald C.

    2015-02-01

    Humanity has crossed a unique technological threshold enabling self-guided survival, a first in the history of life on Earth. From a human perspective the Earth may be considered as a single interconnected ecosystem, and given our tenuous understanding and control over the environment as well as our own behaviors, ever-looming specters of social collapse or even extinction dictate enacting immediate off-world diversification and self-preservation efforts. Herein, Mars is touted as the most tenable and sustainable location in which to initiate such permanent diversification. Scientific curiosity alone cannot initiate nor drive such off-world settlement and concerted impetus and public support for such an endeavor is shown to be constrained by human attention span. Lastly, the initial act of settlement uniquely serves as humanities greatest globally inspiring self-initiated endeavor, a tangible benefit capable of inspiring generations, connecting cultures and motivating college enrollments and career path choices in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in a manner similar to the dawn of human space exploration.

  1. The thermal inertia of Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Christensen, Philip R.; Varnes, E. Stacy; Lee, Steven W.

    2000-01-01

    We have used Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer thermal emission measurements to derive the thermal inertia of the Martian surface at the ∼100-km spatial scale. We have validated the use of nighttime-only measurements to derive thermal inertia as well as the use of a single wavelength band versus bolometric thermal emission measurements. We have also reanalyzed the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data set in a similar manner in order to allow a direct comparison between the two. Within the uncertainties of the fit of the data to the model, and the uncertainties inherent in the model, the thermal inertia has not changed substantially in the 21 years between the Viking and the MGS measurements. Although some differences are seen, they are most likely due to changes in albedo during the intervening years or to residual effects of airborne dust that are not fully accounted for in the thermal models. The thermal inertia values that we derive, between about 24 and 800 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, are thought to better represent the actual thermal inertia of the Martian surface than previous estimates.

  2. Proton cyclotron waves upstream from Mars: Observations from Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, N.; Bertucci, C.; Gómez, D.; Mazelle, C.; Delva, M.

    2013-02-01

    We present a study on the properties of electromagnetic plasma waves in the region upstream of the Martian bow shock, detected by the magnetometer and electron reflectometer (MAG / ER) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during the period known as Science Phasing Orbits (SPO). The frequency of these waves, measured in the MGS reference frame (SC), is close to the local proton cyclotron frequency. Minimum variance analysis (MVA) shows that these ‘proton cyclotron frequency’ waves (PCWs) are characterized - in the SC frame - by a left-hand, elliptical polarization and propagate almost parallel to the background magnetic field. They also have a small degree of compressibility and an amplitude that decreases with the increase of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle and radial distance from the planet. The latter result supports the idea that the source of these waves is Mars. In addition, we find that these waves are not associated with the foreshock and their properties (ellipticity, degree of polarization, direction of propagation) do not depend on the IMF cone angle. Empirical evidence and theoretical approaches suggest that most of these observations correspond to the ion-ion right hand (RH) mode originating from the pick-up of ionized exospheric hydrogen. The left-hand (LH) mode might be present in cases where the IMF is almost perpendicular to the Solar Wind direction. PCWs occur in 62% of the time during SPO1 subphase, whereas occurrence drops to 8% during SPO2. Also, SPO1 PCWs preserve their characteristics for longer time periods and have greater degree of polarization and coherence than those in SPO2. We discuss these results in the context of possible changes in the pick-up conditions from SPO1 to SPO2, or steady, spatial inhomogeneities in the wave distribution. The lack of influence from the Solar Wind's convective electric field upon the location of PCWs indicates that, as suggested by recent theoretical results, there is

  3. Mars Global Digital Dune Database: MC2-MC29

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Mullins, Kevin F.; Fenton, L.K.; Hare, T.M.; Titus, T.N.; Bourke, M.C.; Colaprete, Anthony; Christensen, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Mars Global Digital Dune Database presents data and describes the methodology used in creating the database. The database provides a comprehensive and quantitative view of the geographic distribution of moderate- to large-size dune fields from 65? N to 65? S latitude and encompasses ~ 550 dune fields. The database will be expanded to cover the entire planet in later versions. Although we have attempted to include all dune fields between 65? N and 65? S, some have likely been excluded for two reasons: 1) incomplete THEMIS IR (daytime) coverage may have caused us to exclude some moderate- to large-size dune fields or 2) resolution of THEMIS IR coverage (100m/pixel) certainly caused us to exclude smaller dune fields. The smallest dune fields in the database are ~ 1 km2 in area. While the moderate to large dune fields are likely to constitute the largest compilation of sediment on the planet, smaller stores of sediment of dunes are likely to be found elsewhere via higher resolution data. Thus, it should be noted that our database excludes all small dune fields and some moderate to large dune fields as well. Therefore the absence of mapped dune fields does not mean that such dune fields do not exist and is not intended to imply a lack of saltating sand in other areas. Where availability and quality of THEMIS visible (VIS) or Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle (MOC NA) images allowed, we classifed dunes and included dune slipface measurements, which were derived from gross dune morphology and represent the prevailing wind direction at the last time of significant dune modification. For dunes located within craters, the azimuth from crater centroid to dune field centroid was calculated. Output from a general circulation model (GCM) is also included. In addition to polygons locating dune fields, the database includes over 1800 selected Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) infrared (IR), THEMIS visible (VIS) and Mars Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle (MOC NA

  4. Global Topography of Mars with the MGS Laser Altimeter (MOLA): Latest Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    1999-01-01

    After acquiring topographic measurements of the northern hemisphere of Mars last Spring and Summer the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft will begin to observe the rest of Mars from its planned mapping orbit in early March of this this year. After successfully completing the aerobraking phase of the mission in February, the spacecraft will be finally placed into the near circular, 400 km polar, mapping orbit for almost continuous observation of the planet for one Mars year. Of particular interest in the early phases will be the structure of the southern ice cap, the cratered southern highlands and the topography in the region of the landing sites of the Mars 98 and the Mars 01 missions.

  5. Temperature and Dust Profiles During the Martian Global Dust Storm in 2007 from Mars Climate Sounder Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinboehl, A.; Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.; McCleese, D. J.

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 the Mars Climate Sounder observed a global dust storm on Mars. We will present results that show the development of the dust storm over time and the vertical structure of atmospheric temperature and dust.

  6. Mars Global Surveyor Data Analysis Program. Origins of Small Volcanic Cones: Eruption Mechanisms and Implications for Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagents, Sarah A.; Greeley, Ronald; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to determine the origins of small volcanic cones observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, and their implications for regolith ice stores and magma volatile contents. For this 1-year study, our approach involved a combination of: Quantitative morphologic analysis and interpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data; Numerical modeling of eruption processes responsible for producing the observed features; Fieldwork on terrestrial analogs in Iceland. Following this approach, this study succeeded in furthering our understanding of (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of near-surface water ice, as defined by the distribution and sizes of rootless volcanic cones ("pseudocraters"), and (ii) the properties, eruption conditions, and volatile contents of magmas producing primary vent cones.

  7. Martian global dust storm 2001A as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elteto, Attila

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the general characteristics of Martian global dust storms, and their relation to the Martian dust cycle using infrared observations. I devised a parameter retrieval algorithm for Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer daytime data from global dust storm 2001A that extracts information about dust optical depth, effective radius, and surface temperature using Newtonian first-order sensitivity functions of the infrared spectrum in response to variations in these parameters. This algorithm is both relatively accurate and very fast, successfully retrieving parameters from 56878 spectra for global dust storm 2001A, as well as a subsequent Martian year in comparison. There are uncertainties introduced into the retrievals, especially by parameters that could not be constrained such as the optical constants of the Martian dust. Uncertainties in assumed vertical mixing of dust can lead to significant uncertainties in retrieved optical depth and dust effective radius. I discovered several aspects of the dust storm that have not previously been recognized. One of these is that the dust optical depth becomes correlated with surface pressure during the decay phase of the dust storm. Similar pressure optical depth correlations were found the following Martian year when no global dust storm occurred. Global correlation of dust optical depth and surface pressure, indicative of global dust mixing processes, also varies with the season. It is generally larger during southern hemisphere late spring and summer, and very low at all other seasons when there is no global dust storm. These pressure and optical depth data provide a tool to study atmospheric dynamics. I also found that the observed decay of optical depths at the later stages of the dust storm match, to first order, theoretical values of clearing from Stokes-Cunningham fallout of the dust. The unprecedented coverage of the retrieval of dust effective radii allowed me to

  8. The Geology of Mars: What the New Global Map Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Irwin, R. P.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.; Platz, T.; Michael, G.; Robbins, S.

    2012-03-01

    We describe how post-Viking data sets and our comprehensive, digital, team-based mapping approach have resulted in more robust unit identification, stratigraphic analysis, and understanding of geologic materials and features on Mars.

  9. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): Global dune distribution and wind pattern observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Fenton, Lori; Titus, Timothy N.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) is complete and now extends from 90°N to 90°S latitude. The recently released south pole (SP) portion (MC-30) of MGD3 adds ∼60,000 km2 of medium to large-size dark dune fields and ∼15,000 km2 of sand deposits and smaller dune fields to the previously released equatorial (EQ, ∼70,000 km2), and north pole (NP, ∼845,000 km2) portions of the database, bringing the global total to ∼975,000 km2. Nearly all NP dunes are part of large sand seas, while the majority of EQ and SP dune fields are individual dune fields located in craters. Despite the differences between Mars and Earth, their dune and dune field morphologies are strikingly similar. Bullseye dune fields, named for their concentric ring pattern, are the exception, possibly owing their distinctive appearance to winds that are unique to the crater environment. Ground-based wind directions are derived from slipface (SF) orientation and dune centroid azimuth (DCA), a measure of the relative location of a dune field inside a crater. SF and DCA often preserve evidence of different wind directions, suggesting the importance of local, topographically influenced winds. In general however, ground-based wind directions are broadly consistent with expected global patterns, such as polar easterlies. Intriguingly, between 40°S and 80°S latitude both SF and DCA preserve their strongest, though different, dominant wind direction, with transport toward the west and east for SF-derived winds and toward the north and west for DCA-derived winds.

  10. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): Global dune distribution and wind pattern observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, R. K.; Fenton, L. K.; Titus, T. N.

    2014-02-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) is complete and now extends from 90°N to 90°S latitude. The recently released south pole (SP) portion (MC-30) of MGD3 adds ˜60,000 km2 of medium to large-size dark dune fields and ˜15,000 km2 of sand deposits and smaller dune fields to the previously released equatorial (EQ, ˜70,000 km2), and north pole (NP, ˜845,000 km2) portions of the database, bringing the global total to ˜975,000 km2. Nearly all NP dunes are part of large sand seas, while the majority of EQ and SP dune fields are individual dune fields located in craters. Despite the differences between Mars and Earth, their dune and dune field morphologies are strikingly similar. Bullseye dune fields, named for their concentric ring pattern, are the exception, possibly owing their distinctive appearance to winds that are unique to the crater environment. Ground-based wind directions are derived from slipface (SF) orientation and dune centroid azimuth (DCA), a measure of the relative location of a dune field inside a crater. SF and DCA often preserve evidence of different wind directions, suggesting the importance of local, topographically influenced winds. In general however, ground-based wind directions are broadly consistent with expected global patterns, such as polar easterlies. Intriguingly, between 40°S and 80°S latitude both SF and DCA preserve their strongest, though different, dominant wind direction, with transport toward the west and east for SF-derived winds and toward the north and west for DCA-derived winds.

  11. A global view of lander-to-orbiter communications accessibility for a Mars Global Network Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.

    1990-01-01

    Given the mission objective to deploy a number of small landers to the surface of Mars at various latitude/longitude locations, it is of interest to obtain a global perspective of the communications link geometry between the landers and a data relay orbiter. Specifically, the question to be answered is what is the total time interval over one Martian day (1 sol) that a lander at any given latitude and longitude can communicate data to the orbiter. Results should be obtained for more than one elevation angle constraint (lander antenna design issue), and also for several time points into the mission since the orbiter's periapsis location moves under the influence of Mars' oblateness perturbation. Such information is presented in terms of global contour maps of available communications time per sol summed over all orbiter pases on that day. Global data of this type complements more detailed local site data such as communications range and elevation vs time per pass. Communications time contour maps are included here for sol grids of 180, 232, 318, 361, and 404 corresponding to orbiter periapsis latitudes of 35 S, 90 S, equatorial, 45 N, and 90 N. For each of these days, there is a map for both a 15 deg and 45 deg minimum elevation constraint on the lander-to-orbiter line of sight. The jagged appearance of the contour lines is due to computational resolution in interpolating between a finite number of latitude/longitude grid points. Although the contours should really be smooth, the general information content is represented by the lower resolution maps shown here. An example of the tabulated, finite-grid data points is also given. Communication with all sites is possible at the 15 deg elevation constraint, at times only for several minutes per sol but more generally for a much longer time up to 14 hours per sol. Significantly less time is available with a 45 deg elevation constraint, and at certain times in the mission some localized regions of the planet are

  12. A global view of lander-to-orbiter communications accessibility for a Mars Global Network Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.

    1990-06-01

    Given the mission objective to deploy a number of small landers to the surface of Mars at various latitude/longitude locations, it is of interest to obtain a global perspective of the communications link geometry between the landers and a data relay orbiter. Specifically, the question to be answered is what is the total time interval over one Martian day (1 sol) that a lander at any given latitude and longitude can communicate data to the orbiter. Results should be obtained for more than one elevation angle constraint (lander antenna design issue), and also for several time points into the mission since the orbiter's periapsis location moves under the influence of Mars' oblateness perturbation. Such information is presented in terms of global contour maps of available communications time per sol summed over all orbiter passes on that day. Global data of this type complements more detailed local site data such as communications range and elevation vs time per pass. Communications time contour maps are included here for sol grids of 180, 232, 318, 361, and 404 corresponding to orbiter periapsis latitudes of 35 S, 90 S, equatorial, 45 N, and 90 N. For each of these days, there is a map for both a 15 deg and 45 deg minimum elevation constraint on the lander-to-orbiter line of sight. The jagged appearance of the contour lines is due to computational resolution in interpolating between a finite number of latitude/longitude grid points. Although the contours should really be smooth, the general information content is represented by the lower resolution maps shown here. An example of the tabulated, finite-grid data points is also given. Communication with all sites is possible at the 15 deg elevation constraint, at times only for several minutes per sol but more generally for a much longer time up to 14 hours per sol. Significantly less time is available with a 45 deg elevation constraint, and at certain times in the mission some localized regions of the planet are

  13. Solar System dynamics and global-scale dust storms on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, James H.

    2015-05-01

    Global-scale dust storms occur during the southern summer season on Mars in some Mars years but not in others. We present an updated catalog of Mars years including such storms (n = 9) and Mars years without global-scale storms (n = 11) through the year 2013. A remarkable relationship links the occurrence and non-occurrence of global-scale dust storms on Mars with changes in the orbital angular momentum of Mars with respect to the Solar System barycenter (LMars). All of the global-scale dust storms became planet-encircling in both latitude and longitude during periods when LMars was increasing or near maxima. Statistical significance at the 1% level is obtained for the clustering tendency of LMars phases for the 5 mid-season storms with Ls ranging from 208° to 262° (1956, 1971, 1982, 1994, and 2007). The 11 Mars years without global-scale dust storms exhibit mainly decreasing and minimum values of LMars during the first half of the dust storm season; this tendency is statistically significant at the 5% level. A systematic progression is present in the phasing of the solar irradiance and LMars waveforms for the global-scale storm years. LMars phases for the early season global-scale storms of 1977 and 2001 are advanced in phase with respect to those of the mid-season storms, while the phase for the late season storm of 1973 is delayed with respect to those of the mid-season storms cluster. Factors internal to the Mars climate system, such as a spatial redistribution of surface dust from year to year, must be invoked to account for the non-occurrence of global-scale dust storms in five years (1986, 2003, 2005, 2009, and 2013) when the LMars phase was otherwise favorable. Our results suggest that the occurrence of increasing or peak values of LMars immediately prior to and during the Mars dust storm season may be a necessary-but-not-sufficient condition for the initiation of global-scale dust storms on Mars.

  14. Comparison of Data From Far Ultraviolet Limb Scanning and Imaging Instrumentation Aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, P. W.; Carruthers, G. R.; Dymond, K. F.; Finch, M. A.; McDonald, S. E.; Nicholas, A. C.; Thonnard, S. E.; Budzien, S. A.; McCoy, R. P.

    2001-05-01

    The ARGOS satellite includes two Naval Research Laboratory experiments that monitor naturally occurring far ultraviolet emissions in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Coincident observations between these two instruments, the Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI) and the Low Resolution Airglow and Auroral Spectrograph (LORAAS), have been obtained. The GIMI instrument produces 9 ° x 9 ° limb images with passband coverage between 131 and 200 nm. The LORAAS instrument provides the spectral distribution from 80 to 170 nm for 2.4 ° x 17 ° field of regard. The two instruments are coaligned aboard the spacecraft, aft-looking in the orbital plane. Preliminary comparisons of observations obtained from the imaging and scanning instruments under quiet geomagnetic conditions are reported, including irradiances and spectral distributions. By combining the GIMI data with that from LORAAS, the study of the dynamics of the ionosphere can be expanded to investigate both horizontal and vertical distrubutions and their variances. The improved capability can extend to the study of active periods with highly variable and disturbed ionospheres, and examples are discussed from data acquired during periods of high geomagnetic activity. These results provide the first direct comparison between near simultaneous limb scans and images from ARGOS, and show promise as a validation technique to improve capabilities for the study of ionospheric variability.

  15. Scientific Rationale and Requirements for a Global Seismic Network on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Anderson, Don L.; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Butler, Rhett G.; Davis, Paul M.; Duennebier, Frederick K.; Nakamura, Yosio; Okal, Emile A.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1991-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the mission concepts for a Mars Global Network Mission as of the time of the workshop, we present the principal scientific objectives to be achieved by a Mars seismic network. We review the lessons for extraterrestrial seismology gained from experience to date on the Moon and on Mars. An important unknown on Mars is the expected rate of seismicity, but theoretical expectations and extrapolation from lunar experience both support the view that seismicity rates, wave propagation characteristics, and signal-to-noise ratios are favorable to the collection of a scientifically rich dataset during the multiyear operation of a global seismic experiment. We discuss how particular types of seismic waves will provide the most useful information to address each of the scientific objectives, and this discussion provides the basis for a strategy for station siting. Finally, we define the necessary technical requirements for the seismic stations.

  16. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    The new Mars-GRAM auxiliary profile capability, using data from TES observations, mesoscale model output, or other sources, allows a potentially higher fidelity representation of the atmosphere, and a more accurate way of estimating inherent uncertainty in atmospheric density and winds. Figure 3 indicates that, with nominal value rpscale=1, Mars-GRAM perturbations would tend to overestimate observed or mesoscale-modeled variability. To better represent TES and mesoscale model density perturbations, rpscale values as low as about 0.4 could be used. Some trajectory model implementations of Mars-GRAM allow the user to dynamically change rpscale and rwscale values with altitude. Figure 4 shows that an mscale value of about 1.2 would better replicate wind standard deviations from MRAMS or MMM5 simulations at the Gale, Terby, or Melas sites. By adjusting the rpscale and rwscale values in Mars-GRAM based on figures such as Figure 3 and 4, we can provide more accurate end-to-end simulations for EDL at the candidate MSL landing sites.

  17. Light-Toned, Layered Outcrops of Northern Terra Meridiani Mars: Viking, Phobos 2, and Mars Global Surveyor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    System (PDS). The main body of data examined were Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images acquired through 30 September 2002. The data also 2 include Viking orbiter images, a Phobos 2 Termoscan image, MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic observations, and the products of published Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) analyses. Through September 2002, over 126,000 MOC images had been acquired, and greater than 600 of the MOC narrow angle (1.5-12 m/pixel) images occur within the portions of Terra Meridiani and southwestern Arabia Terra.

  18. Eight-year climatology of dust optical depth on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, L.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Wilson, R. J.; Lewis, S. R.; Cantor, B.; Kass, D.; Kleinböhl, A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from martian year 24-31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure that is weighted in space, time, and retrieval quality. The lack of observations at certain times and locations introduces missing grid points in the maps, which therefore may result in irregularly gridded (i.e. incomplete) fields. In order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we compare with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. We have statistically analyzed the irregularly gridded maps to provide an overview of the dust climatology on Mars over eight years, specifically in relation to its interseasonal and interannual variability, in addition to provide a basis for instrument intercomparison. Finally, we have produced regularly gridded maps of CDOD by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These complete maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modeling

  19. Constraints on Mars' crustal and lithospheric properties from Mars Global Surveyor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Kucinskas, A.; Yuan, D.

    2001-01-01

    We used comparisons of gravity and geoid with topography in the spatial and spectral domains, together with additional information from the geologic record, to constrain support mechanisms for loads on the surface of Mars and their implications for the planet's crustal and lithospheric properties and evolution.

  20. Mars Global Surveyor TES Results: Observations of Atmospheric Dust During Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.; Christensen, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor entered mapping orbit around Mars in March 1999. Infrared spectra returned by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) are very well suited for monitoring column-integrated infrared dust opacity. A global view of dust opacity is possible on a daily basis allowing the detailed study of the evolution of dust storms and the seasonal trend of the background dust opacity. Information about the vertical distribution of dust in the atmosphere can be obtained by examination of TES spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry. We report here on 1) the observed horizontal distribution of dust aerosols and their evolution with time during the mapping phase of the Mars Global Surveyor mission so far (roughly covering northern hemisphere summer and early fall), and 2) the vertical distribution of dust aerosols as determined from TES spectra taken in the limb-viewing geometry.

  1. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings, such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  2. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  3. Participation in the Mars data analysis program: Global and regional studies of wind-indicators on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    Global and regional patterns on Mars were inferred from surface aeolian features, such as wind streaks and dune deposits, which were visible in Viking Orbiter images. Precise measurements of the dimensions of topographic obstacles, i.e., craters, hills, ridges, on Mars as well as their associated wind streaks were used to determine the aerodynamic shape of an obstacle affects near surface airflow. A classification of Martian wind streaks was developed on the basis of albedo contrast and the presence or absence of either topographic obstacles or sediment deposits at the point of origin of the wind streaks. It was concluded that local meteorological conditions, such as the stability of the atmospheric boundary layer, play a major role in determining why some Martian craters produce depositional wind streaks while others produce erosional ones.

  4. Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model: Solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal variations of the Mars upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Pawlowski, D.; Bell, J. M.; Nelli, S.; McDunn, T.; Murphy, J. R.; Chizek, M.; Ridley, A.

    2015-02-01

    A new Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) is presented that combines the terrestrial GITM framework with Mars fundamental physical parameters, ion-neutral chemistry, and key radiative processes in order to capture the basic observed features of the thermal, compositional, and dynamical structure of the Mars atmosphere from the ground to the exosphere (0-250 km). Lower, middle, and upper atmosphere processes are included, based in part upon formulations used in previous lower and upper atmosphere Mars GCMs. This enables the M-GITM code to be run for various seasonal, solar cycle, and dust conditions. M-GITM validation studies have focused upon simulations for a range of solar and seasonal conditions. Key upper atmosphere measurements are selected for comparison to corresponding M-GITM neutral temperatures and neutral-ion densities. In addition, simulated lower atmosphere temperatures are compared with observations in order to provide a first-order confirmation of a realistic lower atmosphere. M-GITM captures solar cycle and seasonal trends in the upper atmosphere that are consistent with observations, yielding significant periodic changes in the temperature structure, the species density distributions, and the large-scale global wind system. For instance, mid afternoon temperatures near ˜200 km are predicted to vary from ˜210 to 350 K (equinox) and ˜190 to 390 k (aphelion to perihelion) over the solar cycle. These simulations will serve as a benchmark against which to compare episodic variations (e.g., due to solar flares and dust storms) in future M-GITM studies. Additionally, M-GITM will be used to support MAVEN mission activities (2014-2016).

  5. Global 3-D Hybrid Simulations of Mars and the Effect of Crustal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, S. H.; Ledvina, S. A.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2001-12-01

    Mars is not protected from the solar wind by a strong intrinsic magnetic field. Further, Mars is a very small planet. These two aspects of Mars mean that the solar wind interaction with the planet is both direct and kinetic in behavior. The large gyroradius of the incoming solar wind and the large gyroradius of the pick up ions make the solar wind interaction with Mars very unique. Over the years the authors using a 3-D kinetic hybrid particle code have studied this planet. Mars Global Surveyor has produced many exciting discoveries. Probably the most significant and unexpected was the presence of the crustal magnetic fields on the surface of the planet. The presence of these strong crustal fields suggests that the solar wind interaction with Mars will be altered. In fact, it suggests that the loss rate of pick up ions and the shape of the Martian magnetosphere will be substantially changed. Results will be presented from our latest 3-D hybrid particle code simulations of Mars where models for the crustal magnetic field have been inserted into the simulations. Particular emphasis will be placed on changes to the magnetic field topology and the change in the rate of pick up ions.

  6. Investigating the formation of detached layers of dust on Mars with a global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Bertrand, T.; Forget, F.; Spiga, A.; Millour, E.

    2015-10-01

    The Martian dust cycle is of great importance for the current climate of Mars. Recently, detached layers of dust on Mars have been observed by Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). The origin of the detached layers is poorly understood. They cannot be reproduced by the traditional Global Climate Model (GCM). In this work, we parameterize strong convective dust storms (called rocket dust storms) in the GCM developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). And the model out- puts show that the detached layers of dust observed by the MCS are successfully predicted by the GCM with this new parameterization.

  7. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  8. Calculation of Zonal Winds using Accelerometer and Rate Data from Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Darren T.; Tolson, Robert; Bougher, Stephen; Steers, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was initially placed into a high eccentricity, nearly polar orbit about Mars with a 45-hour period. To accomplish the science objectives of the mission, a 2-hour, circular orbit was required. Using a method known as aerobraking, numerous passes through the upper atmosphere slowed the spacecraft, thereby reducing the orbital period and eccentricity. To successfully perform aerobraking, the spacecraft was designed to be longitudinally, aerodynamically stable in pitch and yaw. Since the orbit is nearly polar, the yaw orientation of the spacecraft was sensitive to disturbances caused by the zonal components of wind (east-to-west or west-to-east) acting on the spacecraft at aerobraking altitudes. Zonal wind velocities were computed by equating the aerodynamic and inertia-related torques acting on the spacecraft. Comparisons of calculated zonal winds with those computed from the Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model are discussed.

  9. Mars global atmospheric oscillations: Transients and dust storm relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillman, James E.

    1987-01-01

    It is showed that periods of enhanced quasitidal pressure oscillations occur during the season preceding the global dust storm season during every Martian year. Periods of these oscillations often differ slightly from the diurnal and semidiurnal, and the oscillations may correspond to atmospheric normal modes excited by solar heating. They may also contribute to the initiation of some global dust storms.

  10. Mars Global Digital Dune Database: Distribution in North Polar Region and Comparison to Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, R. K.; Fenton, L. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Mullins, K. F.; Titus, T. N.; Bourke, M. C.; Hare, T. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2008-03-01

    The north polar portion of the Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) extends coverage of medium to large-size dark dunes to include the region from 65°N to 90°N, building on the previously released equatorial portion that spans 65°S to 65°N.

  11. Interannual variability of global dust storms on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Under the assumption that the cross-equatorial Hadley circulation plays a key role in the onset of Martian global dust storms, numerical simulations indicate that a northern hemisphere dust haze weakens its intensity and, thereby, its contribution to the surface stress in the southern hemisphere. Since this in turn reduces the possibility of global dust storm development, the interannual variability observed is the result of either a competition between circulations in opposite hemispheres, in which case the variability has a random component, or it is the result of dust cycling between hemispheres, so that the variability is related to the characteristics of the global dust storms themselves.

  12. Micro/Nanosatellite Mars Network for Global Lower Atmosphere Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Mike L.

    2012-01-01

    To address multiple key challenge areas for robotic exploration of Mars, to achieve scientific goals and reduce risk for future human missions, a micro/nanosatellite constellation for lower atmosphere characterization is proposed. A microsatellite design is discussed that can operate (1) in tandem with another microsat or (2) as a "mother-ship" to deploy a network of nanosatellites (CubeSats). Either configuration of the network would perform radio occultation-based atmospheric measurements. Advantages of the proposed network are low development cost based on an existing microsatellite bus, and proven performance of the bus to date. Continued efforts in miniaturization of instruments are needed to fully enable the mother-ship/nanosat version of the proposed network.

  13. Digital Global Map of Potential Ocean Paleoshorelines on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T. J.; Calef, F. J.

    2012-05-01

    Our objective is to compile a global shoreline map, in the form of GIS shapefiles. This map will be used to investigate deviations from horizontal that might indicate neotectonic changes such as mass accumulations and crustal deformations over time.

  14. Mars Global Geologic Mapping Progress and Suggested Geographic-Based Hierarchal Systems for Unit Grouping and Naming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the fourth year of a fiveyear effort to map the global geology of Mars at 1:20M scale using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey image and altimetry datasets. Previously, we reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. Last year, we described mapping and unit delineation results thus far, a new unit identified in the northern plains, and remaining steps to complete the map [3].

  15. Operations Strategies for the Mars Exploration Rovers During the 2007 Martian Global Dust Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Michael; Herman, Jennifer; ElDeeb, Dina

    2009-01-01

    In June and July 2007 Mars experienced a dust storm that grew to envelop all but the polar latitudes of the planet. This dust storm was the first global dust storm to occur while the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) began surface operations. It is estimated that the dust in the atmosphere prevented over 99.6% of direct sunlight from reaching the surface at the peak of the storm. Data collected indicated that solar array energy output was reduced to approximately 15% of maximum. The reduction in insolation and energy output posed the greatest risk of ending the mission for both rovers at that time.

  16. The use of laser altimetry in the orbit and attitude determination of Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Luthcke, S. B.

    Altimetry from the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA), an instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has been analyzed for the period of the MGS Science Phasing Orbit-1 (SPO-1) mission phase. Altimeter ranges have been used to improve significantly the orbit and attitude knowledge of the spacecraft by the use of crossover constraint equations derived from short passes of the MOLA data. These constraint equations differ from traditional crossover constraints and exploit the small footprint associated with laser altimetry. The rationale for using this technique with laser altimetry over sloping terrain is laid out and evidence of the resulting benefit is presented.

  17. The Use of Laser Altimetry in the Orbit and Attitude Determination of Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Luthcke, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    Altimetry from the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) which is carried on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been analyzed for the period of the MOS mission known as Science Phasing Orbit 1 (SPO-1). We have used these altimeter ranges to improve orbit and attitude knowledge for MGS. This has been accomplished by writing crossover constraint equations that have been derived from short passes of MOLA data. These constraint equations differ from traditional Crossover constraints and exploit the small foot print associated with laser altimetry.

  18. A polar orbit for the Mars Global Network Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Global Network Mission (GNM) is to deploy simple landers on the Martian surface in late 1998. The objective is to create a globally distributed network of ground stations which will collect environmental data, perhaps for as long as several years. The GNM presents unique mission design challenges, which are addressed by the following essay. The GNM mission concept calls for two carrier spacecraft, each equipped with a number of simple landers. Some of the landers may be deployed from approach, either to reduce carrier mass prior to orbit insertion, or to reach latitudes not available from the carrier orbit. The remaining landers are deployed from orbit. One configuration for the Global Network Mission was proposed in a report from the Exploration Precursors Task Team to the Office of Space Science and Applications. This formed the basis of a previous orbit design for the GNM. This mission scenario is used as a point of reference, but results from the current study are generally applicable to a wide range of GNM mission variants. The analysis concluded that a 1/5 sol, polar orbit with a periapse altitude of 275 km offers the best circumstances for orbital deployment of the Global Network Mission landers. It allows easy polar access at nominal entry angles, and global dispersal of landing sites at lighting angles suitable for descent imaging. The polar orbit allows the option of deploying all the landers from orbit. A wait interval of 160 days after arrival is required before deployment can commence.

  19. Mars global atmospheric oscillations - Annually synchronized, transient normal-mode oscillations and the triggering of global dust storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillman, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Transient events of an unusual character have been discovered in the daily pressure variations of the Mars atmosphere's pressure at the planetary surface which last only a few Martian days, appear to repeat on an annual basis, cover a large part of the given day's hemisphere, occur in pairs separated by 20-days in some cases, and coincide with the annual pressure minimum. They also consist of spectral components nearly identical in frequency with diurnal and semidiurnal harmonics. It is presently suggested that these events are Kelvin, normal-mode, transient, global oscillations. An almost-diurnal and an almost-semidiurnal high-frequency global oscillation distinct from solar-driven tides may be common on Mars.

  20. The shape of Mars before global surveyor: Results from reanalysis of the Viking control point network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, Wolfgang; Oberst, Jürgen

    1999-06-01

    Three-dimensional coordinates of 3739 globally distributed control points derived from photogrammetric analysis of Viking Orbiter image data are studied with respect to the shape and large-scale morphology of Mars. Spheres, spheroids, spherical functions, and a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of 50 km grid spacing are fitted to the data. Prominent topographic features in the terrain model include the Tharsis volcanoes, Olympus Mons, Alba Patera and prominent mare and highland regions as well as the major impact basins. While the global dichotomy is clearly visible in our data, our model does not reveal any distinct signature associated with the presumed dichotomy boundary at this global scale. Rather, it suggests a smooth topographic transition from southern to northern hemisphere. This model is unique among existing topographic data sets for Mars, as it combines global coverage, a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve regional topography, and absolute elevation data more accurate than in previous control point network analyses. Formal errors and a comparison with the first released topographic profiles obtained by Mars Global Surveyor's Laser Altimeter (MOLA) suggest that 70% and 90% of the DTM grid elements represent the topography of the planet to better than 1000 m and 2000 m, respectively.

  1. First Results from the Mars Global Surveyor Horizon Science Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Terry

    1998-09-01

    The Horizon Science Experiment (HORSE) uses the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly on the MGS orbiter to measure 15 micrometer band thermal emission from the Martian atmosphere. During the first phase of aerobraking for MGS, from September 1997 through March 1998, one of the four MGS quadrants was pointed well onto the planet consistently during the near-periapsis braking passes, allowing the device to obtain data on the latitudinal variation of middle atmospheric temperature (0.2 - 2 mbar). Of particular interest were the effects of a prominent dust storm at Ls 224, and the strong gradient of temperature near the north polar cap. The dust storm produced 10-12K warming in the middle atmosphere across the latitude range from -50 to +60 degrees over a time period of 97 hrs. The increase was most pronounced at the longitudes near 330 where the storm originated in the southern hemisphere. During Ls 260-278, the latitude of steepest latitudinal temperature gradient (the location of the northern polar vortex) varied with longitude in a primarily wave 2 mode, with an amplitude of about 8 degrees and one maximum at 120 longitude. A small wave 1 term is also present.

  2. Seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: Complete global results of the Viking atmospheric water detector experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jakosky, B.M.; Farmer, C.B.

    1982-04-10

    The water vapor content of the Mars atmosphere was measured from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) for a period of more than 1 Martian year, from June 1976 through April 1979. Results are presented in the form of global maps of column abundance for 24 periods throughout each Mars year. The data reduction incorporates spatial and seasonal variations in surface pressure and supplements earlier published versions of less complete data.

  3. Global Reference Atmospheric Models, Including Thermospheres, for Mars, Venus and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the viewgraph slides of the presentation. Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch has developed Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) for Mars, Venus, Earth, and other solar system destinations. Mars-GRAM has been widely used for engineering applications including systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Preliminary results are presented, comparing Mars-GRAM with measurements from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during its aerobraking in Mars thermosphere. Venus-GRAM is based on the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA), and is suitable for similar engineering applications in the thermosphere or other altitude regions of the atmosphere of Venus. Until recently, the thermosphere in Earth-GRAM has been represented by the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. Earth-GRAM has recently been revised. In addition to including an updated version of MET, it now includes an option to use the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRLMSISE-00) as an alternate thermospheric model. Some characteristics and results from Venus-GRAM and Earth-GRAM thermospheres are also presented.

  4. The Mars Global Subsurface Sounder: A Mission Optimized for the Volatile and Geologic Characterization of the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.; Delemere, W.; Gogineni, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    The MARSIS and SHARAD orbital radar sounders have given tantalizing glimpses of subsurface fof Mars. But, to be accommodated aboard spacecraft with a number of other high-level investigations, MARSIS and SHARAD had to accept some compromises in instrument design and operation that have limited their potential capabilities. Here we describe a proposal for a new Mars orbital radar mission, the Mars Global Subsurface Sounder (MGSS), that is solely dedicated to sub-surface sounding, allowing it to achieve maximum spatial resolution and penetration depth through an optimized orbit, antenna design, increased power and significantly improved signal to noise ratio. The chief science goals of this mission are to investigate the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Martian subsurface and polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the distribution and state of subsurface water (whether as a liquid or as massive ice deposits) through the acquisition of a 3-D radar map to depths ranging from 1 km, in lithic environments, and up to 4 km in the PLD. The MARSIS and SHARAD radar investigations have provided clear demonstrations of the capabilities of deep-sounding radar to conduct similar investigations. The MGSS is expected to significantly improve on this performance by taking advantage a spacecraft and mission optimized for radar sounding. Over its 2-year mission duration, the MGSS will be able to compile a global 3-D map of local variations in dielectric properties, with a horizontal resolution of ~1 km and vertical resolution of ~10-20 m MGSS is a dual-band radar sounder that operates at 1-6 MHz and 15-25 MHz. 2-D SAR processing is used to maximize both along and cross track resolution and clutter suppression, while onboard along track processing minimizes the downlink data rate. The spacecraft has sufficient mass margin to incorporate sufficient shielding minimize signal degradation by electromagnetic interference and maximize the signal to noise ratio. The orbit of

  5. Thermal tides and stationary waves on Mars as revealed by Mars Global Surveyor thermal emission spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, Don; Conrath, Barney; Pearl, John C.; Smith, Michael D.; Christensen, Phil

    2000-04-01

    Atmospheric temperature retrievals from thermal emission spectrometer (TES) observed radiances make possible the most complete separation of the constituent wave modes evident in Mars atmosphere to date. We use all of the data from the first aerobraking period as well as the science phasing orbits, which affords good sampling of the diurnal tides and stationary waves. TES retrievals of atmospheric temperature on a grid of pressure levels are the fundamental data set in this study. We then fit this data to selected Fourier modes in longitude and time for altitude, latitude, and Ls bins. From this we have identified the amplitudes and phases of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides, the first few (gravest) stationary waves, and a few modes which arise because of couplings between sun-fixed tides and topography. We also retrieve estimates of the zonal and time of day mean temperature meridional cross sections and their rates of change. The zonal and time of day mean temperature meridional cross sections agree with those of Conrath et al. [this issue] to within 1 K where we can reliably retrieve this mode (90°S to ~20°S). Heating rates of up to 2.4 K/sol were observed around three scale heights above 60°S-90°S during the Ls=310°-320° dust storm. Diurnal tide amplitudes of greater than 8 K were observed during the Noachis and Ls=310°-320° dust storms. From Ls=255°-285° an unexplained phase reversal at two scale heights was observed in the diurnal tide from 60°S-80°S. Convective penetration above the unstable boundary layer may explain anomalous (180° out of phase with the sun) diurnal tide phases between 0.5 and one scale height above the subsolar point. Semidiurnal tides are of order 2 K throughout the southern extratropics. A stationary mode of wavenumber one was observed with amplitude 1-4 K in the southern extratropics. Topographically coupled tidal modes were also quantified.

  6. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR SPACECRAFT ERECTION AT LC-17A AT CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR SPACECRAFT ERECTION AT LC-17A AT CCAS KSC-96C-11616.1 Workers at Launch Pad 17A on Cape Canaveral Air Station prepare to stack the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, mated to its upper stage booster, atop the Delta II launch vehicle that will loft the spacecraft on its interplanetary journey. In this view the Surveyor's solar array panels are clearly visible, as is the spacecraft's boom-mounted high-gain antenna at left. Both are stowed against the spacecraft bus for flight. The booster stage - - actually the third stage of the Delta II -- is lowermost. After stacking and integrated testing are complete, the fairing will be placed around the Surveyor in preparation for liftoff Nov. 6 at the beginning of a 20-day launch period.

  7. Magnitude of global contraction on Mars from analysis of surface faults: Implications for martian thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Amanda L.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Faults provide a record of a planet's crustal stress state and interior dynamics, including volumetric changes related to long-term cooling. Previous work has suggested that Mars experienced a pulse of large-scale global contraction during Hesperian time. Here we evaluate the evidence for martian global contraction using a recent compilation of thrust faults. Fault-related strains were calculated for wrinkle ridges and lobate scarps to provide lower and upper bounds, respectively, on the magnitude of global contraction from contractional structures observed on the surface of Mars. During the hypothesized pulse of global contraction, contractional strain of -0.007% to -0.13% is indicated by the structures, corresponding to decreases in planetary radius of 112 m to 2.24 km, respectively. By contrast, consideration of all recognized thrust faults regardless of age produces a globally averaged contractional strain of -0.011% to -0.22%, corresponding to a radius decrease of 188 m to 3.77 km since the Early Noachian. The amount of global contraction predicted by thermal models is larger than what is recorded by the faults at the surface, paralleling similar studies for Mercury and the Moon, which suggests that observations of fault populations at the surface may provide tighter bounds on planetary thermal evolution than models alone.

  8. HUBBLE WATCHES THE RED PLANET AS MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR BEGINS AEROBRAKING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    his NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture of Mars was taken on Sept. 12, one day after the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and only five hours before the beginning of autumn in the Martian northern hemisphere. (Mars is tilted on its axis like Earth, so it has similar seasonal changes, including an autumnal equinox when the Sun crosses Mars' equator from the northern to the southern hemisphere). This Hubble picture was taken in support of the MGS mission. Hubble is monitoring the Martian weather conditions during the early phases of MGS aerobraking; in particular, the detection of large dust storms are important inputs into the atmospheric models used by the MGS mission to plan aerobraking operations. Though a dusty haze fills the giant Hellas impact basin south of the dark fin-shaped feature Syrtis Major, the dust appears to be localized within Hellas. Unless the region covered expands significantly, the dust will not be of concern for MGS aerobraking. Other early signs of seasonal transitions on Mars are apparent in the Hubble picture. The northern polar ice cap is blanketed under a polar hood of clouds that typically start forming in late northern summer. As fall progresses, sunlight will dwindle in the north polar region and the seasonal polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide will start condensing onto the surface under these clouds. Hubble observations will continue until October 13, as MGS carefully uses the drag of the Martian atmosphere to circularize its orbit about the Red Planet. After mid-October, Mars will be too close to the Sun, in angular separation, for Hubble to safely view. The image is a composite of three separately filtered colored images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Resolution is 35 miles (57 kilometers) per pixel (picture element). The Pathfinder landing site near Ares Valles is about 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) west of the center of this image, so was not visible during this observation. Mars was 158

  9. DELTA II BOOSTER BUILDUP AT LC-17A FOR MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    DELTA II BOOSTER BUILDUP AT LC-17A FOR MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR KSC-96C-11420.9 At Launch Complex 17, Pad A, on Cape Canaveral Air Station, build-up begins of the Delta II expendable launch vehicle that will carry aloft the Mars Global Surveyor. Assembly of the three- stage rocket with its complement of nine strap-on solid rocket motors begins with erection of the Delta II first stage, shown here. Built by McDonnell Douglas, this Delta II is slated to lift off on Nov. 6 at the beginning of a 20-day launch window. The Mars Global Surveyor, built by Lockheed Martin, is slated for transfer to Complex 17 on Oct. 23 to be hoisted atop the Delta. It will already be mated to its solid propellant 'upper stage' which is the Delta third stage. After integrated testing is complete, the nose fairing will be installed around the Surveyor as a final pre-launch milestone.

  10. DELTA II BOOSTER BUILDUP AT LC-17A FOR MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    DELTA II BOOSTER BUILDUP AT LC-17A FOR MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR KSC-96C-11421.5 At Launch Complex 17, Pad A, on Cape Canaveral Air Station, build-up begins of the Delta II expendable launch vehicle that will carry aloft the Mars Global Surveyor. Assembly of the three- stage rocket with its complement of nine strap-on solid rocket motors begins with erection of the Delta II first stage, shown here. Built by McDonnell Douglas, this Delta II is slated to lift off on Nov. 6 at the beginning of a 20-day launch window. The Mars Global Surveyor, built by Lockheed Martin, is slated for transfer to Complex 17 on Oct. 23 to be hoisted atop the Delta. It will already be mated to its solid propellant 'upper stage' which is the Delta third stage. After integrated testing is complete, the nose fairing will be installed around the Surveyor as a final pre-launch milestone.

  11. The `New' Geology of Mars: Top Ten Results of Post-Viking Global Mapping and Crater-Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Hare, T. M.; Irwin, R. P.; Platz, T.; Michael, G.; Dohm, J. M.; Kolb, E. J.; Robbins, S. J.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the approach and methodology used in the new global geologic map of Mars, and the ‘Top Ten’ key new findings and understandings collectively achieved by the mapping and associated crater counting efforts and publications.

  12. Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Observations of Dust Opacity During Aerobraking and Science Phasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Pearl, John C.; Conrath, Barney J.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) arrived at Mars in September 1997 near Mars southern spring equinox and has now provided monitoring of conditions in the Mars atmosphere for more than half a Mars year. The large majority of the spectra taken by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) are in a nadir geometry (downward looking mode) where Mars is observed through the atmosphere. Most of these contain the distinct spectral signature of atmospheric dust. For these nadir-geometry spectra we retrieve column-integrated infrared aerosol (dust) opacities. TES observations during the aerobraking and science-phasing portions of the MGS mission cover the seasonal range L(sub s)=184 deg - 28 deg. Excellent spatial coverage was obtained in the southern hemisphere. Northern hemisphere coverage is generally limited to narrow strips taken during the periapsis pass but is still very valuable. At the beginning of the mission the 9-(micron)meter dust opacity at midsouthern latitudes was low (0.15-0.25). As the season advanced through southern spring and into summer, TES observed several regional dust storms (including the Noachis dust storm of November 1997) where peak 9-(micron)meter dust opacities approached or exceeded unity, as well as numerous smaller local storms. Both large and small dust storms exhibited significant changes in both spatial coverage and intensity over a timescale of a day. Throughout southern spring and summer the region at the edge of the retreating southern seasonal polar ice cap was observed to be consistently more dusty than other latitudes.

  13. Global warming and climate forcing by recent albedo changes on Mars.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Lori K; Geissler, Paul E; Haberle, Robert M

    2007-04-01

    For hundreds of years, scientists have tracked the changing appearance of Mars, first by hand drawings and later by photographs. Because of this historical record, many classical albedo patterns have long been known to shift in appearance over time. Decadal variations of the martian surface albedo are generally attributed to removal and deposition of small amounts of relatively bright dust on the surface. Large swaths of the surface (up to 56 million km2) have been observed to darken or brighten by 10 per cent or more. It is unknown, however, how these albedo changes affect wind circulation, dust transport and the feedback between these processes and the martian climate. Here we present predictions from a Mars general circulation model, indicating that the observed interannual albedo alterations strongly influence the martian environment. Results indicate enhanced wind stress in recently darkened areas and decreased wind stress in brightened areas, producing a positive feedback system in which the albedo changes strengthen the winds that generate the changes. The simulations also predict a net annual global warming of surface air temperatures by approximately 0.65 K, enhancing dust lifting by increasing the likelihood of dust devil generation. The increase in global dust lifting by both wind stress and dust devils may affect the mechanisms that trigger large dust storm initiation, a poorly understood phenomenon, unique to Mars. In addition, predicted increases in summertime air temperatures at high southern latitudes would contribute to the rapid and steady scarp retreat that has been observed in the south polar residual ice for the past four Mars years. Our results suggest that documented albedo changes affect recent climate change and large-scale weather patterns on Mars, and thus albedo variations are a necessary component of future atmospheric and climate studies. PMID:17410170

  14. Global Dynamics of Hot Atomic Oxygen in Mars' Upper Atmosphere and Comparison with Recent Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.; Bougher, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    The production of energetic particles in Mars's upper thermosphere and exosphere results in the formation of hot atom coronae. Dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+ ion is the dominant source of the production of hot atomic oxygen and the most important reaction for the exosphere on Mars, which occurs mostly deep in the dayside thermosphere of Mars. In this investigation, we have carried out the study of the global dynamics of energetic particles in Mars' upper atmosphere using our newly developed self-consistent Monte-Carlo model. The calculated total global escapes of hot oxygen are presented for different solar activities (solar maximum and minimum) and Martian seasons (aphelion, equinox, and perihelion). To describe self-consistently the exosphere and the upper thermosphere, a combination of our 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model [Valeille, A., Combi, M., Bougher, S., Tenishev, V., Nagy, A., 2009. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E11006. doi:10.1029/2009JE003389] and the 3D Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) [Bougher, S.W., Bell, J.M., Murphy, J.R., Lopez-Valverde, M.A., Withers, P.G., 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024059. L02203] is used. Profiles of density and temperature, atmospheric loss rates, and return fluxes are studied using the model for the cases considered. Progress in updating the model physics is also described. Along with comparisons of our DSMC model outputs with those from other recent exosphere model studies, we present a comparison of our model results with the derived neutral oxygen density from atomic oxygen emission at 1304Å that was detected by Alice instrument on board European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft [Feldman, P., Steffl, A., Parker, J, A'Hearn, M., Bertaux, J., Stern, S., Weaver, H., Slater, D., Versteeg, M., Throop, H., Cunningham, N., Feaga, L., 2011. Icarus. 214, 2, 394-399, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.06.013].

  15. Global warming and climate forcing by recent albedo changes on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, L.K.; Geissler, P.E.; Haberle, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    For hundreds of years, scientists have tracked the changing appearance of Mars, first by hand drawings and later by photographs. Because of this historical record, many classical albedo patterns have long been known to shift in appearance over time. Decadal variations of the martian surface albedo are generally attributed to removal and deposition of small amounts of relatively bright dust on the surface. Large swaths of the surface (up to 56 million km2) have been observed to darken or brighten by 10 per cent or more. It is unknown, however, how these albedo changes affect wind circulation, dust transport and the feedback between these processes and the martian climate. Here we present predictions from a Mars general circulation model, indicating that the observed interannual albedo alterations strongly influence the martian environment. Results indicate enhanced wind stress in recently darkened areas and decreased wind stress in brightened areas, producing a positive feedback system in which the albedo changes strengthen the winds that generate the changes. The simulations also predict a net annual global warming of surface air temperatures by ???0.65 K, enhancing dust lifting by increasing the likelihood of dust devil generation. The increase in global dust lifting by both wind stress and dust devils may affect the mechanisms that trigger large dust storm initiation, a poorly understood phenomenon, unique to Mars. In addition, predicted increases in summertime air temperatures at high southern latitudes would contribute to the rapid and steady scarp retreat that has been observed in the south polar residual ice for the past four Mars years. Our results suggest that documented albedo changes affect recent climate change and large-scale weather patterns on Mars, and thus albedo variations are a necessary component of future atmospheric and climate studies. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Next entry to Mars (Mars Pathfinder and the microrover Sojourner). Hello, Mars, we're back! Mars Global Surveyor update. The Mars program - 2001 and beyond. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of June 11, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  17. Mars Global Surveyor's View of Gusev Crater During Spirit's Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version

    7 January 2004 When the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A), Spirit, was landing on 4 January 2004 (3 January 2004, PST), Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was in position above the region to receive the critical entry, descent, and landing data via ultra high frequency (UHF) radio transmission to the MGS Mars Relay (MR) system. Data from the MR antenna are stored in the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) computer until they are transmitted to Earth. The transmission from Spirit on 4 January 2004 occurred in real time, as the rover descended, bounced, and rolled to a stop.

    At the same time that MGS was receiving data during Spirit's landing, the MGS MOC obtained this oblique wide angle view looking east across the martian surface toward Gusev Crater, the site where the MER-A landed. The image on the right is labeled to show the location of Gusev Crater; the arrow points approximately to the place that Spirit touched down. The 165 km (103 mi) diameter Gusev Crater and the Spirit landing site are located near 14.7oS, 184. 6oW. In this view, sunlight is coming from the bottom (west).

  18. Global spectroscopy and imaging of atmospheric X-ray bremsstrahlung - Instrumentation and initial results from the PEM/AXIS instrument aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenette, D. L.; Datlowe, D. W.; Imhof, W. L.; Schumaker, T. L.; Tobin, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (PEM/AXIS) aboard NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite provides continuous horizon to horizon images, both day and night, of the 3- to 100-keV X-ray flux emitted from the top of the atmosphere. AXIS achieves a spatial resolution to better than 100 km using a one-dimensional array of 16 passively cooled silicon detectors. The primary purpose of this instrument is to provide a global monitor of electron energy input to the upper atmosphere. We describe the design, development, and calibration of AXIS and provide an assessment of its excellent on-orbit performance. The unique capabilities of X-ray imaging spectrometers are demonstrated through an analysis of specific examples from October and November 1991. Important new developments for follow-on instruments also will be described.

  19. Global investigation of hydrated exposures on Mars: Evidence for a clay cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J.; Poulet, F.

    2012-04-01

    The discovery of hydrated minerals including clays, carbonates and sulfates on Mars has spawned a new era of intense scrutiny of its ancient (> 4 Ga) aqueous environments Over the years, many thorough investigations of selected sites have been carried out, from which local alteration scenarios have been derived, some of strong astrobiological relevance and justifying sending rovers there such as the MSL. By comparison, our approach is to investigate the chemical alteration of Mars on a global scale from a systematic overview of the hydrated signatures detected by the NIR imaging spectrometers CRISM and OMEGA. We present the main results of this global investigation in terms of composition, geological settings and age of the hydrated deposits. Hydrated mineral exposures are predominantly found in Noachian terrains with a homogenous surface density. The northern plains are not devoid of alteration signatures indicating Mars was altered on a planetary scale. Over 80% of the sites exhibit signatures of Fe/Mg smectites/vermiculite with some evidence for inter-stratification. Great mineral diversity is reported: Al-bearing smectites and kaolins, chlorites, opaline silica, zeolites, serpentines, prehnite, micas, carbonates and epidote. Diverse geological settings exist, but the dominant morphological contexts are impact craters which in the majority of cases likely excavated hydrated minerals. On Earth, clays form, are transformed and accumulate in 6 geological contexts: pedogenic, detrital, authigenic, diagenetic, metamorphic and hydrothermal. Detailed mineral/morphological investigations of sites of interest reveal that all these geological contexts are also found on Mars and hint towards the existence of a clay cycle during the Noachian. While these contexts collectively suggest the presence of a clay cycle on early Mars, their spatial and temporal relationship still remains to be established. In particular, the lack of plate tectonics on Mars renders less likely the

  20. The Revised Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer Limb-Sounding Temperature Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have revised the limb-sounding portion of the MGS-TES temperature retrievals to account for correlated noise components as well as a slowly variance radiance bias, both of which are significant contributions to TES limb-sounding radiances. See McConnochie and Smith [AGU Fall Meeting ,2011] for further discussion of these issues. We have reprocessed the complete limb-sounding temperature data set and will present an overview of its key features, focusing on the improvements and differences relative to the original version described by Smith et al. [JGR 106, 2001]. One important improvement is a decrease in the statistical uncertainty in individual retrievals at high altitudes. In the original version, uncertainties at the 1.5 Pascal levels increased from 5 - 10 K early in the mission (Mars Year 24) to 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. In the revised version, these uncertainties remain near 2 K throughout the data set. Considering averages of large numbers of

  1. Daily global mapping of Mars ozone column abundances with MARCI UV band imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lefèvre, Franck; Cantor, Bruce A.; Malin, Michael C.; Smith, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Since November of 2006, The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has obtained multiple-filter daily global images of Mars centered upon a local time (LT) of 3 pm. Ultraviolet imaging bands placed within (260 nm) and longward (320 nm) of Hartley band (240-300 nm) ozone (O3) absorption support retrievals of atmospheric ozone columns, with detection limits (∼1 μm-atm) appropriate to mapping elevated O3 abundances at low latitudes around Mars aphelion, and over mid-to-high latitudes during fall/winter/spring seasons. MARCI O3 maps for these regions reveal the detailed spatial (∼1° lat/long, for 8 × 8 pixel binned resolution) and temporal (daily, with substantial LT coverage at pole) behaviors of water vapor saturation conditions that force large variations in water vapor photolysis products (HOx-OH, HO2, and H) responsible for the catalytic destruction of O3 in the Mars atmosphere. A detailed description of the MARCI O3 data set, including measurement and retrieval characteristics, is provided in conjunction with comparisons to Mars Express SPICAM ozone measurements (Perrier, S. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 111) and LMD GCM simulated O3 abundances (Lefèvre, F. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 109). Presented aspects of the MARCI ozone mapping data set include aphelion increases in low latitude O3, dynamically evolving high latitude O3 maxima associated with planetary waves and weather fronts during northern early spring, and distinctive winter/spring O3 and CO increases within the Hellas Basin associated with transport of condensation-enhanced south polar air mass. Comparisons of coincident MARCI measurements and LMD simulations for ice cloud and O3 columns are considered in the context of potential heterogeneous photochemical processes (Lefèvre, F. [2008]. Nature 454, 971-975), which are not strongly evidenced in the MARCI observations. Modest interannual variations are exhibited, most notably a 20% reduction

  2. What Are the Origins of Detached Layers of Dust on Mars ? Investigation with Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, T.; Spiga, A.; Forget, F.

    2014-12-01

    The climate on Mars is strongly controlled by the amount of dust lifted and transported in the atmosphere, which causes fluctuations of air opacity and affects temperatures and winds. Recently, observations of the vertical dust distribution of the Martian atmosphere by the Mars Climate Sounder on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed a phenomenon which is still poorly understood: the formation of detached layers of dust. These detached layers, also confirmed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on-board the Mars Global Surveyor, reside above the planetary boundary layer typically at altitudes between 20 and 40 km and have been mostly observed at low latitudes. These detached layers of dust are not reproduced by Global Climate Models (GCM) and different atmospheric processes are discussed and can be combined to explain their origin, such as small-scale lifting, upslope topographic winds, scavenging by water ice clouds, dust storms… Here we use the Martian GCM developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) to simulate the formation of detached layers of dust. To start, we developed a new implementation of the water cycle, taking into account nucleation on dust particles, ice particle growth, and scavenging of dust particles due to the condensation of ice. However, this method didn't yield to satisfying results in the GCM. Then, we performed the parameterization in the GCM of the so-called "rocket dust storms", governed by deep convection and able to inject dust at high altitudes in the Martian troposphere. By coupling this new parameterization with general circulation of the GCM, we succeed to model detached layers of dust. Here we present this parameterization and we discuss about the spatial and temporal variability of the detached layers of dust, in comparison with observations.

  3. Global geologic context for rock types and surface alteration on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyatt, M.B.; McSween, H.Y., Jr.; Tanaka, K.L.; Head, J. W., III

    2004-01-01

    Petrologic interpretations of thermal emission spectra from Mars orbiting spacecraft indicate the widespread occurrence of surfaces having basaltic and either andesitic or partly altered basalt compositions. Global concentration of ice-rich mantle deposits and near-surface ice at middle to high latitudes and their spatial correlation with andesitic or partly altered basalt materials favor the alteration hypothesis. We propose the formation of these units through limited chemical weathering from basalt interactions with icy mantles deposited during periods of high obliquity. Alteration of sediments in the northern lowlands depocenter may have been enhanced by temporary standing bodies of water and ice. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  4. Orbit Determination of the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft Using Laser Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, M. T.; Lemoine, F. G.; Rowlands, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the scientific investigations of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission require high precision orbital information and some are limited entirely by its quality. These include the laser altimeter (MOLA) the Mars gravity field and atmospheric occultation investigations by radio science, and the planetary dynamics and celestial mechanics investigations. The precision of the orbits can usually be assessed by comparing overlapping orbits for a given period; but these results tend to reflect the repeatability rather than the accuracy. The re-constructed orbits from the doppler and range tracking data on MGS are (to date) at the few meter level radially, and a few hundreds of meters horizontally, using the best gravity models, presently available. With the laser altimeter on MGS we have a mechanism to measure the quality and to actually make significant improvements in the orbital accuracy by incorporating the altimetry data as a tracking datatype. By adding the altimeter measurements at orbital cross-over locations we have been able to reduce die radial error to 1 meter of less on average and have reduced the along track and out of plane error by almost 2 orders of magnitude down to a few meters. It is apparent that the altimeter observation provides a geometric strength to the orbit that it is not possible to obtain from the present doppler and the range data alone. We discuss the results obtained for the first year of the MGS mapping orbit. This work is supported by the NASA Mars Program.

  5. Global documentation of gullies with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera and implications for their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Tanya N.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Jones, Eriita

    2015-05-01

    Hypotheses ranging from fluvial processes and debris flows to CO2 frost-lubricated or entirely dry flows have been proposed for the formation of martian gullies. In order to constrain these potential formation mechanisms, we mapped the global distribution of gullies on Mars using >54,000 images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) covering ∼85% of the martian surface at a resolution of ∼6 m/pixel. The results of this mapping effort confirm the results of studies using lower resolution and/or less areally extensive datasets that gullies are confined to the martian mid- to high-latitudes (∼30-80° in both hemispheres). We also find a clear transition in gully orientation with increasing latitude, going from poleward-facing to equator-facing preference. In general, gullies are more developed on poleward-facing walls, and mid-latitude gullies are more developed than those at higher latitudes. Gullies are also found to be strongly correlated with regions of distinct thermophysical properties of sand- to pebble-sized grains, low albedo, and higher thermal inertia. These observations all point to climate, insolation, and thermal properties of the substrate playing key factors in gully formation on Mars, supporting either a melting ground ice or snowpack hypothesis as the source for water involved in gully formation.

  6. A Mars environmental survey (MESUR) - Feasibility of a low cost global approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1991-01-01

    In situ measurements of Mars' surface and atmosphere are the objectives of a novel network mission concept called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). As envisioned, the MESUR mission will emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of 16 landers on the Martian surface over three launch opportunites using medium-lift (Delta-class) launch vehicles. The basic concept is to deploy small free-flying probes which would directly enter the Martian atmosphere, measure the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. Data will be returned via dedicated relay orbiter or direct-to-earth transmission. The mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on Mars science while providing a solid basis for future human presence; and (4) minimize overall project cost and complexity wherever possible.

  7. Water vapor in the middle atmosphere of Mars during the global dust storm in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, Anna; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Montmessin, Franck; Korablev, Oleg; Dzuban, Ilya; Maltagliati, Luca; Clarke, John

    2015-04-01

    Recent observations of the Martian hydrogen corona in the UV H Ly-α emission by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) [Clarke et al., 2014] and the SPICAM UV spectrometer on Mars Express [Chaffin et al., 2014] reported its rapid change an order of magnitude for the short period of a few months in 2007 (MY 28), which is inconsistent with the existing models. One proposed explanation of observed decrease in coronal emission is that during the global dust storm water vapor can be transported to higher altitudes where the rate of photodissociation by near-UV sunlight increases, providing an additional source of hydrogen for the upper atmosphere. Since 2004 the SPICAM IR spectrometer on Mars-Express carries out measurements of the vertical distribution of water vapor in the 1.38 µm band and aerosol properties in the middle atmosphere of Mars by means of solar occultations. We presents here vertical profiles of water vapor at Ls = 250-310° during the dust storm of MY28. SPICAM observations confirm the increase of the H2O content at 60 km from Ls=268° to Ls=285° an order of magnitude for the northern hemisphere and in 3-4 times for the southern hemisphere. Nevertheless, the photochemical modeling is required to estimate a contribution of observed water abundance to the hydrogen corona. The interannual variability of water vapor vertical distribution for the southern summer season will be also presented.

  8. Global search and optimization for free-return Earth-Mars cyclers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Ryan Paul

    A planetary cycler trajectory is a periodic orbit that shuttles a spaceship indefinitely between two or more planets, ideally using no powered maneuvers. Recently, the cycler concept has been revived as an alternative to the more traditional human-crewed Mars missions. This dissertation investigates a class of idealized Earth-Mars cyclers that are composed of Earth to Earth free-returns trajectories patched together with gravity-assisted flybys. A systematic method is presented to identify all feasible free-return trajectories following an arbitrary gravity-assisted flyby. The multiple-revolution Lambert's Problem is solved in the context of half-rev, full-rev, and generic returns. The solutions are expressed geometrically, and the resulting velocity diagram is a mission-planning tool with applications including but not limited to Earth-Mars cyclers. Two different global search methods are then developed and applied, taking advantage of all three types of free-return solutions. The first method results in twenty-four ballistic cyclers with periods of two to four synodic periods, ninety-two ballistic cyclers with periods of five or six synodic periods, and hundreds of near-ballistic cyclers. Most of the solutions are previously undocumented. The second and more generalized method only searches for the more practical cyclers with repeat times of three-synodic periods or less. This global approach uses combinatorial analysis and minimax optimization to identify 203 promising ballistic or near-ballistic mostly new cyclers. Finally, the feasibility of accurate ephemeris versions of the promising idealized cyclers is demonstrated. An efficient optimization method that utilizes analytic gradients is developed for long duration, ballistic, patched-conic trajectories with multiple flybys. The approach is applied at every step of a continuation method that transitions the simple model solutions to accurate ephemeris solutions. Hundreds of ballistic launch opportunities for

  9. From LEO, to the Moon and then Mars: Developing a Global Strategy for Exploration Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Most nations currently involved in human spaceflight, or with such ambitions, believe that space exploration will capture the imagination of our youth resulting in future engineers and scientists, advance technologies which will improve life on earth, increase the knowledge of our solar system, and strengthen bonds and relationships across the globe. The Global Exploration Strategy, published in 2007 by 14 space agencies, eloquently makes this case and presents a vision for space exploration. It argues that in order for space exploration to be sustainable, nations must work together to address the challenges and share the burden of costs. This paper will examine Mars mission scenarios developed by NASA, ESA and other agencies and show resulting conclusions regarding key challenges, needed technologies and associated mission risks. It will discuss the importance of using the International Space Station as a platform for exploration risk reduction and how the global exploration community will develop lunar exploration elements and architectures that enable the long term goal of human missions to Mars. The International Space Station (ISS) is a critical first step both from a technology and capability demonstration point of view, but also from a partnership point of view. There is much work that can be done in low earth orbit for exploration risk reduction. As the current "outpost at the edge of the frontier", the ISS is a place where we can demonstrate certain technologies and capabilities that will substantially reduce the risk of deploying an outpost on the lunar surface and Mars mission scenarios. The ISS partnership is strong and has fulfilled mission needs. Likewise, the partnerships we build on the moon will provide a strong foundation for establishing partnerships for the human Mars missions. On the moon, we build a permanently manned outpost and deploy technologies and capabilities to allow humans to stay for long periods of time. The moon is interesting from

  10. Hubble Watches the Red Planet as Mars Global Surveyor Begins Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    [RIGHT] This NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture of Mars was taken on Sept. 12, one day after the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and only five hours before the beginning of autumn in the Martian northern hemisphere. (Mars is tilted on its axis like Earth, so it has similar seasonal changes, including an autumnal equinox when the Sun crosses Mars' equator from the northern to the southern hemisphere).

    This Hubble picture was taken in support of the MGS mission. Hubble is monitoring the Martian weather conditions during the early phases of MGS aerobraking; in particular, the detection of large dust storms are important inputs into the atmospheric models used by the MGS mission to plan aerobraking operations.

    Though a dusty haze fills the giant Hellas impact basin south of the dark fin-shaped feature Syrtis Major, the dust appears to be localized within Hellas. Unless the region covered expands significantly, the dust will not be of concern for MGS aerobraking.

    Other early signs of seasonal transitions on Mars are apparent in the Hubble picture. The northern polar ice cap is blanketed under a polar hood of clouds that typically start forming in late northern summer. As fall progresses, sunlight will dwindle in the north polar region and the seasonal polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide will start condensing onto the surface under these clouds.

    Hubble observations will continue until October 13, as MGS carefully uses the drag of the Martian atmosphere to circularize its orbit about the Red Planet. After mid-October, Mars will be too close to the Sun, in angular separation, for Hubble to safely view.

    The image is a composite of three separately filtered colored images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Resolution is 35 miles (57 kilometers) per pixel (picture element). The Pathfinder landing site near Ares Valles is about 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) west of the center of this image, so was not visible during this

  11. Assessment of the global energy budget of Mars and comparison to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeleine, J.; Head, J. W.; Forget, F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The energy balance of a planet depends on its radiative environment and internal energy production. In the case of present-day Mars, the whole climate system is by far controlled by solar radiation rather than internal heat. Over the last hundreds of millions of years, changes in the orbital parameters and insolation pattern have induced various climatic excursions, during which the energy transfers within the atmosphere were different from today. On the longer term, i.e. over the last billions of years, the energy budget was even more different, as a result of the larger geothermal flux and heat provided by volcanic eruptions and impacts. Seeing the climate of Mars from an energy budget perspective provides a framework for understanding the key processes, as well as constraining climate models. The goal of this research is thus to characterize and analyze the energy budget of Mars. The first step, which is described in this communication, consists of quantifying the different components of the Mars radiation budget using the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) GCM (Global Climate Model). The LMD/GCM has been developed for more than 20 years and has now reached a level of detail that allows us to quantify the different contributions of CO2 gas, dust and clouds to the radiation budget. The general picture of the radiation budget as simulated by the GCM can be summarized as follows. First of all, the global-mean shortwave (SW) flux incident on the top of the Martian atmosphere is 148.5 W m-2. Whereas most of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by atmospheric gases on Earth, on Mars most of the sunlight is absorbed by dust particles. Our simulations show that around 15% of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by dust particles whereas 2.5% is reflected by them. Water-ice clouds also reflect around 1.5% of the solar radiation, which is much smaller than the amount of radiation reflected by clouds on Earth (around 20%). The Martian atmosphere is even

  12. Detached Dust Layers in Regional and Global Dust Events on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavens, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    Throughout much of the year in Mars's tropics, the vertical distribution of dust has a local maximum in mass mixing ratio significantly above the inferred height of the planetary boundary layer: a feature known as a "detached dust layer." Detached dust layering also has been observed in the extratropics. Modeling shows that dust-heated convective plumes within dust storms can rapidly transport dust vertically to altitudes of 40 km or more. These "rocket dust storm" plumes minimally mix with the surrounding environment, resulting in detached dust layers. Visible image climatology of dust storm activity argue against the "rocket dust storm" mechanism being dominant in northern spring and summer, when detached dust layer formation is common but tropical dust storm activity is rare. Some detached dust layers undoubtedly form by the "rocket dust storm" mechanism, such as those during regional and global dust events, which reach altitudes of 45-75 km above the MOLA datum and have mass mixing ratios of 40-260 ppm, equivalent to well-mixed visible column opacities of 3.6-23. These layers are not just a phenomenological curiosity. The plumes that generate them could play a role in dust storm development analogous to convection in tropical cyclone activity on Earth: "the dusty hurricane" analogy.Here I report on detached dust layers from one global dust event and five regional dust events observed by the Mars Climate Sounder on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. I examine the history of detached dust layer activity during the dust events in the context of possible limb observations of deep convection as well as visible imaging of dust lifting activity.Global dust events are associated with detached dust layers that are thicker and/or reach higher altitudes than in regional dust events. However, detached dust layers in these dust events do not originate from the tropics alone or have a simple relationship with dust lifting activity, arguing against strong analogy with

  13. Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Observations: Atmospheric Temperatures During Aerobraking and Science Phasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, Barney J.; Pearl, John C.; Smith, Michael D.; Maguire, William C.; Christensen, Philip R.; Dason, Shymala; Kaelberer, Monte S.

    1999-01-01

    Between September 1997, when the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft arrived at Mars, and September 1998 when the final aerobraking phase of the mission began, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) has acquired an extensive data set spanning approximately half of a Martian year. Nadir-viewing spectral measurements from this data set within the 15-micrometers CO2 absorption band are inverted to obtain atmospheric temperature profiles from the surface up to about the 0.1 mbar level. The computational procedure used to retrieve the temperatures is presented. Mean meridional cross sections of thermal structure are calculated for periods of time near northern hemisphere fall equinox, winter solstice, and spring equinox, as well as for a time interval immediately following the onset of the Noachis Terra dust storm. Gradient thermal wind cross sections are calculated from the thermal structure. Regions of possible wave activity are identified using cross sections of rms temperature deviations from the mean. Results from both near-equinox periods show some hemispheric asymmetry with peak eastward thermal winds in the north about twice the magnitude of those in the south. The results near solstice show an intense circumpolar vortex at high northern latitudes and waves associated with the vortex jet core. Warming of the atmosphere aloft at mid-northern latitudes suggests the presence of a strong cross-equatorial Hadley circulation. Although the Noachis dust storm did not become global in scale, strong perturbations to the atmospheric structure are found, including an enhanced temperature maximum aloft at high northern latitudes resulting from intensification of the Hadley circulation. TES results for the various seasonal conditions are compared with published results from Mars general circulation models, and generally good qualitative agreement is found.

  14. Mars Pathfinder meteorological observations on the basis of results of an atmospheric global circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, Francois; Hourdin, F.; Talagrand, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Meteorological Package (ASI/MET) will measure the local pressure, temperature, and winds at its future landing site, somewhere between the latitudes 0 deg N and 30 deg N. Comparable measurements have already been obtained at the surface of Mars by the Viking Landers at 22 deg N (VL1) and 48 deg N (VL2), providing much useful information on the martian atmosphere. In particular the pressure measurements contain very instructive information on the global atmospheric circulation. At the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), we have analyzed and simulated these measurements with a martian atmospheric global circulation model (GCM), which was the first to simulate the martian atmospheric circulation over more than 1 year. The model is able to reproduce rather accurately many observed features of the martian atmosphere, including the long- and short-period oscillations of the surface pressure observed by the Viking landers. From a meteorological point of view, we think that a landing site located near or at the equator would be an interesting choice.

  15. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Cen- ter and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical "cores" of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. ne two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical "simple physics" parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  16. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical "cores" of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. The two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical "simple physics" parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  17. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical 'cores' of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. The two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical 'simple physics' parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  18. WISDOM GPR aboard the ExoMars rover : a powerful instrument to investigate the state and distribution of water in the Martian shallow subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Clifford, S. M.; Plettemeier, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observation on Mars (WISDOM) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been selected as part of the Pasteur payload for the European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars 2018 mission. The main scientific objectives of the mission are to search for evidence of past or present life and to characterize the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. A rover equipped with a 2 meters capacity drill and a suite of instruments will land on Mars in 2018, collect and analyze samples from outcrops and at depth. The WISDOM GPR will support these activities by sounding the subsurface and provide understanding of the geologic context and evolution of the local environment. When operated on the ExoMars rover, WISDOM will offer the possibility to understand the 3D geology in terms of stratigraphy and structure, spatial heterogeneities as well as the compositional and electromagnetic properties of the subsurface. According to these scientific objectives, this radar has been designed as a polarimetric step frequency GPR, operating from 0.5 GHz to 3GHz, which allows the sounding of the first 3 meters of the subsurface with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters. The importance of this GPR is particularly enhanced by its ability to investigate the water content, state (ice or liquid) and distribution in the subsurface, which are crucial clues to constrain the possibility of life traces evidence. In addition, WISDOM will be operated at a distance of 30 cm above the ground. This configuration allows the monitoring of potential transient liquid water that could appear on Mars surface. Results from several laboratory tests and a campaign in alpine ice caves in Austria are consistent with the expected performances of WISDOM regarding the question of water characterization. The specific configuration of the antennas allows the retrieval of the first layer permittivity value from the surface echo, which is related to the water content

  19. Localized Gravity/Topography Admittance and Correlation Spectra on Mars: Implications for Regional and Global Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Simons, Mark; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Aharonson, Oded; Head, James W.

    2002-01-01

    [i] From gravity and topography data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft we calculate gravity/topography admittances and correlations in the spectral domain and compare them to those predicted from models of lithospheric flexure. On the basis of these comparisons we estimate the thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere (T(sub e)) required to support the observed topographic load since the time of loading. We convert T(sub e) to estimates of heat flux and thermal gradient in the lithosphere through a consideration of the response of an elastic/plastic shell. In regions of high topography on Mars (e.g., the Tharsis rise and associated shield volcanoes), the mass-sheet (small-amplitude) approximation for the calculation of gravity from topography is inadequate. A correction that accounts for finite-amplitude topography tends to increase the amplitude of the predicted gravity signal at spacecraft altitudes. Proper implementation of this correction requires the use of radii from the center of mass (collectively known as the planetary shape ) in lieu of topography referenced to a gravitational equipotential. Anomalously dense surface layers or buried excess masses are not required to explain the observed admittances for the Tharsis Montes or Olympus Mons volcanoes when this correction is applied. Derived T, values generally decrease with increasing age of the lithospheric load, in a manner consistent with a rapid decline of mantle heat flux during the Noachian and more modest rates of decline during subsequent epochs.

  20. Ground based infrared measurements of the global distribution of ozone in the atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Espenak, F.; Mumma, M. J.; Zipoy, D.

    1991-01-01

    The global distribution of ozone in the atmosphere of Mars was determined from Doppler-limited infrared heterodyne spectroscopy measurements at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) facility during June 3-7, 1988. Mars spectra near two O3 lines arising from the v sub 3 band near 1031.45 cm (-1) were used. The lines were Doppler shifted out of the strong terrestrial ozone absorption spectrum and its effect was removed. Ozone measurements were obtained at eight beam positions over a range of latitudes and local solar zenith angles. The beam size of the planet was 1.4 arcsec. A Martian CO2 line appeared in the spectra and was inverted to retrieve local temperature profiles. Using these temperature profiles, the total ozone column abundance at each position was retrieved by fitting the measured line with synthetic spectra generated by a radiative transfer program. The only previous measurement of ozone at this season was made above the South polar cap by Mariner 7 and revealed an abundance of 10 micron-atm. However, the retrieved O3 column abundances from this investigation are less than 2.2 micron-atm at all positions sampled. These results are consistent with mid-spring abundances predicted by photochemical models of Liu and Donahue, and Shimazaki and Shimizu.

  1. A Global Map of Mars' Crustal Magnetic Field Based on Electron Reflectometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Lillis, R. J.; Lin, R. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    One of the great surprises of the Mars Global Surveyor mission was the discovery of intensely magnetized crust. Magnetic sources on Mars are at least ten times stronger than their terrestrial counterparts, probably requiring large volumes of coherently magnetized material, very strong remanence, or both. Although much of the attention so far has been placed on the strong crustal fields in the southern highlands, magnetic sources do exist in the younger low-lying plains. The strength and morphology of these sources could yield clues to the thermal and magnetic history of the northern plains. Low altitude (approx. 100 km) Magnetometer (MAG) data obtained during aerobraking have the greatest spatial resolution and sensitivity for identifying crustal magnetic sources from orbit, but those data are sparse and therefore limit the ability to discern morphology. Fully sampled MAG data obtained in the 400-km altitude mapping orbit have been differenced with respect to latitude (Br/Lat) to minimize the influence of induced fields from the solar wind interaction and thus enhance the sensitivity to weak crustal sources. Here we describe independent results from the Electron Reflectometer (ER), which remotely measures the magnetic field intensity at approx. 170 km altitude, and is roughly seven times more sensitive to crustal magnetic sources than measurements of Br from the mapping orbit.

  2. Assessment of global and regional tectonic models for faulting in the ancient terrains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, R. A.

    1985-08-01

    The structural mapping of tectonic landforms on Mars has provided a great deal of information regarding the planet's tectonic history. The present paper has the objective to test models of regional and global fracturing by evaluating the spatial distribution and orientation of the ancient heavily cratered terrain (HCT) structural landforms. Attention is given to background information concerning earlier studies, landform selection and analysis, rose diagrams, tests for Tharsis generation, and a calculation of thermal stress in the early Martian lithosphere. The contribution of classical Tharsis-centered tectonism to the production of HCT structural landforms was found to be very small. Few structural landforms investigated are either perpendicular to calculated principal stress trajectories or radial to Tharsis.

  3. Assessment of global and regional tectonic models for faulting in the ancient terrains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The structural mapping of tectonic landforms on Mars has provided a great deal of information regarding the planet's tectonic history. The present paper has the objective to test models of regional and global fracturing by evaluating the spatial distribution and orientation of the ancient heavily cratered terrain (HCT) structural landforms. Attention is given to background information concerning earlier studies, landform selection and analysis, rose diagrams, tests for Tharsis generation, and a calculation of thermal stress in the early Martian lithosphere. The contribution of classical Tharsis-centered tectonism to the production of HCT structural landforms was found to be very small. Few structural landforms investigated are either perpendicular to calculated principal stress trajectories or radial to Tharsis.

  4. Formation and evolution of periglacial landforms in context of global warming: Application to Mars and Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Marmo, C.

    2011-12-01

    potential ice-wedges and subsequent subsidence of the ground producing pits. The scalloped depressions are similar in shape and size to thermokarst lakes. They are thought to be due to degradation of ground-ice by melting or sublimation of ground-ice and subsidence of the ground. Our results show that the assemblage of landforms in Utopia Planitia indicates the presence of an ice-rich permafrost like on Earth. We suggest that this permafrost were formed during cold climatic periods and then were degraded during a relatively recent global warming. Our results show that the permafrost was degraded during a high obliquity periods of Mars. But the question is how major climate-changes could occur on Mars. Mars is thought to have undergone important variations in the orbital parameters during the last 10 Myr dramatically changing the climate. Therefore, Utopia Planitia is probably a marker of one of the last major climate change that occurred on Mars.

  5. Formation and evolution of periglacial landforms in context of global warming: Comparison Earth-Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Marmo, C.

    2012-04-01

    potential ice-wedges and subsequent subsidence of the ground producing pits. The scalloped depressions are similar in shape and size to thermokarst lakes. They are thought to be due to degradation of ground-ice by melting or sublimation of ground-ice and subsidence of the ground. Our results show that the assemblage of landforms in Utopia Planitia indicates the presence of an ice-rich permafrost like on Earth. We suggest that this permafrost were formed during cold climatic periods and then were degraded during a relatively recent global warming. Our results show that the permafrost was degraded during a high obliquity periods of Mars. But the question is how major climate-changes could occur on Mars. Mars is thought to have undergone important variations in the orbital parameters during the last 10 Myr dramatically changing the climate. Therefore, Utopia Planitia is probably a marker of one of the last major climate change that occurred on Mars.

  6. Mars Exploration Program and Mars Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetsel, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Program and constituent Mars Technology Program are described. Current, ongoing and future NASA-led missions are presented, including discussions of scientific accomplishments and objectives as well as technology validations accomplished and technological enablers for future missions. The missions summarized include (in order of actual or planned launch): Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars 'Smart' Lander, Mars Scouts, Mars Sample Return. Key technology areas hdiscussed include: Navigation, Entry, Descent and Landing, Science and Surface Operations, Orbital Transport and Sample Return Technologies.

  7. High-Resolution Thermal Inertia Mapping from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mellon, M.T.; Jakosky, B.M.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution thermal inertia mapping results are presented, derived from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations of the surface temperature of Mars obtained during the early portion of the MGS mapping mission. Thermal inertia is the key property controlling the diurnal surface temperature variations, and is dependent on the physical character of the top few centimeters of the surface. It represents a complex combination of particle size, rock abundance, exposures of bedrock, and degree of induration. In this work we describe the derivation of thermal inertia from TES data, present global scale analysis, and place these results into context with earlier work. A global map of nighttime thermal-bolometer-based thermal inertia is presented at 14?? per pixel resolution, with approximately 63% coverage between 50??S and 70??N latitude. Global analysis shows a similar pattern of high and low thermal inertia as seen in previous Viking low-resolution mapping. Significantly more detail is present in the high-resolution TES thermal inertia. This detail represents horizontal small-scale variability in the nature of the surface. Correlation with albedo indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered surface unit of moderate-to-high thermal inertia and intermediate albedo. This new unit has a modal peak thermal inertia of 180-250 J m-2 K-1 s-12 and a narrow range of albedo near 0.24. The unit, covering a significant fraction of the surface, typically surrounds the low thermal inertia regions and may comprise a deposit of indurated fine material. Local 3-km-resolution maps are also presented as examples of eolian, fluvial, and volcanic geology. Some impact crater rims and intracrater dunes show higher thermal inertias than the surrounding terrain; thermal inertia of aeolian deposits such as intracrater dunes may be related to average particle size. Outflow channels and valleys consistently show higher thermal inertias than the

  8. Multi-Functional Lidar Instrument for Global Measurement of Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzajerdian, F.; Busch, G. E.; Edwards, W. C.; Dwyer Cianciolo, A. M.; Munk, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes an orbiting lidar instrument concept capable of providing Mars atmospheric parameters critical to design of future robotic and manned missions requiring advanced aerocapture, precision landing, and launch from Mars surface.

  9. Early Mars Revisited by New Global Geologic Mapping and Crater Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Platz, T.; Michael, G.; Robbins, S.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Skinner, J. A.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R. P.; Kolb, E. J.; Hare, T. M.

    2012-05-01

    Based on our new geologic map of Mars at 1:20M scale and detailed crater counts, we reassess the earliest geologic evolution of Mars, noting degrees and styles of resurfacing for each of the earliest Martian epochs.

  10. Time Dependent Responses of the Martian Upper Atmosphere to the 2001 Global Dust Storm using Mars GITM Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, Stephen W.; Pawlowski, David J.; Murphy, James R.

    2014-11-01

    Various Mars spacecraft datasets reveal that the Martian thermosphere-ionosphere 100-250 km) is significantly impacted by the occurrence of regional or global lower atmosphere dust storm events. For example, thermospheric responses during the regional MY23 Noachis storm (late 1997) during its onset phase include: (a) a factor of 3 enhancement of MGS Accelerometer mass densities at 130 km near 38 N latitude, (b) a factor of 2.5 enhancement of corresponding zonal winds near 120-130 km, and (c) the associated ~8 km rise in the height of the 1.26-nbar reference pressure level (Keating et al.. 1998; Baird et al. 2007). These features correspond to a rapidly warming (and vertically expanding) lower atmosphere due to “dust-lifting latitude” aerosol heating, the resulting acceleration of global winds and amplification of tidal amplitudes throughout the atmosphere, and adiabatic warming arising from downwelling winds. Furthermore, during the 2001 MY25 global dust storm, MGS/ER photo-electron measurements at 400 km reveal that fluxes were enhanced, possibly related to long-lived changes in thermosphere-exosphere composition (Liemohn et al., 2012). These responses to dust events, and associated atmospheric feedbacks, provide excellent constraints for Mars GCMs. The recently developed and initially validated 3-D Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) (e.g. Bougher et al., 2014) is used to investigate these feedbacks and responses of the Mars thermosphere-ionosphere for the 2001 global dust storm. The M-GITM code simulates the conditions of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to the exosphere 0-250 km), utilizing physical processes and subroutines largely taken from previous Mars GCMs. Empirical (time evolving) dust opacities are specified from MGS/TES datasets for MY25 (starting in July 2001). The time evolution of the resulting thermosphere and ionosphere fields is examined; comparisons with available MGS datasets are made.

  11. Thermal Infrared Airborne Field Studies: Applications to the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, K.; Kirkland, L.; Keim, E.; Hackwell, J.

    2002-12-01

    A primary goal of the Mars exploration program is to reconnoiter the planet from orbit using infrared remote sensing. Currently the Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the 2001 Mars Odyssey 9-band radiometer THEMIS provide this capability. Landing site selection and modeling of the geologic and climate history depend on accurate interpretations of these data sets. Interpretations use terrestrial analog remote sensing and laboratory studies. Until recently, there have been no airborne thermal infrared spectrometer ("hyspectral") data sets available to NASA researchers that are comparable to TES. As a result, studies relied on airborne multi-channel radiometer ("multispectral") measurements (e.g. TIMS, MASTER). A radiometer has the advantage that measurement of broad bands makes it easier to measure with higher sensitivity. However, radiometers lack the spectral resolution to investigate details of spectral signatures. This gap may be partially addressed using field samples collected and measured in the laboratory. However, that leaves questions unanswered about the field environment and potentially leaves important complicating issues undiscovered. Two questions that haunt thermal infrared remote sensing investigations of Mars are: (1) If a mineral is not detected in a given data set, how definitively should we state that it is not there? (2) When does the method provide quantitative mineral mapping? In order to address these questions, we began collaborating with Department of Defense (DoD) oriented researchers and drawing on the unique instrumentation they developed. Both Mars and DoD researchers have a common need to identify materials without benefit of ground truth. Such collaborations provide a fresh perspective as well as unique data. Our work addresses uncertainties in stand-off identification of solid phase surface materials when the identification must proceed without benefit of ground truth. We will report on the results applied to TES

  12. Mars Express wins unanimous support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    "The green light for Mars Express shows that Europe is perfectly capable of seizing special chances in exploring space," said Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "At a cost to ESA of 150 million ECU, Mars Express is the cheapest Mars mission ever, yet its importance and originality are far greater than the price tag suggests." Bonnet continued: "Mars Express has been advertised by the Science Programme Committee as a test case for new approaches in procuring and managing future science projects, with a view to achieving major savings. In the international arena, Mars Express will confirm Europe's interest in a major target for space research in the new century, when we make our forceful debut at the Red Planet. In fact, Mars Express is designed to be a pivotal element of an international multi-mission, global effort for the exploration of Mars." Development of the spacecraft will now proceed swiftly, to meet the deadline of an exceptionally favourable launch window early in June 2003. Mars Express will go into orbit around Mars at Christmas 2003. Seven scientific instruments on board will include a high-resolution camera, a range of spectrometers, and a radar to penetrate below the surface. For the first time in the history of the exploration of the Red Planet, scientists can hope to detect sub-surface water, whether it exists in the form of undergound rivers, pools, glaciers or permafrost. Signs of life on Mars, whether extinct or continuing today, may reveal themselves to a lander carried by Mars Express. This is Beagle 2, a project led by the Open University in the United Kingdom, with contributions from many other European countries. The lander also promises invaluable information about the chemistry of the Martian surface and atmosphere. Beagle 2 is to be independently funded. Some of the necessary funds have already been raised and ESA has agreed with the principal investigator to keep a place for Beagle 2 aboard Mars Express. The financial situation

  13. The Strategy for the Second Phase of Aerobraking Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. D.; Esposito, P. B.; Alwar, V.; Demcak, S. W.; Graat, E. J.; Burkhart, P. D.; Portock, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    On February 19, 1999, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was able to propulsively establish its mapping orbit. This event followed the completion of the second phase of aerobraking for the MGS spacecraft on February 4, 1999. For the first time, a spacecraft at Mars had successfully employed aerobraking methods in order to reach its desired pre-launch mapping orbit. This was accomplished despite a damaged spacecraft solar array. The MGS spacecraft was launched on November 7, 1996, and after a ten month interplanetary transit was inserted into a highly elliptical capture orbit at Mars on September 12, 1997. Unlike other interplanetary missions, the MGS spacecraft was launched with a planned mission delta-V ((Delta)V) deficit of nearly 1250 m/s. To overcome this AV deficit, aerobraking techniques were employed. However, damage discovered to one of the spacecraft's two solar arrays after launch forced major revisions to the original aerobraking planning of the MGS mission. In order to avoid a complete structural failure of the array, peak dynamic pressure levels for the spacecraft were established at a major spacecraft health review in November 1997. These peak dynamic pressure levels were roughly one-third of the original mission design values. Incorporating the new dynamic pressure limitations into mission replanning efforts resulted in an 'extended' orbit insertion phase for the mission. This 'extended' orbit insertion phase was characterized by two distinct periods of aerobraking separated by an aerobraking hiatus that would last for several months in an intermediate orbit called the "Science Phasing Orbit" (SPO). This paper describes and focuses on the strategy for the second phase of aerobraking for the MGS mission called "Aerobraking Phase 2." This description will include the baseline aerobraking flight profile, the trajectory control methodology, as well as the key trajectory metrics that were monitored in order to successfully "guide' the spacecraft to

  14. Aeroheating Thermal Model Correlation for Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; George, Benjamin E.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Spacecraft made use of aerobraking to gradually reduce its orbit period from a highly elliptical insertion orbit to its final science orbit. Aerobraking produces a high heat load on the solar arrays, which have a large surface area exposed to the airflow and relatively low mass. To accurately model the complex behavior during aerobraking, the thermal analysis needed to be tightly coupled to the spatially varying, time dependent aerodynamic heating. Also, the thermal model itself needed to accurately capture the behavior of the solar array and its response to changing heat load conditions. The correlation of the thermal model to flight data allowed a validation of the modeling process, as well as information on what processes dominate the thermal behavior. Correlation in this case primarily involved detailing the thermal sensor nodes, using as-built mass to modify material property estimates, refining solar cell assembly properties, and adding detail to radiation and heat flux boundary conditions. This paper describes the methods used to develop finite element thermal models of the MGS solar array and the correlation of the thermal model to flight data from the spacecraft drag passes. Correlation was made to data from four flight thermal sensors over three of the early drag passes. Good correlation of the model was achieved, with a maximum difference between the predicted model maximum and the observed flight maximum temperature of less than 5%. Lessons learned in the correlation of this model assisted in validating a similar model and method used for the Mars Odyssey solar array aeroheating analysis, which were used during onorbit operations.

  15. The seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere - Complete global results of the Viking atmospheric water detector experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Farmer, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    A key question regarding the evolution of Mars is related to the behavior of its volatiles. The present investigation is concerned with the global and seasonal abundances of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere as mapped by the Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD) instrument for almost 1-1/2 Martian years from June 1976 to April 1979. Attention is given to the implications of the observed variations for determining the relative importance of those processes which may be controlling the vapor cycle on a seasonal basis. The processes considered include buffering of the atmosphere water by a surface or subsurface reservior of ground ice, physically adsorbed water, or chemically bound water. Other processes are related to the supply of water from the residual or seasonal north polar ice cap, the redistribution of the vapor resulting from atmospheric circulation, and control of the vapor holding capacity of the atmosphere by the local atmospheric temperatures.

  16. Resurfacing history of the northern plains of Mars based on geologic mapping of Mars Global Surveyor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A.; Hare, T.M.; Joyal, T.; Wenker, A.

    2003-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the northern plains of Mars, based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography and Viking and Mars Orbiter Camera images, reveals new insights into geologic processes and events in this region during the Hesperian and Amazonian Periods. We propose four successive stages of lowland resurfacing likely related to the activity of near-surface volatiles commencing at the highland-lowland boundary (HLB) and progressing to lower topographic levels as follows (highest elevations indicated): Stage 1, upper boundary plains, Early Hesperian, <-2.0 to -2.9 km; Stage 2, lower boundary plains and outflow channel dissection, Late Hesperian, <-2.7 to -4.0 km; Stage 3, Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) surface, Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian, <-3.1 to -4.1 km; and Stage 4, local chaos zones, Early Amazonian, <-3.8 to -5.0 km. At Acidalia Mensa, Stage 2 and 3 levels may be lower (<-4.4 and -4.8 km, respectively). Contractional ridges form the dominant structure in the plains and developed from near the end of the Early Hesperian to the Early Amazonian. Geomorphic evidence for a northern-plains-filling ocean during Stage 2 is absent because one did not form or its evidence was destroyed by Stage 3 resurfacing. Remnants of possible Amazonian dust mantles occur on top of the VBF. The north polar layered deposits appear to be made up of an up to kilometer-thick lower sequence of sandy layers Early to Middle Amazonian in age overlain by Late Amazonian ice-rich dust layers; both units appear to have outliers, suggesting that they once were more extensive.

  17. Resurfacing history of the northern plains of Mars based on geologic mapping of Mars Global Surveyor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.; Joyal, T.; Wenker, A.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic mapping of the northern plains of Mars, based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography and Viking and Mars Orbiter Camera images, reveals new insights into geologic processes and events in this region during the Hesperian and Amazonian Periods. We propose four successive stages of lowland resurfacing likely related to the activity of near-surface volatiles commencing at the highland-lowland boundary (HLB) and progressing to lower topographic levels as follows (highest elevations indicated): Stage 1, upper boundary plains, Early Hesperian, <-2.0 to -2.9 km; Stage 2, lower boundary plains and outflow channel dissection, Late Hesperian, <-2.7 to -4.0 km; Stage 3, Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) surface, Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian, <-3.1 to -4.1 km; and Stage 4, local chaos zones, Early Amazonian, <-3.8 to -5.0 km. At Acidalia Mensa, Stage 2 and 3 levels may be lower (<-4.4 and -4.8 km, respectively). Contractional ridges form the dominant structure in the plains and developed from near the end of the Early Hesperian to the Early Amazonian. Geomorphic evidence for a northern-plains-filling ocean during Stage 2 is absent because one did not form or its evidence was destroyed by Stage 3 resurfacing. Remnants of possible Amazonian dust mantles occur on top of the VBF. The north polar layered deposits appear to be made up of an up to kilometer-thick lower sequence of sandy layers Early to Middle Amazonian in age overlain by Late Amazonian ice-rich dust layers; both units appear to have outliers, suggesting that they once were more extensive.

  18. Possible Juventae Chasma subice volcanic eruptions and Maja Valles ice outburst floods on Mars: Implications of Mars Global surveyor crater densities, geomorphology, and topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Gudmundsson, M.T.; Russell, A.J.; Hare, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses image, topographic, and spectral data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission that provide new information concerning the surface age, geomorphology, and topography of the Juventae Chasma/Maja Valles system. Our study utilizes data from two instruments on board MGS: images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Within Maja Valles we can now observe depositional bars with megaripples that unequivocally show catastrophic floods occurred in the channel. Viking impact crater densities indicated the chasma and channel floor areas were all one age (late Hesperian to Amazonian); however, MOC data indicate a marked difference in densities of small craters between Juventae Chasma, Maja Valles, and the channel debouchment area in Chryse Planitia basin. Although other processes may contribute to crater variability, young resurfacing events in the chasma and episodes of recent erosion at Maja Valles channel head may possibly account for the disparate crater densities along the chasma/channel system. Relatively young volcanic eruptions may have contributed to resurfacing; as in Juventae Chasma, a small possible volcanic cone of young dark material is observed. MOC data also indicate previously unknown interior layered deposit mounds in the chasma that indicate at least two periods of mound formation. Finally, MOLA topography shows that the entire floor of the chasma lies at the same elevation as the channel debouchment area in Chryse basin, resulting in a 3-km-high barrier to water flow out of the chasma. Blocked ponded water would rapidly freeze in the current (and likely past) climate of Mars. For catastrophic flow to occur in Maja Valles, some process is required to melt ice and induce floods out of the chasma. We suggest subice volcanic eruption and calculate estimates of water discharges and volumes that these eruptions might have produced.

  19. A global Mars dust composition refined by the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jeff A.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Gellert, Ralf; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Ming, Douglas W.; Clark, Benton C.; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott J. V.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Elliott, Beverley E.; Desouza, Elstan

    2016-01-01

    Modern Martian dust is similar in composition to the global soil unit and bulk basaltic Mars crust, but it is enriched in S and Cl. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover analyzed air fall dust on the science observation tray (o-tray) in Gale Crater to determine dust oxide compositions. The o-tray dust has the highest concentrations of SO3 and Cl measured in Mars dust (SO3 8.3%; Cl 1.1 wt %). The molar S/Cl in the dust (3.35 ± 0.34) is consistent with previous studies of Martian dust and soils (S/Cl = 3.7 ± 0.7). Fe is also elevated ~25% over average Mars soils and the bulk crust. These enrichments link air fall dust with the S-, Cl-, and Fe-rich X-ray amorphous component of Gale Crater soil. Dust and soil have the same S/Cl, constraining the surface concentrations of S and Cl on a global scale.

  20. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global surveyor data. II. Amazonian period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolb, E.J.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) observations of Amazonian polar layered deposits' (PLD) morphology, composition, and thickness, we conclude that the PLDs are composed of porous unconsolidated layers that have not experienced significant basal melting or other glacial-type processes. Morphologic features and associations within the PLD chasmata, including preserved craters and sinuous ridges, indicate that the dominant process of chasmata formation is wind scouring. Our detailed analysis of south polar spiral-trough topography, in conjunction with the identification of similar layered stratigraphy within north polar spiral troughs, suggests that trough migration due to preferential ablation of Sun-facing slopes cannot be demonstrated. Within the layered sequences, we have not identified widespread unconformities, discontinuities, or pinch-outs that would indicate an accublation origin of the PLDs. We therefore postulate that the well-defined PLDs at both poles eventually reached and maintained their present form following deposition without extensive deformation or redeposition. Large, cuspate ridges in the Ultimi lobe of Planum Australe appear to be layered and may be unusual erosional remnants of a once thicker PLD in this area. Beneath the north polar layered deposits in Planum Boreum, we have identified a platform of older, highly degraded polar deposits as much as a kilometer thick that may have once covered an area larger than Planum Boreum. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science.

  1. Mars Delay-Doppler Radar Observations With GSSR: Global Analysis for Landing Site Selection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.; Rojas, F.

    1997-01-01

    Earth-based radar data remain an important part of the information set used to select and certify spacecraft landing sites on Mars. Constraints on robotic landings on Mars include: terrain elevation, radar reflectivity. regional and local slopes, rock distribution and coverage, and surface roughness, all of which are addressed by radar data. Indeed, the usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander I site, and more recently, the Mars Pathfinder landing site.

  2. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global survey data. I. Noachian and Hesperian Periods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kolb, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    During the Noachian Period, the south polar region of Mars underwent intense cratering, construction of three groups of volcanoes, widespread contractional deformation, resurfacing of low areas, and local dissection of valley networks; no evidence for polar deposits, ice sheets, or glaciation is recognized. South polar Hesperian geology is broadly characterized by waning impacts, volcanism, and tectonism. Emplacement of the polar Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF) occurred during the Hesperian Period. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data and Mars Orbiter Camera images elucidate stratigraphic, morphologic, and topographic relations, permitting the dividing of the DAF into eight members, which surround and underlie about half of the Amazonian south polar layered deposits. The lobate fronts and lack of typical volcanic-flow morphology of the six plains units indicate that they may be made up of debris flows. We think that these flows, tens of meters to 200 m thick, may have originated by the discharge of huge volumes of slurry fluidized by ground water or liquid CO2, perhaps triggered by local impacts, igneous activity, or basal melting beneath polar deposits. The cavi and rugged members include irregular depressions that penetrate the subsurface; some of the pits have raised rims. The depressions may have formed by collapse due to expulsion of subsurface material in which local explosive activity built up the raised rims. Further, smaller eruptions of volatile-rich material may have resulted in narrow, sinuous channel deposits within aggrading fine-grained unconsolidated material perhaps produced by gaseous discharge of subsurface volatiles; preferential erosion of the latter material could have produced the Dorsa Argentea-type ginuous ridges associated mainly with the DAF. Alternatively, the ridges may be eskers, but the lack of associated glacial and fluvial morphologies casts doubt on this interpretation. The knobby, degraded materials forming Scandia Colles

  3. Elevation Measurement Profile of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The elevation measurements were collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) aboard Global Surveyor during the spring and summer of 1998, as the spacecraft orbited Mars in an interim elliptical orbit. MOLA sends laser pulses toward the planet and measures the precise amount of time before the reflected signals are received back at the instrument. From this data, scientists can infer surface and cloud heights.

    During its mapping of the north polar cap, the MOLA instrument also made the first direct measurement of cloud heights on the red planet. Reflections from the atmosphere were obtained at altitudes from just above the surface to more than nine miles (approximately 15 kilometers) on about 80 percent of the laser profiles. Most clouds were observed at high latitudes, at the boundary of the ice cap and surrounding terrain.

    Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of carbon dioxide that condenses out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamic structure probably caused by winds interacting with surface topography, much as occurs on Earth when winds collide with mountains to produce turbulence.

    The principal investigator for MOLA is Dr. David E. Smith of Goddard. The MOLA instrument was designed and built by the Laser Remote Sensing Branch of Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics at Goddard. The Mars Global Surveyor Mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for the NASA Office of Space Science.

  4. Variability of the Thermosphere and Ionosphere of Mars: MAVEN NGIMS Measurements and Global Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, Stephen; Benna, Mehdi; Jakosky, Bruce; Bell, Jared; Mahaffy, Paul; Olsen, Kirk; Roeten, Kali; Elrod, Meredith

    2016-07-01

    , both significant diurnal and SZA variations of the major and several minor ions are observed, along with the total ion density. Solar driven model simulations, using the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM, Bougher et al., 2015, JGR, 120) are used to provide a first comparison with these periodic (climatic) trends gleaned from NGIMS datasets. However, the present lack of gravity wave processes (e.g. momentum and energy deposition) in the M-GITM framework suggests that these simulated trends can be further modified, thereby providing an improved match to MAVEN measurements. In this regard, the M-GITM incorporation of a suitable gravity wave scheme is presently underway.

  5. Hydrated silica on Mars: Global comparison and in-depth analysis at Antoniadi Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew R.

    ---has also been found at nearby exposures at Nili Fossae and Toro Crater, suggesting a widespread sequence of alteration. The two sections of this dissertation provide a global and in-depth view of Martian hydrated silica deposits, thereby broadening and refining our search for past water on Mars.

  6. A new look at dust and clouds in the Mars atmosphere - Analysis of emission-phase-function sequences from global Viking IRTM observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    The present analysis of emission-phase function (EPF) observations from the IR thermal mapper aboard the Viking Orbiter encompasses polar latitudes, and Viking Lander sites, and spans a wide range of solar longitudes. A multiple scattering radiative transfer model which incorporates a bidirectional phase function for the surface and atmospheric scattering by dust and clouds yields surface albedos and dust and ice optical properties and optical depths for the variety of Mars conditions. It is possible to fit all analyzed EPF sequences corresponding to dust scattering with an albedo of 0.92, rather than the 0.86 given by Pollack et al. on the bases of Viking Lander observations.

  7. A new look at dust and clouds in the Mars atmosphere - Analysis of emission-phase-function sequences from global Viking IRTM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, Steven W.

    1991-09-01

    The present analysis of emission-phase function (EPF) observations from the IR thermal mapper aboard the Viking Orbiter encompasses polar latitudes, and Viking Lander sites, and spans a wide range of solar longitudes. A multiple scattering radiative transfer model which incorporates a bidirectional phase function for the surface and atmospheric scattering by dust and clouds yields surface albedos and dust and ice optical properties and optical depths for the variety of Mars conditions. It is possible to fit all analyzed EPF sequences corresponding to dust scattering with an albedo of 0.92, rather than the 0.86 given by Pollack et al. on the bases of Viking Lander observations.

  8. Liquid Water on the Surface of Mars Today: Present Gully Activity Observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Direction for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. N.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.

    2009-12-01

    Eight new flows in martian mid-latitude gullies have been found using the MRO Context Camera and MGS Mars Orbiter Camera. Each formed during 1999-2009. Using MRO HiRISE images, we find that the morphology and inferred emplacement behavior of these features is consistent with those of debris flows fluidized by a liquid medium and not by dry, granular flows. Evidence comes from the patterns of flow around obstacles, ponding in and subsequent overtopping of topographic depressions, and super-elevation of deposits on channel banks where the channels change direction, attributes consistent with a liquid but not with fluid-like granular flow. Additional evidence includes anastomoses in distal reaches and lobate terminations. Of the 8 flows, 3 have formation dates constrained to within a single Mars year (although not the same year); these 3 formed during autumn to early spring, demonstrating that summer warming is not participating in creating the liquid (i.e., that would melt snow or ice). The new gully deposits indicate that some gullies are currently active, suggesting that Mars has liquid water today and it occasionally appears on the planet’s surface. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program has focused on the “follow the water” theme and is now shifting toward “habitability” and life detection. Places where liquid water comes to the Martian surface today warrant detailed investigation. Martian astrobiology involves the search for evidence of extinct and extant life. Discovery of ancient sedimentary rocks shifted emphasis from the Viking-era pursuit of present-day microbial life to MSL’s focus on habitable environments. Recent descriptions of contemporary methane production have renewed interest in searching for extant life. Missions to locations of potential present day life, whether indicated by methane or liquid water, must deal with the associated planetary protection issues (they are “special regions”). More information about such locations is critical

  9. Global hybrid simulation of unmagnetized planets - Comparison of Venus and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brecht, Stephen H.; Ferrante, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Results from three-dimensional hybrid particle simulations of the solar wind interaction with the planets Mars and Venus are presented. The simulations produce shocks and magnetic barriers which are asymmetric. These results are qualitatively in agreement with data. In the absence of an ionosphere the subsolar shock standoff distance was found to agree with the observations if the Hall current is limited. It was also found that the solar wind interaction with Mars and Venus was substantially different. The interaction with Venus can be generally viewed as a magnetized interaction. The Mars interaction is very kinetic in nature and appears not to have a shock in the classic sense.

  10. Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N.

    2008-02-01

    Previous observations have noted the change in albedo in a number of North Pole bright outliers and in the distribution of bright ice deposits between Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets. Changes over the summer season as well as between regions at the same season ( Ls) in different years have been observed. We used the bolometric albedo and brightness temperature channels of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the MGS spacecraft to monitor north polar residual ice cap variations between Mars years and within the summer season for three northern Martian summers between July 1999 and April 2003. Large-scale brightness variations are observed in four general areas: (1) the patchy outlying frost deposits from 90 to 270°E, 75 to 80°N; (2) the large "tail" below the Chasma Boreale and its associated plateau from 315 to 45°E, 80 to 85°N, that we call the "Boreale Tongue" and in Hyperboreae Undae; (3) the troughed terrain in the region from 0 to 120°E longitude (the lower right on a polar stereographic projection) we have called "Shackleton's Grooves" and (4) the unit mapped as residual ice in Olympia Planitia. We also note two areas which seem to persist as cool and bright throughout the summer and between Mars years. One is at the "source" of Chasma Boreale (˜15°E, 85°N) dubbed "McMurdo", and the "Cool and Bright Anomaly (CABA)" noted by Kieffer and Titus 2001. TES Mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap. Icarus 154, 162-180] at ˜330°E, 87°N called here "Vostok". Overall defrosting occurs early in the summer as the temperatures rise and then after the peak temperatures are reached ( Ls˜110) higher elevations and outlier bright deposits cold trap and re-accumulate new frost. Persistent bright areas are associated with either higher elevations or higher background albedos suggesting complex feedback mechanisms including cold-trapping of frost due to albedo and elevation effects, as well as influence of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics.

  11. The second Mars microprobe is unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), Chris Voorhees (left) and Satish Krishnan (right), from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, remove the second Mars microprobe from a drum. Two microprobes will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars.

  12. The first Mars microprobe is unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory open the drums containing the Mars microprobes that will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander. From left, they are Satish Krishnan, Charles Cruzan, Chris Voorhees and Arden Acord. Scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars.

  13. Telecommunications systems evolution for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary; De Paula, Ramon P.; Edwards, Charles D. Jr; Komarek, Thomas; Edwards, Bernard L.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Diehl, Roger; Franklin, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of telecommunication systems at Mars. It reviews the telecommunications capabilities, technology and limiting factors of current and planned Mars orbiters from Mars Global Surveyor to the planned Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO).

  14. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  15. SAM Overview: The Habitability of Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Featuring an interview with Paul Mahaffy, SAM's Principal Investigator, this video gives a general overview of SAM's mission aboard the Mars Science Laboratory, otherwise known as the Curiosity rover.

  16. Failure Engineering Study and Accelerated Stress Test Results for the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft's Power Shunt Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark; Larson, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Due to a post launch failure of a part a new plan for the Mars Global Surveyor was developed. This new plan involved the addition of many deep thermal cycles to the Power Shunt Assemblies (PSA's). This new plan exceeds the previous acceptance cold level, and fatigue life on packaging design. This presentation reviews the experiments that were used to test the capabilities of the PSA to function in the new situation. It also reviews the analyses preformed to verify the most likely failure mechanism, and the likelihood that these failures would impact the new mission requirements.

  17. Global Distribution of On-Set Diameters of Rampart Ejecta Craters on Mars: Their Implication to the History of Martian Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Roddy, David J.; Soderblom, Lawrence A.; Hare, Trent

    2000-01-01

    A global map is presented of on-set diameters of rampart craters. These craters are proposed to result from impact into wet targets. This map shows both global latitudinal and regional trends that are consistent with the climate and geologic history of Mars.

  18. Mars approach for global sensitivity analysis of differential equation models with applications to dynamics of influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonok; Wu, Hulin

    2012-01-01

    Differential equation models are widely used for the study of natural phenomena in many fields. The study usually involves unknown factors such as initial conditions and/or parameters. It is important to investigate the impact of unknown factors (parameters and initial conditions) on model outputs in order to better understand the system the model represents. Apportioning the uncertainty (variation) of output variables of a model according to the input factors is referred to as sensitivity analysis. In this paper, we focus on the global sensitivity analysis of ordinary differential equation (ODE) models over a time period using the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) as a meta model based on the concept of the variance of conditional expectation (VCE). We suggest to evaluate the VCE analytically using the MARS model structure of univariate tensor-product functions which is more computationally efficient. Our simulation studies show that the MARS model approach performs very well and helps to significantly reduce the computational cost. We present an application example of sensitivity analysis of ODE models for influenza infection to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method. PMID:21656089

  19. Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: Investigation description and surface science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, P.R.; Bandfield, J.L.; Hamilton, V.E.; Ruff, S.W.; Kieffer, H.H.; Titus, T.N.; Malin, M.C.; Morris, R.V.; Lane, M.D.; Clark, R.L.; Jakosky, B.M.; Mellon, M.T.; Pearl, J.C.; Conrath, B.J.; Smith, M.D.; Clancy, R.T.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Roush, T.; Mehall, G.L.; Gorelick, N.; Bender, K.; Murray, K.; Dason, S.; Greene, E.; Silverman, S.; Greenfield, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) investigation on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is aimed at determining (1) the composition of surface minerals, rocks, and ices; (2) the temperature and dynamics of the atmosphere; (3) the properties of the atmospheric aerosols and clouds; (4) the nature of the polar regions; and (5) the thermophysical properties of the surface materials. These objectives are met using an infrared (5.8- to 50-??m) interferometric spectrometer, along with broadband thermal (5.1-to 150-??m) and visible/near-IR (0.3- to 2.9-??m) radiometers. The MGS TES instrument weighs 14.47 kg, consumes 10.6 W when operating, and is 23.6 ?? 35.5 ?? 40.0 cm in size. The TES data are calibrated to a 1-?? precision of 2.5-6 ?? 10-8 W cm-2 sr-1/cm-1, 1.6 ?? 10-6 W cm-2 sr-1, and ???0.5 K in the spectrometer, visible/near-IR bolometer, and IR bolometer, respectively. These instrument subsections are calibrated to an absolute accuracy of ???4 ?? 10-8 W cm-2 sr-1/cm-1 (0.5 K at 280 K), 1-2%, and ???1-2 K, respectively. Global mapping of surface mineralogy at a spatial resolution of 3 km has shown the following: (1) The mineralogic composition of dark regions varies from basaltic, primarily plagioclase feldspar and clinopyroxene, in the ancient, southern highlands to andesitic, dominated by plagioclase feldspar and volcanic glass, in the younger northern plains. (2) Aqueous mineralization has produced gray, crystalline hematite in limited regions under ambient or hydrothermal conditions; these deposits are interpreted to be in-place sedimentary rock formations and indicate that liquid water was stable near the surface for a long period of time. (3) There is no evidence for large-scale (tens of kilometers) occurrences of moderate-grained (>50-??m) carbonates exposed at the surface at a detection limit of ???10%. (4) Unweathered volcanic minerals dominate the spectral properties of dark regions, and weathering products, such as clays, have not been observed anywhere above

  20. Mars Observer Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Aftimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the future investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission.

  1. Degradation of the Periglacial Landscape of Utopia Planitia Under Global Warming: Comparison Earth-Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Soare, R. J.; Fedorov, A.; Marmo, C.

    2012-03-01

    Our results show that the assemblage of landforms in UP indicates the presence of an ice-rich permafrost like on Earth. This permafrost was degraded during a relatively recent (< 10 Ma) high-obliquity periods of Mars inducing a major climate change.

  2. Ancient and recent clay formation on Mars as revealed from a global survey of hydrous minerals in crater central peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Vivian Z.; Milliken, Ralph E.

    2015-12-01

    Clay minerals on Mars have commonly been interpreted as the remnants of pervasive water-rock interaction during the Noachian period (>3.7 Ga). This history has been partly inferred by observations of clays in central peaks of impact craters, which often are presumed uplifted from depth. However, combined mineralogical and morphological analyses of individual craters have shown that some central peak clays may represent post-impact, possibly authigenic processes. Here we present a global survey of 633 central peaks to assess their hydrous minerals and the prevalence of uplifted, detrital, and authigenic clays. Central peak regions are examined using high-resolution Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment data to identify hydrous minerals and place their detections in a stratigraphic and geologic context. We find that many occurrences of Fe/Mg clays and hydrated silica are associated with potential impact melt deposits. Over 35% of central peak clays are not associated with uplifted rocks; thus, caution must be used when inferring deeper crustal compositions from surface mineralogy of central peaks. Uplifted clay-bearing rocks suggest the Martian crust hosts clays to depths of at least 7 km. We also observe evidence for increasing chloritization with depth, implying the presence of fluids in the upper portions of the crust. Our observations are consistent with widespread Noachian/Early Hesperian clay formation, but a number of central peak clays are also suggestive of clay formation during the Amazonian. These results broadly support current paradigms of Mars' aqueous history while adding insight to global crustal and diagenetic processes associated with clay mineral formation and stability.

  3. The digital global geologic map of Mars: chronostratigraphic ages, topographic and crater morphologic characteristics, and updated resurfacing history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Robbins, S.J.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Hare, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    A new global geologic map of Mars has been completed in a digital, geographic information system (GIS) format using geospatially controlled altimetry and image data sets. The map reconstructs the geologic history of Mars, which includes many new findings collated in the quarter century since the previous, Viking-based global maps were published, as well as other discoveries that were made during the course of the mapping using new data sets. The technical approach enabled consistent and regulated mapping that is appropriate not only for the map's 1:20,000,000 scale but also for its widespread use by diverse audiences. Each geologic unit outcrop includes basic attributes regarding identity, location, area, crater densities, and chronostratigraphic age. In turn, units are grouped by geographic and lithologic types, which provide synoptic global views of material ages and resurfacing character for the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods. As a consequence of more precise and better quality topographic and morphologic data and more complete crater-density dating, our statistical comparisons identify significant refinements for how Martian geologic terrains are characterized. Unit groups show trends in mean elevation and slope that relate to geographic occurrence and geologic origin. In comparison with the previous global geologic map series based on Viking data, the new mapping consists of half the number of units due to simpler, more conservative and globally based approaches to discriminating units. In particular, Noachian highland surfaces overall have high percentages of their areas now dated as an epoch older than in the Viking mapping. Minimally eroded (i.e., pristine) impact craters ≥3 km in diameter occur in greater proportion on Hesperian surfaces. This observation contrasts with a deficit of similarly sized craters on heavily cratered and otherwise degraded Noachian terrain as well as on young Amazonian surfaces. We interpret these as reflecting the

  4. The digital global geologic map of Mars: Chronostratigraphic ages, topographic and crater morphologic characteristics, and updated resurfacing history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Robbins, S. J.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2014-05-01

    A new global geologic map of Mars has been completed in a digital, geographic information system (GIS) format using geospatially controlled altimetry and image data sets. The map reconstructs the geologic history of Mars, which includes many new findings collated in the quarter century since the previous, Viking-based global maps were published, as well as other discoveries that were made during the course of the mapping using new data sets. The technical approach enabled consistent and regulated mapping that is appropriate not only for the map's 1:20,000,000 scale but also for its widespread use by diverse audiences. Each geologic unit outcrop includes basic attributes regarding identity, location, area, crater densities, and chronostratigraphic age. In turn, units are grouped by geographic and lithologic types, which provide synoptic global views of material ages and resurfacing character for the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods. As a consequence of more precise and better quality topographic and morphologic data and more complete crater-density dating, our statistical comparisons identify significant refinements for how Martian geologic terrains are characterized. Unit groups show trends in mean elevation and slope that relate to geographic occurrence and geologic origin. In comparison with the previous global geologic map series based on Viking data, the new mapping consists of half the number of units due to simpler, more conservative and globally based approaches to discriminating units. In particular, Noachian highland surfaces overall have high percentages of their areas now dated as an epoch older than in the Viking mapping. Minimally eroded (i.e., pristine) impact craters ≥3 km in diameter occur in greater proportion on Hesperian surfaces. This observation contrasts with a deficit of similarly sized craters on heavily cratered and otherwise degraded Noachian terrain as well as on young Amazonian surfaces. We interpret these as reflecting the

  5. Rippled Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    29 July 2004 Hundreds of large ripples or small dunes cover the landscape in the Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The winds responsible for these dunes blew from the north-northwest (top/upper left). This scene is located near 8.8oS, 252.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left.

  6. Participation in the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengil, Gordon H.; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument [1,2] carried aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has observed strong echoes from cloud tops at 1.064 microns on 61% of its orbital passes over the winter north pole (235deg L(sub S), < 315deg) and on 58% of the passes over the winter south pole (45deg < L(sub S), < 135deg). The clouds are unlikely to be composed of water ice since the vapor pressure of H2O is very low at the Martian nighttime polar temperatures measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) [3], and by an analysis of MGS radio occultations [4]. Dust clouds can also be ruled out since no correlation is seen between clouds and global dust storms. The virtually certain composition for the winter polar clouds is CO2 ice.

  7. Global distribution of bedrock exposures on Mars using THEMIS high-resolution thermal inertia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, C.S.; Bandfield, J.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Fergason, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate high thermal inertia surfaces using the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) nighttime temperature images (100 m/pixel spatial sampling). For this study, we interpret any pixel in a THEMIS image with a thermal inertia over 1200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 as "bedrock" which represents either in situ rock exposures or rock-dominated surfaces. Three distinct morphologies, ranked from most to least common, are associated with these high thermal inertia surfaces: (1) valley and crater walls associated with mass wasting and high surface slope angles; (2) floors of craters with diameters >25 km and containing melt or volcanics associated with larger, high-energy impacts; and (3) intercrater surfaces with compositions significantly more mafic than the surrounding regolith. In general, bedrock instances on Mars occur as small exposures (less than several square kilometers) situated in lower-albedo (<0.18), moderate to high thermal inertia (>350 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), and relatively dust-free (dust cover index <0.95) regions; however, there are instances that do not follow these generalizations. Most instances are concentrated in the southern highlands, with very few located at high latitudes (poleward of 45oN and 58oS), suggesting enhanced mechanical breakdown probably associated with permafrost. Overall, Mars has very little exposed bedrock with only 960 instances identified from 75oS to 75oN with likely <3500 km2 exposed, representing???1% of the total surface area. These data indicate that Mars has likely undergone large-scale surface processing and reworking, both chemically and mechanically, either destroying or masking a majority of the bedrock exposures on the planet. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Water on Mars: global maps of H2O, HDO and D/H obtained with CRIRES at VLT and NIRSPEC at Keck II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Novak, R.; Radeva, Y. L.; Kaufl, H.; Smette, A.; Hartogh, P.; Encrenaz, T.

    2010-12-01

    What is the deuterium enrichment of water on Mars? Is it variable? How wet was Mars in the Past? We have addressed these questions by acquiring high spectral resolution data at ground-based telescopes sampling multiple lines of HDO and H2O on Mars. The observations were performed from August/2009 to June/2010 using CRIRES at VLT, NIRSPEC at Keck II and CSHELL at NASA-IRTF, obtaining the highest spatial resolution achievable from Earth using adaptive optics. The measurements span an important range of seasons on Mars (LS = 324 to 360/0 to 110°), and by orienting the instrument’s slit East-West and North-South on the planet we have obtained a global and comprehensive sample of the seasonal and diurnal variations of the D/H on Mars. We will present global maps of D/H for different seasons, and present estimates of the current and ancient reservoirs of water on Mars from these measurements. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by NASA’s R&A Programs in Astrobiology (344-53-51), Planetary Astronomy (344-32-51-96), and Planetary Atmospheres (08-PATM08-0031). We gratefully acknowledge the Director and staff of the European Southern Observatory, the Keck observatory and the NASA-IRTF observatory for supporting these observations.

  9. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): North polar region (MC-1) distribution, applications, and volume estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) now extends from 90??N to 65??S. The recently released north polar portion (MC-1) of MGD3 adds ~844 000km2 of moderate- to large-size dark dunes to the previously released equatorial portion (MC-2 to MC-29) of the database. The database, available in GIS- and tabular-format in USGS Open-File Reports, makes it possible to examine global dune distribution patterns and to compare dunes with other global data sets (e.g. atmospheric models). MGD3 can also be used by researchers to identify areas suitable for more focused studies. The utility of MGD3 is demonstrated through three example applications. First, the uneven geographic distribution of the dunes is discussed and described. Second, dune-derived wind direction and its role as ground truth for atmospheric models is reviewed. Comparisons between dune-derived winds and global and mesoscale atmospheric models suggest that local topography may have an important influence on dune-forming winds. Third, the methods used here to estimate north polar dune volume are presented and these methods and estimates (1130km3 to 3250km3) are compared with those of previous researchers (1158km3 to 15 000km3). In the near future, MGD3 will be extended to include the south polar region. ?? 2011 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  10. Preliminary Global Topographic Model of Mars Based on MOLA Altimetry, Earth-Based Radar, and Viking, Mariner and MGS Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    The recent altimetry data acquired by MOLA over the northern hemisphere of Mars have been combined with the Earth-based radar data obtained between 1971 and 1982, and occultation measurements of the Viking 1 and 2 Orbiters, Mariner 9, and MGS to derive a global model of the shape and topography of Mars. This preliminary model has a horizontal resolution of about 300 km. Vertical accuracy is on average a few hundred meters in the region of the data. Datasets: The altimetry and radar datasets were individually binned in 1.25 degree grids and merged with the occultation data. The Viking and Mariner occultation data in the northern hemisphere were excluded from the combined dataset where MOLA altimetry were available. The laser altimetry provided extensive and almost complete coverage of the northern hemisphere north of latitude 30 while the radar provided longitudinal coverage at several latitude bands between 23N and 23S. South of this region the only data were occultations. The majority of the occultations were obtained from Mariner 9, and the rest from Viking 1 & 2, and MGS. Earlier studies had shown that the Viking and Mariner occultations were on average only accurate to 500 meters. The recent MGS occultations are accurate to a few tens of meters. However, the highest southern latitude reached by the MGS occultations is only about 64S and data near the target region for the Mars 98 lander is limited to a few Viking and Mariner observations of relatively poor quality. In addition to the above datasets the locations of the Viking 1, Viking 2, and Pathfinder landers, obtained from the radio tracking of their signals, were included.

  11. Mapping of a Widespread Olivine-Rich Layer on Mars: Identification of a Global Impact Ejecta Deposit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Exposures of the most ancient materials on Mars, much like on Earth, have the possibility to illuminate a period of planetary surface evolution that is difficult to constrain. However, these exposures on planetary surfaces are rare and often difficult to positively identify without in situ measurements. Identification of these materials is especially difficult on Mars, as it is a largely volcanic planet dominated by basaltic magmatism and the ability to distinguish ancient materials from more recent deposits is primarily reliant on convincing stratigraphic relationships. Important but relatively minor variations in the basaltic composition of the planet are observed on the global scale; however, the majority of the planet's mineralogical variability and diversity occurs at small scales, for example the identification of in place phyllosilicates, carbonates, olivine-rich basalts, sulfate deposits, and opaline silica. It is these local-scale deposits that have fundamentally refined and shaped our current understanding of the evolutionary history and geology of Mars. Olivine-rich basalts have been characterized and mapped extensively, both globally and locally. These units have been associated with a variety of formation mechanisms, including volcanism, impact ejecta material, and lag deposits. Following the work of Edwards et al. (2008), we have mapped and characterized a compositionally distinct olivine-rich layer using TES, THEMIS, and CRISM spectral data. This thin and flat lying (~200m thick), continuous, rocky (TI >600-800 J K-1m-2s-1/2), olivine-rich (>15% areal abundance of ~Fo58-Fo74) basalt layer extends for a minimum of thousands of kilometers and may be global in scale. Additionally, the composition of this material is consistent with the crystallization of a melt derived from the martian mantle that underwent little fractional crystallization. The stratigraphic location of this layer, which was first identified in the walls of Valles Marineris in Ganges

  12. Identification of the Energetic Plume Ion Escape Channel at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fraenz, M.; Barabash, S.

    2013-12-01

    Mars lacks a global dipole magnetic field. The resulting induced magnetosphere arising from Mars' atmosphere's direct interaction with the solar wind differs significantly from that of Venus. The weak gravitational field of Mars creates scale heights so large that the exosphere extends out beyond the Induced Magnetosphere Boundary (IMB), where newly ionized exospheric oxygen is exposed to high speed shocked solar wind flow and the associated strong convective electric field (E). The weaker Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) at Mars, combined with this strong electric field, should be expected to result in heavy pickup ions with gyroradii much larger than the radius of Mars. Test particle models and hybrid models have predicted that these pickup ions create an energetic plume of escaping planetary ions that may have a flux on the same order of magnitude as the flow of planetary ions down the central tail loss channel. This study presents an analysis of data from the Ion Mass Analyzer aboard European Space Agency's Mars Express (MEX) to identify the presence of this energetic ion plume. We searched through the time period when Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was operating simultaneously with MEX, and selected hundreds of time intervals when IMF proxies from MGS show the convective electric field to be aligned with the orbit of MEX. We then examined plots of the MEX orbit during these intervals and selected times when MEX was positioned on the +E side of Mars and outside the nominal IMB. Finally, from these intervals we identified the cases in which oxygen ions were detected with energies above 2 keV. The result is a set of several direct measurements of the energetic plume.

  13. Mars Global Surveyor tests the Elysium Basin controversy: It's lava, not lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Edgett, K. S.; Malin, M. C.; Keszthelyi, L.; Lanagan, P.

    1998-10-01

    The Elysium Basin is a low, flat area that extends ~3000 km E-W and up to 700 km N-S, centered at 5 N, 195 W. Altimetric profiles reveal this to be one of the very flattest regions on Mars (Smith et al. 1998, Science 279, 1686). A controversy over the nature of the basin's surface and history has developed during the 1990s. This controversy has direct implications in the search for evidence of martian life and the selection of landing sites for upcoming Mars missions. Crater densities in the basin are among the very lowest on Mars, indicating a relatively young surface. Plescia (1990, Icarus, v. 88, p. 465-490) proposed that the plains were covered by low-viscosity volcanic flows, which filled previous water-cut channels. Scott and Chapman (1991, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci., v. 21, p. 669-677) proposed that the basin was filled by a 1.5-km deep lake of water subsequent to the volcanism. To test the hypotheses about the recent geologic history of Elysium Basin, the Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) acquired images (3.6 to 20 m/pixel) in regions that were poorly resolved (>200 m/pixel) during the Viking mission. The MOC images were obtained during 8 orbits in April and June, 1998. The new images reveal what appears to be the surface of an extensive lava plains with ponded, flood-like flows. The surface in several locations (separated by 100s of km) is characterized by relatively dark plates that have separated from more extensive dark surfaces and moved laterally. The plates can be reconstructed like a jigsaw puzzle. There are also sinuous pressure ridges up to 10 meters wide and a few meters high (with slopes > 50 degrees) and shear structures. The surface appears pristine at this scale, unmodified by wind or water, although the color properties and thermal inertia indicate a coating of dust. The platey-textured lavas are also seen to extend well into the Marte Vallis channel system. The images show no evidence for lacustrine sediment or shorelines. These results confirm that

  14. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  15. Failure Engineering Study and Accelerated Stress Test Results for the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft's Power Shunt Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark; Larson, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    An Engineering-of-Failure approach to designing and executing an accelerated product qualification test was performed to support a risk assessment of a "work-around" necessitated by an on-orbit failure of another piece of hardware on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The proposed work-around involved exceeding the previous qualification experience both in terms of extreme cold exposure level and in terms of demonstrated low cycle fatigue life for the power shunt assemblies. An analysis was performed to identify potential failure sites, modes and associated failure mechanisms consistent with the new use conditions. A test was then designed and executed which accelerated the failure mechanisms identified by analysis. Verification of the resulting failure mechanism concluded the effort.

  16. Dependence of the location of the Martian magnetic lobes on the interplanetary magnetic field direction: Observations from Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, N.; Bertucci, C.; Gómez, D.; Mazelle, C.

    2015-09-01

    We use magnetometer data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during portions of the premapping orbits of the mission to study the variability of the Martian-induced magnetotail as a function of the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The time spent by MGS in the magnetotail lobes during periods with positive solar wind flow-aligned IMF component B∥IMF suggests that their location as well as the position of the central polarity reversal layer (PRL) are displaced in the direction antiparallel to the IMF cross-flow component B⊥IMF. Analogously, in the cases where B∥IMF is negative, the lobes are displaced in the direction of B⊥IMF. This behavior is compatible with a previously published analytical model of the IMF draping, where for the first time, the displacement of a complementary reversal layer (denoted as IPRL for inverse polarity reversal layer) is deduced from first principles.

  17. Crater-based dating of geological units on Mars: Methods and application for the new global geological map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2013-07-01

    The new, post-Viking generation of Mars orbital imaging and topographical data provide significant higher-resolution details of surface morphologies, which induced a new effort to photo-geologically map the surface of Mars at 1:20,000,000 scale. Although from unit superposition relations a relative stratigraphical framework can be compiled, it was the ambition of this mapping project to provide absolute unit age constraints through crater statistics. In this study, the crater counting method is described in detail, starting with the selection of image data, type locations (both from the mapper's and crater counter's perspectives) and the identification of impact craters. We describe the criteria used to validate and analyse measured crater populations, and to derive and interpret crater model ages. We provide examples of how geological information about the unit's resurfacing history can be retrieved from crater size-frequency distributions. Three cases illustrate short-, intermediate, and long-term resurfacing histories. In addition, we introduce an interpretation-independent visualisation of the crater resurfacing history that uses the reduction of the crater population in a given size range relative to the expected population given the observed crater density at larger sizes. From a set of potential type locations, 48 areas from 22 globally mapped units were deemed suitable for crater counting. Because resurfacing ages were derived from crater statistics, these secondary ages were used to define the unit age rather than the base age. Using the methods described herein, we modelled ages that are consistent with the interpreted stratigraphy. Our derived model ages allow age assignments to be included in unit names. We discuss the limitations of using the crater dating technique for global-scale geological mapping. Finally, we present recommendations for the documentation and presentation of crater statistics in publications.

  18. Crater-based dating of geological units on Mars: methods and application for the new global geological map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    The new, post-Viking generation of Mars orbital imaging and topographical data provide significant higher-resolution details of surface morphologies, which induced a new effort to photo-geologically map the surface of Mars at 1:20,000,000 scale. Although from unit superposition relations a relative stratigraphical framework can be compiled, it was the ambition of this mapping project to provide absolute unit age constraints through crater statistics. In this study, the crater counting method is described in detail, starting with the selection of image data, type locations (both from the mapper’s and crater counter’s perspectives) and the identification of impact craters. We describe the criteria used to validate and analyse measured crater populations, and to derive and interpret crater model ages. We provide examples of how geological information about the unit’s resurfacing history can be retrieved from crater size–frequency distributions. Three cases illustrate short-, intermediate, and long-term resurfacing histories. In addition, we introduce an interpretation-independent visualisation of the crater resurfacing history that uses the reduction of the crater population in a given size range relative to the expected population given the observed crater density at larger sizes. From a set of potential type locations, 48 areas from 22 globally mapped units were deemed suitable for crater counting. Because resurfacing ages were derived from crater statistics, these secondary ages were used to define the unit age rather than the base age. Using the methods described herein, we modelled ages that are consistent with the interpreted stratigraphy. Our derived model ages allow age assignments to be included in unit names. We discuss the limitations of using the crater dating technique for global-scale geological mapping. Finally, we present recommendations for the documentation and presentation of crater statistics in publications.

  19. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission. The instrument is currently in orbit around Mars and has so far returned remarkable data.

  20. Solar Cycle/Seasonal Variations of H, D, H2 and He Distributions and Escape on Mars as Determined by the Mars Thermosphere Global Circulation Model (MTGCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) was exercised for Ls = 90 (aphelion) solar minimum, and Ls = 270 perihelion) solar maximum conditions. Simulated MTGCM outputs (i.e. helium density distributions) were compared to those previously observed for Earth and Venus. Winter polar night bulges of helium are predicted on Mars, similar to those observed on the nightside of Venus and in the winter polar regions of Earth. A poster on this research was presented at the European Geophysical Society Meeting (EGS) in 2003. This research paves the way for what might be expected in the polar night regions of Mars during upcoming aerobraking and mapping Campaigns. Lastly, Mars thermosphere (approx. 100-130 km) winter polar warming was observed at high Northern latitudes during the perihelion season, but not at high Southern latitudes during the opposite aphelion season. Presumably, the Mars thermospheric circulation is responsible for the dynamically controlled heating needed to warm polar night temperatures above radiative equilibrium values. Again, MTGCM simulations were conducted for Ls = 90 and Ls = 270 conditions; polar temperatures were examined and found to be much warmer at Northern high latitudes (perihelion) than at Southern high latitudes (aphelion), similar to Mars aerobraking datasets. The Mars thermospheric circulation is found to be stronger during perihelion solstice conditions than during aphelion conditions, owing to both stronger seasonal solar and dust heating during Mars perihelion. An invited talk was given at the Spring AGU 2004 on this research. A forthcoming GRL paper was drafted on this same topic, but not submitted before the termination of this 1-year grant.

  1. Evolution of the global water cycle on Mars: The geological evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Gulick, V. C.

    1993-01-01

    The geological evidence for active water cycling early in the history of Mars (Noachian geological system or heavy bombardment) consists almost exclusively of fluvial valley networks in the heavily cratered uplands of the planet. It is commonly assumed that these landforms required explanation by atmospheric processes operating above the freezing point of water and at high pressure to allow rainfall and liquid surface runoff. However, it has also been documented that nearly all valley networks probably formed by subsurface outflow and sapping erosion involving groundwater outflow prior to surface-water flow. The prolonged ground-water flow also requires extensive water cycling to maintain hydraulic gradients, but is this done via rainfall recharge, as in terrestrial environments?

  2. Design of Small Impact-Resistant RTGs for Global Network of Unmanned Mars Landers

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-06-26

    Ongoing studies by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the robotic exploration of Mars contemplate a network of at least twenty small and relatively inexpensive landers distributed over both low and high latitudes of the Martian globe. They are intended to explore the structural, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics of the Martian soil, search for possible subsurface trapped ice, and collect long-term seismological and meteorological data over a period of ten years. They can also serve as precursors for later unmanned and manned Mars missions.; The collected data will be transmitted periodically, either directly to Earth or indirectly via an orbiting relay. The choice of transmission will determine the required power, which is currently expected to be between 2 and 12 watts(e) per lander. This could be supplied either by solar arrays or by Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Solar-powered landers could only be used for low Martian latitudes, but RTG-powered landers can be used for both low and high latitudes. Moreover, RTGs are less affected by Martian sandstorms and can be modified to resist high-G-load impacts. High impact resistance is a critical goal. It is desired by the mission designers, to minimize the mass and complexity of the system needed to decelerate the landers to a survivable impact velocity.; To support the NASA system studies, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) asked Fairchild to perform RTG design studies for this mission. The key problem in designing these RTGs is how to enable the generators to tolerate substantially higher G-loads than those encountered on previous RTG missions.; The Fairchild studies resulted in designs of compact RTGs based on flight-proven and safety-qualified heat source components, with a number of novel features designed to provide the desired high impact tolerance. The present paper describes those designs and their rationale, and a

  3. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  4. Trends in Mars Thermospheric Density and Temperature Structure Obtained from MAVEN In-situ Datasets: Interpretation Using Global Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, Stephen W.; Tolson, Robert H.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Johnston, Timothy E.; Olsen, Kirk; Bell, Jared M.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars thermosphere-ionosphere-exosphere (TIE) system constitutes the atmospheric reservoir (i.e. available cold and hot planetary neutral and thermal ion species) that regulates present day escape processes from the planet. Without knowledge of the physics and chemistry creating this TIE region and driving its variations (e.g., solar cycle, seasonal), it is not possible to constrain either the short-term or long-term histories of atmosphere escape. The characterization of this upper atmosphere reservoir is one of the major science objectives of the MAVEN mission.We investigate both in-situ Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) neutral densities/temperatures and Accelerometer Experiment (ACC) reaction wheel (RW) derived mass densities/temperatures obtained over the first ~400 orbits. This sampling occurs when periapsis latitudes ranged from about 32° to 74°N periapsis local mean solar times (LMST) ranged from about 15:00 to 06:00; and corresponding periapsis altitudes ranged from ~200 km down to ~150 km. This dayside in-situ sampling lasted until about 17-December-2014, after which the periapsis began moving Southward toward nightside Northern mid-latitudes. During this dayside period, monthly mean solar EUV-UV fluxes corresponded to F10.7 ~ 150-160 at Earth (solar moderate conditions) and the Martian season was approaching perihelion (Ls ~ 205 to 254°).Thermospheric trends (e.g. latitude, local time, diurnal) of extracted densities and inferred temperatures will be compared with corresponding 3-D Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) simulated outputs in order to understand the variations observed, and probe the underlying physical processes responsible. Solar rotation variations in EUV fluxes and their impacts on dayside temperatures will also be examined.

  5. Positions and shapes of the Martian plasma boundaries revisited after Phobos 2 and Mars Global Surveyor observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, J. G.; Mazelle, C.; Bertucci, C.; Acuna, M.

    For the purpose of producing updated models of the locations and shapes of both the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary MPB of Mars curve fitting techniques have been applied to the observations of these plasma boundaries by Phobos 2 and Mars Global Surveyor MGS The boundary locations used in this study have mainly been identified from the Phobos 2 plasma wave system and the MGS MAG ER experiment data a huge amount of 700 shock 127 for Phobos 2 and 573 for MGS and 901 MPB 41 for Phobos 2 and 860 for MGS locations have thus been produced for the first time The merging of the Phobos 2 and MGS data bases has confirmed that the bow shock models derived previously from separate mission observations are in a quite good agreement with the available observations Nevertheless the better accuracy obtained in this study has to be accounted for the larger data sets and the better solar zenith angle coverage because of the far downstream crossings of the Martian bow shock by Phobos 2 Despite the small number of crossings of the Martian magnetic pile-up boundary also known as the planetopause magnetopause ion-composition boundary protonopause ldots by Phobos 2 a quite satisfactory model of the position and shape of this boundary has been produced Nevertheless the poor dayside coverage of the Phobos 2 observations did not allow an accurate modelling of the upstream part of the MPB to be done Conversely the lack of MPB crossings by MGS far downstream x -4 R M of the planet was a handicap for a realistic model of the

  6. Investigating Mars South Residual CO2 Cap with a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, M. A.; Dequaire, J.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The CO2 cycle is one of the three controlling climate cycles on Mars. One aspect of the CO2 cycle that is not yet fully understood is the existence of a residual CO2 ice cap that is offset from the south pole. Previous investigations suggest that the atmosphere may control the placement of the south residual cap (e.g., Colaprete et al., 2005). These investigations show that topographically forced stationary eddies in the south during southern hemisphere winter produce colder atmospheric temperatures and increased CO2 snowfall over the hemisphere where the residual cap resides. Since precipitated CO2 ice produces higher surface albedos than directly deposited CO2 ice, it is plausible that CO2 snowfall resulting from the zonally asymmetric atmospheric circulation produces surface ice albedos high enough to maintain a residual cap only in one hemisphere. The goal of the current work is to further evaluate Colaprete et al.'s hypothesis by investigating model-predicted seasonally varying snowfall patterns in the southern polar region and the atmospheric circulation components that control them.

  7. The Distance Between Mars and Venus: Measuring Global Sex Differences in Personality

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Booth, Tom; Irwing, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. We advance a set of guidelines for overcoming those limitations: (a) measure personality with a higher resolution than that afforded by the Big Five; (b) estimate sex differences on latent factors; and (c) assess global sex differences with multivariate effect sizes. We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality. Methodology/Principal Findings Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N = 10,261) with the 16PF Questionnaire. Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D). We found a global effect size D = 2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. Even excluding the factor showing the largest univariate ES, the global effect size was D = 1.71 (24% overlap). These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. Significance The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology. PMID:22238596

  8. Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

    The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

  9. Mars Observer/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the integrated Mars Observer/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) payload is ready for encapsulation in the Titan III nose fairing. The TOS booster maiden flight was dedicated to Thomas O. Paine, a former NASA administrator who strongly supported interplanetary exploration and was an early backer of the TOS program. Launched September 25, 1992 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center aboard a Titan III rocket and the TOS, the Mars Observer spacecraft was to be the first U.S. spacecraft to study Mars since the Viking missions 18 years prior. Unfortunately, the Mars Observer spacecraft fell silent just 3 days prior to entering orbit around Mars.

  10. Some effects of global dust storms on the atmospheric circulation of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Pollack, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A zonally symmetric primitive equation modelled on a sphere is used to numerically simulate the Martian atmosphere's response to various dust loads, as well as the ability of its meridional circulation to transport dust globally, where the circulation is driven by heating due to the absorption of solar and IR radiation by dust and CO2, in addition to sensible heat exchange with the ground. A preliminary experiment shows the model distribution of winds and temperature to compare favorably with zonally averaged values from a general circulation model. Experiments simulating the evolution of global dust storms show that dust is effectively transported by the zonal mean circulation, which rapidly intensifies as the dust spreads, and that the basic structure of the circulation is relatively insensitive to details, being mostly dependent on the heating of the tropical and subtropical atmosphere.

  11. Mars Without Borders: Creating a Global Community with the HiTranslate Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoza, A.

    2013-12-01

    The HiTranslate Project by HiRISE (MRO) is the most unique outreach program for an active NASA mission. Utilizing social media, we have built up a network of volunteers across the world to translate captioned images into various languages to reach a global audience with limited-to-no English skills. The result is a volunteer group of over 150 people making over 1,000 translated HiRISE captions and counting. The HiTranslate Project has also created specific media channels for each of these audiences, including other languages not traditionally represented in American-led science outreach efforts, like Icelandic, Greek, Arabic and Hebrew. This session will outline results of the Project and how it is a model for other science-based outreach efforts that can build up a global audience and communicate more effectively with the general public to grow interest in science.

  12. Mars: Crustal pore volume, cryospheric depth, and the global occurrence of groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that most of the Martian hydrosphere resides in a porous outer layer of crust that, based on a lunar analogy, appears to extend to a depth of about 10 km. The total pore volume of this layer is sufficient to store the equivalent of a global ocean of water some 500 to 1500 m deep. Thermal modeling suggests that about 300 to 500 m of water could be stored as ice within the crust. Any excess must exist as groundwater.

  13. Life on Mars: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Mars has evidence for past liquid water, presence of an atmosphere with CO2 and N2, and potential for preservation of evidence of life. Composition of the Martian atmosphere is 95.3% Carbon dioxide, 2.7% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon, 0.3-0.1% Water Vapor, 0.13% Oxygen, and 0.07% Carbon Monoxide. Current Mars missions include: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,

  14. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  15. Mars 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-402, 25 June 2003

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) experiment consists of 3 different cameras: a narrow angle imager that provides the black-and-white high resolution views (up to 1.4 meters per pixel) of Mars, and 2 wide angle cameras, observing in red and blue wavelengths, from which color views of the entire planet are assembled each day. The wide angle cameras provide a daily record of changes in martian weather and surface frost as the seasons progress. MGS MOC has obtained a record of martian weather spanning a little over 2 martian years since it began systematic observations in March 1999.

    The view of Mars shown here was assembled from MOC daily global images obtained on May 12, 2003. At that time, the northern hemisphere was in early autumn, and the southern hemisphere in early spring. At the left/center of this view are the four large Tharsis volcanoes: Olympus Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Arsia Mons. Stretching across the center of the globe is the 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) long Valles Marineris trough system. The seasonal south polar carbon dioxide frost cap is visible at the bottom of this view. A dust storm sweeps across the plains of northern Acidalia at the upper right. North is up, east is right, sunlight illuminates the planet from the left.

  16. The Removal of Periodic Gravitational Perturbations from Mars Global Surveyor's Science Phasing Orbits Applied to the Study of the Martian Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracadas, P. W.; Zuber, M. T.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    The martian exosphere and upper atmosphere exert measurable drag on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. Using the Goddard Space Flight Center's GEODYN orbit determination software, the science phasing orbits (SPO) were analyzed to determine the atmospheric drag and hence, measure the average density near the orbits' perifocus (170-180 km altitude above high northern latitudes). Future work will include the gravity calibration and mapping periods as well. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Variability of the thermospheric temperatures of Mars during 9 Martian Years as given by a ground-to-exosphere Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Forget, Francois; Garcia-Comas, Maya; Millour, Ehouarn; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel; Montabone, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The temperature of the Martian upper thermosphere is one of the main factors affecting the rate of the different escape to space processes which shape the Martian atmosphere and its long-term evolution. A good knowledge of the variability of this parameter is thus very important in order to gain a deeper understanding of the present-day escape rate and of the evolutive history of Mars. We have used a ground-to-exosphere Global Climate Model, the LMD-MGCM, to simulate the variability of the temperatures at the Martian exobase during the last 9 Martian Years (MY24-MY32, approximately 17 terrestrial years). The simulations include for the first time a realistic day-to-day variability of the UV solar flux. The simulated temperatures are in good agreement with the exospheric temperatures derived from Precise Orbit Determination of Mars Global Surveyor. A significant inter-annual variability of the temperatures, due to both the 11 year solar cycle and the variability of the dust load in the lower atmosphere, is predicted by the model. The variation in the solar output produced by the 27 day solar rotation cycle is seen in the simulated exobase temperatures. We also find that the global dust storms in MY25 and MY28 significantly impact the temperatures at the exobase. These results underline the importance of properly taking into account the dust and solar variabilities to simulate the upper atmosphere of Mars.

  18. Bacterial Oxidation of Iron in Olivine: Implications for the Subsurface Biosphere, Global Chemical Cycles, and Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, M. R.; Popa, R.; Smith, A. R.; Popa, R.; Boone, J.

    2011-12-01

    levels of oxygen and nitrate as oxidants would allow them to survive below the surface of Mars. These cultured organisms, which are the first known to oxidize iron from olivine at neutral pH, may be a major component of the subsurface biosphere, may affect global chemical cycles of elements in basalt, and could potentially, live in the Martian subsurface.

  19. MAVEN Imaging UV Spectrograph Results on the Mars Atmosphere and Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefevre, Franck; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Stiepen, Arnaud; Crismani, Matteo; Mayyasi, Majd; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Mike; Yelle, Roger; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) is one of nine science instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft, whose payload is dedicated to exploring the upper atmosphere of Mars and understanding the magnitude and drivers of Mars' atmospheric escape rate. IUVS uses ultraviolet light to investigate the lower and upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. The instrument is among the most powerful spectrographs sent to another planet, with several key capabilities: (1) separate Far-UV & Mid-UV channels for stray light control, (2) a high resolution echelle mode to resolve deuterium and hydrogen emission, (3) internal instrument pointing and scanning capabilities to allow complete mapping and nearly continuous operation, and (4) optimization for airglow studies. IUVS, along with other MAVEN instruments, obtains a comprehensive picture of the current state of the Mars upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes that control atmospheric escape. We present an overview of selected IUVS results, including (1) the discovery of diffuse aurora at Mars, and its contrast with previously detected discrete aurora localized near crustal magnetic fields; (2) widespread detection of mesospheric clouds; (3) Significant seasonal and short-timescale variability in thermospheric composition; (4) Global ozone maps spanning six months of seasonal evolution; and (5) mapping of the Mars H and O coronas, deriving the escape rates of H and O and their variability. This last is of particular importance for understanding the long term evolution of Mars and its atmosphere, with the observed preset escape of H potentially capable of removing a large fraction of Mars' initial water inventory, and the differential escape of O relative to H potentially providing a net source of oxidizing power to the atmosphere and planet at present, in contrast with a photochemical theory that predicts stoichiometrically balanced escape. The atmospheric and escape

  20. Global Bundle Adjustment with Variable Orientation Point Distance for Precise Mars Express Orbit Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelmann, J.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    The photogrammetric bundle adjustment of line scanner image data requires a precise description of the time-dependent image orientation. For this task exterior orientation parameters of discrete points are used to model position and viewing direction of a camera trajectory via polynomials. This paper investigates the influence of the distance between these orientation points on the quality of trajectory modeling. A new method adapts the distance along the trajectory to the available image information. Compared to a constant distance as used previously, a better reconstruction of the exterior orientation is possible, especially when image quality changes within a strip. In our research we use image strips of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), taken to map the Martian surface. Several experiments on the global image data set have been carried out to investigate how the bundle adjustment improves the image orientation, if the new method is employed. For evaluation the forward intersection errors of 3D points derived from HRSC images, as well as their remaining height differences to the MOLA DTM are used. In 13.5 % (515 of 3,828) of the image strips, taken during this ongoing mission over the last 12 years, high frequency image distortions were found. Bundle adjustment with a constant orientation point distance was able to reconstruct the orbit in 239 (46.4 %) cases. A variable orientation point distance increased this number to 507 (98.6 %).

  1. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  2. Water ice clouds on Mars: a study of partial cloudiness with a global climate model and MARCI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Alizée; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, François; Wolff, Mike; Navarro, Thomas; Millour, Ehouarn; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Spiga, Aymeric; Bertrand, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    There is a large reservoir of water ice on Mars in the polar caps, that sublimates in summer and releases water vapor. Water is then advected in the atmospheric circulation that evolves seasonally. This vapor forms clouds, frost, and can also be adsorbed in the soil. In a global study of the water cycle, water ice clouds play a key part in the martian climate. There is a need to understand better their distribution and radiative effect. The tool used in this study is the global climate model (GCM) of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique. It is made up of a core that computes fluid dynamics, and a physical part that gathers a number of parametrised processes. It includes tracers and the condensation and sublimation of water in the atmosphere and on the ground, allowing a study of the complete water cycle. To improve the representation of water ice clouds in the model, a new parametrisation of partial cloudiness has been implemented and will be presented. Indeed, model cells are hundreds of kilometers wide, and it is quite unrealistic to suppose that cloud coverage is always uniform in them. Furthermore, the model was quite unstable since the implementation of the radiative effect of clouds, and partial cloudiness had the effect of reducing this instability. In practice, a subgrid temperature distribution is supposed, and the temperature computed in the model is interpreted as its mean. The subgrid scale temperature distribution is simple, and its width is a free parameter. Using this distribution, the fraction of the grid cells under the water vapor condensation temperature is interpreted as the fraction of the cell in which clouds form (or cloud fraction). From these fractions at each height a total partial cloudiness (the clouds as seen from the orbit) is deduced. The radiative transfer is computed twice, for the clear area and for the cloudy one. Observing the water cycle with this new parametrisation, some differences are seen with standard runs. These

  3. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  4. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to electrical and functional tests of its pyrotechic petal deployer system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers and technicians in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the Sojourner autonomous rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  5. Sensitivity of Temperature Profiles Retrieved from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS/TES) Observations to the GSFC Synthetic Mars Model Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maguire, William C.; Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Thompson, R. F.; Conrath, B. J.; Dason, S.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the task of interpreting IR spectral features observed by MGS/TES due to surface minerals requires distinguishing those IR signatures from atmospheric signatures of gas and dust. Surface-atmosphere separation for MGS/TES depends on knowledge of the retrieved temperature profile. In turn, the temperature retrieval Erom the observed data depends on molecular parameters including 15 micron CO2 line shape or line intensities which contribute to defining the Mars synthetic radiative transfer model. Using a simple isothermal, homogeneous single layer model of Pinnock and Shine, we find the ratio of (the error in degrees Kelvin of the retrieved temperature profile) to (the percentage error in the absorption coefficient) (deg K/percent) to be 0.4 at 200K. This ratio at 150K and 250K is 0.2 and 0.6, respectively. A more refined model, incorporating observed MGS/TES retrieved temperature profiles, the TES instrumental resolution and the most recent molecular modelling, will yield an improved knowledge of this error sensitivity. We present results of such a sensitivity study to determine the dependence of temperature profiles inverted from MGS/TES on these and other molecular parameters. This work was supported in part by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program.

  6. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  7. Sensitivity of simulated Martian atmospheric temperature to prescribed dust opacity distribution: Comparison of model results with reconstructed data from Mars Exploration Rover missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Murali; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Richardson, Mark I.; McConnochie, Timothy H.

    2015-11-01

    We use the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) general circulation model to simulate the atmospheric structure corresponding to the landing location and time of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit (A) and Opportunity (B) in 2004. The multiscale capability of MarsWRF facilitates high-resolution nested model runs centered near the landing site of each of the rovers. Dust opacity distributions based on measurements by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, and those from an old version of the Mars Climate Database (MCD v3.1 released in 2001) are used to study the sensitivity of the model temperature profile to variations in the dust prescription. The reconstructed entry, descent, and landing (EDL) data from the rover missions are used for comparisons. We show that the model using dust opacity from TES limb and nadir data for the year of MER EDL, Mars Year 26 (MY26), yields temperature profiles in closer agreement with the reconstructed data than the prelaunch EDL simulations and models using other dust opacity specifications. The temperature at 100 Pa from the model (MY26) and the reconstruction are within 5°K. These results highlight the role of vertical dust opacity distribution in determining the atmospheric thermal structure. Similar studies involving data from past missions and models will be useful in understanding the extent to which atmospheric variability is captured by the models and in developing realistic preflight characterization required for future lander missions to Mars.

  8. Mars nightside electrons over strong crustal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, Alexander D.; Xu, Shaosui; Liemohn, Michael W.; Mitchell, David L.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated 7 years worth of data from the electron reflectometer and magnetometer aboard Mars Global Surveyor to quantify the deposition of photoelectron and solar wind electron populations on the nightside of Mars, over the strong crustal field region located in the southern hemisphere. Just under 600,000 observations, each including energy and pitch angle distributions, were examined. For solar zenith angles (SZA) less than 110°, photoelectrons have the highest occurrence rate; beyond that, plasma voids occur most often. In addition, for SZA >110°, energy deposition of electrons mainly occurs on vertical field lines with median pitch angle averaged energy flux values on the order of 107-108 eV cm-2 s-1. The fraction of downward flux that is deposited at a given location was typically low (16% or smaller), implying that the majority of precipitated electrons are magnetically reflected or scattered back out. The average energy of the deposited electrons is found to be 20-30 eV, comparable to typical energies of photoelectrons and unaccelerated solar wind electrons. Median electron flux values, from near-vertical magnetic field lines past solar zenith angle of 110°, calculated in this study produced a total electron content of 4.2 × 1014 m-2 and a corresponding peak density of 4.2 × 103 cm-3.

  9. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  10. Cars on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  11. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  12. Six Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The landing site chosen for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, at about 68 degrees north latitude, is much farther north than the sites where previous spacecraft have landed on Mars.

    Color coding on this map indicates relative elevations based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Red is higher elevation; blue is lower elevation. In longitude, the map extends from 70 degrees (north) to minus 70 degrees (south).

  13. Imaging sprites aboard TARANIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth; Sato, Mitsuteru; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Grosjean, Olivier

    TLE (Transient Luminous Event) is the generic name for phenomena which occur over thundercloud from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere (20 to 100 km-height). They are called sprites, elves, blue jets, gigantic jets . . . Each class of phenomenon has their own properties: duration, vertical and horizontal extension, delay after their parent lightning. They are mainly observed from ground since 1990 and from space since 2004 with the ISUAL experiment. All these observations have been done pointing at the limb. We propose an experiment, to image and characterize TLEs and lightning from space, which novelty is looking at the nadir. This concept was tested by the CEA with the Lightning and Sprite Observations on board the International Space Station from 2001 to 2004. The advantage of this point of view is that other radiations (as gamma-rays, electron beams, or electrostatic field) emitted mainly vertically and simultaneously to TLE or lightning can be observed with the same satellite, but the difficulty is how the superimposed light from lightning and TLE can be differentiate. Taking account this constraint and other ones due to satellite accommodation, we define a set of sensors allowing the detection, the localisation and the characterisation of lightning and TLE. Our studies show that two cameras and four photometers are necessary to reach those objectives. This experiment, called MCP for MicroCameras and Photometers, will be aboard TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiations from lightNIngs and Sprites) which is a microsatellite project of the CNES Myriade program with a launch planned in 2011. The photometer set will be provided by a Japanese team joining Hokkaido and Tohoku Universities and ISAS/JAXA. In this talk, we will present the main scientific goals of MCP. Need requirement studies (particularly radiometric analysis including sensor trade-off) will be described. We will finish describing the actual development status of the sensors.

  14. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission: From Launch to the Primary Science Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Martin D.; Graf, James E.; Zurek, Richard W.; Eisen, Howard J.; Jai, Benhan; Erickson, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA, aboard an Atlas V-401 launch vehicle on August 12, 2005. The MRO spacecraft carries a very sophisticated scientific payload. Its primary science mission is to to provide global, regional survey, and targeted observations from a low altitude orbit for one Martian year (687 Earth days). After a seven month interplanetary transit, the spacecraft fired its six main engines and established a highly elliptical capture orbit at Mars. During the post-MOI early check-out period, four instruments acquired engineering-quality data. This was followed by five months of aerobraking operations. After aerobraking was terminated, a series of propulsive maneuvers were used to establish the desired low altitude science orbit. As the spacecraft is readied for its primary science mission, spacecraft and instrument checkout and deployment activities have continued.

  15. Mars Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These two views of Mars are derived from the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) measurements of global broadband (0.3 - 3.0 microns) visible and near-infrared reflectance, also known as albedo. The range of colors are in dimensionless units. The values are the ratio of the amount of electromagnetic energy reflected by the surface to the amount of energy incident upon it from the sun (larger values are brighter surfaces).

    The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  16. Application of a global solar wind/planetary obstacle interaction computational model: Earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The investigations undertaken in this report relate to studies of various solar wind interaction phenomena with Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. A computational model is developed for the determination of the detailed plasma and magnetic field properties associated with various planetary obstacles throughout the solar system.

  17. The Cratering Record of the South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutnik, M.; Byrne, S.; Murray, B.

    2001-11-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) instruments aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) were used in a detailed search of a selected part of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) for impact craters. Impact craters were identified from the MOLA shaded relief map and validated using individual MOLA tracks and MOC narrow angle (NA) images. The resultant crater population is at least four times greater than the crater population previously recognized from Viking data [Plaut, et al., 1988]. The mean exposure age of the SPLD is estimated to be 30 to 100 Ma depending on the established production model isochrons used [Herkenhoff and Plaut, 2000; Hartmann, 1999]. All of the 0.8 to 5 km diameter craters are considerably shallower than other Martian craters in the same diameter range. The timescales postulated for layer formation modulated solely by deterministic astronomically driven climatic fluctuations of approximately 105 to 106 years [Ward, 1979] are much shorter than the high mean surface exposure age for the SPLD determined in this study. Thus the surface of the SPLD included in our study likely records some previously unrecognized event in polar history that marked the end of layer formation and erosion in that area. Hartmann, W.K., Martian Cratering VI: Crater count isochrons and evidence for recent volcanism from Mars Global Surveyor. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 34, 167-177, 1999. Herkenhoff, K.E., and J.J. Plaut, Surface Ages and Resurfacing Rates of the Polar Layered Deposits on Mars, Icarus, 144, 243-253, 2000. Plaut, J.J., R. Kahn, E.A. Guiness, and R.E. Arvidson, Accumulation of Sedimentary Debris in the South Polar Region of Mars and Implications for Climate History, Icarus 75, 357-377, 1988. Ward, W.R., Present obliquity oscillations of Mars: Fourth-order accuracy in orbital e and I, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 237-241, 1979.

  18. Global Topography of Mars from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Multi-Orbit Data Products: the first Quadrangle (MC-11E) and the Landing Site Areas of ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Hauber, Ernst; Jaumann, Ralf; Michael, Gregory; Hoffmann, Harald; Heipke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    After more than 10 years of operation, the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express mission covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, the HRSC team has recently started a coordinated effort for the systematic mapping of Mars by multi-orbit digital elevation models (DTMs) and image mosaics, using the complete HRSC mission data record. The new global mapping program is based on the USGS MC-30 quadrangle scheme, where quadrangles are split into eastern and western parts to limit data volumes. We present the DTM and orthoimage mosaic (grid spacing of 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively) for the first half-tile, MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus), and highlight their use for characterizing the landing site areas of ESA's ExoMars landing mission to be launched in 2018. HRSC is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars and its satellites. As a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of derived 3D points allows producing DTMs with grid sizes of up to 50 m and a height accuracy on the order of one pixel on the ground and better. Such data products have been produced for individual HRSC strips covering approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far. HRSC also bridges the gap between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of stereo and non-stereo datasets. A quality assessment of the MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus) quadrangle products shows that, using bundle block adjustment, adjacent image strips can be co-registered with an accuracy of approximately one pixel at the highest image resolution available. We will

  19. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  20. Global Geometric Properties of Martian Impact Craters: An Assessment from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Frawley, J. J.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Schnetzler, C.

    2000-01-01

    Global geometric characteristics of topographically fresh impact craters have been assessed, for the first time, from gridded MOLA topography. Global trends of properties such as depth/diameter differ from previous estimates. Regional differences are observed.

  1. Mars - Surface Temperature South Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. Mars' Inner Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows a cross-section of the planet Mars revealing an inner, high density core buried deep within the interior. Dipole magnetic field lines are drawn in blue, showing the global scale magnetic field that one associates with dynamo generation in the core. Mars must have one day had such a field, but today it is not evident. Perhaps the energy source that powered the early dynamo has shut down. The differentiation of the planet interior - heavy elements like iron sinking towards the center of the planet - can provide energy as can the formation of a solid core from the liquid.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. Mars Polar Lander arrives at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Polar Landerspacecraft is lifted off the trailer of that transported it to the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  4. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the protective wrapping on the Mars Polar Lander to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  5. The solsticial pause on Mars: 1. A planetary wave reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Stephen R.; Mulholland, David P.; Read, Peter L.; Montabone, Luca; Wilson, R. John; Smith, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale planetary waves are diagnosed from an analysis of profiles retrieved from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during its scientific mapping phase. The analysis is conducted by assimilating thermal profiles and total dust opacity retrievals into a Mars global circulation model. Transient waves are largest throughout the northern hemisphere autumn, winter and spring period and almost absent during the summer. The southern hemisphere exhibits generally weaker transient wave behaviour. A striking feature of the low-altitude transient waves in the analysis is that they show a broad subsidiary minimum in amplitude centred on the winter solstice, a period when the thermal contrast between the summer hemisphere and the winter pole is strongest and baroclinic wave activity might be expected to be strong. This behaviour, here called the 'solsticial pause,' is present in every year of the analysis. This strong pause is under-represented in many independent model experiments, which tend to produce relatively uniform baroclinic wave activity throughout the winter. This paper documents and diagnoses the transient wave solsticial pause found in the analysis; a companion paper investigates the origin of the phenomenon in a series of model experiments.

  6. Mars mission gravity profile simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment designed to determine the need for artificial gravity for Mars mission architectures at earlier stages of the design process is proposed. The Soviet Mir space station, the NASA Space Shuttle, and the resources of NASA Ames Research Center would be used to duplicate in the terrestrial environment the complete Mars-mission gravity profile in order to assess the need for artificial gravity. All mission phases of 1 G would be on earth; all mission phases of zero or micro G would be in space aboard Mir; and all launch, ascent, orbit, deorbit, approach, departure, and descent G loads would be provided by actual spacecraft in operations that could be designed to simulate the actual G loads, while the Mars stay time would be simulated on earth or in a variable-gravity research facility in space. Methods of simulating activities on the Martian surface are outlined along with data monitoring, countermeasures, and launch site and vehicle selection criteria.

  7. Solar radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  8. Solar radiation on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, J.; Flood, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. In this paper the authors present a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  9. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  10. Different Topography and Composition of Earth- and Mars-Type Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Tanosaki, T.

    2016-05-01

    Mars shows different location and shape of higher lands compared with global water planet Earth, together with possible carbon concentration process of global surface on Earth and Mars with more detailed exploration on Mars.

  11. How relevant is heterogeneous chemistry on Mars? Strong tests via global mapping of water and ozone (sampled via O2 dayglow)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    Ozone and water are powerful tracers of photochemical processes on Mars. Considering that water is a condensable with a multifaceted hydrological cycle and ozone is continuously being produced / destroyed on short-time scales, their maps can test the validity of current 3D photochemical and dynamical models. Comparisons of modern GCM models (e.g., Lefèvre et al. 2004) with certain datasets (e.g., Clancy et al. 2012; Bertaux et al. 2012) point to significant disagreement, which in some cases have been related to heterogeneous (gas-dust) chemistry beyond the classical gas-gas homogeneous reactions.We address these concerns by acquiring full 2D maps of water and ozone (via O2 dayglow) on Mars, employing high spectral infrared spectrometers at ground-based telescopes (CRIRES/VLT and CSHELL/NASA-IRTF). By performing a rotational analysis on the O2 lines, we derive molecular temperature maps that we use to derive the vertical level of the emission (e.g., Novak et al. 2002). Our maps sample the full observable disk of Mars on March/25/2008 (Ls=50°, northern winter) and on Jan/29/2014 (Ls=83°, northern spring). The maps reveal a strong dependence of the O2 emission and water burden on local orography, while the temperature maps are in strong disagreement with current models. Could this be the signature of heterogeneous chemistry? We will present the global maps and will discuss possible scenarios to explain the observations.This work was partially funded by grants from NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program (344-32-51-96), NASA’s Mars Fundamental Research Program (203959.02.02.20.29), NASA’s Astrobiology Program (344-53-51), and the NSF-RUI Program (AST-805540). We thank the administration and staff of the European Southern Observatory/VLT and NASA-IRTF for awarding observing time and coordinating our observations.Bertaux, J.-L., Gondet, B., Lefèvre, F., et al. 2012. J. Geophys. Res. Pl. 117. pp. 1-9.Clancy, R.T., Sandor, B.J., Wolff, M.J., et al. 2012. J. Geophys. Res

  12. From Global Reconnaissance to Sample Return: A Proposal for a Post-2009 Strategy to Follow the Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; George, J. A.; Stoker, C. R.; Briggs, G.

    2003-01-01

    Since the mid-1990's, the stated strategy of the Mars Exploration Program has been to Follow the Water. Although this strategy has been widely publicized, its degree of influence -- and the logic behind its current implementation (as reflected in mission planning, platform and instrument selection, and allocation of spacecraft resources) remains unclear. In response to this concern, we propose an integrated strategy for the post-2009 exploration of Mars that identifies the scientific objectives, rationale, sequence of missions, and specific investigations, that we believe provides the maximum possible science return by pursuing the most direct, cost-effective, and technically capable approach to following the water. This strategy is based on the orbital identification, high-resolution surface investigation, and ultimate sampling of the highest priority targets: near-surface liquid water and massive ground ice (potentially associated with the discharge of the outlflow channels or the relic of a former ocean). The analysis of such samples, in conjunction with the data acquired by the necessary precursor investigations (to identify the locations and characterize the environments of the optimum sampling sites), is expected to address a majority of the goals and high priority science objectives identified by MEPAG.

  13. Distribution and relations of 4- to 10-km-diameter craters to global geologic units of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condit, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    By correlating the 1:25,000,000 geologic map of Mars of Scott and Carr (1977) with 4- to 10-km-diameter crater density data from Mariner 9 images, the average crater density for 23 of the equatorial geologic-geomorphic units on Mars was computed. The correlation of these two data sets was accomplished by digitizing both the crater density data and geologic map at the same scale and by comparing them in a computer. This technique assigns the crater density value found in the corresponding location on the geologic data set to a discrete computer file assigned each of the 23 geologic units. By averaging the crater density values accumulated in each file, an "average" crater density for each geologic unit was obtained. Condit believes these average crater density values are accurate indicators of the relative age of the geologic units considered. The statistical validity of these average values is strongest for the geologic units of the largest areal extent. The relative ages as obtained from the average crater density values for the seven largest geologic units, from youngest to oldest, are: Tharsis volcanic material, 21 ?? 4 craters/106km2; smooth plains material, 57 ?? 14 craters/106km2; rolling plains material, 66 ?? 16 craters/106km2; plains materials, 80 ?? 17 craters/106km2; ridged plains material, 128 ?? 25 craters/106km2; hilly and cratered material, 137 ?? 38 craters/106km2; and cratered plateau material, 138 ?? 27 craters/106km2. ?? 1978.

  14. The Mars Observer database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1988-01-01

    Mars Observer will study the surface, atmosphere, and climate of Mars in a systematic way over an entire Martian year. The observations of the surface will provide a database that will be invaluable to the planning of a future Mars sample return mission. Mars Observer is planned for a September 1992 launch from the Space Shuttle, using an upper-stage. After the one year transit the spacecraft is injected into orbit about Mars and the orbit adjusted to a near-circular, sun-synchronous low-altitude, polar orbit. During the Martian year in this mapping orbit the instruments gather both geoscience data and climatological data by repetitive global mapping. The scientific objectives of the mission are to: (1) determine the global elemental and mineralogical character of the surface material; (2) define globally the topography and gravitational field; (3) establish the nature of the magnetic field; (4) determine the time and space distribution, abundance, sources, and sinks of volatile material and dust over a seasonal cycle; and (5) explore the structure and aspects of the circulation of the atmosphere. The science investigations and instruments for Mars Observer have been chosen with these objectives in mind. These instruments, the principal investigator or team leader and the objectives are discussed.

  15. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a electrical and functional tests of its pyrotechic petal deployer system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers and technicians in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). In the background is the Pathfinder cruise stage, which the lander will be mated to once its functional tests are complete. The lander will remain attached to this stage during its six-to-seven-month journey to Mars. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the Sojourner autonomous rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  16. Science Rationale for a Micro-Met Mission to Augment InterMarsNet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The 2003 opportunity has the potential to carry out for the first time in Mars exploration history, coordinated measurements from the surface and from orbit that can address fundamental issues associated with the Martian global circulation and climate system. Coordinated measurements are defined here to mean collecting meteorological data from a network of 12-16 globally distributed surface stations simultaneously with an orbiter carrying an atmospheric sounder. With such measurements it is possible to define the horizontally varying (barotropic) and vertically varying (baroclinic) components of the global circulation from which the full 3-dimensional horizontal wind field can be reconstructed. It is also possible to precisely define the CO2 cycle, the main component of the current climate system. InterMarsNet, as currently envisioned, consists of 3-4 landers with a supporting communications orbiter that may carry some instrumentation. The landers are likely to touch down in low latitudes and will probably be configured to optimize seismological objectives. We propose to augment the InterMarsNet meteorological objectives by flying an additional 10-15 "MicroMet" landers equipped to measure surface pressure and nothing else. Surface pressure is the most fundamental meteorological parameter and it is the easiest to measure. The sensors are light, operate with minimal power, and do not require orientation or deployment. Consequently the landers can be very small (< 10 kg) and 10-15 of them can be delivered by a Med-lite launcher. This would enable global network science for meteorology and, when combined wAh the more sophisticated measurements from the InterMarsNet landers and the simultaneous temperature and dust profiling measurements from an atmospheric sounder aboard the orbiter, it would enable us to reconstruct global scale circulation patterns.

  17. Correcting Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) High Altitude (40 - 65 km) Temperature Retrievals for Instrumental Correlated Noise and Biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have indentified correlated noise components in the MGS-TES limb sounding radiances that propagate into very large uncertainties in the retrieved temperatures. We have also identified a slowly varying radiance bias in the limb sounding radiances. Note that the nadir-sounding-based MGS-TES atmospheric temperatures currently available from the Planetary Data System are not affected by either of these issues. These two issues affect the existing MGS-TES limb sounding temperature data set are as follows: Considering, for example, the 1.5 Pascal pressure level (which typically falls between 50 and 60 km altitude), correlated-noise induced standard errors for individual limb-sounding temperature retrievals were 3 - 5 K in Mars Year 24, rising to 5 - 15 K in Mars Year 25 and 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. The radiance bias, although consistent on ~10-sol time scales, is highly variable over the course of the MGS-TES mission. It results in temperatures (at the 1

  18. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles. PMID:11708368

  19. The impact of resolution on the dynamics of the martian global atmosphere: Varying resolution studies with the MarsWRF GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, Anthony D.; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Claire E.; Richardson, Mark I.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the circulation and thermal structure of the martian atmosphere to numerical model resolution in a general circulation model (GCM) using the martian implementation (MarsWRF) of the planetWRF atmospheric model. We provide a description of the MarsWRF GCM and use it to study the global atmosphere at horizontal resolutions from 7.5° × 9° to 0.5° × 0.5°, encompassing the range from standard Mars GCMs to global mesoscale modeling. We find that while most of the gross-scale features of the circulation (the rough location of jets, the qualitative thermal structure, and the major large-scale features of the surface level winds) are insensitive to horizontal resolution over this range, several major features of the circulation are sensitive in detail. The northern winter polar circulation shows the greatest sensitivity, showing a continuous transition from a smooth polar winter jet at low resolution, to a distinct vertically “split” jet as resolution increases. The separation of the lower and middle atmosphere polar jet occurs at roughly 10 Pa, with the split jet structure developing in concert with the intensification of meridional jets at roughly 10 Pa and above 0.1 Pa. These meridional jets appear to represent the separation of lower and middle atmosphere mean overturning circulations (with the former being consistent with the usual concept of the “Hadley cell”). Further, the transition in polar jet structure is more sensitive to changes in zonal than meridional horizontal resolution, suggesting that representation of small-scale wave-mean flow interactions is more important than fine-scale representation of the meridional thermal gradient across the polar front. Increasing the horizontal resolution improves the match between the modeled thermal structure and the Mars Climate Sounder retrievals for northern winter high latitudes. While increased horizontal resolution also improves the simulation of the northern high

  20. Energetic protons at Mars: interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, E.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Dyadechkin, S.; Afonin, V. V.

    2012-11-01

    Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs) from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface). On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8 RM). In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3-D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars) where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1) a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2) the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3) the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4) how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars-solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment.

  1. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  2. Miniature thermal emission spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Steven; Peralta, Richard; Christensen, Phil; Mehall, Greg

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes results of the calibration of the miniature thermal emission spectrometer (Mini-TES) being built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) under contract to Arizona State University (ASU). This paper also serves as an update to an earlier paper [R.J. Peralta, S. Silverman, D. Bates, Raytheon/Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, P. Christensen, G. Mehall, T. Tourville, R. Keehn, G. Cannon, Arizona State University, Miniature thermal emission spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rover, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4485-09, August 2001] for mission description and instrument design. Mini-TES is a single detector Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), covering the spectral range 5 29μm at 10cm spectral resolution. Launched in June 2003, one Mini-TES instrument will fly to Mars aboard each of the two missions of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Project (MER), named Spirit and Opportunity. Mini-TES is designed to provide a key minerological remote sensing component of the MER mission, which includes several other science instruments. The first Mini-TES unit was required to meet a two-year development schedule with proven, flight-tested instrumentation. Therefore, SBRS designed Mini-TES based on proven heritage from the successful Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) thermal emission spectrometer (TES), which was launched in 1996 and is still operational with over 500 million spectra collected to date. Mini-TES design, performance, integration onto the rovers, as well as details of the calibration are discussed. Full instrument and calibration details are the subject of an upcoming Journal of Geophysical Research Mini-TES paper by Christensen, et al.

  3. The stratigraphy of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1986-01-01

    A global stratigraphy of Mars was developed from a global geologic map series derived from Viking images; the stratigraphy is composed of three maps. A new chronostratigraphic classification system which consists of lower, middle, and upper Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian systems is described. The crater-density boundaries of the chronostratigraphic units and the absolute ages of the Martian epochs aer estimated. The relative ages of major geologic units and featues are calculated and analyzed. The geologic history of Mars is summarized on the maps in terms of epochs.

  4. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  5. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  6. Mars Odyssey in the Context of NASA's Mars Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.

    2002-05-01

    The NASA Mars ODYSSEY Orbiter is the second step in NASA's scientific strategy for Mars Exploration during the present decade. ODYSSEY is intended to produce global scale inventories of key elemental characteristics of the uppermost surface layer, as well as the first 100m scale mineralogical assessment of another planet using middle-IR multispectral imaging. In addition, ODYSSEY will provide the first quantitative assessment of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) environment in the vicinity of Mars, one of the key steps in preparing the knowledge base necessary to plan for eventual human scientific exploration of the Red Planet. In the context of NASA's restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP), ODYSSEY will provide new vantage points from which to identify localities on the surface of Mars where liquid water may have been persistent in the past, or where there are existing deposits of near-surface ice. In addition, with its THEMIS middle-IR imaging system, ODYSSEY will search for "thermal anomalies" at 100 m scales in an effort to discover landing sites for future missions. Together with the ongoing Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), ODYSSEY is part of a sustained reconaissance of Mars using a variety of remote sensing approaches, that will culminate with the 2005 Mars Reconaissance Orbiter (MRO). Both MGS and ODYSSEY will help target MRO's high resolution instruments so that the large trade-space of scientifically compelling landing sites for Mars can be prioritized to a top few. ODYSSEY will direct MRO, and subsequently MRO will direct the 2009 Mars Smart Lander (aka Mobile Surface Laboratory) to conduct surface-based reconaissance and definitive in situ measurements of key constituents of the "Mars System". Thus, ODYSSEY will provide both context and direction in the near-term scientific exploration of Mars. Most immediately, data from ODYSSEY will contribute to the landing site assessments that are ongoing in support of the early 2004 landings of the twin Mars

  7. Mars Navigator: An Interactive Multimedia Program about Mars, Aerospace Engineering, Astronomy, and the JPL Mars Missions. [CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramoll, Kurt

    This CD-ROM introduces basic astronomy and aerospace engineering by examining the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions to Mars. It contains numerous animations and narrations in addition to detailed graphics and text. Six interactive laboratories are included to help understand topics such as the…

  8. May the continuous trapping of atmospheric water on the permanent South polar cap affect the global atmospheric D/H ratio on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, E.; Montmessin, F.; Fouchet, T.; Forget, F.

    It is generally admitted that thermal escape is the only process responsible for hydrogen isotopic fractionation in Mars atmosphere (enrichment by a factor of 5.5 relative to SMOW value). The aim of the present paper is to show that thermodynamic processes (condensation/ sublimation) may potentially play a significant role in fractionating atmospheric H2O. The cycle of Martian H2O is complex. During northern summer, the North permanent water ice cap is assumed to release a few precipitable microns (pr. μ m), globally averaged, to the atmosphere. Part of this water vapor finally returns to North cap during northern winter, whereas a small fraction (<10%) is trapped in the South permanent carbonic ice cap, which acts as a permanent sink. Water vapor is probably cycled through regolith by adsorption/deposition and further sublimation/desorption. It is believed that the ultimate fate of water molecules released by the North water ice cap, and/or by the permafrost, is to stick to the South carbonic ice cap, with a time scale longer than one seasonal cycle. If so, a molecule released by the North cap must undergo a number of adsorption/desorption and deposition/sublimation cycles, through regolith and polar caps, before being trapped irreversibly in South cap carbonic ice. Recent IR observations of pure water ice on South polar cap by Mars-Express during southern spring show that water, migrating southward together with the edge of the retreating seasonal south CO2 cap, is finally deposited near cap edges in substantial amount. The fraction of this deposited water not released back to the atmosphere at later times (southern summer), therefore incorporated to carbonic ice, is not well known at present time. Because, during southern winter, water vapor above the South permanent cap is much depleted in deuterium, by at least a factor of 3 (Montmessin et al, AGU meeting, 2003), the polar cap tends to be depleted in deuterium (similarly to Earth's case), with a related

  9. Control of Mars global atmospheric loss by the continuous rotation of the crustal magnetic field: A time-dependent MHD study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Brain, David; Dong, Yaxue; Lillis, Robert

    2015-12-01

    We present a time-dependent MHD study of the controlling effects of the Mars crustal field on atmospheric escape. We calculate globally integrated planetary ion loss rates under quiet solar conditions considering the continuous rotation of crustal anomalies with the planet. It is found that the rotating crustal field plays an important role in controlling atmospheric escape. Significant time variation of ˜20% and ˜50% is observed during the entire rotation period for O+ and for O2+ and CO2+, respectively. The control is exerted mainly through two processes. First, the crustal magnetic pressure over the subsolar regime controls solar wind penetration and mass loading and therefore the escaping planetary ion source. There is a strong negative correlation between the magnetic pressure and ion loss, with a time lag of <1 h for O+ and ˜2.5 h for O2+ and CO2+. Second, the crustal magnetic pressure near the terminator region controls the cross-section area between the induced magnetospheric boundary and 100 km altitude at the terminator. The change in day-night connection regulates the extent to which planetary ions created on the dayside can be ultimately carried away by the solar wind and escape Mars. There is a strong positive correlation between the cross-section area and ion loss, with no significant time lag. As the planet rotates, the dayside process and the terminator process work together to control the total amount of escaping planetary ions. However, their relative importance changes with the local time of the strong crustal field region.

  10. ISS Update: Science Aboard Kounotori3

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Pete Hasbrook, associate program scientist, about the experiments traveling to the International Space Station aboard the H-II Transfer Vehicle...

  11. What are the Origins of Observed Detached Layers of Dust on Mars? Investigating with Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, T.; Navarro, T.; Spiga, A.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Madeleine, J. B.; Pottier, A.

    2014-07-01

    We use a Global Climate Model to simulate the formation of detached layers of dust. Two parameterizations are developed: scavenging of dust particles due to the condensation of ice and injection of dust at high altitudes due to “rocket dust storms”.

  12. Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

  13. Evidence for subsurface water ice in Korolev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, J.C.; Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Following the work of Kieffer and Titus (2001, Icarus 154, 162-180), we present results of thermal IR observations of Korolev crater, located at ???73?? latitude in the martian northern polar region. Similar to techniques employed by Titus et al. (2003, Science 299, 1048-1050), we use infrared images from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey to identify several regions within the crater basin with distinct thermal properties that correlate with topography. The THEMIS results show these regions exhibit temperature variations, spatially within the crater and throughout the martian year. In addition to the variations identified in the THEMIS observations, Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations show differences in albedo and temperature of these regions on both daily and seasonal cycles. Modeling annual temperature variations of the surface, we use TES observations to examine the thermal properties of these regions. This analysis reveals the crater interior deposits are likely thick layers (several meters) of high thermal inertia material (water ice, or extremely ice-rich regolith). Spatial variations of the physical properties of these regions are likely due to topography and possibly variations in the subsurface material itself. The nature of these deposits may help constrain polar processes, as well as provide context for the polar lander mission, Phoenix. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The DREAMS Experiment of the ExoMars 2016 Mission for the Study of Martian Environment During the Dust Storm Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.; Debei, S.; Bettanini, C.; Molfese, C.; Arruego Rodriguez, I.; Colombatti, G.; Harri, A. M.; Montmessin, F.; Wilson, C.; Aboudan, A.; Abbaki, S.; Apestigue, V.; Bellucci, G.; Berthelier, J. J.; Brucato, J. R.; Calcutt, S. B.; Cortecchia, F.; Cucciarrè, F.; Di Achille, G.; Ferri, F.; Forget, F.; Friso, E.; Genzer, M.; Haukka, H.; Jimènez, J. J.; Jimènez, S.; Josset, J. L.; Karatekin, O.; Landis, G.; Lorenz, R.; Marchetti, E.; Martinez, J.; Marty, L.; Mennella, V.; Möhlmann, D.; Moirin, D.; Molinaro, R.; Palomba, E.; Patel, M.; Pommereau, J. P.; Popa, C. I.; Rafkin, S.; Rannau, P.; Renno, N. O.; Schipani, P.; Schmidt, W.; Segato, E.; Silvestro, S.; Simoes, F.; Spiga, A.; Valero, F.; Vázquez, L.; Vivat, F.; Witasse, O.; Mugnuolo, R.; Pirrotta, S.

    2014-07-01

    DREAMS is a meteorological experiment with the additional capability to measure the electric properties of the atmosphere of Mars. It will fly to Mars aboard ExoMars 2016 mission. It will land on the planet during the dust storm season.

  15. Mars Observer: Mission toward a basic understanding of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission will provide a spacecraft platform about Mars from which the entire Martian surface and atmosphere will be observed and mapped by remote sensing instruments for at least 1 Martian year. The scientific objectives for the Mission emphasize qualitative and quantitative determination of the elemental and mineralogical composition of the surface; measurement of the global surface topography, gravity field, and magnetic field; and the development of a synoptic data base of climatological conditions. The Mission will provide basic global understanding of Mars as it exists today and will provide a framework for understanding its past.

  16. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers maneuver the Mars Polar Lander onto a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  17. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) lift the Mars Polar Lander to move it to a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  18. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the Mars Polar Lander is lowered toward a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  19. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a electrical test of its pyrotechnic system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers Lorraine Garcia (foreground) and Linda Robeck in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). A wheel of the Sojourner autonomous rover, which is attached to one of the lander's petals, can be seen behind the lander. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  20. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a test of its pyrotechnic system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer Jerry Gutierrez in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). A wheel of the Sojourner autonomous rover, which is attached to one of the lander's petals, can be seen behind the lander. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  1. Biological experiments - The Viking Mars Lander.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Lederberg, J.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    From the biological point of view, the Viking 1975 mission might be regarded as a test of the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis concerning the chemical evolution of living systems. Mars is a planet whose early history was probably similar to that of the earth and whose present environmental conditions may be compatible with the maintenance of living organisms. Thus, the biological experiments aboard the Viking I spacecraft are primarily concerned with the question of whether chemical evolution on Mars took place, and, if so, whether the process reached a level of complexity characteristic of replicating systems.

  2. Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M.; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M.; Federico, Costanzo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Gurnett, Donald A.; Hagfors, Tor; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Huff, Richard L.; Ivanov, Anton B.; Johnson, William T. K.; Jordan, Rolando L.; Kirchner, Donald L.; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Nielsen, Erling; Orosei, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick.

  3. Constraints on the Crystal Chemistry of Fe/Mg-Rich Smectitic Clays on Mars and Links to Global Alteration Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Cuadros, J.; Dekov, V. M.; Dyar, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Stephen, N.

    2014-12-01

    Near infrared remote sensing data of Mars have revealed thousands of ancient, astrobiologically interesting deposits of Fe/Mg-rich smectitic clay minerals within the crust. Diagnostic (Fe,Mg)-OH infrared spectroscopic absorptions used to interpret the mineralogy of these clays occur at (λ=) 2.27-2.32 μm, indicating variable Fe/Mg ratios in the clay structures. Using a suite of Fe/Mg-rich seafloor clays as a mineralogical and spectroscopic analog for Martian clays, we show how crystal chemical substitution and mixed-layering affect the position of the diagnostic metal-OH feature in smectitic clays. We show how substitution of divalent cations such as Fe2+ and Mg2+ into dioctahedral clays predictably affects the placement of the metal-OH absorptions used to interpret the composition of smectitic clays from remote sensing data. The effect of substitution of trivalent cations (chiefly Fe3+) into trioctahedral clays is less pronounced, but discernable. Taken together, we are able to constrain the actual composition, especially the Fe/Mg ratio of Martian smectitic clays from near infrared data. We show how these clays, detected from orbit, fall into four groups. We compare the Fe/Mg ratios of each of these groups with the Fe/Mg ratios of various candidate source materials, such as olivines and pyroxenes in Martian meteorites. One of these groups of clays has similar chemistry to candidate protoliths, consistent with little segregation of Fe with respect to Mg compared to potential protoliths. The other three groups suggest significant segregation, indicating Mg-mobility in what was likely open-system alteration. We propose that these differences are related to oxidative, open system weathering in groups 1-3, and reduced, closed system hydrothermal alteration in the case of group 4. Figure caption: The sample suite of analog materials studied here includes pure nontronite as well as mixed layer (or interstratified) glauconite-nontronite, talc-saponite, and talc

  4. Global changes in the 0-70 km thermal structure of the Mars atmosphere derived from 1975 to 1989 microwave CO spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Muhleman, Duane O.; Berge, Glenn L.

    1990-01-01

    J = 1 - 2 (C-12)O (230 GHz) and (C-13)O (220 GHz) spectra of Mars obtained during the particularly favorable opposition of Mars in 1988 are analyzed. A CO mixing ratio is derived for November 1988 which agrees with a determination from 1967 observations. It is demonstrated that if the mixing ratio of CO was not drastically different in early 1980 and early 1982, the low- to midlatitude average thermal structure of the Mars atmosphere at these times was consistent with clear-air radiative-convective equilibrium conditions. Mars atmospheric temperature profiles derived from (C-12)O spectra are also presented.

  5. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  6. Operational Data Reduction Procedure for Determining Density and Vertical Structure of the Martian Upper Atmosphere from Mars Global Surveyor Accelerometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancro, George J.; Tolson, Robert H.; Keating, Gerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The success of aerobraking by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was partly due to the analysis of MGS accelerometer data. Accelerometer data was used to determine the effect of the atmosphere on each orbit, to characterize the nature of the atmosphere, and to predict the atmosphere for future orbits. To interpret the accelerometer data, a data reduction procedure was developed to produce density estimations utilizing inputs from the spacecraft, the Navigation Team, and pre-mission aerothermodynamic studies. This data reduction procedure was based on the calculation of aerodynamic forces from the accelerometer data by considering acceleration due to gravity gradient, solar pressure, angular motion of the MGS, instrument bias, thruster activity, and a vibration component due to the motion of the damaged solar array. Methods were developed to calculate all of the acceleration components including a 4 degree of freedom dynamics model used to gain a greater understanding of the damaged solar array. The total error inherent to the data reduction procedure was calculated as a function of altitude and density considering contributions from ephemeris errors, errors in force coefficient, and instrument errors due to bias and digitization. Comparing the results from this procedure to the data of other MGS Teams has demonstrated that this procedure can quickly and accurately describe the density and vertical structure of the Martian upper atmosphere.

  7. Results of current Mars studies at the IAU Planetary Research Center. [global dust storms, seasonal variations, and polar cap dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Ground based images obtained hourly by seven observatories are used to study Martian phenomena. Maps of global dust storms show the degree of activity of the storm depends both on the region and on the time of day. Statistical analysis of regional contrast variations on the images supports the opinion that the contrasts in the brightness of the light and dark areas depends on the Martian season. Residual differences may be due to a phase angle dependence. Diagrams confirm the earlier finding that there is a systematic trend of regional contrast with the time of the Martian day and that the afternoon is not symmetric with the morning. The dissipation of Martian polar caps is also discussed.

  8. Mars Says 'hi'!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 October 2004 Although one might argue that most of the 'i' is missing, and part of the 'h' has been eroded away, this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Sinus Meridiani that almost seem to spell out the word, 'hi'. This natural graffiti is all that remains of a suite of sedimentary rock that once covered the area shown here. The 400 meter scale bar is about 437 yards long. The features are located near 1.8oN, 357.2oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  9. Estimated Radiation Dosage on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This global map of Mars shows the estimated radiation dosages from cosmic rays reaching the surface, a serious health concern for any future human exploration of the planet.

    The estimates are based on cosmic-radiation measurements by the Mars radiation environment experiment, an instrument on NASA's Mars 2000 Odyssey spacecraft, plus information about Mars' surface elevations from the laser altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The areas of Mars expected to have the lowest levels of cosmic radiation are where the elevation is lowest, because those areas have more atmosphere above them to block out some of the radiation. Earth's thick atmosphere shields us from most cosmic radiation, but Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than we have on Earth.

    The colors in the map refer to the estimated annual dose equivalent in rems, a unit of radiation dose. The range is generally from 10 rems(color-coded dark blue) to 20 rems (color coded dark red). Radiation exposure for astronauts on the International Space Station in Earth orbit is typically equivalent to an annualized rate of 20 to 40 rems.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor missions for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. The Mars radiation environment experiment was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for Odyssey, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Mars meter-scale roughness: Goldstone Solar System Radar delay-doppler database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The entire fourteen-year database of Goldstone Solar System Radar Mars near-nadir radar scattering model fits is being revised using the latest topography from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument.

  11. Multihued Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at JPL shows the panoramic camera used onboard both Mars Exploration Rovers. The panel to the lower right highlights the multicolored filter wheel that allows the camera to see a rainbow of colors, in addition to infrared bands of light. By seeing Mars in all its colors, scientists can gain insight into the different minerals that constitute its rocks and soil.

  12. Spiders from Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-426, 19 July 2003

    No, this is not a picture of a giant, martian spider web. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of polygonal features on the floor of a northern hemisphere impact crater near 65.6oN, 327.7oW. The picture was acquired during spring, after the seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap had largely migrated through the region. At the time the picture was taken, remnants of seasonal frost remained on the crater rim and on the edges of the troughs that bound each of the polygons. Frost often provides a helpful hint as to where polygons and patterned ground occur. The polygons, if they were on Earth, would indicate the presence of freeze-thaw cycles in ground ice. Although uncertain, the same might be true of Mars. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  13. Evaluation of optical data for Mars approach navigation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerath, N.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of several optical data types which can be obtained from science and engineering instruments normally aboard interplanetary spacecraft. TV cameras are assumed to view planets or satellites and stars for celestial references. Also, spacecraft attitude sensors are assumed to yield celestial references. The investigation of approach phases of typical Mars missions showed that the navigation accuracy was greatly enhanced with the addition of optical data to radio data. Viewing stars and the planet Mars was found most advantageous ten days before Mars encounter, and viewing Deimos or Phobos and stars was most advantageous within ten days of encounter.

  14. Cartographic Mapping of Mars Landing Sites: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    Initial mapping of Mars began with the early Mariner 4, 6 and 7 flybys in the 1960's. Mariner 9 obtained the first global coverage of Mars in 1971. Viking Orbiters 1 and 2 added new and higher resolution global coverage. The US Geological Survey produced the first digital global cartographic map products in black and white and in color, the mosaicked digital image models (MDIMs). In 1989, the Phobos 88 mission added imaging as well as multispectral mapping of Mars in the equatorial region. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) added to the black and white and color global coverage. The most important development for Mars cartography occurred on MGS with its global coverage of Mars using the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOL A) producing precision ground control in latitude, longitude and radius. The next version of the MDIM was produced at 230 m spatial resolution using MOLA precision cartographic control. The Mars Odyssey mission THEMIS instrument has completed its global infrared mapping of Mars at 100 m spatial resolution. The Mars Express mission is completing its global coverage of Mars in stereo at 100 m spatial resolution or better. MGS, Odyssey and Mars Express continue to provide limited surface coverage at the 1 to 20 m resolution. Currently the new Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is producing images at the 10's of cm level. All of these datasets provide a rich and historic perspective of Mars covering nearly five decades and allow global cartographic map products to be produced in visual and infrared at the 100 m level with specialized cartographic maps being produced for landing sites at the meter or sub-meter spatial resolution level. This work was produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NAS 7-7120.5d, within the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program and the MGS, Odyssey, Mars Express and MRO Participating Scientist Programs.

  15. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor '98 Climate Orbiter is shown here during acoustic tests that simulate launch conditions. The orbiter was to conduct a two year primary mission to profile the Martian atmosphere and map the surface. To carry out these scientific objectives, the spacecraft carried a rebuilt version of the pressure modulated infrared radiometer, lost with the Mars Observer spacecraft, and a miniaturized dual camera system the size of a pair of binoculars, provided by Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., San Diego, California. During its primary mission, the orbiter was to monitor Mars atmosphere and surface globally on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years), observing the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterizing seasonal changes of the planet's surface. Imaging of the surface morphology would also provide important clues about the planet's climate in its early history. The mission was part of NASA's Mars Surveyor program, a sustained program of robotic exploration of the red planet, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. Lockheed Martin Astronautics was NASA's industrial partner in the mission. Unfortunately, Mars Climate Orbiter burned up in the Martian atmosphere on September 23, 1999, due to a metric conversion error that caused the spacecraft to be off course.

  16. Mars atmospheric water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Grossman, A. W.; Muhleman, D. O.

    1992-01-01

    We indicate the Dec. 3-4 spectrum averaged over the morning limb of Mars. Two synthetic spectra indicate the expected line emission for 3 precipitable microns of water with a uniform vertical distribution (dotted) and a vertical distribution in which water decreases rapidly above 20 km altitude if Mars atmospheric temperatures are approximately 20 K cooler than implied by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapping (IRTM) and lander descent observations. Such cooler atmospheric temperatures have been argued on the basis of ground-based microwave observations of Mars atmospheric CO. Our 3 pr micron column abundance for water can be compared to the global value of approximately 6 pr microns, observation for the same season with the Viking MAWD experiment in 1977. We will investigate the latitude and diurnal variations when the data corresponding to the second day of observations are reduced. We also plan to compare these VLA water observations with a very complementary set of Hubble Space Telescope ozone observations. Ultraviolet (220-330 nm) spectra and imates of Mars were obtained on Dec. 13 1990 as part of a general Mars observing program with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  18. Intimations of water on Mars.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    This photo essay contains images of Mars that propose evidence of the possible present or past existence of liquid water on Mars. Images were taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera. Images presented include: Polar Wall Pit region, consisting of gully landforms possibly caused by seepage and runoff of liquid water; Noachis Terra region, an area of gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater, where channels and related debris are seen, possibly formed by seepage, runoff, and debris flow; two images of Gorgonum Chaos region, one a series of troughs and layers of gullies and the other of gullies in a specific layer forming an alcove similar to an aquifer; Sirenum Fossae/Gorgonum Chaos mosaic of two images from this region of the southern hemisphere of Mars, showing 20 different channels coming down from a trough and their associated debris fans. Images and their enhancements are from NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science System. PMID:11543294

  19. Mars Image Collection Mosaic Builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian; Hare, Trent

    2008-01-01

    A computer program assembles images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) collection to generate a uniform-high-resolution, georeferenced, uncontrolled mosaic image of the Martian surface. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the mosaic covered 7 percent of the Martian surface and contained data from more than 50,000 source images acquired under various light conditions at various resolutions.

  20. Atmospheric Models for Mars Aerocapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    level Mars atmospheric model. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Typical Mars aerocapture periapsis altitudes (for systems with rigid- aeroshell heat shields) are about 50 km. This altitude is above the 0-40 km height range covered by Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) nadir observations. Recently, TES limb sounding data have been made available, spanning more than two Mars years (more than 200,000 data profiles) with altitude coverage up to about 60 km, well within the height range of interest for aerocapture. Results are presented comparing Mars-GRAM atmospheric density with densities from TES nadir and limb sounding observations. A new Mars-GRAM feature is described which allows individual TES nadir or limb profiles to be extracted from the large TES databases, and to be used as an optional replacement for standard Mars-GRAM background (climatology) conditions. For Monte-Carlo applications such as aerocapture guidance and control studies, Mars-GRAM perturbations are available using these TES profile background conditions.

  1. Mars Bowling

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  2. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  3. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  4. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  5. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers mate the Mars Polar Lander (top) to the Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket is scheduled to launch Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  6. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Polar Lander spacecraft is lowered to mate it with the Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch it on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  7. Mars at Ls 176o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurs in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  8. Mars at Ls 230o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurs in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Mars at Ls 160o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 February 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 160o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 160o occurs in mid-February 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o--the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  10. Mars at Ls 306o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  11. Mars at Ls 211o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurred in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  12. Mars at Ls 269o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  13. Mars at Ls 107o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurred in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  14. Mars at Ls 249o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurred in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  15. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 25o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurred in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Mars at Ls 249o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  18. Mars at Ls 306o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurred in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Mars at Ls 193o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 April 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193o occurred in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  20. Mars at Ls 12o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurred in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  1. Mars at Ls 53o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    23 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  2. Mars at Ls 12o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  3. Mars at Ls 324o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  4. Mars at Ls 66o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  5. Mars at Ls 357o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 93o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    8 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  7. Mars at Ls 230o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurred in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  8. Mars at Ls 160o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 160o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 160o occurred in mid-February 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o--the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  9. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  10. Mars at Ls 288o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  11. Mars at Ls 341o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurred in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  12. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  13. Mars at Ls 211o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurs in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  14. Mars at Ls 25o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  15. Mars at Ls 66o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurred in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 324o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  17. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  18. Mars at Ls 288o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Mars at Ls 107o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  20. Mars at Ls 269o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  1. Mars at Ls 357o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. Mars at Ls 53o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    9 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  3. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  4. Assessing the Distribution and State of Subsurface Water on Mars: Theoretical Expectations, the Geologic Evidence, and Potential Geophysical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of water on Mars has important implications for understanding the planet's geologic, hydrologic, and climatic history; the potential origin and continued survival of life; and the accessibility of a critical in-situ resource for sustaining future human explorers. For this reason, the search for water has become a key objective of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Evidence of water, both past and present, is found almost everywhere, but most persuasively in the form of the planet's outflow channels -- broad scoured depressions hundreds of kilometers long that emerge abruptly from large areas of collapsed and disrupted terrain, the apparent result of a massive release of subpermafrost groundwater. Based on a conservative estimate of the volume of water required to erode the channels, Carr (Icarus, 68, 187-216, 1986) has estimated that Mars may possess a total planetary inventory of water equivalent to a global ocean 0.5 - 1 km deep. Of this global inventory, ~0.000001% is found in the atmosphere, while ~5-10% is visible as ice in the perennial polar caps. This leaves ~90-95% of the planetary inventory of water unaccounted for, the vast bulk of which is believed to reside, as ground ice and groundwater, within the planet's crust. Theoretical and geomorphic approaches to assessing the current distribution and state of subsurface water on Mars face numerous obstacles -- thus geophysical techniques hold the most promise. The first such investigation, the Gamma-Ray Neutron Spectrometer aboard the Mars Odyssey Orbiter, arrived at Mars in 2001. It revealed that the top half-meter of the Martian regolith is rich in hydrogen at latitudes above ~40-degrees, an observation consistent with the presence of near-surface ground ice. Assessing the distribution of water at greater depths (up to several kilometers) is one of the chief objectives of the MARSIS experiment on ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. MARSIS is a low-frequency (1-5 MHz) orbital radar

  5. NASA'S Robotic Mars Exploration Program: 2010 - 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleese, D.; Garvin, J.

    Exploration of Mars is currently a high priority for all space-faring nations. NASA has received initial Presidential approval for an aggressive program of Mars exploration extending until at least 2030. Among the central elements of this program are frequent visits by robotic missions. Following the Viking missions, NASA's robotic exploration of Mars was restarted in the mid-1990s with the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder. Today, six spacecraft in that program are operating at Mars. This paper describes NASA's plan for a discovery-driven program of robotic exploration in the next decade (2010 -- 2020). New opportunities are described for the worldwide science community to utilize orbiters, rovers and sample return missions for Mars research,

  6. New constraints on Mars rotation determined from radiometric tracking of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchynka, Petr; Folkner, William M.; Konopliv, Alex S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Park, Ryan S.; Le Maistre, Sebastien; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-02-01

    The Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover remained stationary between January and May 2012 in order to conserve solar energy for running its survival heaters during martian winter. While stationary, extra Doppler tracking was performed in order to allow an improved estimate of the martian precession rate. In this study, we determine Mars rotation by combining the new Opportunity tracking data with historic tracking data from the Viking and Pathfinder landers and tracking data from Mars orbiters (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). The estimated rotation parameters are stable in cross-validation tests and compare well with previously published values. In particular, the Mars precession rate is estimated to be -7606.1 ± 3.5 mas/yr. A representation of Mars rotation as a series expansion based on the determined rotation parameters is provided.

  7. Mars Thermal Inertia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the global thermal inertia of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 5000 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The pattern of inertia variations observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).

    The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  8. Successful Mars remote sensors, MO THEMIS and MER Mini-TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Steven; Christensen, Phil

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes results of the calibration of the miniature thermal emission spectrometer (Mini-TES) and the thermal emission imaging system (THEMIS) built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) under contract to Arizona State University (ASU). This paper also serves as an update to an earlier paper (Silverman et al., 2003) for mission description and instrument designs (Schueler et al., 2003). A major goal of the Mars exploration program is to help determine whether life ever existed on Mars via detailed in situ studies and surface sample return. It is essential to identify landing sites with the highest probability of containing samples indicative of early pre-biotic or biotic environments. Of particular interest are aqueous and/or hydrothermal environments in which life could have existed, or regions of current near-surface water or heat sources [Exobiology_Working_Group, 1995, An Exobiological Strategy for Mars Exploration, NASA Headquarters]. The search requires detailed geologic mapping and accurate interpretations of site composition and history in a global context. THEMIS and Mini-TES were designed to do this and builds upon a wealth of data from previous experiments. Previous experiments include the Mariner 6/7 Mars infrared radiometer (MIR) and infrared spectrometer [G.C. Pimentel, P.B. Forney, K.C. Herr, Evidence about hydrate and solid water in the martian surface from the 1969 Mariner infrared spectrometer, Journal of Geophysical Research 79(11) (1974) 1623 1634], the Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) [B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Kunde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9, Journal of Geophysical Research 78 (1973) 4267 4278], the Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) [H.H. Kieffer, T.Z. Martin, A.R. Peterfreund, B.M. Jakosky, E.D. Miner, F.D. Palluconi, Thermal and albedo mapping of Mars during the Viking

  9. Reconstructing Glaciers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, A., II; Brough, S.; Hubbard, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mars' mid-latitudes host a substantial volume of ice, equivalent to a ~1 - 2.5 m-thick global layer or the sum of Earth's glaciers and ice caps outside of Antarctica and Greenland. These deposits are the remnants of what is believed to have been a once far larger 'ice age', culminating in a last martian glacial maximum. Despite the identification of >1,300 glacier-like forms (GLFs) - the first order component of Mars' glacial landsystem - in Mars' mid-latitudes, little is known about their composition, dynamics or former extent. Here, we reconstruct the former 3D extent of a well-studied GLF located in eastern Hellas Planitia. We combine high-resolution geomorphic and topographic data, obtained from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, to reconstruct the GLF's former limits. We then apply a perfect plasticity rheological model, to generate multiple flow-parallel ice-surface transects. These are combined with the GLF's boundary to guide interpolation using ArcGIS' 'Topo to Raster' function to produce a continuous 3D surface for the reconstructed former GLF. Our results indicate that, since its reconstructed 'recent maximum' extent, the GLF's volume has reduced by 0.31 km3 and its area by 6.85 km2, or 70%. On-going research is addressing the degree to which this change is typical of Mars' full GLF population.

  10. Mars Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, G. J.; Greenberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    Over the next decade, international plans and commitments are underway to develop an infrastructure at Mars to support future exploration of the red planet. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide reliable global communication and navigation coverage for on-approach, landed, roving, and in-flight assets at Mars. The claim is that this infrastructure will: 1) eliminate the need of these assets to carry Direct to Earth (DTE) communications equipment, 2) significantly increase data return and connectivity, 3) enable small mission exploration of Mars without DTE equipment, 4) provide precision navigation i.e., 10 to 100m position resolution, 5) supply timing reference accurate to 10ms. This paper in particular focuses on two CCSDS recommendations for that infrastructure: CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A key aspect of Mars exploration will be the ability of future missions to interoperate. These protocols establish a framework for interoperability by providing standard communication, navigation, and timing services. In addition, these services include strategies to recover gracefully from communication interruptions and interference while ensuring backward compatibility with previous missions from previous phases of exploration.

  11. MARS PATHFINDER SMALL ROVER MATED TO LANDER'S PETALS IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF- 2), Jet Propulsion Laboratory workers are mating the Mars Pathfinder small rover to one of the lander's three petals. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the three petals of the lander -- closed for the six to seven month journey to the Red Planet -- will open like a flower to allow the rover to begin its quest to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is set for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  12. Modeling Martian Dust Using Mars-GRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: TES Mapping Years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from MGCM model results driven by observed TES dust optical depth TES Mapping Year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES).

  13. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Willson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ˜5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ˜2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ˜14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI's resolution is comparable at ˜30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  14. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F., III; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Wilson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ?5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ?2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ?14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI?s resolution is comparable at ?30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  15. The Pascal Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    Pascal is a Mars Climate Network Mission that is being developed for NASA's Mars Scout Program. The mission would establish a network of 18 science weather stations distributed across the entire surface of Mars that operates for 3-10 Mars years (5.6- 18.8 Earth years). Pascal's instrument suite combines entry data from accelerometers and descent cameras, with landed data from pressure, opacity, temperature, wind speed, and water vapor to create a detailed global picture of Martian climate and weather. A panoramic landed camera system acquires images every 30 Sols to monitor changes in the landing environment due to winds. Analysis of data from the science stations, taken as often as once every 15 minutes, will provide a depth of understanding that will vastly increase our knowledge of Mars, and significantly impact site selection for future NASA missions. Pascal is the first mission ever to sample - in situ - the full global diversity of Mars and provide a continuous long-term presence on its surface.

  16. Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L. (Editor); Bell, J. F., III (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop E convened in Tucson, Arizona, in October 1997 by popular demand slightly over two years following the first successful Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held in Ithaca, New York, in August 1995. Experts on Mars from the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States were present. Twenty-eight oral presentations were made and generous time allotted for useful discussions among participants. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize active groundbased observing programs and evaluate them in the context of current and future space missions to Mars, (2) discuss new technologies and instrumentation in the context of changing emphasis of observations and theory useful for groundbased observing, and (3) more fully understand capabilities of current and planned Mars missions to better judge which groundbased observations are and will continue to be of importance to our overall Mars program. In addition, the exciting new discoveries presented from the Pathfinder experiments and the progress report from the Mars Global Surveyor infused the participants with satisfaction for the successes achieved in the early stages of these missions. Just as exciting was the enthusiasm for new groundbased programs designed to address new challenges resulting from mission science results. We would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as Dr. David Black, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the staff of the Institute's Publications and Program Services Department for providing logistical, administrative, and publication support services for this workshop.

  17. Micro Weather Stations for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

  18. Constraints on the crystal-chemistry of Fe/Mg-rich smectitic clays on Mars and links to global alteration trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Cuadros, Javier; Bishop, Janice L.; Darby Dyar, M.; Dekov, Vesselin; Fiore, Saverio

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared remote sensing data of Mars have revealed thousands of ancient deposits of Fe/Mg-rich smectitic clay minerals within the crust with relevance to past habitability. Diagnostic metal-OH infrared spectroscopic absorptions used to interpret the mineralogy of these phyllosilicates occur at wavelengths of 2.27-2.32 μm, indicating variable Fe/Mg ratios in the clay structures. The objective of this work is to use these near infrared absorptions to constrain the mineralogy of smectites on Mars. Using Fe/Mg-rich seafloor clay minerals as mineralogical and spectroscopic analogs for Martian clay minerals, we show how crystal-chemical substitution and mixed layering affect the position of the diagnostic metal-OH spectral feature in smectitic clay minerals. Crystal-chemistry of smectites detected on Mars were quantitatively constrained with infrared data and categorized into four mineralogical groups. Possible alteration processes are constrained by comparisons of clay chemistry detected by remote sensing techniques to the chemistry of candidate protoliths. Of the four groups identified, three of them indicate significant segregation of Fe from Mg, suggestive of alteration under water-rich and/or oxidizing conditions on Mars. The fourth group (with low Fe/Mg ratios) may result from alteration in reducing or water-limited conditions, potentially in subsurface environments. Some samples are interstratified di-trioctahedral clay minerals that have characteristics of dioctahedral clay minerals but clear chemical evidence for trioctahedral sheets. Approximately 70% of smectite deposits previously detected on Mars are classified as Fe-rich (FeO/MgO > 10). Only 22% of detections are trioctahedral and relatively Mg-rich. An additional ∼8% are difficult to characterize, but might be very Fe-rich. The segregation of Fe from Mg in Martian clay minerals suggests that Mg should be enriched in other contemporaneous deposits such as chlorides and carbonates.

  19. Successful Mars remote sensors, MO THEMIS and MER Mini-TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Steven; Christensen, Phil

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes results of the calibration of the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) under contract to Arizona State University (ASU). This paper also serves as an update to an earlier paper (Silverman, et al., 2003) for mission description and instrument designs (Schueler, et al., 2003). A major goal of the Mars Exploration Program is to help determine whether life ever existed on Mars via detailed in situ studies and surface sample return. It is essential to identify landing sites with the highest probability of containing samples indicative of early pre-biotic or biotic environments. Of particular interest are aqueous and/or hydrothermal environments in which life could have existed, or regions of current near-surface water or heat sources. The search requires detailed geologic mapping and accurate interpretations of site composition and history in a global context. THEMIS and Mini-TES were designed to do this and builds upon a wealth of data from previous experiments. Previous experiments include the Mariner 6/7 Mars Infrared Radiometer (MIR) and Infrared Spectrometer, the Mariner 9 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS), the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM), the Phobos Termoscan, and the continuing Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission using the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). TES has collected hyperspectral images (up to 286 spectral bands from 6-50 μm) of the entire martian surface, providing an initial global reconnaissance of mineralogy and thermophysical properties. By covering the key 6.3 to 15.0 μm region in both TES and THEMIS, it is possible to combine TES fine spectral resolution with THEMIS fine spatial resolution to achieve a global mineralogic inventory at the spatial scales necessary for detailed geologic studies within the Odyssey data resources. Mini-TES is a single detector

  20. Chemical composition of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical composition of Mars is estimated from the cosmochemical model of Ganapathy and Anders (1974) with additional petrological and geophysical constraints. The model assumes that planets and chondrites underwent the same fractionation processes in the solar nebula, and constraints are imposed by the abundance of the heat-producing elements, U, Th and K, the volatile-rich component and the high density of the mantle. Global abundances of 83 elements are presented, and it is noted that the mantle is an iron-rich garnet wehrlite, nearly identical to the bulk moon composition of Morgan at al. (1978) and that the core is sulfur poor (3.5% S). The comparison of model compositions for the earth, Venus, Mars, the moon and a eucrite parent body suggests that volatile depletion correlates mainly with size rather than with radial distance from the sun.

  1. The Mars Observer laser altimeter investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Muhleman, D. O.; Head, J. W.; Garvin, J. B.; Abshire, J. B.; Bufton, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the Mars Observer laser altimeter (MOLA) investigation is to determine globally the topography of Mars at a level suitable for addressing problems in geology and geophysics. Secondary objectives are to characterize the 1064-nm wavelength surface reflectivity of Mars to contribute to analyses of global surface mineralogy and seasonal albedo changes, to assist in addressing problems in atmospheric circulation, and to provide geodetic control and topographic context for the assessment of possible future Mars landing sites. The principal components of MOLA are a diode-pumped, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser transmitter that emits 1064-nm wavelength laser pulses, a 0.5-m-diameter telescope, a silicon avalanche photodiode detector, and a time interval unit with 10-ns resolution. MOLA will provide measurements of the topography of Mars within approximately 160-m footprints and a center-to-center along-track foot print spacing of 300 m along the Mars Observer subspacecraft ground track. The elevation measurements will be quantized with 1.5 m vertical resolution before correction for orbit- and pointing induced errors. MOLA profiles will be assembled into a global 0.2 deg x 0.2 deg grid that will be referenced to Mars' center of mass with an absolute accuracy of approximately 30 m. Other data products will include a global grid of topographic gradients, corrected individual profiles, and a global 0.2 deg x 0.2 deg grid of 1064-nm surface reflectivity.

  2. Stars in Orion as Seen from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Stars in the upper portion of the constellation Orion the Hunter, including the bright shoulder star Betelgeuse and Orion's three-star belt, appear in this image taken from the surface of Mars by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit.

    Spirit imaged stars on March 11, 2004, after it awoke during the martian night for a communication session with NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. This image is an eight-second exposure. Longer exposures were also taken. The images tested the capabilities of the rover for night-sky observations. Scientists will use the results to aid planning for possible future astronomical observations from Mars.

  3. Climate Change on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Today, Mars is cold and dry. With a 7 mbar mean surface pressure, its thin predominantly CO2 atmosphere is not capable of raising global mean surface temperatures significantly above its 217K effective radiating temperature, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is equivalent to a global ocean only 10 microns deep. Has Mars always been in such a deep freeze? There are several lines of evidence that suggest it has not. First, there are the valley networks which are found throughout the heavily cratered terrains. These features are old (3.8 Gyr) and appear to require liquid water to form. A warm climate early in Mars' history has often been invoked to explain them, but the precise conditions required to achieve this have yet to be determined. Second, some of the features seen in orbiter images of the surface have been interpreted in terms of glacial activity associated with an active hydrological cycle some several billion years ago. This interpretation is controversial as it requires the release of enormous quantities of ground water and enough greenhouse warming to raise temperatures to the melting point. Finally, there are the layered terrains that characterize both polar regions. These terrains are geologically young (10 Myr) and are believed to have formed by the slow and steady deposition of dust and water ice from the atmosphere. The individual layers result from the modulation of the deposition rate which is driven by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. The ongoing research into each of these areas of Martian climate change will be reviewed, and similarities to the Earth's climate system will be noted.

  4. Mars ultraviolet reflectance compared with imaging, topography and geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, K. E.; Mankoff, K. D.; Hendrix, A. R.; Barth, C. A.

    2003-04-01

    We compare ultraviolet reflectance spectra from the Mariner Mars 1971 (MM71) Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) with imaging data from the Viking Mars Digital Image Model (MDIM), with surface topography from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and with geology from the USGS Survey Atlas of Mars digital maps. We use a new web-accessible database of MM71 UVS Reflectances and two software tools: 1) a surface and atmosphere database visualization tool called Albatross and 2) a web-based Mars data comparison tool called MDC. See http://lasp.colorado.edu/software_tools/. We present several examples, including the northern polar region and Lyot Crater.

  5. Independent Verification of Mars-GRAM 2010 with Mars Climate Sounder Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, Kerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission and engineering applications. Applications of Mars-GRAM include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Atmospheric influences on landing site selection and long-term mission conceptualization and development can also be addressed utilizing Mars-GRAM. Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte Carlo mode, to perform high-fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing. Mars-GRAM is an evolving software package resulting in improved accuracy and additional features. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Above 80 km, Mars-GRAM is based on the University of Michigan Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The most recent release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes an update to Fortran 90/95 and the addition of adjustment factors. These adjustment factors are applied to the input data from the MGCM and the MTGCM for the mapping year 0 user-controlled dust case. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), latitude and areocentric solar longitude (Ls).

  6. MAHLI on Mars: lessons learned operating a geoscience camera on a landed payload robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Ravine, Michael A.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.

    2016-06-01

    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) is a 2-megapixel, color camera with resolution as high as 13.9 µm pixel-1. MAHLI has operated successfully on the Martian surface for over 1150 Martian days (sols) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. During that time MAHLI acquired images to support science and science-enabling activities, including rock and outcrop textural analysis; sand characterization to further the understanding of global sand properties and processes; support of other instrument observations; sample extraction site documentation; range-finding for arm and instrument placement; rover hardware and instrument monitoring and safety; terrain assessment; landscape geomorphology; and support of rover robotic arm commissioning. Operation of the instrument has demonstrated that imaging fully illuminated, dust-free targets yields the best results, with complementary information obtained from shadowed images. The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow satisfactory night imaging but do not improve daytime shadowed imaging. MAHLI's combination of fine-scale, science-driven resolution, RGB color, the ability to focus over a large range of distances, and relatively large field of view (FOV), have maximized the return of science and science-enabling observations given the MSL mission architecture and constraints.

  7. New Perspectives on Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Aharonson, O.; Aurnou, J. M.; Banerdt, W. B.; Carr, M. H.; Dombard, A. J.; Frey, H. V.; Golombek, M. P.; Hauck, S. A., II; Head, J. W., III

    2004-01-01

    Global data sets returned by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express spacecraft and recent analyses of Martian meteorites suggest that most of the major geological events of Martian history occurred within the first billion years of solar system formation. This period was a time of heavy impact bombardment of the inner solar system, a process that strongly overprinted much of the Martian geological record from that time. Geophysical signatures nonetheless remain from that period in the Martian crust, and several geochemical tracers of early events are found in Martian meteorites. Collectively, these observations provide insight into the earliest era in Martian history when the conditions favoring life were best satisfied.

  8. MarsQuest: Bringing the Excitement of Mars Exploration to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J. B.

    2005-08-01

    We are in the midst of an extraordinary era of Mars exploration with missions like NASA's Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor and ESA's Mars Express spacecraft along with NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers returning results that expand our knowledge and understanding of the Red Planet. To bring the excitement of Mars exploration to the public, the Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, CO, has developed a comprehensive Mars Education Program that includes: 1) large and small traveling exhibits, 2) workshops for educators and docents, and 3) an interactive Web site called MarsQuest Online (in partnership with TERC and JPL). This program will be presented and offered as a good model for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to improve science education. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is on a six-year tour that began in 1998. The exhibit is currently at the Life Science Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. The Institute has also developed Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest that is designed for smaller venues. Workshops for educators and docents are conducted at host sites. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions to students and museum visitors. MarsQuest Online is a Web site that uses the MarsQuest exhibit as a framework for online interactives that delve deeper into Mars science. The Mars Education Program also provides a context for educational research on effective educational programming and web-based versus exhibit delivery of interactives. The results of this research inform subsequent exhibit projects, (e.g. Giant Planets) and are disseminated to the broader informal science community.

  9. THEMIS Global Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, N. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed techniques to make seamless, controlled global mosaics from the more than 50,000 multi-spectral infrared images of the Mars returned by the THEMIS instrument aboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. These images cover more than 95% of the surface at 100m/pixel resolution at both day and night local times. Uncertainties in the position and pointing of the spacecraft, varying local time, and imaging artifacts make creating well-registered mosaics from these datasets a challenging task. In preparation for making global mosaics, many full-resolution regional mosaics have been made. These mosaics typically cover an area 10x10 degrees or smaller, and are constructed from only a few hundred images. To make regional mosaics, individual images are geo-rectified using the USGS ISIS software. This dead-reckoning is sufficient to approximate position to within 400m in cases where the SPICE information was downlinked. Further coregistration of images is handled in two ways: grayscale differences minimization in overlapping regions through integer pixel shifting, or through automatic tie-point generation using a radial symmetry transformation (RST). The RST identifies points within an image that exhibit 4-way symmetry. Martian craters tend to to be very radially symmetric, and the RST can pin-point a crater center to sub-pixel accuracy in both daytime and nighttime images, independent of lighting, time of day, or seasonal effects. Additionally, the RST works well on visible-light images, and in a 1D application, on MOLA tracks, to provide precision tie-points across multiple data sets. The RST often finds many points of symmetry that aren't related to surface features. These "false-hits" are managed using a clustering algorithm that identifies constellations of points that occur in multiple images, independent of scaling or other affine transformations. This technique is able to make use of data in which the "good" tie-points comprise even less than 1% of total

  10. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  11. Recent studies of the optical properties of dust and cloud particles in the Mars atmosphere and the interannual frequency of global dust storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Muhleman, D. O.

    1991-01-01

    The results of research with two distinctly separate sets of observations yield new information on the optical properties of particulate scatterers in the Mars atmosphere, and on the interannual variability of the abundance of such scatterers in the Mars atmosphere. The first set of observations were taken by the IRTM (Infrared Thermal Mapper) instrument onboard the Viking Orbiters, during the period 1976 to 1980. Several hundred emission phase function (EPF) sequences were obtained over the Viking mission, in which the IRTM visual brightness channel observed the same area of surface/atmosphere as the spacecraft passed overhead. The 1 to 2 percent accuracy of calibration and the phase-angle coverage that characterizes these data make them ideally suited to determining both the optical depths and optical properties of dust and cloud scatterers in the Mars atmosphere versus latitude, longitude, seasons (L sub s), and surface elevation over the extended period of Viking observations. The EPF data were analyzed with a multiple scattering radiative transfer code to determine dust single scattering albedos which are distinctly higher than indicated by the Viking Lander observations. The second set of observations regard ground-based observations of the 1.3 to 2.6 mm rotational transitions of CO in the Martian atmosphere. The low-to-mid latitude average of the atmospheric temperature profile (0 to 70 km altitude) were derived from a number of such observations over the 1980 to 1990 period.

  12. Recent studies of the optical properties of dust and cloud particles in the Mars atmosphere and the interannual frequency of global dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Muhleman, D. O.

    1991-05-01

    The results of research with two distinctly separate sets of observations yield new information on the optical properties of particulate scatterers in the Mars atmosphere, and on the interannual variability of the abundance of such scatterers in the Mars atmosphere. The first set of observations were taken by the IRTM (Infrared Thermal Mapper) instrument onboard the Viking Orbiters, during the period 1976 to 1980. Several hundred emission phase function (EPF) sequences were obtained over the Viking mission, in which the IRTM visual brightness channel observed the same area of surface/atmosphere as the spacecraft passed overhead. The 1 to 2 percent accuracy of calibration and the phase-angle coverage that characterizes these data make them ideally suited to determining both the optical depths and optical properties of dust and cloud scatterers in the Mars atmosphere versus latitude, longitude, seasons (Ls), and surface elevation over the extended period of Viking observations. The EPF data were analyzed with a multiple scattering radiative transfer code to determine dust single scattering albedos which are distinctly higher than indicated by the Viking Lander observations. The second set of observations regard ground-based observations of the 1.3 to 2.6 mm rotational transitions of CO in the Martian atmosphere. The low-to-mid latitude average of the atmospheric temperature profile (0 to 70 km altitude) were derived from a number of such observations over the 1980 to 1990 period.

  13. Density of Mars' south polar layered deposits.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Smith, David E; Smrekar, Suzanne E

    2007-09-21

    Both poles of Mars are hidden beneath caps of layered ice. We calculated the density of the south polar layered deposits by combining the gravity field obtained from initial results of radio tracking of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter with existing surface topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and basal topography from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding on the Mars Express spacecraft. The results indicate a best-fit density of 1220 kilograms per cubic meter, which is consistent with water ice that has approximately 15% admixed dust. The results demonstrate that the deposits are probably composed of relatively clean water ice and also refine the martian surface-water inventory. PMID:17885129

  14. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers get ready to lift the heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander off the workstand before attaching it to the lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  15. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Climate Orbiter is free of the protective canister that surrounded it during the move to the pad. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  16. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers remove the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  17. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers place aside a piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  18. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the last piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  19. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers lower the heat shield onto the Mars Polar Lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  20. Design, Development and Testing of Airplanes for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The opportunity for a piggyback mission to Mars aboard an Ariane 5 rocket in the early spring of 1999 set off feverish design activity at several NASA centers. This report describes the contract work done by faculty, students, and consultants at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo California (Cal poly/SLO) to support the NASA/Ames design, construction and test efforts to develop a simple and robust Mars Flyer configuration capable of performing a practical science mission on Mars. The first sections will address the conceptual design of a workable Mars Flyer configuration which started in the spring and summer of 1999. The following sections will focus on construction and flight test of two full-scale vehicles. The final section will reflect on the overall effort and make recommendations for future work.

  1. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), a KSC technician takes part in testing science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems on the Mars Polar Lander. The solar- powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  2. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER REMOVED FROM SHIPPING CONTAINER IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from Jet Propulsion Laboratory remove the Mars Pathfinder lander from its shipping container, still covered in protective wrapping. Pictured from L-R, Linda Robeck, Jerry Gutierrez, Lorraine Garcia, Chuck Foehlinger of JPL. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  3. New methodology for assessing the probability of contaminating Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, D. W.; Judd, B. R.; Pezier, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    Methodology is proposed to assess the probability that the planet Mars will be contaminated by terrestrial microorganisms aboard a spacecraft. The present NASA methods are extended to permit utilization of detailed information on microbial characteristics, the lethality of release and transport mechanisms, and of other information about the Martian environment. Different types of microbial release are distinguished, and for each release mechanism a probability of growth is computed. Using this new methodology, an assessment was carried out for the 1975 Viking landings on Mars. The resulting probability of contamination for each Viking lander is 6 x 10 to the -6 power, and is amenable to revision as additional information becomes available.

  4. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians look over the Mars Polar Lander. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. Targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The Lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  5. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the Mars Polar Lander is in mate-to-cruise stage. The solar- powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  6. Tectonic implications of Mars crustal magnetism.

    PubMed

    Connerney, J E P; Acuña, M H; Ness, N F; Kletetschka, G; Mitchell, D L; Lin, R P; Reme, H

    2005-10-18

    Mars currently has no global magnetic field of internal origin but must have had one in the past, when the crust acquired intense magnetization, presumably by cooling in the presence of an Earth-like magnetic field (thermoremanent magnetization). A new map of the magnetic field of Mars, compiled by using measurements acquired at an approximately 400-km mapping altitude by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, is presented here. The increased spatial resolution and sensitivity of this map provide new insight into the origin and evolution of the Mars crust. Variations in the crustal magnetic field appear in association with major faults, some previously identified in imagery and topography (Cerberus Rupes and Valles Marineris). Two parallel great faults are identified in Terra Meridiani by offset magnetic field contours. They appear similar to transform faults that occur in oceanic crust on Earth, and support the notion that the Mars crust formed during an early era of plate tectonics. PMID:16217034

  7. Tectonic implications of Mars crustal magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuña, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Kletetschka, G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.

    2005-01-01

    Mars currently has no global magnetic field of internal origin but must have had one in the past, when the crust acquired intense magnetization, presumably by cooling in the presence of an Earth-like magnetic field (thermoremanent magnetization). A new map of the magnetic field of Mars, compiled by using measurements acquired at an ≈400-km mapping altitude by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, is presented here. The increased spatial resolution and sensitivity of this map provide new insight into the origin and evolution of the Mars crust. Variations in the crustal magnetic field appear in association with major faults, some previously identified in imagery and topography (Cerberus Rupes and Valles Marineris). Two parallel great faults are identified in Terra Meridiani by offset magnetic field contours. They appear similar to transform faults that occur in oceanic crust on Earth, and support the notion that the Mars crust formed during an early era of plate tectonics. PMID:16217034

  8. Constraints on the Global-scale Chemical Weathering State of Mars From TES Results Based on Spectral Analysis of Chemically Weathered Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Sharp, T. G.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    On Earth, subaerially exposed basaltic rocks (from arid-to-tropical regions) develop weathering rinds and rock coatings that affect spectroscopic measurements of their natural surfaces. Similarly, basaltic rocks and basaltic soil particles on Mars may have rinds and coatings that are spectroscopically observable. Thermal emission spectroscopy, because it provides information about the composition and structure of silicate and non-silicate minerals and mineraloids, provides a useful perspective on the mineralogy of weathered surfaces; reconciliation of the emission spectral features of weathered surfaces with observations from other datasets is critical to interpretations of thermal emission spectral features of Mars. In this study, we investigate the thermal emission (6-25 μm) and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) (0.4-2.5 μm) spectroscopic features of fresh and weathered surfaces of rock samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). VNIR spectra of weathered rock surfaces are brighter and redder than fresh rock surfaces, but contain no evidence for neoformation of clay minerals within subaerially exposed, weathered surfaces. In contrast, thermal emission spectroscopy suggests an enrichment of clay minerals in weathered surfaces. Also, thermal emission spectroscopy indicates the presence of glass-like materials in many weathered surfaces, which likely correspond to amorphous weathering products present within fractures, as coatings on minerals, or as coatings on the rocks themselves. These results have important implications for interpretation of TES and THEMIS data of Mars, including: 1) glasses and clays detected on Mars from thermal infrared spectra may correspond to poorly crystalline weathering products within chemically weathered rock surfaces, 2) chemically weathered surfaces of basalts may appear oxidized but clay-poor to VNIR datasets, and 3) the differential chemical breakdown of primary phases can affect interpretations of the remaining primary rock

  9. MARS PATHFINDER CAMERA TEST IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are conducting a systems test of the imager for the Mars Pathfinder. Mounted on the Pathfinder lander, the imager (the white cylindrical element the worker is touching) is a specially designed camera featuring a stereo-imaging system with color capability provided by a set of selectable filters. It is mounted on an extendable mast that will pop up after the lander touches down on the Martian surface. The imager will transmit images of the terrain, allowing engineers back on Earth to survey the landing site before the Pathfinder rover is deployed to explore the area. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2. JPL manages the Pathfinder project for NASA.

  10. Mars Polar Lander is prepared for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the top of the Mars Polar Lander is secured on a portable stand. The Lander will undergo testing, including a functional test of the science instruments and the basic spacecraft subsystems, before its launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  11. Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

    2006-01-01

    The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

  12. Site selection for Mars exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J.; Des Marais, D.; Greeley, R.; Landheim, R.; Klein, H.

    1995-01-01

    The selection of sites on Mars that have a high priority for exobiological research is fundamental for planning future exploration. The most immediate need is to identify targets for high resolution orbital imaging during the Mars Observer and Mars '94/'96 missions that can be used to refined site priorities for surface exploration. We present an objective approach to site selection whereby individual sites are selected and scored, based on the presence of key geological features which indicate high priority environments. Prime sites are those that show evidence for the prolonged activity of liquid water and which have sedimentary deposits that are likely to have accumulated in environments favorable for life. High priority areas include fluvio-lacustrine (stream-fed lake systems), springs, and periglacial environments. Sites where mineralization may have occurred in the presence of organisms (e.g. springs) are given high priority in the search for a fossil record on Mars. A systematic review of Viking data for 83 sites in the Mars Landing Site Catalog (MLSC) resulted in the selection of 13 as being of exobiological interest. The descriptions of these sites were expanded to address exobiological concerns. An additional five sites were identified for inclusion in the second edition of the MLSC. We plan to broaden our site selection activities to include a systematic global reconnaissance of Mars using Viking data, and will continue to refine site priorities for exobiological research based on data from future missions in order to define strategies for surface exploration.

  13. Mars Aerocapture and Validation of Mars-GRAM with TES Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is a widely-used engineering- level Mars atmospheric model. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Typical Mars aerocapture periapsis altitudes (for systems with rigid-aeroshell heat shields) are about 50 km. This altitude is above the 0-40 km height range covered by Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) nadir observations. Recently, TES limb sounding data have been made available, spanning more than two Mars years (more than 200,000 data profiles) with altitude coverage up to about 60 km, well within the height range of interest for aerocapture. Results are presented comparing Mars-GRAM atmospheric density with densities from TES nadir and limb sounding observations. A new Mars-GRAM feature is described which allows individual TES nadir or limb profiles to be extracted from the large TES databases, and to be used as an optional replacement for standard Mars-GRAM background (climatology) conditions. For Monte-Carlo applications such as aerocapture guidance and control studies, Mars-GRAM perturbations are available using these TES profile background conditions.

  14. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Dale; Barnes, Timothy; Bryant, Woody; Chowdhury, Parveen; Dillard, Joe; Gardner, Vernadette; Gregory, George; Harmon, Cheryl; Harrell, Brock; Hilton, Sherrill

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual design for a permanently manned, self-sustaining Martian facility, to accommodate a crew of 20 people. The goal is to incorporate the major functions required for long term habitation in the isolation of a barren planet into a thriving ecosystem. These functions include living, working, service, and medical facilities as well as a green house. The main design task was to focus on the internal layout while investigating the appropriate structure, materials, and construction techniques. The general concept was to create a comfortable, safe living environment for the crew members for a stay of six to twelve months on Mars. Two different concepts were investigated, a modular assembly reusable structure (MARS) designated Lavapolis, and a prefabricated space frame structure called Hexamars. Both models take into account factors such as future expansion, radiation shielding, and ease of assembly.

  15. Mars: Always Cold, Sometimes Wet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; McKay, Christoper P.

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of a diverse suite of observations of H2O-related landforms that are possible Mars analogs from terrestrial polar regions (Devon Island in the Arctic; the Dry Valleys of Antarctica) put into question any requirement for extended episode(s) of warm and wet climate in Mars past. Geologically transient episodes of localized H2O cycling, forced by exogenic impacts, enhanced endogenic heat flow, and/or orbit-driven short-term local environmental change under an otherwise cold, low pressure (=10(exp 2) mbar) global climate, may be sufficient to account for the martian surface's exposed record of aqueous activity. A Mars that was only sometimes locally warm and wet while remaining climatically cold throughout its history is consistent with results (difficulties) encountered in modeling efforts attempting to support warm martian climate hypotheses. Possible analogs from terrestrial cold climate regions for the recent gully features on Mars also illustrate how transient localized aqueous activity might, under specific circumstances, also occur on Mars under the present frigid global climatic regime.

  16. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  17. Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND) for ExoMarsTrace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhov, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Kozyrev, A.; Tretiyakov, V.; Mokrousov, M.; Vostrukhin, A.; Golovin, D.; Fedosov, F.

    2012-04-01

    ExoMars is now under considerations, as a joint mission of the three agencies, ESA,Roscosmos and NASA to explore the red planet. Planned for launch in 2016, its first element, the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) is going to spend one Martian year (687 Earth days) orbiting around the planet. Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND), once aboard TGO, will be measuring thermal, epithermal and high energy neutrons with energy ranges up to 10 MeV, which variations are an excellent signature of H bearing elements presence in the regolith at up to 1 meter depth. Neutron mapping of Mars is being performed since 2002 by HEND instrument on board of Mars Odyssey, but the significant step up in FREND design compared to this previous mission will be its ability to collimate neutrons and thus have a very narrow Field of View of 40 km at a 400 km altitude. Its collimator consists of layers of polyethylene to moderate neutrons and 10B to absorb them. The collimator's design is equal to one used in LEND instrument on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and proved to be efficient. The instrument design and detectors will also be very similar to ones used in its both ancestors, LEND and HEND, benefitting from the best heritage there is. FREND will use a set of 3He proportional counters to cover the thermal and epithermal neutrons energy ranges, providing a set of several independent measurements for higher statistics, as well as a stilbene scintillation detector for high energy neutrons. FREND will be the first collimated neutron instrument to fly towards Mars and, like LEND on the Moon, FREND will be able to produce Martian neutron maps that could supersede previously created ones by about 10 times in the linear spatial resolution. This will potentially clarify the available global Mars neutron maps, but could also point out new, never before seen small water/hydrogen rich features and other places of interest on the surface of the planet. Without a doubt, this kind of

  18. DS1 MICAS Full-Disk-Rotation Spectra of Mars (1.2-2.8 microns)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2000-10-01

    During November 1999 new global reflectance spectra of Mars for two full rotations were acquired with the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) channel of the MICAS (Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer) aboard DS1 (New Millennium Deep Space 1 S/C). Earlier spectra, acquired in May 1999, had shown very tentative new absorption features between 1.5-1.9 microns, possibly related to surface mineralogy (Soderblom, 2000, LPSC abstract). During the November 1999 sequence Mars was at a much closer range (55 versus 115 million km). The conditions for the November observations were as follows: phase angle 53 deg., heliocentric longitude (Ls) 240 deg. (northern Autumn), sub-S/C latitude 18.1 S, and sub-solar latitude 21.8 S. This is an opportune geometry because most of the surface contrast among surface materials likely to show mineralogical variance is in the belt from the equator to about 40 S (c.f. Viking global color mosaics). The south annual CO2 cap was near its full extent ( 60 S). MICAS acquired 48 spectra in with the SWIR keyhole (16 groups of three on 3-hour centers) covering roughly two full rotations of Mars. Because Mars' sidereal day is about 24h and 40m, the two rotations are shifted about 9 degrees relative to each other; all spectra that were within +/- 5 degrees of each other were averaged to provide longitude coverage every 45 degrees. The data were calibrated using a new MICAS SWIR spectral response file derived Arcturus observations. The new calibration allows extension of the useful spectral range out to 2.7 microns. The highest quality (highest SNR) spectral region is from 1.6 to 2.0 microns bounded on both sides by atmospheric CO2 bands. A series of spectral features are recognized in this band appear to be related to surface mineralogy because their strength is modulated by rotation of the planet. The features were tentatively identified at 1.74 and 1.87 microns in the May data (Soderblom, 2000) are far more clearly visible in the November data

  19. Mars Program Independent Assessment Team Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Thomas; Arnold, James; Brackey, Thomas; Carr, Michael; Dwoyer, Douglas; Fogleman, Ronald; Jacobson, Ralph; Kottler, Herbert; Lyman, Peter; Maguire, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter failed to achieve Mars orbit on September 23, 1999. On December 3, 1999, Mars Polar Lander and two Deep Space 2 microprobes failed. As a result, the NASA Administrator established the Mars Program Independent Assessment Team (MPIAT) with the following charter: 1) Review and analyze successes and failures of recent Mars and Deep Space Missions which include: a) Mars Global Surveyor, b) Mars Climate Orbiter, c) Pathfinder, d) Mars Polar Lander, e) Deep Space 1, and f) Deep Space 2; 2) Examine the relationship between and among, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), NASA Headquarters, and industry partners; 3) Assess effectiveness of involvement of scientists; 4) Identify lessons learned from successes and failures; 5) Review revised Mars Surveyor Program to assure lessons learned are utilized; 6) Oversee Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 failure reviews; and 7) Complete by March 15, 2000. In-depth reviews were conducted at NASA Headquarters, JPL, and Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA). Structured reviews, informal sessions with numerous Mars Program participants, and extensive debate and discussion within the MPIAT establish the basis for this report. The review process began on January 7, 2000, and concluded with a briefing to the NASA Administrator on March 14, 2000. This report represents the integrated views of the members of the MPIAT who are identified in the appendix. In total, three related reports have been produced: a summary report, this report entitled "Mars Program Independent Assessment Team Report," and the "Report on the Loss of the Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Missions".

  20. Mars Exploration Using Biomorphic Flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakoor, S.; Chahl, J.; Srinivasan, M.; Cabrol, N.; Young, L.; Hine, B.; Zornetzer, S.

    Mars imagery obtained by the Mariner, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions suggests the previous existence of abundant liquid water (considered essential for life as we know it). It is not clear what transpired on the Martian climate to have turned the planet in to the desert that it is today. Developing a comprehensive understanding of the past and present climatic events for our sister planet Mars may provide important information relevant to the future health and well being of our own planet. Following and exploring water flow features is a valuable strategy in the search for extant or extinct life, it satisfies our fundamental scientific curiosity, and could provide answers to the fundamental questions surrounding the question of the origins of life in our solar system. Low altitude air-borne exploration of Mars offers a means for covering large areas, perhaps up to several hundred kilometers, quickly and efficiently. Aerial exploration should provide a close-up birds eye view of the planetary terrain. Exploration that can only be imagined today could become a reality if we develop methods to fly on Mars and navigate through its difficult terrain to image/study sites of interest. Mars offers a substantial challenge to conventional flight due to its thin atmosphere (about a hundredth that on Earth); lack of magnetic compassing for navigation, and the limited telecommunications or navigational infrastructure. To meet and overcome these challenges, we are adapting for Mars exploration principles proven successful in nature to achieve stable flight control and navigation. By incorporating engineering solutions modeled on successful biological solutions we will provide novel and highly effective micro flyer capabilities suitable for aerial surveillance of Mars. We will describe a few example sites on Mars whose exploration absolutely requires the ability to cover several hundred kilometers. We will illustrate how autonomous biomorphic

  1. Cryolitozone of Mars- as the climatic indicator of the Martian relict ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozorovich, Y.; Fournier-Sicre, A.; Linkin, V.; Kosov, A.; Skulachev, D.; Gorbatov, S.; Ivanov, A.; Heggy, E.

    2015-10-01

    this approach is - the salt component of subsurface is the global geolectrical marker of the Martian relict ocean in the past. Mars' observations by means of ground and onboard instruments are known to have been conducted in recent years. These observations provided information on Mars' surface mean temperature values and their seasonal variations. Radar measurements allowed to estimate dielectric constant and soil upper layer density values. Mars' surface radiation measurements by a 3,4 cm radiometer aboard Mars-3 and 5 automatic interplanetary stations (1971-1973) proved to be more informative. Radio brightness temperature variations were registered along the flight route. As a result surface temperature latitudinal distribution estimates in a spatial resolution element, were obtained as well as more precise values of dielectric constant and soil density of centimeter fractions this surface layer. No more experiments using microwave radiometers were conducted since. The only way to obtain information about Mars surface mezoscale structure is to use a high spatial resolution panoramic equipment on-board. Mars' surface radio images would allow to identify regions differing in ice percentage content in cryogenic surface structures or in mineralized solutions of negative temperature and to estimate relative quantity of cryogenic formations - permafrost fractions as well as to measure the soil looseness or porosity degree. In addition it would be possible to restore various regions' average vertical temperature, humidity and porosity profiles of less than 1 m thick surface layer. These dependencies combined with the results of depth inductive sounding (0.5 km) and magnitotelluric (1- 5 km) sensing would provide new and more detailed information on Martian crust structure and character and its cryolitozone, necessary to create a more reliable paleoclimatic model of the planet. Experiment equipment and methods Space experiment is conducted to obtain maps of temperature and

  2. NASA Mars Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space.

  3. Complex researches aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhyl, Yu. A.

    Special Research and Development Bureau SRDB is a general organizer on Ukrainian part of three Ukrainian- Russian joint experiments to be implemented aboard the Russian segment of International Space Station RS-ISS Experiment Material- Friction It is proposed to carry out a series of comparative tribological research under conditions of orbital flight aboard the ISS versus those in on- ground laboratory conditions To meet these objectives there will be employed a special onboard 6-module Space- borne tribometer- facility The on- ground research will be implemented under conditions of laboratory simulation of Space environmental factors Results thus obtained would enable one to forecast a behavior of friction pairs as well as functional safety and lifetime of the space- vehicle This experiment will also enable us determine an adequacy of tribological results obtained under conditions of outer Space and on- ground simulation Experiment Penta- Fatigue It is proposed to develop fabricate and deliver aboard the RS-ISS a facility intended for studies of SEF- influence on characteristics of metallic and polymeric materials resistance to fatigue destruction Such a project to be implemented in outer Space for the first ever time would enable us to estimate the parameter of cosmic lifetime for constructional materials due to such mechanical characteristic as fatigue strength so as to enable selection of specific sorts of constructional materials appropriate to service in Space technologies At the same time

  4. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  5. Mars-GRAM Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Mars-Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) and its new features. One important new feature is the "auxiliary profile" option, whereby a simple input file is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) for three candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites (Terby Crater, Melas Chasma, and Gale Crater). A global Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) database has also been generated for purposes of making 'Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components, averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude bins and 15 degree L(sub S) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Comparisons show reasonably good consistency between Mars-GRAM with low dust optical depth and both TES observed and mesoscale model simulated density at the three study sites. Mean winds differ by a more significant degree. Comparisons of mesoscale and TES standard deviations' with conventional Mars-GRAM values, show that Mars-GRAM density perturbations are somewhat conservative (larger than observed variability), while mesoscale-modeled wind variations are larger than Mars-GRAM model estimates. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  6. Known Locations of Carbonate Rocks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Green dots show the locations of orbital detections of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars, determined by analysis of targeted observations by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) acquired through January 2008. The spectrometer is on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The base map is color-coded global topography (red is high, blue is low) overlain on mosaicked daytime thermal infrared images. The topography data are from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The thermal infrared imagery is from the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

    The CRISM team, led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. Arizona State University, Tempe, operates the Thermal Emission Imaging System, which the university developed in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey projects for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiters.

  7. Scientists Track 'Perfect Storm' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Two dramatically different faces of our Red Planet neighbor appear in these comparison images showing how a global dust storm engulfed Mars with the onset of Martian spring in the Southern Hemisphere. When NASA's Hubble Space Telescope imaged Mars in June, the seeds of the storm were caught brewing in the giant Hellas Basin (oval at 4 o'clock position on disk) and in another storm at the northern polar cap.

    When Hubble photographed Mars in early September, the storm had already been raging across the planet for nearly two months obscuring all surface features. The fine airborne dust blocks a significant amount of sunlight from reaching the Martian surface. Because the airborne dust is absorbing this sunlight, it heats the upper atmosphere. Seasonal global Mars dust storms have been observed from telescopes for over a century, but this is the biggest storm ever seen in the past several decades.

    Mars looks gibbous in the right photograph because it is 26 million miles farther from Earth than in the left photo (though the pictures have been scaled to the same angular size), and our viewing angle has changed. The left picture was taken when Mars was near its closest approach to Earth for 2001 (an event called opposition); at that point the disk of Mars was fully illuminated as seen from Earth because Mars was exactly opposite the Sun.

    Both images are in natural color, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  8. NASA Mars 2020 Rover Mission: New Frontiers in Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is the next step in NASAs robotic exploration of the red planet. The rover, based on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover now on Mars, will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.Like the Mars Science Laboratory rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012, the Mars 2020 spacecraft will use a guided entry, descent, and landing system which includes a parachute, descent vehicle, and, during the provides the ability to land a very large, heavy rover on the surface of Mars in a more precise landing area. The Mars 2020 mission is designed to accomplish several high-priority planetary science goals and will be an important step toward meeting NASAs challenge to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The mission will conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the habitability of the environment, search for signs of ancient Martian life, and assess natural resources and hazards for future human explorers. The science instruments aboard the rover also will enable scientists to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth in the future. The rover also may help designers of a human expedition understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which could be a valuable resource for producing oxygen and rocket fuel.

  9. Vertical roughness of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, James B.; Frawley, James J.; Abshire, James B.

    The vertical roughness of the martian surface at ˜250 m spatial scales has been determined in two global latitude bands: an equatorial and a high northern band acquired from 18 tracks of data by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) during the Fall of 1997. The distribution of RMS vertical roughness, as derived from MOLA pulse widths, for the equatorial band is non-gaussian, with an overall mean of 2.8 m RMS, but with secondary populations at 1.5 m and 2-6 m RMS. The higher latitude northern plains of Mars are almost uniformly ˜1 m RMS in their vertical roughness characteristics, suggesting that they are smoother than virtually any terrestrial deserts. We suggest that dust mantling has muted the local topography of Mars, rendering it as smooth as 1-2 m RMS. Heavily cratered uplands near the martian equator are noticeably rougher, indicating more rugged and less-mantled local topography.

  10. Mars @ ASDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  11. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P., III; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  12. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  13. Computer processing of Mars Odyssey THEMIS IR imaging, MGS MOLA altimetry and Mars Express stereo imaging to locate Airy-0, the Mars prime meridian reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Thomas; Neukum, Gerhard; Smith, David E.; Christensen, Philip; Neumann, Gregory; Albee, Arden; Caplinger, Michael; Seregina, N. V.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    The small crater Airy-0 was selected from Mariner 9 images to be the reference for the Mars prime meridian. Initial analyses were made in year 2000 to tie Viking Orbiter and Mars Orbiter Camera images of Airy-0 to the evolving Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model to improve the location accuracy of Airy-0. Based upon this tie and radiometric tracking of landers / rovers from earth, new expressions for the Mars spin axis direction, spin rate and prime meridian epoch value were produced to define the orientation of the Martian surface in inertial space over time. Now that the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model are complete, a more exhaustive study has been performed to determine the location of Airy-0 relative to the global terrain grid. THEMIS IR image cubes of the Airy and Gale crater regions were tied to the global terrain grid using precision stereo photogrammetric image processing techniques. The Airy-0 location was determined to be within 50 meters of the currently defined IAU prime meridian, with this offset at the limiting absolute accuracy of the global terrain grid. Additional outputs of this study were a controlled multi-band photomosaic of Airy, precision alignment and geometric models of the ten THEMIS IR bands and a controlled multi-band photomosaic of Gale crater used to validate the Mars Surface Laboratory operational map products supporting their successful landing on Mars.

  14. Mars Exploration Program and Mars Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetsel, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Program and constituent Mars Technology Program are described. Current ongoing and future NASA-led missions are presented, including discussions of scientific accomplishments and objectives as well as technology validations accomplished and technological enablers for future missions.

  15. Report on the Loss of the Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden; Battel, Steven; Brace, Richard; Burdick, Garry; Casani, John; Lavell, Jeffrey; Leising, Charles; MacPherson, Duncan; Burr, Peter; Dipprey, Duane

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) began in 1994 with plans to send spacecraft to Mars every 26 months. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), a global mapping mission, was launched in 1996 and is currently orbiting Mars. Mars Surveyor '98 consisted of Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) and Mars Polar Lander (MPL). Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) was the prime contractor for Mars Surveyor '98. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Surveyor Program for NASA's Office of Space Science. MPL was developed under very tight funding constraints. The combined development cost of MPL and MCO, including the cost of the two launch vehicles, was approximately the same as the development cost of the Mars Pathfinder mission, including the cost of its single launch vehicle. The MPL project accepted the challenge to develop effective implementation methodologies consistent with programmatic requirements.

  16. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  17. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  18. Mars Atmosphere Resource Verification INsitu (MARVIN) - In Situ Resource Demonstration for the Mars 2020 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Araghi, Koorosh; Ess, Kim M.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Calle, Carlos I.; Clark, Larry; Iacomini, Christie

    2014-01-01

    The making of oxygen from resources in the Martian atmosphere, known as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), has the potential to provide substantial benefits for future robotic and human exploration. In particular, the ability to produce oxygen on Mars for use in propulsion, life support, and power systems can provide significant mission benefits such as a reducing launch mass, lander size, and mission and crew risk. To advance ISRU for possible incorporation into future human missions to Mars, NASA proposed including an ISRU instrument on the Mars 2020 rover mission, through an announcement of opportunity (AO). The purpose of the the Mars Atmosphere Resource Verification INsitu or (MARVIN) instrument is to provide the first demonstration on Mars of oxygen production from acquired and stored Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide, as well as take measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature, and of suspended dust particle sizes and amounts entrained in collected atmosphere gases at different times of the Mars day and year. The hardware performance and environmental data obtained will be critical for future ISRU systems that will reduce the mass of propellants and other consumables launched from Earth for robotic and human exploration, for better understanding of Mars dust and mitigation techniques to improve crew safety, and to help further define Mars global circulation models and better understand the regional atmospheric dynamics on Mars. The technologies selected for MARVIN are also scalable for future robotic sample return and human missions to Mars using ISRU.

  19. Validation of a new Mesoscale Model for MARS .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, K.; Ferretti, R.; Forget, F.; Fiorenza, C.; Visconti, G.

    The study of Mars planet is very important because of the several similarities with the Earth. For the understanding of the dynamical processes which drive the martian atmosphere, a new Martian Mesoscale Model (MARS-MM5) is presented. The new model is based on the Pennsylvania State University (PSU)/National Centre for Atmosphere Research (NCAR) Mesoscale Model Version 5 \\citep{duh,gre}. MARS-MM5 has been adapted to Mars using soil characteristics and topography obtained by Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Different cases, depending from data availability and corresponding to the equatorial region of Mars, have been selected for multiple MARS-MM5 simulations. To validate the different developments Mars Climate Database (MCD) and TES observations have been employed: MCD version 4.0 has been created on the basis of multi annual integration of Mars GCM output. The Thermal Emission Spectromter observations (TES) detected during Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission are used in terms of temperature. The new, and most important, aspect of this work is the direct validation of the newly generated MARS-MM5 in terms of three-dimensional observations. The comparison between MARS-MM5 and GCM horizontal and vertical temperature profiles shows a good agreement; moreover, a good agreement is also found between TES observations and MARS-MM5.

  20. Density prediction in Mars' aerobraking region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moudden, Y.; Forbes, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerobraking at Mars is significantly impacted by the density variability at altitudes between about 100 and 140 km. Density changes can be quite substantial from orbit to orbit and from day to day. Much of this variability arises from tides propagating upward from the lower atmosphere. In this paper we present first results from a method developed to predict density variability in Mars aerobraking region due to this source. It consists of employing physics-based tidal functions to fit tidal temperatures between 60 and 80 km inferred from Mars Climate Sounder measurements on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and using these functions to predict the density variations at aerobraking altitudes due to vertical propagation of the fitted tidal components. Validation against densities measured by the Mars Global Surveyor accelerometer suggest that these initial results capture salient features sufficiently well that users may want to incorporate them into operational models.

  1. Dune formation on the present Mars.

    PubMed

    Parteli, Eric J R; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-10-01

    We apply a model for sand dunes to calculate formation of dunes on Mars under the present Martian atmospheric conditions. We find that different dune shapes as those imaged by Mars Global Surveyor could have been formed by the action of sand-moving winds occurring on today's Mars. Our calculations show, however, that Martian dunes could be only formed due to the higher efficiency of Martian winds in carrying grains into saltation. The model equations are solved to study saltation transport under different atmospheric conditions valid for Mars. We obtain an estimate for the wind speed and migration velocity of barchan dunes at different places on Mars. From comparison with the shape of bimodal sand dunes, we find an estimate for the time scale of the changes in Martian wind regimes. PMID:17994981

  2. MECA Workshop on Dust on Mars 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steven (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Articles and abstracts of articles presented at this workshop are given. It was the goal of the workshop to stimulate cooperative research on, and discussion of, dust related processes on Mars, and to provide background information and help in planning of the Mars Observer mission. These topics are considered: How is dust ejected from the Martian surface into the atmosphere; How does the global atmospheric circulation affect the redistribution of dust on Mars; Are there sources and sinks of dust on Mars, if so, where are they and how do they vary in time; and How many components of dust are there on Mars, and what are their properties. There were four primary discussion sessions: (1) Dust in the atmosphere; (2) Dust on the surface; (3) Dust properties; and (4) Dust observations from future spacecraft missions.

  3. [Ecology and problems of the search for life on Mars].

    PubMed

    Karnaukhov, V N

    1996-01-01

    Global gases-exchange metabolic cycles, which on the Earth connect autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in indivisible biosphere of Earth, are absent on Mars as a result of rarely atmosphere. That is why Life on Mars way exist only in form of autotrophic-heterotrophic organisms-symbionts with closed metabolic cycles. Dust storms on Mars may produce continuous settling of Life in a new places which is favourable for Life. The methods of Life-searching on Mars mast take in account that fundamental difference of Life formation on Mars from so on Earth. PMID:8714475

  4. Mars Exploration Rovers: 4 Years on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This January, the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are starting their fifth year of exploring the surface of Mars, well over ten times their nominal 90-day design lifetime. This lecture discusses the Mars Exploration Rovers, presents the current mission status for the extended mission, some of the most results from the mission and how it is affecting our current view of Mars, and briefly presents the plans for the coming NASA missions to the surface of Mars and concepts for exploration with robots and humans into the next decade, and beyond.

  5. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  6. Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The exploration of Mars has long been a prime scientific objective of the U.S. planetary exploration program. Yet no U.S. spacecraft has successfully made measurements at Mars since the Viking missions of the late 1970s. Mars Observer, which was designed to conduct global observations from orbit, failed just before orbit insertion in 1993. The Russian spacecraft Phobos 2 did succeed in making some observations of the planet in 1989, but it was designed primarily to observe Phobos, the innermost satellite of Mars; the spacecraft failed 2 months after insertion into Mars orbit during the complex maneuvers required to rendezvous with the martian satellite. In fall 1996 NASA plans to launch Mars Pathfinder for a landing on the martian surface in mid-1997. This spacecraft is one of the first two missions in NASA's Discovery program that inaugurates a new style of planetary exploration in which missions are low-cost (less than $150 million) and have very focused science objectives. As can be seen in the comparative data presented in Box 1, this mission is considerably smaller in terms of cost, mass, and scope than NASA's previous Mars missions. NASA's FY 1995 budget initiated a continuing Mars exploration program, called Mars Surveyor, that involves multiple launches of spacecraft as small as or smaller than Mars Pathfinder to Mars over the next several launch opportunities, which recur roughly every 26 months. The first mission in the program, Mars Global Surveyor, set for launch late in 1996, is intended to accomplish many of the objectives of the failed Mars Observer. Like the Discovery program, Mars Surveyor is a continuing series of low-cost missions, each of which has highly focused science objectives. See Box 1 for comparative details of those Surveyor missions currently defined. Around the same time that the Mars Surveyor series was chosen as the centerpiece of NASA's solar system exploration program, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX

  7. Forced Forward Smoldering Experiments Aboard The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Bar-Ilan, A.; Rein, G.; Urban, D. L.; Torero, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Smoldering is a basic combustion problem that presents a fire risk because it is initiated at low temperatures and because the reaction can propagate slowly in the material interior and go undetected for long periods of time. It yields a higher conversion of fuel to toxic compounds than does flaming, and may undergo a transition to flaming. To date there have been a few minor incidents of overheated and charred cables and electrical components reported on Space Shuttle flights. With the establishment of the International Space Station, and the planning of a potential manned mission to Mars, there has been an increased interest in the study of smoldering in microgravity. The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a spacecraft environment. The aim of the experiment is to provide a better fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering combustion under normal- and microgravity conditions. This in turn will aid in the prevention and control of smolder originated fires, both on earth and in spacecrafts. The microgravity smoldering experiments have to be conducted in a space-based facility because smoldering is a very slow process and consequently its study in a microgravity environment requires extended periods of time. The microgravity experiments reported here were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle. The most recent tests were conducted during the STS-105 and STS-108 missions. The results of the forward smolder experiments from these flights are reported here. In forward smolder, the reaction front propagates in the same direction as the oxidizer flow. The heat released by the heterogeneous oxidation reaction is transferred ahead of the reaction heating the unreacted fuel. The resulting increase of the virgin fuel temperature leads to the onset of the smolder reaction, and propagates through the fuel. The MSC data are compared with normal gravity

  8. Heavy Cosmic Ray Measurement Aboard Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Krause, J.; Fischer, E.; Enge, W.

    1985-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 plastic track detectors was exposed to cosmic radiation during the 10 days mission aboard Spacelab-1. A part of the stack was rotated one revolution within 7 days. The impact time of most of the particles was correlated with the orbit position of the shuttle and thus with geomagnetic field parameters. The analysis of heavy particles with charge Z greater than or equal to 6 in the energy range 50-150 MeV per nucleon with special emphasis on geomagnetically forbidden particles is reported.

  9. Formation and deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers the formation and deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars. The rate limiting step in sulfate aerosol formation on Mars is the gas phase oxidation of SO2 by chemical reactions with O, OH, and HO2; submicron aerosol particles would circuit Mars and then be removed from the atmosphere by gravitational forces, globally dispersed, and deposited over a range of equatorial and mid-latitudes. Volcanic sulfate aerosols on Mars consist of liquid droplets and slurries containing sulfuric acid; aerosol deposition on a global or hemispheric scale could account for the similar concentrations of sulfur within surficial soils at the two Viking lander sites.

  10. Far-Northern Destination for Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The planned landing site for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander lies at a latitude on Mars equivalent to northern Alaska on Earth. It is within the region designated 'D' on this global image.

    This is an orthographic projection with color-coded elevation contours and shaded relief based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Total vertical relief is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) from the top of the highest volcano (red) to the northern lowlands (blue). North pole is where the longitude lines converge.

  11. Robotic missions to Mars - Paving the way for humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, D. S.; Bourke, R. D.; Cunningham, G. E.; Golombek, M. P.; Sturms, F. M.; Kahl, R. C.; Lance, N.; Martin, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is in the planning stages of a program leading to the human exploration of Mars. A critical element in that program is a set of robotic missions that will acquire information on the Martian environment and test critical functions (such as aerobraking) at the planet. This paper presents some history of Mars missions, as well as results of recent studies of the Mars robotic missions that are under consideration as part of the exploration program. These missions include: (1) global synoptic geochemical and climatological characterization from orbit (Mars Observer), (2) global network of small meteorological and seismic stations, (3) sample returns, (4) reconnaissance orbiters and (5) rovers.

  12. Predicted interplanetary shocks/particles at Mars compared with in-situ observations: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan M. P.

    2008-11-01

    The biological and technological consequences of long-duration, solar-related, energetic particle radiation for manned/unmanned spacecraft warrant that consideration be given to providing reliable space weather predictions for future space missions to planet Mars. An account is, herein, provided of how the HAFv.2 numerical model was applied to predict the arrivals of four, flare-related, shocks at Mars generated during a >20-day active period on the Sun in March 1989, and of the arrival of another composite shock produced in association with a 10-day period of solar activity in December 2006. These predictions are compared with in-situ measurements of shock signatures at Mars recorded, in the former case, by the solar-low-energy-detector (SLED) and by the low-energy-telescope (LET) aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft and, in the latter case, in data recorded by the ASPERA-3/IMA instrument aboard Mars Express. The success of the predictions is discussed and the requirement for further validation of the modeling technique using a large statistical sample pointed out. In-situ measurements made aboard Mars Express by the ASPERA-3/IMA experiment during the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 can provide data relevant to such validation. The successful application of a SOLar Particle ENgineering COde (SOLPENCO), that estimates solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes and fluences at the Earth, to the case of an energetic particle event at Mars (6 March 1989) is discussed. Measurements of SEP events recorded by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) supplemented by Mars Express measurements can potentially allow the predictions of SOLPENCO to be further studied downstream using a large statistical sample. However, we are presently only at the beginning of our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth-Mars scenarios that give rise to shock/particle events in the close Martian environment.

  13. Validation of Mars-GRAM and Planned New Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    For altitudes below 80 km, Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is based on output climatology from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). At COSPAR 2002, results were presented of validation tests of Mars-GRAM versus data from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Radio Science (RS) experiment. Further validation tests are presented comparing Mars- GRAM densities with those from the European Mars Climate Database (MCD), and comparing densities from both Mars-GRAM and MCD against TES observations. Throughout most of the height and latitude range of TES data (040 km and 70s to 70N), good agreement is found between atmospheric densities from Mars-GRAM and MCD. However, at the season and latitude zone for Mars Phoenix arrival and landing (Ls = 65 to 80 degrees and latitude 65 to 75N), Mars-GRAM densities are about 30 to 45 percent higher than MCD densities near 40 km altitude. Further evaluation is warranted concerning potential impact of these model differences on planning for Phoenix entry and descent. Three planned features for Mars-GRAM update are also discussed: (1) new MGCM and Thermospheric General Circulation Model data sets to be used as a revised basis for Mars-GRAM mean atmosphere, (2) a new feature to represent planetary-scale traveling waves for upper altitude density variations (such as found during Mars Odyssey aerobraking), and (3) a new model for effects of high resolution topographic slope on winds near the surface (0 to 4.5 km above MOLA topography level). Mars-GRAM slope winds will be computed from a diagnostic (algebraic) relationship based on Ye, Segal, and Pielke (1990). This approach differs from mesoscale models (such as MRAMS and Mars MM5), which use prognostic, full-physics solutions of the time- and space-dependent differential equations of motion. As such, slope winds in Mars-GRAM will be consistent with its "engineering-level" approach, and will be extremely fast and easy to evaluate

  14. Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer : The Search For Biosignatures And Biohints On Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Freissinet, C.; Brault, A.; Sternberg, R.; Rodier, C.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P.; Pinnick, V.; MOMA Team

    2012-10-01

    The joint ESA-Roscosmos Exo-Mars-2018 rover mission seeks the signs of past or present life on Mars. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. One of the instruments aboard MOMA is a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) which provides a unique ability to characterize a broad range of compounds allowing chemical analyses on volatile and non-volatile species. The key challenge with the analysis of refractory organic compounds contained in soil is their extraction and subsequent analysis by GC-MS. Since the extraction of organic matter is not possible by liquid solvent extraction, thermodesoprtion followed by derivatization has been developed. The goal of the thermodesorption is to quickly extract the organic matter before degradation. One of the main focus is to determine the chirality of amino acids. Indeed, on earth homochirality (especially the L-form) is an indicator for the presence of life. However, other refractory compounds can be analyzed: nucleobases, carbox-ylic acids, PAHs, etc. Thermodesorption occurs within a range of temperatures from 150 °C to 300 °C over a period of 30 s to 10 min, depending on the chemical compound. Under these conditions, we have shown that amino acids are not degraded and that their chirality is preserved. Once extracted, refractory molecules with labile hydrogens (e.g. amino acids, nucleobases, carboxylic acids, etc.) were derivatized. General and sensitive derivatization occurs with a sillylated compounds N,N-methyl-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Derivative compounds were separated on an RTX-5 (Restek) column. If a chiral separation was targeted, then dimethylformamide dimethylacetale derivatization (DMF-DMA) was utilized. With DMF-DMA 11 of the 19 proteinic amino acids were separated on the Chirasil

  15. Large-Diameter Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Implications for age of the Highlands and (Buried) Lowlands and Turn-off of the Global Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2003-01-01

    The global populations of visible and buried impact basins less than 200 km diameter revealed by high resolution gridded MOLA indicate: (a) a small (approx. 10) number of very large basins (D=1300-3000km), most of which have remained visible over martian history; (b) a much larger population of smaller basins (D=200-800 km) with many more buried than visible (on images); (c) a depletion of visible basins at intermediate diameters which may be a signature of some global-scale event (formation of the lowlands? origin of Tharsis?); and (d) a crater retention age for the buried lowlands greater than that of the visible highlands but less than that of the total (visible + buried) highlands. Crustal magnetic anomalies are generally not present in the interiors of the largest basins with two exceptions: these two (which appear to be the oldest) may predate the demise of the global magnetic field.

  16. Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Mars-GRAM Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The poster provides an overview of techniques to improve the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) sensitivity. It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) when used for sensitivity studies for TES MapYear = 0 and large optical depth values such as tau = 3 is less than realistic. A preliminary fix has been made to Mars-GRAM by adding a density factor value that was determined for tau = 0.3, 1 and 3.

  17. Climatology and first-order composition estimates of mesospheric clouds from Mars Climate Sounder limb spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Teanby, N. A.; Montabone, L.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Hurley, J.; Calcutt, S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Mesospheric clouds have been previously observed on Mars in a variety of datasets. However, because the clouds are optically thin and most missions have performed surface-focussed nadir sounding, geographic and seasonal coverage is sparse. We present new detections of mesospheric clouds using a limb spectra dataset with global coverage acquired by NASA's Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Mesospheric aerosol layers, which can be CO2 ice, water ice or dust clouds, cause high radiances in limb spectra, either by thermal emission or scattering of sunlight. We employ an object recognition and classification algorithm to identify and map aerosol layers in limb spectra acquired between December 2006 and April 2011, covering more than two Mars years. We use data from MCS band A4, to show thermal signatures of day and nightside features, and A6, which is sensitive to short wave IR and visible daytime features only. This large dataset provides several thousand detections of mesospheric clouds, more than an order of magnitude more than in previous studies. Our results show that aerosol layers tend to occur in two distinct regimes. They form in equatorial regions (30°S-30°N) during the aphelion season/northern hemisphere summer (Ls < 150°), which is in agreement with previous published observations of mesospheric clouds. During perihelion/dust storm season (Ls > 150°) a greater number of features are observed and are distributed in two mid-latitude bands, with a southern hemisphere bias. We observe temporal and longitudinal clustering of cloud occurrence, which we suggest is consistent with a formation mechanism dictated by interaction of broad temperature regimes imposed by global circulation and the propagation to the mesosphere of small-scale dynamics such as gravity waves and thermal tides. Using calculated frost point temperatures and a parameterization based on synthetic spectra we find that aphelion clouds are present in generally cooler

  18. Measuring solar wind interactions in Mars's exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-11-01

    On 14 September 1997, NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dipped into the red planet's thin atmosphere, the first of many passes meant to shorten the satellite's orbital path. For the next 5 months, the satellite periodically cruised through the thicker layers of the upper atmosphere and the wispy exosphere. The satellite's elongated orbit gave its sensors a good look at a broad swath of Mars's extended hydrogen exosphere.

  19. Examining Mars at Many Levels (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's concept represents the 'Follow the Water' theme of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. The orbiter's science instruments monitor the present water cycle in the Mars atmosphere and the associated deposition and sublimation of water ice on the surface, while probing the subsurface to see how deep the water-ice reservoir detected by Mars Odyssey extends. At the same time, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will search for surface features and minerals (such as carbonates and sulfates) that record the extended presence of liquid water on the surface earlier in the planet's history. The instruments involved are the Shallow Subsurface Radar, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, the Mars Color Imager, the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, the Context Camera and the Mars Climate Sounder.

    To the far left, the radar antenna beams down and 'sees' into the first few hundred feet (up to 1 kilometer) of Mars' crust. Just to the right of that, the next beam highlights the data received from the imaging spectrometer, which identifies minerals on the surface. The next beam represents the high-resolution camera, which can 'zoom in' on local targets, providing the highest-resolution orbital images yet of features such as craters and gullies and rocks.

    The beam that shines almost horizontally is that of the Mars Climate Sounder. This instrument is critical to analyzing the current climate of Mars since it observes the temperature, humidity, and dust content of the martian atmosphere, and their seasonal and year-to-year variations. Meanwhile, the Mars Color Imager observes ice clouds, dust clouds and hazes, and the ozone distribution, producing daily global maps in multiple colors to monitor daily weather and seasonal changes.

    The electromagnetic spectrum is represented on the top right and individual instruments are placed where their capability lies.

  20. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...