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Sample records for aboard mars odyssey

  1. Mars Odyssey from Two Distances in One Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Why There are Two Images of Odyssey

    NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft appears twice in the same frame in this image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The camera's successful imaging of Odyssey and of the European Space Agency's Mars Express in April 2005 produced the first pictures of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are both in nearly circular, near-polar orbits. Odyssey is in an orbit slightly higher than that of Global Surveyor in order to preclude the possibility of a collision. However, the two spacecraft occasionally come as close together as 15 kilometers (9 miles).

    The images were obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor operations teams at Lockheed Martin Space System, Denver; JPL and Malin Space Science Systems.

    The two views of Mars Odyssey in this image were acquired a little under 7.5 seconds apart as Odyssey receded from a close flyby of Mars Global Surveyor. The geometry of the flyby (see Figure 1) and the camera's way of acquiring an image line-by-line resulted in the two views of Odyssey in the same frame. The first view (right) was taken when Odyssey was about 90 kilometers (56 miles) from Global Surveyor and moving more rapidly than Global Surveyor was rotating, as seen from Global Surveyor. A few seconds later, Odyssey was farther away -- about 135 kilometers (84 miles) -- and appeared to be moving more slowly. In this second view of Odyssey (left), the Mars Orbiter Camera's field-of-view overtook Odyssey.

    The Mars Orbiter Camera can resolve features on the surface of Mars as small as a few meters or yards across from Mars Global Surveyor's orbital altitude of 350 to 405 kilometers (217 to 252 miles). From a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles), the camera would be able to resolve features substantially smaller than 1 meter or yard across.

    Mars Odyssey

  2. 2001 Mars Odyssey Project report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, D. A.; Gibbs, R. G.; Mase, R. A.; Plaut, J. J.; Saunders, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey orbiter was launched on April 7, 2001, and arrived at Mars on October 24, 2001. The orbiter carries scientific instruments that will determine surface elemental composition, mineralogy and morphology, and measure the Mars radiation environment from orbit. In addition, the orbiter will serve as a data relay for future surface missions. This paper will present an overview of the Odyssey project, including the key elements of the spacecraft design, mission design and navigation, mission operations, and the science approach. The project's risk management process will be described. Initial findings of the science team will be summarized.

  3. Mars Odyssey interplanetary navigation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mase, Robert A.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Bell, Julia L.

    2003-01-01

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission has returned an orbiter to map the planet and search for water. The success of this mission has reestablished confidence in Mars exploration that will pave the way for future orbiters, landers, adn rovers. The spacecraft has completed its journey and is now in the orbital science-gathering phase of the primary mission, which will continue through August 2004. This paper will describe teh strategy that was designed to safely and accurately navigate the spacecraft to Mars, and also relate the in-flight experience.

  4. Mars Odyssey in the Context of NASA's Mars Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.

    2002-05-01

    The NASA Mars ODYSSEY Orbiter is the second step in NASA's scientific strategy for Mars Exploration during the present decade. ODYSSEY is intended to produce global scale inventories of key elemental characteristics of the uppermost surface layer, as well as the first 100m scale mineralogical assessment of another planet using middle-IR multispectral imaging. In addition, ODYSSEY will provide the first quantitative assessment of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) environment in the vicinity of Mars, one of the key steps in preparing the knowledge base necessary to plan for eventual human scientific exploration of the Red Planet. In the context of NASA's restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP), ODYSSEY will provide new vantage points from which to identify localities on the surface of Mars where liquid water may have been persistent in the past, or where there are existing deposits of near-surface ice. In addition, with its THEMIS middle-IR imaging system, ODYSSEY will search for "thermal anomalies" at 100 m scales in an effort to discover landing sites for future missions. Together with the ongoing Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), ODYSSEY is part of a sustained reconaissance of Mars using a variety of remote sensing approaches, that will culminate with the 2005 Mars Reconaissance Orbiter (MRO). Both MGS and ODYSSEY will help target MRO's high resolution instruments so that the large trade-space of scientifically compelling landing sites for Mars can be prioritized to a top few. ODYSSEY will direct MRO, and subsequently MRO will direct the 2009 Mars Smart Lander (aka Mobile Surface Laboratory) to conduct surface-based reconaissance and definitive in situ measurements of key constituents of the "Mars System". Thus, ODYSSEY will provide both context and direction in the near-term scientific exploration of Mars. Most immediately, data from ODYSSEY will contribute to the landing site assessments that are ongoing in support of the early 2004 landings of the twin Mars

  5. Mars Odyssey Seen by Mars Global Surveyor (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This stereoscopic picture of NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft was created from two views of that spacecraft taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The camera's successful imaging of Odyssey and of the European Space Agency's Mars Express in April 2005 produced the first pictures of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

    Mars Global Surveyor acquired this image of Mars Odyssey on April 21, 2005. The stereoscopic picture combines one view captured while the two orbiters were 90 kilometers (56 miles) apart with a second view captured from a slightly different angle when the two orbiters were 135 kilometers (84 miles) apart. For proper viewing, the user needs '3-D' glasses with red over the left eye and blue over the right eye.

    The Mars Orbiter Camera can resolve features on the surface of Mars as small as a few meters or yards across from Mars Global Surveyor's orbital altitude of 350 to 405 kilometers (217 to 252 miles). From a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles), the camera would be able to resolve features substantially smaller than 1 meter or yard across.

    Mars Odyssey was launched on April 7, 2001, and reached Mars on Oct. 24, 2001. Mars Global Surveyor left Earth on Nov. 7, 1996, and arrived in Mars orbit on Sept. 12, 1997. Both orbiters are in an extended mission phase, both have relayed data from the Mars Exploration Rovers, and both are continuing to return exciting new results from Mars. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages both missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

  6. 2031, an edaphological Mars odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón, Vidal

    2016-04-01

    NASA is projecting to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. In the PICO session we will make a 4D experience, a journey in space and time. Wéll connect with a meeting in the future mission "Edaphos one" travelling to Mars in 2031. In that meeting, an international scientific team with one geophysicist, one mineralogist and two agronomist will review the state of the art of the geo-edaphological knowledge of the martian surface, based on the main Mars missions using orbiters (Mariner), landers (Viking) and rovers (Pathfinder, Spirit-Opportunity, Curiosity). A special attention will be devoted to the mineralogy of the iron oxides, as important aquamarkers. Finally, they discuss about the biological, physical and chemical limitations for plants growth on Mars. You can see the trailer of the presentation in this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRS0tPNpvFU

  7. Spacecraft Status Report: 2001 Mars Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyles, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Fourth extension of Odyssey mission continues, with orbital science investigations and relay services for landed assets. Mitigation of aging IMU and UHF transceiver. ODY has responded to Program Office/board recommendations. All Stellar mode has been certified for flight operations and is now standard for nadir point operations on the A-side. Investigating options to mitigate aging Battery. Gradual transfer to a later LMST orbit node to shorten eclipse durations. Reduce spacecraft loads during the longer eclipses. Optimize battery performance. ODY is preparing for E5 Proposal and Planetary Science Division FY12 Senior Review activities. ODY is on track to support MSL EDL and surface operations. ODY is managing consumables in order to remain in operations until 2020.

  8. Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-07-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.

  9. The Distribution of Non-Volatile Elements on Mars: Mars Odyssey GRS Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W.; Janes, D.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.; Reedy, R.; Evans, L.; Starr, R.; Drake, D.; Taylor, J.; Waenke, H.

    2004-01-01

    The major scientific objective of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission is to determine the distribution of elements in the near-surface of Mars. Mars Odyssey has been in its mapping orbit since February, 2002, and the GRS boom, which removes the instrument from the gamma-ray background of the spacecraft, was erected in June, 2002. In the 580 days since boom erection, we have accumulated 453 days of mapping data. The difference is due mostly to two times when Odyssey went into safe mode and the instrument warmed up forcing us to anneal out radiation damage that manifests itself after warming. Other data losses are due to simple transmitter data gaps and to intense solar particle events. The data from the GRS is statistical in nature. We have a very low count rate and a very low signal-to-noise ratio. With the exception of K, the most easily mapped elements have a signal/noise ratio on the order of 0.1 (0.5 for K) and the counting rates are on the order of 0.3 to 0.7 counts/min (4 cpm for K). In order to map the distribution of an element, we have to divide the total signal from Mars up into many cells that define the map s spatial resolution (unless the statistics are good enough that the intrinsic spatial resolution of the instrument, about 550 km diameter, dominates). The data for several elements have now achieved a statistical precision that permits us to make meaningful maps.

  10. Maps of subsurface hydrogen from the high energy neutron detector, Mars Odyssey.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I; Anfimov, D; Kozyrev, A; Litvak, M; Sanin, A; Tret'yakov, V; Krylov, A; Shvetsov, V; Boynton, W; Shinohara, C; Hamara, D; Saunders, R S

    2002-07-01

    After 55 days of mapping by the High Energy Neutron Detector onboard Mars Odyssey, we found deficits of high-energy neutrons in the southern highlands and northern lowlands of Mars. These deficits indicate that hydrogen is concentrated in the subsurface. Modeling suggests that water ice-rich layers that are tens of centimeters in thickness provide one possible fit to the data.

  11. Morphology and composition of the surface of Mars: Mars Odyssey THEMIS results.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Philip R; Bandfield, Joshua L; Bell, James F; Gorelick, Noel; Hamilton, Victoria E; Ivanov, Anton; Jakosky, Bruce M; Kieffer, Hugh H; Lane, Melissa D; Malin, Michael C; McConnochie, Timothy; McEwen, Alfred S; McSween, Harry Y; Mehall, Greg L; Moersch, Jeffery E; Nealson, Kenneth H; Rice, James W; Richardson, Mark I; Ruff, Steven W; Smith, Michael D; Titus, Timothy N; Wyatt, Michael B

    2003-06-27

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey has produced infrared to visible wavelength images of the martian surface that show lithologically distinct layers with variable thickness, implying temporal changes in the processes or environments during or after their formation. Kilometer-scale exposures of bedrock are observed; elsewhere airfall dust completely mantles the surface over thousands of square kilometers. Mars has compositional variations at 100-meter scales, for example, an exposure of olivine-rich basalt in the walls of Ganges Chasma. Thermally distinct ejecta facies occur around some craters with variations associated with crater age. Polar observations have identified temporal patches of water frost in the north polar cap. No thermal signatures associated with endogenic heat sources have been identified.

  12. Morphology and composition of the surface of Mars: Mars Odyssey THEMIS results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, P.R.; Bandfield, J.L.; Bell, J.F.; Gorelick, N.; Hamilton, V.E.; Ivanov, A.; Jakosky, B.M.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lane, M.D.; Malin, M.C.; McConnochie, T.; McEwen, A.S.; McSween, H.Y.; Mehall, G.L.; Moersch, J.E.; Nealson, K.H.; Rice, J. W.; Richardson, M.I.; Ruff, S.W.; Smith, M.D.; Titus, T.N.; Wyatt, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey has produced infrared to visible wavelength images of the martian surface that show lithologically distinct layers with variable thickness, implying temporal changes in the processes or environments during or after their formation. Kilometer-scale exposures of bedrock are observed; elsewhere airfall dust completely mantles the surface over thousands of square kilometers. Mars has compositional variations at 100-meter scales, for example, an exposure of olivine-rich basalt in the walls of Ganges Chasma. Thermally distinct ejecta facies occur around some craters with variations associated with crater age. Polar observations have identified temporal patches of water frost in the north polar cap. No thermal signatures associated with endogenic heat sources have been identified.

  13. The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.

  14. Time-variable and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-04-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have significantly contributed to the determination of global high-resolution global gravity fields of Mars for the last 16 years. All three spacecraft were located in sun-synchronous, near-circular polar mapping orbits for their primary mission phases at different altitudes and Local Solar Time (LST). X-Band tracking data have been acquired from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) providing information on the time-variable and static gravity field of Mars. MGS operated between 1999 and 2006 at 390 km altitude. ODY and MRO are still orbiting Mars with periapsis altitudes of 400 km and 255 km, respectively. Before entering these mapping phases, all three spacecraft collected radio tracking data at lower altitudes (˜170-200 km) that help improve the resolution of the gravity field of Mars in specific regions. We analyzed the entire MGS radio tracking data set, and ODY and MRO radio data until 2015. These observations were processed using a batch least-squares filter through the NASA GSFC GEODYN II software. We combined all 2- and 3-way range rate data to estimate the global gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, the seasonal variations of gravity harmonic coefficients C20, C30, C40 and C50 and the Love number k2. The gravity contribution of Mars atmospheric pressures on the surface of the planet has been discerned from the time-varying and static gravity harmonic coefficients. Surface pressure grids computed using the Mars-GRAM 2010 atmospheric model, with 2.5° x2.5° spatial and 2-h resolution, are converted into gravity spherical harmonic coefficients. Consequently, the estimated gravity and tides provide direct information on the solid planet. We will present the new Goddard Mars Model (GMM-3) of Mars gravity field in spherical harmonics to degree and order 120. The solution includes the Love number k2 and the 3-frequencies (annual, semi-annual, and tri

  15. Seasonal CO2 Observations on North and South of Mars as Seen by HEND (Mars Odyssey) and MOLA (MGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of neutron mapping measurements from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft are presented based on observations from the High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND). The HEND instrument is a part of GRS suite responsible for registration of epithermal and fast neutrons originating in the Mars subsurface layer. The gamma ray and neutron spectrometers measure the scattering of fast neutrons from the Martian surface, which is caused by bombardment of primary cosmic rays and is strongly sensitive to the presence of hydrogen atoms. Even several percent subsurface hydrogen significantly depresses the flux of epithermal and fast neutrons. The recent Mars Odyssey observations detected a considerable amount of hydrogen, almost certainly corresponding to water ice, in the shallow near surface of the southern and northern hemispheres of Mars.

  16. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  17. New Views of the Martian Polar Regions: The Latest Results from the Mars Odyssey THEMIS Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Byrne, S.

    2004-01-01

    One of the many questions of Martian exploration is to uncover the history of Mars, through analysis of the polar layered deposits (PLD). Martian polar ice caps hold most of the exposed water ice on the surface of Mars and yet their history and physical processes involved in their formation are unclear. In this work we present the latest imaging data acquired by the Mars Odyssey THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS) from the South Polar Residual Deposits (SPLD). We will concentrate our analysis on differences observed by THEMIS in winter/early spring and summer periods.

  18. Mars Gravity Field and Upper Atmosphere from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, A.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA orbital missions Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have been exploring and monitoring the planet Mars since 1997. MGS executed its mapping mission between 1999 and 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis altitude at ~370 km and the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 pm Local Solar Time (LST). The spacecraft was equipped with onboard instrumentation to acquire radio science data and to measure spacecraft ranges to the Martian surface (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter). These measurements resulted in static and time-varying gravity field and high-resolution global topography of the planet. ODY and MRO are still orbiting about Mars in two different sun-synchronous orbits, providing radio tracking data that indirectly measure both the static and time-varying gravity field and the atmospheric density. The orbit of ODY has its periapsis at ~390 km altitude and descending node at 4-5 pm LST. However, the spacecraft also collected measurements at lower altitudes (~220 km) in 2002 prior to the mapping phase. Since November 2006, MRO is in a low-altitude orbit with a periapsis altitude of 255 km and descending node at 3 pm LST. Radio data from MRO help improve the resolution of the static gravity field and measure the mass distribution of the polar caps, but the atmospheric drag at those altitudes may limit the benefits of these radio tracking observations. We present a combined solution of the Martian gravity field to degree and order 110 and atmospheric density profiles with radio tracking data from MGS, ODY and MRO. The gravity field solution is combined with the MOLA topography yielding an updated map of Mars crustal thickness. We also show our solution of the Love number k2 and time-variable gravity zonal harmonics (C20 and C30, in particular). The recovered atmospheric density profiles may be used in atmospheric models to constrain the long-term variability of the

  19. The Earth and Moon As Seen by 2001 Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    2001 Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) took this portrait of the Earth and its companion Moon, using the infrared camera, one of two cameras in the instrument. It was taken at a distance of 3,563,735 kilometers (more than 2 million miles) on April 19, 2001 as the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft left the Earth. From this distance and perspective the camera was able to acquire an image that directly shows the true distance from the Earth to the Moon. The Earth's diameter is about 12,750 km, and the distance from the Earth to the Moon is about 385,000 km, corresponding to 30 Earth diameters. The dark region seen on Earth in the infrared temperature image is the cold south pole, with a temperature of minus 50 degrees Celsius (minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit). The small bright region above it is warm Australia. This image was acquired using the 9.1 um infrared filter, one of nine filters that the instrument will use to map the mineral composition and temperature of the martian surface. From this great distance, each picture element (pixel) in the image corresponds to a region 900 by 900 kilometers or greater in size or about size of the state of Texas. Once Odyssey reaches Mars orbit each infrared pixel will cover a region only 100 by 100 meters on the surface, about the size of a major league baseball field.

  20. A Martian Telecommunications Network: UHF Relay Support of the Mars Exploration Rovers by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Barbieri, A.; Brower, E.; Estabrook, P.; Gibbs, R.; Horttor, R.; Ludwinski, J.; Mase, R.; McCarthy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Theisinger, P.; Thorpe, T.; Waggoner, B.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and ESA have established an international network of Mars orbiters, outfitted with relay communications payloads, to support robotic exploration of the red planet. Starting in January, 2004, this network has provided the Mars Exploration Rovers with telecommunications relay services, significantly increasing rover engineering and science data return while enhancing mission robustness and operability. Augmenting the data return capabilities of their X-band direct-to-Earth links, the rovers are equipped with UHF transceivers allowing data to be relayed at high rate to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express orbiters. As of 21 July, 2004, over 50 Gbits of MER data have been obtained, with nearly 95% of that data returned via the MGS and Odyssey UHF relay paths, allowing a large increase in science return from the Martian surface relative to the X-band direct-to-Earth link. The MGS spacecraft also supported high-rate UHF communications of MER engineering telemetry during the critical period of entry, descent, and landing (EDL), augmenting the very low-rate EDL data collected on the X-band direct-to-Earth link. Through adoption of the new CCSDS Proximity-1 Link Protocol, NASA and ESA have achieved interoperability among these Mars assets, as validated by a successful relay demonstration between Spirit and Mars Express, enabling future interagency cross-support and establishing a truly international relay network at Mars.

  1. Mars' gravity field and upper atmosphere with MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO radio science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars exploration program conducted by NASA during the last decade has enabled continuous observations of the planet from orbit with three different missions: the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). These spacecraft were equipped with on board instrumentation dedicated to collect radio tracking data in the X-band. The analysis of these data has provided a high-resolution gravity field model of Mars. MGS and ODY were inserted into two separate frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbits with different local times, with their periapsis altitude at ~370 km and ~390 km, respectively. MGS was in orbit around Mars between 1999 and 2006, whereas ODY has been orbiting the planet since January 2002. Using the radio science data of these two spacecraft, gravity models with a maximum resolution of degree and order 95 in spherical harmonics (spatial resolution of 112 km) have been determined. MRO has been orbiting Mars since August 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous orbit with a periapsis at 255 km altitude. Therefore, its radio data helped significantly improve Mars' gravity field model, up to degree and order 110 (spatial resolution of 96 km). However, mismodeling of the atmospheric drag, which is the strongest non-conservative force acting on the spacecraft at MRO's low altitude, compromises the estimation of the temporal variations of the gravity field zonal harmonics that provide crucial information on the seasonal mass of carbon dioxide in the polar caps. For this reason, we implemented the Drag Temperature Model (DTM)-Mars model (Bruinsma and Lemoine 2002) into our Precise Orbit Determination (POD) program GEODYN-II. We estimated key model parameters to adequately reproduce variations in temperatures and (partial) density along the spacecraft trajectories. Our new model allows us to directly estimate the long-term periodicity of the major constituents at MGS, ODY, and MRO altitudes (~255-450 km). In this

  2. Mars Odyssey: Status and Science in the Second Extended Mission and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, David; Plaut, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status and the science from the second extended Mars Odyssey mission, and discusses plans for the future. The science objectives of the 2002 Mars Odyssey mission were to: Map the elemental composition of the surface, determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface, acquire high spatial and spectral resolution images of the surface mineralogy, provide information on the morphology of the Martian Surface, characterize the near-space radiation environment, and observe interannual variations. The science instruments on the spacecraft are: the Gamma Ray Spectrometer Suite (GRS) composed of the Gamma Sensor head, the neutron spectrometer, and the high energy neutron detector; The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) composed of the Thermal infrared Camera, and a visible Camera; and finally the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), consisting of multiple detectors for examining the space radiation. The MARIE instruments ceased working in October of 2003. Shown are maps from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer of Silicon, and Iron. and charts showing the variations in Atmospheric Argon. From the THEMIS instruments is a view of the region around Nili Fosse, that show Olivine-rich exposures, an image from the Meridiani Planum shown TES data to contain 15-20% Hematite, an image of Aram Chaos with hematite abundance, and the possibility that this site contained a standing body of water. The New Science mode for THEMIS and the plans for a second extension of the Odyssey mission are discussed.

  3. Long-Term Periodicity of the Mars Exospheric Density from MRO and Mars Odyssey Radio Tracking Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, A.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have collected more than 11 years of continuous tracking data of spacecraft in orbit around Mars. The radio science data are generally used to determine the static and seasonal gravity field of the central body. However, these two spacecraft are in different sun-synchronous orbits that cover a wide range of altitudes (250-410 km) where investigation of the atmosphere and climate of Mars so far have not been supported by in situ and remote sensing measurements. The drag perturbation acting on the probes provides indirect measurements of the Martian atmospheric density. Therefore, we focused our work on the determination of the long-term periodicity of the atmospheric constituents in the Mars exosphere with Mars Odyssey and MRO radio tracking data. We implemented the Drag Temperature Model (DTM) -Mars model into our Precise Orbit Determination (POD) program GEODYN-II to adequately reproduce variations in temperature and (partial) density along ODY and MRO trajectories. The recovery of Mars' atmospheric dynamics using Doppler tracking data requires the accurate modeling of all forces acting on the spacecraft. The main non-conservative force, apart from drag, is solar radiation pressure. Spacecraft panel reflectivities and the radiation pressure-scaling factor are not estimated, but we adjusted empirical once-per-revolution along-track periodic accelerations (cosine and sine) over each orbital arc to mitigate solar radiation pressure mismodeling. After converging the orbital data arcs, and editing out all the data during superior conjunctions, we combined the MRO and Mars Odyssey arcs in a global solution where we estimated spacecraft initial states, time-correlated drag scale factors, and annual and semi-annual variability of the major constituents in the Mars upper atmosphere. We will show that the updated DTM-Mars model provides a better prediction of the long-term variability of the dominant species

  4. Application of Accelerometer Data to Mars Odyssey Aerobraking and Atmospheric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, R. H.; Keating, G. M.; George, B. E.; Escalera, P. E.; Werner, M. R.; Dwyer, A. M.; Hanna, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking was an enabling technology for the Mars Odyssey mission even though it involved risk due primarily to the variability of the Mars upper atmosphere. Consequently, numerous analyses based on various data types were performed during operations to reduce these risk and among these data were measurements from spacecraft accelerometers. This paper reports on the use of accelerometer data for determining atmospheric density during Odyssey aerobraking operations. Acceleration was measured along three orthogonal axes, although only data from the component along the axis nominally into the flow was used during operations. For a one second count time, the RMS noise level varied from 0.07 to 0.5 mm/s2 permitting density recovery to between 0.15 and 1.1 kg per cu km or about 2% of the mean density at periapsis during aerobraking. Accelerometer data were analyzed in near real time to provide estimates of density at periapsis, maximum density, density scale height, latitudinal gradient, longitudinal wave variations and location of the polar vortex. Summaries are given of the aerobraking phase of the mission, the accelerometer data analysis methods and operational procedures, some applications to determining thermospheric properties, and some remaining issues on interpretation of the data. Pre-flight estimates of natural variability based on Mars Global Surveyor accelerometer measurements proved reliable in the mid-latitudes, but overestimated the variability inside the polar vortex.

  5. A Thermal Analysis Approach for the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft's Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2003-01-01

    There are numerous challenges associated with placing a spacecraft in orbit around Mars. Often. trades must be made such as the mass of the payload and the amount of fuel that can be carried. One technique employed to more efficiently place a spacecraft in orbit while maximizing payload mass (minimizing fuel use) is aerobraking. The Mars Odyssey Spacecraft made use of aerobraking to gradually reduce its orbit period from a highly elliptical insertion orbit to its final science orbit. Aerobraking introduces its own unique challenges, in particular, predicting the thermal response of the spacecraft and its components during each aerobraking drag pass. This paper describes the methods used to perform aerobraking thermal analysis using finite element thermal models of the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft's solar array. To accurately model the complex behavior during aerobraking, the thermal analysis must be tightly coupled to the spatially varying, time dependent aerodynamic heating analysis. Also, to properly represent the temperatures prior to the start of the drag pass. the model must include the orbital solar and planetary heat fluxes. It is critical that the thermal behavior be predicted accurately to maintain the solar array below its structural flight allowable temperature limit. The goal of this paper is to describe a thermal modeling method that was developed for this purpose.

  6. Search for Chemically Bound Water in the Surface Layer of Mars Based on HEND/Mars Odyssey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    This study is emphasized on search for signatures of chemically bound water in surface layer of Mars based on data acquired by High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) which is part of the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). Fluxes of epithermal (probe the upper 1-2 m) and fast (the upper 20-30 cm) neutrons, considered in this work, were measured since mid February till mid June 2002. First analysis of this data set with emphasis of chemically bound water was made. Early publications of the GRS results reported low neutron flux at high latitudes, interpreted as signature of ground water ice, and in two low latitude areas: Arabia and SW of Olympus Mons (SWOM), interpreted as 'geographic variations in the amount of chemically and/or physically bound H2O and or OH...'. It is clear that surface materials of Mars do contain chemically bound water, but its amounts are poorly known and its geographic distribution was not analyzed.

  7. Simultaneous MSL REMS and Mars Odyssey THEMIS ground temperature measurements in Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Victoria; Vasavada, Ashwin; Christensen, Philip; Ramos, Miguel; de Pablo, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Ground temperature measurements and thermal models have been used extensively to infer physical properties of the Martian surface such as effective mean particle size [1], rock abundance [2], the presence of lateral or vertical heterogeneity [e.g., 3], degree of induration or cementation [4], etc. Knowledge of these physical properties is valuable for interpreting Mars' geologic history at a variety of spatial scales from local to global, as well as providing important insight into the safety and trafficability of landing sites, both prior to [e.g., 5, 6] and during landed mission operations. The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity provides the first in situ observations of ground temperature throughout the diurnal cycle [7]. We have compared GTS-measured temperatures and derived thermal inertias through sol 414 with simultaneously acquired data obtained from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) onboard the Mars Odyssey orbiter [8]. These measurements enable us to: 1) compare orbital and in situ temperature observations, 2) compare thermal inertias derived from single time-of-day measurements to those derived from a full diurnal temperature cycle, and 3) validate interpretations of thermophysical data with visual observations of local terrain. Surface temperatures measured by GTS and THEMIS at locations along Curiosity's traverse show a good correlation and deviations from a perfect fit are expected based on the instruments' spatial resolution differences. Local imaging (e.g., Mastcam clast survey images) show that, not surprisingly, the relatively small GTS field of view can be heavily biased by small-scale, local thermophysical features. THEMIS thermal inertias appear to be somewhat higher than their GTS-derived counterparts overall. However, much of this difference can be attributed to the difference in the spatial resolution of the instruments, particularly at

  8. The Development and Evaluation of an Operational Aerobraking Strategy for the Mars 2001 Odyssey Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Munk, Michelle M.; Powell, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars 2001 Odyssey Orbiter successfully completed the aerobraking phase of its mission on January 11, 2002. This paper discusses the support provided by NASA's Langley Research Center to the navigation team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the planning and operational support of Mars Odyssey Aerobraking. Specifically, the development of a three-degree-of-freedom aerobraking trajectory simulation and its application to pre-flight planning activities as well as operations is described. The importance of running the simulation in a Monte Carlo fashion to capture the effects of mission and atmospheric uncertainties is demonstrated, and the utility of including predictive logic within the simulation that could mimic operational maneuver decision-making is shown. A description is also provided of how the simulation was adapted to support flight operations as both a validation and risk reduction tool and as a means of obtaining a statistical basis for maneuver strategy decisions. This latter application was the first use of Monte Carlo trajectory analysis in an aerobraking mission.

  9. Solar Particle Events Observed by the Odyssey MARIE Instrument at Mars: Dose and Model Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, T. F.; Saganti, P. B.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary concerns prior to human exploration of Mars is the need to accurately characterize the charged particle radiation environment both for the surface stay, and for the transit period to and from the planet. The Odyssey spacecraft, currently in Mars orbit includes a charged particle radiation detector, MARIE, which can measure particle fluxes with energies above approx. 30 MeV and charges between 1 and 10. Two classes of particles are of particular interest: the Galactic Cosmic Rays, (GCR), and those charged particles associated with Solar Particle Events, (SPE). The GCR are present continuously throughout the solar activity cycle, and their numbers vary inversely with the level of solar activity. They are characteristically more energetic than those particles originating from solar activity, and hence less influences by the solar magnetic field.

  10. Simultaneous Measurements of Neutron Environment at Mars from Orbit (Mars Odyssey HEND) and from the Surface (MSL DAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Sierra, L. M.; Jun, I.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, the high energy neutron detector (HEND) onboard Mars Odyssey and the dynamic albedo of neutrons (DAN) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover are simultaneously measuring the neutron environment from orbit and from the surface, respectively. Naturally-occurring neutrons at Mars are produced from the interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) with the Martian atmosphere and surface material. The neutron data from these simultaneous orbital and surface measurements are a good indicator for the state of general ambient radiation environments at Mars and can be also used as a means to infer how the ambient radiation is transported through the Martian atmosphere. Both HEND and DAN are healthy, and they provide the unique data sources valuable to study these phenomena for the period since the MSL landing in August 2012. Understanding of why there is correlation or no correlation between the two measurements will provide a key clue to understand the processes of GCR/SEP propagation through the Mars atmosphere and the interaction with the Mars surface materials. More detailed comparison between the two data sets and analysis of HEND/DAN data will be presented in the final presentation. Also, the long-term trend of the HEND/DAN data will be also compared with a general space weather condition. We used only publicly available HEND/DAN data in this study, e.g., open literature and/or planetary data system (PDS).

  11. Thermal Analysis and Correlation of the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft's Solar Array During Aerobraking Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; George, Benjamin E.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey spacecraft made use of multipass aerobraking to gradually reduce its orbit period from a highly elliptical insertion orbit to its final science orbit. Aerobraking operations provided an opportunity to apply advanced thermal analysis techniques to predict the temperature of the spacecraft's solar array for each drag pass. Odyssey telemetry data was used to correlate the thermal model. The thermal analysis was tightly coupled to the flight mechanics, aerodynamics, and atmospheric modeling efforts being performed during operations. Specifically, the thermal analysis predictions required a calculation of the spacecraft's velocity relative to the atmosphere, a prediction of the atmospheric density, and a prediction of the heat transfer coefficients due to aerodynamic heating. Temperature correlations were performed by comparing predicted temperatures of the thermocouples to the actual thermocouple readings from the spacecraft. Time histories of the spacecraft relative velocity, atmospheric density, and heat transfer coefficients, calculated using flight accelerometer and quaternion data, were used to calculate the aerodynamic heating. During aerobraking operations, the correlations were used to continually update the thermal model, thus increasing confidence in the predictions. This paper describes the thermal analysis that was performed and presents the correlations to the flight data.

  12. 4-dimensional model of carbon dioxide seasonal deposition on Mars based on HEND/Odyssey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.

    The carbon dioxide seasonal cycle has been studied on Mars using data from High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) onboard mission Mars Odyssey. The primary task of the HEND experiment is measuring of martian neutron albedo from orbit around Mars. The neutron spectroscopy can be easily used not only for detection of subsurface water bearing layers but also for following up time history of CO2 deposit seasonally condensed from atmosphere down to martian surface. Condensation and sublimation of atmospheric CO2 is happened in vicinity of Mars near polar regions (>60N and >60S) which are characterized by presence of enormous amount of subsurface water ice (20-80% by mass). Atmospheric CO2 deposit covered the surface by relative thick layer with thickness 30-100cm. It effectively hides underlying water ice layers from orbit observations causing significant changes of neutron leakage flux. Detection of these changes allows to deconvolve CO2 cycle time history and estimate column density (g/cm2) and mass (kg) of CO2 deposit. Observations of particular regions on south and north may be combined in 4-dimensional model of CO2 deposit showing how its thickness/mass changes at different regions with time. The primary goal of this study is to present our estimations of CO2 condensed mass on north and south as function of martian seasons during entire martian year. We also add comparison between estimation from HEND data and predictions of AMES climate models.

  13. Microbial characterization of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and its encapsulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Nicholson, Wayne; Kern, Roger; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    Microbial characterization of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and the Kennedy Space Center Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II (SAEF-II) was carried out by both culture-based and molecular methods. The most dominant cultivable microbes were species of Bacillus, with comamonads, microbacteria and actinomycetales also represented. Several spore-forming isolates were resistant to gamma-radiation, UV, H2O2 and desiccation, and one Acinetobacter radioresistens isolate and several Aureobasidium, isolated directly from the spacecraft, survived various conditions. Sequences arising in clone libraries were fairly consistent between the spacecraft and facility; predominant genera included Variovorax, Ralstonia and Aquaspirillum. This study improves our understanding of the microbial community structure, diversity and survival capabilities of microbes in an encapsulation facility and physically associated with colocated spacecraft.

  14. Metabolism of spacecraft cleaning reagents by Mars Odyssey and Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Barding, Gregory; Baki, Ryan; Perkins, Nicole; Lee, Sooji; Lalla, Sid; Campos, Alexa; Sripong, Kimberly; Madrid, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The metabolomic and proteomic properties that promote microbial survival in spacecraft assembly facilities are important aspects to planetary protection and astrobiology. In this presentation, we will provide molecular and biological evidence that the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter metabolize/degrade spacecraft cleaning reagents such as ethanol, 2-propanol, and Kleenol-30. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies on A. radioresistens 50v1 (Mars Odyssey) show that the metabolome is dependent upon growth conditions and that ^{13}C-labeled ethanol is incorporated into metabolites such as TCA/glyoxylate cycle intermediates, amino acids, monosaccharides, and disaccharides (e.g., trehalose). In fact, plate count assays show that ethanol is a sole carbon source under minimal conditions for several Mars Phoenix and Odyssey-associated Acinetobacter strains, which may explain why the Acinetobacter are among the most abundant genera found in spacecraft assembly facilities. Biochemical analyses support the enzymatic oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol by a membrane-bound and NAD+/PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, with current kinetic data providing similar apparent K _{M} and maximum growth rate values of ˜5 and 8 mM ethanol, respectively. Preliminary GC-MS analysis also suggests that Kleenol-30 is degraded by A. radioresistens 50v1 when grown in ethanol mixtures. Under minimal conditions, A. radioresistens 50v1 (˜10 ^{8} cfu/mL) also displays a remarkable oxidative extremotolerance (˜2-log reduction in 10 mM hydrogen peroxide), which suggests crucial roles for metabolites associated with oxidative stress (e.g., trehalose) and the observed appreciable catalase specific activities. In conclusion, these results provide key insights into the survival strategies of spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter and emphasize the importance of characterizing the carbon metabolism of forward contaminants.

  15. Medusae Fossae-Elysium Region, Mars: Depression in the HEND/Odyssey Map of Mars Epithermal Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft showed that the low neutron fluxes characterize both subpolar regions of Mars. The low neutron fluxes mean the presence of hydrogen-rich soils and have been interpreted as an indication on abundant water ice in these areas. The equatorial region of Mars (equatorward of approx. 50 deg) is characterized by higher fluxes of both epithermal (0.4 eV-100 keV, come from depth 1-2 m) and fast (3.4-7.3 MeV, come from depth 0.2-0.3 m) neutrons meaning that this area is mostly dry. The pattern of distribution of the neutron fluxes is in a good agreement with the theoretical predictions on the stability of ground ice on present Mars. The actual distribution of the ice, however, depends on variations of thermal inertia of soils and albedo of the surface. The flux of the epithermal neutrons detected by the HEND instrument, which is part of GRS, has two noticeable depressions in the equatorial region, one in Arabia Terra and another in the Medusae Fossae-Elysium region (MFER). Here we present the initial results of analysis of characteristics of the neutron fluxes and regional geological setting of the epithermal neutron depression in this area. The main goal of our study was to put some constraints on the time of the anomaly formation and to assess possible form of hydrogen (ground ice vs. chemically bound water) there.

  16. New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars: Deciphering the Geologic History Through Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Banks, M.; Buczkowski, D.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the mapping effort is to produce a geologic map of the Argyre basin and surrounding region at 1:5,000,000 scale in both digital and print formats that will detail the stratigraphic and crosscutting relations among rock materials and landforms (30 deg. S to 65 deg. S, 290 deg. E to 340 deg E). There has not been a detailed geologic map produced of the Argyre region since the Viking-era mapping investigation. The mapping tasks include stratigraphic mapping, crater counting, feature mapping, quantitative landform analysis, and spectroscopic/ stratigraphic investigation feature mapping. The regional geologic mapping investigation includes the Argyre basin floor and rim materials, the transition zone that straddles the Thaumasia plateau, which includes Argyre impactrelated modification, and the southeast margin of the Thaumasia plateau using important new data sets from the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The geologic information unfolded by this new mapping project will be useful to the community for constraining the regional geology, paleohydrology, and paleoclimate, which includes but is not limited to the assessment of: (1) whether the Argyre basin contained lakes, (2) the extent of reported flooding and glaciation, (3) existing interpretations of the origin of the narrow ridges located in the southeast part of the basin floor, and (4) the extent of Argyre-related tectonism and its influence on the surrounding regions.

  17. Effects of a strong ICME on the Martian ionosphere as detected by Mars Express and Mars Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. D.; Diéval, C.; Gurnett, D. A.; Duru, F.; Dubinin, E. M.; Fränz, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Uluşen, D.; Mitrofanov, I.; Plaut, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    We present evidence of a substantial ionospheric response to a strong interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) detected by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) on board the Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. A powerful ICME impacted the Martian ionosphere beginning on 5 June 2011, peaking on 6 June, and trailing off over about a week. This event caused a strong response in the charged particle detector of the High-Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) on board the Odyssey spacecraft. The ion mass spectrometer of the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms instrument on MEX detected an increase in background counts, simultaneous with the increase seen by HEND, due to the flux of solar energetic particles (SEPs) associated with the ICME. Local densities and magnetic field strengths measured by MARSIS and enhancements of 100 eV electrons denote the passing of an intense space weather event. Local density and magnetosheath electron measurements and remote soundings show compression of ionospheric plasma to lower altitudes due to increased solar wind dynamic pressure. MARSIS topside sounding of the ionosphere indicates that it is extended well beyond the terminator, to about 116° solar zenith angle, in a highly disturbed state. This extension may be due to increased ionization due to SEPs and magnetosheath electrons or to plasma transport across the terminator. The surface reflection from both ionospheric sounding and subsurface modes of the MARSIS radar was attenuated, indicating increased electron content in the Mars ionosphere at low altitudes, where the atmosphere is dense.

  18. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T).

  19. Calibration and Initial Analysis of Multispectral Images of Mars from the VIS Subsystem on the Mars Odyssey THEMIS Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Wolff, M. J.; Christensen, P. R.; Mehall, G.; Malin, M.; Caplinger, M.; Ravine, M.; Cherednik, L. L.; Bender, K. C.; Murray, K.; THEMIS Team

    2002-12-01

    The Visible Imaging Subsystem (VIS) on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft THEMIS instrument is a 5-color, 1024x1024 interline transfer CCD camera that is currently acquiring high spatial resolution multispectral images from Mars orbit. The five VIS filters have central bandpasses of 425, 540, 654, 749, and 860 nm, bandwidths of approximately 50 nm, and are bonded in 1000x200 pixel strips directly onto the VIS CCD. Odyssey is in a near-polar orbit, traveling southward on the dayside of the planet, and VIS acquires multispectral images by using along-track motion to step the ground footprint through each desired filter. Nominal ground surface resolution is approximately 18 meters per pixel, and summing modes are available that can provide 36 m or 72 m resolution for increased surface coverage. As of early September, just over 1.1% of the surface of Mars has been imaged by VIS during daytime (between about 3:00 pm to 4:15 pm local solar time), with about 80% of that coverage at 18 m/pixel and 20% of that coverage at 36 or 72 m/pixel. About 55% of the VIS image sequences are monochrome (650 nm) for geomorphology studies; the rest are multispectral sequences in 2 to 5 colors. VIS data are calibrated using a combination of pre-flight radiometric calibration measurements and in-flight flatfield and bias data. We have developed a VIS calibration pipeline that performs a bias subtraction, removes CCD frame transfer smear, and applies a flatfield correction for pixel-to-pixel nonuniformities. In addition, raw VIS data contain a substantial stray light component that is modeled and removed as part of our pipeline process using data collected in flight. VIS images corrected for these instrumental effects are then converted to radiances using pre-flight integrating sphere measurements. Division by the solar spectrum at Mars convolved to the VIS bandpasses results in a set of PDS-format image cubes calibrated to radiance factor (I/F). We validate our derived radiances by comparing

  20. Use of Multivariate Analysis Techniques to Form a Comparison of Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Elemental Data to Neutron Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbazia, Paul

    2009-03-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) primary mission is exploration. Additional science falls to a secondary focus. LRO does not possess a gamma ray spectrometer, but it has the collimated neutron detector LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector). It is of interest to determine as much as possible about the moon's elemental composition using LEND. To do so, data from a similar instrument on Mars Odyssey, HEND (High Energy Neutron Detector), was compared to data from Mars Odyssey's gamma ray spectrometer (GRS). Elemental maps were previously derived from the GRS data, and a relation to HEND would allow for LEND to fulfill this role on LRO. Toward this purpose, different multivariate analysis techniques were used to compare GRS and HEND data, including Principal Components Analysis (PCA), K-means clustering, and Pearson product-moment correlation. Results indicate that two elements well known to effect neutron counts, hydrogen and iron, can be identified by these techniques. Further analysis may find additional relations, which would have benefits to the fields of geochemistry and neutron spectroscopy.

  1. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  2. Near Real-Time Astrometry for Spacecraft Navigation with the VLBA: A Demonstration with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, W.; Brisken, W. F.; Romney, J. D.

    2015-02-01

    We present a demonstration of near real-time spacecraft astrometry with the VLBA. We detect the X-band downlink signal from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Odyssey with the VLBA and transmit the data over the internet for correlation at the VLBA correlator in near real-time. Quasars near Mars in the plane of the sky are used as position references. In the demonstration we were able to obtain initial position measurements within about 15 minutes of the start of the observation. The measured positions differ from the projected ephemerides by a few milliarcseconds, and the repeatability of the measurement is better than 0.3 mas as determined from measurements from multiple scans. We demonstrate that robust and repeatable offsets are obtained even when removing half of the antennas. These observations demonstrate the feasibility of astrometry with the VLBA with a low latency and submilliarcsecond repeatability.

  3. The Enhancement of Water Ice Content in the Local Area Northeast of Arcadia Planitia: Evidence from Neutron Data from HEND (Mars Odyssey) and Elevation from MOLA (MGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Tretyakov, V.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of neutron mapping measurements from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft revealed enormous hydrogen-rich regions in the southern and northern hemispheres of the Martian crust that imply significant amounts of near surface water ice. The hydrogen-rich areas of the southern and northern regions appear generally comparable in spatial extent and water ice content. This observation is interesting in light of topography measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, which shows a significant difference in elevation between northern lowlands and southern highlands that could imply a difference in seasonal CO2 condensation. In this study we correlate the high energy neutron flux observed by HEND (Mars Odyssey) and surface elevation measured by MOLA in order to interpret the seasonal change in epithermal neutron flux in terms near-surface water ice content.

  4. Still From Odyssey Clip 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a single frame from a computer animation, which begins with a global view of the planet Mars created from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera, wide angle images. In the animation the ODYSSEY spacecraft is displayed above a series of globes, where color is used to emphasize the Martian topographic, andesite, and basalt compositional differences. A global view of Earth introduces a comparison of the difference in resolution between the current MGS TES and planned ODYSSEY THEMIS observations.

  5. Still From Odyssey Clip 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a single frame from a computer animation, which begins with a global view of the planet Mars created from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera, wide angle images. In the animation the ODYSSEY spacecraft is displayed above a series of globes, where color is used to emphasize the Martian topographic, andesite, and basalt compositional differences. A global view of Earth introduces a comparison of the difference in resolution between the current MGS TES and planned ODYSSEY THEMIS observations.

  6. Still From Odyssey Clip 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a single frame from a computer animation, which begins with a global view of the planet Mars created from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera, wide angle images. In the animation the ODYSSEY spacecraft is displayed above a series of globes, where color is used to emphasize the Martian topographic, andesite, and basalt compositional differences. A global view of Earth introduces a comparison of the difference in resolution between the current MGS TES and planned ODYSSEY THEMIS observations.

  7. Interannual similarity and variation in seasonal circulation of Mars' atmospheric Ar as seen by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on Mars Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Ann L.; Boynton, William V.; Forget, Francois; Lian, Yuan; Richardson, Mark; Starr, Richard; Metzger, Albert E.; Hamara, David; Economou, Thanasis

    2012-04-01

    More than 3 Mars' years (MY) of atmospheric argon (Ar) measurements are used to study annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport and mixing. Data are obtained over the period 20 May 2002 to 4 May 2008 by the Gamma Subsystem (GS) of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars. Here we augment previous studies of Mars' Ar in which strong seasonal variations were observed and horizontal meridional mixing coefficients for the southern hemisphere were computed. Comparison of year-to-year seasonal abundance shows strong similarity but also some short-period (˜15°-30° Ls) and interannual variations. Evidence for short periods of strong eddy transport is exhibited during autumn and winter. The seasonal change in Ar concentration for southern latitudes is relatively gradual and well defined, but seasonal changes at high northern latitudes are chaotic and indicate that atmospheric disturbance is ubiquitous. Major topographic landforms (Elysium, Tharsis, Noachis Terra, Hellas) apparently have little control over seasonal Ar concentration at the spatial resolution of the GRS data set. Some indication of local enhanced Ar concentration is present from 30°N to 60°N for the Hellas and Tharsis sectors in late winter and early spring. The data show some significant (3σ) differences between MY 26 and MY 27 in geographical sectors that are likely produced by local weather. The GS data do not show seasonal variation of Ar at equatorial and low-latitude zones, in contrast to those from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) measurements from the Mars Exploration Rovers.

  8. Mars: Detaching of the Free Water Signature (FWS) Presence Regions on the Base of HEND/ODYSSEY Data and Their Correlation with Some Permafrost Features from MOC Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Boynton, M. V.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first results from global mapping of the neutron albedo from Mars by HEND instrument have shown the noticeable deficit of both the epithermal (EN) and the fast (FN) neutrons counts rate in the high latitudes regions of both hemispheres of the planet. The deficit is indicative for high enriching of the surface regolith by hydrogen, which may correspond to amount of any water phases and forms. The objectives of our study are the spatial and temporal variations of the free water (ice) signature in the Martian surface layer on the base of HEND/ODYSSEY data and their correlation with spatial spreading of some permafrost features, mapped on the base of MOC images. For the study we used the results of the global mapping (pixel 5 x5 ) of EN and FN albedo, realized by HEND/ODYSSEY in the period from 17 February to 10 December 2002 year.

  9. GCM Simulations of the Tropical Hydrogen Distribution Observed by Mars Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischna, M. A.; Richardson, M. I.

    2005-01-01

    The age and nature of the tropical hydrogen deposits on Mars remain uncertain. Competing theories suggest that the deposits are composed of either ancient, hydrated minerals or recently emplaced water ice. We use the GFDL Mars GCM with a fully coupled atmosphere-regolith water cycle to explore which of these hypotheses is best supported by model results. Such a conclusion can be drawn from the resultant trends in subsurface ice evolution during various obliquity and polar cap conditions. Our results suggest that the tropical hydrogen distribution is best explained by recent emplacement of ice through either exposure of the south polar ice cap or by burial of tropical surface ice from the most recent high obliquity excursions.

  10. Tests of GCM pressure predictions for water ice stability using Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. T.; Eke, V. R.; Massey, R. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Maurice, S.; Teodoro, L. F. A.

    2015-10-01

    We have used the pixon image reconstruction t e c h n i q u e o n t h e M a r s O d y s s e y N e u t r o n Spectrometer epithermal neutron data to produce an improved global map of the hydrogen abundance on Mars. We will compare this to the predictions for surface hydration from the martian general circulation models, in order to provide both new constraints on, and tests of, the models.

  11. Insights into the extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    PubMed

    McCoy, K B; Derecho, I; Wong, T; Tran, H M; Huynh, T D; La Duc, M T; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2012-09-01

    The microbiology of the spacecraft assembly process is of paramount importance to planetary exploration, as the biological contamination that can result from remote-enabled spacecraft carries the potential to impact both life-detection experiments and extraterrestrial evolution. Accordingly, insights into the mechanisms and range of extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of the preflight Mars Odyssey orbiter, were gained by using a combination of microbiological, enzymatic, and proteomic methods. In summary, A. radioresistens 50v1 displayed a remarkable range of survival against hydrogen peroxide and the sequential exposures of desiccation, vapor and plasma phase hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet irradiation. The survival is among the highest reported for non-spore-forming and Gram-negative bacteria and is based upon contributions from the enzyme-based degradation of H(2)O(2) (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy management (ATP synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase), and modulation of the membrane composition. Together, the biochemical and survival features of A. radioresistens 50v1 support a potential persistence on Mars (given an unintended or planned surface landing of the Mars Odyssey orbiter), which in turn may compromise the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions.

  12. Insights into the extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    PubMed

    McCoy, K B; Derecho, I; Wong, T; Tran, H M; Huynh, T D; La Duc, M T; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2012-09-01

    The microbiology of the spacecraft assembly process is of paramount importance to planetary exploration, as the biological contamination that can result from remote-enabled spacecraft carries the potential to impact both life-detection experiments and extraterrestrial evolution. Accordingly, insights into the mechanisms and range of extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of the preflight Mars Odyssey orbiter, were gained by using a combination of microbiological, enzymatic, and proteomic methods. In summary, A. radioresistens 50v1 displayed a remarkable range of survival against hydrogen peroxide and the sequential exposures of desiccation, vapor and plasma phase hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet irradiation. The survival is among the highest reported for non-spore-forming and Gram-negative bacteria and is based upon contributions from the enzyme-based degradation of H(2)O(2) (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy management (ATP synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase), and modulation of the membrane composition. Together, the biochemical and survival features of A. radioresistens 50v1 support a potential persistence on Mars (given an unintended or planned surface landing of the Mars Odyssey orbiter), which in turn may compromise the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions. PMID:22917036

  13. Water in the soil of the Gale crater on Mars: joint analysis of DAN/MSL and HEND/Mars Odyssey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Harshman, K.; Kuzmin, R.; Lisov, D.; litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.; Starr, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The ground water measurements by the instrument DAN onboard NASA's MSL rover (see Mitrofanov et al., 2013 a and b, Litvak et al., 2013 and Sanin et al., 2013) may be considered as the ground truth for the orbital measurements of subsurface water by the HEND instrument onboard NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter (e.g. see and Boynton et al., 2002 and Mitrofanov et al., 2002). The physical methods of these two investigations are different. DAN is an active neutron instrument, which produces strong pulses of 14.1 MeV neutrons and measures the post-pulse emission of epithermal and thermal neutrons (see Mitrofanov et al., 2012). HEND is mapping the prompt neutron emission from the martian subsurface due to bombardment by galactic cosmic rays. However, both investigations have the same goal: to measure the content of ground water in the shallow subsurface. The Mars Odyssey Mission has been mapping neutrons since February of 2002. Based on orbital data, the driest region on Mars was found to be Solis Planium with an average content of water about 2 wt% within a depth of about 1 meter (e.g. see Mitrofanov et al. 2002, 2004). The area around Gale crater was found to have a much higher content of water in the soil. While the estimated values are model dependent (see Mitrofanov et al 2004 for details), the most likely content of ground water from orbital data around Gale is about 4 - 5 wt%. The first data analysis from DAN, on the other hand, has shown that the best estimation of the average content of ground water in Gale along the traverse of the rover is about 2 wt% (Mitrofanov et al., 2013; Litvak et al., 2013). The rover data suggests a content of ground water a factor of 2 less than that based on the orbital data. Two physical reasons for this discrepancy are considered. The first is based on very different averaging distances for measurements by DAN and by HEND. The DAN value is based on averaging along a 1-km traverse, whereas the HEND value represents an area of about 400 km

  14. Developing Planetary Protection Technology: Microbial Diversity of the Mars Orbiter "Odyssey" and the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Duc, M. T.; Chen, F.; Baker, A.; Koukol, R. C.; Kern, R. G.; Venkateswaran, K. J.

    2001-12-01

    Sampling the surfaces of both spacecraft and their clean-room assembly facilities is crucial in monitoring the microbial burden associated with these pseudo-sterile, oligotrophic environments. Here, we present the results of a study in which several surface samples, retrieved from both the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II (SAEF-II), were processed and evaluated by both molecular and traditional culture-based methods for microbial diversity. The findings of this study improve our current understanding of the microbial community structure, diversity, and dispersal in a spacecraft assembly facility, as well as physically associated with co-located spacecraft. Surfaces of 25 cm2 (spacecraft) or 0.4 m2 (SAEF-II) were swabbed or wiped, respectively, and were examined for total heterotrophic aerobes and spore-formers. Samples were further subjected to nucleic acid extraction, and 16S rDNA fragments were PCR amplified with eubacterial biased universal primers and cloned. Approximately 30 isolates grown by traditional culture-based techniques were included for 16S rDNA sequencing. For the most part, the population dynamics remained consistent when compared between the spacecraft and assembly facility libraries. Predominant microbes, as indicated by molecular methods, included members of the genera Variovorax and Aquaspirillum. Members of the Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Enterococcus, Ralstonia, and Bacillus genera were also found to span the various libraries but in less abundance. Traditional culture-based techniques validated the presence of Bacillus and Ralstonia, while illuminating a larger diversity in revealing the presence of Staphylococcus, Comamonas, Microbacterium, and Actinomycetales. The bulk of these findings make sense, since species of Ralstonia, Rhizobium, Variovorax, and Bacillus are known to frequently inhabit rhizospheric environments, like that surrounding the KSC facility, and

  15. End-To-END Performance of the Future MOMA Instrument Aboard the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, V. T.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Danell, R.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P. J.; Stalport, F.; Humeau, O.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard the 2018 ExoMars mission will be the continuation of the search for organic matter on the Mars surface. One advancement with the ExoMars mission is that the sample will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the Martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. To analyze the wide range of organic composition (volatile and non-volatile compounds) of the Martian soil, MOMA is equipped with a dual ion source ion trap mass spectrometer utilizing UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC). In order to analyze refractory organic compounds and chiral molecules during GC-ITMS analysis, samples may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). Previous experimental reports have focused on coupling campaigns between the breadboard versions of the GC, provided by the French team (LISA, LATMOS, CentraleSupelec), and the MS, provided by the US team (NASA-GSFC). This work focuses on the performance verification and optimization of the GC-ITMS experiment using the Engineering Test Unit (ETU) models which are representative of the form, fit and function of the flight instrument including a flight-like pyrolysis oven and tapping station providing by the German team (MPS). The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  16. Enantiomeric derivatization on the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard ExoMars 2018: how to unravel martian chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Morisson, M.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Brinckerhoff, W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of homochirality in life on Earth remains unknown. The answer to this question lies in the study of chirality elsewhere in the Solar System. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment aboard Curiosity established the presence of organic molecules indigenous to a clay-rich sample on Mars [1]. However, SAM does not have the ability to separate between the enantiomers of potential medium- or high- molecular weight organic molecules. One of the wet chemistry experiments to be used in the MOMA instrument of the Exomars mission is designed for the extraction and identification of refractory organic chemical components in solid samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), while keeping the chiral center of the molecules intact [2]. This derivatization technique, using dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as a reagent, will allow MOMA to separate the enantiomers of molecules of interest for astrobiology, such as amino acids, sugars or carboxylic acids. We present here the results of laboratory experiments which display the feasability and limitations of the detection of an enantiomeric excess of complex organic molecules in various analog samples, depending on the mineralogy of the Mars analog solid sample.

  17. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard the Mars rover, Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Schaffner, J. A.; Malin, M. C.; Baker, J. M.; Dibiase, D. R.; Laramee, J.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is expected to land on Mars in 2012. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) will be used to document martian rocks and regolith with a 2-megapixel RGB color CCD camera with a focusable macro lens mounted on an instrument-bearing turret on the end of Curiosity's robotic arm. The flight MAHLI can focus on targets at working distances of 20.4 mm to infinity. At 20.4 mm, images have a pixel scale of 13.9 μm/pixel. The pixel scale at 66 mm working distance is about the same (31 μm/pixel) as that of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Microscopic Imager (MI). MAHLI camera head placement is dependent on the capabilities of the MSL robotic arm, the design for which presently has a placement uncertainty of ~20 mm in 3 dimensions; hence, acquisition of images at the minimum working distance may be challenging. The MAHLI consists of 3 parts: a camera head, a Digital Electronics Assembly (DEA), and a calibration target. The camera head and DEA are connected by a JPL-provided cable which transmits data, commands, and power. JPL is also providing a contact sensor. The camera head will be mounted on the rover's robotic arm turret, the DEA will be inside the rover body, and the calibration target will be mounted on the robotic arm azimuth motor housing. Camera Head. MAHLI uses a Kodak KAI-2020CM interline transfer CCD (1600 x 1200 active 7.4 μm square pixels with RGB filtered microlenses arranged in a Bayer pattern). The optics consist of a group of 6 fixed lens elements, a movable group of 3 elements, and a fixed sapphire window front element. Undesired near-infrared radiation is blocked using a coating deposited on the inside surface of the sapphire window. The lens is protected by a dust cover with a Lexan window through which imaging can be ac-complished if necessary, and targets can be illuminated by sunlight or two banks of two white light LEDs. Two 365 nm UV LEDs are included to search for fluores-cent materials at night. DEA

  18. A map of D/H on Mars in the thermal infrared using EXES aboard SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; DeWitt, C.; Richter, M. J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fouchet, T.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Forget, F.; Bézard, B.; Atreya, S. K.; Case, M.; Ryde, N.

    2016-02-01

    On a planetary scale, the D/H ratio on Mars is a key diagnostic for understanding the past history of water on the planet; locally, it can help to constrain the sources and sinks of water vapor through the monitoring of condensation and sublimation processes. To obtain simultaneous measurements of H2O and HDO lines, we have used the Echelle Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) instrument aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility to map the abundances of these two species over the Martian disk. High-resolution spectra (R = 6 × 104) were recorded in the 1383-1390 cm-1 range (7.2 μm) on April 08, 2014. Mars was very close to opposition and near northern summer solstice (Ls = 113°). Maps of the H2O and HDO mixing ratios were retrieved from the line depth ratios of weak H2O and HDO transitions divided by a weak CO2 line. As expected for this season, the H2O and HDO maps show a distinct enhancement toward polar regions, and their mixing ratios are consistent with previous measurements and with predictions by the global climate models, except at the north pole where the EXES values are weaker. We derive a disk-integrated D/H ratio of 6.8 (+1.6, -1.0) × 10-4. It is higher than the value in Earth's oceans by a factor 4.4 (+1.0, -0.6). The D/H map also shows an enhancement from southern to northern latitudes, with values ranging from about 3.5 times to 6.0 times the VSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) value. The D/H distribution shows a depletion over the Tharsis mountains and is consistent with observed latitudinal variations. The variations in D/H with latitude and altitude agree with the models and with the isotope fractionation expected from condensation and sublimation processes.

  19. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a Roman candle, the exhaust from the Boeing Delta II rocket with the Mars Polar Lander aboard lights up the clouds as it hurtles skyward. The rocket was launched at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  20. In-situ observation of Martian neutral exosphere: Results from MENCA aboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pratim Das, Tirtha; Dhanya, M. B.; Thampi, Smitha V.

    2016-07-01

    Till very recently, the only in situ measurements of the Martian upper atmospheric composition was from the mass spectrometer experiments aboard the two Viking landers, which covered the altitude region from 120 to 200 km. Hence, the exploration by the Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft of ISRO and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) experiment aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile ENvironment (MAVEN) mission of NASA are significant steps to further understand the Martian neutral exosphere and its variability. MENCA is a quadrupole based neutral mass spectrometer which observes the radial distribution of the Martian neutral exosphere. The analysis of the data from MENCA has revealed unambiguous detection of the three major constituents, which are amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (contributions from CO and N2) and amu 16 (atomic O), as well as a few minor species. Since MOM is in a highly elliptical orbit, the MENCA observations pertain to different local times, in the low-latitude region. Examples of such observations would be presented, and compared with NGIMS results. Emphasis would be given to the observations pertaining to high solar zenith angles and close to perihelion period. During the evening hours, the transition from CO2 to O dominated region is observed near 270 km, which is significantly different from the previous observations corresponding to sub-solar point and SZA of ~45°. The mean evening time exospheric temperature derived using these observations is 271±5 K. These are the first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours, which would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  1. Coordinated in situ and orbital observations of ground temperature by the Mars Science Laboratory Ground Temperature Sensor and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System: Implications for thermal modeling of the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.; Vasavada, A. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Mischna, M. A.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Diurnal variations in Martian ground surface temperature probe the physical nature (mean particle size, lateral/vertical heterogeneity, cementation, etc.) of the upper few centimeters of the subsurface. Thermal modeling of measured temperatures enables us to make inferences about these physical properties, which in turn offer valuable insight into processes that have occurred over geologic timescales. Add the ability to monitor these temperature/physical variations over large distances and it becomes possible to infer a great deal about local- to regional scale geologic processes and characteristics that are valuable to scientific and engineering studies. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument measures surface temperatures from orbit at a restricted range of local times (~3:00 - 6:00 am/pm). The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor (REMS GTS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) acquires hourly temperature measurements in the vicinity of the rover. With the additional information that MSL's full diurnal coverage offers, we are interested in correlating the thermophysical properties inferred from these local-scale measurements with those obtained from MSL's visible images and orbital THEMIS measurements at only a few times of day. To optimize the comparisons, we have been acquiring additional REMS observations simultaneously with Mars Odyssey overflights during which THEMIS is able to observe MSL's location. We also characterize surface particle size distributions within the field of view of the GTS. We will present comparisons of the temperatures derived from GTS and THEMIS, focusing on eight simultaneous observations of ground temperature acquired between sols 100 and 360. These coordinated observations allow us to cross-check temperatures derived in situ and from orbit, and compare rover-scale observations of thermophysical and particle size properties to those made at remote sensing scales.

  2. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Silhouetted against the gray sky, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander lifts off from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  3. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander clears Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, after launch at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  4. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust and into a gray-clouded sky , a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  5. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander into a cloud-covered sky at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  6. Radiation Environment at Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 8, 2003

    This graphic shows the radiation dose equivalent as measured by Odyssey's martian radiation environment experiment at Mars and by instruments aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station (ISS), for the 18-month period from April 2002 through October 2003. The accumulated total in Mars orbit is just over two times larger than that aboard the Space Station. The bars where the Mars instrument's measurements are well above the average (as shown by the orange line) are months when there was significant solar activity, which increases the dose equivalent. Dose equivalent is expressed in units of milliSieverts per day.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. The radiation experiment was provided by the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. "The Odyssey" as Archetype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Alice M.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests the relevance of The Odyssey" to the lives of 20th century adolescents in exemplifying two fundamental archetypal themes: initiation and man's search for his own identity and for meaning in life." (Author/RD)

  8. Medicine and the space odyssey.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    Up to the mid-1960s, science and technology (including medicine) were generally regarded as exciting, beautiful and spiritually enthralling; and the space odyssey seemed a symbol of the optimistic future of humankind. The early seventies saw a growing disillusionment with space travel as part of a mood of cultural pessimism and anti-modernization - and this combined with a resurgence of therapeutic nihilism in medicine. But recent discussions of renewed space exploration and a Mars mission may be evidence of a changing zeitgeist, with Western culture moving towards a bolder and more optimistic attitude. The adventure of space travel, exploration and colonization could be seen as both a barometer of cultural optimism, and an enterprise which would feed-back into cultural optimism for many decades to come. Medical science could also be a beneficiary; since greater boldness and optimism would be likely to renew the goals of medicine to do positive good - as contrasted with the necessary, but relatively uninspiring, requirement to minimize risk and harm. In a modernizing society humankind needs to look outward as well as inward: we need a frontier, and we need to grow. A resurgent space odyssey may be the best way that this can be enacted.

  9. Medicine and the space odyssey.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    Up to the mid-1960s, science and technology (including medicine) were generally regarded as exciting, beautiful and spiritually enthralling; and the space odyssey seemed a symbol of the optimistic future of humankind. The early seventies saw a growing disillusionment with space travel as part of a mood of cultural pessimism and anti-modernization - and this combined with a resurgence of therapeutic nihilism in medicine. But recent discussions of renewed space exploration and a Mars mission may be evidence of a changing zeitgeist, with Western culture moving towards a bolder and more optimistic attitude. The adventure of space travel, exploration and colonization could be seen as both a barometer of cultural optimism, and an enterprise which would feed-back into cultural optimism for many decades to come. Medical science could also be a beneficiary; since greater boldness and optimism would be likely to renew the goals of medicine to do positive good - as contrasted with the necessary, but relatively uninspiring, requirement to minimize risk and harm. In a modernizing society humankind needs to look outward as well as inward: we need a frontier, and we need to grow. A resurgent space odyssey may be the best way that this can be enacted. PMID:16423469

  10. Eight-year climatology of dust optical depth on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, L.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Wilson, R. J.; Lewis, S. R.; Cantor, B.; Kass, D.; Kleinböhl, A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from martian year 24-31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure that is weighted in space, time, and retrieval quality. The lack of observations at certain times and locations introduces missing grid points in the maps, which therefore may result in irregularly gridded (i.e. incomplete) fields. In order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we compare with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. We have statistically analyzed the irregularly gridded maps to provide an overview of the dust climatology on Mars over eight years, specifically in relation to its interseasonal and interannual variability, in addition to provide a basis for instrument intercomparison. Finally, we have produced regularly gridded maps of CDOD by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These complete maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modeling

  11. Improved Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS) Spatial Resolution Structure of Near-Surface Water Equivalent Hydrogen Poleward of 60° Latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Pathare, A. V.; Prettyman, T. H.; Maurice, S.

    2016-09-01

    We present improved maps of the two-dimensional structure of hydrogen abundances poleward of 60° latitude on Mars and compare them to analyses of TES IR data, Phoenix imaging data, and OMEGA near IR data.

  12. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  13. Part I. Development of a concept inventory addressing students' beliefs and reasoning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect, Part II. Distribution of chlorine measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John Michael

    chlorine on Mars measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). The distribution of chlorine is heterogeneous across the surface, with a concentration of high chlorine centered over the Medusa Fossae Formation. The distribution of chlorine correlates positively with hydrogen and negatively with silicon and thermal inertia. Four mechanisms (aeolian, volcanic, aqueous, and hydrothermal) are discussed as possible factors influencing the distribution of chlorine measured within the upper few tens of centimeters of the surface.

  14. Simulation of Radar-Backscattering from Phobos - A Contribution to the Experiment MARSIS aboard MarsExpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Orosei, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plaut, J.; Picardi, G.

    2009-04-01

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) on board MarsExpress is the first and so far the only space borne radar that observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were measured for different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of the low frequency sounding of Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into the crust of Phobos. In this poster we present a numerical method that allows a very precise computation of radar echoes backscattered from the surface of large objects. The software is based on a combination of physical optics calculation of surface scattering of the radar target, and Method of Moments to calculate the radiation pattern of the whole space borne radar system. The calculation of the frequency dependent radiation pattern takes into account all relevant gain variations and coupling effects aboard the space craft. Based on very precise digital elevation models of Phobos, patch models in the resolution of lambda/10 were generated. Simulation techniques will be explained and a comparison of simulations and measurements will be shown. SURFACE BACKSCATTERING SIMULATOR FOR LARGE OBJECTS The computation of surface scattering of the electromagnetic wave incident on Phobos is based on the Physical Optics method. The scattered field can be expressed by the induced equivalent surface currents on the target. The Algorithm: The simulation program itself is split into three phases. In the first phase, an illumination test checks whether a patch will be visible from the position of the space craft. If this is not the case, the patch will be excluded from the simulation. The second phase serves as a preparation stage for the third phase. Amongst other tasks, the dyadic products for the Js and Ms surface currents are calculated. This is a time-memory trade-off: the simulation will need additional 144 bytes of RAM for every patch that passes phase one. However, the calculation of the dyads is expensive, so that considerable

  15. MGS and Odyssey - relay satellites for the MER mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, Pasquale B.; Bhat, R.; Demeak, S.; Ardalan, S.; Breeden, J.; Helfrich, C.; Jefferson, D.; Stauch, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Odyssey are currently in low altitude, nearly circular and highly inclined orbits about Mars. Thus, they are available adn compartible to serve as relay satellites for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission. Consequently, the MER project developed requirements for MGS to be overhead for MER-A (Spirit) at Gusev crater, at maximum elevation, mudway between lander separation and initial touchdown; in time, this was specified as 01/04/04. 04:24:55 UTC/SCET with a 30 sec tolerance.

  16. MARIE: Current Status and Results from 20 Months of Observations at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Andersen, V.; Atwell, W.; Cleghorn, T. F.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L.; Saganti, P.

    2004-01-01

    The MARIE instrument aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft detects energetic charged particles in the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and during solar particle events (SPE) [1]. As of this writing (January 2004), MARIE has been turned off, after losing communication with the spacecraft during the large SPE of October 28, 2003. However, during the prior 20 months, MARIE collected data almost continuously, observing several solar events and the nearly-constant GCR. There is still a possibility the instrument can be recovered, and troubleshooting efforts are scheduled to begin in May 2004, following the completion of the primary missions of MER-A (Spirit) and MER-B (Opportunity). At present, Odyssey is acting as a telecommunications relay for the rovers and only routine science operations are permitted in this mode.

  17. Report of the Odyssey FPGA Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Donald C.; Katz, Richard B.; Osborn, Jon V.; Soden, Jerry M.; Barto, R.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An independent assessment team (IAT) was formed and met on April 2, 2001, at Lockheed Martin in Denver, Colorado, to aid in understanding a technical issue for the Mars Odyssey spacecraft scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001. An RP1280A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) from a lot of parts common to the SIRTF, Odyssey, and Genesis missions had failed on a SIRTF printed circuit board. A second FPGA from an earlier Odyssey circuit board was also known to have failed and was also included in the analysis by the IAT. Observations indicated an abnormally high failure rate for flight RP1280A devices (the first flight lot produced using this flow) at Lockheed Martin and the causes of these failures were not determined. Standard failure analysis techniques were applied to these parts, however, additional diagnostic techniques unique for devices of this class were not used, and the parts were prematurely submitted to a destructive physical analysis, making a determination of the root cause of failure difficult. Any of several potential failure scenarios may have caused these failures, including electrostatic discharge, electrical overstress, manufacturing defects, board design errors, board manufacturing errors, FPGA design errors, or programmer errors. Several of these mechanisms would have relatively benign consequences for disposition of the parts currently installed on boards in the Odyssey spacecraft if established as the root cause of failure. However, other potential failure mechanisms could have more dire consequences. As there is no simple way to determine the likely failure mechanisms with reasonable confidence before Odyssey launch, it is not possible for the IAT to recommend a disposition for the other parts on boards in the Odyssey spacecraft based on sound engineering principles.

  18. Simulation of Radar-Backscattering from Phobos - A Contribution to the Experiment MARSIS aboard MarsExpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Orosei, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plaut, J.; Picardi, G.

    2009-04-01

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) on board MarsExpress is the first and so far the only space borne radar that observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were measured for different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of the low frequency sounding of Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into the crust of Phobos. In this poster we present a numerical method that allows a very precise computation of radar echoes backscattered from the surface of large objects. The software is based on a combination of physical optics calculation of surface scattering of the radar target, and Method of Moments to calculate the radiation pattern of the whole space borne radar system. The calculation of the frequency dependent radiation pattern takes into account all relevant gain variations and coupling effects aboard the space craft. Based on very precise digital elevation models of Phobos, patch models in the resolution of lambda/10 were generated. Simulation techniques will be explained and a comparison of simulations and measurements will be shown. SURFACE BACKSCATTERING SIMULATOR FOR LARGE OBJECTS The computation of surface scattering of the electromagnetic wave incident on Phobos is based on the Physical Optics method. The scattered field can be expressed by the induced equivalent surface currents on the target. The Algorithm: The simulation program itself is split into three phases. In the first phase, an illumination test checks whether a patch will be visible from the position of the space craft. If this is not the case, the patch will be excluded from the simulation. The second phase serves as a preparation stage for the third phase. Amongst other tasks, the dyadic products for the Js and Ms surface currents are calculated. This is a time-memory trade-off: the simulation will need additional 144 bytes of RAM for every patch that passes phase one. However, the calculation of the dyads is expensive, so that considerable

  19. Characterization of dust activity from Martian Year (MY) 27 to MY 32 observed by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard the Mars Express spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkenberg, Paulina; Giuranna, Marco; Aoki, Shohei; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Saggin, Bortolino; Formisano, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    More than 2,500,000 spectra have been collected by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer aboard Mars Express spacecraft after 12 years of activity. The data span more than six Martian years, from MY26, Ls = 331°, to MY 33, Ls = 78°. This huge dataset has been used to build a new database of atmospheric parameters, including atmospheric and surface temperatures, and dust and water ice opacity. Dust aerosols suspended in the atmosphere affect its thermal structure and are a major driver of the circulation. They are always present in the Martian atmosphere, but the amount varies greatly depending on location and season. We analyze dust opacities at 1075 cm-1 retrieved from the PFS long-wavelength channel spectra to characterize the dust activity on Mars for the relevant period. The dust storm season (Ls= 185° - 310°) is monitored for each Martian year. All dust observations show a seasonal pattern, which is ruled by the occurrence of regional and/or global dust storms. Regional dust storms are observed every year, while a planet encircling dust storm occurred in MY 28, when the highest values of dust opacity are also observed (~ 2.45). We characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these regional and global dust events and investigate the effect of dust on surface and atmospheric temperatures.

  20. Analysis of high-altitude planetary ion velocity space distributions detected by the Ion Mass Analyzer aboard Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fraenz, M.; Curry, S.; Mitchell, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    We present observations of planetary ion velocity space distributions from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard Mars Express (MEX). The magnetometer data from Mars Global Surveyor is used to obtain a rough estimate of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Characteristic features of the velocity space distributions will be examined and discussed for orbits aligned with the convective electric field and those in the Mars terminator plane. This study will focus on the high (keV) energy ions, as well as the relative importance of a high-altitude magnetosheath source of escaping planetary ions. Furthermore, this paper will examine various methods for converting the IMA detector counts to species-specific fluxes. After mimicking the methods previously used by researchers, we apply each of these methods of species extraction to data collected during the same time intervals. We discuss the implications for planetary ion motion around Mars, using the details of the velocity space observations to better understand the solar wind interaction with Mars. Comparisons to virtual detections using a test particle simulation will also provide insight into ion origins and trajectories.

  1. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  2. Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Hugh H. (Editor); Jakosky, Bruce M. (Editor); Snyder, Conway W. (Editor); Matthews, Mildred S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on Mars discusses visual, photographic and polarimetric telescopic observations, spacecraft exploration of Mars, the origin and thermal evolution of Mars, and the bulk composition, mineralogy, and internal structure of the planet. Attention is given to Martian gravity and topography, stress and tectonics on Mars, long-term orbital and spin dynamics of Mars, and Martian geodesy and cartography. Topics addressed include the physical volcanology of Mars, the canyon system on planet, Martian channels and valley networks, and ice in the Martian regolith. Also discussed are Martian aeolian processes, sediments, and features, polar deposits of Mars, dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, and the seasonal behavior of water on Mars.

  3. Developing an Updated, Integrated Understanding of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, Bethany; Beaty, David; Meyer, Michael

    2014-09-01

    More than 650 scientists from 21 countries gathered in mid-July at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to debate and examine the status of our exploration of the Red Planet. Since the Seventh International Conference on Mars in 2007, seven Mars missions—Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit/Opportunity), Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity)—have been returning data, augmented by telescopic observations, studies of Martian meteorites, laboratory work, and modeling studies.

  4. Life on Mars: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Mars has evidence for past liquid water, presence of an atmosphere with CO2 and N2, and potential for preservation of evidence of life. Composition of the Martian atmosphere is 95.3% Carbon dioxide, 2.7% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon, 0.3-0.1% Water Vapor, 0.13% Oxygen, and 0.07% Carbon Monoxide. Current Mars missions include: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,

  5. The global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Maurice, S.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Squyres, Steven W.; Boynton, W. V.; Elphic, R. C.; Funsten, H. O.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Tokar, R. L.; Moore, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prime objectives of the neutron spectrometer (NS) component of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments aboard Mars Odyssey are to identify the major reservoirs of hydrogen on Mars, determine their relative contributions to its total water inventory, and estimate the portion of the current inventory that is near the surface. Although more information is required than is currently available, epithermal neutron currents alone can provide a significant lower bound of hydrogen abundances on Mars. Observations from Viking 1, Viking 2, and Mars Pathfinder positively identified two of these reservoirs. By far the largest near-surface reservoir is comprised of the two residual polar caps, which together are sufficient to cover Mars with a global ocean about 30 m deep. The second is contained in the atmosphere, which if deposited on the surface, would cover Mars with a thin film of water about 10{sup -5} m deep. Although negligible in comparison, the fact that an atmospheric reservoir exists shows that it can provide a conduit that couples transient reservoirs of near-surface water ice. It has long been speculated that Mars has had, and may still retain, a far larger reservoir of water. Topographic features such as rampart craters, collapsed chaotic terrain, massive outflow channels, and valley networks provide strong support for the past existence of large bodies of surface water. Measurements of the areal size and depth of all paleo-water and volcanic features led to an estimate of a total water inventory equivalent to a global ocean that was between 100 and 500 m thick. Measurements of the D/H ratio have allowed predictions that between 5 and 50 m of this inventory was lost to space. Altogether, these estimates lead to between 20 and 465 m of water from the juvenile Martian inventory that is not accounted for. First analyses of Mars Odyssey neutron and gamma-ray data showed that reservoirs of hydrogen do indeed exist poleward of about {+-}50{sup o} latitude. Mars

  6. Sampling and Studying Permafrost in Alaska and on Mars: Mars Arctic Regions Science Field Experience for Secondary Teachers (MARSFEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Buxner, S. R.; Douglas, T. A.; Lombardi, D. A.; Shaner, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Both neutron and gamma ray data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument suite aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft provide compelling evidence for the presence of water ice buried within the upper few tens of centimeters of Mars at high latitudes.^{1-3} In May 2008, the Phoenix Mars Lander mission will arrive at the northern high latitudes of Mars to ground-truth the presence of this water ice. The mission will use a robotic arm to deliver samples of permafrost to several instruments on the deck of the spacecraft for detailed chemical and microscopic analyses. Two primary science objectives at the landing site are to study the history of water in all its phases and to characterize soil habitability.4 As part of the Education and Public Outreach efforts for both the Phoenix and Odyssey missions, 20 secondary science teachers from across the U.S. and Canada were selected to spend a week in Summer 2006 immersed in arctic region science around Fairbanks, Alaska. The focal point of the experience involved investigations conducted at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Permafrost Tunnel.5 Teacher participants combined remote sensing and in situ observations of permafrost regions, conducted sample collection and analyses to investigate research questions generated by participants at the Permafrost Tunnel, explored comparisons between the terrestrial and Martian arctic, and completed inquiry- based classroom curriculum activities related to Mars and arctic science. A video documentary of the field experience is being produced by the NASA Mars Public Engagement program for education and public outreach purposes. The ten teacher teams involved in the workshop will now serve as educational ambassadors for the Phoenix Mars Lander mission over the next two years through to the completion of surface operations for the mission. They will be supported through monthly teleconferences updating them on mission status and continued research

  7. Propagation considerations for the Odyssey system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Hau H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Odyssey system with special emphasis given to the link availability for both mobile link and feeder link. The Odyssey system design provides high link availability, typically 98 percent in the primary service areas, and better than 95 percent availability in other service areas. Strategies for overcoming Ka-band feeder link rain fades are presented. Mobile link propagation study results and summary link budgets are also presented.

  8. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; McLennan, S. M.

    Of all the planets, Mars is the most Earthlike, inviting geochemical comparisons. Geochemical data for Mars are derived from spacecraft remote sensing, surface measurements and Martian meteorites. These analyses of exposed crustal materials enable estimates of bulk planet composition and inferences about its iron-rich mantle and core, as well as constraints on planetary differentiation and crust-mantle evolution. Mars probably had an early magma ocean, but there is no evidence for plate tectonics or crustal recycling any time in its history. The crust is basaltic in composition and lithologically heterogeneous, with radiometric crystallization ages ranging from ~4 billion years to within the last several hundred million years. Mantle sources for magmas vary considerably in incompatible element abundances. Although Mars is volatile element-rich, estimations of the amount of water delivered to the surface by volcanism are controversial. Low-temperature aqueous alteration affected the ancient Martian surface, producing clay minerals, sulfates, and other secondary minerals. Weathering and diagenetic trends are distinct from terrestrial chemical alteration, indicating different aqueous conditions. Organic matter has been found in Martian meteorites, but no geochemical signal of life has yet been discovered. Dynamic geochemical cycles for some volatile elements are revealed by stable isotope measurements. Long-term secular changes in chemical and mineralogical compositions of igneous rocks and sediments have been documented but are not well understood.

  9. Effectiveness of CompassLearning's Odyssey Reading for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Odyssey Reading, published by CompassLearning, is a comprehensive reading/language arts program using adaptive software for core instruction. This is the first study of CompassLearning's Odyssey Reading (CLO) in PUSD and was based on data from the school years 2006-2008. For this study, Odyssey Reading was implemented in reading classes in grades…

  10. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Tilman; Sohl, Frank; Breuer, Doris

    Mars is the fourth planet out from the sun. It is a terrestrial planet with a density suggesting a composition roughly similar to that of the Earth. Its orbital period is 687 days, its orbital eccentricity is 0.093 and its rotational period is about 24 hours. Mars has two small moons of asteroidal shapes and sizes (about 11 and 6 km mean radius), the bigger of which, Phobos, orbits with decreasing semimajor orbit axis. The decrease of the orbit is caused by the dissipation of tidal energy in the Martian mantle. The other satellite, Deimos, orbits close to the synchronous position where the rotation period of a planet equals the orbital period of its satellite and has hardly evolved with time. Mars has a tenous atmosphere composed mostly of CO2 with strong winds and with large scale aeolian transport of surface material during dust storms and in sublimation-condensation cycles between the polar caps. The planet has a small magnetic field, probably not generated by dynamo action in the core but possibly due to remnant magnetization of crustal rock acquired earlier from a stronger magnetic field generated by a now dead core dynamo. A dynamo powered by thermal power alone would have ceased a few billions of years ago as the core cooled to an extent that it became stably stratified. Mars' topography and its gravity field are dominated by the Tharsis bulge, a huge dome of volcanic origin. Tharsis was the major center of volcanic activity, a second center is Elysium about 100° in longitude away. The Tharsis bulge is a major contributor to the non-hydrostaticity of the planet's figure. The moment of inertia factor together with the mass and the radius presently is the most useful constraint for geophysical models of the Martian interior. It has recently been determined by Doppler range measurements to the Mars Pathfinder Lander to be 0.3662 +/- 0.0017 (Folkner et al. 1997). In addition, models of the interior structure use the chemistry of the SNC meteorites which are

  11. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    This odyssey is mine from early junior high school, where my dreams for adventure were shaped by Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, Percival Christopher Wren's Beau Geste, and best of all the remarkable explorers in Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters. My birth site was in Manhattan (my mother was a Vogue model and my father worked in retail), and I traveled to college at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, where my love of history and English literature was shaped along with a sufficient exposure to biology, chemistry, and genetics to meet requirements for entering medical school. By the second year at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, through expert teachers such as Theodore (Ted) Woodward and Sheldon (Shelly) Greisman in medicine and Charles Weissmann in virology and microbiology, I found that understanding why and how people became ill was more my cup of tea than identifying and treating their illnesses. Although I was becoming competent in diagnosis and treatment, I left medical school at the end of my sophomore year to seek a more basic understanding of biology and chemistry. I achieved this by working toward a PhD in biochemistry at Johns Hopkins McCollum-Pratt Institute combined with study of rickettsial toxin at Maryland. This was a very important time in my life, because it convinced me that addressing biologic and medical questions in a disciplined scientific manner was what my life voyage should be. That voyage led me initially, through Woodward's contact, to work a summer in Joe Smadel's unit at Walter Reed (Smadel being one of the deans of American virology) and to meet several times with Carleton Gajdusek and then John Enders at Harvard, who pointed me to Frank Dixon at Scripps in La Jolla, California, for postdoctoral training. Dixon was among the founders of modern immunology and a pathfinder for immunopathology. Training by and association with Dixon and his other postdoctoral fellows, my independent position at Scripps, early

  12. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    This odyssey is mine from early junior high school, where my dreams for adventure were shaped by Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, Percival Christopher Wren's Beau Geste, and best of all the remarkable explorers in Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters. My birth site was in Manhattan (my mother was a Vogue model and my father worked in retail), and I traveled to college at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, where my love of history and English literature was shaped along with a sufficient exposure to biology, chemistry, and genetics to meet requirements for entering medical school. By the second year at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, through expert teachers such as Theodore (Ted) Woodward and Sheldon (Shelly) Greisman in medicine and Charles Weissmann in virology and microbiology, I found that understanding why and how people became ill was more my cup of tea than identifying and treating their illnesses. Although I was becoming competent in diagnosis and treatment, I left medical school at the end of my sophomore year to seek a more basic understanding of biology and chemistry. I achieved this by working toward a PhD in biochemistry at Johns Hopkins McCollum-Pratt Institute combined with study of rickettsial toxin at Maryland. This was a very important time in my life, because it convinced me that addressing biologic and medical questions in a disciplined scientific manner was what my life voyage should be. That voyage led me initially, through Woodward's contact, to work a summer in Joe Smadel's unit at Walter Reed (Smadel being one of the deans of American virology) and to meet several times with Carleton Gajdusek and then John Enders at Harvard, who pointed me to Frank Dixon at Scripps in La Jolla, California, for postdoctoral training. Dixon was among the founders of modern immunology and a pathfinder for immunopathology. Training by and association with Dixon and his other postdoctoral fellows, my independent position at Scripps, early

  13. Odyssey Math. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Odyssey Math," published by CompassLearning[R], is a web-based K-8 mathematics curriculum and assessment tool designed to allow for instructional differentiation and data-driven decision making. The online program includes electronic curriculum and materials for individual or small group work, assessments aligned with state curriculum standards,…

  14. Odyssey Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Odyssey Reading," published by CompassLearning[R], is a web-based K-12 reading/language arts program designed to allow for instructional differentiation and data-driven decision making. The online program includes electronic curricula and materials for individual or small-group work, assessments aligned with state curriculum standards, and a data…

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars All Over: Geologic Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles presented in this session include: 1) 'Geology of Noachian Martian Highlands Surrounding the Gusev Crater'; 2) 'The History of Deposition and Nature of Material in Hellas Basin, Mars'; 3) 'Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars'; 4) 'Geology of the Aram Chaos from MGS-Mars Odyssey Missions and Mars Express HRSC Data'; 5) 'Toward a Comprehensive Stratigraphic Column of Mars'; 6 'The Olympus Mons Aureole Deposits: Constraints on Emplacement Scenarios Based on Remotely Sensed Data'.

  16. Cars on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  17. Evidence for subsurface water ice in Korolev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, J.C.; Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Following the work of Kieffer and Titus (2001, Icarus 154, 162-180), we present results of thermal IR observations of Korolev crater, located at ???73?? latitude in the martian northern polar region. Similar to techniques employed by Titus et al. (2003, Science 299, 1048-1050), we use infrared images from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey to identify several regions within the crater basin with distinct thermal properties that correlate with topography. The THEMIS results show these regions exhibit temperature variations, spatially within the crater and throughout the martian year. In addition to the variations identified in the THEMIS observations, Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations show differences in albedo and temperature of these regions on both daily and seasonal cycles. Modeling annual temperature variations of the surface, we use TES observations to examine the thermal properties of these regions. This analysis reveals the crater interior deposits are likely thick layers (several meters) of high thermal inertia material (water ice, or extremely ice-rich regolith). Spatial variations of the physical properties of these regions are likely due to topography and possibly variations in the subsurface material itself. The nature of these deposits may help constrain polar processes, as well as provide context for the polar lander mission, Phoenix. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Odyssey: Ray tracing and radiative transfer in Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Odyssey is a GPU-based General Relativistic Radiative Transfer (GRRT) code for computing images and/or spectra in Kerr metric describing the spacetime around a rotating black hole. Odyssey is implemented in CUDA C/C++. For flexibility, the namespace structure in C++ is used for different tasks; the two default tasks presented in the source code are the redshift of a Keplerian disk and the image of a Keplerian rotating shell at 340GHz. Odyssey_Edu, an educational software package for visualizing the ray trajectories in the Kerr spacetime that uses Odyssey, is also available.

  19. Arabia and Memnonia Equatorial Regions with High Content of Water: Data from HEND/Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofaov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    After one martian year of neutron mapping measurements by the High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, a map of the planet was produced showing the summer season in each hemisphere when winter deposition of CO2 on the surface is absent. The data for northern and southern poleward water-rich regions are presented. Here we discuss the HEND results for two equatorial regions, Arabia and Memnonia, which were found to be associated with a rather strong depression of epithermal and high energy neutrons.

  20. Estimated Radiation Dosage on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This global map of Mars shows the estimated radiation dosages from cosmic rays reaching the surface, a serious health concern for any future human exploration of the planet.

    The estimates are based on cosmic-radiation measurements by the Mars radiation environment experiment, an instrument on NASA's Mars 2000 Odyssey spacecraft, plus information about Mars' surface elevations from the laser altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The areas of Mars expected to have the lowest levels of cosmic radiation are where the elevation is lowest, because those areas have more atmosphere above them to block out some of the radiation. Earth's thick atmosphere shields us from most cosmic radiation, but Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than we have on Earth.

    The colors in the map refer to the estimated annual dose equivalent in rems, a unit of radiation dose. The range is generally from 10 rems(color-coded dark blue) to 20 rems (color coded dark red). Radiation exposure for astronauts on the International Space Station in Earth orbit is typically equivalent to an annualized rate of 20 to 40 rems.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor missions for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. The Mars radiation environment experiment was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for Odyssey, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  2. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry in developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, 'bent pipe' transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km.

  3. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  4. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth.

  5. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth. PMID:25807734

  6. Two Successive Martian Years on the Orbit: Similarities and Differences of CO2 Seasonal Cycle from HEND/ODYSSEY Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The three years of Mars Odyssey successful work on the martian orbit provide a lot of new information about peculiarities of long term variations of CO2 seasonal cycle. To start such analysis we have used observations of neutron albedo of Mars obtained by High Energy Neutron detector (HEND) mounted onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The high latitude northern and southern regions of Mars are affected by global redistribution of atmospheric CO2 which resulted in 25% of atmospheric mass condensed on martian surface of these regions during winter period of time. The seasonal deposit is formed starting from 60N/60S latitudes and achieve its maximal thickness about 1 m at latitudes close to martian poles. Changes of CO2 deposit thickness is the reason for significant variations of neutron flux above martian poles from summer to winter seasons because CO2 frost effectively hides upper water rich surface layers from the orbit observations in neutrons and gamma-rays. This effect was used to estimate column density of CO2 deposit at different latitudes on North and South of Mars and reconstruct multidimensional model of CO2 deposit showing how snow depth varies as function of latitude, longitude and time. In this presentation we tried to make a next step in our study of martian seasonal CO2 cycle and look for similarities and differences between two successive martian years.

  7. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  8. Potential sources of artifacts and backgrounds generated by the sample preparation of the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity Rover on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Belmahdi, Imene; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Summons, Roger; Miller, Kristen; Coll, Patrice; cabane, Michel; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Dequaire, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is one of the instruments of the MSL mission. Three analytical devices are onboard SAM: the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), the Gas Chromatography (GC) and the Mass Spectrometer (MS). To adapt the nature of a sample to the analytical devices used on SAM, a sample preparation and gas processing system is implemented with (a) a pyrolysis system, (b) wet chemistry: MTBSTFA and TMAH (c) the hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax® TA and Carbosieve G) which is employed to concentrate volatiles released from the sample prior to GC-MS analysis [1].Volatile compounds and abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons have been detected with SAM when analyzing samples collected in several sites explored by Curiosity rover. Some volatile compounds (chlorinated and non-chlorinated) come from the degradation of the MTBSTFA under high temperature or by the reaction of Martian oxychlorine compounds (present in the samples) with terrestrial carbon coming from the derivatization agent (MTBSTFA) used in SAM [2,3]. But other chlorinated compounds do not follow this pathway. For example, Chlorobenzene has been detected by SAM but it cannot be formed by the reaction of MTBSTFA and perchlorates. Then, two other reaction pathways for chlorobenzene were therefore proposed: (1) reactions between the volatile thermal degradation products of perchlorates (e.g. O2, Cl2 and HCl) and Tenax® and (2) the interaction of perchlorates (T>200°C) with organic material from Mars's soil such as benzenecarboxylates. However, even if major part of the chlorobenzene detected has been identified as Martian origin [4] it is important to list all the potential byproducts able to be released from the Tenax®.Thus, this study inventory all the possible compounds which are originated from Tenax®, MTBSTFA and their interaction with perchlorate.References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Glavin, D., A. et al. (2013), LPSC. [3] Eigenbrode, J. et al. (2013), LPSC. [4

  9. Odyssey in Polyphasic Catalysis by Metal Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Denicourt-Nowicki, Audrey; Roucoux, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Nanometer-sized metal particles constitute an unavoidable family of catalysts, combining the advantages of molecular complexes in regards to their catalytic performances and the ones of heterogeneous systems in terms of easy recycling. As part of this research, our group aims at designing well-defined metal nanoparticles based-catalysts, in non-conventional media (ionic liquids or water), for various catalytic applications (hydrogenation, dehalogenation, carbon-carbon coupling, asymmetric catalysis) in mild reaction conditions. In the drive towards a more eco-responsible chemistry, the main focuses rely on the search of highly active and selective nanocatalysts, in association with an efficient recycling mainly under pure biphasic liquid-liquid conditions. In this Personal Account, we proposed our almost fifteen-years odyssey in the world of metal nanoparticles for a sustainable catalysis.

  10. Odyssey in Polyphasic Catalysis by Metal Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Denicourt-Nowicki, Audrey; Roucoux, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Nanometer-sized metal particles constitute an unavoidable family of catalysts, combining the advantages of molecular complexes in regards to their catalytic performances and the ones of heterogeneous systems in terms of easy recycling. As part of this research, our group aims at designing well-defined metal nanoparticles based-catalysts, in non-conventional media (ionic liquids or water), for various catalytic applications (hydrogenation, dehalogenation, carbon-carbon coupling, asymmetric catalysis) in mild reaction conditions. In the drive towards a more eco-responsible chemistry, the main focuses rely on the search of highly active and selective nanocatalysts, in association with an efficient recycling mainly under pure biphasic liquid-liquid conditions. In this Personal Account, we proposed our almost fifteen-years odyssey in the world of metal nanoparticles for a sustainable catalysis. PMID:27427501

  11. Going Green: the Bohn-Meyer Math-Science Odyssey

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 200 seventh-graders recently experienced a variety of hands-on learning activities during the 2011 Bohn-Meyer Math and Science Odyssey at Antelope Valley College in Lancaster, Calif. Spon...

  12. Lessons Learned from Coordinating Relay Activities at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy E.; Hwang, Pauline; Waggoner, Bruce; McLaughlin, Bruce; Fieseler, Paul; Thomas, Reid; Bigwood, Maria; Herrera, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Mission Management Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was tasked with coordinating the relay of data between multiple spacecraft at Mars in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Missions in early 2004. The confluence of three orbiters (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express), two rovers (Spirit and Opportunity), and one lander (Beagle 2) has provided a challenging operational scenario that required careful coordination between missions to provide the necessary support and to avoid potential interference during simultaneous relay sessions. As these coordination efforts progressed, several important lessons were learned that should be applied to future Mars relay activities.

  13. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  14. Cartographic Mapping of Mars Landing Sites: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    Initial mapping of Mars began with the early Mariner 4, 6 and 7 flybys in the 1960's. Mariner 9 obtained the first global coverage of Mars in 1971. Viking Orbiters 1 and 2 added new and higher resolution global coverage. The US Geological Survey produced the first digital global cartographic map products in black and white and in color, the mosaicked digital image models (MDIMs). In 1989, the Phobos 88 mission added imaging as well as multispectral mapping of Mars in the equatorial region. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) added to the black and white and color global coverage. The most important development for Mars cartography occurred on MGS with its global coverage of Mars using the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOL A) producing precision ground control in latitude, longitude and radius. The next version of the MDIM was produced at 230 m spatial resolution using MOLA precision cartographic control. The Mars Odyssey mission THEMIS instrument has completed its global infrared mapping of Mars at 100 m spatial resolution. The Mars Express mission is completing its global coverage of Mars in stereo at 100 m spatial resolution or better. MGS, Odyssey and Mars Express continue to provide limited surface coverage at the 1 to 20 m resolution. Currently the new Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is producing images at the 10's of cm level. All of these datasets provide a rich and historic perspective of Mars covering nearly five decades and allow global cartographic map products to be produced in visual and infrared at the 100 m level with specialized cartographic maps being produced for landing sites at the meter or sub-meter spatial resolution level. This work was produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NAS 7-7120.5d, within the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program and the MGS, Odyssey, Mars Express and MRO Participating Scientist Programs.

  15. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    PubMed

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse. PMID:18577587

  16. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    PubMed Central

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2008-01-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey (“Theoclymenus's prophecy”) to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192–1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250–1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse. PMID:18577587

  17. Theories of bipedal walking: an odyssey.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Christopher L

    2003-04-01

    In this paper six theories of bipedal walking, and the evidence in support of the theories, are reviewed. They include: evolution, minimising energy consumption, maturation in children, central pattern generators, linking control and effect, and robots on two legs. Specifically, the six theories posit that: (1) bipedalism is the fundamental evolutionary adaptation that sets hominids--and therefore humans--apart from other primates; (2) locomotion is the translation of the centre of gravity along a pathway requiring the least expenditure of energy; (3) when a young child takes its first few halting steps, his or her biomechanical strategy is to minimise the risk of falling; (4) a dedicated network of interneurons in the spinal cord generates the rhythm and cyclic pattern of electromyographic signals that give rise to bipedal gait; (5) bipedal locomotion is generated through global entrainment of the neural system on the one hand, and the musculoskeletal system plus environment on the other; and (6) powered dynamic gait in a bipedal robot can be realised only through a strategy which is based on stability and real-time feedback control. The published record suggests that each of the theories has some measure of support. However, it is important to note that there are other important theories of locomotion which have not been covered in this review. Despite such omissions, this odyssey has explored the wide spectrum of bipedal walking, from its origins through to the integration of the nervous, muscular and skeletal systems.

  18. SAM Overview: The Habitability of Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Featuring an interview with Paul Mahaffy, SAM's Principal Investigator, this video gives a general overview of SAM's mission aboard the Mars Science Laboratory, otherwise known as the Curiosity rover.

  19. Known Locations of Carbonate Rocks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Green dots show the locations of orbital detections of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars, determined by analysis of targeted observations by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) acquired through January 2008. The spectrometer is on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The base map is color-coded global topography (red is high, blue is low) overlain on mosaicked daytime thermal infrared images. The topography data are from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The thermal infrared imagery is from the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

    The CRISM team, led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. Arizona State University, Tempe, operates the Thermal Emission Imaging System, which the university developed in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey projects for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiters.

  20. Trojans' Odyssey: Unveiling the early history of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Philippe; Vernazza, Pierre; Poncy, Joel; Martinot, Vincent; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Canalias, Elisabet; Bell, Jim; Cruikshank, Dale; Groussin, Olivier; Helbert, Joern; Marzari, Francesco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Sierks, Holger

    2012-04-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the `snow line', around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at ˜5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise time as well as the ΔV needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ΔV. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy, and

  1. Strategies to Support Exploration of Mars' Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, L.; Sykes, M.; Farr, T.; Adams, J.; Blaney, D.

    2003-01-01

    Surface Visible infrared spectroscopy has a long history of providing fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system. However, we are entering a new era of Mars exploration in which missions will take place nearly every 2 years.The visible infrared spectral community thus faces a more rapid influx in data volume and variety than it has previously handled.Visible- infrared instruments are on the 1996 Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, 2003 Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; and likely on the 2007 and 2009 missions. Interpretations of those data sets provide a critical foundation for geologic and climatic interpretations as well as an opportunity to select landing sites.

  2. Successful Mars remote sensors, MO THEMIS and MER Mini-TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Steven; Christensen, Phil

    2003-11-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), covering the spectral range 5-29 μm at 10 cm-1 spectral resolution. Launched in June 2003, one Mini-TES instrument will fly to Mars aboard each of the two missions of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Project (MER), named Spirit and Opportunity. The first Mini-TES unit was required to meet a two-year development schedule with proven, flight-tested instrumentation. Therefore, SBRS designed Mini-TES based on proven heritage from the successful MGS TES. THEMIS is based on "bolt-together" pushbroom optics and uncooled silicon microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) technology. Sometimes dubbed "Mars Landsat," THEMIS was launched in 2001 on Mars Odyssey, and provides guidance for future lander missions now in preparation for launch. Advanced materials and optical machining allow THEMIS low-scatter, reflective, wide field-of-view (WFOV) pushbroom optics for relatively long dwell-time compared to narrow FOV optics requiring cross-track scanning for equivalent spatial resolution. This allows uncooled silicon microbolometer FPAs, with less signal sensitivity than cryogenically cooled photo-diode FPAs, to meet the THEMIS sensitivity requirements. Instrument design, performance, integration, as well as details of the calibration are discussed. Full instrument and calibration details are available in the Journal of Geophysical Research Mini-TES and THEMIS papers by Christensen, et al.

  3. The Odyssey Project: A Quest for School Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Rodney S.

    The Odyssey Project is named for the Greek hero, Odysseus, who for 10 years, sought the purpose of life. The Project is based on the philosophy that a new generation of American schools must be viewed as a lifelong quest for excellence. The project is one of 11 designs for schools funded by the New American Schools Development Corporation, a…

  4. Creative Inclusion in Community Theatre: A Journey with Odyssey Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Roger

    2009-01-01

    What does "inclusion" mean in practice? This article considers the work of Odyssey Theatre, a group of learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled performers as they put together a production with the support of professional theatre workers. Working processes are examined and the balance of empowerment and professional leadership considered. It is…

  5. The Goals and Approach of the Phoenix Mission for Evaluating the Habitabiity of the Northern Plains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2006-01-01

    The first goal of the Mars Exploration program, as defined by the Mars Exploration Payload Analysis Group (MEPAG) is to determine if life ever arose on Mars [1]. The Phoenix landing site was chosen to sample near surface ground ice in the Northern Plains discovered by the GRS experiment on Mars Odyssey [2]. A goal of Phoenix is to determine whether this environment was habitable for life at some time in its history.

  6. Mars Express en route for the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    The probe, weighing in at 1 120 kg, was built on ESA’s behalf by a European team led by Astrium. It set out on its journey to Mars aboard a Soyuz-Fregat launcher, under Starsem operational management. The launcher lifted off from Baïkonur in Kazakhstan on 2 June at 23.45 local time (17:45 GMT). An interim orbit around the Earth was reached following a first firing of the Fregat upper stage. One hour and thirty-two minutes after lift off the probe was injected into its interplanetary orbit. "Europe is on its way to Mars to stake its claim in the most detailed and complete exploration ever done of the Red Planet. We can be very proud of this and of the speed with which have achieved this goal", said David Southwood, ESA's Director of Science witnessing the launch from Baikonur. Contact with Mars Express has been established by ESOC, ESA’s satellite control centre, located in Darmstadt, Germany. The probe is pointing correctly towards the Sun and has deployed its solar panels. All on-board systems are operating faultlessly. Two days from now, the probe will perform a corrective manœuvre that will place it in a Mars-bound trajectory, while the Fregat stage, trailing behind, will vanish into space - there will be no risk of it crashing into and contaminating the Red Planet. Mars Express will then travel away from Earth at a speed exceeding 30 km/s (3 km/s in relation to the Earth), on a six-month and 400 million kilometre journey through the solar system. Once all payload operations have been checked out, the probe will be largely deactivated. During this period, the spacecraft will contact Earth only once a day. Mid-journey correction of its trajectory is scheduled for September. There in time for Christmas Following reactivation of its systems at the end of November, Mars Express will get ready to release Beagle 2. The 60 kg capsule containing the tiny lander does not incorporate its own propulsion and steering system and will be released into a collision

  7. Stealth life detection instruments aboard Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2012-10-01

    NASA has often stated (e.g. MSL Science Corner1) that it's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), "Curiosity," Mission to Mars carries no life detection experiments. This is in keeping with NASA's 36-year explicit ban on such, imposed immediately after the 1976 Viking Mission to Mars. The space agency attributes the ban to the "ambiguity" of that Mission's Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment, fearing an adverse effect on the space program should a similar "inconclusive" result come from a new robotic quest. Yet, despite the NASA ban, this author, the Viking LR Experimenter, contends there are "stealth life detection instruments" aboard Curiosity. These are life detection instruments in the sense that they can free the Viking LR from the pall of ambiguity that has held it prisoner so long. Curiosity's stealth instruments are those seeking organic compounds, and the mission's high-resolution camera system. Results from any or all of these devices, coupled with the Viking LR data, can confirm the LR's life detection claim. In one possible scenario, Curiosity can, of itself, completely corroborate the finding of life on Mars. MSL has just successfully landed on Mars. Hopefully, its stealth confirmations of life will be reported shortly.

  8. One year of results from Odyssey THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, P.; Themis Team

    2003-04-01

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) began studying the surface and atmosphere of Mars in February, 2002 using thermal infrared multi-spectral imaging between 6.5 and 15 µm, and visible/near-IR images from 450 to 850 nm. The THEMIS investigation's specific objectives are to: (1) determine the mineralogy of localized deposits associated with hydrothermal or sub-aqueous environments, and to identify future landing sites likely to represent these environments; (2) search for thermal anomalies associated with active sub-surface hydrothermal systems; (3) study small-scale geologic processes and landing site characteristics using morphologic and thermophysical properties; (4) investigate polar cap processes at all seasons; and (5) provide a high spatial resolution link to the global hyperspectral mineral mapping from the TES investigation. THEMIS data collected to date have been used to investigate the nature of geologic units and layers, the distribution of rocks and bedrock, the mobile surface sand and dust, 100-m scale compositional variations, polar processes, and visible color and morphology. Regional-scale infrared mapping shows that Mars has both regional and local geologic units delineated by their thermophysical properties. In Meridiani Planum these units imply a complex history involving changes in the nature of volcanic units, the environment of deposition of sedimentary units, and/or the degree of lithification or cementation of initially unconsolidated units. Mars has km-scale exposures of bedrock, and rocky surfaces are commonly observed on slopes and scarps, demonstrating that the production or exposure rate of rock locally exceeds the rate of rock burial or breakdown. Thermally distinct ejecta deposits with a wide range of thermophysical properties are observed around craters of varying sizes. Most crater ejecta, however, are indistinguishable from the surrounding terrain. Where large fields of sand dune occur, the dunes are typically coarser

  9. Assessing the Distribution and State of Subsurface Water on Mars: Theoretical Expectations, the Geologic Evidence, and Potential Geophysical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of water on Mars has important implications for understanding the planet's geologic, hydrologic, and climatic history; the potential origin and continued survival of life; and the accessibility of a critical in-situ resource for sustaining future human explorers. For this reason, the search for water has become a key objective of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Evidence of water, both past and present, is found almost everywhere, but most persuasively in the form of the planet's outflow channels -- broad scoured depressions hundreds of kilometers long that emerge abruptly from large areas of collapsed and disrupted terrain, the apparent result of a massive release of subpermafrost groundwater. Based on a conservative estimate of the volume of water required to erode the channels, Carr (Icarus, 68, 187-216, 1986) has estimated that Mars may possess a total planetary inventory of water equivalent to a global ocean 0.5 - 1 km deep. Of this global inventory, ~0.000001% is found in the atmosphere, while ~5-10% is visible as ice in the perennial polar caps. This leaves ~90-95% of the planetary inventory of water unaccounted for, the vast bulk of which is believed to reside, as ground ice and groundwater, within the planet's crust. Theoretical and geomorphic approaches to assessing the current distribution and state of subsurface water on Mars face numerous obstacles -- thus geophysical techniques hold the most promise. The first such investigation, the Gamma-Ray Neutron Spectrometer aboard the Mars Odyssey Orbiter, arrived at Mars in 2001. It revealed that the top half-meter of the Martian regolith is rich in hydrogen at latitudes above ~40-degrees, an observation consistent with the presence of near-surface ground ice. Assessing the distribution of water at greater depths (up to several kilometers) is one of the chief objectives of the MARSIS experiment on ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. MARSIS is a low-frequency (1-5 MHz) orbital radar

  10. Estimated Radiation on Mars, Hits per Cell Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This global map of Mars shows estimates for amounts of high-energy-particle cosmic radiation reaching the surface, a serious health concern for any future human exploration of the planet.

    The estimates are based on cosmic-radiation measurements made on the way to Mars by the Mars radiation environment experiment, an instrument on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, plus information about Mars' surface elevations from the laser altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The areas of Mars expected to have least radiation are where elevation is lowest, because those areas have more atmosphere above them to block out some of the radiation. Earth's thick atmosphere shields us from most cosmic radiation, but Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than Earth does.

    Colors in the map refer to the estimated average number of times per year each cell nucleus in a human there would be hit by a high-energy cosmic ray particle. The range is generally from two hits (color-coded green), a moderate risk level, to eight hits (coded red), a high risk level.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor missions for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. The Mars radiation environment experiment was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for Odyssey, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. New Perspectives on Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Aharonson, O.; Aurnou, J. M.; Banerdt, W. B.; Carr, M. H.; Dombard, A. J.; Frey, H. V.; Golombek, M. P.; Hauck, S. A., II; Head, J. W., III

    2004-01-01

    Global data sets returned by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express spacecraft and recent analyses of Martian meteorites suggest that most of the major geological events of Martian history occurred within the first billion years of solar system formation. This period was a time of heavy impact bombardment of the inner solar system, a process that strongly overprinted much of the Martian geological record from that time. Geophysical signatures nonetheless remain from that period in the Martian crust, and several geochemical tracers of early events are found in Martian meteorites. Collectively, these observations provide insight into the earliest era in Martian history when the conditions favoring life were best satisfied.

  12. Seasonal Frost Changes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a comparison of wintertime (left) and summertime (right) views of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The maps are based on data from the high-energy neutron detector, an instrument in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the maps. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. In some areas, the abundance of water ice is estimated to be up to 90% by volume. In winter, much of the hydrogen is hidden beneath a layer of carbon dioxide frost (dry ice). In the summer, the hydrogen is revealed because the carbon dioxide frost has dissipated. A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on these maps for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND) for ExoMarsTrace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhov, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Kozyrev, A.; Tretiyakov, V.; Mokrousov, M.; Vostrukhin, A.; Golovin, D.; Fedosov, F.

    2012-04-01

    ExoMars is now under considerations, as a joint mission of the three agencies, ESA,Roscosmos and NASA to explore the red planet. Planned for launch in 2016, its first element, the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) is going to spend one Martian year (687 Earth days) orbiting around the planet. Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND), once aboard TGO, will be measuring thermal, epithermal and high energy neutrons with energy ranges up to 10 MeV, which variations are an excellent signature of H bearing elements presence in the regolith at up to 1 meter depth. Neutron mapping of Mars is being performed since 2002 by HEND instrument on board of Mars Odyssey, but the significant step up in FREND design compared to this previous mission will be its ability to collimate neutrons and thus have a very narrow Field of View of 40 km at a 400 km altitude. Its collimator consists of layers of polyethylene to moderate neutrons and 10B to absorb them. The collimator's design is equal to one used in LEND instrument on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and proved to be efficient. The instrument design and detectors will also be very similar to ones used in its both ancestors, LEND and HEND, benefitting from the best heritage there is. FREND will use a set of 3He proportional counters to cover the thermal and epithermal neutrons energy ranges, providing a set of several independent measurements for higher statistics, as well as a stilbene scintillation detector for high energy neutrons. FREND will be the first collimated neutron instrument to fly towards Mars and, like LEND on the Moon, FREND will be able to produce Martian neutron maps that could supersede previously created ones by about 10 times in the linear spatial resolution. This will potentially clarify the available global Mars neutron maps, but could also point out new, never before seen small water/hydrogen rich features and other places of interest on the surface of the planet. Without a doubt, this kind of

  14. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  15. THEMIS observes possible cave skylights on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, G.E.; Titus, T.N.; Wynne, J.J.; Christensen, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Seven possible skylight entrances into Martian caves were observed on and around the flanks of Arsia Mons by the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Distinct from impact craters, collapse pits or any other surface feature on Mars, these candidates appear to be deep dark holes at visible wavelengths while infrared observations show their thermal behaviors to be consistent with subsurface materials. Diameters range from 100 m to 225 m, and derived minimum depths range between 68 m and 130 m. Most candidates seem directly related to pitcraters, and may have formed in a similar manner with overhanging ceilings that remain intact. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Relay Telecommunications for the Coming Decade of Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, C.; DePaula, R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an evolving network of relay-equipped orbiters has advanced our capabilities for Mars exploration. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), as well as ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, have provided telecommunications relay services to the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the 2007 Phoenix Lander. Based on these successes, a roadmap for continued Mars relay services is in place for the coming decade. MRO and Odyssey will provide key relay support to the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, including capture of critical event telemetry during entry, descent, and landing, as well as support for command and telemetry during surface operations, utilizing new capabilities of the Electra relay payload on MRO and the Electra-Lite payload on MSL to allow significant increase in data return relative to earlier missions. Over the remainder of the decade a number of additional orbiter and lander missions are planned, representing new orbital relay service providers and new landed relay users. In this paper we will outline this Mars relay roadmap, quantifying relay performance over time, illustrating planned support scenarios, and identifying key challenges and technology infusion opportunities.

  17. Odyssey: Comet Nucleus Orbiter; A Discovery 2000 Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, P. R.; Nilsen, E. N.; Smythe, W. D.; Marriott, J.; Reinert, R.; Delamere, W. A.; Odyssey Science Team

    2000-10-01

    Odyssey will be NASA's first comet nucleus orbiter mission. The spacecraft will be launched in June 2006 on a Delta 2925 expendable vehicle and will use solar electric propulsion to rendezvous with periodic Comet Kopff in September 2009. Kopff is one of the most active short-period comets known, with a gas production near perihelion of 5 x 1028 molecules/sec and an estimated nucleus diameter of { ~}3.6 km. En route to Kopff, Odyssey will fly by the C-type asteroid 24 Themis, the largest asteroid ever encountered by a planetary spacecraft (d ≈ 215 km). Odyssey's scientific payload includes narrow and wide angle CCD cameras, an IR imaging radiometer, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a dust compositional analyzer, and a dust counter and accumulation sensors. The spacecraft will initially perform slow flybys of the active Kopff nucleus at distances between 500 and 100 km, and will then be placed in orbit around the nucleus at altitudes between 200 and 50 km. The in situ instruments will collect and analyze gas and dust in the cometary coma, providing elemental, molecular, isotopic, and mineralogic measurements of the cosmo-chemical record locked in comets of the origin of our solar system and the origin of life. The narrow angle camera will map the entire nucleus surface at a resolution of 1 m/pixel, providing detailed images of the nucleus topography and its change with time. The thermal imager will do the same at 21 m/pixel, providing unprecedented data on the energy balance at the surface of the cometary nucleus, key to understanding how the comet works. Odyssey will study Comet Kopff for 9 months. Extended mission options include: 1) higher resolution mapping at even lower altitudes, and 2) touch-down of the spacecraft on the nucleus surface.

  18. Vertical Distribution of Shallow Water in the Distinguishable Regions at Low and High Latitudes of Mars: Neutron Data Deconvolution of HEND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretakov, V.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) is the part of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer suite onboard NASA Mars Odyssey orbiter [1-4]. During 16 months of mapping stage of Odyssey mission HEND has accumulated the set of maps of neutron emission of Mars at more than seven decades of energies range from the Cadmium threshold of 0.4 eV up to 15 MeV. These maps present very large variations of neutrons at different regions of Mars and they also show quite strong changes along Martian seasons.

  19. Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

    The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

  20. An improved JPL Mars gravity field and orientation from Mars orbiter and lander tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopliv, Alex S.; Park, Ryan S.; Folkner, William M.

    2016-08-01

    The Mars gravity field resolution is mostly determined by the lower altitude Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) tracking data. With nearly four years of additional MRO and Mars Odyssey tracking data since the last JPL released gravity field MRO110C and lander tracking from the MER Opportunity Rover, the gravity field and orientation of Mars have been improved. The new field, MRO120D, extends the maximum spherical harmonic degree slightly to 120, improves the determination of the higher degree coefficients as demonstrated by improved correlation with topography and reduces the uncertainty in the corresponding Mars orientation parameters by up to a factor of two versus previously combined gravity and orientation solutions. The new precession solution is ψ˙ = - 7608.3 ± 2.1 mas / yr and is consistent with previous results but with a reduced uncertainty by 40%. The Love number solution, k2 = 0.169 ± 0.006, also shows a similar result to previous studies.

  1. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  2. Topographic, spectral and thermal inertia analysis of interior layered deposits in Iani Chaos, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Catling, D. C.; Wood, S. E.; Grindrod, P. M.; Teanby, N. A.

    2012-09-01

    We present an analysis of Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) in Iani Chaos using visible, infrared, hyperspectral and topographic datasets acquired by instruments aboard NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft. We focus on four main regions where ILDs outcrop in Iani Chaos. Deposits span a ∼2 km range of elevations and exhibit moderate to high albedos, layering at sub-decameter scales, thermal inertias of 300-800 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a range of surface textures. Thermal inertia calculations use slope and azimuth corrections from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) topography. Spectral features in hyperspectral data acquired by NASA’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) suggest that gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and kieserite (MgSO4·H2O) are present in most deposits. We report absorptions typically exhibited by alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) and jarosite KFe33+(OH)6(SO4)2 as well as a number of features that may be attributable to a wide range of mono- and polyhydrated sulphates and hydroxyl-sulphates bearing a number of cations, including Mg2+, Fe2+, Fe3+ and Ca2+. Spectral features similar to those of ammonium sulphates may also be present. Analysis of a HiRISE stereo DEM shows planar layering in some ILDs, favouring a sedimentary deposition origin. Stratigraphic mapping of hydration and sulphate spectral features in flat ILDs in central Iani Chaos suggest that specific elevation intervals in the stratigraphic column were subject to different levels of hydration, perhaps during episodes of water table elevation. This is consistent with formation models for ILDs and hydrological modelling. Geomorphic characteristics of deposits in northern and southern Iani Chaos suggest their relatively recent exhumation and significant erosion by aeolian processes. We conclude that any formation theory for ILDs in Iani Chaos should support mechanisms for different hydration states at different

  3. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars.

    PubMed

    Titus, Timothy N; Kieffer, Hugh H; Christensen, Phillip R

    2003-02-14

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  4. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  5. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We are in the second year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe early mapping results, which include updating of previous northern plains mapping [3], including delineation of mainly Amazonian units and regional fault mapping, as well as other advances.

  6. Successful Mars remote sensors, MO THEMIS and MER Mini-TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Steven; Christensen, Phil

    2006-10-01

    spectral range 5 29μm at 10cm spectral resolution. Launched in June 2003, one Mini-TES instrument will fly to Mars aboard each of the two missions of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Project (MER), named Spirit and Opportunity. The first Mini-TES unit was required to meet a two-year development schedule with proven, flight-tested instrumentation. Therefore, SBRS designed Mini-TES based on proven heritage from the successful MGS TES. THEMIS is based on “bolt-together” pushbroom optics and uncooled silicon microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) technology. Sometimes dubbed “Mars Landsat,” THEMIS was launched in 2001 on Mars Odyssey, and provides guidance for future lander missions now in preparation for launch. Advanced materials and optical machining allow THEMIS low-scatter, reflective, wide field-of-view (WFOV) pushbroom optics for relatively long dwell-time compared to narrow FOV optics requiring cross-track scanning for equivalent spatial resolution. This allows uncooled silicon microbolometer FPAs, with less signal sensitivity than cryogenically cooled photo-diode FPAs, to meet the THEMIS sensitivity requirements. Instrument design, performance, integration, as well as details of the calibration are discussed. Full instrument and calibration details are available in the Journal of Geophysical Research Mini-TES and THEMIS papers by Christensen et al.

  7. Corny, Lame, and Useful: How Secondary School Faculty Use the Learning Software Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how and why secondary school faculty use the learning software, Odyssey. Faculty were asked about their pedagogical beliefs and instructional practices, the perceived impact of using the software on student outcomes, and how, if at all, Odyssey-using faculty would change the software to increase utility. Data collection…

  8. Phoenix Lander on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this artist's depiction of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Astrobiology on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, A.; Ganti, T.; Pocs, T.; Berczi, S.; Szathmary, E.

    Complex petrologic studies of the ALHA 84001 Martian meteorite (age 4,6 Gyear) showed lithified nanobacteria-like structures pseudomorphosed in calcium carbonate inclusion region. Both the Nakhla (age 1.3 Gyear) and Shergottite (0.3 Gyear) Martian meteorites were claimed to contain lithified bacteria. These observations may provide evidence of the continuous existence and adaptation of Martian bacterial life forms, despite of the decreasing comfort for life in the Martian atmosphere and surface. In search for terrestrial bacterial in hard extreme condition we studied the cryptobiotic crust (CBC). This type of cover forms in very or reasonably dry desert regions in Earth, and we suggest that similar form of life may probably exist on Mars, too. Based on our analyses of surface defrosting and the Mars Odyssey's water observations we suggest four probable candidate places of Martian CBC where the possibility of recently or earlier existing bacteria is worth for search. The two Polar Regions are the main candidates. The two other sites are the "considerable water" regions (compared to their environments) in the equatorial belt, where the two MERs landed. Our observations of defrosting processes in the southern and northern Polar Regions resulted in a biological model of this complex phenomenon. The suggested Martian Surface Organisms (MSOs) are important agents in this defrosting process model. MSOs form culture spots which use the sunlight and some water of the frost layer and from the soil (where it was measured by Mars Odyssey). These biologically active spots give rise to the dark dune spots (DDSs) during the defrosting process. After their springtime activity these MSO cultures seem to dry -out and wait for the next spring (i.e. the revitalizing period) in this desiccated state. Thinking on other candidates for recent or remnant living activity on Mars we suggest we found new one. They are apparent in observations of MER Spirit and Opportunity: some bright parts

  10. Relay Support for the Mars Science Laboratory and the Coming Decade of Mars Relay Network Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Arnold, Bradford W.; Bell, David J.; Bruvold, Kristoffer N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Ilott, Peter A.; Lee, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, an evolving network of Mars relay orbiters has provided telecommunication relay services to the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the Mars Phoenix Lander, enabling high-bandwidth, energy-efficient data transfer and greatly increasing the volume of science data that can be returned from the Martian surface, compared to conventional direct-to-Earth links. The current relay network, consisting of NASA's Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and augmented by ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, stands ready to support the Mars Science Laboratory, scheduled to arrive at Mars on Aug 6, 2012, with new capabilities enabled by the Electra and Electra-Lite transceivers carried by MRO and MSL, respectively. The MAVEN orbiter, planned for launch in 2013, and the ExoMars/Trace Gas Orbiter, planned for launch in 2016, will replenish the on-orbit relay network as the current orbiter approach their end of life. Currently planned support scenarios for this future relay network include an ESA EDL Demonstrator Module deployed by the 2016 ExoMars/TGO orbiter, and the 2018 NASA/ESA Joint Rover, representing the first step in a multimission Mars Sample Return campaign.

  11. CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I G; Zuber, M T; Litvak, M L; Boynton, W V; Smith, D E; Drake, D; Hamara, D; Kozyrev, A S; Sanin, A B; Shinohara, C; Saunders, R S; Tretyakov, V

    2003-06-27

    Observations of seasonal variations of neutron flux from the high-energy neutron detector (HEND) on Mars Odyssey combined with direct measurements of the thickness of condensed carbon dioxide by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on Mars Global Surveyor show a latitudinal dependence of northern winter deposition of carbon dioxide. The observations are also consistent with a shallow substrate consisting of a layer with water ice overlain by a layer of drier soil. The lower ice-rich layer contains between 50 and 75 weight % water, indicating that the shallow subsurface at northern polar latitudes on Mars is even more water rich than that in the south.

  12. Scaly-skinned Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  14. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  15. Crossing Mars: Past and Future Missions to a Cold, Dry Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Geoffrey A. Landis of the Photovoltaics and Space Environment Effects Branch presented an overview of recent discoveries about the environment of Mars. He covered missions from the 1966 Mariner IV that returned those first grainy close-up pictures of Mars showing an ancient cratered terrain to the Mars Odyssey mission with its tantalizing evidence of recent water flows on Mars. Mars is one of the most interesting planets in the solar system, featuring enormous canyons, giant volcanoes, and indications that, early in its history, it might have had rivers and perhaps even oceans. Five years ago, in July of 1997, the Pathfinder mission landed on Mars, bringing with it the microwave-oven sized Sojourner rover to wander around on the surface and analyze rocks. Pathfinder is only the first of an armada of spacecraft that will examine Mars from the pole to the equator in the next decade, culminating (someday, we hope!) with a mission to bring humans to Mars.

  16. Planetary Protection for Polar Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The picture of Mars that is emerging from the Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey results contrasts markedly from that portrayed shortly after the Viking missions ended. Particularly intriguing is the abundance of water ice seen both in the polar caps themselves, and in lower latitudes outside of the polar regions. Along with the new data comes a heightened consideration of the potential for biological contamination that may be carried by future missions, and its possible effects. Particularly challenging are scenarios where missions carrying perennial heat sources of high capacity and longevity (e.g., Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) could, by non-nominal landings or other mission operations be introduced to close contact with water ice on Mars - potentially forming Earthlike environments that could accommodate the growth of contaminant organisms.

  17. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  18. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  19. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  20. Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

  1. Geologic Mapping Applications Using THEMIS Data for the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Bender, K. C.; Harris, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a regionally extensive deposit located along the equator of Mars between roughly 130 and 240 E longitude, the origin of which has stimulated a host of published hypotheses. A volcanic or aeolian origin appear most consistent with Viking and MGS data, but other hypotheses remain viable and new data, as from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, is likely to stimulate additional hypotheses of origin. NASA is supporting geologic mapping of portions of the MFF deposits, but it is now quite clear that this on-going mapping will need considerable revision as data from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey become available. The daytime IR THEMIS images hold particularly strong potential for providing a new base on which geologic mapping can be carried out, as illustrated by the examples discussed.

  2. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR LIGHTING TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In KSC's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers are conducting a solar illumination test of the solar panels on the Mars Global Surveyor. The Surveyor is outfitted with two solar arrays, each featuring two panels, that provide electrical power for operating the spacecraft's electronic equipment and scientific instruments, as well as charging two nickel hydrogen batteries that provide power when the spacecraft is in the dark. For launch, the solar arrays will be folded against the side of the spacecraft. The Mars Global Surveyor is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a launch window opening Nov. 6.

  3. Mars 101: Linking Educational Content to Mission Purpose on the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, L. J.; Smith, P. H.; Lombardi, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander, scheduled to launch in August 2007, is the first mission in NASA's Scout Program. Phoenix has been specifically designed to measure volatiles (especially water) in the northern arctic plains of Mars, where the Mars Odyssey detected evidence of ice-rich soil near the surface. A fundamental part of the mission's goal-driven education and public outreach program is the Phoenix Mars Lander 2007 web site. Content for the site was designed not only to further the casual user's understanding of the Phoenix mission and its objectives, but also to meet the needs of the more science-attentive user who desires in-depth information. To this end, the web site's "Mars 101" module includes five distinct themes, all of which are directly connected to the mission's purpose: Mars Intro includes basic facts about Mars and how the planet differs from Earth; Polar Regions discusses the history of polar exploration on Earth and the similarities between these regions on Mars and Earth; Climate covers the effects that Earth's polar regions have on climate and how these same effects may occur on Mars; Water on Mars introduces the reader to the idea of liquid water and water ice on Mars; and Biology includes a discussion of the requirements of life and life in the universe to facilitate reader understanding of what Phoenix might find. Each of the five themes is described in simple language accompanied by relevant images and graphics, with hypertext links connecting the science-attentive user to more in-depth content. By presenting the "Mars 101" content in a manner that relates each subheading to a specific component of the mission's purpose, the Phoenix web site nurtures understanding of the mission and its relevance to NASA's Mars Exploration goals by the general lay public as well as the science-attentive user.

  4. Complex and Perplexing Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A variegated mottled texture is readily apparent in this terrain located NW of the volcano, Elysium Mons. The Hrad Vallis (the Armenian word for Mars) channel system can be seen sauntering across the bumpy landscape of Utopia Planitia. The upper branch of Hrad Vallis has a large chunk of material on its floor; this chunk appears to have been rafted away from the material on the far left of the image (moved from left to right). This unusual because the channel flows toward the left. This material may be lava flows. Many craters in this region of the planet have their interiors filled with material. Pedestal craters (craters with ejecta blankets perched higher than the surrounding plains) are also found in these regions. These observations seem to imply that this region was once buried and has now been uncovered (exhumed). The exact causes and timing of these events are unknown.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a

  5. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR MOVED TO WORK STAND IN PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In KSC's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), workers are transferring the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft to a handling dolly from an alignment stand where alignment of spacecraft instrumentation was performed. The Mars Global Surveyor is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a launch window opening Nov. 6. The spacecraft represents the first venture in NASA's Mars Surveyor Program, a new series of missions to explore the Red Planet.

  6. Field Simulation of a Drilling Mission to Mars to Search for Subsurface Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms. In spite of its obvious advantages, robotic drilling for Mars exploration is in its technological infancy and has yet to be demonstrated in even a terrestrial field environment.

  7. Mars Global Geologic Mapping Progress and Suggested Geographic-Based Hierarchal Systems for Unit Grouping and Naming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the fourth year of a fiveyear effort to map the global geology of Mars at 1:20M scale using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey image and altimetry datasets. Previously, we reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. Last year, we described mapping and unit delineation results thus far, a new unit identified in the northern plains, and remaining steps to complete the map [3].

  8. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  9. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM has been utilized during previous aerobraking operations in the atmosphere of Mars. Mars-GRAM has also been used in the prediction and validation of Mars Pathfinder hypersonic aerodynamics, the aerothermodynamic and entry dynamics studies for Mars Polar Lander, the landing site selection process for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the Mars Aerocapture System Study (MASS) as well as the Aerocapture Technology Assessment Group (TAG). Most recently, Mars-GRAM 2010 was used to develop the onboard atmospheric density estimator that is part of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. The most recent release of Mars-GRAM 2010 contains several changes including an update to Fortran 90/95 and the addition of adjustment factors. Following the completion of a comparison analysis between Mars-GRAM, Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), as well as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) aerobraking density data, adjustment factors were added to Mars-GRAM 2010 that alter the input data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the University of Michigan Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for the mapping year 0 user-controlled dust case. The addition of adjustment factors resolved the issue of previous versions of Mars-GRAM being less than realistic when used for sensitivity studies for mapping year 0 and large optical depth values, such as tau equal to 3. Mars-GRAM was evaluated at locations and times of TES limb observations and adjustment factors were determined. For altitudes above 80 km and below 135 km, Mars-GRAM (MTGCM) densities were compared to aerobraking densities measured by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) to determine the adjustment

  10. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  11. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, Matthew; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our "lessons learned" from formative evaluation, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  12. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    We are in the third year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe mapping and unit delineation results thus far, a new unit identified in the northern plains, and remaining steps to complete the map.

  13. Seven Possible Cave Skylights on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Seven very dark holes on the north slope of a Martian volcano have been proposed as possible cave skylights, based on day-night temperature patterns suggesting they are openings to subsurface spaces. These six excerpts of images taken in visible-wavelength light by the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter show the seven openings. Solar illumination comes from the left in each frame. The volcano is Arsia Mons, at 9 degrees south latitude, 239 degrees east longitude.

    The features have been given informal names to aid comparative discussion (see figure 1). They range in diameter from about 100 meters (328 feet) to about 225 meters (738 feet). The candidate cave skylights are (A) 'Dena,' (B) 'Chloe,' (C) 'Wendy,' (D) 'Annie,' (E) 'Abby' (left) and 'Nikki,' and (F) 'Jeanne.' Arrows signify north and the direction of illumination.

    Mars Odyssey is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The orbiter's Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, Calif., and is operated by Arizona State University.

  14. Mars Polar Lander arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Mars Polar Lander is loaded onto a truck after its flight aboard an Air Force C-17 cargo plane that carried it from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, CO. The lander is being transported to the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2(SAEF-2) in the KSC Industrial Area for testing, including a functional test of the science instruments and the basic spacecraft subsystems. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars Polar Lander spacecraft is planned for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999.

  15. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the protective wrapping on the Mars Polar Lander to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  16. Mars Polar Lander arrives at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Polar Landerspacecraft is lifted off the trailer of that transported it to the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  17. Phoenix Lander on Mars (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this stereo illustration of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green stereo glasses.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California

  18. Merry Christmas from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    This morning, after a journey lasting 205 days and covering 400 million km, the European Mars Express space probe fired its main engine at 03:47 CET for a 37-minute burn in order to enter an orbit around the Mars. This firing gave the probe a boost so that it could match the higher speed of the planet on its orbit around the Sun and be captured by its gravity field, quite like climbing in a spinning merry-go-round. This orbit insertion manoeuvre was a complete success. This is a great achievement for Europe on its first attempt to send a space probe into orbit around another planet. At approximately the same time, the Beagle 2 lander, protected by a thermal shield, entered the Martian atmosphere at high velocity and is expected to have reached the surface at about 03:52 CET. However, the first attempt to communicate with Beagle 2, three hours after landing, via NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter, did not establish radio contact. The next contact opportunity will be tonight at 23h40 CET. The tiny lander was released from the orbiter six days ago on a collision course towards the planet. Before separation, its onboard computer was programmed to operate the lander as from its arrival on the surface, by late afternoon (Martian time). According to the schedule, the solar panels must deploy to recharge the onboard batteries before sunset. The same sequence also tells Beagle 2 to emit a signal in a specific frequency for which the Jodrell Bank Telescope, UK, will be listening late tonight. Further radio contacts are scheduled in the days to come. In the course of the coming week, the orbit of Mars Express will be gradually adjusted in order to prepare for its scientific mission. Mars Express is currently several thousand kilometres away from Mars, in a very elongated equatorial orbit. On 30 December, ESA's ground control team will send commands to fire the spacecraft's engines and place it in a polar, less elongated orbit (about 300 km pericenter, 10000 apocenter, 86

  19. A Science Odyssey: A Social Studies and Science Resource for Middle- and High-School Educators. Educator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This interdisciplinary guide provides activities, discussion questions, and information to help teachers use the series of five special PBS programs entitled "A Science Odyssey" in the classroom. For each Science Odyssey program, the guide features: (1) an overview of the program; (2) a summary of program contents and story segments; (3) a…

  20. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a electrical and functional tests of its pyrotechic petal deployer system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers and technicians in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). In the background is the Pathfinder cruise stage, which the lander will be mated to once its functional tests are complete. The lander will remain attached to this stage during its six-to-seven-month journey to Mars. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the Sojourner autonomous rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  1. Studies of seasonal variations on Mars based on orbital and surface observations of neutron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Sanin, Anton; Golovin, Dmitry; Nikiforov, Sergey; Lisov, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Starting from February 2002 High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) onboard Mars Odyssey is performing continuous monitoring of regional and seasonal variations of martian neutron albedo to deconvolve and to map subsurface water distribution at different latitudes and to observe Mars climate cycle processes over a long baseline. In our investigation we have used HEND/Odyssey observations accumulated for seven successive martian years to search for the seasonal and inter annual variations of orbital neutron flux at equatorial latitudes due to seasonal variations of atmospheric thickness and seasonal cycle of subsurface water distribution. The obtained results have been compared with a ground truth measurements of local environment obtained by Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons instrument onboard MSL Curiosity rover during first year of surface operations in vicinity of Gale crater.

  2. Claritas rise, Mars: Pre-Tharsis magmatism?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Ruiz, J.; McGuire, P.C.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wang, R.; Scharenbroich, L.; Hare, T.M.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Baker, V.R.; Wheelock, S.J.; Ferris, J.C.; Miyamoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Claritas rise is a prominent ancient (Noachian) center of tectonism identified through investigation of comprehensive paleotectonic information of the western hemisphere of Mars. This center is interpreted to be the result of magmatic-driven activity, including uplift and associated tectonism, as well as possible hydrothermal activity. Coupled with its ancient stratigraphy, high density of impact craters, and complex structure, a possible magnetic signature may indicate that it formed during an ancient period of Mars' evolution, such as when the dynamo was in operation. As Tharsis lacks magnetic signatures, Claritas rise may pre-date the development of Tharsis or mark incipient development, since some of the crustal materials underlying Tharsis and older parts of the magmatic complex, respectively, could have been highly resurfaced, destroying any remanent magnetism. Here, we detail the significant characteristics of the Claritas rise, and present a case for why it should be targeted by the Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Express spacecrafts, as well as be considered as a prime target for future tier-scalable robotic reconnaissance. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Validation of Mars-GRAM and Planned New Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    For altitudes below 80 km, Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is based on output climatology from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). At COSPAR 2002, results were presented of validation tests of Mars-GRAM versus data from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Radio Science (RS) experiment. Further validation tests are presented comparing Mars- GRAM densities with those from the European Mars Climate Database (MCD), and comparing densities from both Mars-GRAM and MCD against TES observations. Throughout most of the height and latitude range of TES data (040 km and 70s to 70N), good agreement is found between atmospheric densities from Mars-GRAM and MCD. However, at the season and latitude zone for Mars Phoenix arrival and landing (Ls = 65 to 80 degrees and latitude 65 to 75N), Mars-GRAM densities are about 30 to 45 percent higher than MCD densities near 40 km altitude. Further evaluation is warranted concerning potential impact of these model differences on planning for Phoenix entry and descent. Three planned features for Mars-GRAM update are also discussed: (1) new MGCM and Thermospheric General Circulation Model data sets to be used as a revised basis for Mars-GRAM mean atmosphere, (2) a new feature to represent planetary-scale traveling waves for upper altitude density variations (such as found during Mars Odyssey aerobraking), and (3) a new model for effects of high resolution topographic slope on winds near the surface (0 to 4.5 km above MOLA topography level). Mars-GRAM slope winds will be computed from a diagnostic (algebraic) relationship based on Ye, Segal, and Pielke (1990). This approach differs from mesoscale models (such as MRAMS and Mars MM5), which use prognostic, full-physics solutions of the time- and space-dependent differential equations of motion. As such, slope winds in Mars-GRAM will be consistent with its "engineering-level" approach, and will be extremely fast and easy to evaluate

  4. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles.

  5. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles. PMID:11708368

  6. The Mars Exploration Program: Past, Present and Future (?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Scott

    NASA's Mars Exploration Program was redesigned in 2000, following the twin losses of the Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in late 1999. The new science based program was grounded in community consensus based priorities and had as its aim understanding Mars as a system. The popular phrase used to describe the goals of the mission sequence was "Follow the Water". A new queue of missions was put in place for the decade 2001 - 2010 and a new community based competitive opportunity, the Mars Scout program, was initiated. The strategic mission implementation has been unchanged since the new program was announced in October 2000. Those projects successfully launched and deployed thus far include Mars Odyssey, the two Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity, Mars Reconnaissance Obiter and the Phoenix Scout Mission. The final project of the decade, the Mars Science Laboratory, is in the last stages of development with launch slated for the Fall of 2009. The President's budget announced in February 2008 for Fiscal 2009, contained little in the way of definitive objectives for Mars program in the decade 2011-2020 and proposed to reduce the Mars budget drastically over the five year budget period. This paper will review the programmatic and scientific progress thus far in meeting the original objectives as outlined in October 2000. A look ahead to the potential missions and goals for the next decade will be provided with particular emphasis on the status of Mars Sample Return mission. Bibliography: G. Scott Hubbard, Firouz M. Naderi, James B. Garvin, Following the water, the new program for Mars exploration, Acta Astronautica 51(1-9):337-350, 2002.

  7. Mars Exploration Rover Spirit End of Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed in Gusev crater on Mars on January 4, 2004, for a prime mission designed to last three months (90 sols). After more than six years operating on the surface of Mars, the last communication received from Spirit occurred on Sol 2210 (March 22, 2010). Following the loss of signal, the Mars Exploration Rover Project radiated over 1400 commands to Mars in an attempt to elicit a response from the rover. Attempts were made utilizing Deep Space Network X-Band and UHF relay via both Mars Odyssey and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Search and recovery efforts concluded on July 13, 2011. It is the MER project's assessment that Spirit succumbed to the extreme environmental conditions experienced during its fourth winter on Mars. Focusing on the time period from the end of the third Martian winter through the fourth winter and end of recovery activities, this report describes possible explanations for the loss of the vehicle and the extent of recovery efforts that were performed. It offers lessons learned and provides an overall mission summary.

  8. Relay communications strategies for Mars exploration through 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. D., Jr.; Arnold, B.; Depaula, R.; Kazz, G.; Lee, C.; Noreen, G.

    2006-07-01

    Mars exploration poses significant telecommunications challenges, including the return of large data volumes from high-resolution surface instruments, highly constrained mass, power, and energy for surface spacecraft, frequent telemetry and command sessions for supporting complex surface operations, and high-risk mission events such as entry, descent, and landing for which the capture of engineering telemetry is deemed critical. Relay telecommunication via Mars-orbiting spacecraft offers significant advantages in meeting these challenges, relative to conventional direct-to-Earth communications. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters, along with ESA's Mars Express orbiter, represent an initial relay telecommunications infrastructure that has successfully supported the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. With the arrival of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2006, this expanded relay network will provide key support to the 2007 Phoenix Lander and 2009 Mars Science Laboratory missions later this decade. Second-decade mission concepts will introduce new communications challenges; the provision of relay payloads on science orbiters provides a cost-effective means to sustain and evolve the Mars relay network.

  9. Ground Ice on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau, N.; Pollard, W.

    2003-12-01

    On Mars, just like on Earth, water exists in various phases and participates in a broad range of key processes. Even though present surface conditions on Mars, as defined by climate and atmospheric pressure, prevents the occurrence of liquid water on the surface, there is strong evidence suggesting that water was an important land-forming agent in the past (Carr 1996). This naturally raises the question, "where has the water gone?" Surficial water reservoirs that are directly observable on Mars include seasonal water ice deposits and permanent water ice deposits at the polar caps (Kieffer and Zent 1992, Clifford et al. 2000). Due to the existence of permafrost landform systems, such as polygonal ground, rootless cones, and frost mounts, it also has been speculated that much more water may be preserved as ground ice (Lucchitta 1981, Squyres and Carr 1986, Lanagan et al. 2001). Nevertheless, comparison of the likely patterns of ground ice on Mars with terrestrial equivalents has been limited. Fortunately, NASA's 2001 Odyssey data lends support to this hypothesis by identifying significant shallow ice-rich sediments by means of flux characteristics of neutrons, and gamma radiation, and spatial correlations to regions where it has been predicted that subsurface ice is stable (Bell 2002). The ice contents and stratigraphic distribution of the subsurface sediments on Mars, derived by the Odyssey Science Team, is not unlike the upper layers of terrestrial permafrost. Terrestrial polar environments, in particular the more stable permafrost and ground ice features like ice wedges and massive ground ice, may thus provide valuable clues in the search for water and ice on Mars. Of importance is the fact that these features of the earth's surface do not owe their origin to the seasonal freezing and thawing of the active layer. Under the cold, dry polar climates of the Arctic and Antarctic, periglacial and permafrost landforms have evolved, giving rise to distinctive landscapes

  10. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  11. Planetary objectives of Odyssey2 Mission: Neptune and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenoir, Benjamin; Lenoir, B.; Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.; Touboul, P.; Lévy, A.; Léon-Hirtz, S.; Biancale, R.; Sohl, F.; Dittus, H.; van Zoest, T.; Courty, J.-M.; Reynaud, S.; Lamine, B.; Métris, G.; Wolf, P.; Lümmerzahl, C.; Selig, H.

    Odyssey2 Mission will be proposed for the next call of M3 missions for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. It will aim at Neptune and Triton and the interplanetary cruise will be used for testing General Relativity, and in particular its scale dependence. To do so, the satellite will carry on board the following instruments: • a high-precision 3 axis electrostatic accelerometer, with bias calibration system, which will measure the non-gravitational forces acting on the spacecraft; • a radio-science instrument, for a precise range and Doppler measurement, with additional VLBI equipment; • a one-way laser ranging, which will improve the range and Doppler measurement made by radio-science; • an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO), used for laser and radio-science measurement. During the encounters with Neptune and Triton, these instruments will be use in order to increase the scientific return on the gravity field and atmosphere of these two bodies. Indeed, the atmospheric drag for example, which will be measured by the accelerometer, has a non-negligible impact on the trajectory of the spacecraft and therefore on the Doppler signature of the trajectory. If no data are available on the non-gravitational forces, the retrieval of the gravity potential coefficients can be put in jeopardy. Concerning the knowledge of the atmosphere, the direct measurement of atmospheric drag can be used, with the outputs of other instruments, to enhance our knowledge of the atmosphere of these two bodies. Moreover, the radio-link and the USO can be used together to measure the time delay of the radio beam and infer some characteristics of the atmosphere. Several instruments dedicated to planetology are under study. The choice between them will be an output of the Phase 0 study performed by CNES for this mission: • a magnetometer to measure intrinsic fields on Neptune and induced fields on Triton; • an infrared mapping capability, which was not available during the Voyager flyby, to determine

  12. Search for Evaporite Minerals in Flaugergues Basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Sutter, B.; Kramer, M. G.; Stockstill, K. R.; Moersch, J.; Moore, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of Martian surface geomorphology and detection of near-surface water ice by the Mars Odyssey gamma ray spectrometer suggest that Mars may have had a water-rich past. While 2 to 5 wt.% of carbonate has been detected in the Martian dust [1,2], no spectral evidence for significant deposits of carbonates or sulfates has been found to date. Most investigations into Mars aqueous mineralogy have been global in scope with only a few regional studies (e.g., [3]). We are searching for localized deposits in putative lacustrine basins utilizing a basin flow model to identify basins with large drainage areas. Such basins are more likely to accumulate high concentrations of aqueous minerals than deep basins which drain only small regions.

  13. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  14. Odyssey: A Public GPU-based Code for General Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  15. YA Books in the Classroom: From Odyssey to Dickens to Salinger to Zindel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheidy, Marian

    1988-01-01

    Suggests teaching Paul Zindel's HARRY AND HORTENSE AT HORMONE HIGH in conjunction with Charles Dickens' GREAT EXPECTATIONS to ninth graders and Homer's ODYSSEY, and teaching HARRY AND HORTENSE in conjunction with CATCHER IN THE RYE to seniors. Provides discussion questions for HARRY AND HORTENSE. (MM)

  16. Mathematics Intervention Utilizing Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor® and Compass Learning's Odyssey Math®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…

  17. The northwestern slope valleys (NSVs) region, Mars: A prime candidate site for the future exploration of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Ferris, J.C.; Barlow, N.G.; Baker, V.R.; Mahaney, W.C.; Anderson, R.C.; Hare, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The northwestern slope valleys region is a prime candidate site for future science-driven Mars exploration because it records Noachian to Amazonian Tharsis development in a region that encapsulates (1) a diverse and temporally extensive stratigraphic record, (2) at least three distinct paleohydrologic regimes, (3) gargantuan structurally controlled flood valleys that generally correspond with gravity and magnetic anomalies, possibly marking ancient magnetized rock materials exposed by fluvial activity, (4) water enrichment, as indicated by Mars Odyssey and impact crater analyses, (5) long-lived magma and ground water/ice interactions that could be favorable for the development and sustenance of life, and (6) potential paleosol development. This region has high probability to yield significant geologic, climatic, and exobiologic information that could revolutionize our understanding of Mars. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnesium sulphate salts and the history of water on Mars.

    PubMed

    Vaniman, David T; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve J; Fialips, Claire I; Carey, J William; Feldman, William C

    2004-10-01

    Recent reports of approximately 30 wt% of sulphate within saline sediments on Mars--probably occurring in hydrated form--suggest a role for sulphates in accounting for equatorial H2O observed in a global survey by the Odyssey spacecraft. Among salt hydrates likely to be present, those of the MgSO4*nH2O series have many hydration states. Here we report the exposure of several of these phases to varied temperature, pressure and humidity to constrain their possible H2O contents under martian surface conditions. We found that crystalline structure and H2O content are dependent on temperature-pressure history, that an amorphous hydrated phase with slow dehydration kinetics forms at <1% relative humidity, and that equilibrium calculations may not reflect the true H2O-bearing potential of martian soils. Mg sulphate salts can retain sufficient H2O to explain a portion of the Odyssey observations. Because phases in the MgSO4*nH2O system are sensitive to temperature and humidity, they can reveal much about the history of water on Mars. However, their ease of transformation implies that salt hydrates collected on Mars will not be returned to Earth unmodified, and that accurate in situ analysis is imperative.

  19. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubov, D.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, launching in December 1996 and landing on Mars on July 4, 1997, will demonstrate a low-cost delivery system to the surface of Mars for follow-on landers. Objectives are the return of engineering data, panoramic images of the Martian surface, microrover experiments, etc. A technical mission description is included.

  20. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  1. ISS Update: Science Aboard Kounotori3

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Pete Hasbrook, associate program scientist, about the experiments traveling to the International Space Station aboard the H-II Transfer Vehicle...

  2. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER COVER REMOVED IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory work to remove the cover from the shipping container containing the lander portion of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  3. MARS PATHFINDER INSPECTED BY ENGINEER LINDA ROBECK IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility, engineer Linda Robeck of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory inspects the Mars Pathfinder lander. The spacecraft arrived at Kennedy Space Center from Pasadena, CA on Aug. 13, 1996. The petals of the lander will be opened for checkout of the spacecraft and the installation of the small rover. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  4. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER PROTECTIVE WRAPPING REMOVED IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from Jet Propulsion Laboratory remove the protective wrapping from the Mars Pathfinder lander after it was placed on a moveable test stand. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  5. Distribution and Abundance of Mars' Atmospheric Argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Nelli, Steven; Murphy, Jim; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Janes, K. D.; Crombie, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    One and one half Mars years (MY 26 and 27) of atmospheric Argon measurements are described and studied in the context of understanding how Argon, a minor constituent of Mars atmosphere that does not condense at Mars temperatures, can be used to study martian circulation and dynamics. Argon data are from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Subsystem (GS) of the suite of three instruments comprising the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). A comprehensive data analysis including gamma-ray production and attenuation by the atmosphere is included. Of particular interest is the enhanced abundance of Ar over the observed Ar abundance at lower latitudes at south (up to a factor of 10) and north (up to a factor of 4) polar regions during winter. Calibration of the measurements to actual Ar abundance is possible because GS measurements cover the same latitude and season as measurements made by the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) on Viking Landers 1 and 2 (VL1 and VL2). [2].

  6. Estimation of water distribution at Gale crater based on the joint analysis of DAN/MSL and HEND/Odyssey data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Behar, Alberto; Boynton, William; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Jun, Insoo; Lisov, Denis; Malakhov, Alexey; Milliken, Ralph; Mischna, Michael; Moersch, Jeffrey; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Sanin, Anton; Tate, Chris; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Harshman, Karl

    2013-04-01

    The observations made by the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) experiment onboard the MSL rover Curiosity have been analyzed to search for variability of the neutron flux along a traverse of the rover. The results of such an analysis have been used to compare surface measurements with measurements performed during the Mars Odyssey orbital mission with the neutron spectrometer HEND flying around Mars more than 10 years. DAN instrument consists of pulse neutron generator (DAN/PNG) and neutron detectors of epithermal and thermal neutrons (DAN/DE). In active mode of measurements DAN/PNG emits very short (~2 microseconds) pulses of high energy neutrons (14MeV) which penetrate to a subsurface under the rover, losing their energy down to the epithermal and thermal range. This process strongly depends on the soil composition; especially it is sensitive to the depth distribution of Hydrogen (which could exist in the soil in the hydrated minerals). The moderated neutrons can escape from the soil and be detected by DAN/DE within hundreds of microseconds after the pulse. It is recorded as a time profile of die away curve and its shape brings to us information about the subsurface structure and hydrogen abundance. In passive mode DAN/PNG is off and DAN/DE is measuring natural neutron background produced by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and induced neutron background from Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) installed onboard MSL rover (as a main power supply system). Variations of this background along MSL traverse also could be used for a monitoring of the average content of water. HEND instrument is a neutron spectrometer measuring Martian neutron flux in a wide energy range starting from 0.4eV up to 15 MeV. It is installed onboard Mars Odyssey mission as a part of Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) suite. During last 11 years it provides global mapping of neutron flux from martian surface to derive distribution of water/water ice in Martian subsurface. In our investigation we

  7. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers maneuver the Mars Polar Lander onto a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  8. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) lift the Mars Polar Lander to move it to a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  9. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the Mars Polar Lander is lowered toward a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  10. Extracting Compositional Variation from THEMIS Data for Features with Large Topography on Mars Via Atmospheric Equalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Drake, J. S.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a means of equalizing the atmospheric signature in Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) infrared data over regions with large topography such as the Valles Marineris (VM). This equalization allows for the analysis of compositional variations in regions that previously have been difficult to study because of the large differences in atmospheric path length that result from large changes in surface elevation. Specifically, our motivation for this study is to examine deposits that are small at the scales observable by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor, but which are more readily resolved with THEMIS.

  11. Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M.; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M.; Federico, Costanzo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Gurnett, Donald A.; Hagfors, Tor; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Huff, Richard L.; Ivanov, Anton B.; Johnson, William T. K.; Jordan, Rolando L.; Kirchner, Donald L.; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Nielsen, Erling; Orosei, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick.

  12. Biological experiments - The Viking Mars Lander.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Lederberg, J.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    From the biological point of view, the Viking 1975 mission might be regarded as a test of the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis concerning the chemical evolution of living systems. Mars is a planet whose early history was probably similar to that of the earth and whose present environmental conditions may be compatible with the maintenance of living organisms. Thus, the biological experiments aboard the Viking I spacecraft are primarily concerned with the question of whether chemical evolution on Mars took place, and, if so, whether the process reached a level of complexity characteristic of replicating systems.

  13. Relay Support for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D. Jr,; Bell, David J.; Gladden, Roy E.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Johnston, M. Daniel; Maxwell, Jennifer L.; Mendoza, Ricardo; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Potts, Christopher L.; Schratz, Brian C.; Shihabi, Mazen M.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Varghese, Phillip; Sanders, Stephen S.; Denis, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission landed the Curiosity Rover on the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012, beginning a one-Martian-year primary science mission. An international network of Mars relay orbiters, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and ESA's Mars Express Orbiter (MEX), were positioned to provide critical event coverage of MSL's Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The EDL communication plan took advantage of unique and complementary capabilities of each orbiter to provide robust information capture during this critical event while also providing low-latency information during the landing. Once on the surface, ODY and MRO have provided effectively all of Curiosity's data return from the Martian surface. The link from Curiosity to MRO incorporates a number of new features enabled by the Electra and Electra-Lite software-defined radios on MRO and Curiosity, respectively. Specifically, the Curiosity-MRO link has for the first time on Mars relay links utilized frequency-agile operations, data rates up to 2.048 Mb/s, suppressed carrier modulation, and a new Adaptive Data Rate algorithm in which the return link data rate is optimally varied throughout the relay pass based on the actual observed link channel characteristics. In addition to the baseline surface relay support by ODY and MRO, the MEX relay service has been verified in several successful surface relay passes, and MEX now stands ready to provide backup relay support should NASA's orbiters become unavailable for some period of time.

  14. Planetary protection implementation on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, J.; Witte, J.

    2008-09-01

    In August 2005 NASA launched a large orbiting science observatory, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), for what is scheduled to be a 5.4-year mission. High resolution imaging of the surface is a principal goal of the mission. One consequence of this goal however is the need for a low science orbit. Unfortunately this orbit fails the required 20-year orbit life set in NASA Planetary Protection (PP) requirements [NASA. Planetary protection provisions for robotic extraterrestrial missions, NASA procedural requirements NPR 8020.12C, NASA HQ, Washington, DC, April 2005.]. So rather than sacrifice the science goals of the mission by raising the science orbit, the MRO Project chose to be the first orbiter to pursue the bio-burden reduction approach. Cleaning alone for a large orbiter like MRO is insufficient to achieve the bio-burden threshold requirement in NASA PP requirements. The burden requirement for an orbiter includes spores encapsulated in non-metallic materials and trapped in joints, as well as located on all internal and external surfaces (the total spore burden). Total burden estimates are dominated by the mated and encapsulated burden. The encapsulated burden cannot be cleaned. The total burden of a smaller orbiter (e.g., Mars Odyssey) likely could not have met the requirement by cleaning; for the large MRO it is clearly impossible. Of course, a system-level partial sterilization, with its attendant costs and system design issues, could have been employed. In the approach taken by the MRO Project, hardware which will burn up (completely vaporize or ablate) before reaching the surface or will at least attain high temperature (500 °C for 0.5 s or more) due to entry heating was exempt from burden accounting. Thus the bio-burden estimate was reduced. Lockheed Martin engineers developed a process to perform what is called breakup and burn-up (B&B) analysis.Lockheed Martin Corporation.2 The use of the B&B analysis to comply with the spore burden requirement is

  15. Curiosity Overview of a Two-Year Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2014-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has been exploring the floor of Gale Crater for well over a Mars year and has now entered its extended mission. Major milestones have been met and exceeded, especially having addressed its prime scientific objective through exploring Yellowknife Bay, an ancient fluvial environment in Gale Crater, and determining that it could have supported microbial life. The mission has accomplished many first-time planetary activities, such as measurements new to planetary science (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction), measurements of the high-energy radiation flux at the surface, radiogenic and cosmogenic isotope age dating of rocks, and detection of martian organic carbon. In addition, many measurements have provided a significant refinement to those of previous missions such as atmospheric isotopic measurements relevant to atmospheric loss, methane content of the atmosphere, and the daily and seasonal change in atmospheric temperature and pressure. Curiosity has left its landing ellipse and is progressing toward the base of Mt. Sharp. The rover has had the opportunity to make additional measurements of fluvial sediments, including extensive remote and contact measurements, and analysis of a drilled samples. A summary of two Earth years of major findings of Curiosity, their implications, and more recent results (potentially including comet Siding Spring) will be presented at the meeting.

  16. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  17. Habitability of the Shallow Subsurface on Mars: Clues from the Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon; Gibson, Everett K.

    2004-01-01

    The properties that define habitability are commonly understood to include the following: Presence of water. Temperature range allowing some or all of the water to be liquid. A suitable physical volume or space permitting metabolism and growth. Presence of organic compounds or the building blocks to make them. Presence of an energy source suitable for utilization by living organisms. Interpretations of Mars Viking, Surveyor, and Odyssey orbital images have built a strong case that Mars had surface water during its past geological history. Neutron spectrometer data from Mars Odyssey show that poleward of about 60 degrees North and 60 degrees south, significant hydrogen, likely as ice or permafrost, is present in at least the upper meter or so of the martian regolith and crust and that similar high hydrogen areas exist, even near the equator. Here we present a summary of independent data from the Mars meteorites showing that liquid water was present for at least some of the time in the upper few meters or tens of meters as early as 3.9 billion years (Ga), and was present at intervals and at various locations throughout most of Mars history.

  18. A Reassessment of the Mars Ocean Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    Initial work on the identification and mapping of potential ancient shorelines on Mars was based on Viking Orbiter image data (Parker et al., 1987, 1989, 1993). The Viking Orbiters were designed to locate landing site for the two landers and were not specifically intended to map the entire planet. Fortunately, they mapped the entire planet. Unfortunately, they did so at an average resolution of greater than 200m/pixel. Higher resolution images, even mosaics of interesting regions, are available, but relatively sparse. Mapping of shorelines on Earth requires both high-resolution aerial photos or satellite images and good topographic information. Three significant sources of additional data from missions subsequent to Viking are useful for reassessing the ocean hypothesis. These are: MGS MOC images; MGS MOLA topography; Odyssey THEMIS IR and VIS images; and MER surface geology at Meridiani and Gusev. Okay, my mistake: Four.

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Remote Sensing and Terrestrial Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Mars: Remote Sensing and Terrestrial Analogs" included the following:Physical Meaning of the Hapke Parameter for Macroscopic Roughness: Experimental Determination for Planetary Regolith Surface Analogs and Numerical Approach; Near-Infrared Spectra of Martian Pyroxene Separates: First Results from Mars Spectroscopy Consortium; Anomalous Spectra of High-Ca Pyroxenes: Correlation Between Ir and M ssbauer Patterns; THEMIS-IR Emissivity Spectrum of a Large Dark Streak near Olympus Mons; Geomorphologic/Thermophysical Mapping of the Athabasca Region, Mars, Using THEMIS Infrared Imaging; Mars Thermal Inertia from THEMIS Data; Multispectral Analysis Methods for Mapping Aqueous Mineral Depostis in Proposed Paleolake Basins on Mars Using THEMIS Data; Joint Analysis of Mars Odyssey THEMIS Visible and Infrared Images: A Magic Airbrush for Qualitative and Quantitative Morphology; Analysis of Mars Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data Using Large Mineral Reference Libraries ; Negative Abundance : A Problem in Compositional Modeling of Hyperspectral Images; Mars-LAB: First Remote Sensing Data of Mineralogy Exposed at Small Mars-Analog Craters, Nevada Test Site; A Tool for the 2003 Rover Mini-TES: Downwelling Radiance Compensation Using Integrated Line-Sight Sky Measurements; Learning About Mars Geology Using Thermal Infrared Spectral Imaging: Orbiter and Rover Perspectives; Classifying Terrestrial Volcanic Alteration Processes and Defining Alteration Processes they Represent on Mars; Cemented Volcanic Soils, Martian Spectra and Implications for the Martian Climate; Palagonitic Mars: A Basalt Centric View of Surface Composition and Aqueous Alteration; Combining a Non Linear Unmixing Model and the Tetracorder Algorithm: Application to the ISM Dataset; Spectral Reflectance Properties of Some Basaltic Weathering Products; Morphometric LIDAR Analysis of Amboy Crater, California: Application to MOLA Analysis of Analog Features on Mars; Airborne Radar Study of Soil Moisture at

  20. Mars Sample Return in the Context of the Mars Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.

    2002-05-01

    The scientific priorities developed for the scientific exploration of Mars by the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group [MEPAG, 2001] and as part of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) recent assessment of the NASA Mars Exploration Program [COMPLEX, 2001] all involve a campaign of Mars Sample Return (MSR) missions. Such MSR missions are required to address in a definitive manner most of the highest priority investigations within overarching science themes which include: (1) biological potential (past or present); (2) climate (past or present); (3) solid planet (surface and interior, past and present); (4) knowledge necessary to prepare for eventual human exploration of Mars. NASA's current Mars Exploration Program (MEP) contains specific flight mission developments and plans only for the present decade (2002-2010), including a cascade of missions designed to set the stage for an inevitable campaign of MSR missions sometime in the second decade (2011-2020). Studies are presently underway to examine implementation options for a first MSR mission in which at least 500g of martian materials (including lithic fragments) would be returned to Earth from a landing vicinity carefully selected on the basis of the comprehensive orbital and surface-based remote sensing campaign that is ongoing (MGS, ODYSSEY) and planned (MER, MRO, 2009 MSL). Key to the first of several MSR's is attention to risk, cost, and enabling technologies that facilitate access to most scientifically-compelling martian materials at very local scales. The context for MSR's in the upcoming decade remains a vital part of NASA's scientific strategy for Mars exploration.

  1. Mars Express Forward Link Capabilities for the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Wallick, Michael N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This software provides a new capability for landed Mars assets to perform forward link relay through the Mars Express (MEX) European Union orbital spacecraft. It solves the problem of standardizing the relay interface between lander missions and MEX. The Mars Operations Relay Service (MaROS) is intended as a central point for relay planning and post-pass analysis for all Mars landed and orbital assets. Through the first two phases of implementation, MaROS supports relay coordination through the Odyssey orbiter and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). With this new software, MaROS now fully integrates the Mars Express spacecraft into the relay picture. This new software generates and manages a new set of file formats that allows for relay request to MEX for forward and return link relay, including the parameters specific to MEX. Existing MEX relay planning interactions were performed via email exchanges and point-to-point file transfers. By integrating MEX into MaROS, all transactions are managed by a centralized service for tracking and analysis. Additionally, all lander missions have a single, shared interface with MEX and do not have to integrate on a mission-by mission basis. Relay is a critical element of Mars lander data management. Landed assets depend largely upon orbital relay for data delivery, which can be impacted by the availability and health of each orbiter in the network. At any time, an issue may occur to prevent relay. For this reason, it is imperative that all possible orbital assets be integrated into the overall relay picture.

  2. An Improved Model of the Crustal Structure of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.; McGovern, P. J.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    The first reliable model of the structure of the crust and upper mantle of Mars from remote observations was produced using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Radio Science investigation of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). That model assumed a uniform crustal density and solved for the global variations in crustal thickness using a gravity field derived from preliminary MGS tracking. In that study, spherical harmonic potential coefficients were derived to degree and order 80, but crustal structure was interpreted cautiously to degree 60, or 360 km wavelength, owing to the presence of noise. Tracking normal equations have since been generated to degree 75, to degree 80 (supplemented by altimetric crossovers), and recently to degree 90, using new constants for the orientation of the spin pole and the rotation rate of Mars provided by the IAU2000 rotation model. Gravity models now incorporate tracking data coverage from the Primary and Extended MGS missions and the early phases of the Mars Odyssey mission. In the present study we exploit these advances in gravity modeling to present a refined crustal inversion, which we also interpret in the context of Mars' internal structure and thermal evolution.

  3. Propulsive Maneuver Design for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raofi, Behzad; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; Helfrich, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander (PHX) successfully landed in the northern planes of Mars in order to continue and complement NASA's "follow the water" theme as its predecessor Mars missions, such as Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Exploration Rovers, have done in recent years. Instruments on the lander, through a robotic arm able to deliver soil samples to the deck, will perform in-situ and remote-sensing investigations to characterize the chemistry of materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. Lander instruments will also identify the potential history of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics within any accessible water ice. Precise trajectory control and targeting were necessary in order to achieve the accurate atmospheric entry conditions required for arriving at the desired landing site. The challenge for the trajectory control maneuver design was to meet or exceed these requirements in the presence of spacecraft limitations as well as other mission constraints. This paper describes the strategies used, including the specialized targeting specifically developed for PHX, in order to design and successfully execute the propulsive maneuvers that delivered the spacecraft to its targeted landing site while satisfying the planetary protection requirements in the presence of flight system constraints.

  4. Implementing Strategic Planning Capabilities Within the Mars Relay Operations Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hy, Franklin; Gladden, Roy; Allard, Dan; Wallick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Since the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Spirit and Opportunity, began their travels across the Martian surface in January of 2004, orbiting spacecraft such as the Mars 2001 Odyssey orbiter have relayed the majority of their collected scientific and operational data to and from Earth. From the beginning of those missions, it was evident that using orbiters to relay data to and from the surface of Mars was a vastly more efficient communications strategy in terms of power consumption and bandwidth compared to direct-to-Earth means. However, the coordination between the various spacecraft, which are largely managed independently and on differing commanding timelines, has always proven to be a challenge. Until recently, the ground operators of all these spacecraft have coordinated the movement of data through this network using a collection of ad hoc human interfaces and various, independent software tools. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) has been developed to manage the evolving needs of the Mars relay network, and specifically to standardize and integrate the relay planning and coordination data into a centralized infrastructure. This paper explores the journey of developing the MaROS system, from inception to delivery and acceptance by the Mars mission users.

  5. A homozygous mutation in PEX16 identified by whole-exome sequencing ending a diagnostic odyssey

    PubMed Central

    Bacino, Carlos A.; Chao, Yu-Hsin; Seto, Elaine; Lotze, Tim; Xia, Fan; Jones, Richard O.; Moser, Ann; Wangler, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with a unique neurological phenotype with a progressive neurodegenerative. An 18-year diagnostic odyssey for the patient ended when exome sequencing identified a homozygous PEX16 mutation suggesting an atypical peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD). Interestingly, the patient's peroxisomal biochemical abnormalities were subtle, such that plasma very-long-chain fatty acids initially failed to provide a diagnosis. This case suggests that next-generation sequencing may be diagnostic in some atypical peroxisomal biogenesis disorders. PMID:26644994

  6. An onboard data analysis method to track the seasonal polar caps on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagstaff, K.L.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Ivanov, A.B.; Pounders, E.; Titus, T.N.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The Martian seasonal CO2 ice caps advance and retreat each year. They are currently studied using instruments such as the THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS), a visible and infra-red camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft [1]. However, each image must be downlinked to Earth prior to analysis. In contrast, we have developed the Bimodal Image Temperature (BIT) histogram analysis method for onboard detection of the cap edge, before transmission. In downlink-limited scenarios when the entire image cannot be transmitted, the location of the cap edge can still be identified and sent to Earth. In this paper, we evaluate our method on uncalibrated THEMIS data and find 1) agreement with manual cap edge identifications to within 28.2 km, and 2) high accuracy even with a smaller analysis window, yielding large reductions in memory requirements. This algorithm is currently being considered as a capability enhancement for the Odyssey second extended mission, beginning in fall 2006.

  7. Crystal Water on Mars: Insights from the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Clark, B. C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to constrain the total water contents from crystal H2O and OH in several materials analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). Crystal H2O is part of the unit cell and cannot be removed without changing the structure. Minerals that contain only OH in their structures are anhydrous minerals containing hydroxyls, although they are formed as a product of aqueous activity and will decompose with evolution of H2O when heated. The crystal water and OH contents of a bulk material at the MER landing sites can be estimated from mineralogical composition, which is determined by a combination of Fe-mineralogy obtained by the Mossbauer Spectrometer and mineral abundances based upon the chemical composition determined by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer. Jarosite, along with Ca- and Mg-sulfates, have been suggested as the sulfur-bearing phases in Meridiani Planum outcrop. Models of various hydration states of Fe-, Ca-, and Mg-sulfates and other possible secondary phases suggest that 6 to 22 wt.% of the outcrop may occur as crystal H2O and/or OH (Clark et al., 2005). This estimate of water is consistent with measurements from the Odyssey orbiter, where 7 % H2O-equivalent H was measured down to a depth of approximately 1 m for the region (Feldman et al., 2004).

  8. OMEGA / Mars Express observations of Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, B.

    2013-12-01

    The OMEGA / Mars Express instrument [1] has acquired a number of image-cubes, in both the visible and the NIR, at a variety of seasons, local times and spatial resolution. Specifically, it has been monitoring the Curiosity landing and exploring sites over the past months. We shall present some of the major outcomes, with a focus on i) the spectral characterization in the range (0.35 to 1.0 μm), which enables a comparison with the in situ ChemCam [2] and Mastcam [3] relevant measurements; ii) the day and night thermal inertia, extending to a variety of local times the maps produced by the THEMIS/Odyssey instrument and iii) limbs campaign, just initiated, designed to constrain the mechanism of the formation of CO2 ice clouds, by identifying the nucleation grains [4,5]. (in parallel with nadir observations) [1] Bibring, J.P. ., et al., OMEGA: Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité, ESA SP 1240, 37-49, 2004a [2] Johnson J.R. et al LPSC 2013 #1372 [3] Johnson J.R. et al LPSC 2013 #1374 [4] Vincendon, M:. New near-IR observations of mesospheric CO2 and HO2 clouds on Mars 2012, JGR, VOL 116 [5] Gondet et al Mars CO2 ice clouds: observations by Omega/Mex EPSC 2012

  9. Multihued Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at JPL shows the panoramic camera used onboard both Mars Exploration Rovers. The panel to the lower right highlights the multicolored filter wheel that allows the camera to see a rainbow of colors, in addition to infrared bands of light. By seeing Mars in all its colors, scientists can gain insight into the different minerals that constitute its rocks and soil.

  10. GRS evidence and the possibility of paleooceans on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.; Finch, M.; Furfaro, R.; Hare, T.M.; Janes, D.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Karunatillake, S.; Keller, J.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.J.; Komatsu, G.; Mahaney, W.C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Marinangeli, L.; Ori, G.G.; Ruiz, J.; Wheelock, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (Mars Odyssey spacecraft) has revealed elemental distributions of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and iron (Fe) on Mars that require fractionation of K (and possibly Th and Fe) consistent with aqueous activity. This includes weathering, evolution of soils, and transport, sorting, and deposition, as well as with the location of first-order geomorphological demarcations identified as possible paleoocean boundaries. The element abundances occur in patterns consistent with weathering in situ and possible presence of relict or exhumed paleosols, deposition of weathered materials (salts and clastic minerals), and weathering/transport under neutral to acidic brines. The abundances are explained by hydrogeology consistent with the possibly overlapping alternatives of paleooceans and/or heterogeneous rock compositions from diverse provenances (e.g., differing igneous compositions). ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. GRS evidence and the possibility of paleooceans on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Boynton, William V.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Finch, Michael; Furfaro, Roberto; Hare, Trent M.; Janes, Daniel M.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Karunatillake, Suniti; Keller, John; Kerry, Kris; Kim, Kyeong J.; Komatsu, Goro; Mahaney, William C.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Marinangeli, Lucia; Ori, Gian G.; Ruiz, Javier; Wheelock, Shawn J.

    2009-05-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (Mars Odyssey spacecraft) has revealed elemental distributions of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and iron (Fe) on Mars that require fractionation of K (and possibly Th and Fe) consistent with aqueous activity. This includes weathering, evolution of soils, and transport, sorting, and deposition, as well as with the location of first-order geomorphological demarcations identified as possible paleoocean boundaries. The element abundances occur in patterns consistent with weathering in situ and possible presence of relict or exhumed paleosols, deposition of weathered materials (salts and clastic minerals), and weathering/transport under neutral to acidic brines. The abundances are explained by hydrogeology consistent with the possibly overlapping alternatives of paleooceans and/or heterogeneous rock compositions from diverse provenances (e.g., differing igneous compositions).

  12. Mission Design Overview for the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Mark D.; Fujii, Kenneth K.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix mission "follows the water" by landing in a region where NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter has discovered evidence of ice-rich soil very near the Martian surface. For three months after landing, the fixed Lander will perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, sub-surface, and atmosphere, and will identify potential provenance of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics and any accessible water ice. The Lander will employ a robotic arm to dig to the ice layer, and will analyze the acquired samples using a suite of deck-mounted, science instruments. The development of the baseline strategy to achieve the objectives of this mission involves the integration of a variety of elements into a coherent mission plan.

  13. Mars: Fluvial Erosion Driven by Magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Chapman, M. G.

    2002-12-01

    Mars at present has a thin, dry, and cold atmosphere relative to Earth's. The cold temperatures suggest that any subsurface water (perhaps combined with carbon dioxide as clathrate) would likely be frozen within a couple kilometers or more of the surface. This condition may have been prevalent following widespread fluvial dissection that formed numerous valley networks in highland rocks during the Noachian. The sources of some ancient and of most relatively young valley systems, particularly the large outflow channels, occur within or near volcanic rocks or display morphologic evidence for volcanic and/or tectonic associations. Such geologic relations have led many investigators to propose that magmatic activity has been a significant (if not dominant) driver of younger fluvial erosion on the surface of Mars. Magmatism may have provided the heat to raise local subsurface temperatures to near or above the freezing point of water; furthermore, intrusive activity may have fractured aquifers that provided conduits for release of substantial volumes of ground volatiles. Evidence of such interactions includes lengthy outflow channels sourced from fissures or depressions in volcanic rocks of the Tharsis/Valles Marineris, Elysium, and eastern Hellas regions. Depressions filled with chaotic terrain at the heads of the circum-Chryse outflow channels may be sites where large volumes of magmatic material may have interacted with water and perhaps carbon dioxide in rocks beneath the cryosphere, leading to catastrophic expulsion of the volatiles and collapse of country rock. Other evidence for magmatically driven erosion may include the low Hellas rim areas, where Malea and Hesperia Plana reside, and the channeled flanks of possible Noachian volcanoes in Thaumasia (south Tharsis region). Mars Global Surveyor's MOLA topography data and MOC images and Mars Odyssey's THEMIS images are providing new insights into the possible interactions between magmatism and fluvial erosion on

  14. Atmospheric results from the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter

    The Phoenix Mission operated in the northern plains of Mars for 5 months starting May 25, 2008 spanning solar longitudes from 78 to 143 (summer). Throughout this period a diverse set of atmospheric measurements were taken and analyzed. The data sets provide information on the diurnal temperatures at 2 m above the surface, diurnal pressure, wind vectors, cloud properties, dust devils, the boundary layer, and humidity. In addition, coordinated observations were obtained with orbital instruments from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Odyssey, and Mars Express. The measurements have been compared with predictions from Global Climate Models and found to agree in most regards. Taken as a whole this represents a unique description of the summer weather in a heretofore unexplored region of Mars. The Canadian LIDAR experiment gives us the first direct measurement of the boundary layer height. The first 90 sols of the mission were conducted under dusty conditions and the height of the dust layer was determined as 4-5 km above the surface. After 90 sols, the dust dispersed and water ice clouds were seen at ever lower altitudes and the boundary layer dropped to as low as 3 km. Snowfall was observed and frost imaged on the surface. Winds swirled around the lander completing a full circle each sol; typical wind speeds were 5-10 m/s. From near surface humidity measurements, a diurnal cycle sublimates ice and adsorbed water from the surface soil as the Sun heats it forming water ice clouds at the boundary layer. As temperatures cool in the night the water is returned as snow and frost to the soil. Temperatures ranged from -30 C to -90 C, but never exceed the melting point; even though atmospheric pressures are always above the triple point, liquid water is not allowed at this time. The lack of dune forms and the presence of dust devils suggest that wind erosion is a strong force despite the constant dust fall observed on the spacecraft deck. Local dust storms are often seen by the

  15. Landing Site Selection for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. D.

    2002-05-01

    "Follow the water" remains a guiding theme in the Mars exploration program. This is because information about the early volatile and climate history of Mars, habitability for past or present life and the potential for human exploration all require a knowledge of the distribution of water in all its forms and how water reservoirs have changed over time.ÿ Over the next four launch opportunities (through 2009), implementation of this broad goal will achieved using a combination of infrared spectral mapping of mineralogy from orbit and on the ground (to identify ancient surface water systems), and radar sounding from orbit to locate reservoirs of modern subsurface water. High spatial and spectral resolution mineralogical mapping from orbit is considered essential for locating the highest priority sites for in situ surface exploration and sample return. This work is now underway with THEMIS, a mid-IR instrument onboard the Odyssey spacecraft and presently mapping Mars at a spatial resolution of ~100 m/pixel. In 2005 the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) will carry a hyperspectral, near IR instrument capable of mapping targeted areas at a spatial resolution of <50 m/pixel. The 2001 and 2005 orbital missions will be interleaved with surface investigations in 2003 which will place twin "Mars Exploration Rovers" (MER's A and B) at two high priority sites to gather in situ information about surface mineralogy and petrology. The synergistic use of orbital reconnaissance and landed in situ science during the next three launch opportunities will yield important new information about the hydrological history of Mars that will provide a basis for targeting a second rover mission, the Mars Smart Lander (MSL), to a high priority site in 2009. The MSL rover will be a large, mobile platform of prolonged mission capability, that will conduct a variety of surface and shallow subsurface experiments to explore for aqueous minerals and organic materials preserved in aqueous sedimentary

  16. NASA's New Mars Exploration Program: The Trajectory of Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, James B.; Figueroa, Orlando; Naderi, Firouz M.

    2001-12-01

    NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is finally on the way to Mars with the successful April 7 launch of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. In addition, the announcement by the Bush Administration that the exploration of Mars will be a priority within NASA's Office of Space Science further cements the first decade of the new millennium as one of the major thrusts to understand the "new" Mars. Over the course of the past year and a half, an integrated team of managers, scientists, and engineers has crafted a revamped MEP to respond to the scientific as well as management and resource challenges associated with deep space exploration of the Red Planet. This article describes the new program from the perspective of its guiding philosophies, major events, and scientific strategy. It is intended to serve as a roadmap to the next 10-15 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. [For further details, see the Mars Exploration Program web site (URL): http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov]. The new MEP will certainly evolve in response to discoveries, to successes, and potentially to setbacks as well. However, the design of the restructured strategy is attentive to risks, and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program has been adopted. Mars beckons, and the next decade of exploration should provide the impetus for a follow-on decade in which multiple sample returns and other major program directions are executed. Ultimately the vision to consider the first human scientific expeditions to the Red Planet will be enabled. By the end of the first decade of this program, we may know where and how to look for the elusive clues associated with a possible martian biological record, if any was every preserved, even if only as "chemical fossils."

  17. NASA's new Mars Exploration Program: the trajectory of knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Figueroa, O.; Naderi, F. M.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is finally on the way to Mars with the successful April 7 launch of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. In addition, the announcement by the Bush Administration that the exploration of Mars will be a priority within NASA's Office of Space Science further cements the first decade of the new millennium as one of the major thrusts to understand the "new" Mars. Over the course of the past year and a half, an integrated team of managers, scientists, and engineers has crafted a revamped MEP to respond to the scientific as well as management and resource challenges associated with deep space exploration of the Red Planet. This article describes the new program from the perspective of its guiding philosophies, major events, and scientific strategy. It is intended to serve as a roadmap to the next 10-15 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. [For further details, see the Mars Exploration Program web site (URL): http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov]. The new MEP will certainly evolve in response to discoveries, to successes, and potentially to setbacks as well. However, the design of the restructured strategy is attentive to risks, and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program has been adopted. Mars beckons, and the next decade of exploration should provide the impetus for a follow-on decade in which multiple sample returns and other major program directions are executed. Ultimately the vision to consider the first human scientific expeditions to the Red Planet will be enabled. By the end of the first decade of this program, we may know where and how to look for the elusive clues associated with a possible martian biological record, if any was every preserved, even if only as "chemical fossils.".

  18. NASA's new Mars Exploration Program: the trajectory of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Garvin, J B; Figueroa, O; Naderi, F M

    2001-01-01

    NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is finally on the way to Mars with the successful April 7 launch of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. In addition, the announcement by the Bush Administration that the exploration of Mars will be a priority within NASA's Office of Space Science further cements the first decade of the new millennium as one of the major thrusts to understand the "new" Mars. Over the course of the past year and a half, an integrated team of managers, scientists, and engineers has crafted a revamped MEP to respond to the scientific as well as management and resource challenges associated with deep space exploration of the Red Planet. This article describes the new program from the perspective of its guiding philosophies, major events, and scientific strategy. It is intended to serve as a roadmap to the next 10-15 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. [For further details, see the Mars Exploration Program web site (URL): http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov]. The new MEP will certainly evolve in response to discoveries, to successes, and potentially to setbacks as well. However, the design of the restructured strategy is attentive to risks, and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program has been adopted. Mars beckons, and the next decade of exploration should provide the impetus for a follow-on decade in which multiple sample returns and other major program directions are executed. Ultimately the vision to consider the first human scientific expeditions to the Red Planet will be enabled. By the end of the first decade of this program, we may know where and how to look for the elusive clues associated with a possible martian biological record, if any was every preserved, even if only as "chemical fossils."

  19. Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C. I.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (Mars, and both groups of minerals are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable io those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust, and concluded that spectral deconvolution of MGS TES and Mariner 9 IRIS data is consistent with the presence of zeolite in the martian surface dust.

  20. Mars Polar Lander arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Mars Polar Lander is rolled from the Air Force C-17 cargo plane that carried it from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, CO. The Mars Polar Lander is targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  1. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Next entry to Mars (Mars Pathfinder and the microrover Sojourner). Hello, Mars, we're back! Mars Global Surveyor update. The Mars program - 2001 and beyond. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of June 11, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  2. Indian Mars-Colour-Camera captures far-side of the Deimos: A rarity among contemporary Mars orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, A. S.; Manthira Moorthi, S.; Rajasekhar, R. P.; Sarkar, S. S.; Sur, Koyel; Aravind, B.; Gambhir, Rajdeep K.; Misra, Indranil; Patel, V. D.; Srinivas, A. R.; Patel, Kamlesh K.; Chauhan, Prakash; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Mars and Deimos are tidally locked so one would always get to view the same side of Deimos from Mars. Most of the contemporary functional satellites orbiting Mars viz. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter , Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, MAVEN etc. are positioned between Mars and Deimos, hence they always view only one side of Deimos i.e the Mars-side, while the far-side is always looking outward with respect to all these satellites. However the maiden Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is an exception as it has a very large elliptical orbit and goes behind the orbit of Deimos. This has enabled MOM to view the far-side of Deimos which has not been viewed for last few decades by any Mars orbiter. Mars Colour Camera (MCC), onboard MOM acquired four image-frames of the Deimos, the farthest of two natural satellites of Mars, on October 14, 2014 at around 13:05 UT. These four images of MCC have been used to generate an High Dynamic Range (HDR) product so as to enhance the image details. The two well-known craters of near-side are missing in this HDR image and the shape of far-side, recently updated and reported models of Deimos proposed by other researchers, matches with the shape of Deimos in MCC images thus confirming that the far-side view of Deimos has been captured by MCC of Mars Orbiter Mission. The magnitude of Deimos has also been computed from this far-side image, which varies by a small margin from the known magnitude of Deimos. This could probably be due to possible difference in the near and far side surface characteristics, which needs further detailed investigation and more imaging of far-side in future. However, there could be reasons other than the physical characteristics of the Deimos. Thus far-side sighting has generated a scientific interest to understand it holistically. This note is a brisk or rapid communication regarding sighting of the far-side of the Deimos by MCC after a long spell of more than three decades by any other Mars mission, including the

  3. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers mate the Mars Polar Lander (top) to the Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket is scheduled to launch Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  4. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Polar Lander spacecraft is lowered to mate it with the Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch it on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  5. Mars Bowling

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  6. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  7. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  8. Mars resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-05-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  9. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  10. Visualization of Radiation Environment on Mars: Assessment with MARIE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Flanders, J.; Riman, F.; Hu, X.; Pinsky, L.; Lee, K.; Anderson, V.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

    2003-01-01

    For a given GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) environment at Mars, particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, are also needed on the surface of Mars for future human exploration missions. For the past twelve months, the MARJE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 200J Mars Odyssey has been providing the radiation measurements from the Martian orbit. These measurements are well correlated with the HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations during these specific GCR environment conditions are now extended and transported through the CO2 atmosphere onto the Martian surface. These calculated pa11icle flux distributions are presented as a function of the Martian topography making use of the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor). Also, particle flux calculations are presented with visualization in the human body from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs.

  11. Bigger Crater Farther South of 'Victoria' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version

    The team operating NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has chosen southeast as the direction for the rover's next extended journey, toward a crater more than 20 times wider than 'Victoria Crater.' Opportunity exited Victoria Crater on Aug. 28, 2008, after nearly a year investigating the interior.

    The crater to the southeast is about 22 kilometers (13.7 miles) in diameter and about 300 meters (1,000 feet) deep, exposing a much thicker stack of rock layers than those examined in Victoria Crater.

    The rover team informally calls the bigger crater 'Endeavour' and emphasizes that Opportunity may well never reach it. The rover has already operated more than 18 times longer than originally planned, and the distance to the big crater, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) matches the total distance Opportunity has driven since landing in early 2004. Driving southeastward is expected to take Opportunity to exposures of younger rock layers than is has previously seen and to provide access to rocks on the plain that were thrown long distances by impacts that excavated even deeper, more distant craters.

    The crater that Opportunity will drive toward dominates this orbital view from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter. The much smaller Victoria Crater is the most prominent circle near the upper left corner of the image. This view is a mosaic of about 50 separate visible-light images taken by THEMIS.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rover missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. THEMIS was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the

  12. Active and Recent Volcanism and Hydrogeothermal Activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Cantor, B. A.; Harrison, T. N.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Malin, M. C.; Posiolova, L. V.; Shean, D. E.

    2010-10-01

    There are no active volcanoes or geysers on Mars today, nor in the very recent past. Since 1997, we have sought evidence from targeted narrow angle camera images and daily, global wide angle images for active or very recent (decades to < 10 Ma) volcanism or hydrogeothermal events on Mars. Despite > 11 years of daily global imaging and coverage of > 60% of Mars at ≤ 6 m/pixel (with the remaining < 40% largely outside of volcanic regions), we have found no such evidence, although one lava field in Aeolis (5°N, 220°W) stands out as possibly the site of the most recent volcanism. Authors of impact crater size-frequency studies suggest some volcanic landforms on Mars are as young as tens to hundreds of Ma. This interpreted youth has implications for understanding the internal geophysical state of Mars and has encouraged those seeking sources for trace gases (methane) in the atmosphere and those seeking "warm havens for life” (Jakosky 1996, New Scientist 150, 38-42). We targeted thousands of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) MOC and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) CTX (and HiRISE) images to examine volcanic regions; we also studied every MGS MOC and MRO MARCI wide angle image. For evidence of active volcanism, we sought eruption plumes, new vents, new tephra deposits, and new volcanogenic flows not observed in earlier images. For recent volcanism, we sought volcanogenic flows with zero or few superposed impact craters and minimal regolith development or superposed eolian sediment. Targets included all volcanic landforms identified in research papers as "recent” as well as areas speculated to have exhibited eruptive plumes. An independent search for endogenic heat sources, a key Mars Odyssey THEMIS objective, has also not produced a positive result (Christensen et al. 2005, P24A-01, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 86/52).

  13. Past Habitability of Mars: Interpretations of Mars Global Surveyor TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, L.; Herr, K.; Adams, P.

    2003-12-01

    A primary question in habitability studies of Mars is whether significant surface water was present in the past. If large water deposits were present, then carbonate deposits likely would have formed. Thus, much debate about the past climate and habitability centers on whether carbonate deposits have been detected. Here we discuss relevant infrared spectral evidence; implications for astrobiology; and the unifying research needed to address astrobiology concerns. Under specific conditions, carbonates exhibit spectral features near 6.5, 11, and 33 microns. Several past studies proposed detection of carbonates on Mars (reviewed Roush et al. [1993]). The detections have not widely been perceived as conclusive. Two recent orbited instruments (1996 Global Surveyor TES; 2001 Odyssey THEMIS) were intended to resolve the question. However, no 11 or 33 micron band detections have been reported. Complexities in atmospheric unmixing significantly delayed and complicated analysis of the 6.5 micron region. Bandfield et al. [2003] recently proposed detection of a 6.5 micron carbonate feature in the surface dust. However, TES did not detect the 11 and 33 micron bands, placing the interpretation again in the debated category. Christensen et al. [2001] concluded that TES detected no carbonate to the 10 percent per pixel level, and Bandfield et al. [2003] in selected dark regions to 5 percent. The 2003 rover Mini-TES is comparable to TES, and is similarly intended to resolve the minerals present. One interpretation of those results is that the types of carbonate deposits expected from large bodies of water are not present. One inference is that no large, standing bodies of water on Mars existed. However, discussion of a key issue to the debate has been missing: What impacts whether a mineral deposit is detectable by these instruments? We will demonstrate that rough surface texture can cause large mineral deposits, including rocks, to have subdued spectral signatures [Kirkland et al

  14. Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Cantor, Bruce; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Daniel, Jr.; Rafkin, Scot; Chen, Allen; Kass, David; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2013-01-01

    On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, developed by two independent organizations (Oregon State University and the Southwest Research Institute), were validated against observations at Mars from three prior years. In the weeks and days before entry, the MSL "Council of Atmospheres" (CoA), a group of atmospheric scientists and modelers, instrument experts and EDL simulation engineers, evaluated the latest Mars data from orbiting assets including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The observations were compared to the mesoscale models developed for EDL performance simulation to determine if a spacecraft parameter update was necessary prior to entry. This paper summarizes the daily atmosphere observations and comparison to the performance simulation atmosphere models. Options to modify the atmosphere model in the simulation to compensate for atmosphere effects are also presented. Finally, a summary of the CoA decisions and recommendations to the MSL project in the days leading up to EDL is provided.

  15. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR ON DELTA II LAUNCHES FROM LC-17A AT CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The journey back to Mars begins with liftoff of the Mars Global Surveyor atop a Delta II 7925A expendable launch vehicle from Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, at 12:00:49.99 p.m. EST, Nov. 7, 1996. After an approximately 10-month interplanetary odyssey, the spacecraft will arrive at the Red Planet and begin a four- month aerobraking phase -- an innovative technique first demonstrated during the Magellan mission to Venus -- to achieve a mapping orbit. For a period of one Martian year or about two Earth years, the compact, 2,337-pound (1,060- kilogram) spacecraft will circle above most of the planet, its suite of sophisticated remote-sensing instruments building a comprehensive global portrait of Mars by mapping its topography, magnetism, mineral composition and atmosphere. Among the locations the Surveyor will pass over are the landing sites where the two U.S. Viking landers have stood since 1975 as silent monuments of the most recent successful U.S. mission to Mars. The Global Surveyor is the first of a trio of spacecraft being launched to the Red Planet this fall; up next is Russia's Mars '96 spacecraft followed by the United States' Mars Pathfinder. The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions are managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA; McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corp. provides the Delta II launch vehicle.

  16. The Water-Wheel IR (WIR): A Contact Survey Experiment for Water and Carbonates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Freeman, John; Dong, Edward X.; Kuebler, Karla E.

    2004-01-01

    Minimum requirements for life include water and accessible carbon. Mars has both in its polar caps and atmosphere. Water (or water-equivalent hydrogen) is present at shallow depths (approx. 10-20 cm) at latitudes =60 and is heterogeneously distributed in other parts of Mars [1]. Mars may have once had surface water that could plausibly have produced carbonate deposits [2-5]. Mars shows signs of hydrothermal activity [6-8] that may have affected soil composition [9, 10]. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer on the Mars Global Surveyor found large and small patches of hematite that may have been water-borne or water-derived [11, 12]. Current orbiting spacecraft (MGS & Odyssey) have not found massive carbonate deposits, however [13]. Shales and limestones, which we associate with moist and benign environments on Earth, are apparently not abundant on Mars. Both carbonate and organic carbon occur as alteration products in Martian meteorites of igneous origin [14]. One study of MGS-TES data suggests 2-5 wt% carbonates (mainly MgCO3) in surface dust, but found no concentrated source [15]. Carbonates and H2O/OH bearing minerals will be sought by the mini-TES and Mossbauer experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers, one of which landed successfully on Mars on January 3.

  17. Rest In Peace Mars Polar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Three years ago (December 3, 1999) Mars Polar Lander (MPL) was set to touchdown on the enigmatic layered terrain located near the South Pole. Unfortunately, communications with the spacecraft were lost and never regained. The Mars Program Independent Assessment Team concluded that this loss was most likely due to premature retrorocket shutdown resulting in the crash of the lander. The image primarily shows what appears to be a ridged surface with some small isolated hills.

    Historically, exploration has and will continue to be a very hard and risky endeavor and sometimes you lose. But the spirit of exploration and discovery has served mankind well throughout the ages and it has now driven us to the far reaches of space. Therefore, with this in mind the THEMIS Team today is releasing an image of the region where MPL was set to land in memory of this mission and the unquenchable spirit of exploration. It is hoped that in the near future we will once again attempt another landing in the Martian polar regions.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  18. Phoenix - the First Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2006 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as activities, challenges and problems encountered on the way to the launch pad. Phoenix Follows the water responding directly to the recently published data from Dr. William Boynton, PI (and Phoenix co-I) of the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). GRS data indicate extremely large quantities of water ice (up to 50% by mass) within the upper 50 cm of the northern polar regolith. Phoenix will land within the north polar region at 68.2 N, 233.4 W identified by GRS to harbor near surface water ice and provide in-situ confirmation of this extraordinary find. Our mission will investigate water in all its phases, and will investigate the history of water as evidenced in the soil characteristics that will be carefully examined by the powerful suite of onboard instrumentation. Access to the critical subsurface region expected to contain this information is made possible by a third generation robotic arm capable of excavating the expected Martian regolith to a depth of 1m. Phoenix has four primary science objectives: 1) Determine the polar climate and weather, interaction with the surface, and composition of the lower atmosphere around 70 N for at least 90 sols focusing on water, ice, dust, noble gases, and CO2. Determine the atmospheric characteristics during descent through the atmosphere. 2) Characterize the geomorphology and active processes shaping the northern plains and the physical properties of the near surface regolith focusing on the role of water. 3) Determine the aqueous mineralogy and chemistry as well as the adsorbed gases and organic content of the regolith. Verify the Odyssey

  19. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Wilson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ?5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ?2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ?14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI?s resolution is comparable at ?30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  20. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Willson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ˜5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ˜2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ˜14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI's resolution is comparable at ˜30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  1. Evidence for a Large Natural Nuclear Reactor in Mars Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2006-05-01

    " Kieffer , H.H. , Jackosky, B. M. , Snyder C.W. , and Matthews , M.S. Editors , The University of Arizona Press, (3) Taylor G. Jeffery, et al. "Igneous and Aqueous Processes on Mars: Evidence From Measurements of K and Th by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer." (2003) Proc. 6th International Mars Conference. Pasadena Ca. (4) Meshik , A. P. "the Workings of An Ancient Nuclear Reactor" Scientific American, November 2005, p83. (5) Brandenburg, J.E., "Evidence for a large Natural Nuclear Reactor in Mars Past " Proceedings of the Space technology International Forum Albuquereque NM Feb 12-16 2006.

  2. Phoenix lands on Mars: the latest results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter

    On May 25, 2008, the Phoenix mission will touch down on the northern polar region of Mars and begin a series of experiments designed to investigate the properties of the soil and subsurface water ice. Odyssey scientists discovered subsurface ice northwards of about 60° surrounding the permanent ice cap in 2002. As the first Scout mission, the Phoenix team proposed to verify this discovery by digging through the overlying soils and sampling the ice. Phoenix will be able to determine whether the ice ever melted by measuring the mineral and salt content of the soil looking for altered or secondary minerals. The polar weather is also of interest as the leading theory for the placement of the ice is through vapor diffusion through the soil. Phoenix expects to characterize the transport of water vapor near the surface and test the diffusion theory. Finally, the presence of water-modified soils, complex organics, and energy sources will lead us to conclude that the northern plains are a habitable zone on Mars. A progress report on Phoenix results will be presented at the meeting.

  3. High-resolution subsurface water-ice distributions on Mars.

    PubMed

    Bandfield, Joshua L

    2007-05-01

    Theoretical models indicate that water ice is stable in the shallow subsurface (depths of <1-2 m) of Mars at high latitudes. These models have been mainly supported by the observed presence of large concentrations of hydrogen detected by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The models and measurements are consistent with a water-ice table that steadily increases in depth with decreasing latitude. More detailed modelling has predicted that the depth at which water ice is stable can be highly variable, owing to local surface heterogeneities such as rocks and slopes, and the thermal inertia of the ground cover. Measurements have, however, been limited to the footprint (several hundred kilometres) of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite, preventing the observations from documenting more detailed water-ice distributions. Here I show that by observing the seasonal temperature response of the martian surface with the Thermal Emission Imaging System on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, it is possible to observe such heterogeneities at subkilometre scale. These observations show significant regional and local water-ice depth variability, and, in some cases, support distributions in the subsurface predicted by atmospheric exchange and vapour diffusion models. The presence of water ice where it follows the depth of stability under current climatic conditions implies an active martian water cycle that responds to orbit-driven climate cycles. Several regions also have apparent deviations from the theoretical stability level, indicating that additional factors influence the ice-table depth. The high-resolution measurements show that the depth to the water-ice table is highly variable within the potential Phoenix spacecraft landing ellipses, and is likely to be variable at scales that may be sampled by the spacecraft.

  4. Northern and Southern Permafrost Regions on Mars with High Content of Water Ice: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    The measurements by neutron detectors on Odyssey have revealed two large poleward regions with large depression of flux of epithermal and high energy neutrons [1-3]. The flux of neutrons from Mars is known to be produced by the bombardment of the surface layer by galactic cosmic rays. The leakage flux of epithermal and fast neutrons has regional variation by a factor of 10 over the surface of Mars (e.g. see [3- 5]). These variations are mainly produced by variations of hydrogen content in the shallow subsurface. On Mars hydrogen is associated with water. Therefore, the Northern and Southern depressions of neutron emission could be identified as permafrost regions with very high content of water ice [1-5]. These regions are much larger than the residual polar caps, and could contain the major fraction of subsurface water ice. Here we present the results of HEND neutron data deconvolution for these regions and describe the similarities and differences between them.

  5. Northern and Southern Permafrost Regions on Mars with High Content of Water Ice: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    The measurements by neutron detectors on Odyssey have revealed two large poleward regions with large depression of flux of epithermal and high energy neutrons. The flux of neutrons from Mars is known to be produced by the bombardment of the surface layer by galactic cosmic rays. The leakage flux of epithermal and fast neutrons has regional variation by a factor of 10 over the surface of Mars. These variations are mainly produced by variations of hydrogen content in the shallow subsurface. On Mars hydrogen is associated with water. Therefore, the Northern and Southern depressions of neutron emission could be identified as permafrost regions with very high content of water ice. These regions are much larger than the residual polar caps, and could contain the major fraction of subsurface water ice. Here we present the results of HEND neutron data deconvolution for these regions and describe the similarities and differences between them.

  6. Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These maps are global false-color topographic views of Mars at different orientations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The maps are orthographic projections that contain over 200,000,000 points and about 5,000,000 altimetric crossovers. The spatial resolution is about 15 kilometers at the equator and less at higher latitudes. The vertical accuracy is less than 5 meters. The right hand image view features the Hellas impact basin (in purple, with red annulus of high standing material). The left hand features the Tharsis topographic rise (in red and white). Note also the subtle textures associated with resurfacing of the northern hemisphere lowlands in the vicinity of the Utopia impact basin. These data were compiled by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Team led by David Smith at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD.

  7. Cracky Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cracked, layered plains-forming material in the western part of Utopia Planitia, Mars. Investigators have speculated that ice might be -- or might once have been -- present in the ground, and changes in temperature and the amount of ice over time may have led to the formation of these cracks. But no one is certain just how these features formed.

    Location near: 45.0oN, 276.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  8. A Preliminary Relationship Between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, E. L.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    Recent compelling evidence has been presented to suggest the presence of near-surface water or water ice on Mars. The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has photographed relatively young fluvial features in the form of gullies which have been attributed to groundwater seepage. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft has detected large amounts of hydrogen in the Martian soil, inferred to come from water or water ice within the upper meter of the surface. We explore the model of groundwater seepage as the mechanism of gully formation as opposed to other mechanisms. We investigate the abundance of hydrogen to the depth at which gully-like features form. We see a positive correlation, which implies the presence of a groundwater system for Mars.

  9. Local Time Variation of Water Ice Clouds on Mars as Observed by THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The move of the Odyssey spacecraft to an orbit with local time near 6:00 AM and PM enables systematic retrieval of water ice clouds at a time of day not accessible from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, or previous Odyssey observations. Although surface temperature is reduced near sunrise and sunset compared to afternoon, THEMIS observations show that there is still sufficient thermal contrast between the surface and atmosphere over a range of latitudes near the sub-solar point to retrieve accurate aerosol optical depth. Because water ice clouds form by condensation, relatively small changes in atmospheric temperature can cause clouds to form or sublimate quickly, and there can be large changes in water ice cloud optical depth over the course of a day. Here we present recent retrievals of water ice aerosol optical depth from THEMIS observations. These retrievals show significant differences in cloud locations and opitcal depth compared against THEMIS retrievals from previous Mars Years that were taken at an earlier local time.

  10. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, a ground breaking paper titled, "Feasibility of Rocket Propellant Production on Mars" by Ash, Dowler, and Varsi discussed how ascent propellants could be manufactured on the Mars surface from carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere to reduce launch mass. Since then, the concept of making mission critical consumables such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables from local resources, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), for robotic and human missions to Mars has been studied many times. In the late 1990's, NASA initiated a series of Mars Human Design Reference Missions (DRMs), the first of which was released in 1997. These studies primarily focused on evaluating the impact of making propellants on Mars for crew ascent to Mars orbit, but creating large caches of life support consumables (water & oxygen) as a backup for regenerative life support systems for long-duration surface stays (>500 days) was also considered in Mars DRM 3.0. Until science data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter and subsequent robotic missions revealed that water may be widely accessable across the surface of Mars, prior Mars ISRU studies were limited to processing Mars atmospheric resources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and water vapor). In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study which considered water on Mars as a potential resource for the first time in a human mission architecture. While knowledge of both water resources on Mars and the hardware required to excavate and extract the water were very preliminary, the study concluded that a significant reduction in mass and significant enhancements to the mission architecture were possible if Mars water resources were utilized. Two subsequent Mars ISRU studies aimed at reexamining ISRU technologies, processing options, and advancements in the state-of-the-art since 2007 and to better understand the volume and packaging associated

  11. Using the Mars Student Imaging Project to Integrate Science and English into Middle School Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, C. F.; Troy, M. T.; Valderrama, P.

    2005-12-01

    Bringing science to life in a middle school classroom, and getting students excited about writing an English research paper can be a challenge. We met the challenge by using the exploration of Mars with Arizona State University`s (ASU) Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP). We replaced individuals writing their own research papers with teams writing scientific proposals for use of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. The 126 students on our academic team divided themselves into 26 teams. Each team selected a Leader, Archivist, Publicist, and Bibliographer. I was the Principal Investigator for each team. For twelve weeks the teams formally met once a week to discuss their progress and plan strategies for the following week. We created a website to communicate our progress. During the twelve weeks, the major task was to narrow each general topic such as ``Volcanoes on Mars," to a specific topic that could be answered by an 18km by 60km visible light image such as ``Is it Possible to Find the Relative Age of Volcanic Depressions in a Lava Flow Using a Mars Odyssey Image?" In addition to traditional research methods, we also participated in four teleconferences with ASU scientists chaired by Paige Valderrama, Assistant Director of the Mars Education Program. As the project evolved, I guided the teams with content, while the English teacher provided strategies for writing a meaningful persuasive essay, using citations, and recording bibliographical entries. When the proposals were completed, each team created a PowerPoint presentation to introduce their proposal to everyone for peer review. The students were hard, but fair with their evaluations. In several cases, they did not cast one of their three votes for their own! They decided that ten proposals met the criteria established by ASU. Those teams selected one member to use the JMARS software to target locations on Mars. The imagers spent two intensive days learning the software and targeting the surface. When we received

  12. The second Mars microprobe is unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), Chris Voorhees (left) and Satish Krishnan (right), from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, remove the second Mars microprobe from a drum. Two microprobes will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars.

  13. The first Mars microprobe is unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory open the drums containing the Mars microprobes that will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander. From left, they are Satish Krishnan, Charles Cruzan, Chris Voorhees and Arden Acord. Scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars.

  14. Towards Onboard Orbital Tracking of Seasonal Polar Volatiles on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Castano, Rebecca; Chien, Steve; Ivanov, anton B.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2005-01-01

    Current conditions on Mars support both a residual polar cap, composed mainly of water ice, and a seasonal cap, composed of CO2, which appears and disappears each winter. Kieffer and Titus characterized the recession of the seasonal south polar cap using an arctangent curve fit based on data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Mars Global Surveyor [1]. They also found significant interannual deviations, at the regional scale, in the recession rate [2]. Further observations will enable the refinement of our models of polar cap evolution in both hemispheres. We have developed the Bimodal Image Temperature (BIT) Histogram Analysis method for the automated detection and tracking of the seasonal polar ice caps on Mars. It is specifically tailored for possible use onboard a spacecraft. We have evaluated BIT on uncalibrated data collected by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument [3] on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. In this paper, we focus on the northern seasonal cap, but our approach is directly applicable to the future analysis of the southern seasonal ice cap as well.

  15. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  16. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER IS EXAMINED IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory prepare to open the petals of the Mars Pathfinder lander to begin its checkout. Pictured are Lorrain Garcia, Chuck Foehlinger, James Pierson, Don Benson and Larry Broms. The spacecraft is planned to be launched aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket from Pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral on December 2, 1996.

  17. Design, Development and Testing of Airplanes for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The opportunity for a piggyback mission to Mars aboard an Ariane 5 rocket in the early spring of 1999 set off feverish design activity at several NASA centers. This report describes the contract work done by faculty, students, and consultants at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo California (Cal poly/SLO) to support the NASA/Ames design, construction and test efforts to develop a simple and robust Mars Flyer configuration capable of performing a practical science mission on Mars. The first sections will address the conceptual design of a workable Mars Flyer configuration which started in the spring and summer of 1999. The following sections will focus on construction and flight test of two full-scale vehicles. The final section will reflect on the overall effort and make recommendations for future work.

  18. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers place aside a piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  19. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers remove the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  20. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers lower the heat shield onto the Mars Polar Lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  1. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the last piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  2. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers get ready to lift the heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander off the workstand before attaching it to the lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  3. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Climate Orbiter is free of the protective canister that surrounded it during the move to the pad. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  4. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER REMOVED FROM SHIPPING CONTAINER IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from Jet Propulsion Laboratory remove the Mars Pathfinder lander from its shipping container, still covered in protective wrapping. Pictured from L-R, Linda Robeck, Jerry Gutierrez, Lorraine Garcia, Chuck Foehlinger of JPL. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  5. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), a KSC technician takes part in testing science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems on the Mars Polar Lander. The solar- powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  6. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians look over the Mars Polar Lander. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. Targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The Lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  7. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians lower the Mars Polar Lander onto a workstand. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. The solar-powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The Lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  8. Analytical Laboratory Science on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    The Odyssey Missions orbital maps of near surface ice abundance using neutron spectroscopy (Boynton et al., 2002), the Mars Exploration Rover s confirmation of aqueous processing (Squyres et al., 2004), and the Mars Express detailed infrared maps of specific mineral types that were likely formed in aqueous environments (Bibring et al., 2005) have dramatically expanded our tool set for understanding of aqueous processes on Mars. The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory is designed to extend the "follow the water" crosscutting theme of the Mars Exploration Program toward an even more detailed exploration of habitability - the potential of the Mars environment to support life. The next steps in understanding the habitability of Mars are a more detailed in situ analysis of the chemical state of elements such as C, H, O, N, S, P, Ca, and Fe that are essential for terrestrial life. Of particular interest are experiments that establish definitive mineralogy for a wider range of compounds and those that implement a more comprehensive and sensitive search for organic molecules both in the atmosphere and in surface or near surface rocks, soils, and fines. The recent reports of atmospheric methane in the Martian atmosphere make the organics exploration even more compelling. The substantial mass and power resources of MSL combined with its mobility and powerful sample acquisition and processing tools will enable it to locate a variety of near-surface samples and analyze these in some detail. NASA is presently considering the possibility of landing a second MSL rover in 2011.

  9. Radiation climate map for analyzing risks to astronauts on the mars surface from galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saganti, Premkumar B.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Zeitlin, Cary

    2004-01-01

    The potential risks for late effects including cancer, cataracts, and neurological disorders due to exposures to the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a large concern for the human exploration of Mars. Physical models are needed to project the radiation exposures to be received by astronauts in transit to Mars and on the Mars surface, including the understanding of the modification of the GCR by the Martian atmosphere and identifying shielding optimization approaches. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has been collecting Martian surface topographical data with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Here we present calculations of radiation climate maps of the surface of Mars using the MOLA data, the radiation transport model HZETRN (high charge and high energy transport), and the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation model, QMSFRG. Organ doses and the average number of particle hits per cell nucleus from GCR components (protons, heavy ions, and neutrons) are evaluated as a function of the altitude on the Martian surface. Approaches to improve the accuracy of the radiation climate map, presented here using data from the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission, are discussed.

  10. Radiation Climate Map for Analyzing Risks to Astronauts on the Mars Surface from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saganti, Premkumar B.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Zeitlin, Cary

    The potential risks for late effects including cancer, cataracts, and neurological disorders due to exposures to the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a large concern for the human exploration of Mars. Physical models are needed to project the radiation exposures to be received by astronauts in transit to Mars and on the Mars surface, including the understanding of the modification of the GCR by the Martian atmosphere and identifying shielding optimization approaches. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has been collecting Martian surface topographical data with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Here we present calculations of radiation climate maps of the surface of Mars using the MOLA data, the radiation transport model HZETRN (high charge and high energy transport), and the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation model, QMSFRG. Organ doses and the average number of particle hits per cell nucleus from GCR components (protons, heavy ions, and neutrons) are evaluated as a function of the altitude on the Martian surface. Approaches to improve the accuracy of the radiation climate map, presented here using data from the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission, are discussed.

  11. Multiple Smaller Missions as a Direct Pathway to Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Gibson, E. K.; Graham, L. D.; Jones, J. H.; Lederer, S. M.; Ming, D.; Seaman, C. H.; Archer, P. D.; Andrews-Hanna, J.; Baldridge, A. M.; Bourke, M. C.; Crown, D. A.; Fries, M.; Knudson, A. T.; Michalski, J.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Vaniman, D.; Weitz, C. M.; Williams, R. M. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Knauth, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries by the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft include multiple, tantalizing astrobiological targets representing both past and present environments on Mars. The most desirable path to Mars Sample Return (MSR) would be to collect and return samples from that site which provides the clearest examples of the variety of rock types considered a high priority for sample return (pristine igneous, sedimentary, and hydrothermal). Here we propose an MSR architecture in which the next steps (potentially launched in 2018) would entail a series of smaller missions, including caching, to multiple landing sites to verify the presence of high priority sample return targets through in situ analyses. This alternative architecture to one flagship-class sample caching mission to a single site would preserve a direct path to MSR as stipulated by the Planetary Decadal Survey, while permitting investigation of diverse deposit types and providing comparison of the site of returned samples to other aqueous environments on early Mars

  12. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...), and (d) published at 78 FR 14920 on March 8, 2013, are effective on November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER...-161, published at 78 FR 14920, March 8, 2013. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1187. The Commission... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  13. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Accelerometer Experiment Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Theriot, M. E.; Zurek, R. W.; Blanchard, R. C.; Tolson, R. H.; Murphy, J. R.

    2007-05-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, designed for aerobraking, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude is fine tuned to the density surface that safely used the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 400 orbits. MRO periapsis precessed from the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis was brought dramatically from 40,000km at MOI to 460 km at aerobraking completion (ABX) August 30, 2006. After ABX, a few small propulsive maneuvers established the Primary Science Orbit (PSO), which without aerobraking would have required an additional 400 kg of fuel. Each of the 400 plus aerobraking orbits provided a vertical structure and distribution of density, scale heights, and temperatures, along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (greater than 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: "Where did the water go?" Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extended vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both near the surface and in the upper atmosphere. Thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from subsurface to exosphere may both be critical. Comparisons of data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), MO and MRO help characterize key temporal and spatial cycles including: winter polar warming, planetary scale

  14. Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

    2006-01-01

    The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

  15. MARS PATHFINDER CAMERA TEST IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are conducting a systems test of the imager for the Mars Pathfinder. Mounted on the Pathfinder lander, the imager (the white cylindrical element the worker is touching) is a specially designed camera featuring a stereo-imaging system with color capability provided by a set of selectable filters. It is mounted on an extendable mast that will pop up after the lander touches down on the Martian surface. The imager will transmit images of the terrain, allowing engineers back on Earth to survey the landing site before the Pathfinder rover is deployed to explore the area. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2. JPL manages the Pathfinder project for NASA.

  16. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  17. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Dale; Barnes, Timothy; Bryant, Woody; Chowdhury, Parveen; Dillard, Joe; Gardner, Vernadette; Gregory, George; Harmon, Cheryl; Harrell, Brock; Hilton, Sherrill

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual design for a permanently manned, self-sustaining Martian facility, to accommodate a crew of 20 people. The goal is to incorporate the major functions required for long term habitation in the isolation of a barren planet into a thriving ecosystem. These functions include living, working, service, and medical facilities as well as a green house. The main design task was to focus on the internal layout while investigating the appropriate structure, materials, and construction techniques. The general concept was to create a comfortable, safe living environment for the crew members for a stay of six to twelve months on Mars. Two different concepts were investigated, a modular assembly reusable structure (MARS) designated Lavapolis, and a prefabricated space frame structure called Hexamars. Both models take into account factors such as future expansion, radiation shielding, and ease of assembly.

  18. Volatile Cycling and Layering on Mars: Observations, Theory and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischna, M. A.; McCleese, D. J.; Richardson, M. I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Wilson, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    With the release of Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) results, which indicate the presence of vast reservoirs of near-surface ice in the martian polar regions, we are presented with an exquisite dilemma. These deposits, which are present as far down as 60 deg. latitude in both hemispheres, are consistent with the suggestion of thermal models that ice will be best protected in these extended regions during periods of higher obliquity. However, the current paradigm regarding the placement of these deposits, i.e., diffusive deposition of water vapor, appears to be inconsistent with the large volume mixing ratios (approx. 70%) inferred from the GRS data. This apparent conflict argues that diffusion alone cannot be the primary mechanism for the creation of these reservoirs, and that an alternate, large-scale process should be considered.

  19. Alirocumab for hyperlipidemia: ODYSSEY Phase III clinical trial results and US FDA approval indications.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eli M

    2016-03-01

    A new class of lipid-lowering drugs, inhibitors of PCSK9 has been generating impressive clinical trial data over the last several years, and alirocumab (Praluent) has become the first to be approved by the US FDA. Alirocumab has been shown to lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 45-62% with a safety profile generally comparable to placebo. Alirocumab is a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9 administered subcutaneously and has been evaluated in 16 Phase III clinical trials, the majority of which have been enrolled or completed. This article will be a review of the available Phase III safety and efficacy data of the ODYSSEY studies including a brief description of each of the 16 studies. PMID:26785741

  20. Stand up for epilepsy San Diego photo-shoot: a personal odyssey.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Kaufman, Nathaniel D

    2013-06-01

    Stigma towards epilepsy results in barriers to social integration, education, employment, and marriage, with increased divorce rates. There is a societal need to realise that many persons with epilepsy (PWE) lead normal lives and can be highly educated with effective employment. Integration of PWE into sports is therapeutic both for PWE (decreased seizure frequency, decreased comorbid conditions, and increased psychosocial skills) and society. Stand Up For Epilepsy (SUFE), overseen by the ILAE Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy, is an international project in which action photographs with PWE were taken as a means to destigmatise epilepsy. This autobiographical narrative describes how SUFE initiated effective athlete-PWE interactions with positive PWE, athlete, and parent responses. Expansion of SUFE is recommended to further destigmatise epilepsy. Participation in SUFE can serve as a personal odyssey for PWE. PMID:23777887

  1. Stand Up For Epilepsy San Diego photo-shoot: a personal odyssey.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Kaufman, Nathaniel D

    2013-06-18

    Stigma towards epilepsy results in barriers to social integration, education, employment, and marriage, with increased divorce rates. There is a societal need to realise that many persons with epilepsy (PWE) lead normal lives and can be highly educated with effective employment. Integration of PWE into sports is therapeutic both for PWE (decreased seizure frequency, decreased comorbid conditions, and increased psychosocial skills) and society. Stand Up For Epilepsy (SUFE), overseen by the ILAE Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy, is an international project in which action photographs with PWE were taken as a means to destigmatise epilepsy. This autobiographical narrative describes how SUFE initiated effective athlete-PWE interactions with positive PWE, athlete, and parent responses. Expansion of SUFE is recommended to further destigmatise epilepsy. Participation in SUFE can serve as a personal odyssey for PWE. PMID:23774521

  2. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  3. Mars Exploration Rovers navigation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amario, Louis A.

    2004-01-01

    The twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, were launched on June 10, 2003(dagger), and July 8, 2003, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Spirit and Opportunity were targeted for landings at Gusev Crater (arrival on January 4, 2004) and Meridiani Planum (arrival on January 25, 2004). The primary navigation challenge was to deliver each spacecraft to the desired atmospheric entry interface point with sufficient accuracy such that each lander would touch down within a specified landing ellipse (about 70 km x 5 km) determined to be safe for landing and also judged to be scientifically interesting. In order to achieve landing within the target ellipse, precise control of the inertial entry flight path angle (FPA) at atmospheric entry was required. The maximum allowable errors in FPA following TCM-5 (trajectory correction maneuver #5) at Entry (E) - 2 days were +/-0.12(deg) (3(sigma)) for Spirit and +/-0.14(deg) (3(sigma)) for Opportunity. Achieving these entry delivery accuracies necessitated significant improvements to the interplanetary avigation system used for MER. These improvements included new processes and software for orbit determination, propulsive maneuver design, and entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory simulation. The actual achieved atmospheric entry accuracies for Spirit and Opportunity significantly exceeded the requirements. At the navigation data cutoff for the TCM-5 final design, the orbit determination FPA knowledge error was +/-0.028(deg) (3(sigma) ) for Spirit and +/-0.035(deg) (3(sigma)) for Opportunity. Because of exceptionally accurate navigation performance, TCM-5 (E - 2 days) and TCM-6 (E - 4 hours) were canceled for both Spirit and Opportunity. The actual landing locations (determined from in-situ Doppler tracking between the MER rovers and the Mars Odyssey orbiter) differed from the target landing points by 10.1 km (downtrack) for Spirit and 24.6 km (downtrack) for Opportunity. The majority of the landing position offsets

  4. Mars Exploration Rovers navigation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amario, Louis A.

    2004-01-01

    The twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, were launched on June 10, 2003, and July 8, 2003, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Spirit and Opportunity were targeted for landings at Gusev Crater (arrival on January 4, 2004) and Meridiani Planum (arrival on January 25, 2004). The primary navigation challenge was to deliver each spacecraft to the desired atmospheric entry interface point with sufficient accuracy such that each lander would touch down within a specified landing ellipse (about 70 km x 5 km) determined to be safe for landing and also judged to be scientifically interesting. In order to achieve landing within the target ellipse, precise control of the inertial entry flight path angle (FPA) at atmospheric entry was required. The maximum allowable errors in FPA following TCM-5 (trajectory correction maneuver #5) at Entry (E) -2 days were +/-0.12 deg(3 sigma) for Spirit and +/-0.14 deg(3 sigma) for Opportunity. Achieving these entry delivery accuracies necessitated significant improvements to the interplanetary navigation system used for MER. These improvements included new processes and software for orbit determination, propulsive maneuver design, and entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory simulation. The actual achieved atmospheric entry accuracies for Spirit and Opportunity significantly exceeded the requirements. At the navigation data cutoff for the TCM-5 final design, the orbit determination FPA knowledge error was 0.028 deg(3 sigma) for Spirit and 0.035 deg(3 sigma) for Opportunity. Because of exceptionally accurate navigation performance, TCM-5 (E - 2 days) and TCM-6 (E - 4 hours) were canceled for both Spirit and Opportunity. The actual landing locations (determined from in-situ Doppler tracking between the MER rovers and the Mars Odyssey orbiter) differed from the target landing points by 10.1 km (downtrack) for Spirit and 24.6 km (downtrack) for Opportunity. The majority of the landing position offsets for both landers was

  5. Temperature Behavior of Possible Cave Skylight on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Each of the three images in this set covers the same patch of Martian ground, centered on a possible cave skylight informally called 'Annie,' which has a diameter about double the length of a football field. The Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter took all three, gathering information that the hole is cooler than surrounding surface in the afternoon and warmer than the surrounding surface at night. This is thermal behavior that would be expected from an opening into an underground space.

    The left image was taken in visible-wavelength light (figure 1). The other two were taken in thermal infrared wavelengths, indicating the relative temperatures of features in the image. The center image is from mid-afternoon. The hole is warmer than the shadows of nearby pits to the north and south, while cooler than sunlit surfaces. The thermal image at right was taken in the pre-dawn morning, about 4 a.m. local time. At that hour, the hole is warmer than all nearby surfaces.

    Annie and six other features with similar thermal behavior are on the northern slope of a high Martian volcano named Arsia Mons, which is at 9 degrees south latitude, 239 degrees east longitude.

    Mars Odyssey is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The orbiter's Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, Calif., and is operated by Arizona State University.

  6. Active Regions on the Farside of the Sun as Seen from Mars: 3D Visualization with Marie Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cueinotra, F. A.; Cleghorn, T. F.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    From March 2002, the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument of NASA-JSC onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has been providing radiation data from the Martian orbit. During the past two years, the orbit alignment of Mars-Sun-Earth provided a wealth of opportunity between 180 degrees (August 2002) and 0 degrees (October 2003). During this time, the MARIE data included the background GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) and several SPE (Solar Particle Events) enhanced radiation dose-rate measurements at Mars. The MARIE instrument provided a unique data set of radiation dose-rate at Mars from the active regions on the solar disk facing the Mars side. The SPE observations of October 2002 at Mars by the MARIE instrument are unique and there were no indications of these events towards the Earth at that time. Nearly 40 times increase in the quiet-time GCR dose-rate was noted from about 25 mradday to nearly 1000 mradday at Mars. Radiation dose-rate enhancement was not observed toward the Earth or in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during this time. Understanding the active regions on the Sun that are likely to result into SPE on the far side will also be of concern for future deep space explorations beyond LEO. We present the observations of these SPE enhanced dose rates due to the active regions from the far side of the Sun with the 3D visualization of solar disks facing Mars and Earth.

  7. NASA Mars 2020 Rover Mission: New Frontiers in Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is the next step in NASAs robotic exploration of the red planet. The rover, based on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover now on Mars, will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.Like the Mars Science Laboratory rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012, the Mars 2020 spacecraft will use a guided entry, descent, and landing system which includes a parachute, descent vehicle, and, during the provides the ability to land a very large, heavy rover on the surface of Mars in a more precise landing area. The Mars 2020 mission is designed to accomplish several high-priority planetary science goals and will be an important step toward meeting NASAs challenge to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The mission will conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the habitability of the environment, search for signs of ancient Martian life, and assess natural resources and hazards for future human explorers. The science instruments aboard the rover also will enable scientists to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth in the future. The rover also may help designers of a human expedition understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which could be a valuable resource for producing oxygen and rocket fuel.

  8. NASA Mars Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space.

  9. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  10. MARS PATHFINDER CAMERA TEST IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers conduct a systems test of the Mars Pathfinder imager, installed atop the Pathfinder lander (with JPL insignia). The imager is the white cyclindrical structure close to the worker's gloved hand. At left is the small rover that will be deployed from the lander to explore the Martian surface. The rover is mounted on one of three petals that will be attached to the lander. The two-pronged mast extending upward from the lander is for the low-gain antenna. The imager is mounted on a mast that will be extended after the lander touches down on Mars, affording a better view of the area. The imager is a camera that will transmit images of the Martian surface as well as the trail left by the rover, helping researchers to better understand the composition of the soil. It also is equipped with selectable filters for gathering data about the atmosphere of the Red Planet. JPL manages the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA. The journey to Mars is scheduled to begin with liftoff Dec. 2 aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle.

  11. Visualizing Mars data and imagery with Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.; Broxton, M.; Gorelick, N.; Hancher, M.; Lundy, M.; Kolb, E.; Moratto, Z.; Nefian, A.; Scharff, T.; Weiss-Malik, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is a vast store of planetary geospatial data that has been collected by NASA but is difficult to access and visualize. Virtual globes have revolutionized the way we visualize and understand the Earth, but other planetary bodies including Mars and the Moon can be visualized in similar ways. Extraterrestrial virtual globes are poised to revolutionize planetary science, bring an exciting new dimension to science education, and allow ordinary users to explore imagery being sent back to Earth by planetary science satellites. The original Google Mars Web site allowed users to view base maps of Mars via the Web, but it did not have the full features of the 3D Google Earth client. We have previously demonstrated the use of Google Earth to display Mars imagery, but now with the launch of Mars in Google Earth, there is a base set of Mars data available for anyone to work from and add to. There are a variety of global maps to choose from and display. The Terrain layer has the MOLA gridded data topography, and where available, HRSC terrain models are mosaicked into the topography. In some locations there is also meter-scale terrain derived from HiRISE stereo imagery. There is rich information in the form of the IAU nomenclature database, data for the rovers and landers on the surface, and a Spacecraft Imagery layer which contains the image outlines for all HiRISE, CTX, CRISM, HRSC, and MOC image data released to the PDS and links back to their science data. There are also features like the Traveler's Guide to Mars, Historic Maps, Guided Tours, as well as the 'Live from Mars' feature, which shows the orbital tracks of both the Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for a few days in the recent past. It shows where they have acquired imagery, and also some preview image data. These capabilities have obvious public outreach and education benefits, but the potential benefits of allowing planetary scientists to rapidly explore these large and varied data collections

  12. Northern Hemisphere Gullies on Mars: Analysis of Spacecraft Data and Implications for Formation Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Johansson, H.; Carlsson, E.; Mellon, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    The origin of geologically recent gullies on Mars has remained controversial since the discovery of these features by Malin and Edgett in 2000. Numerous models have been proposed which invoke various physical processes as well as various agents of erosion to explain the origin of the Martian gullies. Hypotheses to explain the formation of the gullies invoke shallow liquid water aquifers, deep liquid water aquifers, melting ground ice, snowmelt, dry landslides, and carbon dioxide aquifers. We test the validity of such gully formation mechanisms by analyzing data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey spacecrafts to uncover trends in the dimensional and physical properties of the gullies and their surrounding terrain. A similar study has previously been completed for gullies located in the southern hemisphere of Mars. The work presented here focuses exclusively on gullies in the northern hemisphere based on the identification of 136 Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images containing clear evidence of gully landforms, distributed in the northern mid and high latitudes. These sites have been analyzed in combination with Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), and Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data to provide quantitative measurements of numerous gully characteristics. Parameters measured include apparent source depth and distribution, vertical and horizontal dimensions, slopes, compass orientations, near-surface ice content, and factors controlling present-day climatic conditions.

  13. THEMIS Observations of Mars Aerosol Optical Depth from 2002-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We use infrared images obtained by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument on-board Mars Odyssey to retrieve the optical depth of dust and water ice aerosols over more than 3.5 martian years between February 2002 (MY 25, Ls=330 ) and December 2008 (MY 29, Ls=183). These data provide an important bridge between earlier TES observations and recent observations from Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. An improvement to our earlier retrieval to include atmospheric temperature information from THEMIS Band 10 observations leads to much improved retrievals during the largest dust storms. The new retrievals show moderate dust storm activity during Mars Years 26 and 27, although details of the strength and timing of dust storms is different from year to year. A planet-encircling dust storm event was observed during Mars Year 28 near Southern Hemisphere Summer solstice. A belt of low-latitude water ice clouds was observed during the aphelion season during each year, Mars Years 26 through 29. The optical depth of water ice clouds is somewhat higher in the THEMIS retrievals at approximately 5:00 PM local time than in the TES retrievals at approximately 2:00 PM, suggestive of possible local time variation of clouds.

  14. THERESA FRANCO INSPECTS THE SOLAR PANELS OF THE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Theresa Franco of SPECTROLAB Inc. carefully inspects the solar panels of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, undergoing preflight assembly and checkout in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility in KSC's Industrial Area. The four solar array panels will play a crucial role in the Mars Global Surveyor mission by providing the electrical power required to operate the spacecraft and its complement of scientific instruments. The Surveyor is slated for launch November 6 aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle. After arriving at the Red Planet in September 1997, the Surveyor will carry out an extensive study of Mars, gathering data about the planet's topography, magnetism, mineral composition and atmosphere.

  15. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER IS INSPECTED IN SAEF-2 WITH CRUISE STAGE IN BACKGROUND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory begin checkout of the lander portion of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft. Later the small rover known as 'Sojourner' will be integrated with the lander before it is enclosed in the aeroshell and mated to the cruise stage (background) for the journey to Mars. Pictured are JPL personnel Lorraine Garcia, Don Benson, Larry Broms, Chuck Foehlinger, Linda Robeck and James Pierson. Mars Pathfinder is planned to be launched aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket from Pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral on December 2, 1996.

  16. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  17. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  18. Reconciling the MOLA, TES, and Neutron Observations of the North Polar CO2 Mass Budget on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Mattingly, B.; Titus, T. N.

    2003-01-01

    There are now three independent observations of the CO2 polar cap mass budget of Mars' north polar cap. The first is based elevation changes detected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). The second is based on MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) broadband observations of the solar and infrared radiation fields at the top of the atmosphere. The third is based on neutron counts measured by the neutron spectrometer (NS) on Odyssey. If one assumes a cap density of 910 kg/cu m, then the peak mass loading poleward of 85 N inferred from the MOLA data is approx. 1090 kg/sq m, which compares to approx. 1150 kg/sq m inferred from TES for the same region, and 700 kg/sq m from the NS data. TES and MOLA are in good agreement, but are about 60% higher than the NS data. Is there a way to reconcile these discrepancies?

  19. Depth-to-Ice Map of an Arctic Site on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Color coding in this map of a far-northern site on Mars indicates the change in nighttime ground-surface temperature between summer and fall. This site, like most of high-latitude Mars, has water ice mixed with soil near the surface. The ice is probably in a rock-hard frozen layer beneath a few centimeters or inches of looser, dry soil. The amount of temperature change at the surface likely corresponds to how close to the surface the icy material lies.

    The dense, icy layer retains heat better than the looser soil above it, so where the icy layer is closer to the surface, the surface temperature changes more slowly than where the icy layer is buried deeper. On the map, areas of the surface that cooled more slowly between summer and autumn (interpreted as having the ice closer to the surface) are coded blue and green. Areas that cooled more quickly (interpreted as having more distance to the ice) are coded red and yellow.

    The depth to the top of the icy layer estimated from these observations, as little as 5 centimeters (2 inches), matches modeling of where it would be if Mars has an active cycle of water being exchanged by diffusion between atmospheric water vapor and subsurface water ice.

    This map and its interpretation are in a May 3, 2007, report in the journal Nature by Joshua Bandfield of Arizona State University, Tempe. The Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter collected the data presented in the map. The site is centered near 67.5 degrees north latitude, 132 degrees east longitude, in the Martian arctic plains called Vastitas Borealis. It was formerly a candidate landing site for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander mission. This site is within the portion of the planet where, in 2002, the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments on Mars Odyssey found evidence for water ice lying just below the surface. The information from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer is averaged over patches of ground hundreds of kilometers

  20. Heavy ion observations by MARIE in cruise phase and Mars orbit.

    PubMed

    Lee, K T; Cleghorn, T; Cucinotta, F; Pinsky, L; Zeitlin, C

    2004-01-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z=10) was observed during the cruise phase and orbit around Mars by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data were taken between April 23, 2001 and mid-August 2001. The Mars orbit data were taken March 5, 2002 through May 2002 and are scheduled to continue until August 2004. Charge peaks are clearly separated for charges up to Z=10. Especially prominent are the carbon and oxygen peaks, with boron and nitrogen also clearly visible. Although heavy ions are much less abundant than protons in the cosmic ray environment, it is important to determine their abundances because their ionization energy losses (proportional to Z2) are far more dangerous to humans and to instruments. Thus the higher charged nuclei make a significant contribution to dose and dose equivalent received in space. Results of the charged particle spectrum measurements will be reported.

  1. Can Hydrous Minerals Account for the Observed Mid-Latitude Water on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Clays, zeolites, and Mg-sulfates are all phases that could potentially retain H2O in martian regolith. The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i.e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question. The purpose of this communication is to estimate the possible magnitude of the H2O reservoir constituted by these H2O-bearing minerals. In other words, can minerals containing H2O and/or OH such clays, zeolites, or Mg-sulfates, reasonably be expected to account for the amounts of near-equatorial H2O-equivalent hydrogen recently documented by Mars Odyssey?

  2. The Diversity of Aqueous Mineral-Bearing Deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Bibring, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Wray, J. J.; CRISM Team

    2011-12-01

    Coordinated orbital observations from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have documented a dozen types of deposits characterized by distinctive morphology, stratigraphy, geologic settings, and assemblages of minerals that form in liquid water. Phyllosilicate minerals are widespread in four types of deposits of mostly Noachian age: deep crustal rocks altered to predominantly Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate; shallow, stratified deposits with Al-phyllosilicate overlying Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate; phyllosilicates concentrated in lower beds of deltaic deposits; and phyllosilicate overlain by chlorides in topographically low intercrater plains. Two types of carbonate deposits date to possibly pre-Noachian and later Noachian times respectively: Fe/Ca carbonates exhumed from kilometers depth by impact basins, and shallow Mg-rich carbonates associated with olivine-rich rocks. Hydrated and hydroxylated Mg and/or Fe sulfates occur in three late Noachian to early Hesperian deposit types: shallow layered deposits in Meridiani and thicker ones in Valles Marineris, and intracrater deposits in which the sulfates are commonly associated with Al-phyllosilicate. In addition, gypsum occurs in reworked dune deposits surrounding the north polar layered deposits. Silica-rich deposits occur in shallow sedimentary layers on the Tharsis plateau, and in rare light-colored mounds of probable hydrothermal origin. Although genetic mechanisms of these diverse deposits are still uncertain, they likely represent multiple environments recording different phases of the history of surface and subsurface liquid water on Mars. The mineral assemblages in the sulfate-bearing deposits generally suggest saline, acidic conditions, whereas some of the phyllosilicate- and carbonate-bearing deposits likely record more neutral conditions. Continued and coordinated analysis of these global data sets is revealing new types of deposits and greater detail on their mineral assemblages.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Parker, T.; Crisp, J.; Squyres, S.; Carr, M.; Haldemann, A.; Arvidson, R.; Ehlmann, B.; Bell, J.

    2004-01-01

    Selection of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites took place over a three year period in which engineering constraints were identified, 155 possible sites were downselected to the final two, surface environments and safety considerations were developed, and the potential science return at the sites was considered. Landing sites in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum were selected because they appeared acceptably safe for MER landing and roving and had strong morphologic and mineralogical indicators of liquid water in their past and thus appeared capable of addressing the science objectives of the MER missions, which are to determine the aqueous, climatic, and geologic history of sites on Mars where conditions may have been favorable to the preservation of evidence of possible pre-biotic or biotic processes. Engineering constraints important to the selection included: latitude (10 N-15 S) for maximum solar power; elevation (<-1.3 km) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander; low horizontal winds, shear and turbulence in the last few kilometers to minimize horizontal velocity; low 10-m scale slopes to reduce airbag spinup and bounce; moderate rock abundance to reduce abrasion or stroke-out of the airbags; and a radar-reflective, load-bearing and trafficable surface safe for landing and roving that is not dominated by fine-grained dust. In selecting the MER landing sites these engineering constraints were addressed via comprehensive evaluation of surface and atmospheric characteristics from existing remote sensing data and models as well as targeted orbital information acquired from Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey. This evaluation resulted in a number of predictions of the surface characteristics of the sites, which are tested in this abstract. Relating remote sensing signatures to surface characteristics at landing sites allows these sites to be used as ground truth for the orbital data, is essential for selecting and validating landing sites for

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    -bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Samples of the crater wall and rim rock, and more recent to currently active surface materials also may be studied. Gale has a well-defined regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments. These environments are represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, and insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars. The interior mountain of Gale Crater has been informally designated at Mount Sharp, in honor of the pioneering planetary scientist Robert Sharp. The major subsystems of the MSL Project consist of a single rover (with science payload), a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, an Earth-Mars cruise stage, an entry, descent, and landing system, a launch vehicle, and the mission operations and ground data systems. The primary communication path for downlink is relay through the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The primary path for uplink to the rover is Direct-from-Earth. The secondary paths for downlink are Direct-to-Earth and relay through the Mars Odyssey orbiter. Curiosity is a scaled version of the 6-wheel drive, 4-wheel steering, rocker bogie system from the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit and Opportunity and the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner. Like Spirit and Opportunity, Curiosity offers three primary modes of navigation: blind-drive, visual odometry, and visual odometry with hazard avoidance. Creation of terrain maps based on HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and other remote sensing data were used to conduct simulated driving with Curiosity in these various modes, and allowed selection of the Gale crater landing site which requires climbing the base of a

  5. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    750, one of 209 tiles just delivered to the PDS. It shows a part of the planet called Tyrrhena Terra in the ancient, heavily cratered highlands. The colored strips are CRISM multispectral survey data acquired over several months, in which each pixel has a calibrated 72-color spectrum of Mars. The three wavelengths shown are 2.53, 1.50, and 1.08 micrometers in the red, green, and blue image planes respectively. At these wavelengths, rocky areas appear brown, dusty areas appear tan, and regions with hazy atmosphere appear bluish. Note that there is a large difference in brightness between strips, because there is no correction for the lighting conditions at the time of each observation. The gray areas between the strips are from an earlier mosaic of the planet taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument on Mars Odyssey, and are included only for context. Ultimately the multispectral survey will cover nearly all of this area.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  6. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    750, one of 209 tiles just delivered to the PDS. It shows a part of the planet called Tyrrhena Terra in the ancient, heavily cratered highlands. The colored strips are CRISM multispectral survey data acquired over several months, in which each pixel has a calibrated 72-color spectrum of Mars. The three wavelengths shown are 2.53, 1.50, and 1.08 micrometers in the red, green, and blue image planes respectively. At these wavelengths, rocky areas appear brown, dusty areas appear tan, and regions with hazy atmosphere appear bluish. Note that there is a large difference in brightness between strips, because there is no correction for the lighting conditions at the time of each observation. The gray areas between the strips are from an earlier mosaic of the planet taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument on Mars Odyssey, and are included only for context. Ultimately the multispectral survey will cover nearly all of this area.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  7. Mars Exploration Rovers: 4 Years on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This January, the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are starting their fifth year of exploring the surface of Mars, well over ten times their nominal 90-day design lifetime. This lecture discusses the Mars Exploration Rovers, presents the current mission status for the extended mission, some of the most results from the mission and how it is affecting our current view of Mars, and briefly presents the plans for the coming NASA missions to the surface of Mars and concepts for exploration with robots and humans into the next decade, and beyond.

  8. Are you ready for Mars? - Main media events surrounding the arrival of ESA's Mars Express at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz launcher operated by Starsem, the European probe -built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet’s structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin explored uncharted areas of the Earth in 1830, will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On Christmas Eve the Mars Express orbiter will be steered on a course taking it into an elliptical orbit, where it will safely circle the planet for a minimum of almost 2 Earth years. The Beagle 2 lander - which will have been released from the mother craft a few days earlier (on 19 December) - instead will stay on a collision course with the planet. It too should also be safe, being designed for atmospheric entry and geared for a final soft landing due to a sophisticated system of parachutes and airbags. On arrival, the Mars Express mission control team will report on the outcome of the spacecraft's delicate orbital insertion manoeuvre. It will take some time for Mars Express to manouvre into position to pick communications from Beagle 2. Hence, initially, other means will be used to check that Beagle 2 has landed: first signals from the Beagle 2 landing are expected to be available throughout Christmas Day, either through pick-up and relay of Beagle 2 radio signals by NASA’s Mars Odyssey, or by direct pick-up by the Jodrell Bank radio telescope in the UK. Mars Express will then pass over Beagle 2 in early January 2004, relaying data and images back to Earth. The first images from the cameras of Beagle 2 and Mars Express are expected to be available between the end of the year and the beginning of January 2004. The key dates

  9. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  10. MarsSat: assured communication with Mars.

    PubMed

    Gangale, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The author developed the MarsSat concept during the 1990s. For this task, he designed a class of orbits to solve the problem of communicating with crews on Mars when the planet is in solar conjunction as seen from Earth, a planetary configuration that occurs near the midpoint of a conjunction class mission to Mars. This type of orbit minimizes the distance between Mars and the communications satellite; thus, minimizing the size, weight, and power requirements, while providing a simultaneous line-of-sight to both Earth and Mars. The MarsSat orbits are solar orbits that have the same period as Mars, but are inclined a few degrees out of the plane of the Mars orbit and also differ in eccentricity from the orbit of Mars. These differences cause a spacecraft in this orbit to rise North of Mars, then fall behind Mars, then drop South of Mars, and then pull ahead of Mars, by some desired distance in each case-typically about 20 million kilometers-in order to maintain an angular separation of a couple of degrees as seen from a point in the orbit of Earth on the opposite side of the Sun. A satellite in this type of orbit would relay communications between Earth and Mars during the period of up to several weeks, when direct communication is blocked by the Sun. These orbits are far superior for this purpose when compared to stationing a satellite at one of the Sun-Mars equilateral Lagrangian points, L(4) or L(5), for two reasons. First, L(4) and L(5) are 228 million kilometers from Mars, about 10 times the distance of a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits, and by virtue of the inverse-square law, all other things being equal, the signal strength received at L(4) or L(5) would be one percent of the signal strength received by a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits. Thus, a relay satellite stationed at L(4) or L(5) would have to be that much more powerful to receive data at the same rate, with concomitant increases in spacecraft size and weight. Second, a number of

  11. Mars exploration via thermal emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Carl F.; Blasius, Karl R.; Christensen, Philip; Silverman, Steven; Ruff, Steven; Wyatt, Michael; Mehall, Greg; Peralta, Richard J.; Bates, Duane

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Arizona State University (ASU), and Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) have executed a series of successful Mars exploration missions. These have recently been publicized on television and the internet with the early 2004 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission geological robots that have revolutionized our detailed knowledge of the planet's geology and atmosphere. This latest mission success has its foundation in missions dating back to 1969. Over the past thirty-five years NASA has demonstrated a long-term commitment to planetary science and solar system exploration that continues with a commitment recently expressed by President Bush and codified in a reorganization of the NASA space sciences mission directorate. This paper reports on a small but exciting aspect of this sweeping NASA program, and illustrates the benefits and efficiency with which planetary and solar system exploration can be accomplished. Key in the success is the vision not only of NASA in general, but of the mission Principal Investigator, in particular. The specific series of missions leading to MER contains an underlying vision of carefully planned geological investigations using remote sensing instrumentation, starting with broad survey, leading to more finely resolved global imaging, and finally to landing instrumentation capable of detailed rock and soil analyses. The mission started with broad and relatively coarse spatial resolution orbital surveys with fine spectral capability focused on identifying the overall geological and atmospheric character of the planet accomplished from 1996 to the present conducted by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). This led to the more detailed global imaging at finer spatial resolution offered by the Mars 2001 Odyssey Mission Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) which identified specific

  12. Overview of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project is an ambitious mission to land two highly capable rovers at different sites in the equatorial region of Mars. The two vehicles are launched separately in May through July of 2003. Mars surface operations begin on January 4, 2004 with the first landing, followed by the second landing three weeks later on January 25. The useful surface lifetime of each rover will be at least 90 sols. The science objectives of exploring multiple locations within each of two widely separated and scientifically distinct landing sites will be accomplished along with the demonstration of key surface exploration technologies for future missions. The two MER spacecraft are planned to be identical. The rovers are landed using the Mars Pathfinder approach of a heatshield and parachute to slow the vehicle relative to the atmosphere, solid rockets to slow the lander near the surface, and airbags to cushion the surface impacts. During entry, descent, and landing, the vehicles will transmit coded tones directly to Earth, and in the terminal descent phase will also transmit telemetry to the MGS orbiter to indicate progress through the critical events. Once the lander rolls to a stop, a tetrahedral structure opens to right the lander and to reveal the folded rover, which then deploys and later by command will roll off of the lander to begin its exploration. Each six-wheeled rover carries a suite of instruments to collect contextual information about the landing site using visible and thermal infrared remote sensing, and to collect in situ information on the composition, mineralogy, and texture of selected Martian soils and rocks using an arm-mounted microscopic imager, rock abrasion tool, and spectrometers. During their surface missions, the rovers will communicate with Earth directly through the Deep Space Network as well as indirectly through the Odyssey and MGS orbiters. The solar-powered rovers will be commanded in the morning of each Sol, with the

  13. A technician works on the Mars Climate Orbiter in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), a technician works on the Mars Climate Orbiter which is scheduled to launch on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. The Mars Climate Orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  14. On the existence and stability of liquid water on the surface of mars today

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, L. H.; Gan, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of high concentrations of hydrogen just below the surface of Mars' polar regions by Mars Odyssey has enlivened the debate about past or present life on Mars. The prevailing assumption prior to the discovery was that the liquid water essential for its existence is absent. That assumption was based largely on the calculation of heat and mass transfer coefficients or theoretical climate models. This research uses an experimental approach to determine the feasibility of liquid water under martian conditions, setting the stage for a more empirical approach to the question of life on Mars. Experiments were conducted in three parts: Liquid water's existence was confirmed by droplets observed under martian conditions in part 1; the evolution of frost melting on the surface of various rocks under martian conditions was observed in part 2; and the evaporation rate of water in Petri dishes under Mars-like conditions was determined and compared with the theoretical predictions of various investigators in part 3. The results led to the conclusion that liquid water can be stable for extended periods of time on the martian surface under present-day conditions.

  15. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-10-13

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago.

  17. Odyssey2 Mission: a Deep Space Gravity Explorer towards Neptune and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophe, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The Odyssey2 mission will be proposed for the next call of M3 missions for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. It will perform accurate spacecraft navigation during its interplanetary cruise to Neptune and Triton for testing General Relativity in the deep space, in particular its scale dependence. At arrival, its instrumentation will be use for increasing our knowledge of the gravity and atmosphere of Neptune and Triton. The instrumentation for fundamental physics objectives consists in • A high-precision accelerometer, with bias-rejection system, measuring the deviation of the trajectory from the geodesics, that is also giving "drag" forces applied on the spacecraft; • Radio-science instrument, for a precise range and Doppler measurement, with additional VLBI equipment; • One-way laser ranging, which would allow one to improve the range and Doppler measurement. • Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO), using for laser and radio-science measurement. This instrumentation can also be used for planetary objectives on Neptune and Triton, for measuring a precise gravity field (radio-science + accelerometer) or the atmosphere (USO + accelerometer).Depending on the outputs of the Phase 0 performed by CNES, additional instrumentation could be carried in order to increase the scientific return on Neptune and Triton.

  18. Reducing the Cost of the Diagnostic Odyssey in Early Onset Epileptic Encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, M. Adela; Campbell, Colleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) has revolutionized the way we think about and diagnose epileptic encephalopathies. Multiple recent review articles discuss the benefits of WES and suggest various algorithms to follow for determining the etiology of epileptic encephalopathies. Incorporation of WES in these algorithms is leading to the discovery of new genetic diagnoses of early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) at a rapid rate; however, WES is not yet a universally utilized diagnostic tool. Clinical WES may be underutilized due to provider discomfort in ordering the test or perceived costliness. At our hospital WES is not routinely performed for patients with EOEE due to limited insurance reimbursement. In fact for any patient with noncommercial insurance (Medicaid) the institution does not allow sending out WES as this is not “established”/“proven to be highly useful and cost effective”/“approved test” in patients with epilepsy. Recently, we performed WES on four patients from three families and identified novel mutations in known epilepsy genes in all four cases. These patients had State Medicaid as their insurance carrier and were followed up for several years for EOEE while being worked up using the traditional/approved testing methods. Following a recently proposed diagnostic pathway, we analyzed the cost savings (US dollars) that could be accrued if WES was performed earlier in the diagnostic odyssey. This is the first publication that addresses the dollar cost of traditional testing in EOEE as performed in these four cases versus WES and the potential cost savings. PMID:27243033

  19. The biochemical and genetic odyssey to the function of a nicastrin-like protein.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Christof; Haass, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-secretase is a high-molecular-weight protein complex required for the proteolytic processing of various transmembrane proteins including the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid precursor protein and the signaling receptor Notch. One of the gamma-secretase complex components is the type I transmembrane protein nicastrin. Here we review the odyssey to a cyclopic fish, which at the end allowed the functional analysis of nicalin, a novel member of the nicastrin protein family. This 60-kDa protein is part of a previously unknown membrane protein complex unrelated to gamma-secretase and binds to Nomo (Nodal modulator, previously known as pM5), a novel 130-kDa transmembrane protein. Both proteins are highly conserved in metazoans and show almost identical tissue distribution in humans. Functional studies in zebrafish embryos and cultured human cells revealed that nicalin and Nomo collaborate to antagonize the Nodal/TGFbeta signaling pathway. Thus, nicastrin and nicalin are both associated with protein complexes involved in cell fate decisions during early embryonic development. PMID:16908989

  20. OSLER and ODYSSEY LONG TERM: PCSK9 inhibitors on the right track of reducing cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have emerged as a novel treatment option in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Evolocumab and alirocumab have achieved consistent and significant (around 60%) reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels when added to statin therapy in short term studies. The Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER), and The Long-term Safety and Tolerability of Alirocumab in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients with Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled with Their Lipid Modifying Therapy (ODYSSEY LONG TERM) studies are two phase 3, multicentre, randomized, placebo controlled studies that were conducted to evaluate the long term efficacy and safety of evolocumab and alirocumab respectively in reducing lipids and cardiovascular (CV) events. Both studies demonstrated additional 48-53% reduction of CV events when added to statin therapy. Most adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups; however the rate of neurocognitive adverse events was higher with evolocumab and alirocumab than with placebo. These data provide strong support for the notion that lower LDL-C goal is better, and may confirm the role of PCSK9 inhibitors as a new frontier in lipid management. The results of larger long-term outcome studies are still awaited.

  1. OSLER and ODYSSEY LONG TERM: PCSK9 inhibitors on the right track of reducing cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have emerged as a novel treatment option in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Evolocumab and alirocumab have achieved consistent and significant (around 60%) reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels when added to statin therapy in short term studies. The Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER), and The Long-term Safety and Tolerability of Alirocumab in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients with Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled with Their Lipid Modifying Therapy (ODYSSEY LONG TERM) studies are two phase 3, multicentre, randomized, placebo controlled studies that were conducted to evaluate the long term efficacy and safety of evolocumab and alirocumab respectively in reducing lipids and cardiovascular (CV) events. Both studies demonstrated additional 48–53% reduction of CV events when added to statin therapy. Most adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups; however the rate of neurocognitive adverse events was higher with evolocumab and alirocumab than with placebo. These data provide strong support for the notion that lower LDL-C goal is better, and may confirm the role of PCSK9 inhibitors as a new frontier in lipid management. The results of larger long-term outcome studies are still awaited. PMID:26566525

  2. OSLER and ODYSSEY LONG TERM: PCSK9 inhibitors on the right track of reducing cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have emerged as a novel treatment option in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Evolocumab and alirocumab have achieved consistent and significant (around 60%) reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels when added to statin therapy in short term studies. The Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER), and The Long-term Safety and Tolerability of Alirocumab in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients with Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled with Their Lipid Modifying Therapy (ODYSSEY LONG TERM) studies are two phase 3, multicentre, randomized, placebo controlled studies that were conducted to evaluate the long term efficacy and safety of evolocumab and alirocumab respectively in reducing lipids and cardiovascular (CV) events. Both studies demonstrated additional 48-53% reduction of CV events when added to statin therapy. Most adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups; however the rate of neurocognitive adverse events was higher with evolocumab and alirocumab than with placebo. These data provide strong support for the notion that lower LDL-C goal is better, and may confirm the role of PCSK9 inhibitors as a new frontier in lipid management. The results of larger long-term outcome studies are still awaited. PMID:26566525

  3. The effectiveness of experiential environmental education: O'Neill Sea Odyssey program case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanneman, Lauren E.

    Environmental education programs aim to develop participant awareness, sensitivity, and understanding of their affective relationship to the natural environment through conceptual knowledge and personal experiences. Previous findings have suggested that participation in environmental education programs leads to short-term positive increases in environmental knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, and intentions to act in environmentally responsible behaviors; however, few studies have included long-term, follow-up assessment. This research provided an analysis of the effectiveness of the O'Neill Sea Odyssey (OSO) education program in fostering a long-term awareness of personal responsibility about ocean pollution among student participants. A survey administered to 261 students from the greater San Francisco Bay Area in California was used to explore 7th through 10 th grade students' conceptions about the connection between ocean pollution and stewardship behaviors. The study revealed that 75% of 86 former OSO participants retained a high level of awareness of the connection between non-point source pollution and personal behaviors two to five years after the program, regardless of differences in sex, language, grade level, and community setting. These results indicate that OSO participants retained a long-term conceptual awareness about environmental stewardship behaviors taught during the OSO program.

  4. Synaptogenesis in the CNS: an odyssey from wiring together to firing together.

    PubMed

    Munno, David W; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-10-01

    To acquire a better comprehension of nervous system function, it is imperative to understand how synapses are assembled during development and subsequently altered throughout life. Despite recent advances in the fields of neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that guide synapse formation in the central nervous system (CNS). Although many structural components of the synaptic machinery are pre-assembled prior to the arrival of growth cones at the site of their potential targets, innumerable changes, central to the proper wiring of the brain, must subsequently take place through contact-mediated cell-cell communications. Identification of such signalling molecules and a characterization of various events underlying synaptogenesis are pivotal to our understanding of how a brain cell completes its odyssey from "wiring together to firing together". Here we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview that pertains directly to the cellular and molecular mechanisms of selection, formation and refinement of synapses during the development of the CNS in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  5. Synaptogenesis in the CNS: An Odyssey from Wiring Together to Firing Together

    PubMed Central

    Munno, David W; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-01-01

    To acquire a better comprehension of nervous system function, it is imperative to understand how synapses are assembled during development and subsequently altered throughout life. Despite recent advances in the fields of neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that guide synapse formation in the central nervous system (CNS). Although many structural components of the synaptic machinery are pre-assembled prior to the arrival of growth cones at the site of their potential targets, innumerable changes, central to the proper wiring of the brain, must subsequently take place through contact-mediated cell-cell communications. Identification of such signalling molecules and a characterization of various events underlying synaptogenesis are pivotal to our understanding of how a brain cell completes its odyssey from ‘wiring together to firing together’. Here we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview that pertains directly to the cellular and molecular mechanisms of selection, formation and refinement of synapses during the development of the CNS in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:12897180

  6. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... produce, potable water. (b) The Commissioner of Food and Drugs may base his approval or disapproval of...

  7. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... health authorities of contiguous foreign nations. (c) Overboard water treated on vessels shall be from... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs...

  8. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  9. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  10. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  11. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  12. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  13. Low energy neutron measurements aboard encounter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Trottet, G.

    Neutrons in the MeV to GeV range are produced by interaction of flare accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere. Because of their lifetime, only high energy neutrons (> 100 MeV) have a high probability to be detected at earth's orbit. So far, around fifteen solar neutron events have been observed either by high energy detectors aboard spacecrafts at 1 AU or by ground based neutron monitors. Neutrons between 10 and 100 MeV have also been detected for a few events through their proton decay. Measurements of solar neutrons closer to the Sun aboard encounter missions will allow to probe for the first time the MeV neutrons which are produced by the nuclear reactions of energetic ions with thresholds around 1 MeV/nuc and will provide information on the accelerated ion spectrum in the energy range between ˜ 1 MeV and 100 MeV/nuc in complementarity with what can be deduced from γ -ray line emission. The close proximity of the Sun would allow to measure neutron events for many more flares opening a new field of solar physics. Combined with near in-situ ion measurements and γ -ray observations, neutrons will bring information on the link between interacting and escaping ions while getting rid of most of the transport effects.

  14. Mars' ultraviolet dayglow observations by IUVS/MAVEN: Structure and variability of Martian upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deighan, J.; Jain, S.; Stewart, I. F.; Schneider, N. M.; Stiepen, A.; Evans, J. S.; Stevens, M. H.; Chaffin, M.; Crismani, M. M. J.; McClintock, B.; Clarke, J. T.; Holsclaw, G.; Lo, D.; Lefèvre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Thiemann, E.; Epavier, F.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mars has been studied extensively at ultraviolet wavelengths starting from Mariner 6 and 7 (Barth et al. JGR, 1971; Stewart, JGR, 1972), Mariner 9 (Barth et al., Icaurs, 1972; Stewart et al. Icarus, 1972), and more recently by SPICAM aboard Mars Express (Leblanc et al., JGR, 2006). The results from these measurements reveal a large variability in the composition and structure of Martian upper atmosphere. However, due to the lack of simultaneous measurements of energy input in the atmosphere, such as solar electromagnetic and particle flux as well as limitations in the observation geometry and data itself, this variability is still not fully understood. We report a comprehensive study of Mars dayglow observations by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) satellite, focusing on upper atmospheric structure and seasonal variability. The dayglow emission spectra show features similar to previous UV measurements at Mars. The IUVS detected a second, low-altitude peak in the emission profile of OI 297.2 nm, confirmation of the prediction that the absorption of solar Lyman alpha emission is an important energy source there. We find a significant drop in thermospheric scale height and temperature between Ls = 218° and Ls = 337 - 352°, attributed primarily to the decrease in solar activity and increase in heliocentric distance. The CO2+ UVD peak intensity is well correlated with simultaneous observations of solar 17 - 22 nm irradiance at Mars by Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor (EUVM) aboard MAVEN. I will present and discuss the variability in Martian UV dayglow, its dependence on solar EUV irradiance, and the importance of IUVS observations in our current understanding of Mars' thermosphere.

  15. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  16. Entry, Descent, and Landing Communications for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando; Shidner, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), established as the most advanced rover to land on the surface of Mars to date, launched on November 26th, 2011 and arrived to the Martian Gale Crater during the night of August 5th, 2012 (PDT). MSL will investigate whether the landing region was ever suitable to support carbon-based life, and examine rocks, soil, and the atmosphere with a sophisticated suite of tools. This paper addresses the flight system requirement by which the vehicle transmitted indications of the following events using both X-band tones and UHF telemetry to allow identification of probable root causes should a mission anomaly have occurred: Heat-Rejection System (HRS) venting, completion of the cruise stage separation, turn to entry attitude, atmospheric deceleration, bank angle reversal commanded, parachute deployment, heatshield separation, radar ground acquisition, powered descent initiation, rover separation from the descent stage, and rover release. During Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL), the flight system transmitted a UHF telemetry stream adequate to determine the state of the spacecraft (including the presence of faults) at 8 kbps initiating from cruise stage separation through at least one minute after positive indication of rover release on the surface of Mars. The flight system also transmitted X-band semaphore tones from Entry to Landing plus one minute although since MSL was occulted, as predicted, by Mars as seen from the Earth, Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communications were interrupted at approximately is approx. 5 min after Entry ( approximately 130 prior to Landing). The primary data return paths were through the Deep Space Network (DSN) for DTE and the existing Mars network of orbiting assets for UHF, which included the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Express (MEX) elements. These orbiters recorded the telemetry data stream and returned it back to Earth via the DSN. The paper also discusses the total power

  17. Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Campbell, B. A.; Diniega, S.; Lock, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Headquarters is looking at possible missions to Mars to follow the proposed 2020 Mars rover mission currently in development. One option being considered is a multi-functional orbiter, launched in the early 2020's, whose capabilities could address objectives in the following areas: • Replenishment of the telecommunications and reconnaissance infrastructure presently provided by the aging Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters; • Scientific and technical progress on the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey priorities, updated MEPAG Goals, and/or follow-up of new discoveries; • Location and quantification of in situ resources for utilization by future robotic and human surface-based missions; and • Data needed to address Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), again for possible human missions. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) was asked to prepare an analysis of possible science objectives and remote sensing capabilities that could be implemented by such a multi-purpose Mars orbiter launched in the 2022/24 timeframe. MEPAG conducted this analysis through formation of a Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEX-SAG), which was chartered jointly by the NASA Science and Human Exploration Directorates. The SAG was asked to conduct this study within a range of mission capabilities, including the possible first use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) in the Mars system. SEP could provide additional power enabling new payload components and possible changes in orbit (e.g., orbital inclination change) that permit different mission observational campaigns (e.g., polar and non-polar). Special attention was paid towards identifying synergies between science investigations, reconnaissance, and resource/SKG needs. We will present the findings and conclusions of this NEX-SAG regarding possible objectives for the next NASA Orbiter to Mars.

  18. Mars Global Surveyor: Cruising to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Glenn E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was launched on November 7, 1996, and is now cruising to Mars. While the launch was excellent, and the spacecraft and its science payload are in perfect operating condition, a broken deployment damper on one of the two solar arrays has posed some concern relative to the use of that solar array as a drag surfae during aerobraking operations at Mars.

  19. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission. The instrument is currently in orbit around Mars and has so far returned remarkable data.

  20. Mars exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Seiji

    1991-07-01

    Mars exploration scenarios are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on scientific exploration. The review and evaluation results are reported for the following items: (1) orbit plans for Mars surface exploration missions that begin in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); (2) powered and aerodynamic capturing payloads from the transfer orbit to a Mars revolving orbit; and (3) a penetrator system as a Mars landing vehicle. Proposed Mars transfer orbits have the following advantages over Hohmann orbits: (1) transfer time and angle are less; (2) the inclination between the orbital planes of Earth and Mars is considered; and (3) velocity variations are not required to change orbit plane.

  1. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  2. Depth-to-Ice Map of a Southern Mars Site Near Melea Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Color coding in this map of a far-southern site on Mars indicates the change in nighttime ground-surface temperature between summer and fall. This site, like most of high-latitude Mars, has water ice mixed with soil near the surface. The ice is probably in a rock-hard frozen layer beneath a few centimeters or inches of looser, dry soil. The amount of temperature change at the surface likely corresponds to how close to the surface the icy material lies.

    The dense, icy layer retains heat better than the looser soil above it, so where the icy layer is closer to the surface, the surface temperature changes more slowly than where the icy layer is buried deeper. On the map, areas of the surface that cooled more slowly between summer and autumn (interpreted as having the ice closer to the surface) are coded blue and green. Areas that cooled more quickly (interpreted as having more distance to the ice) are coded red and yellow.

    The depth to the top of the icy layer estimated from these observations suggests that in some areas, but not others, water is being exchanged by diffusion between atmospheric water vapor and subsurface water ice. Differences in what type of material lies above the ice appear to affect the depth to the ice. The area in this image with the greatest seasonal change in surface temperature corresponds to an area of sand dunes.

    This map and its interpretation are in a May 3, 2007, report in the journal Nature by Joshua Bandfield of Arizona State University, Tempe. The Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter collected the data presented in the map. The site is centered near 67 degrees south latitude, 36.5 degrees east longitude, near a plain named Melea Planum. This site is within the portion of the planet where, in 2002, the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments on Mars Odyssey found evidence for water ice lying just below the surface. The information from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer is

  3. Selection of the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J. A.; Parker, T.J.; Kass, D.M.; Crisp, J.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Adler, M.; Lee, W.J.; Bridges, N.T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Carr, M.H.; Kirk, R.L.; Knocke, P.C.; Roncoli, R.B.; Weitz, C.M.; Schofield, J.T.; Zurek, R.W.; Christensen, P.R.; Fergason, R.L.; Anderson, F.S.; Rice, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    The selection of Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater as the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites took over 2 years, involved broad participation of the science community via four open workshops, and narrowed an initial ???155 potential sites (80-300 ?? 30 km) to four finalists based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included (1) latitude (10??N- 15??S) for maximum solar power, (2) elevation (less than - 1.3 km) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander, (3) low horizontal winds, shear, and turbulence in the last few kilometers to minimize horizontal velocity, (4) low 10-m-scale slopes to reduce airbag spin-up and bounce, (5) moderate rock abundance to reduce abrasion or strokeout of the airbags, and (6) a radar-reflective, load-bearing, and trafficable surface safe for landing and roving that is not dominated by fine-grained dust. The evaluation of sites utilized existing as well as targeted orbital information acquired from the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey. Three of the final four landing sites show strong evidence for surface processes involving water and appear capable of addressing the science objectives of the missions, which are to determine the aqueous, climatic, and geologic history of sites on Mars where conditions may have been favorable to the preservation of evidence of possible prebiotic or biotic processes. The evaluation of science criteria placed Meridiani and Gusev as the highest-priority sites. The evaluation of the three most critical safety criteria (10-m-scale slopes, rocks, and winds) and landing simulation results indicated that Meridiani and Elysium Planitia are the safest sites, followed by Gusev and Isidis Planitia. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Evolved Gas Analyses of Sedimentary Materials in Gale Crater, Mars: Results of the Curiosity Rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument from Yellowknife Bay to the Stimson Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; McAdam, A. C.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover has analyzed 10 samples from Gale Crater. All SAM evolved gas analyses have yielded a multitude of volatiles (e.g, H2O, SO2, H2S, CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC1). The objectives of this work are to 1) Characterize the evolved H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2 gas traces of sediments analyzed by SAM through sol 1178, 2) Constrain sediment mineralogy/composition based on SAM evolved gas analysis (SAM-EGA), and 3) Discuss the implications of these results releative to understanding the geochemical history of Gale Crater.

  5. Using Participatory Exploration to Engage Classrooms in STEM Learning: A Case Study Using NASA's Mars Student Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Graff, P.; Viotti, M.; Bowman, C.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Mars Program and Arizona State University’s Mars Education Program have partnered with Mars mission teams and Mars Principal Investigator Dr. Phil Christensen to develop and promote an ongoing STEM-based opportunity for students to become active participants in the exploration of the Red Planet. The Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) has, since 2002, given over 15,000 students from grades 5 through early college the opportunity to work with scientists, mission planners and Mars education specialists using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera. MSIP participants are involved in authentic Mars research by imaging and researching a site on Mars using the THEMIS visible wavelength camera onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. Students can participate one of three ways: on-site at ASU, through distance learning and using archived THEMIS images. Throughout the period of time that the Mars Student Imaging Project has been operating, many lessons-learned have been accumulated, assessed, and project adjustments have been made. To meet the needs of a changing educational landscape and audience needs, MSIP is changing as well. Many challenges and barriers are making it difficult for teachers to promote deep, hands-on research projects in the formal classroom. As high stakes testing is again becoming more of the focus for the classroom, there becomes a greater need to understand audience needs (schools, teachers, students) and where new opportunities might emerge for students to participate in authentic and data-driven research. Participatory Exploration is a new exciting way to help teachers bring authentic STEM to their students through our journeys through the solar system. By engaging students through technology and challenging them with space-related research opportunities, we can further enable this generation of technology natives toward STEM literacy in a hands-on, memorable way.

  6. CRISM's First 'Targeted' Observation of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This shows the first site on Mars imaged by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) using its full-resolution hyperspectral capability, with a 'targeted image.'

    During a targeted image, CRISM's movable gimbal tracks a point on the surface, and slowly scans across it for about three minutes. The image is built up one line at a time, and each pixel in the image is measured in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers. During this time the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's range to the target starts at about 410 kilometers (250 miles), decreases to about 290 kilometers (190 miles) when the spacecraft makes its closest approach, and increases again to 410 kilometers at the end of the image. The change in geometry during image acquisition gives each CRISM targeted image a characteristic hourglass shape.

    This first targeted image was acquired at 1515 UTC (11:15 a.m. EDT) on Sept. 29, 2006, near 7.7 degrees south latitude, 270.5 degrees east longitude. Only minimal processing and map projection of the data have been done. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The three wavelengths shown here provide an approximate true color representation. The hourglass-shaped image covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) north-south and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) east-west. The upper left panel shows the image's regional context, on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) taken in infrared frequencies. This western part of the Valles Marineris canyon system is called Ius Chasma. The canyon system is about five kilometers (about three miles) deep and exposes ancient rocks from deep in the crust. The lower left panel shows local context, using a THEMIS visible-wavelengths image (THEMIS-VIS), which is comparable in resolution to CRISM data. Outcrops of light-toned layered rocks 1-2 kilometers (0.6-1.2 miles) across are

  7. Mars global digital dune database: MC-30

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.; Fenton, L.K.; Titus, T.N.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) provides data and describes the methodology used in creating the global database of moderate- to large-size dune fields on Mars. The database is being released in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The first report (Hayward and others, 2007) included dune fields from lat 65° N. to 65° S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1158/). The second report (Hayward and others, 2010) included dune fields from lat 60° N. to 90° N. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1170/). This report encompasses ~75,000 km2 of mapped dune fields from lat 60° to 90° S. The dune fields included in this global database were initially located using Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) Infrared (IR) images. In the previous two reports, some dune fields may have been unintentionally excluded for two reasons: (1) incomplete THEMIS IR (daytime) coverage may have caused us to exclude some moderate- to large-size dune fields or (2) resolution of THEMIS IR coverage (100 m/pixel) certainly caused us to exclude smaller dune fields. In this report, mapping is more complete. The Arizona State University THEMIS daytime IR mosaic provided complete IR coverage, and it is unlikely that we missed any large dune fields in the South Pole (SP) region. In addition, the increased availability of higher resolution images resulted in the inclusion of more small (~1 km2) sand dune fields and sand patches. To maintain consistency with the previous releases, we have identified the sand features that would not have been included in earlier releases. While the moderate to large dune fields in MGD3 are likely to constitute the largest compilation of sediment on the planet, we acknowledge that our database excludes numerous small dune fields and some moderate to large dune fields as well. Please note that the absence of mapped dune fields does not mean that dune fields do not exist and is not intended to imply a lack of saltating sand in other areas

  8. Mars Mission Optimization Based on Collocation of Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamitoff, G. E.; James, G. H.; Barker, D. C.; Dershowitz, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful approach for analyzing Martian data and for optimizing mission site selection based on resource collocation. This approach is implemented in a program called PROMT (Planetary Resource Optimization and Mapping Tool), which provides a wide range of analysis and display functions that can be applied to raw data or imagery. Thresholds, contours, custom algorithms, and graphical editing are some of the various methods that can be used to process data. Output maps can be created to identify surface regions on Mars that meet any specific criteria. The use of this tool for analyzing data, generating maps, and collocating features is demonstrated using data from the Mars Global Surveyor and the Odyssey spacecraft. The overall mission design objective is to maximize a combination of scientific return and self-sufficiency based on utilization of local materials. Landing site optimization involves maximizing accessibility to collocated science and resource features within a given mission radius. Mission types are categorized according to duration, energy resources, and in-situ resource utilization. Optimization results are shown for a number of mission scenarios.

  9. The Upper Atmospheric Wave Structure of Mars as Determined by Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Keating, G. M.; Forbes, J. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Wilson, R. J.; Withers, P. G.

    2001-12-01

    The best coverage of the Mars upper atmoshere available to date was obtained during recent Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) aerobraking exercises. Measurements from the MGS z-axis accelerometer (ACC) aboard MGS have provided more than 1200 vertical structures of the Mars thermospheric density and derived temperature and pressure [Keating et al. 1998; 2001]. These data have been obtained over two distinct Mars seasons : (Phase 1) approaching perihelion (Ls = 180 to 300), and (Phase 2) near aphelion (Ls = 30 to 95). The ubiquitous presence of planetary scale waves that appear fixed in longitude at lower thermospheric altitudes (90-150 km) was unexpected. Throughout both Phase 1 and 2 of aerobraking, the dominance of wave-2 and 3 features throughout low-to-mid-latitudes is evident, while wave-3 features seem to prevail in the mass density and electron density data at high Northern latitudes [Keating et al. 2000; Withers et al. 2000; Forbes and Hagan, 2000; Wilson, 2000; Bougher et al. 2001]. The diurnal coverage of the ACC data (day-night variations) is rather poor, limited to day-night data at the end of Phase 2 aerobraking. Recent data-model comparisons show that the observed density variations can be identified as eastward propagating non-migrating thermal tides with large vertical wavelengths. Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM), and Mars Global Scale Wave Model (MGSWM) simulations have been performed. The general indication is that the simulated wave-2 variation is dominated by a diurnal period, wave-1 Kelvin mode (DK1) which is principally forced by the modulation of the migrating diurnal tide by wave-2 Mars topography. This interpretation is consistent with the observed phase reversal between day and night side wave-2 components. The principal components of the simulated zonal wave-3 structure are a diurnal period wave-2 Kelvin mode (DK2) and a wave-1 semidiurnal tide (SW1). The characterization of these waves

  10. Analyses of IR-Stealthy and Coated Surface Materials: A Comparison of LIBS and Reflectance Spectra and Their Application to Mars Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Kirkland, L. E.; McKay, C. P.; Cremers, D. A.; Thompson, J.; Maurice, S.; Pinet, P. C.

    2004-01-01

    Identification of non-silicate samples on Mars, such as carbonates, sulfates, nitrates, or evaporites in general, is important because of their association with aqueous processes and their potential as exobiology sites. Infrared (IR) and thermal emission (TE) spectroscopy have been considered the primary tools for remote identification of these minerals. This includes current and future orbital assets such as TES on MGS, THEMIS on Mars Odyssey, OMEGA on Mars Express, CRISM on MRO, and now the Mini-TES on the MER rovers. While reflectance and emission spectroscopy have clearly been the method of choice for these missions, the technique is not always successful in mineral identifications due to dust, surface weathering chemistry, coatings, or surface texture. Here we describe and show IR spectra of several such samples, and then report on the relative success of LIBS analyses in determining the rock type.

  11. MAVEN's Trajectory to Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the cruise trajectory of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, which was launched on Nov. 18, 2013. It will arrive at Mars on Sept. 21, 2014, to explore th...

  12. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  13. Mars Meteorolgical Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Spann, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring and ultimately establishing a permanent presence on the surface of Mars will necessitate an understanding the weather conditions and the ability to forecast its dynamic behavior. The meteorology of Mars will need to be developed. This abstract puts forth a concept for a Mars Meteorological Network that will be used to investigate the Mars atmosphere behavior, explore the surface environment, and prepare for operational activities. It is proposed that the long term and the dynamic nature of the lower atmosphere and surface of Mars be observed with a distributed global array of simple automated surface nodes. The data would be ingested into the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and other research tools for analyses to gain a better understanding of the atmospheric conditions on Mars.

  14. The Mars Chamber

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Mars chamber is a box about the size of a refrigerator that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scie...

  15. Phoenix's Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog. The brighter area at the top of the beam is due to enhanced scattering of the laser light in a cloud. The Canadian-built lidar instrument emits pulses of laser light and records what is scattered back.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Assessment of the probability of contaminating Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, B. R.; North, D. W.; Pezier, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    New methodology is proposed to assess the probability that the planet Mars will by biologically contaminated by terrestrial microorganisms aboard a spacecraft. Present NASA methods are based on the Sagan-Coleman formula, which states that the probability of contamination is the product of the expected microbial release and a probability of growth. The proposed new methodology extends the Sagan-Coleman approach to permit utilization of detailed information on microbial characteristics, the lethality of release and transport mechanisms, and of other information about the Martian environment. Three different types of microbial release are distinguished in the model for assessing the probability of contamination. The number of viable microbes released by each mechanism depends on the bio-burden in various locations on the spacecraft and on whether the spacecraft landing is accomplished according to plan. For each of the three release mechanisms a probability of growth is computed, using a model for transport into an environment suited to microbial growth.

  17. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  18. Biological investigations aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tairbekov, M. G.; Parfyonov, G. P.; Platonova, R. W.; Abramova, V. M.; Golov, V. K.; Rostopshina, A. V.; Lyubchenko, V. Yu.; Chuchkin, V. G.

    Experiments on insects, higher plants and lower fungi were carried out aboard the biological satellite Cosmos-1129, in Earth orbit, from 25 September to 14 October 1979. The main objective of these experiments was to gain more profound knowledge of the effect of weightlessness on living organisms and to study the mechanisms by which these various organisms with different life cycles can adjust and develop in weightlessness. Experiments on insects (Drosophila melanogaster) were made with a view towards understanding gravitational preference in flies, the life cycle of which took place on board the biosatellite under conditions of artificial gravity. Experiments on higher plants (Zea mays, Arabidopsis taliana, Lycopersicum esculentum) and lower fungi (Physarum polycephalum) were performed.

  19. Saltation transport on Mars.

    PubMed

    Parteli, Eric J R; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-05-11

    We present the first calculation of saltation transport and dune formation on Mars and compare it to real dunes. We find that the rate at which grains are entrained into saltation on Mars is 1 order of magnitude higher than on Earth. With this fundamental novel ingredient, we reproduce the size and different shapes of Mars dunes, and give an estimate for the wind velocity on Mars.

  20. Interpretation of collapsed terrain on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewa Zalewska, Natalia; Skocki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    On the images from HiRISE camera within volcanoes and circumpolar areas there are depressions that can be explained in two ways, either by melting subsurface layer of ice or by cooling of lava which forms branch intrusion and flank craters underneath. On many pictures from Mars similar cavities are found on the slopes of Martian craters on Arsia Mons , Pavonis Mons on northern hemisphere and Alba Patera on southern hemisphere. Such cavities can be compared to a Hawaiian type volcanoes. At the top of Mauna Loa linearly arranged craters can be seen, strikingly similar to those on Arsia Mons . Basing on map ice content measured by Odyssey GRS apparatus, in this place of the volcanic cone, quite small ice content can be observed that varies in the range of 2-4% hydrogen abundance. It is therefore difficult to explain these collapses by unfreezing of subsurface ice. In an infrared spectrum of these areas there are no bands of water in the CRISM spectra, although it does not say that the water in the form of ice couldn't have been there before. In the central part of Chryse, there are series of chains depressions caused most likely by the collapse of land. These forms have been associated with an open pingo type system additionally with assisted topography of the area or tectonics and internal cracks in the rocks. These are noticed on the slopes of craters or wherever the area decline. Then flowing subsurface water or brine coming from the ice layer could while freezing accumulate and create a longitudinal hill that collapsed due to seasonal thawing forming gullies or canyons . At the end of these gullies remaining trace of the leak can be seen, as if there was a crack in the ground and liquid flew out on the surface. Cryosubsurface processes on Mars can support the hypothesis of geochemical origin of water, which separates from the magma, and its primary source comes from the protoplanetary disk. The water separated from the magma migrates up to the surface and if the

  1. Middle-Atmosphere Polar Warming at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Kleinboehl, A.; Forget, F.; Murphy, J. R.; Smith, M. D.; Mischna, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Polar Warming (PW) is a dynamical feature of the Martian atmosphere that consists of a temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes during winter, spring, and autumn. It produces a reversal of the meridional temperature gradient and temperature inversions over mid-to-high latitudes. This phenomenon is the result of a global Hadley circulation which is a thermally-direct response to diabatic forcing caused by: (a) differential insolation, and (b) absorption of solar infrared radiation by suspended dust [1-4]. Previous studies of PW [5-9] have been limited by data paucity. Consequently, several important aspects of PW climatology have gone unknown. Now, sufficient data is available for in-depth characterization of the structure and variability of this phenomenon in the middle atmosphere [manuscript in preparation]. In this paper we define a warming index and characterize PW as observed by MCS/MRO, SPICAM/Mars Express, and the accelerometer experiments that flew on MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO. During most seasons, PW manifests between p = 1-10 Pa and the top of the MCS dataset, and during seasons where SPICAM and ACC data are available, warming often persists through the extent of these data as well (i.e., up to p = 1.0 x 10-4 Pa). PW maximizes in the vertical between p = 1.9 to 0.5 Pa. We find the latitude of maximum temperature tends to move pole-ward with decreasing pressure, indicating a pole-ward slant with height of the descending branch of the Hadley cell. We find PW tends to be stronger on the nightside than on the dayside. As expected from previous studies, we find PW is stronger during northern winter solstice (Ls = 270°) than during southern winter solstice (Ls = 90°). Interestingly, however, we find PW in both the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere is stronger during Ls = 180° than during other seasons. This is unexpected because: (a) early studies focused on PW as strictly a winter phenomenon, and (b) dust optical depth is generally

  2. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  3. Identification of the Energetic Plume Ion Escape Channel at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fraenz, M.; Barabash, S.

    2013-12-01

    Mars lacks a global dipole magnetic field. The resulting induced magnetosphere arising from Mars' atmosphere's direct interaction with the solar wind differs significantly from that of Venus. The weak gravitational field of Mars creates scale heights so large that the exosphere extends out beyond the Induced Magnetosphere Boundary (IMB), where newly ionized exospheric oxygen is exposed to high speed shocked solar wind flow and the associated strong convective electric field (E). The weaker Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) at Mars, combined with this strong electric field, should be expected to result in heavy pickup ions with gyroradii much larger than the radius of Mars. Test particle models and hybrid models have predicted that these pickup ions create an energetic plume of escaping planetary ions that may have a flux on the same order of magnitude as the flow of planetary ions down the central tail loss channel. This study presents an analysis of data from the Ion Mass Analyzer aboard European Space Agency's Mars Express (MEX) to identify the presence of this energetic ion plume. We searched through the time period when Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was operating simultaneously with MEX, and selected hundreds of time intervals when IMF proxies from MGS show the convective electric field to be aligned with the orbit of MEX. We then examined plots of the MEX orbit during these intervals and selected times when MEX was positioned on the +E side of Mars and outside the nominal IMB. Finally, from these intervals we identified the cases in which oxygen ions were detected with energies above 2 keV. The result is a set of several direct measurements of the energetic plume.

  4. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  5. Mars: The Viking Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This booklet describes the results of NASA's Viking spacecraft on Mars. It is intended to be useful for the teacher of basic courses in earth science, space science, astronomy, physics, or geology, but is also of interest to the well-informed layman. Topics include why we should study Mars, how the Viking spacecraft works, the winds of Mars, the…

  6. Mars: 2010 - 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Mars Exploration program for the current decade and beyond. The potential items for procurements for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are discussed, as well as future technology investments to enable to continued development of exploration of Mars by rovers and orbiters that are planned and envisioned for future missions.

  7. Light-Toned, Layered Outcrops of Northern Terra Meridiani Mars: Viking, Phobos 2, and Mars Global Surveyor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    Locating outcrops of sedimentary rock on Mars is an important step toward deciphering the planet's geologic and climatologic record. Sedimentary rock representing the earliest martian environments, are of particular interest in this context. This is a report about a vast exposure of material proposed to be martian sedimentary rock. The outcrops cover an area (approximately sq 300,000 km) roughly the size of the Colorado Plateau in North America (approximately 260,000 sq km). The materials occur in northern Terra Meridiani, near of one of the four sites being considered for a 2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing. The landing ellipse, centered at deg S, deg W, lies in a region exhibiting smooth and rough (at meter scale) dark-toned surfaces, with scattered light-toned patches. Stratigraphically, the dark-toned materials at the MER site lie unconformably on top of a previously-eroded, light-toned surface; the light-toned patches in the landing ellipse are geologic windows down to this lower stratigraphic unit. North of the landing ellipse, the light-toned materials are well-exposed because the darker materials have been removed, stranding outlier remnants in a few locations. The light-toned materials are layered, vertically heterogeneous, and exhibit lateral continuity over hundreds of kilometers. Eroded layers produce cliffs; some outcrops are expressed as mesas, buttes, and spires; and impact craters ranging in diameter from a few meters to tens of kilometers are interbedded with the layers. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of greater than 6 years of photogeologic investigation into the nature of the light-toned outcrops of northern Terra Meridiani. The work is a 'snapshot' of progress made toward eventual geologic mapping and establishment of the stratigraphic sequence for the materials through 30 September 2002, a day prior to the first release of Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data to the NASA Planetary Data

  8. Visual Target Tracking on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Ali, Khaled

    2008-01-01

    Visual target tracking (VTT) software has been incorporated into Release 9.2 of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) flight software, now running aboard the rovers Spirit and Opportunity. In the VTT operation (see figure), the rover is driven in short steps between stops and, at each stop, still images are acquired by actively aimed navigation cameras (navcams) on a mast on the rover (see artistic rendition). The VTT software processes the digitized navcam images so as to track a target reliably and to make it possible to approach the target accurately to within a few centimeters over a 10-m traverse.

  9. Mars Ozone Mapping with MAVEN IUVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Schneider, N. M.; Deighan, J.; Jain, S.; Stewart, I. F.; Stiepen, A.; Chaffin, M.; McClintock, W. E.; Lo, D.; Clarke, J. T.; Holsclaw, G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone (O3) on Mars is a product of the CO2 photolysis by ultraviolet radiation. It is destroyed with a timescale of less than ~1 hour during the day by the H, OH, and HO2 radicals. This tight coupling between O3 and HOx species makes ozone a sensitive tracer of the odd hydrogen chemistry that stabilizes the CO2 atmosphere of Mars, and ozone measurements offer a powerful constraint for photochemical models. Ozone is also expected to be anti-correlated to water vapour, the source of hydrogen radicals HOx. At high latitudes in winter, the absence of H2O prevents the production of HOx and the chemical lifetime of ozone may increase up to several days. In these conditions, the ozone column abundance usually reaches its largest values of the Martian year and ozone turns into a measurable tracer of the polar vortex dynamics. The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) is one of nine science instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft. In the apoapse imaging phase, the spacecraft motion carries the IUVS lines-of-sight across the Martian disk while the scan mirror is used to make transverse swaths. This observation mode allows mapping the ozone vertically-integrated column from its signature in the solar ultraviolet flux backscattered by the surface and the atmosphere. This paper will present an overview of the first year of ozone mapping by IUVS. We will describe in particular the last Mars northern winter (2015) when the largest ozone columns have been observed since the beginning of the MAVEN mission. The data will be compared to prior Earth-based observations and to the SPICAM and MARCI ozone datasets. We will also test our quantitative understanding of the Martian ozone by comparing the IUVS observations to our three-dimensional model with photochemistry.

  10. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  11. Mars Polar Lander mated with third stage of rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Polar Lander is suspended from a crane in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) before being lowered to a workstand. There it will be mated to the third stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket before it is transported to Launch Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  12. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the protective covering on the Mars Polar Lander is lifted up and out of the way. The lander, in the opening below, is being mated to the Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch it on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  13. Mars Polar Lander mated with third stage of rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the Mars Polar Lander is lowered onto the third stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket before it is transported to Launch Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  14. Mars Polar Lander mated with third stage of rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers mate the Mars Polar Lander to the third stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket before it is transported to Launch Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  15. MARS Science Laboratory Post-Landing Location Estimation Using Post2 Trajectory Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Way, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landed safely on Mars August 5th, 2012 at 10:32 PDT, Earth Received Time. Immediately following touchdown confirmation, best estimates of position were calculated to assist in determining official MSL locations during entry, descent and landing (EDL). Additionally, estimated balance mass impact locations were provided and used to assess how predicted locations compared to actual locations. For MSL, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was the primary trajectory simulation tool used to predict and assess EDL performance from cruise stage separation through rover touchdown and descent stage impact. This POST2 simulation was used during MSL operations for EDL trajectory analyses in support of maneuver decisions and imaging MSL during EDL. This paper presents the simulation methodology used and results of pre/post-landing MSL location estimates and associated imagery from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter s (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. To generate these estimates, the MSL POST2 simulation nominal and Monte Carlo data, flight telemetry from onboard navigation, relay orbiter positions from MRO and Mars Odyssey and HiRISE generated digital elevation models (DEM) were utilized. A comparison of predicted rover and balance mass location estimations against actual locations are also presented.

  16. Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software: Phase One Performance Analysis at Mars, Venus, and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddock, Robert W.; Bowes, Angela; Powell, Richard W.; Prince, Jill L. H.; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer

    2012-01-01

    When entering orbit about a planet or moon with an appreciable atmosphere, instead of using only the propulsion system to insert the spacecraft into its desired orbit, aerodynamic drag can be used after the initial orbit insertion to further decelerate the spacecraft. Several past NASA missions have used this aerobraking technique to reduce the fuel required to deliver a spacecraft into a desired orbit. Aerobraking was first demonstrated at Venus with Magellan in 1993 and then was used to achieve the science orbit of three Mars orbiters: Mars Global Surveyor in 1997, Mars Odyssey in 2001, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2006. Although aerobraking itself reduces the propellant required to reach a final low period orbit, it does so at the expense of additional mission time to accommodate the aerobraking operations phase (typically 3-6 months), a large mission operations staff, and significant Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage. By automating ground based tasks and analyses associated with aerobraking and moving these onboard the spacecraft, a flight project could save millions of dollars in operations staffing and DSN costs (Ref. 1).

  17. Planetary Protection Provisions for the Mars 2020 Mission: Enabling Discovery by Constraining Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Conley, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 2013-2022 NRC Decadal Survey named its #1 Flagship priority as a large, capable Mars rover that would be the first of a three-mission, multi-decadal effort to return samples from Mars. More recently, NASA's Mars Program has stated that a Mars rover mission known as 'Mars 2020' would be flown to Mars (in 2020) to accomplish a subset of the goals specified by the NRC, and the recent report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT) has recommended that the mission accomplish broad and rigorous in situ science, including seeking biosignatures, acquiring a diverse set of samples intended to address a range of Mars science questions and storing them in a cache for potential return to Earth at a later time, and other engineering goals to constrain costs and support future human exploration. In some ways Mars 2020 will share planetary protection requirements with the Mars Science Laboratory mission that landed in 2012, which included landing site constraints based on the presence of a perennial heat source (the MMRTG) aboard the lander/rover. In a very significant way, however, the presence of a sample-cache and the potential that Mars 2020 will be the first mission in the chain that will return a sample from Mars to Earth. Thus Mars 2020 will face more stringent requirements aimed at keeping the mission from returning Earth contamination with the samples from Mars. Mars 2020 will be looking for biosignatures of ancient life, on Mars, but will also need to be concerned with the potential to detect extant biosignatures or life itself within the sample that is eventually returned. If returned samples are able to unlock wide-ranging questions about the geology, surface processes, and habitability of Mars that cannot be answered by study of meteorites or current mission data, then either the returned samples must be free enough of Earth organisms to be releasable from a quarantine facility or the planned work of sample scientists, including high- and low

  18. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  19. Solar Power on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun.

    The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani).

    The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  20. A LANL Scientist's Dream Takes Off to Zap Rocks on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Roger Wiens, with a team of 40 people at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the collaboration of the French space institute IRAP, created ChemCam, a laser spectrometer and telescope device aboard the Curiosity rover. ChemCam will blast rocks from as far as 7 meters, vaporize bits of their surfaces, and spectroscopically determine their chemical composition, aiding in the search for life on Mars, and making this scientist's boyhood dream a reality.

  1. A LANL Scientist's Dream Takes Off to Zap Rocks on Mars

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Roger Wiens, with a team of 40 people at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the collaboration of the French space institute IRAP, created ChemCam, a laser spectrometer and telescope device aboard the Curiosity rover. ChemCam will blast rocks from as far as 7 meters, vaporize bits of their surfaces, and spectroscopically determine their chemical composition, aiding in the search for life on Mars, and making this scientist's boyhood dream a reality.

  2. The Mars Climate Orbiter arrives at KSC to begin final preparations for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard an Air Force C-17 cargo plane early this morning following its flight from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, Colo. When the spacecraft arrives at the red planet, it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (1.8 Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The scheduled launch date for the Mars Climate Orbiter is Dec. 10, 1998, on a Delta II 7425 rocket.

  3. Interior of Mars from spacecraft and complementary data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2015-04-01

    Mars, as Earth, Venus and Mercury is a terrestrial planet having, in addition to the mantle and lithosphere, a core composed of an iron alloy. This core might be completely liquid, completely solid or may contain a solid part (the inner core) and a liquid part. The existence of a magnetic field around a planet is mainly explained by the presence of motions in the liquid part in the core. The absence of a magnetic field does not help in constraining the state of the core as it might be completely solid or completely liquid but the motion (convection) might not be sufficient to maintain it, or even contain a growing inner core inside a liquid core composed of iron or Nickel and a percentage of light element corresponding to the eutectic composition (no precipitation). The planet Mars is smaller than Earth. It has evolved differently. We know for the Earth that the core is liquid and that the inner core is forming by precipitation of iron. For Mars spacecraft observation of the gravity field and its time variation allow us to obtain the effect of mass repartition, and in particular those induced by the solid tides. These tidal deformation of the planet are larger for a planet with a liquid core than for a completely solid planet. Recent spacecraft orbiting around Mars (MGS, Mars Odyssey, MRO, Mars Express) have allowed to obtain the k2 tidal Love numbers. This measurement is rather at the limit of what the observation can tell us but seems to indicate that Mars has a liquid core. The absence of a present-day global magnetic field places Mars in the situation where the inner core is not yet forming or has reached the eutectic. Physical observation of the planet other than tides also allow us to obtain information about the interior of Mars: its rotation and orientation changes. Planetary rotation can be separated into the rotation speed around an axis and the orientation of this axis (or another axis of the planet) in space. Most of us know that the rotation of a

  4. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander is lifted to a vertical position on Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  5. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander is lifted to the top of the gantry on Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  6. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a solid rocket booster is raised to a vertical position for mating with the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  7. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the gantry holding the solid rocket boosters is moved into place next to the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  8. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a solid rocket booster hangs in place between two other rocket boosters waiting to be mated with the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  9. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the gantry on Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander waits to be lowered into the white room. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  10. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers monitor the solid rocket booster before its being lifted to mate with the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  11. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives at Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  12. The SRBs for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrive on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a solid rocket booster waits for mating with the Delta II rocket (in background) carrying the Mars Polar Lander. The rocket will be used to launch the Mars Polar Lander on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  13. JMARS: A GIS System for Mars and Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Malik, M.; Gorelick, N. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    available to browse planetary data, this application can provide a number of useful features even without Internet access, making it useful for both the professional planetary scientist and in the K-12 and higher education environments. This project represents more than 20 man-years of development, supported by the NASA Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions, and the ASU Planetary Imaging and Analysis Facility and Advanced Training Institute (PIAFATI).

  14. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  15. Mars Polar Lander undergoes testing in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), KSC technicians check underneath the Mars Polar Lander as it sits on a workstand. The spacecraft is undergoing testing of science instruments and basic spacecraft subsystems. The solar-powered spacecraft, targeted for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard a Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere.

  16. Participation in the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengil, Gordon H.; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument [1,2] carried aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has observed strong echoes from cloud tops at 1.064 microns on 61% of its orbital passes over the winter north pole (235deg L(sub S), < 315deg) and on 58% of the passes over the winter south pole (45deg < L(sub S), < 135deg). The clouds are unlikely to be composed of water ice since the vapor pressure of H2O is very low at the Martian nighttime polar temperatures measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) [3], and by an analysis of MGS radio occultations [4]. Dust clouds can also be ruled out since no correlation is seen between clouds and global dust storms. The virtually certain composition for the winter polar clouds is CO2 ice.

  17. Characterization of Mars' seasonal caps using neutron spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Mars' seasonal caps are characterized during Mars years 26 and 27 (April 2002 to January 2006) using data acquired by the 2001 Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. Time-dependent maps of the column abundance of seasonal CO 2 surface ice poleward of 60?? latitude in both hemispheres are determined from spatially deconvolved, epithermal neutron counting data. Sources of systematic error are analyzed, including spatial blurring by the spectrometer's broad footprint and the seasonal variations in the abundance of noncondensable gas at high southern latitudes, which are found to be consistent with results reported by Sprague et al. (2004, 2007). Corrections for spatial blurring are found to be important during the recession, when the column abundance of seasonal CO2 ice has the largest latitude gradient. The measured distribution and inventory of seasonal CO2 ice is compared to simulations by a general circulation model (GCM) calibrated using Viking lander pressure data, cap edge functions determined by thermal emission spectroscopy, and other nuclear spectroscopy data sets. On the basis of the amount of CO2 cycled through the caps during years 26 and 27, the gross polar energy balance has not changed significantly since Viking. The distribution of seasonal CO2 ice is longitudinally asymmetric: in the north, deposition rates of CO2 ice are elevated in Acidalia, which is exposed to katabatic winds from Chasma Borealis; in the south, CO2 deposition is highest near the residual cap. During southern recession, CO 2 ice is present longer than calculated by the GCM, which has implications for the local polar energy balance. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. The Effects of the Compasslearning Odyssey Spiral-Up Program on Discovery Education Scores of Sixth-Grade Gifted and High-Performing Language Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Carmen Freeman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) model CompassLearning Odyssey and the performance of middle school language arts students on the Discovery Education Test B and Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) along with examining teacher perceptions of high…

  19. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  20. Improved data analysis for EPHIN aboard SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasa, Christoph; Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; Klassen, Andreas; Müller-Mellin, Reinhold; Heber, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    The COSTEP instrument aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft consists of two separate energetic particle detectors, the Low Energy Ion and Electron Instrument (LION) and the Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN). These detectors allow measurement of electrons, protons and helium of solar, interplanetary or galactic origin in the energy range of 44 keV per particle up to several tens of MeV per nucleon. The objectives of these instruments are the study of particle emissions from the Sun, the galaxy and the heliosphere. EPHIN is collecting data since the launch of the mission in December 1995 covering more than a full 11-year solar cycle. Late in 1996 one of the semiconductor detectors became noisy, affecting the quality of the data in the upper energy range. We used the energy-range empiric relation by Goulding et al. to resconstruct the energy loss of nuclei in the affected detector. New dynamic spectra and long-term quiet time spectra using these techniques are presented.

  1. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  2. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  3. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-06-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  4. Mars nightside electrons over strong crustal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, Alexander D.; Xu, Shaosui; Liemohn, Michael W.; Mitchell, David L.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated 7 years worth of data from the electron reflectometer and magnetometer aboard Mars Global Surveyor to quantify the deposition of photoelectron and solar wind electron populations on the nightside of Mars, over the strong crustal field region located in the southern hemisphere. Just under 600,000 observations, each including energy and pitch angle distributions, were examined. For solar zenith angles (SZA) less than 110°, photoelectrons have the highest occurrence rate; beyond that, plasma voids occur most often. In addition, for SZA >110°, energy deposition of electrons mainly occurs on vertical field lines with median pitch angle averaged energy flux values on the order of 107-108 eV cm-2 s-1. The fraction of downward flux that is deposited at a given location was typically low (16% or smaller), implying that the majority of precipitated electrons are magnetically reflected or scattered back out. The average energy of the deposited electrons is found to be 20-30 eV, comparable to typical energies of photoelectrons and unaccelerated solar wind electrons. Median electron flux values, from near-vertical magnetic field lines past solar zenith angle of 110°, calculated in this study produced a total electron content of 4.2 × 1014 m-2 and a corresponding peak density of 4.2 × 103 cm-3.

  5. The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This pair of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform viewed during both the day and night. The nighttime THEMIS IR image was acquired on Oct. 24, 2002; the daytime image was originally released on July 24, 2002. Both images are of THEMIS's 9th IR band (12.57 microns), and they have been geometrically projected for image registration. The 'face on Mars' is located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). This knob can be seen in the daytime image because of the temperature differences between the sunlit (warm and bright) and shadowed (cold and dark) slopes. The temperature in the daytime scene ranges from -50 oC (darkest) to -15 oC (brightest). At night many of the hills and knobs in this region are difficult to detect because the effects of heating and shadowing on the slopes are no longer present. The temperatures at night vary from approximately -90 oC (darkest) to -75 oC (warmest). The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay warm. Fine grained dust and sand cools of more rapidly at night. The circular rims and eject of many of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters and in the ejecta material that was blasted out when the craters formed. Some craters have cold (dark) material on their floors in the night IR image, indicating that fine-grained material is accumulating within the craters. Many knobs and hills, including the 'face' have rocky (warm at night) material on their slopes and ridges.

    The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - these images cover an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 50 kilometers (30 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). The scenes are tilted differently because the Odyssey orbit is

  6. Understanding the Vertical Distribution and Exchange of H2O in the Subsurface of Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorghofer, N.; Aharonson, O.

    2003-12-01

    Prompted by the recent discoveries of Mars Odyssey, we aim to better understand the exchange of water vapor between the atmosphere and the subsurface and the vertical distribution of water ice and adsorbate. We model vapor transport, adsorption, and sublimation of water ice in the regolith over diurnal, seasonal, and millennial time scales. We find that in long-term equilibrium the transition to the subsurface ice table is sudden, and, as expected, the depth to the ice table can be determined from the frost point at the surface. Accumulating subsurface ice reduces the vapor transport deep into the regolith, but, eventually, ice can amass through sublimation to great depths. Physical adsorption of water onto the regolith may deplete the water vapor substantially and can lead to considerable diurnal breathing, but it has little influence on the frost point. These are examples of dynamical effects not described by standard equilibrium models.

  7. Quick trips to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a Mars Mission Vehicle that would have to be launched by two very heavy lift launch vehicles is described along with plans for a mission to Mars. The vehicle has three nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) boosters with a fourth in the center that acts as a dual mode system. The fourth generates electrical power while in route, but it also helps lift the vehicle out of earth orbit. A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a Mars transfer vehicle stage, and a Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) are located on the front end of this vehicle. Other aspects of this research including aerobraking, heat shielding, nuclear thermal rocket engines, a mars mission summary, closed Brayton cycle with and without regeneration, liquid hydrogen propellant storage, etc. are addressed.

  8. Mars Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars, both robotic and human, rely on solar arrays for the primary power system. Mars presents a number of challenges for solar power system operation, including a dusty atmosphere which modifies the spectrum and intensity of the incident solar illumination as a function of time of day, degradation of the array performance by dust deposition, and low temperature operation. The environmental challenges to Mars solar array operation will be discussed and test results of solar cell technology operating under Mars conditions will be presented, along with modeling of solar cell performance under Mars conditions. The design implications for advanced solar arrays for future Mars missions is discussed, and an example case, a Martian polar rover, are analyzed.

  9. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  10. Spacecraft exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Conway W.; Moroz, Vasilii I.

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and American spacecraft exploration of Mars over the past quarter century is reviewed. Data on the earliest Soviet attempts to send spacecraft to observe the planet are presented. Of the series of spacecraft that were announced (designated Mars 1 to Mars 7), none fulfilled all its scientific goals, but some good photographs and other important data were obtained. Of the six spacecraft in the Mariner series, two failed, but Mariner 4 first revealed the cratered surface of Mars, and Mariner 9 discovered all the major geologic features. The Viking mission, with its two Orbiters, two Landers, and its 6-yr duration, surpassed in quantity and variety of data all other missions combined. The Phobos mission ended in two failures, but the second of the two spacecraft acquired significant new data about Mars and Phobos. An appendix listing special issues of journals containing collections of papers about Mars is provided.

  11. Mars plasma system response to ICME transients at different phases of the solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Lester, Mark; Hall, Benjamin E. S.; Witasse, Olivier; Mays, M. Leila; Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Andrews, David G.; Cartacci, Marco; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Milan, Stephen E.; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Odstrcil, Dusan; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Imber, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    We assess the reaction of the full Martian plasma system after the impact of different Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) at Mars at different levels of solar activity and phases of the solar cycle 23/24. The Mars' plasma system behaviour is characterised from the surface of the planet to the bow shock position, which is the most external boundary where the solar wind directly interacts with the Martian system. Events at the extreme phases of the solar cycle will be given special attention, i.e. low and high solar activity periods, since variations in the maximum of the thermal pressure of the ionosphere are a key factor in order to create a significant/weak plasma obstacle to compete with the solar wind. The strength of this obstacle is ultimately controlled by the long-term EUV flux modulations. Likewise, the effect of such ICMEs on the plasma boundaries and induced magnetic fields within the ionosphere will be analysed in detail. The study uses data from TIMED, GOES and STEREOs observatories at 1 AU to monitor the solar irradiance and the propagation of such space weather transits. At Mars, long-term data come from Mars Express and Mars Odyssey missions since both spacecraft have been working from more than 12 years. The MAVEN and MSL missions provide supplementary data. Solar wind propagation modelling is used through the WSA-ENLIL+Cone model, as well as several numerical simulations of the ionosphere of Mars for such scenarios are made through the numerical/fluid TRANSMARS model.

  12. Methane, organics, and related trace constituents on Mars: sources, sinks, implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, S. K.

    2005-08-01

    Trace quantities of methane gas have been detected by the PFS on Mars Express (1). FTS at CFHT yields similar (10 ppbv) global abundance (2). However, CSHELL at IRTF and Gemini telescope data imply substantially greater (>250 ppbv) amounts (3), which is puzzling. PFS and the IRTF/Gemini data also indicate variable abundances over the planet. This too is puzzling, considering relatively long (300-600 year) lifetime of CH4 on Mars. It is tantalizing to surmise that widely dispersed microbial colonies (extinct or extant) may be responsible for non uniform methane. This viewpoint is further bolstered by the mineralogical evidence of past (liquid) water at MER sites, especially Meridiani Plenum (4), and non uniformly distributed subsurface ice reported from Mars Odyssey (5). Indeed chemolithotrophic microbial ecosystems is one possible scenario for the presence and behavior of martian methane, but is by no means the only one (6). In fact, methane production through serpentinization is a common occurrence on Earth, and the interior of Mars (or Titan) poses no unusual challenge (6). An effective surface sink could also be responsible for non uniform CH4. Oxidizers in the surface can scrub not only methane gas from the atmosphere, but also any organic material in the soil. Electrochemistry triggered by martian dust devils and storms is potentially a large source of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (7). This talk will summarize the current state and discuss missing links in above story, especially isotope data (e.g., 12C/13C), organics, oxidants, sulfur and halogen species, etc. 1. Formisano, etal, Science 306, 1758, 2004. 2. Krasnopolsky, etal, Icarus 172, 537, 2004. 3. Mumma, etal, DPS, 2004. 4. Science 306, 1697-1756, 2004. 5. Science 297, 75-85, 2002. 6. Atreya, Wong, AGU, ED13D-0745: Methane on Mars, 12/2004. Also Mars International Conference, Ischia, Italy, 09/22/2004. 7. Atreya, etal; Delory, etal, Astrobiology-submitted.

  13. Tracking Retreat of the North Seasonal Ice Cap on Mars: Results from the THEMIS Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Wagstaff, K. L.; Ttus, T. N.

    2005-01-01

    The CO2 ice caps on Mars advance and retreat with the seasons. This phenomenon was first observed by Cassini and then confirmed by numerous ground based observations in 19th and 20th centuries. With the advent of the space age observations of the seasonal ice cap were done by all orbiting spacecraft starting with Mariner 7. Viking Orbiters and more recently the Mars Global Surveyor (particularly Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments) have accumulated significant data on the retreat of the CO2 seasonal cap. During Mars year 2 of THEMIS operations at Mars, we planned an observational campaign in which the THEMIS instrument (onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft) repeatedly observed the north seasonal polar cap from midwinter to late spring. THEMIS allows simultaneous observations in both Thermal IR (12.57 m) and Visible wavelengths (0.65 m). One of the goals for this work is to initiate an interannual program for observations of the seasonal ice caps using the THEMIS instrument. The most efficient way to detect the edge between frost and bare ground is directly onboard of the spacecraft. Prior to onboard software design effort, we have developed two groundbased algorithms for automatically finding the edge of the seasonal polar cap in THEMIS IR data. The first algorithm relies on fully calibrated data and can be used for highly reliable groundbased analyses. The second method was specifically developed for processing raw, uncalibrated data in a highly efficient way. It has the potential to enable automatic, onboard detections of the seasonal cap retreat. We have experimentally confirmed that both methods produce similar results, and we have validated both methods against a model constructed from the MGS TES data from the same season.

  14. Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Carey, J. W.; Fialips, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.

  15. Surface Reflectance of Mars Observed by CRISM-MRO: 1. Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations (mars-reco)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceamanos, Xavier; Doute, S.; Fernando, J.; Pinet, P.; Lyapustin, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the correction for aerosol effects in near-simultaneous multiangle observations acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. In the targeted mode, CRISM senses the surface of Mars using 11 viewing angles, which allow it to provide unique information on the scattering properties of surface materials. In order to retrieve these data, however, appropriate strategies must be used to compensate the signal sensed by CRISM for aerosol contribution. This correction is particularly challenging as the photometric curve of these suspended particles is often correlated with the also anisotropic photometric curve of materials at the surface. This article puts forward an innovative radiative transfer based method named Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations (MARS-ReCO). The proposed method retrieves photometric curves of surface materials in reflectance units after removing aerosol contribution. MARS-ReCO represents a substantial improvement regarding previous techniques as it takes into consideration the anisotropy of the surface, thus providing more realistic surface products. Furthermore, MARS-ReCO is fast and provides error bars on the retrieved surface reflectance. The validity and accuracy of MARS-ReCO is explored in a sensitivity analysis based on realistic synthetic data. According to experiments, MARS-ReCO provides accurate results (up to 10 reflectance error) under favorable acquisition conditions. In the companion article, photometric properties of Martian materials are retrieved using MARS-ReCO and validated using in situ measurements acquired during the Mars Exploration Rovers mission.

  16. Mars at Opposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  17. Mars: The Viking discoveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the Viking Mars probe is presented. The Viking spacecraft is described and a brief history of the earlier observations and exploration of Mars is provided. A number of the Viking photographs of the Martian surface are presented and a discussion of the experiments Viking performed including a confirmation of the general theory of relativity are reported. Martian surface chemistry is discussed and experiments to study the weather on Mars are reported.

  18. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    processed version of tile 750, showing a part of Mars called Tyrrhena Terra in the ancient, heavily cratered highlands. The colored strips are CRISM multispectral survey data acquired over several months, in which each pixel began as calibrated 72-color spectrum of Mars. An experimental correction for illumination and atmospheric effects was applied to the data, to show how Mars' surface would appear if each strip was imaged with the same illumination and without an atmosphere. Then, the spectrum for each pixel was transformed into a set of 'summary parameters,' which indicate absorptions showing the presence of different minerals. Detections of the igneous, iron-bearing minerals olivine and pyroxene are shown in the red and blue image planes, respectively. Clay-like minerals called phyllosilicates, which formed when liquid water altered the igneous rocks, are shown in the green image plane. The gray areas between the strips are from an earlier mosaic of the planet taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument on Mars Odyssey, and are included for context. Note that most areas imaged by CRISM contain pyroxene, and that olivine-containing rocks are concentrated on smooth deposits that fill some crater floors and the low areas between craters. Phyllosilicate-containing rocks are concentrated in and around small craters, such as the one at 13 degrees south latitude, 97 degrees east longitude. Their concentration in crater materials suggests that they were excavated when the craters formed, from a layer that was buried by the younger, less altered, olivine- and pyroxene-containing rocks.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  19. CRISM's Global Mapping of Mars, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    processed version of tile 750, showing a part of Mars called Tyrrhena Terra in the ancient, heavily cratered highlands. The colored strips are CRISM multispectral survey data acquired over several months, in which each pixel began as calibrated 72-color spectrum of Mars. An experimental correction for illumination and atmospheric effects was applied to the data, to show how Mars' surface would appear if each strip was imaged with the same illumination and without an atmosphere. Then, the spectrum for each pixel was transformed into a set of 'summary parameters,' which indicate absorptions showing the presence of different minerals. Detections of the igneous, iron-bearing minerals olivine and pyroxene are shown in the red and blue image planes, respectively. Clay-like minerals called phyllosilicates, which formed when liquid water altered the igneous rocks, are shown in the green image plane. The gray areas between the strips are from an earlier mosaic of the planet taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument on Mars Odyssey, and are included for context. Note that most areas imaged by CRISM contain pyroxene, and that olivine-containing rocks are concentrated on smooth deposits that fill some crater floors and the low areas between craters. Phyllosilicate-containing rocks are concentrated in and around small craters, such as the one at 13 degrees south latitude, 97 degrees east longitude. Their concentration in crater materials suggests that they were excavated when the craters formed, from a layer that was buried by the younger, less altered, olivine- and pyroxene-containing rocks.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  20. Mars Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is dynamically similar to the Earth's. Its spin-axis rotation rate is only minutes longer than Earth's so the Coriolois force is nearly identical to Earth's. The inclination of its spin axis is also similar to Earth's giving it similarity in seasonal change. And the Martian atmosphere is nearly transparent to solar radiation (except during dust periods) such that it is heated primarily by upwelling infrared radiation from the surface. These characteristics make Mars an ideal laboratory for studying the dynamics of rapidly rotating differentially heated atmospheres. This talk reviews what we have learned about Mars atmospheric dynamics and how if compares with Earth. The source of information to make such a comparison comes from observations and models. The former are sparse and that the latter have played a major role in shaping our thinking about the general circulation on Mars. However, the models need validation. Fortunately, the first two orbiters in NASA's Mars Surveyor Program have instrumentation to address many of the issues related to the general circulation and climate of Mars. The first, Mars Global Surveyor, is already at Mars gathering data. The second, the Mars 98 Orbiter to be launched later this year, carries a dedicated atmospheric sounder. Thus, much will be learned about Mars' atmosphere in the next few years.

  1. Digital cartography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    A medium-resolution Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars is being compiled. A DIM is a mosaic of radiometrically corrected, photometrically modelled spacecraft images displaying accurate reflectance properties at uniform resolution, and geometrically tied to the best available control. The Mars medium-resolution DIM contains approximately 4700 Viking Orbiter image frames that were used to compile the recently completed 1:2,000,000-scale controlled photomosaic series of Mars. This DIM provides a planimetric control base to which all other Mars maps will be registered. A similar control base of topographic elevations (Digital Terrain Model, or DTM) is also being compiled. These products are scheduled for completion in 1989.

  2. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    1992-01-01

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  3. Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Asphaug, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Moore and Howard [1] reported the discovery of large alluvial fans in craters on Mars. Their initial survey from 0-30 S found that these fans clustered in three distinct regions and occurred at around the +1 km MOLA defined Mars datum. However, due to incomplete image coverage, Moore and Howard [1]could not conduct a comprehensive survey. They also recognized, though did not quantitatively address, gravity scaling issues. Here, we briefly discuss the identification of alluvial fans on Mars, then consider the general equations governing the deposition of alluvial fans and hypothesize a method for learning about grain size in alluvial fans on Mars.

  4. A Mars base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    This study was initiated to provide an approach to the development of a permanently manned Mars base. The objectives for a permanently manned Mars base are numerous. Primarily, human presence on Mars will allow utilization of new resources for the improvement of the quality of life on Earth, allowing for new discoveries in technologies, the solar system, and human physiology. Such a mission would also encourage interaction between different countries, increasing international cooperation and leading to a stronger unification of mankind. Surface studies of Mars, scientific experiments in the multiple fields, the research for new minerals, and natural resource production are more immediate goals of the Mars mission. Finally, in the future, colonization of Mars will ensure man's perpetual presence in the universe. Specific objectives of this study were: (1) to design a Mars habitat that minimizes the mass delivered to the Mars surface, provides long-stay capability for the base crew, and accommodates future expansion and modification; (2) to develop a scenario of the construction of a permanently manned Mars base; and (3) to incorporate new and envisioned technologies.

  5. Mars Museum Visualization Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohus, A. M.; Viotti, M. A.; de Jong, E. M.

    2004-11-01

    The Mars Museum Visualization Alliance is a collaborative effort funded by the Mars Public Engagement Office and supported by JPL's Informal Education staff and the Solar System Visualization Project to share the adventure of exploration and make Mars a real place. The effort started in 2002 with a small working group of museum professionals to learn how best to serve museum audiences through informal science educators. By the time the Mars Exploration Rovers landed on Mars in January 2004, over 100 organizations were partners in the Alliance, which has become a focused community of Mars educators. The Alliance provides guaranteed access to images, information, news, and resources for use by the informal science educators with their students, educators, and public audiences. Thousands of people have shared the adventure of exploring Mars and now see it as a real place through the efforts of the Mars Museum Visualization Alliance partners. The Alliance has been lauded for "providing just the right inside track for museums to do what they do best," be that webcasts, live presentations with the latest images and information, high-definition productions, planetarium shows, or hands-on educational activities. The Alliance is extending its mission component with Cassini, Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust. The Mars Exploration and Cassini Programs, as well as the Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust Projects, are managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

  6. Climatic change on Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Toon, O. B.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that Mars is the only known planet with a major atmospheric constituent condensable at typical surface temperatures. The temperatures range from 290 K at equatorial noon to a temperature at the cold pole of 145 K in polar winter. There may be three different periods of climatic variation on Mars. Aspects of reversible climatic instability might possibly explain the channels and other features suggestive of the extensive occurrence of liquid water on Mars. An aqueous epoch on Mars would have important biological and other geological implications. Putative Martian organisms which flourish in the aqueous epoch may now be in cryptobiotic repose.

  7. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  8. Dust Removal on Mars Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Anderson, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    Dust coatings on the surface of Mars complicate and, if sufficiently thick, mask the spectral characteristics and compositional determination of underlying material from in situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) portion of the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instrument, aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, will be the first active remote sensing technique deployed on Mars able to remove dust. ChemCam utilizes a 5 ns pulsed 1067 nm high-powered laser focused to less than 400 m diameter on targets at distances up to 7 m [1,2]. With multiple laser pulses, dust and weathering coatings can be remotely analyzed and potentially removed using this technique [2,3]. A typical LIBS measurement during MSL surface operations is planned to consist of 50 laser pulses at 14 mJ, with the first 5 to 10 pulses used to analyze as well as remove any surface coating. Additionally, ChemCam's Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) is capable of resolving 200 m details at a distance of 2 m, or 1 mm at 10 m [1,4]. In this study, we report on initial laboratory experiments conducted to characterize the removal of dust coatings using similar LIBS parameters as ChemCam under Mars-like conditions. These experiments serve to better understand the removal of surface dust using LIBS and to facilitate the analysis of ChemCam LIBS spectral data and RMI images.

  9. Habitability: Where to look for life? Halophilic habitats: Earth analogs to study Mars habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Rodríguez, N.; Fernández-Sampedro, M.; Caballero-Castrejón, F. J.; Amils, R.

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress, high radiation doses, low temperature and pressure are parameters which made Mars's surface adverse for life. Those conditions found on Mars surface are harsh conditions for life to deal with. Life, as we know it on Earth, needs several requirements for its establishment but, the only "sine qua nom" element is water. Extremophilic microorganisms widened the window of possibilities for life to develop in the universe, and as a consequence on Mars. Recently reported results in extreme environments indicate the possibility of presence of "oasys" for life in microniches due to water deliquescence in salts deposits. The compilation of data produced by the ongoing missions (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity) offers a completely different view from that reported by Viking missions: signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity. The discovery of important accumulations of sulfates, and the existence of iron minerals like jarosite, goethite and hematite in rocks of sedimentary origin has allowed specific terrestrial models related with this type of mineralogy to come into focus. Río Tinto (Southwestern Spain, Iberian Pyritic Belt) is an extreme acidic environment, product of the chemolithotrophic activity of microorganisms that thrive in the massive pyrite-rich deposits of the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The high concentration of ferric iron and sulfates, products of the metabolism of pyrite, generate a collection of minerals, mainly gypsum, jarosite, goethite and hematites, all of which have been detected in different regions of Mars. Some particular protective environments or elements could house organic molecules or the first bacterial life forms on Mars surface. Terrestrial analogs could help us to afford its comprehension. We are reporting here some preliminary studies about endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light

  10. Revisiting Valley Development on Martian Volcanoes Using MGS and Odyssey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.

    2005-01-01

    The valley networks found on the slopes of Martian volcanoes represent an interesting subset of the Martian valley networks. Not only do the volcanoes constrain the possible geologic settings, they also provide a window into Martian valley development through time, as the volcanoes formed throughout the geologic history of Mars. Here I take another look at this intriguing subset of networks by revisiting conclusions reached in my earlier studies using the Viking imagery and the valleys on Hawaii as an analog. I then examine more recent datasets.

  11. ODYSSEY MONO: effect of alirocumab 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks as monotherapy versus ezetimibe over 24 weeks.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eli M; McKenney, James M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Alirocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9. The ODYSSEY MONO study was the first alirocumab Phase III study to test a previously unused dose of 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks in a population on no lipid-lowering therapy. A total of 103 patients were randomly assigned to alirocumab starting at 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks or ezetimibe 10 mg per os every day with alirocumab dose uptitration at 12 weeks based on achieved LDL-cholesterol level at week 8 and followed to week 24. At the week-24 primary end point, the alirocumab intent-to-treat group showed a 47.2% (least square [LS] mean) reduction in LDL-cholesterol compared with a 15.6% (LS mean) reduction with ezetimibe (LS mean difference of 31.6%; p < 0.0001). Safety parameters and adverse events were similar between the two groups. PMID:25606700

  12. Russian contribution to the ExoMars project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Korablev, O.; Rodionov, D.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukyanchikov, A.

    2014-04-01

    The ExoMars ESA-led mission is dedicated to study of Mars and in particular its habitability. It consists of two launches, one planned in 2016 to deliver to Mars a telecommunication and science orbiter Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and a demonstrator of entry into the atmosphere and landing on the Mars surface, Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM). In 2018 a rover with drilling capability will be delivered to the surface of Mars. Since 2012 this mission, previously planned in cooperation with NASA is being developed in cooperation with Roscosmos. Both launches are planned with Proton-Breeze. In 2016 Russia contributes a significant part of the TGO science payload. In 2018 the landing will be provided by a joint effort capitalizing on the EDM technology. Russia contributes few science instruments for the rover, and leads the development of a long-living geophysical platform on the surface of Mars. Russian science instruments for TGO, the Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) and the Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutrons Detector (FREND) constituent a half of its scientific payload, European instrument being NOMAD for mapping and detection of trace species, and CASSIS camera for high-resolution mapping of target areas. The ACS package consists of three spectrometers covering spectral range from 0.7 to 17 μm with spectral resolving power reaching 50000. It is dedicated to studies of the composition of the Martian atmosphere and the Martian climate. FREND is a neutron detector with a collimation module, which significantly narrows the field of view of the instrument, allowing to create higher resolution maps of hydrogen-abundant regions on Mars. The spatial resolution of FREND will be ~40 km from the 400- km TGO orbit that is ~10 times better than HEND on Mars-Odyssey. Additionally, FREND includes a dosimeter module for monitoring radiation levels in orbit around Mars. In the 2018 mission, Russia takes the major responsibility of the descent module. The primary

  13. Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Contents include the following: Executive Summary; Introduction; Scientific Goals for the Exploration of Mars; Overview of Mars Surveyor and Others Mars Missions; Key Issues for NASA's Mars Exploration Program; and Assessment of the Scientific Potential of NASA's Mars Exploration Program.

  14. History and Progress of GCM Simulations on Recent Mars Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey spacecraft reveal evidence that Mars may have experienced significant climate change in the recent past (105-106 Myr ago). Examples include gullies [1], cold-based tropical glaciers [2], paleolakes [3], and youthful near-surface ice [4]. Except for the gullies, the evidence for recent climate change requires ice and/or liquid water at low latitudes. An obvious question, therefore, is how is it possible for ice and/or liquid water to exist at low latitudes which is not possible in the present climate system? There are several mechanisms to consider. An episode of intense volcanic activity could alter the mean composition of the atmosphere and, therefore, the climate system. Impacts, depending on the size, composition, and velocity of the impactor are another way to dramatically alter the climate system. Polar wander and solar variability are also possibilities. However, the most promising way to change the climate is through changes in orbital properties. Mars, because of its proximity to Jupiter and lack of a large stabilizing moon, experiences much greater changes in its orbit properties than the Earth.

  15. History and Progress of GCM Simulations on Recent Mars Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey spacecraft reveal evidence that Mars may have experienced significant climate change in the recent past (10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) Myr ago). Examples include gullies, cold-based tropical glaciers, paleolakes, and youthful near-surface ice. Except for the gullies, the evidence for recent climate change requires ice and/or liquid water at low latitudes. An obvious question, therefore, is how is it possible for ice and/or liquid water to exist at low latitudes which is not possible in the present climate system? There are several mechanisms to consider. An episode of intense volcanic activity could alter the mean composition of the atmosphere and, therefore, the climate system. Impacts, depending on the size, composition, and velocity of the impactor are another way to dramatically alter the climate system. Polar wander and solar variability are also possibilities. However, the most promising way to change the climate is through changes in orbital properties. Mars, because of its proximity to Jupiter and lack of a large stabilizing moon, experiences much greater changes in its orbit properties than the Earth.

  16. Fine Resolution Neutron Detector for ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Instrument and science goals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhov, Alexey; Litvak, Maxim; Kozyrev, S. Alexander; Tretiyakov, Vladislav; Sanin, Anton; Mokrousov, Maxim; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Golovin, Dmitry; Semkova, Jordanka; Dachev, Tsvetan; Malchev, Stefan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Koleva, Rositza; Mitrofanov, Igor; F

    Fine Resolution Neutron Detector (FREND) will measure neutrons of different energy ranges, charged particles and radiation environment onboard ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter spacecraft. The instrument contains a set of (3) He detectors for epithermal neutrons and a scintillation crystal for high-energy neutrons and charged particles measurements. Dosimeter module will perform dose and particle flux monitoring. The instrument also contains a collimation module that narrows 3He counters’ and scintillator’s field of view to a narrow spot on the surface of Mars of about 40 km. FREND will be the first experiment to perform high resolution hydrogen mapping of the Martian surface. Current hydrogen maps obtained by HEND instrument onboard Mars Odyssey provide only 300km spatial resolution. Improved data from FREND will be very valuable for further exploration missions in terms of landing sites selection, as well as enable us to better understand Martian geology, seasonal CO _{2} cycles and planet’s history. Radiation environment data from dosimeter module on Martian orbit will provide improved knowledge for future human exploration as well as perform solar particle events monitoring.

  17. Mid-latitude composition of mars from thermal and epithermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T. H.; Feldman, W. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Boynton, W. V.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Funsten, H. O.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Maurice, S.; McKinney, G. W.; Moore, K. R.; Tokar, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Epithermal neutron data acquired by Mars Odyssey have been analyzed to determine global maps of water-equivalent hydrogen abundance. By assuming that hydrogen was distributed uniformly with depth within the surface, a map of minimum water abundance was obtained. The addition of thermal neutrons to this analysis could provide information needed to determine water stratigraphy. For example, thermal and epithermal neutrons have been used together to determine the depth and abundance of waterequivalent hydrogen of a buried layer in the south polar region. Because the emission of thermal neutrons from the Martian surface is sensitive to absorption by elements other than hydrogen, analysis of stratigraphy requires that the abundance of these elements be known. For example, recently published studies of the south polar region assumed that the Mars Pathfinder mean soil composition is representative of the regional soil composition, This assumption is partially motivated by the fact that Mars appears to have a well-mixed global dust cover and that the Pathfinder soil composition is representative of the mean composition of the Martian surface. In this study, we have analyzed thermal and epithermal neutron data measured by the neutron spectrometer subsystem of the gamma ray spectrometer to determine the spatial distribution of the composition of elements other than hydrogen. We have restricted our analysis to mid-latitude regions for which we have corrected the neutron counting data for variations in atmospheric thickness.

  18. Is Mars Red Hot?

    NASA Video Gallery

    What would it feel like if you could stand on Mars – toasty warm, or downright chilly? Find out more about the temperature on Mars in this 60-second video from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  20. Viking Mars encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Various phases of planetary operations related to the Viking mission to Mars are described. Topics discussed include: approach phase, Mars orbit insertion, prelanding orbital activities, separation, descent and landing, surface operations, surface sampling and operations starting, orbiter science and radio science, Viking 2, Deep Space Network and data handling.

  1. Plasma engineering for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Baldwin, D.E.; Barr, W.L.

    1983-03-24

    The two-year Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in the conceptual design of a commercial, electricity-producing fusion reactor based on tandem mirror confinement. The physics basis for the MARS reactor was developed through work in two highly coupled areas of plasma engineering: magnetics and plasma performance.

  2. Mars' grand finale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. C.; Beish, J. D.; Hernandez, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    Results are presented from observations of the 1988 Mars apparition. Consideration is given to observations of the Martian south polar cap, meteorological activity on the planet, and changes in the surface features of Mars during the apparition. Also, the Martian dust storms observed in November 1988 are described.

  3. Dust devils on Mars.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Gierasch, P J

    1985-10-11

    Columnar, cone-shaped, and funnel-shaped clouds rising 1 to 6 kilometers above the surface of Mars have been identified in Viking Orbiter images. They are interpreted as dust devils, confirming predictions of their occurrence on Mars and giving evidence of a specific form of dust entrainment.

  4. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  5. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  6. Rat on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's rock abrasion tool, also known as 'rat' (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  7. Mars ice caps.

    PubMed

    Leovy, C

    1966-12-01

    Minimum atmospheric temperatures required to prevent CO(2) condensatio in the Mars polar caps are higher than those obtained in a computer experiment to simulate the general circulation of the Mars atmosphere. This observation supports the view that the polar caps are predominantly solid CO(2). However, thin clouds of H(2)0 ice could substantially reduce the surface condensation rate.

  8. Microscope on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  9. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  10. Surface Drainage on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Vidal, A.

    2001-01-01

    The role of water on Mars bears directly on investigations crossing a wide range of disciplines, including geomorphology, geochemistry, and biology. We have calculated the potential flow patterns of water using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Interplanetary journey of a coronal mass ejection to Mars and to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, Olivier; Kajdic, Primoz; Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Mays, Leila; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Espley, Jared; Goetz, Charlotte; Richter, Ingo; Koenders, Christoph; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Nilsson, Hans; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Andrews, David; Lester, Mark; Edberg, Niklas; Zouganelis, Yannis; Intzekara, Dimitra; Kuulkers, Erik; Turc, Lucile; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2016-04-01

    We discuss observations of a large coronal mass ejection (CME) ejected on 14 October 2014, which hit Mars on 17 October 2014, 1.5 days before the Mars close encounter with the Siding Spring comet. Clear disturbances of the Mars' upper atmosphere are identified in the Mars Express and MAVEN data sets. Interestingly, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was perfectly aligned with the Sun and Mars at 1.7 AU behind Mars, with the Rosetta spacecraft orbiting at 10 km above the cometary surface. The Rosetta plasma package and the radiation monitor detected the event on 22 October 2014. We describe the propagation of this CME from the Sun to Rosetta and show comparison with dedicated WSA-ENLIL (large-scale, physics-based prediction model of the heliosphere) simulations. CME effects on the Mars and comet 67P environments are reported. In particular, large and similar Forbush effects - a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity- were observed at both places, as recorded by the MSL RAD instrument aboard the Curiosity rover at the surface of Mars and by the Radiation Environment Monitor aboard Rosetta. Fortuitously, the New Horizons spacecraft was also along the propagation direction of the CME, which can take 3-5 months to reach the distance of 31.7 AU. By the time the solar wind travels that far from the Sun, the fast solar wind parcels have interacted with slower wind parcels emitted at an earlier time along the same radial line. We investigate if the CME observed at Mars and Rosetta has a unique signature at New Horizons. This presents a challenge since many solar structures can either be worn down as they propagate, or they can merge into larger ones. We present also preliminary 3D WSA-ENLIL simulations out to 40 AU showing the evolution of the CME, including other CMEs during this period.

  12. Project Genesis: Mars in situ propellant technology demonstrator mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Francisco Garcia; Anderson, Scott; Andrews, Jason; Deger, Matt; Hedman, Matt; Kipp, Jared; Kobayashi, Takahisa; Marcelo, Mohrli; Mark, Karen; Matheson, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Project Genesis is a low cost, near-term, unmanned Mars mission, whose primary purpose is to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. The essence of the mission is to use indigenously produced fuel and oxidizer to propel a ballistic hopper. The Mars Landing Vehicle/Hopper (MLVH) has an Earth launch mass of 625 kg and is launched aboard a Delta 117925 launch vehicle into a conjunction class transfer orbit to Mars. Upon reaching its target, the vehicle performs an aerocapture maneuver and enters an elliptical orbit about Mars. Equipped with a ground penetrating radar, the MLVH searches for subsurface water ice deposits while in orbit for several weeks. A deorbit burn is then performed to bring the MLVH into the Martian atmosphere for landing. Following aerobraking and parachute deployment, the vehicle retrofires to a soft landing on Mars. Once on the surface, the MLVH begins to acquire scientific data and to manufacture methane and oxygen via the Sabatier process. This results in a fuel-rich O2/CH4 mass ratio of 2, which yields a sufficiently high specific impulse (335 sec) that no additional oxygen need be manufactured, thus greatly simplifying the design of the propellant production plant. During a period of 153 days the MLVH produces and stores enough fuel and oxidizer to make a 30 km ballistic hop to a different site of scientific interest. At this new location the MLVH resumes collecting surface and atmospheric data with the onboard instrumentation. Thus, the MLVH is able to provide a wealth of scientific data which would otherwise require two separate missions or separate vehicles, while proving a new and valuable technology that will facilitate future unmanned and manned exploration of Mars. Total mission cost, including the Delta launch vehicle, is estimated to be $200 million.

  13. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  14. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  15. Ionosphere of Mars observed by Mars Express.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, Eduard; Fraenz, Markus; Andrews, Dave; Morgan, Dave

    2016-04-01

    The Martian ionosphere is studied at different solar zenith angles using the local electron number densities and total electron content (TEC) derived from the observations by MARSIS onboard Mars Express. The data are complemented by the ASPERA-3 observations which provide us with the information about upward/downward velocity of the low-energy ions and electron precipitation. We consider the Mars Express observations at different solar cycle intervals. Different factors which influence the ionosphere dynamics are analyzed. The focus is made on a role of the crustal magnetic field on the Martian ionosphere and its influence on ion escape.

  16. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  17. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  18. The Search for Nitrates on Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer C.; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Chirstopher P.; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Coll, Partice J.; Glavin, Daniel Patrick; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Wong, Mike; Atreya, Sushiil K.; Wray, James J.; Steele, Andrew; Prats, Benito D.; Szopa, Cyril; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Buch, Arnaud; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ming, Douglas W.; Conrad, Pamela Gales; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Grotzinger, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere as N2 but it was lost by sputtering and photochemical loss to space, impact erosion, and chemical oxidation to nitrates. A nitrogen cycle may exist on Mars where nitrates, produced early in Mars' history, may have been later decomposed back into N2 by the current impact flux. Nitrates are a fundamental source of nitrogen for terrestrial microorganisms, and they have evolved metabolic pathways to perform both oxidation and reduction to drive a complete biological nitrogen cycle. Therefore, the characterization of nitrogen in Martian soils is important to assess habitability of the Martian environment, particularly with respect to the presence of nitrates. The only previous mission that was designed to search for soil nitrates was the Phoenix mission but N-containing species were not detected by TEGA or the MECA WCL. Nitrates have been tentatively identified in Nakhla meteorites, and if nitrogen was oxidized on Mars, this has important implications for the habitability potential of Mars. Here we report the results from the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite aboard the Curiosity rover during the first year of surface operations in Gale Crater. Samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit and sedimentary rocks (John Klein) were heated to approx 835degC under helium flow and the evolved gases were analyzed by MS and GC-MS. Two and possibly three peaks may be associated with the release of m/z 30 at temperatures ranging from 180degC to 500degC. M/z 30 has been tentatively identified as NO; other plausible contributions include CH2O and an isotopologue of CO, 12C18O. NO, CH2O, and CO may be reaction products of reagents (MTBSTFA/DMF) carried from Earth for the wet chemical derivatization experiments with SAM and/or derived from indigenous soil nitrogenated organics. Laboratory analyses indicate that it is also possible that <550degC evolved NO is produced via reaction of HCl with

  19. ESA's Mars Program: European Plans for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, Francois

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the European Space Agency Mars Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) History:Mars Exploration in Europe; 2) A few preliminary results from Mars Express; 3) A new instrument:Radar MARSIS; and 4) European Mars Exploration in the future?

  20. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  1. Nine martian years of dust optical depth observations: A reference dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, Luca; Forget, Francois; Kleinboehl, Armin; Kass, David; Wilson, R. John; Millour, Ehouarn; Smith, Michael; Lewis, Stephen; Cantor, Bruce; Lemmon, Mark; Wolff, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-annual reference dataset of the horizontal distribution of airborne dust from martian year 24 to 32 using observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to June 2015 made by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Our methodology to build the dataset works by gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. The resulting (irregularly) gridded maps (one per sol) were validated with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. Finally, regular maps of CDOD are produced by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These latter maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modelling applications. The two datasets (daily irregularly gridded maps and regularly kriged maps) for the nine available martian years are publicly available as NetCDF files and can be downloaded from the MCD website at the URL: http://www-mars.lmd.jussieu.fr/mars/dust_climatology/index.html

  2. MAVEN Imaging UV Spectrograph Results on the Mars Atmosphere and Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefevre, Franck; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Stiepen, Arnaud; Crismani, Matteo; Mayyasi, Majd; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Mike; Yelle, Roger; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) is one of nine science instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft, whose payload is dedicated to exploring the upper atmosphere of Mars and understanding the magnitude and drivers of Mars' atmospheric escape rate. IUVS uses ultraviolet light to investigate the lower and upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. The instrument is among the most powerful spectrographs sent to another planet, with several key capabilities: (1) separate Far-UV & Mid-UV channels for stray light control, (2) a high resolution echelle mode to resolve deuterium and hydrogen emission, (3) internal instrument pointing and scanning capabilities to allow complete mapping and nearly continuous operation, and (4) optimization for airglow studies. IUVS, along with other MAVEN instruments, obtains a comprehensive picture of the current state of the Mars upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes that control atmospheric escape. We present an overview of selected IUVS results, including (1) the discovery of diffuse aurora at Mars, and its contrast with previously detected discrete aurora localized near crustal magnetic fields; (2) widespread detection of mesospheric clouds; (3) Significant seasonal and short-timescale variability in thermospheric composition; (4) Global ozone maps spanning six months of seasonal evolution; and (5) mapping of the Mars H and O coronas, deriving the escape rates of H and O and their variability. This last is of particular importance for understanding the long term evolution of Mars and its atmosphere, with the observed preset escape of H potentially capable of removing a large fraction of Mars' initial water inventory, and the differential escape of O relative to H potentially providing a net source of oxidizing power to the atmosphere and planet at present, in contrast with a photochemical theory that predicts stoichiometrically balanced escape. The atmospheric and escape

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    -bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Samples of the crater wall and rim rock, and more recent to currently active surface materials also may be studied. Gale has a well-defined regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments. These environments are represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, and insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars. The interior mountain of Gale Crater has been informally designated at Mount Sharp, in honor of the pioneering planetary scientist Robert Sharp. The major subsystems of the MSL Project consist of a single rover (with science payload), a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, an Earth-Mars cruise stage, an entry, descent, and landing system, a launch vehicle, and the mission operations and ground data systems. The primary communication path for downlink is relay through the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The primary path for uplink to the rover is Direct-from-Earth. The secondary paths for downlink are Direct-to-Earth and relay through the Mars Odyssey orbiter. Curiosity is a scaled version of the 6-wheel drive, 4-wheel steering, rocker bogie system from the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit and Opportunity and the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner. Like Spirit and Opportunity, Curiosity offers three primary modes of navigation: blind-drive, visual odometry, and visual odometry with hazard avoidance. Creation of terrain maps based on HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and other remote sensing data were used to conduct simulated driving with Curiosity in these various modes, and allowed selection of the Gale crater landing site which requires climbing the base of a

  4. Geomorphic Indicators of Ground Ice on Mars and Evidence for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Until recently, indications of the presence of ice in the near surface of Mars, outside the polar caps, has depended upon the interpretation of morphology from imaging data. Early work in this area was based primarily on Viking orbiter images where several large landforms (100s to 1000s of meters in scale) were interpreted to be related to the presence of ice in the regolith or upper crust. These include lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill, softened terrain, and polygons, and are typically found between the latitudes of 30° -60° N and S. Without direct measurements of the presence of water, the interpretations rely on analogies with Earth's periglacial and glacial morphologies as well as geophysical modeling of ice-rich soils and crustal material. New spacecraft data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions have significantly added to the family of morphologies with ground-ice affinities. From the high spatial resolution images acquired by Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) a new array of polygons have been detected which range in size from 25-200 m and show strong latitudinal gradients above 50° . A possibly related morphology exhibiting a regularly spaced surface texture resembling the texture of a basketball is also found in these high latitudes. A number of morphologies indicating viscous flow on steep slopes are found in the mid-latitudes and are consistent with an ice-rich soils deforming under martian surface conditions. A continuous deposit, meters-thick and interpreted to be ice rich is observed at latitudes above 60° , but that is in a degraded condition at lower latitudes (formerly ice-rich) and absent in the equatorial regions (within 30° ). The neutron spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft made direct measurements of hydrogen which shows clearly the presence of high water-ice abundance (>70% by volume) in the surface soils in the northern and southern latitudes above 60° . This critical observation ties in well with theoretical

  5. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with respect to employees rendering watchman or similar service aboard a vessel in port. Members of the crew... crew rendering watchman or similar services aboard the vessel during this period would not appear to...

  6. ExoMars 2016 arrives at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; ExoMars Team

    2016-10-01

    The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the Schiaparelli Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Model (EDM) will arrive at Mars on 19 October 2016. The TGO and the EDM are part of the first step of the ExoMars Programme. They will be followed by a Rover and a long lived Surface Platform to be launched in 2020.The EDM is attached to the TGO for the full duration of the cruise to Mars and will be separated three days before arrival at Mars. After separation the TGO will perform a deflection manoeuvre and, on 19 October (during the EDM landing), enter into a highly elliptical near equatorial orbit. TGO will remain in this parking orbit until January 2017, when the orbital plane inclination will be changed to 74 degrees and aerobraking to the final 400 km near circular orbit will start. The final operational orbit is expected to be reached at the end of 2017.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The main objective of the EDM is to demonstrate the capability of performing a safe entry, descent and landing on the surface, but it does carry a descent camera and a small battery powered meteorological package that may operate for a few days on the surface.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and

  7. Mars Aerobot Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J.; Bachelder, A.; Cameron, J.; Patzold, J.; Quadrelli, M.; Yavrouian, A.; Cantrell, J.; Lachenmeier, T.; Smith, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Balloon Validation Program (MABVAP) was initiated in August 1997 to develop and validate key technologies needed for aerobot missions on Mars. The major elements of the program are the development of balloons for flight on Mars, robust techniques for deployment and inflation and modeling and simulation of balloon flight paths. selection, development and tests of available balloon materials, design and fabrication of balloons (both superpressure and solar- heated), design and fabrication of deployment and inflation systems for aerial deployment, design and fabrication of avionics to control deployment/inflation process and to get telemetry and video data. Modeling of main processes during deployment and actual flight is also a part of MABVAP. In order to validate deployment and inflation, MABVAP applies experience from previous Mars balloon development or study activities the Russian-French Mars Aerostat Project (1988-1995), Mars Aerial Platform Study (1994) and Mars Aerobot/Balloon Study (1996). The program includes laboratory, wind tunnel, vacuum chamber tests of the system components and a number of tropospheric and stratospheric flight tests of deployment and inflation of lightfilm balloons in a simulated Martian environment.

  8. Global climatic change on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kargel, J S; Strom, R G

    1996-11-01

    The authors examine evidence from Mariner and Viking probes of the Martian environment to support theories of a global climate change on Mars. Similarities between some geographical features on Earth and Mars are used to suggest a warmer climate on Mars in the past. An overview of planned Mars exploration missions is included.

  9. Third International Colloquium on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of papers concerning the geology and geophysics of Mars, volcanism on Mars, the Mars atmosphere, and the long term history of the atmosphere-cap-regolith volatile regime are presented. Formation of the Mars surface, climatology, gravity and magnetism, atmospheric boundary layers, and interpretation of Viking imagery and Earth-based observations are considered.

  10. Scientific considerations in the design of the Mars observer gamma-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R. ); Boynton, W.V. ); Englert, P. ); Feldman, W.C. ); Metzger, A.E. ); Reedy, R.C. ); Squyres, S.W. ); Trombka, J.I. )

    1989-05-15

    Cosmic-ray primary and secondary particles induce characteristic gamma-ray and neutron emissions from condensed bodies in our solar system. These characteristic emissions can be used to obtain qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses of planetary surfaces from orbital altitudes. Remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy has been successfully used to obtain elemental composition of the Moon and Mars during United States Apollo 15 and 16 missions and the Soviet Luna and Mars missions. A remote sensing gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer will be included aboard the United States Mars Observer Mission. If proper care is not taken in the design of the spectrometer and choice of materials in the construction of the detector system and spacecraft, the sensitivity of these remote sensing spectrometers can be greatly degraded. A discussion of these design and material selection problems is presented.

  11. Scientific considerations in the design of the Mars observer gamma-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Englert, P.; Feldman, W.C.; Metzger, A.E.; Reedy, R.C.; Squyres, S.W.; Trombka, J.I.; Wanke, H.

    1987-01-01

    Cosmic-ray primary and secondary particles induce characteristic gamma-ray and neutron emissions from condensed bodies in our solar system. These characteristic emissions can be used to obtain qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses of planetary surfaces from orbital altitudes. Remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy has been successfully used to obtain elemental composition of the Moon and Mars during United States Apollo 15 and 16 missions and the Soviet Luna and Mars missions. A remote sensing gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer will be included aboard the United States Mars Observer Mission. If proper care is not taken in the design of the spectrometer and choice of materials in the construction of the detector system and spacecraft, the sensitivity of these remote sensing spectrometers can be greatly degraded. A discussion of these design and material selection problems is presented. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. MARS PATHFINDER ENTRY VEHICLE MATED TO CRUISE STAGE IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The critical task of mating the Mars Pathfinder entry vehicle with its cruise stage is under way in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). Mechanical mating is completed first and then electrical connections between the two elements are established. The cone-shaped aeroshell is being moved upward into the cruise stage, the uppermost element. Inside the protective aeroshell is the Pathfinder lander, and inside the lander is the Sojourner rover that will explore the Martian terrain. The aeroshell, lander and rover together comprise the entry vehicle. The cruise stage will deliver the entry vehicle directly to Mars, a journey expected to last approximately seven months, and then is jettisoned before the entry vehicle makes its final descent to the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a 24-day launch period that opens Dec. 2, 1996.

  13. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), workers prepare the Mars Climate Orbiter for a spin test. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. At the extreme right can be seen the lander in another work area. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  14. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), a worker maneuvers the Mars Climate Orbiter, suspended by an overhead crane, to the spin test equipment at lower right. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  15. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), the Mars Climate Orbiter is lifted from the workstand to move it to another site for a spin test. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  16. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), the Mars Climate Orbiter is in place for its spin test. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  17. The Mars Climate Orbiter is prepared for a spin test in the SAEF- 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), workers lower the Mars Climate Orbiter into place on the spin test equipment. Targeted for launch aboard a Delta II rocket on Dec. 10, 1998, the orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 687 Earth days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  18. Entry-probe studies of the atmospheres of earth, Mars, and Venus - A review (Von Karman Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper overviews the history (since 1963) of the exploration of planetary atmospheres by use of entry probes. The techniques used to measure the compositions of the atmospheres of the earth, Mars, and Venus are described together with the key results obtained. Attention is also given to the atmosphere-structure experiment aboard the Galileo Mission, launched on October 17, 1989 and now under way on its 6-yr trip to Jupiter, and to future experiments.

  19. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander is lowered toward the rocket waiting below. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.

  20. The fairing for the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander arrives on Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the fairing for the upper stages of the Delta II rocket carrying the Mars Polar Lander is prepared for lowering toward the rocket below. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A in December 1998.