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Sample records for aboard space missions

  1. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  2. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  3. Stability of Formulations Contained in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf life are essential for successful space medical operations in support of space exploration missions. Physical and environmental factors unique to space missions such as vibration, G forces and ionizing radiation may adversely affect stability of pharmaceuticals intended for standard care of astronauts aboard space missions. Stable pharmaceuticals, therefore, are of paramount importance for assuring health and wellness of astronauts in space. Preliminary examination of stability of formulations from Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) medical kits revealed that some of these medications showed physical and chemical degradation after flight raising concern of reduced therapeutic effectiveness with these medications in space. A research payload experiment was conducted with a select set of formulations stowed aboard a shuttle flight and on ISS. The payload consisted of four identical pharmaceutical kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms that were transported to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the Space Shuttle, STS 121. One of the four kits was stored on the shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at six months intervals on a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit; the shuttle kit was returned to Earth on the same flight. Standard stability indicating physical and chemical parameters were measured for all pharmaceuticals returned from the shuttle and from the first ISS increment payload along with ground-based matching controls. Results were compared between shuttle, ISS and ground controls. Evaluation of data from the three paradigms indicates that some of the formulations exhibited significant degradation in space compared to respective ground controls; a few formulations were unstable both on the ground and in space. An increase in the number of pharmaceuticals from ISS failing USP standards was noticed compared to those from the shuttle

  4. Metis aboard the Solar Orbiter space mission: Doses from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telloni, Daniele; Fabi, Michele; Grimani, Catia; Antonucci, Ester

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to calculate the dose released by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the polarimeter of the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (METIS) coronagraph [1] aboard the Solar Orbiter. This investigation is performed with a Monte Carlo method by considering the role of SEP events of proper intensity at a heliocentric distance from the Sun averaged along the spacecraft orbit. Our approach can be extended to other space missions reaching short distances from the Sun, such as Solar Probe Plus. This study indicates that the deposited dose on the whole set of polarimeter lenses and filters during ten years of the Solar Orbiter mission is of about 2000 Gy. For cerium treated lenses, a dose of 106 Gy of gamma radiation from a 60Co source causes a few percent transmittance loss.

  5. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  6. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  7. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  8. A space maintainability experiment aboard the Ben Franklin submersible during the 30-day Gulf Stream drift mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; May, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    In the summer of 1969, a deep submersible drifted for 30 days below the surface of the Gulf Stream, while operated by a six man crew. The main purpose of the mission was oceanographic research. The crew's activities and completely self-contained environment resembled those of a space station such as Skylab. Because of these similarities aspects of onboard vehicle maintenance during the actual conduct of a scientific mission were investigated. The maintainability study was accomplished in six distinct phases. Two useful plots of manpower distribution were developed. A maintenance action summary is presented in a table.

  9. All Aboard for Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    This book is designed as a resource for teachers and parents concerned with early childhood education. It is hoped that the ideas and activities presented herein will serve in the creation of a space science and mathematics curriculum that is both child-centered and exciting. The basic philosophy for this curriculum is that of Piaget. This…

  10. Pharmaceutical experiment aboard STS-67 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour during the STS-67 mission. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical, but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids, and crystal growth investigation

  11. Complex researches aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhyl, Yu. A.

    Special Research and Development Bureau SRDB is a general organizer on Ukrainian part of three Ukrainian- Russian joint experiments to be implemented aboard the Russian segment of International Space Station RS-ISS Experiment Material- Friction It is proposed to carry out a series of comparative tribological research under conditions of orbital flight aboard the ISS versus those in on- ground laboratory conditions To meet these objectives there will be employed a special onboard 6-module Space- borne tribometer- facility The on- ground research will be implemented under conditions of laboratory simulation of Space environmental factors Results thus obtained would enable one to forecast a behavior of friction pairs as well as functional safety and lifetime of the space- vehicle This experiment will also enable us determine an adequacy of tribological results obtained under conditions of outer Space and on- ground simulation Experiment Penta- Fatigue It is proposed to develop fabricate and deliver aboard the RS-ISS a facility intended for studies of SEF- influence on characteristics of metallic and polymeric materials resistance to fatigue destruction Such a project to be implemented in outer Space for the first ever time would enable us to estimate the parameter of cosmic lifetime for constructional materials due to such mechanical characteristic as fatigue strength so as to enable selection of specific sorts of constructional materials appropriate to service in Space technologies At the same time

  12. Welcome Aboard Starship MIR: Mission Is Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullickson, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Six years ago Project Starship MIR, the Russian language "shuttle," launched at Turnagain Elementary, one of the Anchorage School District's 65 elementary schools. The MIR "peace" mission originated with encouragement from the local business community to prepare students for Alaska's future economic, social and political ties with neighboring…

  13. Living aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The crew habitat of the Space Shuttle is briefly characterized. Subjects discussed include the overall layout of the crew quarters; the air-purification and climate-control facilities; menus and food-preparation techniques; dishwashing, laundry, toilet, bathing, and shaving procedures; and recreation and sleeping accommodations. Drawings and a photograph are provided.

  14. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  15. The Marshall Space Flight Center development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-09-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

  16. The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

  17. Ovarian Tumor Cells Studied Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In August 2001, principal investigator Jeanne Becker sent human ovarian tumor cells to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the STS-105 mission. The tumor cells were cultured in microgravity for a 14 day growth period and were analyzed for changes in the rate of cell growth and synthesis of associated proteins. In addition, they were evaluated for the expression of several proteins that are the products of oncogenes, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. This photo, which was taken by astronaut Frank Culbertson who conducted the experiment for Dr. Becker, shows two cell culture bags containing LN1 ovarian carcinoma cell cultures.

  18. Space Mission Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, Gael F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concept of developing a space mission operations concept; the benefits of starting this system engineering task early; the neccessary inputs to the process; and the products that are generated.

  19. Dwarf Wheat grown aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dwarf wheat were photographed aboard the International Space Station in April 2002. Lessons from on-orbit research on plants will have applications to terrestrial agriculture as well as for long-term space missions. Alternative agricultural systems that can efficiently produce greater quantities of high-quality crops in a small area are important for future space expeditions. Also regenerative life-support systems that include plants will be an important component of long-term space missions. Data from the Biomass Production System (BPS) and the Photosynthesis Experiment and System Testing and Operations (PESTO) will advance controlled-environment agricultural systems and will help farmers produce better, healthier crops in a small area. This same knowledge is critical to closed-loop life support systems for spacecraft. The BPS comprises a miniature environmental control system for four plant growth chambers, all in the volume of two space shuttle lockers. The experience with the BPS on orbit is providing valuable design and operational lessons that will be incorporated into the Plant Growth Units. The objective of PESTO was to flight verify the BPS hardware and to determine how the microgravity environment affects the photosynthesis and metabolic function of Super Dwarf wheat and Brassica rapa (a member of the mustard family).

  20. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  1. The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Ins1rument Aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-German X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned and complementary X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Russian-led Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV (with limited sensitivity above 12 keV).

  2. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  3. Post flight operation of a high peak power neodymium YAG laser aboard the G-449 payload flown on Space Shuttle Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd Yag laser flown on board the G-449 payload completed its postflight testing successfully. There was no indication that the laser had undergone any electronic or optical component failure. A postflight video was taken immediately following the return of the payload to the laboratory. Early anticipation of vibration and temperature changes contributed to the successful operation of the laser. Photographic material resulting from post flight videotape are presented. NASA safety reviews and recommendations supplied the insights which helped contribute to the successful operation of the Nd Yag laser. The safety review data is part of the technical presentation and gives some insight into why the system survived the severe environment of temperature and vibration during the flight of Space Shuttle 61-C.

  4. Post flight operation of a high peak power neodymium YAG laser aboard the G-449 payload flown on Space Shuttle Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1992-10-01

    The Nd Yag laser flown on board the G-449 payload completed its postflight testing successfully. There was no indication that the laser had undergone any electronic or optical component failure. A postflight video was taken immediately following the return of the payload to the laboratory. Early anticipation of vibration and temperature changes contributed to the successful operation of the laser. Photographic material resulting from post flight videotape are presented. NASA safety reviews and recommendations supplied the insights which helped contribute to the successful operation of the Nd Yag laser. The safety review data is part of the technical presentation and gives some insight into why the system survived the severe environment of temperature and vibration during the flight of Space Shuttle 61-C.

  5. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  6. Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment aboard mission STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' middeck, Astronaut Joseph R. Tarner, mission specialist, works at an area amidst several lockers which support the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment during the STS-66 mission. This particular section is called the Crystal Observation System, housed in the Thermal Enclosure System (COS/TES). Together with the Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA), housed in Single Locker Thermal Enclosure (SLTES), the COS/TES represents the continuing research into the structure of proteins and other macromolecules such as viruses.

  7. NASDA President Communicates With Japanese Crew Member Aboard the STS-47 Spacelab-J Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. From the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC), NASDA President, Mr. Yamano, speaks to Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, a Japanese crew member aboard the STS-47 Spacelab J mission.

  8. Forced Forward Smoldering Experiments Aboard The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Bar-Ilan, A.; Rein, G.; Urban, D. L.; Torero, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Smoldering is a basic combustion problem that presents a fire risk because it is initiated at low temperatures and because the reaction can propagate slowly in the material interior and go undetected for long periods of time. It yields a higher conversion of fuel to toxic compounds than does flaming, and may undergo a transition to flaming. To date there have been a few minor incidents of overheated and charred cables and electrical components reported on Space Shuttle flights. With the establishment of the International Space Station, and the planning of a potential manned mission to Mars, there has been an increased interest in the study of smoldering in microgravity. The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a spacecraft environment. The aim of the experiment is to provide a better fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering combustion under normal- and microgravity conditions. This in turn will aid in the prevention and control of smolder originated fires, both on earth and in spacecrafts. The microgravity smoldering experiments have to be conducted in a space-based facility because smoldering is a very slow process and consequently its study in a microgravity environment requires extended periods of time. The microgravity experiments reported here were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle. The most recent tests were conducted during the STS-105 and STS-108 missions. The results of the forward smolder experiments from these flights are reported here. In forward smolder, the reaction front propagates in the same direction as the oxidizer flow. The heat released by the heterogeneous oxidation reaction is transferred ahead of the reaction heating the unreacted fuel. The resulting increase of the virgin fuel temperature leads to the onset of the smolder reaction, and propagates through the fuel. The MSC data are compared with normal gravity

  9. Performance of novel polymer shields aboard the ESA Biopan-5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Radiation exposure of astronaut crew has been identified as a key issue in human spaceflight The reduction of dose by appropriate shielding measures is thus donated an essential role for the future development of space exploration particularly with regard to long-term interplanetary missions Optimization of shielding strategies and design may involve polymeric materials with enhanced hydrogen content specifically developed to attenuate high charge-and-energy HZE particles such as those encountered in galactic cosmic rays GCR The projectile energy loss is proportional to rho cdot Z A and reaches a maximum for hydrogen targets Light elements are also expected to minimize target fragmentation particularly the production of secondary neutrons The LETVAR experiment flow aboard the European Space Agency ESA Biopan-5 mission as part of a 27 kg payload attached to the external surface of the Foton-M2 descent capsule was dedicated to studying the shielding performance of three different polymers in reference to aluminium when exposed to the unshielded space environment in low-earth orbit LEO The mission was launched successfully on May 31 2005 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome Kazakhstan and spent 15 6 days at an orbital altitude between 262 and 304 km inclined by 63 r to the equatorial plane After recovery absorbed dose and average linear energy transfer LET were determined in front and behind the material slabs To support data interpretation material samples equivalent to those flown in space were exposed---to the extent possible

  10. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  11. Microgravity Science Glovebox Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is seen working at the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). He is working with the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions. The PROMISS is one of the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments). The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  12. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  13. Hardware development for the surface tension driven convection experiment aboard the USML-1 spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, A. D.; Jacobson, T. P.; Wanhainen, J. S.; Petrarca, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for March 1992. Hardware is under development to establish the experimental conditions and perform the specified measurements, for both ground based research and the flight experiment in a Spacelab single rack. Major development areas include an infrared thermal imaging system for surface temperature measurement, a CO2 laser and control system for surface heating, and for flow visualization, a He-Ne laser and optical system in conjunction with an intensified video camera. For ground based work the components of each system were purchased or designed, and tested individually. The three systems will be interfaced with the balance of the experimental hardware and will constitute a working engineering model. A description of the three systems and examples of the component performance is given along with the plans for the development of flight hardware.

  14. Hardware development for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, A. D.; Jacobson, T. P.; Wanhainen, J. S.; Petrarca, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for March 1992. Hardware is under development to establish the experimental conditions and perform the specified measurements, for both ground based research and the flight experiment in a Spacelab single rack. Major development areas include an infrared thermal imaging system for surface temperature measurement, a CO2 laser and control system for surface heating, and for flow visualization, a He-Ne laser and optical system in conjunction with an intensified video camera. For ground based work the components of each system were purchased or designed, and tested individually. The three systems will be interfaced with the balance of the experimental hardware and will constitute a working engineering model. A description of the three systems and examples of the component performance is given along with the plans for the development of flight hardware.

  15. ALICE: the ultraviolet imaging spectrograph aboard the New Horizons Pluto mission spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan; Scherrer, John; Slater, David C.; Gladstone, G. R.; Dirks, Greg; Stone, John; Davis, Michael; Versteeg, Marteen; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    2005-09-01

    The ALICE instrument is a lightweight (4.4 kg), low-power (4.4 W) imaging spectrograph that is planned to fly aboard the New Horizons mission to Pluto/Charon and the Kuiper Belt. Its primary job is to detect a variety of important atomic and molecular species in Pluto's atmosphere, and to determine their relative abundances as a function of altitude so that a complete picture of Pluto's atmospheric composition and structure can be determined for the first time. ALICE would also be used to search for an atmosphere around Pluto's moon, Charon, as well as the Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that New Horizons hopes to fly by after Pluto-Charon. The New Horizons ALICE design, based on the Rosetta ALICE instrument design now en route to Comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft, incorporates an off-axis telescope feeding a Rowland-circle spectrograph with a 520-1870 Å spectral passband, a spectral point spread function of 3-6 Å FWHM, and an instantaneous spatial field-of-view of 6 degrees. Two separate input apertures that feed the telescope allow for both airglow and solar occultation observations during the mission. The focal plane camera is an imaging microchannel plate (MCP) double delay-line detector with dual solar-blind opaque photocathodes (KBr and CsI) and a focal surface that matches the 15-cm diameter Rowland-circle. Data taking modes include both histogram and pixel list exposures. We describe the scientific objectives of ALICE as well as the design, build, and environmental testing results of the flight model.

  16. Protein Crystal Growth Samples Placed Aboard Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Tom Akers places a liquid nitrogen Dewar containing frozen protein solutions aboard Russia's space Station Mir during a visit by the Space Shuttle (STS-79). The protein samples were flash-frozen on Earth and will be allowed to thaw and crystallize in the microgravity environment on Mir Space Station. A later crew will return the Dewar to Earth for sample analysis. Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California at Riverside is the principal investigator. Photo credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center.

  17. Protein Crystal Growth Samples Placed Aboard Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Michael Clifford places a liquid nitrogen Dewar containing frozen protein solutions aboard Russia's space station Mir during a visit by the Space Shuttle (STS-76). The protein samples were flash-frozen on Earth and will be allowed to thaw and crystallize in the microgravity environment on Mir Space Station. A later crew will return the Dewar to Earth for sample analysis. Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California at Riverside is the principal investigator. Photo credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center.

  18. High temperature heat pipe experiments aboard the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. ); Secary, C.J. )

    1993-01-10

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most space nuclear power systems, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation. Three SST/potassium heat pipes are being designed, fabricated, and ground tested. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will fly aboard the space shuttle in 1995. Three wick structures will be tested: homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap. Ground tests are described that simulate the space shuttle environment in every way except gravity field.

  19. Science and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about the science goals of various deep space missions? Or why scientists want such seemingly complicated spacecraft and operations scenarios? With a focus on outer planets) this talk will cover the scientific goals and results of several recent and future missions) how scientists approach a requirements flow down) and how the disparate needs of mission engineers and scientists can come together for mission success. It will also touch on several up and coming technologies and how they will change mission architectures in the future.

  20. Advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitas, R. A., Jr.; Healy, T. J.; Long, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE Summer Study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: (1) An intelligent earth-sensing information system, (2) an autonomous space exploration system, (3) an automated space manufacturing facility, and (4) a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by century's end.

  1. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  2. Space science experiments aboard ATS-F.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, R.; King, W.

    1972-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Experiment (EME) package is mounted on the ATS-F spacecraft to a structure that is located on top of the 30-foot parabolic reflector hub. The eight experiments of the EME package are designed to study the environment in space at synchronous altitude and to obtain information on electromagnetic-ionospheric interactions. Six of these experiments will obtain data on charged particles of several different types. A seventh experiment is to provide magnetic field data. The eighth experiment is concerned with solar cell degradation studies.

  3. Working aboard the Mir space station.

    PubMed

    Reiter, T

    1996-11-01

    For more than ten years, the Mir station has been the World's only permanently manned laboratory in low earth orbit. With an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees, its ground track covers more than 85% of the Earth's surface, where approximately 95% of the population lives. For the transfer of up to three crew members per trip to and from Mir, the 6.9 t Soyuz spacecraft is used. In general, the station's crew is changed every six months, with an overlap during the exchange of between one and two weeks. A Progress spacecraft (an unmanned derivative of the Soyuz vehicle) visits the station every three months to resupply it, with up to 2.1 t of payload, and to reboost it to maintain its nominal orbital altitude. The station's core module, injected into orbit in February 1986, contains the central control post for most onboard systems, the computer for attitude control, and the telemetry and communications system. It also contains the station's largest work space, which is 7.0 m long and varies in width between 1.5 and 2.5 m. PMID:11541437

  4. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  5. Satellite formation flight and realignment maneuver demonstration aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandy, Christophe P.; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2007-09-01

    The Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES), developed by the MIT Space Systems Laboratory, enable the maturation of control, estimation, and autonomy algorithms for distributed satellite systems, including the relative control of spacecraft required for satellite formation flight. Three free-flyer microsatellites are currently on board the International Space Station (ISS). By operating under crew supervision and by using replenishable consumables, SPHERES creates a risk-tolerant environment where new high-risk yet high-payoff algorithms can be demonstrated in a microgravity environment. Through multiple test sessions aboard the ISS, the SPHERES team has incrementally demonstrated the ability to perform formation flight maneuvers with two and three satellite formations. The test sessions aboard the Space Station include evaluation of coordinated maneuvers which will be applicable to interferometric spacecraft formation missions. The satellites are deployed as a formation and required to rotate around a common center about a given axis, mimicking an interferometer. Various trajectories are then implemented to point the synthetic aperture in a different orientation by changing the common axis of revolution. Observation-time optimizing synchronization strategies and fuel balancing/fuel optimizing trajectories are discussed, compared and evaluated according to resulting mission duration and potential scientific output.

  6. Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Competing with the sunrise, the brilliant flames from the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery light up the morning sky. Mission STS- 96 lifted off at 6:49:42 a.m. EDT. The crew of seven begin a 10- day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  7. Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the early dawn, the brilliant flames from the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery light up the billows of steam below. Mission STS-96 lifted off at 6:49:42 a.m. EDT. The crew of seven begin a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  8. Protein crystallization aboard the Space Shuttle and the Mir space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delbaere, Louis T. J.; Vandonselaar, Margaret; Prasad, Lata; Quail, J. W.; Birnbaum, George I.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Moore, Karen; Bugg, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Two different protein crystallizations, namely ,the free Fab fragment of the Je142 monoclonal antibody and the complex of Fab fragment/HPr with antigen, were performed aboard the Discovery Space Shuttle flights and the Mir space station, respectively. Medium sized crystals of the Je142 Fab fragment were obtained. The Je142 Fab fragment/Hpr complex produced two medium-sized crystals after two months aboard the Mir space station. Microgravity was found to eliminate the tendency of these crystals to form clusters.

  9. Astronaut John H. Casper, mission commander and veteran of three Space Shuttle flights, awaits the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronaut John H. Casper, mission commander and veteran of three Space Shuttle flights, awaits the beginning of a training session for emergency bailout. All six crew members participated in the session, held in the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). The six astronauts will spend nine days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour next month.

  10. Space Mission : Y3K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer

  11. Accomplishments in Bioastronautics Research Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 16 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space flight on the crew members and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes, muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; and changes in immune function. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS . Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program.

  12. Accomplishments in bioastronautics research aboard International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uri, John J.; Haven, Cynthia P.

    2005-05-01

    The tenth long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 18 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space flight on the crewmembers and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study: the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes; muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; changes in immune function, and evaluation of imaging techniques. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS. Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program.

  13. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Removal Troubleshooting aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Space Shuttle (STS) Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.; Cover, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a largely closed-system habitable volume which requires active control of atmospheric constituents, including removal of exhaled Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The ISS provides a unique opportunity to observe system requirements for (CO2) removal. CO2 removal is managed by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) aboard the US segment of ISS and by Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) aboard the Space Shuttle (STS). While the ISS and STS are docked, various methods are used to balance the CO2 levels between the two vehicles, including mechanical air handling and management of general crew locations. Over the course of ISS operation, several unexpected anomalies have occurred which have required troubleshooting, including possible compromised performance of the CDRA and LiOH systems, and possible imbalance in CO2 levels between the ISS and STS while docked. This paper will cover efforts to troubleshoot the CO2 removal systems aboard the ISS and docked STS.

  15. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  16. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrath, M.; Canfield, P. J.; Bronowicki, P. M.; Dreyer, M. E.; Weislogel, M. M.; Grah, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  17. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Conrath, M; Canfield, P J; Bronowicki, P M; Dreyer, M E; Weislogel, M M; Grah, A

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired. PMID:24483559

  18. Accomplishments in bioastronautics research aboard International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Uri, John J; Haven, Cynthia P

    2005-01-01

    The tenth long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 18 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration spaceflight on the crewmembers and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study: the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes; muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; changes in immune function, and evaluation of imaging techniques. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS. Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program. PMID:15835037

  19. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  20. The International Space Station Photographed During STS-112 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  1. The International Space Station Photographed During the STS-112 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The newly added S1 truss is visible in the center frame. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss,and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  2. Asynchronous Message Service for Deep Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    While the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) provides internationally standardized file transfer functionality that can offer significant benefits for deep space mission operations, not all spacecraft communication requirements are necessarily best met by file transfer. In particular, continuous event-driven asynchronous message exchange may also be useful for communications with, among, and aboard spacecraft. CCSDS has therefore undertaken the development of a new Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) standard, designed to provide common functionality over a wide variety of underlying transport services, ranging from shared memory message queues to CCSDS telemetry systems. The present paper discusses the design concepts of AMS, their applicability to deep space mission operations problems, and the results of preliminary performance testing obtained from exercise of a prototype implementation.

  3. Project Explorer - Student experiments aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckbee, E.; Dannenberg, K.; Driggers, G.; Orillion, A.

    1979-01-01

    Project Explorer, a program of high school student experiments in space in a Space Shuttle self-contained payload unit (Getaway Special), sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) in cooperation with four Alabama universities is presented. Organizations aspects of the project, which is intended to promote public awareness of the space program and encourage space research, are considered, and the proposal selection procedure is outlined. The projects selected for inclusion in the self-contained payload canister purchased in 1977 and expected to be flown on an early shuttle mission include experiments on alloy solidification, electric plating, whisker growth, chick embryo development and human blood freezing, and an amateur radio experiment. Integration support activities planned and underway are summarized, and possible uses for a second payload canister purchased by ASRC are discussed.

  4. Marshall Space Flight Center's role in EASE/ACCESS mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Gerald W.

    1987-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Spacelab Payload Project Office was responsible for the mission management and development of several successful payloads. Two recent space construction experiments, the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS), were combined into a payload managed by the center. The Ease/ACCESS was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Mission 61-B. The EASE/ACCESS experiments were the first structures assembled in space, and the method used to manage this successful effort will be useful for future space construction missions. The MSFC mission management responsibilities for the EASE/ACCESS mission are addressed and how the lessons learned from the mission can be applied to future space construction projects are discussed.

  5. Challenges of Space Mission Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Warren L.; Hooke, Adrian J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the international challenges to space mission interoperability. Interoperability is the technical capability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. One of the challenges that is addressed is the problem of spectrum bandwidth, and interference. The key to interoperability is the standardization of space communications services and protocols. Various levels of international cross support are reviewed: harmony, cooperation cross support and confederation cross support. The various international bodies charged with implementing cross support are reviewed. The goal of the Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) is to achieve plug-and-play operations where all that is required is for each of the systems to use an agreed communications medium, after which the systems configure each other for the purpose of exchanging information and subsequently effect such exchange automatically.

  6. Deep space mission integration with the space transportation system. [Galileo mission using Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Galileo mission is the first interplanetary mission scheduled to use the Space Transportation System (STS). Therefore, Galileo is the trailblazer for mission integration of a deep space mission with the STS. A short overview of the Galileo mission is presented as background for the discussion of the mission integration effort. The components of the STS and the mission integration system are defined, documentation requirements explained, the work of the Flight Design Working Group described, and several examples of the types of problems dealt with are given. The steps of mission integration are shown from introducing requirements into the system to resolving conflicts that arise between the payload project and the STS operator. Conclusions are drawn from the Galileo mission integration effort to aid future payload projects in working with the STS.

  7. Space shuttle. [a transportation system for low orbit space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The space shuttle is discussed as a reusable space vehicle operated as a transportation system for space missions in low earth orbit. Space shuttle studies and operational capabilities are reported for potential missions indicating that about 38 percent are likely to be spacelab missions with the remainder being the replacement, revisit, or retrieval of automated spacecraft.

  8. Spacelab-1 Mission Onboard Photograph-Vestibular Experiment in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this Spacelab-1 mission onboard photograph, astronaut Byron Lichtenberg performs a drop experiment, one of the Vestibular Experiments in Space investigations. The experiment examined spinal reflexes to determine whether they changed in microgravity. In Earth's environment, the otoliths signal the muscles to prepare for jolts associated with falling. During the flight, the normal reflex between the otoliths and the muscles was partially inhibited early in flight, declined further as the flight progressed, and returned to normal immediately after landing, suggesting that the brain ignored or reinterpreted otolith signals during space flight. Crewmembers reported a lack of awareness of position and location of feet, difficulty in maintaining balance, and a perception that falls were more sudden, faster, and harder than similar drops experienced in preflight. Crewmembers experienced illusions as they performed prescribed movement tests. When crew members viewed various targets and then pointed at them while blindfolded, their perception of target location and position of their own limbs was inaccurate in flight compared with similar tests on the ground. The Spacelab-1 was a multidisciplinary mission; that is, investigations were performed in several different fields of scientific research. The overall goal of the mission was to verify Spacelab performance through a variety of scientific experiments. The Spacelab-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia for the STS-9 mission on November 28, 1983. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibilities for the mission.

  9. Precision Pointing for the Laser Interferometry Space Antenna Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, T. Tupper; Maghami, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a planned NASA-ESA gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Lasers are used to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard each spacecraft to the picometer level over a 5 million kilometer separation. Each spacecraft and its two laser transmit/receive telescopes must be held stable in pointing to less than 8 nanoradians per root Hertz in the frequency band 0.1-100 mHz. The pointing error is sensed in the received beam and the spacecraft attitude is controlled with a set of micro-Newton thrusters. Requirements, sensors, actuators, control design, and simulations are described.

  10. Horizon Missions Technology Study. [for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the HMT Study was to develop and demonstrate a systematic methodology for identifying and evaluating innovative technology concepts offering revolutionary, breadkthrough-type capabilities for advanced space missions and for assessing their potential mission impact. The methodology is based on identifying the new functional, operational and technology capabilities needed by hypothetical 'Horizon' space missions that have performance requirements that cannot be met, even by extrapolating known space technologies. Nineteen Horizon Missions were selected to represent a collective vision of advanced space missions of the mid-21st century. The missions typically would occur beyond the lifetime of current or planned space assets. The HM methodology and supporting data base may be used for advanced technology planning, advanced mission planning and multidisciplinary studies and analyses.

  11. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  12. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  13. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  14. Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

  15. STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  16. On the evening time exosphere of Mars: Result from MENCA aboard Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Thampi, Smitha V.; Das, Tirtha Pratim; Dhanya, M. B.; Naik, Neha; Vajja, Dinakar Prasad; Pradeepkumar, P.; Sreelatha, P.; Supriya, G.; Abhishek J., K.; Mohankumar, S. V.; Thampi, R. Satheesh; Yadav, Vipin K.; Sundar, B.; Nandi, Amarnath; Padmanabhan, G. Padma; Aliyas, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a quadrupole mass spectrometer which provides in situ measurement of the composition of the low-latitude Martian neutral exosphere. The altitude profiles of the three major constituents, i.e., amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (N2 + CO), and amu 16 (O) in the Martian exosphere during evening (close to sunset terminator) hours are reported using MENCA observations from four orbits of MOM during late December 2014, when MOM's periapsis altitude was the lowest. The altitude range of the observation encompasses the diffusively separated region much above the well-mixed atmosphere. The transition from CO2 to O-dominated region is observed near 270 km. The mean exospheric temperature derived using these three mass numbers is 271 ± 5 K. These first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  17. End-To-END Performance of the Future MOMA Instrument Aboard the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, V. T.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Danell, R.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P. J.; Stalport, F.; Humeau, O.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard the 2018 ExoMars mission will be the continuation of the search for organic matter on the Mars surface. One advancement with the ExoMars mission is that the sample will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the Martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. To analyze the wide range of organic composition (volatile and non-volatile compounds) of the Martian soil, MOMA is equipped with a dual ion source ion trap mass spectrometer utilizing UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC). In order to analyze refractory organic compounds and chiral molecules during GC-ITMS analysis, samples may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). Previous experimental reports have focused on coupling campaigns between the breadboard versions of the GC, provided by the French team (LISA, LATMOS, CentraleSupelec), and the MS, provided by the US team (NASA-GSFC). This work focuses on the performance verification and optimization of the GC-ITMS experiment using the Engineering Test Unit (ETU) models which are representative of the form, fit and function of the flight instrument including a flight-like pyrolysis oven and tapping station providing by the German team (MPS). The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  18. Perfect launch for Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Trailing a fiery-looking column of smoke, Space Shuttle Discovery hurtles into a blue sky on mission STS-105 to the International Space Station. Viewed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, liftoff occurred at 5:10:14 p.m. EDT on this second launch attempt. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Besides the Shuttle crew of four, Discovery carries the Expedition Three crew who will replace Expedition Two on the International Space Station. The mission includes the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Part of the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

  19. Perfect launch for Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Smoke billows out from Launch Pad 39A as Space Shuttle Discovery soars into the blue sky on mission STS-105 to the International Space Station. Liftoff occurred at 5:10:14 p.m. EDT on this second launch attempt. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Besides the Shuttle crew of four, Discovery carries the Expedition Three crew who will replace Expedition Two on the International Space Station. The mission includes the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Part of the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

  20. Perfect launch for Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Viewed from between the trees, Space Shuttle Discovery rises above the smoke as it soars into the blue sky on mission STS-105 to the International Space Station. Viewed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, liftoff occurred at 5:10:14 p.m. EDT on this second launch attempt. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Besides the Shuttle crew of four, Discovery carries the Expedition Three crew who will replace Expedition Two on the International Space Station. The mission includes the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Part of the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

  1. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  2. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  3. Revolutionary Materials for NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M.-H. Y.

    2002-03-01

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for L2, Lunar, Mars and Mars/Venus swing-by reference missions. For all these missions, material trades have been studied. And, as an example, a crew age trade for Mars/Venus swing-by mission has been done. The career blood forming organ (BFO) constraints are more stringent and play a critical role in the optimization procedure. The short missions to L2 and the Moon mainly need to deal with the possibility of solar particle events. It is found that improved shield materials will be required to enable a Mars mission in which middle-aged astronauts can participate. If the age of the astronauts are allowed to be 55 and older then more options are available. Revolutionary materials need to be developed to have younger crewmembers on board to Mars and other long duration missions. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

  4. Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On its perfect launch today, Space Shuttle Discovery's brilliant flames illuminate the tower at left, with the lightning mast on top, and the billows of smoke and steam at right. Liftoff into a gossamer dawn sky for mission STS-96 occurred at 6:49:42 a.m. EDT. The crew of seven begin a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  5. Space missions in the Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    Since about twenty years ago, artificial satellites for the Arab countries, were manufactured and released by developed countries for TV and communication purposes such as Arabsat, Nilesat, and Soryia. But with the starting of the 21st century, there are few space missions developed by Arab Countries in Cooperation with International Partners, in Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Where: 1. The National Administration of Space Science and Technology in Alger developed two Experimental Space Missions released at November 2002 (AlgerSat-1), and November 2003 (AlgerSat-2). The program is still continuous for developing more space missions with High Technology for different purposes. 2. Space Research Institute in King Abd-Alaziz city for science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia developed three space missions in collaboration with international partners, where the three missions are released for different purposes. 3. The National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) in Cairo-Egypt developed in cooperation with Ukraine a mission Egyptsat-1, by total price 30 million US, for the purpose of studding the desert geology and Environment. It will be released at October 2004. The program will be continued for developing more space mission by high technology. This paper describe in detail Arabian three programs for the three Arabian countries (Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt), and will discuss on what we can expect for the future, focussing on international cooperation in the field of space science and technology.

  6. STS-36 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechelay, Joseph E.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-36 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle and the sixth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, Atlantis. In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-33/LWT-26), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2029), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) (designated as BI-036). The STS-36 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as such, the classified portions of the mission are not discussed. The unclassified sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  7. Generic mission planning concepts for space astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Onken, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The past two decades have seen the rapid development of space astronomy, both manned and unmanned, and the concurrent proliferation of the operational concepts and software that have been produced to support each individual project. Having been involved in four of these missions since the '70's and three yet to fly in the present decade, the authors believe it is time to step back and evaluate this body of experience from a macro-systems point of view to determine the potential for generic mission planning concepts that could be applied to future missions. This paper presents an organized evaluation of astronomy mission planning functions, functional flows, iteration cycles, replanning activities, and the requirements that drive individual concepts to specific solutions. The conclusions drawn from this exercise are then used to propose a generic concept that could support multiple missions.

  8. STS-65 Mission Specialist Thomas with newt in IML-2 module aboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas is seen in the spacelab science module at the Rack 1 Workbench making an observation of one of the newts. Smaller organisms, such as the newts, are able to develop from embryos and hatch during the mission as part of an overall program to determine if development occurs normally in the space environment. Temporary home for the newts, the Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) (out of frame) also contained Medaka and goldfish. Thomas joined five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for two weeks of experimenting onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, in Earth orbit.

  9. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  10. Analog FM/FM versus digital color TV transmission aboard space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Langley Research Center is developing an integrated fault tolerant network to support data, voice, and video communications aboard Space Station. The question of transmitting the video data via dedicated analog channels or converting it to the digital domain for consistancy with the test of the data is addressed. The recommendations in this paper are based on a comparison in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the type of video processing required aboard Space Station, the applicability to Space Station, and how they integrate into the network.

  11. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  12. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  13. STS-81 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    STS-81 was the fifth of nine planned missions to dock with the Russian Mir Space Station and the fourth crewmember transfer mission. The double Spacehab module was carried for the second time, and it housed experiments that were performed by the crew and logistics equipment that was transferred to the Mir.

  14. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  15. Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference: Space Mission Success Through Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences' Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference, 'Space Mission Success Through Testing' provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, program/system testing, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme 'Space Mission Success Through Testing.'

  16. Technology transfer and space science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer and space science missions are provided. Topics covered include: project scientist role within NASA; role of universities in technology transfer; role of government laboratories in research; and technology issues associated with science.

  17. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  18. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  19. Rapid Culture-Independent Microbial Analysis Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Monaco, Lisa; Morris, Heather; Gunter, Daniel; Damon, Michael; Wells, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A new culture-independent system for microbial monitoring, called the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle STS-116 on December 9, 2006, and has since been used by ISS crews to monitor endotoxin on cabin surfaces. Quantitative analysis was performed within 15 minutes, and sample return to Earth was not required. Endotoxin (a marker of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) was distributed throughout the ISS, despite previous indications that most bacteria on ISS surfaces were Gram-positive. Endotoxin was detected at 24 out of 42 surface areas tested and at every surface site where colony-forming units (cfu) were observed, even at levels of 4-120 bacterial cfu per 100 cm2, which is below NASA in-flight requirements (<10,000 bacterial cfu per 100 cm2). Absent to low levels of endotoxin (<0.24 to 1.0 EU per 100 cm2; defined in endotoxin units, or EU) were found on 31 surface areas, including on most panels in Node 1 and the US Lab. High to moderate levels (1.01 to 14.7 EU per 100 cm2) were found on 11 surface areas, including at exercise, hygiene, sleeping, and dining facilities. Endotoxin was absent from airlock surfaces, except the Extravehicular Hatch Handle (>3.78 EU per 100 cm2). Based upon data collected from the ISS so far, new culture-independent requirements (defined in EU) are suggested, which are verifiable in flight with LOCAD-PTS yet high enough to avoid false alarms. The suggested requirements are intended to supplement current ISS requirements (defined in cfu) and would serve a dual purpose of safeguarding crew health (internal spacecraft surfaces <20 EU per 100 cm2) and monitoring forward contamination during Constellation missions (surfaces periodically exposed to the external environment, including the airlock and space suits, <0.24 EU per 100 cm2).

  20. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  1. Use of IPsec by Manned Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is developing its next generation manned space systems for missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon. The Program is embarking on a path towards standards based Internet Protocol (IP) networking for space systems communication. The IP based communications will be paired with industry standard security mechanisms such as Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) to ensure the integrity of information exchanges and prevent unauthorized release of sensitive information in-transit. IPsec has been tested in simulations on the ground and on at least one Earth orbiting satellite, but the technology is still unproven in manned space mission situations and significant obstacles remain.

  2. A Second Space Gravitational Wave Observation Mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2010-02-01

    The scientific case for early flight of a first space GW mission to observe the signals from massive black hole mergers throughout the universe and from inspirals of stellar mass black holes into galactic center black holes appears to be strong. But, the justification for a second space GW mission will depend strongly on what the first one finds. The Big Bang Observer and DECIGO missions have been proposed, with their objectives including looking for primordial GW signals and helping to determine the cosmological distance scale. However, these missions are extremely challenging, so whether they will be scientifically justified in the future is quite uncertain. Future progress toward achieving similar objectives appears likely from ground observations and from one of the several Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization missions that have been proposed. Two much more modest missions have been suggested for study, in addition to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission and the LISA and DECIGO pathfinder missions. One is called pre-DECIGO, which would combine looking for NS-NS inspirals out to 300 Mpc with technology demonstrations for DECIGO. The other is called the Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna (ALIA), and would extend observations of stellar mass and intermediate mass black hole mergers out to considerably larger redshifts. The suggested baselines are 100 km and 500,000 km, and the required spurious acceleration limits are 1x10-17 and 3x10-16 m/s2/sqrt Hz, respectively.

  3. Benchmark Problems for Space Mission Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Leitner, Jesse A.; Folta, David C.; Burns, Richard

    2003-01-01

    To provide a high-level focus to distributed space system flight dynamics and control research, several benchmark problems are suggested for space mission formation flying. The problems cover formation flying in low altitude, near-circular Earth orbit, high altitude, highly elliptical Earth orbits, and large amplitude lissajous trajectories about co-linear libration points of the Sun-Earth/Moon system. These problems are not specific to any current or proposed mission, but instead are intended to capture high-level features that would be generic to many similar missions that are of interest to various agencies.

  4. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2011-10-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the "snow line", around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at 5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise to 7 years as well as the ?V needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ?V. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy

  5. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L; Davis-Street, Janis E

    2005-03-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P < 0.05). The finding that other acute-phase proteins were unchanged after flight suggests that the changes in iron metabolism are not likely to be solely a result of an inflammatory response. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was greater and RBC superoxide dismutase was less after flight (P < 0.05), indicating increased oxidative damage. Despite vitamin D supplement use during flight, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was decreased after flight (P < 0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several markers. Bone formation, assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers. PMID:15735075

  6. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.

    2005-01-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P < 0.05). The finding that other acute-phase proteins were unchanged after flight suggests that the changes in iron metabolism are not likely to be solely a result of an inflammatory response. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was greater and RBC superoxide dismutase was less after flight (P < 0.05), indicating increased oxidative damage. Despite vitamin D supplement use during flight, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was decreased after flight (P < 0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several markers. Bone formation, assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers.

  7. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP (User Datagram Protocol)-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990s, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD (Department of Defense). This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Nack Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) standard.

  8. Simulations of space radiation interactions with materials, with application to dose estimates for lunar shelter and aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tai T.

    This research performed simulations using the state-of-art three dimensional computer codes to investigate the interactions of space radiation with materials and quantify the biological dose onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in a lunar shelter for future manned missions. High-energy space radiation of Trapped Protons, Solar Particle Events, and GCRs particles interactions are simulated using MCNPX and PHITS probabilistic codes. The energy loss and energy deposition within the shielding materials and in a phantom are calculated. The contributions of secondary particles produced by spallation reactions are identified. Recent experimental measurements of absorbed dose in a phantom aboard the International Space Station (ISS) was simulated, and used to determine the most appropriate simulation methodology.

  9. Parametric cost estimation for space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

    2008-07-01

    Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

  10. Microbial Risk and Control During Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    As human explore space, they will be accompanied by microorganisms. Historically, the approach to microbial control on spacecraft has been to minimize the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and extensive microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for short duration missions; however, habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has reinforced the importance of inflight microbial monitoring. Current ISS inflight monitoring evaluates potable water sources and vehicle air and surfaces. The hardware uses media-based growth and is designed for microbial enumeration during spaceflight followed by microbial identification after return of samples to Earth. For future missions beyond Earth orbit, microbial monitoring capabilities will need to be improved to enable rapid inflight identification of viable microorganisms. Inflight monitoring may also need to be expanded beyond ISS targets to include food grown in the habitat, food preparation areas, and/or clinical samples. Establishing requirements for many of these samples remains a major gap in implementing this type of next-generation approach to risk assessment and control. An additional consideration in assessment of microbial risk is research that indicates that the spaceflight environment alters crewmember immune function, microbial diversity, and molecular-genetic and phenotypic responses of microorganism, including virulence and antibiotic resistance. Taken together, in preparation for long duration space exploration missions, NASA faces new challenges in microbial risk assessment, monitoring and control that must be understood and addressed to mitigate threats to crew health and mission success.

  11. Mission Possible: BioMedical Experiments on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, E.; Kreutzberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research, both applied and basic, was conducted on every Shuttle mission from 1981 to 2011. The Space Shuttle Program enabled NASA investigators and researchers from around the world to address fundamental issues concerning living and working effectively in space. Operationally focused occupational health investigations and tests were given priority by the Shuttle crew and Shuttle Program management for the resolution of acute health issues caused by the rigors of spaceflight. The challenges of research on the Shuttle included: limited up and return mass, limited power, limited crew time, and requirements for containment of hazards. The sheer capacity of the Shuttle for crew and equipment was unsurpassed by any other launch and entry vehicle and the Shuttle Program provided more opportunity for human research than any program before or since. To take advantage of this opportunity, life sciences research programs learned how to: streamline the complicated process of integrating experiments aboard the Shuttle, design experiments and hardware within operational constraints, and integrate requirements between different experiments and with operational countermeasures. We learned how to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and developed a hardware certification process with the flexibility to allow for design changes between flights. We learned the importance of end-to-end testing for experiment hardware with humans-in-the-loop. Most importantly, we learned that the Shuttle Program provided an excellent platform for conducting human research and for developing the systems that are now used to optimize research on the International Space Station. This presentation will include a review of the types of experiments and medical tests flown on the Shuttle and the processes that were used to manifest and conduct the experiments. Learning Objective: This paper provides a description of the challenges related to launching and implementing biomedical

  12. Optical communication for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firtmaurice, M.

    1991-01-01

    Activities performed at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) related to direct detection optical communications for space applications are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) requirements for optical communication systems (data rates and channel quality; spatial acquisition; fine tracking and pointing; and transmit point-ahead correction); (2) component testing and development (laser diodes performance characterization and life testing; and laser diode power combining); (3) system development and simulations (The GSFC pointing, acquisition and tracking system; hardware description; preliminary performance analysis; and high data rate transmitter/receiver systems); and (4) proposed flight demonstration of optical communications.

  13. The virtual mission approach: Empowering earth and space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Elaine

    1993-08-01

    Future Earth and Space Science missions will address increasingly broad and complex scientific issues. To accomplish this task, we will need to acquire and coordinate data sets from a number of different instrumetns, to make coordinated observations of a given phenomenon, and to coordinate the operation of the many individual instruments making these observations. These instruments will need to be used together as a single ``Virtual Mission.'' This coordinated approach is complicated in that these scientific instruments will generally be on different platforms, in different orbits, from different control centers, at different institutions, and report to different user groups. Before this Virtual Mission approach can be implemented, techniques need to be developed to enable separate instruments to work together harmoniously, to execute observing sequences in a synchronized manner, and to be managed by the Virtual Mission authority during times of these coordinated activities. Enabling technologies include object-oriented designed approaches, extended operations management concepts and distributed computing techniques. Once these technologies are developed and the Virtual Mission concept is available, we believe the concept will provide NASA's Science Program with a new, ``go-as-you-pay,'' flexible, and resilient way of accomplishing its science observing program. The concept will foster the use of smaller and lower cost satellites. It will enable the fleet of scientific satellites to evolve in directions that best meet prevailing science needs. It will empower scientists by enabling them to mix and match various combinations of in-space, ground, and suborbital instruments - combinations which can be called up quickly in response to new events or discoveries. And, it will enable small groups such as universities, Space Grant colleges, and small businesses to participate significantly in the program by developing small components of this evolving scientific fleet.

  14. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  15. Mission Success Driven Space System Sparing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among the maintenance resources, the spare parts are the most difficult to predict. Items in the space systems are very different from the point of view of reliability, cost, weight, volume, etc. The different combinations of spares make different contribution to the: mission success, spare investment, volume occupied and weight. Hence, the selection of spares for a mission planned must take into account all of these features. This paper presents the generic mission success driven sparing model developed, for the complex space systems. The mathematical analysis used in the model enables the user to select the most suitable selection of the spare package for the mission planned. The illustrative examples presented clearly demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of the model introduced.

  16. STS-80 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The STS-80 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the eightieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102).

  17. Upper Limits to the Soft Gamma Repeater Population from the LILAS Experiment Aboard the PHOBOS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, K.; Atteia, J.-L.; Jourdain, E.; Barat, C.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Sunyaev, R.; Kuznetsov, A.; Terekhov, O.

    1994-03-01

    We report the results of a search for Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) in the data of the Lilas 1 and 2 experiments aboard the Soviet Phobos spacecraft, which viewed 4π sr for 6.4 months. Due to extended low-energy coverage (6 keV and above), their sensitivity to SGRs (≳ 1.3 × 10-7 ergs cm-2 s-1) was comparable to that of BATSE for the longer duration SGRs, and slightly better than those of instruments such as Konus HXRBS, and SIGNE 2MP (Prognoz 9), which detected numerous bursts from SGRs. Because the Lilas detectors consisted of small NaI(Tl) scintillators operating in interplanetary space, they were immune to particle- and magnetospheric-induced events which can masquerade as SGRs. Soft bursts from any of the three known SGRs or indeed from any Galactic SGR similar to the three known would have been detected at their previous intensity levels, but no confirmed events were observed. We discuss the implications of this result for the number, activity cycles, and energetics of SGRs in the Galaxy.

  18. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  19. Blast-Off on Mission: SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Part of NASA's mission is to inspire the next generation of explorers. NASA often reaches children - the inventors of tomorrow - through teachers, reporters, exhibit designers, and other third-party entities. Therefore, when Walt Disney Imagineering, the creative force behind the planning, design, and construction of Disney parks and resorts around the world, approached NASA with the desire to put realism into its Mission: SPACE project, the Agency was happy to offer its insight.

  20. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  1. GNSS reflectometry aboard the International Space Station: phase-altimetry simulation to detect ocean topography anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Leister, Vera; Saynisch, Jan; Zus, Florian; Wickert, Jens

    2016-04-01

    An ocean altimetry experiment using Earth reflected GNSS signals has been proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA). It is part of the GNSS Reflectometry Radio Occultation Scatterometry (GEROS) mission that is planned aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Altimetric simulations are presented that examine the detection of ocean topography anomalies assuming GNSS phase delay observations. Such delay measurements are well established for positioning and are possible due to a sufficient synchronization of GNSS receiver and transmitter. For altimetric purpose delays of Earth reflected GNSS signals can be observed similar to radar altimeter signals. The advantage of GNSS is the synchronized separation of transmitter and receiver that allow a significantly increased number of observation per receiver due to more than 70 GNSS transmitters currently in orbit. The altimetric concept has already been applied successfully to flight data recorded over the Mediterranean Sea. The presented altimetric simulation considers anomalies in the Agulhas current region which are obtained from the Region Ocean Model System (ROMS). Suitable reflection events in an elevation range between 3° and 30° last about 10min with ground track's length >3000km. Typical along-track footprints (1s signal integration time) have a length of about 5km. The reflection's Fresnel zone limits the footprint of coherent observations to a major axis extention between 1 to 6km dependent on the elevation. The altimetric performance depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflection. Simulation results show that precision is better than 10cm for SNR of 30dB. Whereas, it is worse than 0.5m if SNR goes down to 10dB. Precision, in general, improves towards higher elevation angles. Critical biases are introduced by atmospheric and ionospheric refraction. Corresponding correction strategies are still under investigation.

  2. Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

    1989-01-01

    The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

  3. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  4. Advanced power sources for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  5. Life sciences space missions. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    It has been known for many years that weightlessness induces changes in numerous physiological systems: the cardiovascular system declines in both aerobic capacity and orthostatic tolerance; there is a reduction in fluid and electrolyte balance, hematocrit, and certain immune parameters; bone and muscle mass and strength are reduced; various neurological responses include space motion sickness and posture and gate alterations. These responses are caused by the hypokinesia of weightlessness, the cephalic fluid shift, the unloading of the vestibular system, stress, and the altered temporal environment.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope - First Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Space Shuttle mission STS-61 was the first of several planned servicing missions for HST, intended to periodically replace failed components and upgrade scientific instruments with improved versions to keep the telescope viable and productive throughout its planned 15-year lifetime. This First Servicing Mission was also intended to correct several design flaws that were detected shortly after the launch of HST. There were three overall mission objectives for the STS-61 repair mission: 1) To Restore the Planned Scientific Capabilities: One complexity of the First Servicing Mission was the necessity for adding optical elements in the light path to correct the spherical aberration. These corrective optics were required to provide the quantitative science capability to enable key scientific programs to be carried out as originally planned. The addition of the COSTAR and the installation of WFPC2 both contributed to recovering these capabilities. 2) To Restore the Reliability of Vehicle Systems: Failed or degraded components had depleted some of the original subsystem redundancy, which had to be restored to allow continued science operations until the next servicing mission in 1997. Anomalous components that required servicing included the solar arrays, gyroscope sensing units, gyroscope electronics, magnetometers, solar array drive electronics, and electrical fuses. 3) To Validate the On-Orbit Servicing Concept for HST: Validation of the concept of on-orbit servicing as the way to achieve HST's full 15-year life was required to provide a foundation for future servicing missions.

  7. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  8. Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) space to ground mission data architecture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Jack L.; Ames, J.A.; Williams, J.; Patschke, R.; Mott, C.; Joseph, J.; Garon, H.; Mah, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a scientific endeavor to extend the longest continuous multi-spectral imaging record of Earth's land surface. The observatory consists of a spacecraft bus integrated with two imaging instruments; the Operational Land Imager (OLI), built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), an in-house instrument built at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Both instruments are integrated aboard a fine-pointing, fully redundant, spacecraft bus built by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Gilbert, Arizona. The mission is scheduled for launch in January 2013. This paper will describe the innovative end-to-end approach for efficiently managing high volumes of simultaneous realtime and playback of image and ancillary data from the instruments to the reception at the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Landsat Ground Network (LGN) and International Cooperator (IC) ground stations. The core enabling capability lies within the spacecraft Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system and Radio Frequency (RF) communications system implementation. Each of these systems uniquely contribute to the efficient processing of high speed image data (up to 265Mbps) from each instrument, and provide virtually error free data delivery to the ground. Onboard methods include a combination of lossless data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) data formatting, a file-based/managed Solid State Recorder (SSR), and Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) forward error correction. The 440 Mbps wideband X-Band downlink uses Class 1 CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), and an earth coverage antenna to deliver an average of 400 scenes per day to a combination of LGN and IC ground stations. This paper will also describe the integrated capabilities and processes at the LGN ground stations for data reception using adaptive filtering, and the mission operations approach fro- the LDCM

  9. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  10. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  11. Solar EUV Irradiance Measurements by the Auto-Calibrating EUV Spectrometers (SolACES) Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Nikutowski, B.; Jacobi, C.; Brunner, R.; Erhardt, C.; Knecht, S.; Scherle, J.; Schlagenhauf, J.

    2014-05-01

    SolACES is part of the ESA SOLAR ISS mission that started aboard the shuttle mission STS-122 on 7 February 2008. The instrument has recorded solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance from 16 to 150 nm during the extended solar activity minimum and the beginning solar cycle 24 with rising solar activity and increasingly changing spectral composition. The SOLAR mission has been extended from a period of 18 months to > 8 years until the end of 2016. SolACES is operating three grazing incidence planar grating spectrometers and two three-current ionization chambers. The latter ones are considered as primary radiometric detector standards. Re-filling the ionization chambers with three different gases repeatedly and using overlapping band-pass filters, the absolute EUV fluxes are derived in these spectral intervals. This way the serious problem of continuing efficiency changes in space-borne instrumentation is overcome during the mission. Evaluating the three currents of the ionization chambers, the overlapping spectral ranges of the spectrometers and of the filters plus inter-comparing the results from the EUV photon absorption in the gases with different absorption cross sections, there are manifold instrumental possibilities to cross-check the results providing a high degree of reliability to the spectral irradiance derived. During the mission a very strong up-and-down variability of the spectrometric efficiency by orders of magnitude is observed. One of the effects involved is channeltron degradation. However, there are still open questions on other effects contributing to these changes. A survey of the measurements carried out and first results of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) data are presented. Inter-comparison with EUV data from other space missions shows good agreement such that the international effort has started to elaborate a complete set of EUV-SSI data taking into account all data available from 2008 to 2013.

  12. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  13. Electronics for Low Temperature Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2007-01-01

    Exploration missions to outer planets and deep space require spacecraft, probes, and on-board data and communication systems to operate reliably and efficiently under severe harsh conditions. On-board electronics, in particular those in direct exposures to the space environment without any shielding or protection, will encounter extreme low temperature and thermal cycling in their service cycle in most of NASA s upcoming exploration missions. For example, Venus atmosphere, Jupiter atmosphere, Moon surface, Pluto orbiter, Mars, comets, Titan, Europa, and James Webb Space Telescope all involve low-temperature surroundings. Therefore, electronics for space exploration missions need to be designed for operation under such environmental conditions. There are ongoing efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to establish a database on the operation and reliability of electronic devices and circuits under extreme temperature operation for space applications. This work is being performed under the Extreme Temperature Electronics Program with collaboration and support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The results of these investigations will be used to establish safe operating areas and to identify degradation and failure modes, and the information will be disseminated to mission planners and system designers for use as tools for proper part selection and in risk mitigation. An overview of this program along with experimental data will be presented.

  14. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  15. Ocular examination for trauma; clinical ultrasound aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, Leroy; Sharipov, Salizhan; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Melton, Shannon; Hamilton, Douglas R.; McFarlin, Kellie; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound imaging is a successful modality in a broad variety of diagnostic applications including trauma. Ultrasound has been shown to be accurate when performed by non-radiologist physicians; recent reports have suggested that non-physicians can perform limited ultrasound examinations. A multipurpose ultrasound system is installed on the International Space Station (ISS) as a component of the Human Research Facility (HRF). This report documents the first ocular ultrasound examination conducted in space, which demonstrated the capability to assess physiologic alterations or pathology including trauma during long-duration space flight. METHODS: An ISS crewmember with minimal sonography training was remotely guided by an imaging expert from Mission Control Center (MCC) through a comprehensive ultrasound examination of the eye. A multipurpose ultrasound imager was used in conjunction with a space-to-ground video downlink and two-way audio. Reference cards with topological reference points, hardware controls, and target images were used to facilitate the examination. Multiple views of the eye structures were obtained through a closed eyelid. Pupillary response to light was demonstrated by modifying the light exposure of the contralateral eye. RESULTS: A crewmember on the ISS was able to complete a comprehensive ocular examination using B- and M-mode ultrasonography with remote guidance from an expert in the MCC. Multiple anteroposterior, oblique, and coronal views of the eye clearly demonstrated the anatomic structures of both segments of the globe. The iris and pupil were readily visualized with probe manipulation. Pupillary diameter was assessed in real time in B- and M-mode displays. The anatomic detail and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and could be used to answer a variety of clinical and space physiologic questions. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive, high-quality ultrasound examination of the eye was performed with a multipurpose imager

  16. STS-65 Mission Specialist Chiao in front of IML-2 Rack 3 aboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao is seen in the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module in front of Rack 3 and above center aisle equipment. Chiao has just made an observation of the goldfish container (silver apparatus on left between his right hand and knee). The Rack 3 Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) also contains Medaka and newts. Chiao joined five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for two weeks of experimenting onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, in Earth orbit.

  17. STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

  18. 'Smart SPHERES' Fly High Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 12 engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., and Johnson Space Center in Houston conducted an experiment using small, free-flying robotic satellites called "Smart SPH...

  19. New ideas for affordable space missions

    PubMed

    Eller, E; Roussel-Dupre, D; Weiss, R; Bruegman, O

    1996-04-01

    In September 1995, NASA-Goddard held a workshop on low-cost access to space for science missions. The workshop provided briefings on balloons, sounding rockets, Shuttle payloads, and low-cost free-flyer concepts, to provide options of getting experiments into space. This report is the result of a panel session organized with the aim of generating new ideas beyond those presented in the workshop. In addition to the authors, Orlando Figueroa and Paul Ondrus of NASA-Goddard and Richard Zwirnbaum of Computer Sciences Corp. participated in the discussions. The ideas presented do not necessarily reflect the current thinking of NASA managers. Although the panel discussion was focused on the kinds of science missions usually funded by NASA, most of the ideas that were generated are relevant to military and commercial missions as well. PMID:11538724

  20. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  1. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  2. Helios mission support. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, P. S.; Rockwell, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the Deep Space Network Operations organization in support of the Helios Project from 15 October 1977 through 15 December 1977 are described. Topics covered include: (1) Mark 3 data subsystem testing at the conjoint Deep Space Stations (DSS) 42/43 (Canberra, Australia); (2) MDS implementation at DSS 61/63 (Madrid, Spain); (3) Radio Science update, and (4) other mission-related activities.

  3. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  4. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  5. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  6. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  7. STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-second flight since the return-to-flight, and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). STS-77 was also the last flight of OV-105 prior to the vehicle being placed in the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-78; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037, 2040, and 2038 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-080. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-47, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO47A for the left SRB, and 360TO47B for the right SRB. The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VII, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of Spacehab-4, the SPARTAN 207/inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE), and the Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the experiments of the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), Get-Away-Special (GAS), and GAS Bridge Assembly (GBA). The STS-77 mission was planned as a 9-day flight plus 1 day, plus 2 contingency days, which were available for

  8. Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.

    PubMed

    Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization. PMID:16784202

  9. STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

  10. Psychological considerations in future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Runge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Issues affecting human psychological adjustments to long space missions are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle flight crewmembers will not have extensive flight qualification requirements, the effects of a more heterogeneous crew mixture than in early space flights is considered to create possibilities of social conflicts. Routine space flight will decrease the novelty of a formerly unique experience, and the necessity of providing personal space or other mechanisms for coping with crowded, permanently occupied space habitats is stressed. Women are noted to display more permeable personal space requirements. The desirability of planning leisure activities is reviewed, and psychological test results for female and male characteristics are cited to show that individuals with high scores in both traditionally male and female attributes are most capable of effective goal-oriented behavior and interpersonal relationships. Finally, it is shown that competitiveness is negatively correlated with the success of collaborative work and the social climate of an environment.

  11. STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

  12. Decoder synchronization for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  13. Space interferometer mission (SIM) instrument design concepts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A. L.

    SIM is a 12 meter baseline interferometer to be built as part of the NASA Origins program, designed to fly in space and provide high precision astrometry measurements of astronomical objects. SIM will provide angular measurements three orders of magnitude more precise than current space or ground based sensors, allowing the indirect detection of Earth-like planets around neighboring stars. The SIM mission will also include the ability to synthesize images by varying the interferometer baseline lengths and will demonstrate a nulling beam combiner as a technology pathfinder for future missions. A team at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) in Sunnyvale, CA has been chosen by JPL to enter a partnership to design and build the SIM instrument. This paper describes the overall LMMS SIM instrument concept and its unique features, including the full aperture laser metrology approach for high precision metrology.

  14. Decoder synchronization for deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1994-02-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  15. Decoder Synchronization for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1993-10-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data. rates and signal -to-noise ratios (SNRs) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  16. Mounting small optics for cryogenic space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Holmes, Howard C.; Jacoby, Mike S.; Kvamme, E. Todd

    2011-09-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) includes numerous optical assemblies. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at ~293K and the optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain exceptional optical quality during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) conceived, designed, analyzed, assembled, tested, and integrated the optical assemblies for the NIRCam instrument. With using examples from NIRCam, this paper covers techniques for mounting small mirrors and lenses for cryogenic space missions.

  17. ISS Update: Communication Delays During Deep Space Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Jeremy Frank, Autonomous Mission Operations Test Principal Investigator, about how communication delays will affect future deep space missions and...

  18. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Hogie, Keith; Casasanta, Ralph; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) on applying standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols (IP) can provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, and constellations of spacecraft. A primary component of this work is to design and demonstrate automated end-to-end transport of files in a dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. These functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both Earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively expensive. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end file transfers all the way from instruments to control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with data rates and downlink capabilities from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Many examples are based on designs currently being investigated for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  19. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamon, Rob

    1993-01-01

    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  20. STS-71, Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frike, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance. STS-71 is the 100th United States manned space flight, the sixty-ninth Space Shuttle flight, the forty-fourth flight since the return-to-flight, the fourteenth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle Atlantis, and the first joint United States (U.S.)-Russian docking mission since 1975. In addition to the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-70; three SSMEs that were designated 2028, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated Bl-072. The RSRMs that were an integral part of the SRBs were designated 360L045A for the left SRB and 360W045B for the right SRB. The STS-71 mission was planned as a 1 0-day plus 1-day-extension mission plus 2 additional days for contingency operations and weather avoidance. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform on-orbit joint U.S.-Russian life sciences investigations, logistical resupply of the Mir Space Station, return of the United States astronaut flying on the Mir, the replacement of the Mir-18 crew with the two-cosmonaut Mir-19 crew, and the return of the Mir-18 crew to Earth. The secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Camera and the Shuttle Amateur Radio experiment-2 (SAREX-2).

  1. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-C National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the eleventh Shuttle flight and fifth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Also summarized are the significant problems that occurred during STS 41-C, and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight. The major objectives of flight STS 41-C were to successfully deploy the LDEF (long duration exposure facility) and retrieve, repair and redeploy the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) spacecraft, and perform functions of IMAX and Cinema 360 cameras.

  2. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  3. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment

  4. Facilities for Biological Research Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, Kenneth A.; Yost, Bruce D.; Berry, William E.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1996-01-01

    A centrifuge designed as part of an integrated biological facility for installation onboard the International Space Station is presented. The requirements for the 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, which is designed for the support of biological experiments are discussed. The scientific objectives of the facility are to: provide a means of conducting fundamental studies in which gravitational acceleration is a controllable variable; provide a 1g control; determine the threshold acceleration for physiological response, and determine the value of centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for the biomedical problems associated with space flight. The implementation of the facility is reported on, and the following aspects of the facility are described: the host resources systems supply requirements such as power and data control; the habitat holding rack; the life sciences glove box; the centrifuge; the different habitats for cell culture, aquatic studies, plant research and insect research; the egg incubator, and the laboratory support equipment.

  5. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and as the need increases for more network-oriented mission operations. Another element of increasing significance will be the increased cost effectiveness of designing, building, integrating, and operating instruments and spacecraft that will come to the fore as more missions take up the approach of using commodity-level standard communications technologies. This paper describes how an IP (Internet Protocol)-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation

  6. Prospects for Interdisciplinary Science Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of the International Space Station was completed in early 2011, and is now embarking on its first year of the coming decade of use as a laboratory. Two key types of physical science research are enabled by ISS: studies of processes that are normally masked by gravity, and instruments that take advantage of its position as a powerful platform in orbit. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection enables experiments in diverse areas such as fluids near the critical point, Marangoni convection, combustion, and coarsening of metal alloys. The positioning of such a powerful platform in orbit with robotic transfer and instrument support also provides a unique alternative platform for astronomy and physics instruments. Some of the operating or planned instruments related to fundamental physics on the International Space Station include MAXI (Monitoring all-sky X-ray Instrument for ISS), the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), and ACES (Atomic Clock Experiment in Space). The presentation will conclude with an overview of pathways for funding different types of experiments from NASA funding to the ISS National Laboratory, and highlights of the streamlining of services to help scientists implement their experiments on ISS.

  7. Restraining Loose Equipment Aboard the International Space Station: The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth A.; Reynolds, D. W.; Vanhooser, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) grows, so do the supplies and equipment needed to support its daily operations. Each day many items must be unstowed and relocated to various worksites so they are readily available to the crew. Due to the lack of gravity, these items may become loose and float away if not restrained. The Payload Equipment Restraint System was developed to meet the new and unique challenge of restrain no loose equipment aboard the ISS.

  8. Planetary mission applications for space storable propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.; Cork, M. J.; Young, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to compare space-storable with earth-storable spacecraft propulsion systems, space-storable with solid kick stages, and several space-storable development options on the basis of benefits received for cost expenditures required. The results show that, for a launch vehicle with performance less than that of Shuttle/Centaur, space-storable spacecraft propulsion offers an incremental benefit/cost ratio between 1.0 and 5.5 when compared to earth-storable systems for three of the four missions considered. In the case of VOIR 83, positive benefits were apparent only for a specific launch vehicle-spacecraft propulsion combination. A space-storable propulsion system operating at thrust of 600 lbf, 355 units of specific impulse, and with blowdown pressurization, represents the best choice for the JO 81 mission on a Titan/Centaur if only spacecraft propulsion modifications are considered. For still higher performance, a new solid-propellant kick stage with space-storable spacecraft propulsion is preferred over a system which uses space-storable propellants for both the kick stage and the spacecraft system.

  9. Manned Mars missions using propellant from space

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Olson, T.S. ); Redd, L.R. )

    1993-01-10

    .A recent discovery (8/14/92) of a near-earth object containing materials potentially useful for space activities could perhaps change the entire way humans access and operate in space. A near-Earth object ([number sign]4015, 1979 VA, comet Wilson-Harrington) contains water ice that could be used for space propulsion. In addition, this type of object may contain structural and lifesustaining materials (complex hydrocarbons, ammonia and/or bound nitrogen compounds) for space structures, manned planetary bases, or planetary surface terraforming. The retrieval and utilization of rocket propellant from near-Earth objects, for manned Mars missions in particular, has been investigated and the benefits of this scenario to over performing a Mars mission with terrestrial propellants have been documented. The results show water extracted from these objects and retrieved to Earth orbit for use in going to Mars may actually enable manned Mars exploration by reducing the number of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) flights or eliminating the need for HLLV's altogether. The mission can perhaps be supported with existing launch vehicles and not required heavy lift capability. Also, the development of a nuclear thermal rocket for this alternate approach may be simplified substantially by reducing the operating temperature required.

  10. STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

  11. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  12. Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

  13. The Infrared Telescope in Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/Japanese Space Agency Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission was one of seven experiments on the first Space Flyer Unit (SFU-1). This satellite was launched on a Japanese H-2 expendable launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center on March 18, 1995 and was retrieved by the NASA space shuttle the following January for refurbishment and reuse. The IRTS itself consisted of a super-fluid liquid helium-cooled telescope with four infrared focal plane science instruments that operated simultaneously. During its one-month lifetime before the liquid helium was exhausted the IRTS mapped 7% of the sky. These data are now being released to the general astronomical community through IPAC at the California Institute of Technology.

  14. In-situ observation of Martian neutral exosphere: Results from MENCA aboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pratim Das, Tirtha; Dhanya, M. B.; Thampi, Smitha V.

    2016-07-01

    Till very recently, the only in situ measurements of the Martian upper atmospheric composition was from the mass spectrometer experiments aboard the two Viking landers, which covered the altitude region from 120 to 200 km. Hence, the exploration by the Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft of ISRO and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) experiment aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile ENvironment (MAVEN) mission of NASA are significant steps to further understand the Martian neutral exosphere and its variability. MENCA is a quadrupole based neutral mass spectrometer which observes the radial distribution of the Martian neutral exosphere. The analysis of the data from MENCA has revealed unambiguous detection of the three major constituents, which are amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (contributions from CO and N2) and amu 16 (atomic O), as well as a few minor species. Since MOM is in a highly elliptical orbit, the MENCA observations pertain to different local times, in the low-latitude region. Examples of such observations would be presented, and compared with NGIMS results. Emphasis would be given to the observations pertaining to high solar zenith angles and close to perihelion period. During the evening hours, the transition from CO2 to O dominated region is observed near 270 km, which is significantly different from the previous observations corresponding to sub-solar point and SZA of ~45°. The mean evening time exospheric temperature derived using these observations is 271±5 K. These are the first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours, which would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  15. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  16. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  17. Microbial Diversity Aboard Spacecraft: Evaluation of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Victoria A.; Thrasher, Adrianna N.; Healy, Mimi; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2003-01-01

    An evaluation of the microbial flora from air, water, and surface samples provided a baseline of microbial diversity onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to gain insight into bacterial and fungal contamination during the initial stages of construction and habitation. Using 16S genetic sequencing and rep-PeR, 63 bacterial strains were isolated for identification and fingerprinted for microbial tracking. The use of these molecular tools allowed for the identification of bacteria not previously identified using automated biochemical analysis and provided a clear indication of the source of several ISS contaminants. Fungal and bacterial data acquired during monitoring do not suggest there is a current microbial hazard to the spacecraft, nor does any trend indicate a potential health risk. Previous spacecraft environmental analysis indicated that microbial contamination will increase with time and require continued surveillance.

  18. Commercial opportunities in bioseparations and physiological testing aboard Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Cell Research (CCR) is a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space which has as its main goal encouraging industry-driven biomedical/biotechnology space projects. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide long duration, crew-tended microgravity environments which will enhance the opportunities for commercial biomedical/biotechnology projects in bioseparations and physiological testing. The CCR bioseparations program, known as USCEPS (for United States Commercial Electrophoresis Program in Space), is developing access for American industry to continuous-flow electrophoresis aboard SSF. In space, considerable scale-up of continuous free-flow electrophoresis is possible for cells, sub cellular particles, proteins, growth factors, and other biological products. The lack of sedemination and buoyancy-driven convection flow enhances purity of separations and the amount of material processed/time. Through the CCR's physiological testing program, commercial organizations will have access aboard SSF to physiological systems experiments (PSE's); the Penn State Biomodule; and telemicroscopy. Physiological systems experiments involve the use of live animals for pharmaceutical product testing and discovery research. The Penn State Biomodule is a computer-controlled mini lab useful for projects involving live cells or tissues and macro molecular assembly studies, including protein crystallization. Telemicroscopy will enable staff on Earth to manipulate and monitor microscopic specimens on SSF for product development and discovery research or for medical diagnosis of astronaut health problems. Space-based product processing, testing, development, and discovery research using USCEPS and CCR's physiological testing program offer new routes to improved health on Earth. Direct crew involvement-in biomedical/biotechnology projects aboard SSF will enable better experimental outcomes. The current data base shows that there is reason for considerable optimism

  19. Control Architecture for the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, W.; Shames, P.; Schell, R.

    2000-01-01

    As NASA moves int an era of flying more missions at much lower cost and shorter development duration, the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) has been redesigned to provide services to approximately 50 missions during the next 10 years.

  20. STS 129 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-129) and International Space Station (ULF3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Reports on the air quality aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-129), and the International Space station (ULF3). NASA analyzed the grab sample canisters (GSCs) and the formaldehyde badges aboard both locations for carbon monoxide levels. The three surrogates: (sup 13)C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene registered 109, 101, and 109% in the space shuttle and 81, 87, and 55% in the International Space Station (ISS). From these results the atmosphere in both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) was found to be breathable.

  1. Combatting Managerial Complacency in Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Human factors techniques have made significant contributions to the safety of space missions. Physiological models help to monitor crew workload and performance. Empirical studies inform the design of operator interfaces to maximize finite cognitive and perceptual resources. Further progress has been made in supporting distributed situation awareness across multi-national teams and in promoting the resilience of complex, time critical missions. Most of this work has focused on operational performance. In contrast, most space-based mishaps stem from organizational problems and miss-management. In particular, this paper focuses on the dangers of complacency when previous successes are wrongly interpreted as guarantees of future safety. The argument is illustrated by the recent loss of NASA's Nuclear Compton Telescope Balloon; during a launch phase that 'no-one considered to be a potential hazard'. The closing sections argue that all senior executives should read at least one mishap report every year in order to better understand the hazards of complacency.

  2. Internet Technology for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor); Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  3. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's operational mission experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-06-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope, the fourth and final of NASA's Great Observatories, and the cornerstone to NASA's Origins Program, launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Spitzer has an 85cm diameter beryllium telescope, which operates near absolute zero utilizing a liquid helium cryostat for cooling the telescope. The helium cryostat though designed for a 2.5 year lifetime, through creative usage now has an expected lifetime of 5.5 years. Spitzer has completed its in-orbit checkout/science verification phases and the first two years of nominal operations becoming the first mission to execute astronomical observations from a solar orbit. Spitzer was designed to probe and explore the universe in the infrared utilizing three state of the art detector arrays providing imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy over the 3-160 micron wavelength range. Spitzer is achieving major advances in the study of astrophysical phenomena across the expanses of our universe. Many technology areas critical to future infrared missions have been successfully demonstrated by Spitzer. These demonstrated technologies include lightweight cryogenic optics, sensitive detector arrays, and a high performance thermal system, combining radiation both passive and active cryogenic cooling of the telescope in space following its warm launch. This paper provides an overview of the Spitzer mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, its orbit, operations and project management approach and related lessons learned.

  4. STS-35 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-35 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-35/LWT-28), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-038. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the planned operations of the Ultraviolet Astronomy (Astro-1) payload and the Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) payload in a 190-nmi. circular orbit which had an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tablular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter subsystem problem is cited in the applicable subsystem discussion.

  5. Space station support of manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1986-01-01

    The assembly of a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft in low Earth orbit can be best accomplished with the support of the space station. Station payload requirements for microgravity environments of .001 g and pointing stability requirements of less than 1 arc second could mean that the spacecraft may have to be assembled at a station-keeping position about 100 meters or more away from the station. In addition to the assembly of large modules and connective structures, the manned Mars mission assembly tasks may include the connection of power, fluid, and data lines and the handling and activation of components for chemical or nuclear power and propulsion systems. These assembly tasks will require the use of advanced automation and robotics in addition to Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew support. Advanced development programs for the space station, including on-orbit demonstrations, could also be used to support manned Mars mission technology objectives. Follow-on studies should be conducted to identify space station activities which could be enhanced or expanded in scope (without significant cost and schedule impact) to help resolve key technical and scientific questions relating to manned Mars missions.

  6. High performance techniques for space mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen F.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize current research at Carnegie Mellon University aimed at development of high performance techniques and tools for space mission scheduling. Similar to prior research in opportunistic scheduling, our approach assumes the use of dynamic analysis of problem constraints as a basis for heuristic focusing of problem solving search. This methodology, however, is grounded in representational assumptions more akin to those adopted in recent temporal planning research, and in a problem solving framework which similarly emphasizes constraint posting in an explicitly maintained solution constraint network. These more general representational assumptions are necessitated by the predominance of state-dependent constraints in space mission planning domains, and the consequent need to integrate resource allocation and plan synthesis processes. First, we review the space mission problems we have considered to date and indicate the results obtained in these application domains. Next, we summarize recent work in constraint posting scheduling procedures, which offer the promise of better future solutions to this class of problems.

  7. The Evaluation of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction. As community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a health concern in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts aboard ISS or the space station itself. Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis of archived ISS isolates confirmed our earlier studies indicating a transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers. In addition, this fingerprinting also indicated a transfer between crewmembers and their environment. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and the environment, phenotypic evaluations indicated minimal methicillin resistance. However, positive results for the Penicillin Binding Protein, indicative of the presence of the mecA gene, were detected in multiple isolates of archived Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Phenotypic analysis of these isolates confirmed their resistance to methicillin. While MRSA has not been isolated aboard ISS, the potential exists for the transfer of the gene, mecA, from coagulase negative environmental Staphylococcus to S. aureus creating MRSA strains. This study suggests the need to expand environmental monitoring aboard long duration exploration spacecraft to include antibiotic resistance profiling.

  8. On the Astron UV space mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpio, E. Yu.; Mironov, A. V.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    The Soviet UV space mission Astron, launched in 1983, had been operational for eight years as the largest ultraviolet space telescope during its lifetime. Astron provided a lot of observational material for various types of astrophysical objects, but unfortunately these data were not widely available and, as a result, unduly forgotten. Here we present some results of our comparison of the Astron data to the modern UV stellar data, such as the NGSL spectral library, discuss the precision and accuracy achieved with Astron, and make some conclusions on potential application areas of these data.

  9. Symbiotic structures to significantly enhance space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Andrew D.; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Arritt, Brandon J.

    2007-04-01

    The Department of Defense is actively pursuing a Responsive Space capability that will dramatically reduce the cost and time associated with getting a payload into space. In order to enable that capability, our space systems must be modular and flexible to cover a wide range of missions, configurations, duty cycles, and orbits. This places requirements on the entire satellite infrastructure: payloads, avionics, electrical harnessing, structure, thermal management system, etc. The Integrated Structural Systems Team at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, has been tasked with developing structural and thermal solutions that will enable a Responsive Space capability. This paper details a "symbiotic" solution where thermal management functionality is embedded within the structure of the satellite. This approach is based on the flight proven and structurally efficient isogrid architecture. In our rendition, the ribs serve as fluidic passages for thermal management, and passively activated valves are used to control flow to the individual components. As the paper will explain, our analysis has shown this design to be structurally efficient and thermally responsive to a wide range of potential satellite missions, payloads, configurations, and orbits.

  10. STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

  11. STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

  12. Materials Research Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: Facilities Overview, Operational Procedures, and Experimental Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Gillies, D. C.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and Maintenance Work Area (MWA) are facilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that were used to successfully conduct experiments in support of, respectively, the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI). The capabilities of these facilities are briefly discussed and then demonstrated by presenting real-time and subsequently down-linked video-taped examples from the abovementioned experiments. Data interpretation, ISS telescience, some lessons learned, and the need of such facilities for conducting work in support of understanding materials behavior, particularly fluid processing and transport scenarios, in low-gravity environments is discussed.

  13. Materials Research Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: Facilities Overview, Operational Procedures, and Experimental Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Luz, Paul; Smith, Guy; Spivey, Reggie; Jeter, Linda; Gillies, Donald; Hua, Fay; Anikumar, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and Maintenance Work Area (MWA) are facilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that were used to successfully conduct experiments in support of, respectively, the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI). The capabilities of these facilities are briefly discussed and then demonstrated by presenting "real-time" and subsequently down-linked video-taped examples from the abovementioned experiments. Data interpretation, ISS telescience, some lessons learned, and the need of such facilities for conducting work in support of understanding materials behavior, particularly fluid processing and transport scenarios, in low-gravity environments is discussed.

  14. The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) Space Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

    1998-01-01

    For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

  15. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  16. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  17. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  18. The Deep Space 1 and Space Technology 4/Champollion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Champollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  19. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  20. Radiation Shielding for Manned Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The arrival of the Expedition 1 Crew at the International Space Station represents the beginning of the continuous presence of man in space. Already we are deploying astronauts and cosmonauts for missions of approx. 6 months onboard the ISS. In the future we can anticipate that more people will be in space and they will be there for longer periods. Even with 6-months deployments to the ISS, the radiation exposure that crew members receive is approaching the exposure limits imposed by the governments of the space- faring nations. In the future we can expect radiation protection to be a dominant consideration for long manned missions. Recognizing this, NASA has expanded their research program on radiation health. This program has three components, bioastronautics, fundamental biology and radiation shielding materials. Bioastronautics is concerned with the investigating the effects of radiation on humans. Fundamental biology investigates the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to tissue. Radiation shielding materials research focuses on developing accurate computational tools to predict the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials. It also investigates new materials that can be used for spacecraft. The radiation shielding materials program will be described and examples of results from the ongoing research will be shown.

  1. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  2. STS-49: Space shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-49 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the first flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavor vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-43 (LWT-36); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's designated as BI-050. The lightweight RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated as 360L022A for the left RSRM and 360L022B for the right RSRM.

  3. STS-48 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-48 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-42 (LUT-35); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-046. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L018A for the left SRB and 360L018B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the flight was to successfully deploy the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) payload.

  4. Habitability in long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances E.

    1987-01-01

    The research (both in progress and completed) conducted for the U.S. Space Station in relation to the crew habitability and crew productivity is discussed. Methods and tasks designed to increase the data base of the man/system information are described. The particular research areas discussed in this paper include human productivity, on-orbit maintenance, vewing requirements, fastener types, and crew quarters. This information (along with data obtained on human interaction with command/control work station, anthropometic factors, crew equipment, galley/wardroom, restraint systems, etc) will be integrated into the common data base for the purpose of assisting the design of the Space Station and other future manned space missions.

  5. STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

  6. STS-40 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-40 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-first flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-41 (LWT-34), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-044. The primary objective of the STS-40 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Getaway Special (GAS) payloads and the Middeck O-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) payload.

  7. STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

  8. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  9. Microstructure Analysis of Directionally Solidified Aluminum Alloy Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angart, Samuel Gilbert

    This thesis entails a detailed microstructure analysis of directionally solidified (DS) Al-7Si alloys processed in microgravity aboard the International Space Station and similar duplicate ground based experiments at Cleveland State University. In recent years, the European Space Agency (ESA) has conducted experiments on alloy solidification in microgravity. NASA and ESA have collaborated for three DS experiments with Al- 7 wt. % Si alloy, aboard the International Space Station (ISS) denoted as MICAST6, MICAST7 and MICAST12. The first two experiments were processed on the ISS in 2009 and 2010. MICAST12 was processed aboard the ISS in the spring of 2014; the resulting experimental results of MICAST12 are not discussed in this thesis. The primary goal of the thesis was to understand the effect of convection in primary dendrite arm spacings (PDAS) and radial macrosegregation within DS aluminum alloys. The MICAST experiments were processed with various solidification speeds and thermal gradients to produce alloy with differences in microstructure features. PDAS and radial macrosegregation were measured in the solidified ingot that developed during the transition from one solidification speed to another. To represent PDAS in DS alloy in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion-controlled growth. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of solidified samples, PDAS was measured and calculated. The ground-based (1-g) experiments done at Cleveland State University CSU were also analyzed for comparison to the ISS experiments (0-g). During steady state in the microgravity environment, there was a reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated PDAS. In ground-based experiments, transverse sections exhibited obvious radial macrosegregation caused by thermosolutal convection resulting in a non-agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Using a combination of image processing techniques and Electron Microprobe Analysis

  10. STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  11. Results of the joint utilization of laser integrated experiments flown on payload GAS-449 aboard Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The high peak power neodymium YAG laser and the HeNe laser aboard GAS-449 have demonstrated the survivability of the devices in the micro-gravity, cosmic radiation, thermal, and shock environment of space. Some pharmaceuticals and other materials flown in both the active and passive status have demonstrated reduction in volume and unusual spectroscopic changes. X-ray detectors have shown cosmic particle hits with accompanying destruction at their interaction points. Some scattering in the plates is in evidence. Some results of both active and passive experiments on board the GAS-449 payload are evaluated.

  12. Indian Space Science and Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.

    mission life of ˜ 5 years. Based on an expert report, ISRO has announced its plan to launch the first moon mission (Chandrayaan-1), which could be realised with the existing ISRO capabilities of launch vehicle, satellite and related technologies. The mission has specific scientific goals to study the three-dimensional lunar surface geological features and distribution of elemental and mineralogical species to help understand the origin and evolution of lunar system. The mission goal is to place a lunar-craft, weighing about 525 kg and carrying ˜ 55 kg payload mass, at ˜ 100 km polar orbit of moon for high spatial resolution (5-20 km) mapping. The rationale for selecting these and other future space science missions along with the expected scientific results would be discussed.

  13. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  14. Secure Telemetry Demonstrator for Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, P.; Fabry, P.; Akuatse, D.; Carrard, D.

    2007-08-01

    End-to-end security is an emerging need of future space missions for protecting satellite's data from unauthorized access. Trend towards this new necessity is sustained by the growing convenience in making use of open systems and Internet connectivity for the control of shared instruments and for data distribution causing on the other hand an increased vulnerability from the security point of view. In response to that need, Syderal SA in Swit- zerland is developing under an ESA contract a demonstrator of a fundamental building block for providing space mission security services on an end-to- end basis. Specifically, this demonstrator implements all necessary functions on the spacecraft side for pro- viding data link layer security over a space link on a point-to-point basis. At the same time, it provides end-to- end security when used in combination with network layer security between end-users (connected through public networks) and payloads. This development is carried out within the frame of ISO/IEC 15408 standard on Evaluation Criteria for IT security [6], [7] and [8] as well as in accordance to ESA ECSS telemetry and telecommand standards [3] and [4].

  15. STS-42 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-42 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the fourteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-52 (LWT-45); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-048. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L020A for the left SRM and 360Q020B for the right SRM. The primary objective of the STS-42 mission was to complete the objectives of the first International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1). Secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR); Student Experiment 81-09 (Convection in Zero Gravity); Student Experiment 83-02 (Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media); the Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads carried on the GAS Beam Assembly.

  16. STS-75 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-75 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fiftieth flight since the return-to-flight, and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-76; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2029, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-078. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-53, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRMs were designated as 36OW53A for the left SRB, and 36OW053B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Tethered Satellite System-1 R (TSS-1R), and the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3). The secondary objectives were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and to meet the requirements of the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility and the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. Appendix A provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used thorughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  17. Irreducible Tests for Space Mission Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As missions extend further into space, the modeling and simulation of their every action and instruction becomes critical. The greater the distance between Earth and the spacecraft, the smaller the window for communication becomes. Therefore, through modeling and simulating the planned operations, the most efficient sequence of commands can be sent to the spacecraft. The Space Mission Sequencing Software is being developed as the next generation of sequencing software to ensure the most efficient communication to interplanetary and deep space mission spacecraft. Aside from efficiency, the software also checks to make sure that communication during a specified time is even possible, meaning that there is not a planet or moon preventing reception of a signal from Earth or that two opposing commands are being given simultaneously. In this way, the software not only models the proposed instructions to the spacecraft, but also validates the commands as well.To ensure that all spacecraft communications are sequenced properly, a timeline is used to structure the data. The created timelines are immutable and once data is as-signed to a timeline, it shall never be deleted nor renamed. This is to prevent the need for storing and filing the timelines for use by other programs. Several types of timelines can be created to accommodate different types of communications (activities, measurements, commands, states, events). Each of these timeline types requires specific parameters and all have options for additional parameters if needed. With so many combinations of parameters available, the robustness and stability of the software is a necessity. Therefore a baseline must be established to ensure the full functionality of the software and it is here where the irreducible tests come into use.

  18. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  19. STS-76 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-76 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-first flight since the return-to-flight, and the sixteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-77; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2019 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-079. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-46, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO46A for the left SRB, and 360TO46B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and transfer one U.S. Astronaut to the Mir. A single Spacehab module carried science equipment and hardware, Risk Mitigation Experiments (RME's), and Russian Logistics in support of the Phase 1 Program requirements. In addition, the European Space Agency (ESA) Biorack operations were performed. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  20. Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

  1. A prototype gas exchange monitor for exercise stress testing aboard NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Joseph A.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Bauer, Anne

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an easy-to-use monitor developed to track the weightlessness deconditioning aboard the NASA Space Station, together with the results of testing of a prototype instrument. The monitor measures the O2 uptake and CO2 production, and calculates the maximum O2 uptake and anaerobic threshold during an exercise stress test. The system uses two flowmeters in series to achieve a completely automatic calibration, and uses breath-by-breath compensation for sample line-transport delay. The monitor was evaluated using two laboratory methods and was shown to be accurate. The system's block diagram and the bench test setup diagram are included.

  2. The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laster, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to

  3. Space missions orbits around small worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; dos Santos Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Bertachini de Almeida Prado, Antônio Fernando

    2015-08-01

    Space missions under study to visit icy moons and small worlds in our solar system will requires orbits with low-altitude and high inclinations. These orbits provides a better coverage to map the surface and to analyse the gravitational and magnetic fields. In this context, obtain these orbits has become important in planning of these missions. Celestial bodies like Haumea, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, Titan and Triton are among the objects under study study to receive missions in a near future. In order to obtain low-altitude and high inclined orbits for future exploration of these bodies, this work aims to present an analytical study to describe and evaluate gravitational disturbances over a spacecraft's orbit around a minor body. An analytical model for the third-body perturbation is presented. Perturbations due to the non-sphericity of the minor body are considered. The effects on spacecraft's orbital elements are analyzed to provide the the more useful and desired orbits. The dynamic of these orbits is explored by numerical simulations. The results present good accordance with the literature.

  4. Spreadsheets for Analyzing and Optimizing Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael R.; Agrawal, Anil K.; Czikmantory, Akos J.; Weisbin, Charles R.; Hua, Hook; Neff, Jon M.; Cowdin, Mark A.; Lewis, Brian S.; Iroz, Juana; Ross, Rick

    2009-01-01

    XCALIBR (XML Capability Analysis LIBRary) is a set of Extensible Markup Language (XML) database and spreadsheet- based analysis software tools designed to assist in technology-return-on-investment analysis and optimization of technology portfolios pertaining to outer-space missions. XCALIBR is also being examined for use in planning, tracking, and documentation of projects. An XCALIBR database contains information on mission requirements and technological capabilities, which are related by use of an XML taxonomy. XCALIBR incorporates a standardized interface for exporting data and analysis templates to an Excel spreadsheet. Unique features of XCALIBR include the following: It is inherently hierarchical by virtue of its XML basis. The XML taxonomy codifies a comprehensive data structure and data dictionary that includes performance metrics for spacecraft, sensors, and spacecraft systems other than sensors. The taxonomy contains >700 nodes representing all levels, from system through subsystem to individual parts. All entries are searchable and machine readable. There is an intuitive Web-based user interface. The software automatically matches technologies to mission requirements. The software automatically generates, and makes the required entries in, an Excel return-on-investment analysis software tool. The results of an analysis are presented in both tabular and graphical displays.

  5. Autonomous Navigation for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (determining where the spacecraft is at any given time, controlling its path to achieve desired targets), performed using ground-in- the-loop techniques: (1) Data includes 2-way radiometric (Doppler, range), interferometric (Delta- Differential One-way Range), and optical (images of natural bodies taken by onboard camera) (2) Data received on the ground, processed to determine orbit, commands sent to execute maneuvers to control orbit. A self-contained, onboard, autonomous navigation system can: (1) Eliminate delays due to round-trip light time (2) Eliminate the human factors in ground-based processing (3) Reduce turnaround time from navigation update to minutes, down to seconds (4) React to late-breaking data. At JPL, we have developed the framework and computational elements of an autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav. It was originally developed as one of the technologies for the Deep Space 1 mission, launched in 1998; subsequently used on three other spacecraft, for four different missions. The primary use has been on comet missions to track comets during flybys, and impact one comet.

  6. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  7. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  8. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  9. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  10. STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

  11. STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-05-01

    The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

  12. STS-69 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-69 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-sixth flight since the return-to-flight, and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour(OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-72; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-074. The RSRMS, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL048A for the left SRB, and 36OW048B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirments of Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and SPARTAN-201. The secondary objectives were to perform the operation of the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/GAS Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) and the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Development Flight Test 02 (EDFT-02), the Biological Research in Canister (BRIC) payload, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) payload, the Space Tissue Loss, National Institute of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-CS) payload, and the Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  13. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  14. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J; Nachtwey, D S

    1988-08-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem). PMID:3410682

  15. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  16. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's current radiation protection guidelines were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach as in 1970, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined their ranks. For these and other reasons it was considered necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (1.0 Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem (4.0 Sv) for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 600 rem (6.0 Sv) to 400 rem (4.0 Sv). 20 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. This position is founded upon continued government investment in research and development in space technology, which is clearly reflected in the Space Situational Awareness capabilities and the longevity of these missions. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by unresponsive and relatively expensive launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV). The EELV systems require an average of six to eight months from positioning on the launch table until liftoff. Access to space requires maintaining a robust space transportation capability, founded on a rigorous industrial and technology base. To assure access to space, the United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. Under the Air Force Policy Directive, the Air Force will establish, organize, employ, and sustain space forces necessary to execute the mission and functions assigned including rapid response to the National Command Authorities and the conduct of military operations across the spectrum of conflict. Air Force Space Command executes the majority of spacelift operations for DoD satellites and other government and commercial agencies. The

  18. Space Missions and Information Technology: Some Thoughts and Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation about information technology and its role in space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Where is the IT on Space Missions? 2) Winners of the NASA Software of the Year Award; 3) Space Networking Roadmap; and 4) 10 (7) -Year Vision for IT in Space.

  19. STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

  20. Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Joel Michael

    Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical

  1. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

  2. Space-time dynamics estimation from space mission tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, D.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Many physical parameters that can be estimated from space mission tracking data influence both the translational dynamics and proper time rates of observers. These different proper time rates cause a variability of the time transfer observable beyond that caused by their translational (and rotational) dynamics. With the near-future implementation of transponder laser ranging, these effects will become increasingly important, and will require a re-evaluation of the common data analysis practice of using a priori time ephemerides, which is the goal of this paper. Methods: We develop a framework for the simultaneous estimation of the initial translational state and the initial proper time of an observer, with the goal of facilitating robust tracking data analysis from next-generation space missions carrying highly accurate clocks and tracking equipment. Using our approach, the influence of physical parameters on both translational and time dynamics are considered at the same level in the analysis, and mutual correlations between the signatures of the two are automatically identified. We perform a covariance analysis using our proposed method with simulated laser data from Earth-based stations to both a Mars and Mercury lander. Results: Using four years of tracking data for the Mars lander simulations, we find a difference between our results using the simultaneous space-time dynamics estimation and the classical analysis technique (with an a priori time ephemeris) of around 0.1% in formal errors and correlation coefficients. For a Mercury lander this rises to around 1% for a one-month mission and 10% for a four-year mission. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we find that using an a priori time ephemeris of representative accuracy will result in estimation errors that are orders of magnitude above the formal error when processing highly accurate laser time transfer data.

  3. The transportation of fine arts materials aboard the space shuttle Columbia. GAS payload No. 481: Vertical horizons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Ellery; Wishnow, Howard

    1988-01-01

    The Vertical Horizons experiment represents an initial investigation into the transportation of fine arts materials aboard a space shuttle. Within the confines of a GAS canister, artist quality fine arts materials were packaged and exposed to the rigors of space flight in an attempt to identify adverse effects.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    replaced by COSTAR. During the second Servicing Mission instruments and other equipment were repaired and updated. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) replaced the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and the Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) replaced the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS). Servicing mission 3A The original Servicing Mission 3 (initially planned for June 2000) has been split into two missions - SM3A and SM3B - due in part to its complexity, and in part to the urgent need to replace the failed gyroscopes on board. Three gyroscopes must function to meet the telescope's very precise pointing requirements. With only two new operational, observations have had to be suspended, but the telescope will remain safely in orbit until the servicing crew arrives. During this servicing mission * all six gyroscopes will be replaced, * a Fine Guidance Sensor will be replaced, * the spacecraft's computer will be replaced by a new one which will reduce the burden of flight software maintenance and significantly lower costs, * six voltage/temperature kits will be installed to protect spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating if the spacecraft enters safe mode, * a new S-Band Single Access Transmitter will replace a failed spare currently aboard the spacecraft, * a solid-state recorder will be installed to replace the tape recorder, * degraded telescope thermal insulation will be replaced if time allows; this insulation is necessary to control the internal temperature on HST. For the mission to be fully successful the gyroscopes, the Fine Guidance Sensor, the computer and the voltage/temperature kits must be installed. The minimum mission success criterion is that HST will have 5 operational gyros after the mission, 4 of them newly installed. The Future During SM3B (presently scheduled for 2001) the astronauts will replace the Faint Object Camera with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), install a cooling system for

  5. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  6. Life-cycle experiments of medaka fish aboard the international space station.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Fish are the most likely candidates to be the first vertebrate to live their life cycle aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the space-shuttle experiment using medaka, the fry born in space had the same number of germ cells as the ground control fish, and these germ cells later developed to produce the offspring on the ground. Fry hatched in space did not exhibit any looping behavior regardless of their strain, visual acuity, etc. The aquatic habitat (AQH) is a space habitat designed for long-term breeding of medaka, zebrafish and Xenopus, and recent advancements in this hardware also support fish life-cycle experiments. From the crosses between two strains, fish having good eyesight and less sensitivity to gravity were obtained, and their tolerance to microgravity was tested by parabolic flight using an airplane. The fish exhibited less looping and no differences in degree of looping between light and dark conditions. These are possible candidates for the first adult medaka (parent fish) to start a life cycle aboard ISS. Embryos were treated with a three-dimensional clinostat. Such simulated microgravity caused no differences in tissue architecture or in gene expression within the retina, nor in formation of cartilage (head skeleton). Otolith formation in embryos and fry was investigated for wild-type and mutant (ha) medaka. The ha embryos could not form utricular otoliths. They formed saccular otoliths but with a delay. Fry of the mutant fish lacking the utricular otoliths are highly light-dependent at the time of hatching, showing a perfect dorsal-light response (DLR). As they grow, they eventually shift from being light dependent to gravity dependent. Continuous treatment of the fry with altered light direction suppressed this shift to gravity dependence. Being less dependent on gravity, these fish can serve as model fish in studying the differences expected for the fish that have experienced a life cycle in microgravity. PMID:14631634

  7. STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as

  8. STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-02-01

    The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as

  9. Quantum test of the equivalence principle and space-time aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jason; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan; Müller, Holger

    2016-02-01

    We describe the Quantum Test of the Equivalence principle and Space Time (QTEST), a concept for an atom interferometry mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary science objective of the mission is a test of Einstein’s equivalence principle with two rubidium isotope gases at a precision of better than 10-15, a 100-fold improvement over the current limit on equivalence principle violations, and over 1,000,000 fold improvement over similar quantum experiments demonstrated in laboratories. Distinct from the classical tests is the use of quantum wave packets and their expected large spatial separation in the QTEST experiment. This dual species atom interferometer experiment will also be sensitive to time-dependent equivalence principle violations that would be signatures for ultralight dark-matter particles. In addition, QTEST will be able to perform photon recoil measurements to better than 10-11 precision. This improves upon terrestrial experiments by a factor of 100, enabling an accurate test of the standard model of particle physics and contributing to mass measurement, in the proposed new international system of units (SI), with significantly improved precision. The predicted high measurement precision of QTEST comes from the microgravity environment on ISS, offering extended free fall times in a well-controlled environment. QTEST plans to use high-flux, dual-species atom sources, and advanced cooling schemes, for N > 106 non-condensed atoms of each species at temperatures below 1 nK. Suppression of systematic errors by use of symmetric interferometer configurations and rejection of common-mode errors drives the QTEST design. It uses Bragg interferometry with a single laser beam at the ‘magic’ wavelength, where the two isotopes have the same polarizability, for mitigating sensitivities to vibrations and laser noise, imaging detection for correcting cloud initial conditions and maintaining contrast, modulation of the atomic hyperfine states

  10. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  11. STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-05-01

    The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

  12. STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

  13. STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

  14. STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  15. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  16. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  17. Space Shuttle Mission STS-61: Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission-01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This press kit for the December 1993 flight of Endeavour on Space Shuttle Mission STS-61 includes a general release, cargo bay payloads and activities, in-cabin payloads, and STS-61 crew biographies. This flight will see the first in a series of planned visits to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The first HST servicing mission has three primary objectives: restoring the planned scientific capabilities, restoring reliability of HST systems and validating the HST on-orbit servicing concept. These objectives will be accomplished in a variety of tasks performed by the astronauts in Endeavour's cargo bay. The primary servicing task list is topped by the replacement of the spacecraft's solar arrays. The spherical aberration of the primary mirror will be compensated by the installation of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera-II and the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement. New gyroscopes will also be installed along with fuse plugs and electronic units.

  18. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  19. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constraints for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch operations, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33417

  20. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.; Willett, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constrants for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing.

  1. Russian Projects of Space Missions for Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, A. V.

    2006-08-01

    Since 1994 Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences is working on conception of astrometrical instrument of new generation under contract with Russian Space Agency. After HIPPARCOS mission it is obvious that necessary accuracy for modern astrometry is micro-arcseconds. The only way to approach this level is pupil interferometry outside atmosphere. The first Russian project was pair of twin Michelson interferometers with coincided bases. It consisted of 40-cm input telescopes and had baseline 4 meters long; its limiting magnitude was about 20^m and expected accuracy 2-4 mks. As this devise was proposed to be russian-american experiment for International Space Station, and NASA did not support it, the project was not move up. This is why improved conception of slightly diminished arcmeter-interferometer OSIRIS was proposed as national space project, and it is adopted to the Russian Federal Space Program for the period 2012-2015. Input optic of the OSIRIS will be of 20-cm aperture, and baseline will be 200 cm. It seems to be enough to get position accuracy of single measurement about 4-8 mks at arc range from 30 to 105 degrees, and limiting magnitude being 18^m. There are some technical invents that guarantee these parameters. The OSIRIS mission will establish referred to the ICRS inertial celestial reference frame in optic independent of epoch, that leads to new tasks of astrometry. The astrometrical instrument of new generation may be used for positioning of near-Earth probes as well as of ground objects. Using the same technology it became possible to point narrow-field telescope to any target with the same accuracy. A really desired for this aims accuracy is only milliseconds, and just for these applied experiments LIDA project was proposed last year. It will be suitable for bright sources above 12^m and it will measure instant positions with accuracy 1 mas. The LIDA will be low-mass and compact device suitable for launch by conversional rocket of

  2. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  3. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-02-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  4. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The 515-41B National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the sixth operational Shuttle flight and fourth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Since this flight was the first to land at Kennedy Space Center, the vehicle was towed directly to the OPF (Orbiter Processing Facility) where preparations for flight STS-41C, scheduled for early April 1984, began immediately. The significant problems that occurred during STS-41B are summarized and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight is given. None of the problems will affect the STS 41C flight. The major objectives of flight STS-41B were to successfully deploy the Westar satellite and the Indonesian Communications Satellite-B2 (PALAPA-B2); to evaluate the MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) support for EVA (Extravehicular Activities); to exercise the MFR (Manipulator Foot Restraint); to demonstrate a closed loop rendezvous; and to operate the M.R (Monodisperse Latex Reactor), the ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) and the IEF (Isoelectric Focusing) in cabin experiments; and to obtain photographs with the Cinema 360 Cameras.

  5. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  6. STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  7. Infrared Space Astrometry Missions ˜ JASMINE Missions ˜

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.

    2012-08-01

    "JASMINE" is an abbreviation of Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration. Three satellites are planned as a series of JASMINE missions, as a step-by-step approach, to overcome technical issues and promote scientific results. These are Nano-JASMINE, Small-JASMINE and (medium-sized) JASMINE. JASMINE missions provide the positions and proper motions of celestial objects. Nano-JASMINE uses a very small nano-satellite and is scheduled to be launched in 2013. Nano-JASMINE will operate in zw-band (˜ 0.8μm) to perform an all sky survey with an accuracy of 3 milli-arcseconds for position and parallaxes. Small-JASMINE will observe towards a region around the Galactic center and other small regions, which include interesting scientific targets, with accuracies of 10 to 50 μ-arcseconds in an infrared Hw-band (˜ 1.7 μm). The target launch date is around 2017. (Medium-sized) JASMINE is an extended mission of Small-JASMINE, which will observe towards almost the whole region of the Galactic bulge with accuracies of ˜ 10 μ arcseconds in Kw-band (˜ 2.0μ m). The target launch date is the first half of the 2020s.

  8. Bayesian Methodology for the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, T. J.; Chernoff, D. F.

    2000-05-01

    We will describe work in progress on the development of Bayesian methodology for the analysis of data from the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). There are two main thrusts to this work: development of new methods for the detection and analysis of Keplerian reflex motion in astrometric data; and adaptive experimental design for on-the-fly refinement of the SIM grid. For detection and measurement of reflex motions (e.g., from planetary companions), we use the algorithm developed by Bretthorst for the Bayesian analysis of superposed nonlinear models to develop an alternative to the commonly used Lomb-Scargle (LS) periodogram that we call the Kepler periodogram. The LS periodogram emerges as a special case of the Kepler periodogram when the data are 1-dimensional (e.g., radial velocity (RV) measurements) and the bodies in question are in a circular orbit. But the Kepler periodogram generalizes the LS periodogram to account for orbital eccentricity, higher dimensional data (e.g., astrometric data, or a combination of astrometric and RV data), and sources of systematic error such as uncertainty in inertial motion. We use the Bayesian theory of experimental design to develop adaptive strategies for SIM observing. This includes identifying the best sampling scheme for detecting and monitoring Keplerian reflex motions in science targets, and (perhaps more crucially) the adaptive refinement of the SIM astrometric grid from observations of candidate grid stars throughout the SIM mission. Included in this latter task are classification of candidate grid objects as inertial or noninertial and scheduling of observations to best update our knowledge of grid star motions.

  9. [Cell biology researches aboard the robotic space vehicles: preparation and performance].

    PubMed

    Tairbekov, M G

    2006-01-01

    The article reviews the unique aspects of preparation and performance of cell biology experiments flown on robotic space vehicles Bion and Foton, and gives an overview of key findings in researches made under the author's leadership over the past decades. Described are the criteria of selecting test objects, and the conditions required for preparation and implementation of space and control (synchronous) experiments. The present-day status and issues of researches into cell responsivity to space microgravity and other factors are discussed. Also, potentialities of equipment designed to conduct experiments with cell cultures in vitro and populations of single-celled organisms are presented, as well as some ideas for new devices and systems. Unveiled are some circumstances inherent to the development and performance of space experiments, setting up laboratory facilities at the launch and landing site, and methods of safe transportation and storage of biosamples. In conclusion, the author puts forward his view on biospecies, equipment and areas of research aboard future space vehicles. PMID:17357620

  10. Comparison of Directionally Solidified Samples Solidified Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, S.; Lauer, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Grugel, R. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). Terrestrial DS-experiments have been carried out at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. As of this writing, two dendritic metrics was measured: primary dendrite arm spacings and primary dendrite trunk diameters. We have observed that these dendrite-metrics of two samples grown in the microgravity environment show good agreements with models based on diffusion controlled growth and diffusion controlled ripening, respectively. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosegregation. Dendrite trunk diameters also show differences between the earth- and space-grown samples. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, the dendritic seed crystals were partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS was carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described and have modeled.

  11. Research experiences on materials science in space aboard Salyut and Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regel, Liya L.

    1992-01-01

    From 1980 through 1991 approximately 500 materials processing experiments were performed aboard the space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and Mir. This includes work on catalysts, polymers, metals and alloys, optical materials, superconductors, electronic crystals, thin film semiconductors, super ionic crystals, ceramics, and protein crystals. Often the resulting materials were surprisingly superior to those prepared on earth. The Soviets were the first to fabricate a laser (CdS) from a crystal grown in space, the first to grow a heterostructure in space, the first super ionic crystal in space, the first crystals of CdTe and its alloys, the first zeolite crystals, the first protein crystals, the first chromium disilicide glass, etc. The results were used to optimize terrestrial materials processing operations in Soviet industry. The characteristics of these three space stations are reviewed, along with the advantages of a space station for materials research, and the problems encountered by the materials scientists who used them. For example, the stations and the materials processing equipment were designed without significant input from the scientific community that would be using them. It is pointed out that successful results have been achieved also by materials processing at high gravity in large centrifuges. This research is also continuing around the world, including at Clarkson University. It is recommended that experiments be conducted in centrifuges in space, in order to investigate the acceleration regime between earth's gravity and the microgravity achieved in orbiting space stations. One cannot expect to understand the influence of gravity on materials processing from only two data points, earth's gravity and microgravity. One must also understand the influence of fluctuations in acceleration on board space stations, the so-called 'g-jitter.' This paper is presented in outline and graphical form.

  12. STS-35 Mission Manager Actions Room at the Marshall Space Flight Center Spacelab Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. This photo captures the activities at the Mission Manager Actions Room during the mission.

  13. HUT Data Inspected at Marshall Space Flight Center During the STS-35 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. This photo captures the activity of viewing HUT data in the Mission Manager Actions Room during the mission.

  14. A linear accelerator in the space: The beam experiment aboard rocket

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, P.G.; Butler, T.A.; Lynch, M.T.; McKenna, K.F.; Pongratz, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    On July 13, 1989 the BEAM experiment Aboard Rocket (BEAR) linear accelerator was successfully launched and operated in space. The flight demonstrated that a neutral hydrogen beam could be successfully propagated in an exoatmospheric environment. The accelerator, which was the result of an extensive collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and industrial partners, was designed to produce a 10 mA (equivalent), 1 MeV neutral hydrogen beam in 50 {mu}s pulses at 5 Hz. The major components were a 30 keV H{sup {minus}} injector a 1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole, two 425 Mhz RF amplifiers, a gas cell neutralizer, beam optics, vacuum system and controls. The design was strongly constrained by the need for a lightweight rugged system that would survive the rigors of launch and operate autonomously. Following the flight the accelerator was recovered and operated again on the laboratory. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Microbial Characterization of Free Floating Condensate Aboard the Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Three samples of humidity condensate that had accumulated behind panels aboard the Russian space station Mir were collected and returned to earth for analysis. As these floating masses of liquid come into contact with the astronauts and the engineering systems, they have the potential to affect both crew health and systems performance. Using a combination of culturing techniques, a wide variety of organisms were isolated included Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and a presumed Legionella species. In addition, microscopic analysis indicated the presence of protozoa, dust mites, and spirochetes. These findings suggest the need for more comprehensive microbial analysis of the environment through the use of new methodologies to allow a more thorough risk assessment of spacecraft. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Deep space 1 mission and observation of comet Borrellly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.; Weidner, R.J.; Soderblom, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA's new millennium program (NMP) focuses on testing high-risk, advanced technologies in space with low-cost flights. The objective of the NMP technology validation missions is to enable future science missions. The NMP missions are technology-driven, with the principal requirements coming from the needs of the advanced technologies that form the 'payload'.

  17. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  18. [From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

    2011-01-01

    The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine. PMID:21848209

  19. REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) Aboard NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Masterson, Rebecca; Inamdar, Niraj K; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew W; Bautz, Mark W.; Kissel, Steven E; Villasenor, Jesus Noel; Oprescu, Antonia

    2014-06-01

    The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is a student-led instrument being designed, built, and operated as a collaborative effort involving MIT and Harvard. It is a part of NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission, which is scheduled for launch in September of 2016 for a rendezvous with, and collection of a sample from the surface of the primitive carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroid 101955 Bennu in 2019. REXIS will determine spatial variations in elemental composition of Bennu's surface through solar-induced X-ray fluorescence. REXIS consists of four X-ray CCDs in the detector plane and an X-ray mask. It is the first coded-aperture X-ray telescope in a planetary mission, which combines the benefit of high X-ray throughput of wide-field collimation with imaging capability of a coded-mask, enabling detection of elemental surface distributions at approximately 50-200 m scales. We present an overview of the REXIS instrument and the expected performance.

  20. Wetlab-2 - Quantitative PCR Tools for Spaceflight Studies of Gene Expression Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlab-2 is a research platform for conducting real-time quantitative gene expression analysis aboard the International Space Station. The system enables spaceflight genomic studies involving a wide variety of biospecimen types in the unique microgravity environment of space. Currently, gene expression analyses of space flown biospecimens must be conducted post flight after living cultures or frozen or chemically fixed samples are returned to Earth from the space station. Post-flight analysis is limited for several reasons. First, changes in gene expression can be transient, changing over a timescale of minutes. The delay between sampling on Earth can range from days to months, and RNA may degrade during this period of time, even in fixed or frozen samples. Second, living organisms that return to Earth may quickly re-adapt to terrestrial conditions. Third, forces exerted on samples during reentry and return to Earth may affect results. Lastly, follow up experiments designed in response to post-flight results must wait for a new flight opportunity to be tested.

  1. Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

  2. The Space Time Asymmetry Research Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey; Goebel, John; Buchman, Sasha; Byer, Robert; Sun, Ke-Xun; Lipa, John; Chu-Thielbar, Lisa; Hall, John

    We will use precision molecular iodine stabilized Nd:YAG laser interferometers to search for small deviations from Lorentz Invariance, a cornerstone of relativity and particle physics, and thus our understanding of the Universe. A Lorentz violation would have profound implications for cosmology and particle physics. An improved null result will constrain theories attempting to unite particle physics and gravity. Science Objectives: Measure the absolute anisotropy of the velocity of light to 10-18 (100-fold improvement) Derive the Michelson-Morley coefficient to 10-12 (100-fold improvement) Derive the Kennedy-Thorndyke coefficient to 7x10-10 (400-fold improvement) Derive the coefficients of Lorentz violation in the Standard Model Extension, in the range 7x10-18 to 10-14 (50 to 500-fold improvement) Thermal control, stabilization and uniformitization are great concerns, so new technology has been devised that keeps these parameters within strict specified limits. Thereby STAR is able to operate effectively in all possible orbits. The spacecraft is based on a bus development by NASA Ames Research Center. STAR is designed to fly as a secondary payload on a Delta IV launch vehicle with an ESPA ring into an 850 km circular orbit. It will have a one-year mission and is capable of even longer duration. Other orbit options are possible depending on the launch opportunities available. The STAR project is a partnership between Stanford University, NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  3. Launch of space shuttle Challenger on the 41-C mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Wide angle view of the launch of the space shuttle Challenger on the 41-C mission from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pad. This view was taken from the Shuttle training aircraft by Astronaut John Young.

  4. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A broad scoped and systematic study was made of space transfer concepts for human Lunar and Mars missions. Relevant space transportation studies were initiated to lead to further detailed activities in the following study period.

  5. STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

  6. Extreme Tele-Echocardiography: Methodology for Remote Guidance of In-flight Echocardiography Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David; Borowski, Allan; Bungo, Michael W.; Dulchavsky, Scott; Gladding, Patrick; Greenberg, Neil; Hamilton, Doug; Levine, Benjamin D.; Norwoord, Kelly; Platts, Steven H.; Poston, Sue; Roper, Matthew; Sandoz, Gwenn; Thomas, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiography is ideally suited for cardiovascular imaging in remote environments, but the expertise to perform it is often lacking. In 2001, an ATL HDI5000 was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The instrument is currently being used in a study to investigate the impact of long-term microgravity on cardiovascular function. The purpose of this report is to describe the methodology for remote guidance of echocardiography in space. Methods: In the year before launch of an ISS mission, potential astronaut echocardiographic operators participate in 5 sessions to train for echo acquisitions that occur roughly monthly during the mission, including one exercise echocardiogram. The focus of training is familiarity with the study protocol and remote guidance procedures. On-orbit, real-time guidance of in-flight acquisitions is provided by a sonographer in the Telescience Center of Mission Control. Physician investigators with remote access are able to relay comments on image optimization to the sonographer. Live video feed is relayed from the ISS to the ground via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System with a 2 second transmission delay. The expert sonographer uses these images along with two-way audio to provide instructions and feedback. Images are stored in non-compressed DICOM format for asynchronous relay to the ground for subsequent off-line analysis. Results: Since June, 2009, a total of 19 resting echocardiograms and 4 exercise studies have been performed in-flight. Average acquisition time has been 45 minutes, reflecting 26,000 km of ISS travel per study. Image quality has been adequate in all studies, but remote guidance has proven imperative for fine-tuning imaging and prioritizing views when communication outages limit the study duration. Typical resting studies have included 12 video loops and 21 still-frame images requiring 750 MB of storage. Conclusions: Despite limited crew training, remote guidance allows research

  7. Ireland's contribution to deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Irish contributions to the Giotto mission, the Phobos mission, and the planned International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program are discussed. Results are presented from the Energetic Particle Onset Admonitor (Epona) experiment, which flew on the Giotto mission. The Epona instruments detected electrons, protons, alpha particles, and pickup ions associated with Comet Halley. Other topics examined include the SLED experiment to study energetic-particle populations as part of the Phobos mission and expectations for Irish participation in the ISTP program, including the construction of a plasma and radio wave receiver.

  8. Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

  9. International standards for cost-optimized space missions and infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Merle

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of international standards is essential for the success of multiagency space missions. Here, two key areas for international standardization are proposed: the development of standards for infrastructure and the development of multiagency standards. Such standards will ultimately enable cost-optimized small missions as well as a cost-optimized superset of space infractructures.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Kepler Mission and Space Telescope Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned over the course of several space telescope mission and instrument developments spanning two decades. These projects involved astronomical telescopes developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and were designed to further our understanding of the Universe. It is hoped that the lessons drawn from these experiences may be of use to future mission developers.

  11. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Various mission requirements for the proposed space station are examined. Subjects include modelling methodology, science applications, commercial opportunities, operations analysis, integrated mission requirements, and the role of man in space station functions and activities. The information is presented through the use of graphs.

  12. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Covered here is the second phase of a broad scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 1, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from the Stafford Committee Synthesis Report.

  13. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; McGuire, Jill; Pellegrino, Joseph; Strube, Matthew; Aranyos, Thomas; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  14. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph F.; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface sample to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that utilizes the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  15. Mars rover/sample return mission requirements affecting space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The possible interfaces between the Space Station and the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission are defined. In order to constrain the scope of the report a series of seven design reference missions divided into three major types were assumed. These missions were defined to span the probable range of Space Station-MRSR interactions. The options were reduced, the MRSR sample handling requirements and baseline assumptions about the MRSR hardware and the key design features and requirements of the Space Station are summarized. Only the aspects of the design reference missions necessary to define the interfaces, hooks and scars, and other provisions on the Space Station are considered. An analysis of each of the three major design reference missions, is reported, presenting conceptual designs of key hardware to be mounted on the Space Station, a definition of weights, interfaces, and required hooks and scars.

  16. [Light microscopy of statocyst cell elements from Helix lucorum (space experiment aboard the orbital station "MIR")].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Bukiia, R D; Kalandarishvili, E L; Taktakishvili, A D; Davitashvili, M T; Gelashvili, N Sh; Madzhagaladze, N B; Galkin, V A

    2013-01-01

    Statocyst epithelial lining of terrestrial pulmonary snail Helix lucorum is a spatially arranged structure consisting of 13 cell ensembles. Each ensemble has a sensory cell surrounded by companion cells. The sensory cell on the anterior statocyst pole is star-shaped due to multiple protoplasmatic protrusions on its body. The remaining 12 polygon-shaped cells form 3 tires along the statocyst internal perimeter: anterior, middle or equatorial and posterior. There are 4 cells in each tire. Topography of every sensory cell on the statocyst internal surface was described as well as cell nuclei size and form, nucleoli number and patterns of cytoplasm vacuolization. Space free of sensory cells is occupied by supporting or intercalary cells. Exposure to space microgravity over 40, 43, 102 and 135 days aboard the orbital station MIR affected morphology of the sensory cells. Specifically, this appeared as reductions in cell height and, consequently, extension of the statocyst cavity internal diameter and volume in the space-flown snails. PMID:24490279

  17. Description of the REMS Ground Temperature Sensor aboard MSL NASA mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armiens, C.; Sebastian, E.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station, REMS, is part of the payload of the Mars Science Laboratory, MSL, a NASA mission to the red planet recently scheduled to launch on the fall of 2011. REMS comprises several instruments aimed at measuring ground and air temperature, wind speed and direction, ultraviolet radiation, pressure and humidity. The Ground Temperature Sensor, GTS, is a contactless multi band pyrometer. It is composed of three thermopiles measuring in different bands: 8 - 14 um, 16 - 20 um and 14.5 - 15.5 um. The first two bands are optimized for the higher and lower temperatures expected to be present on Mars during the lifetime of the mission. They also avoid the radiation generated by the rover itself, the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, RTG, and the Sun that is reflected on the ground and reaches the thermopiles, as well as the atmospheric emission originated by the CO2. The use of two different bands to measure ground temperature allows the estimation of the emissivity of the surface by means of colour pyrometry algorithms. Thus we may determine not only the brightness temperature but also the real temperature of the ground, i.e., the kinetic temperature. The estimation of the emissivity may serve also to detect changes in the composition of the ground, as, for example, the formation of frost. The third thermopile is centred in the CO2 absorption band, the main component of the Martian atmosphere. This allows the determination of the residual influence that the atmosphere may have in the other two thermopile's bands. The brightness temperature of the air may also be estimated from this third thermopile. During Martian operations, the system may be degraded due to the deposition of dust over the thermopiles' filter. In order to correct for this degradation, the system includes a calibration plate, which partially fills the field of view of the thermopiles. This plate may be heated several degrees. Analyzing the signals before and during

  18. Building ISOC Status Displays for the Large AreaTelescope aboard the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, Christina; /SLAC

    2006-09-01

    In September 2007 the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta II rocket in order to put two high-energy gamma-ray detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) into low earth orbit. The Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) at SLAC is responsible for the LAT operations for the duration of the mission, and will therefore build an operations center including a monitoring station at SLAC to inform operations staff and visitors of the status of the LAT instrument and GLAST. This monitoring station is to include sky maps showing the location of GLAST in its orbit as well as the LAT's projected field of view on the sky containing known gamma-ray sources. The display also requires a world map showing the locations of GLAST and three Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) relative to the ground, their trail lines, and ''footprint'' circles indicating the range of communications for each satellite. The final display will also include a space view showing the orbiting and pointing information of GLAST and the TDRS satellites. In order to build the displays the astronomy programs Xephem, DS9, SatTrack, and STK were employed to model the position of GLAST and pointing information of the LAT instrument, and the programming utilities Python and Cron were used in Unix to obtain updated information from database and load them into the programs at regular intervals. Through these methods the indicated displays were created and combined to produce a monitoring display for the LAT and GLAST.

  19. Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, Palmer

    1990-01-01

    Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

  20. A new opportunity from space: PLATO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, Riccardo

    2010-07-01

    The satellite PLATO represents a new challenge for future investigations of exoplanets and oscillations of stars. It is one of the proposed missions of ESA COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 and it is scheduled for launch in 2017. The goal of the mission is a full characterization of the planet star systems with an asteroseismic analysis of the host stars. The PLATO Payload Consortium (PPLC) includes several European countries which are employed in the assessment study of the mission. Thanks to the high precision photometry, PLATO is thought to be able to detect planets and oscillations within a large sample of targets.

  1. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  2. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  3. Soyuz 25 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 25. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 76, 108 and 88%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned aboard Soyuz 25.

  4. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  5. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1991-08-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  6. Evaluation of an Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem for Deep Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Conrad, Ruth E.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Greenwood, Zachary W.; Kayatin, Matthew J.; Knox, James C.; Newton, Robert L.; Parrish, Keith J.; Takada, Kevin C.; Miller, Lee A.; Scott, Joseph P.; Stanley, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    An Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) suitable for deployment aboard deep space exploration mission vehicles has been developed and functionally demonstrated. This modified ARS process design architecture was derived from the International Space Station's (ISS) basic ARS. Primary functions considered in the architecture include trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal, carbon dioxide reduction, and oxygen generation. Candidate environmental monitoring instruments were also evaluated. The process architecture rearranges unit operations and employs equipment operational changes to reduce mass, simplify, and improve the functional performance for trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal, and oxygen generation. Results from integrated functional demonstration are summarized and compared to the performance observed during previous testing conducted on an ISS-like subsystem architecture and a similarly evolved process architecture. Considerations for further subsystem architecture and process technology development are discussed.

  7. NASA space system technology model future mission system needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    The overall technology model is outlined and the objectives and descriptions of the primary and secondary propulsion drives presented. The primary propulsion driver missions are the geostationary platform; the coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors (COSMIC); the 100 meter thinned aperature telescope; and the orbiting deep space relay station (ODSRS). The secondary propulsion driver missions are space platform alpha, the space station, and the automated planetary station.

  8. Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

  9. Active Refrigeration for Space Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of cryogen dewars limits mission lifetime, increases sensor mass, and increases program engineering and launch costs on spacebased low-background, precision-pointing instruments, telescopes and interferometers.

  10. Microstructural Evaluation and Comparison of Solder Samples Processed Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Samples from the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI), conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS), are being examined for post-solidification microstructural development and porosity distribution. In this preliminary study, the internal structures of two ISSI processed samples are compared. In one case 10cm of rosin-core solder was wrapped around a coupon wire and melted by conduction, whereas, in the other a comparable length of solder was melted directly onto the hot wire; in both cases the molten solder formed ellipsoidal blobs, a shape that was maintained during subsequent solidification. In the former case, there is clear evidence of porosity throughout the sample, and an accumulation of larger pores near the hot end that implies thermocapillary induced migration and eventual coalescence of the flux vapor bubbles. In the second context, when solder was fed onto the wire. a part of the flux constituting the solder core is introduced into and remains within the liquid solder ball, becoming entombed upon solidification. In both cases the consequential porosity, particularly at a solder/contact interface, is very undesirable. In addition to compromising the desired electrical and thermal conductivity, it promotes mechanical failure.

  11. Characterization of the Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus for Microgravity Aboard the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Roeber, D.; Achari, A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted experiments to determine the equilibration rates of some major precipitants used in protein crystallography aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The solutions were placed in the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM) which mimic Cryschem sitting drop trays. The trays were placed in cylinders. These cylinders were placed inside a Single locker Thermal Enclosure System (STES), and were activated for different durations during the flight. Bumpers pressed against elastomers seal drops in a deactivated state during pre-flight and prior to transfer to the ISS. Activation occurs while in flight on the ISS by releasing the bumpers allowing the drops to be exposed to the reservoir. PCAM was flown to the ISS on STS 100, Flight 6A, on April 19, 2001. Six series of equilibration experiments were tested for each precipitant with a small amount of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Cylinder 10 was never activated, 7 was activated for 40 days, 8 was activated for 20 days, 9 was activated for 10 days, 11 was activated for 4 days and 12 was activated for 2 days. Upon the return to Earth by STS 104 on July 24,2001 the samples were transferred to Marshall Space Flight Center. The samples were then brought to the lab and the volumes of each sample were measured.

  12. Timepix-based radiation environment monitor measurements aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Kroupa, Martin; Hoang, Son; Idarraga, John; Amberboy, Clif; Rios, Ryan; Hauss, Jessica; Keller, John; Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Turecek, Daniel; Jakubek, Jan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    A number of small, single element radiation detectors, employing the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration's Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) coupled to a specially modified version of the USB-Lite interface for that ASIC provided by the Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP) at the Czech Technical University in Prague, have been developed at the University of Houston and NASA Johnson Space Center. These detectors, officially designated by NASA as Radiation Environment Monitors (REMs), were deployed aboard the International Space Station in late 2012. Six REM units are currently operating on Station Support Computers (SSCs) and returning data on a daily basis. The associated data acquisition software on the SSCs provides both automated data collection and transfer, as well as algorithms to handle adjustment of acquisition rates and recovery and restart of the acquisition software. A suite of ground software analysis tools has been developed to allow rapid analysis of the data and provides a ROOT-based framework for extending data analysis capabilities.

  13. Submillimeter limb-emission sounder JEM/SMILES aboard the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Junji; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Ryouta; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Fujii, Yasunori; Nakajima, Takashi; Iida, Yukiei; Iida, Teruhito; Kikuchi, Ken'ichi; Miura, Takeshi; Masuko, Harunobu; Manabe, Takeshi; Ochiai, Satoshi; Seta, Masumichi; Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Kasai, Yasuko; Suzuki, Makoto; Shirai, Tomoko; Tsujimaru, Sho; Shibasaki, Kazuo; Shiotani, Masato

    2000-12-01

    A submillimeter limb-emission sounder, that is to be aboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, dubbed as KIBO) at the International Space Station, has been designed. This payload, Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-emission Sounder (SMILES), is aimed at global mappings of stratospheric trace gases by means of the most sensitive submillimeter receiver ever operated in space. Such sensitivity is ascribed to a Superconductor-Insulator- Superconductor (SIS) mixer, which is operated at 4.5 K in a dedicated cryostat combined with a mechanical cooler. SMILES will observe ozone-depletion-related molecules such as ClO, Hcl, HO2, HNO3, BrO and O3 in the frequency bands at 624.32-626.32 GHz and 649.12-650.32 GHz. A scanning antenna will cover tangent altitudes from 10 to 60 km in every 53 seconds, while tracing the latitudes form 38 S to 65 N along its orbit. This global coverage makes SMILES a useful tool of observing the low- and mid- latitudinal areas as well as the Arctic peripheral region. The molecular emissions will be detected by two units of acousto-optic spectrometers (AOS), each of which has coverage of 1.2 GHz with a resolution of 1.8 MHz. This high-resolution spectroscopy will allow us to detect weak emission lines attributing to less-abundant species.

  14. Overview of the Development of the Temporary Sleep Station Hygiene Liner Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the crew had performed hygiene activities within the aisle way (the habitable volume, not including the sleep areas) of the ISS. The Crew used wet towels, re-hydrated body soap, and "no-rinse" shampoo to cleanse themselves amongst the stowage and systems hardware, referred to as "racks", even without a designated area to dry the wet items. Performing hygiene in this manner became an accepted method; no isolated location was available to the Crew. After several years of hygiene operations, some of the fabric-covered racks began to grow biological material (generically described as mold) and soon became a Crew health concern. Hygiene has one of the strongest impacts on Crew morale, and mandating changes to the Crew routine would have been met with strong resistance. The answer to the conundrum was to develop a liner to be placed within the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS), one of the Crew s sleeping racks. This liner provided the Crew a means to perform hygiene activities within a private, enclosed area that also significantly decreased the potential to grow mold. This paper will describe the development of the TeSS Hygiene Liner, its impacts on the ISS and Crew, as well as its contribution to hygiene activities used in space today.

  15. Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

    1988-08-19

    This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Analysis of selected deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. S.; Holman, M. L.; Bilsky, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Task 1 of the NEW MOONS (NASA Evaluation With Models of Optimized Nuclear Spacecraft) study is discussed. Included is an introduction to considerations of launch vehicles, spacecraft, spacecraft subsystems, and scientific objectives associated with precursory unmanned missions to Jupiter and thence out of the ecliptic plane, as well as other missions to Jupiter and other outer planets. Necessity for nuclear power systems is indicated. Trajectories are developed using patched conic and n-body computer techniques.

  17. Deep space network: Mission support requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to provide NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory management with a concise summary of information concerning the forecasting of the necessary support and requirements for missions described here, including the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini, and the Dynamics Explorer-1. A brief description of various missions along with specific support requirements for each are given.

  18. Recommendations for Enabling Manual Component Level Electronic Repair for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Easton, John W.; Funk, Gregory P.; Latta, Gary S.; Ganster, Andrew W.; Estes, Brett E.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration missions to the Moon and Mars pose a number of challenges to mission designers, controllers, and the crews. Among these challenges are planning for corrective maintenance actions which often require a repair. Current repair strategies on the International Space Station (ISS) rely primarily on the use of Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), where a faulty unit is replaced with a spare, and the faulty unit typically returns to Earth for analysis and possible repair. The strategy of replace to repair has posed challenges even for the ISS program. Repairing faulty hardware at lower levels such as the component level can help maintain system availability in situations where no spares exist and potentially reduce logistic resupply mass.This report provides recommendations to help enable manual replacement of electronics at the component-level for future manned space missions. The recommendations include hardware, tools, containment options, and crew training. The recommendations are based on the work of the Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task of the Exploration Technology Development Program from 2006 to 2009. The recommendations are derived based on the experience of two experiments conducted by the CLEAR team aboard the International Space Station as well as a group of experienced Miniature/Microminiature (2M) electronics repair technicians and instructors from the U.S. Navy 2M Project Office. The emphasis of the recommendations is the physical repair. Fault diagnostics and post-repair functional test are discussed in other CLEAR reports.

  19. Medical Challenges of the First Canadian Long-Duration Space Mission: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Thirsk, Robert; Gray, Gary; Lange, marv; Comtois, Jean Marc

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, Dr. Thirsk was assigned to the crew of Expedition 20/21. This Expedition represented a milestone for the Canadian Space Program since it was the first time that a Canadian would take part in a long-duration mission. Robert Thirsk had the privilege of expanding the boundaries of space exploration by living and working on board the International Space Station for six months. The launch took place on May 27, 2009 aboard a Soyuz rocket from the Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. This abstract was written before Dr. Thirsk returned to Kazakhstan. Objective: To gather all medically relevant data needed to support the first Canadian long-duration mission in space, and process it to derive lessons learned for presentation and for public disclosure. Methods: Sources of data used for analysis for Expedition 20 on International Space Station included flight selection data, maintenance annual physicals, Flight Medicine Clinic visits, parabolic flight experiments, preflight exams and baseline data collections, daily in-flight exercise countermeasure and science payloads, weekly periodic fitness, nutrition, radiation and payload assessments, postflight medical exams, rehabilitation, and science activities.

  20. Magnetic Materials Suitable for Fission Power Conversion in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial fission reactors use combinations of shielding and distance to protect power conversion components from elevated temperature and radiation. Space mission systems are necessarily compact and must minimize shielding and distance to enhance system level efficiencies. Technology development efforts to support fission power generation scenarios for future space missions include studying the radiation tolerance of component materials. The fundamental principles of material magnetism are reviewed and used to interpret existing material radiation effects data for expected fission power conversion components for target space missions. Suitable materials for the Fission Power System (FPS) Project are available and guidelines are presented for bounding the elevated temperature/radiation tolerance envelope for candidate magnetic materials.

  1. Access to Space for Technology Validation Missions: A Practical Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrell, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Space technology experiments and validation missions share a common dilemma with the aerospace industry in general: the high cost of access to space. Whether the experiment is a so-called university cubesat, a university measurement experiment, or a NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) technology validation mission, the access to space option can be scaled appropriately for the particular constraints. A cubesat might fly as one of a number of cubesats that negotiate a flight on an experimental vehicle. A university experiment might do the same. A NASA flight validation might partner with an Air Force experimental mission.

  2. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.

  3. Overview of RICOR tactical cryogenic refrigerators for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Livni, Dorit; Regev, Itai; Segal, Victor; Gover, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenic refrigerators represent a significant enabling technology for Earth and Space science enterprises. Many of the space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to enable the use of advanced detectors to explore a wide range of phenomena from space. RICOR refrigerators involved in various space missions are overviewed in this paper, starting in 1994 with "Clementine" Moon mission, till the latest ExoMars mission launched in 2016. RICOR tactical rotary refrigerators have been incorporated in many space instruments, after passing qualification, life time, thermal management testing and flight acceptance. The tactical to space customization framework includes an extensive characterization and qualification test program to validate reliability, the design of thermal interfacing with a detector, vibration export control, efficient heat dissipation in a vacuum environment, robustness, mounting design, compliance with outgassing requirements and strict performance screening. Current RICOR development is focused on dedicated ultra-long-life, highly reliable, space cryogenic refrigerator based on a Pulse Tube design

  4. Handbook for Using IP Protocols for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will provide a summary of a handbook developed at GSFC last year that contains concepts and guidelines for using Internet protocols for space missions. It will include topics on: Lessons learned from current Space IP mission. General architectural issues related to use of IP in space. Operational scenarios for common space data transfer applications. Security issues. A general review of protocols applicable for use with IP in space. The presentation will also pose questions on what sort of information would be useful in future versions of the document.

  5. Small planetary missions for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the concept of a small planetary mission that might be described as one which: (1) focuses on a narrow set of discovery-oriented objectives, (2) utilizes largely existing and proven subsystem capabilities, (3) does not tax future launch vehicle capabilities, and (4) is flexible in terms of mission timing such that it can be easily integrated with launch vehicle schedules. Three small planetary mission concepts are presented: a tour of earth-sun Lagrange regions in search of asteroids which might be gravitationally trapped, a network of spacecraft to search beyond Pluto for a tenth planet; and a probe which could be targeted for infrequent long period 'comets of opportunity' or for a multitude of shorter period comets.

  6. Neutron production in a spherical phantom aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasbaz, Azadeh

    Since the beginning of space exploration in last century, several kinds of devices from passive and active dosimeters to radiation environment monitors have been used to measure radiation levels onboard different space crafts and shuttles allowing the space community to identify and quantify space radiation. The recent construction of several laboratories on the International Space Station (ISS) has confirmed that prolonged duration space missions are now becoming standard practice and as such, the need to better understand the potential risk of space radiation to Astronaut's health, has become a priority for long mission planner. The complex internal radiation environment created within the ISS is due to high-energy particle interactions within the ISS shielded environment. As a result, a large number of secondary particles, that pose specific health risks, are created. Neutrons are one important component of this mixed radiation field due to their high LET. Therefore, the assessment of the neutron dose contribution has become an important part of the safety and monitoring program onboard the ISS. The need to determine whether neutron dose measured externally to the human body give an accurate and conservative estimate of the dose received internally is of paramount importance for long term manned space missions. This thesis presents a part of an ongoing large research program on radiation monitoring on ISS called Matroshka-R Project that was established to analyze the radiation exposure levels onboard the ISS using different radiation instruments and a spherical phantom to simulate human body. Monte Carlo transport code was used to simulate the interaction of high energy protons and neutrons with the spherical phantom currently onboard ISS. A Monte Carlo model of the phantom has been built, and it consists of seven spherical layers presenting different depths of the simulated tissue. The phantom has been exposed to individual proton energies and to a spectrum of

  7. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riel, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Space station missions and their requirements are discussed. Analyses of the following four mission categories are summarized: (1) commercial, (2) technology, (3) operation, and (4) science and applications. The requirements determined by the study dictate a very strong need for a manned space station to satisfy the majority of the missions. The station is best located at a 28.5-deg inclination and initially (1992 era) requires a crew of four (three for mission payloads) and a mission power of 25 kW. A space platform in a polar orbit is needed to augment the station capability; it initially would be a 15-kW system, located in a sun-synchronous orbit.

  8. Ares V an Enabling Capability for Future Space Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The potential capability offered by an Ares V launch vehicle completely changes the paradigm for future space astrophysics missions. This presentation examines some details of this capability and its impact on potential missions. A specific case study is presented: implementing a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic UV/Visible telescope at an L2 orbit. Additionally discussed is how to extend the mission life of such a telescope to 30 years or longer.

  9. Official portrait space shuttle mission 41-D crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Official portrait of the space shuttle mission 41-D crew. Seated are (left to right): Richard M. (Mike) Mullane and Steven A. Hawley, mission specialists; Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., crew commander; Michael L. Coats, pilot. Standing are Charles D. Walker, pilot and Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist. Behind them is a model of the early sailing vessel Discovery and a model of the shuttle Discovery.

  10. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The major activities and accomplishments of this first Spacelab mission using Orbiter vehicle 102. The significant configuration differences incorporated prior to STS-9 include the first use of the 3 substack fuel cells, the use of 5 cryo tanks sets and the addition of a galley and crew sleep stations. These differences combined with the Spacelab payload resulted in the heaviest landing weight yet flown. The problems that occurred are cited and a problem tracking list of all significant anomalies tht occurred during the mission is included. Scientific results of experiments conducted are highlighted.

  11. Collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" space mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, V.; Nazirov, R.; Zakharov, A.

    2009-04-01

    Rapid development of communication facilities leads growth of interactions done via electronic means. However we can see some paradox in this segment in last times: Extending of communication facilities increases collaboration chaos. And it is very sensitive for space missions in general and scientific space mission particularly because effective decision of this task provides successful realization of the missions and promises increasing the ratio of functional characteristic and cost of mission at all. Resolving of this problem may be found by using respective modern technologies and methods which widely used in different branches and not in the space researches only. Such approaches as Social Networking, Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0 look most prospective in this context. The primary goal of the "Phobos-Soil" mission is an investigation of the Phobos which is the Martian moon and particularly its regolith, internal structure, peculiarities of the orbital and proper motion, as well as a number of different scientific measurements and experiments for investigation of the Martian environment. A lot of investigators involved in the mission. Effective collaboration system is key facility for information support of the mission therefore. Further to main goal: communication between users of the system, modern approaches allows using such capabilities as self-organizing community, user generated content, centralized and federative control of the system. Also it may have one unique possibility - knowledge management which is very important for space mission realization. Therefore collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" mission designed on the base of multilayer model which includes such levels as Communications, Announcement and Information, Data sharing and Knowledge management. The collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" mission will be used as prototype for prospective Russian scientific space missions and the presentation describes its architecture

  12. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  13. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  14. Buzz Lightyear's Space Station Mission Logs

    NASA Video Gallery

    The world's most famous space ranger returned to Earth in September 2009 after more than a year in orbit, and now he's sharing his adventures. Learn more about the International Space Station with ...

  15. Teleoperator systems for manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interian, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of remote mechanical systems to augment man's capabilities in our manned space effort is considered. A teleoperator system extends man's innate intelligence and sensory capabilities to distant hostile and hazardous environments through a manipulator-equipped spacecraft and an RF link. Examined are space teleoperator system applications in the space station/space shuttle program, which is where the most immediate need exists and the potential return is greatest.

  16. Classical variables in the era of space photometric missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, L.; Plachy, E.; Szabó, R.; Benkő, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The space photometric missions like CoRoT and Kepler transformed our view of pulsating stars, including the well-known RR Lyrae and Cepheid classes. The K2, TESS and PLATO missions will expand these investigations to larger sample sizes and to specific stellar populations.

  17. Lessons learned from the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) mission.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Ninomiya, Keiken; Takei, Mitsuru; Matsuoka, Shinobu

    2002-11-01

    The Space Flyer Unit (SFU) system and mission chronology are briefly introduced. Lessons learned from the SFU mission are categorized as programmatic and engineering lessons. In the programmatic category are dealt with both international and domestic collaborations. As for the engineering lessons safety design, orbital operation, in-flight anomaly, and post flight analyses are the major topics reviewed. PMID:12369586

  18. Reducing the Risk of Human Space Missions with INTEGRITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merill, Robin L.; Tri, Terry O.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The INTEGRITY Program will design and operate a test bed facility to help prepare for future beyond-LEO missions. The purpose of INTEGRITY is to enable future missions by developing, testing, and demonstrating advanced human space systems. INTEGRITY will also implement and validate advanced management techniques including risk analysis and mitigation. One important way INTEGRITY will help enable future missions is by reducing their risk. A risk analysis of human space missions is important in defining the steps that INTEGRITY should take to mitigate risk. This paper describes how a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of human space missions will help support the planning and development of INTEGRITY to maximize its benefits to future missions. PRA is a systematic methodology to decompose the system into subsystems and components, to quantify the failure risk as a function of the design elements and their corresponding probability of failure. PRA provides a quantitative estimate of the probability of failure of the system, including an assessment and display of the degree of uncertainty surrounding the probability. PRA provides a basis for understanding the impacts of decisions that affect safety, reliability, performance, and cost. Risks with both high probability and high impact are identified as top priority. The PRA of human missions beyond Earth orbit will help indicate how the risk of future human space missions can be reduced by integrating and testing systems in INTEGRITY.

  19. LEO degradation of graphite and carbon-based composites aboard Space Shuttle Flight STS-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Blaine R.; Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Devries, M. J.; Woollam, John A.; Moore, Arthur W.; Lake, Max

    1995-01-01

    Six different types of carbon and carbon-boron nitride composites were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-46. The samples received a nominal atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm in 42 hours of exposure. Pyrolytic graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite showed significant degradation, and the measured erosion yield was within a factor of two of published values. The erosion yield of pyrolytic boron nitride was found to be 2.6 x 10(exp 26) cu cm/atom in plasma asher exposure, over 42 times lower than that of pyrolytic graphite. This low erosion yield makes graphite plus boron nitride mixtures quite resistant to low Earth orbit exposure. Evidence suggests that the graphitic component was preferentially etched, leaving the surface boron nitride rich. Degradation resistance increases with boron nitride composition. Carbon fiber/carbon composites degraded in low Earth orbit, and the carbon pitch binder was found to etch more easily than the graphite fibers which have much higher degradation resistance.

  20. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  1. Assessment and control of electrostatic charges. [hazards to space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, M.

    1974-01-01

    The experience is described of NASA and DOD with electrostatic problems, generation mechanisms, and type of electrostatic hazards. Guidelines for judging possible effects of electrostatic charges on space missions are presented along with mathematical formulas and definitions.

  2. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  3. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  4. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The baseline mission model used to develop the space station mission-related requirements is described as well as the 90 civil missions that were evaluated, (including the 62 missions that formed the baseline model). Mission-related requirements for the space station baseline are defined and related to space station architectural development. Mission-related sensitivity analyses are discussed.

  5. The Cold Atom Laboratory: a facility for ultracold atom experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aveline, David; CAL Team

    2016-05-01

    Spread across the globe there are many different experiments in cold quantum gases, enabling the creation and study of novel states of matter, as well as some of the most accurate inertial sensors currently known. The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), being built at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will be a multi-user facility that will allow the first study of ultracold quantum gases in the microgravity conditions of the International Space Station (ISS). The microgravity environment offers a wealth of advantages for studies of cold atoms, including expansion into extremely weak traps and achieving unearthly cold temperatures. It will also enable very long interaction times with released samples, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of cold atom interferometry. We will describe the CAL mission objectives and the flight hardware architecture. We will also report our ongoing technology development for the CAL mission, including the first microwave evaporation to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) on a miniaturized atom chip system, demonstrated in JPL's CAL Ground Testbed. We will present the design, setup, and operation of two experiments that reliably generate and probe BECs and dual-species mixtures of Rb-87 and K-39 (or K-41). CAL is scheduled to launch to the ISS in 2017. The CAL mission is supported by NASA's SLPS and ISS-PO. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under Contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Space flight effects on Paramecium tetraurelia flown aboard Salyut 6 in the Cytos I and Cytos M experiments.

    PubMed

    Panel, H; Tixador, R; Nefedov, Y u; Gretchko, G; Richoilley, G; Bassler, R; Monrozies, E

    1981-01-01

    Results of the Cytos M experiment and complementary results of the Cytos I experiment flown aboard the Soviet orbital station Salyut 6 are shown. Space flight of Paramecia cultures resulted in a stimulating effect on cell proliferation, in a larger cell volume, in changes in cell dry weight, cell total protein and the electrolyte content of the culture media in which the organisms were grown. The assumption of a possible effect of weightlessness on membrane permeability is discussed. PMID:11541725

  7. Distribution of Cost Growth in Robotic Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Cost growth characterization is a critical factor for effective cost risk analysis and project planning. This study analyzed low level budget changes in Jet Propulsion Laboratory-managed space science missions, which occurred during the development of the project. The data was then curve fit, according to cost distribution categories, to provide a reference set of distribution parameters with sufficient granularity to effectively model cost growth in robotic space science missions.

  8. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  9. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Pavlinskiy, Mikhail N.; Tkachenko, Alexey V.; Lapshov, Igor Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the Astronomical Roengen Telescope- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC) instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission. ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module provides an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. We will present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

  10. Rapid Turnaround of Costing/Designing of Space Missions Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudrle, Paul D.; Welz, Gregory A.; Basilio, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Ground Segment Team (GST), at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, provides high-level mission operations concepts and cost estimates for projects that are in the formulation phase. GST has developed a tool to track costs, assumptions, and mission requirements, and to rapidly turnaround estimates for mission operations, ground data systems, and tracking for deep space and near Earth missions. Estimates that would often take several weeks to generate are now generated in minutes through the use of an integrated suite of cost models. The models were developed through interviews with domain experts in areas of Mission Operations, including but not limited to: systems engineering, payload operations, tracking resources, mission planning, navigation, telemetry and command, and ground network infrastructure. Data collected during interviews were converted into parametric cost models and integrated into one tool suite. The tool has been used on a wide range of missions from small Earth orbiters, to flagship missions like Cassini. The tool is an aid to project managers and mission planners as they consider different scenarios during the proposal and early development stages of their missions. The tool is also used for gathering cost related requirements and assumptions and for conducting integrated analysis of multiple missions.

  11. A Survey of Staphylococcus sp and its Methicillin Resistance aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Ott, C.; Healy, M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Within the past few years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, such as hospitals and nursing homes. As the International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts occupying ISS or on surfaces of the space station itself. Methods: Identification of isolates was completed using VITEK (GPI cards, BioMerieux), 16S ribosomal DNA analysis (MicroSeq 500, ABI), and Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting (Divemilab, Bacterial Barcodes). Susceptibility tests were performed using VITEK (GPS-105 cards, BioMerieux) and resistance characteristics were evaluated by testing for the presence of the mecA gene (PBP2' MRSA test kit, Oxoid). Results: Rep-PCR analysis indicated the transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers and between crewmembers and ISS surfaces. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and environment, evaluations of the microbial population indicated minimal methicillin resistance. Results of this study indicated that within the semi-closed ISS environment, transfer of bacteria between crewmembers and their environment has been occurring, although there was no indication of a high concentration of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species. Conclusions: While this study suggests that the spread of methicillin resistant S. aureus is not currently a concern aboard ISS, the increasing incidence of Earth-based antibiotic resistance indicates a need for continued clinical and environmental monitoring.

  12. The Capillary Flow Experiments Aboard the International Space Station: Increments 9-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Ryan M.; Weislogel, Mark M.; Tavan, Noel T.; Chen, Yongkang; Semerjian, Ben; Bunnell, Charles T.; Collicott, Steven H.; Klatte, Jorg; dreyer, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the experimental, analytical, and numerical results of the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments were conducted in space beginning with Increment 9 through Increment 16, beginning August 2004 and ending December 2007. Both primary and extra science experiments were conducted during 19 operations performed by 7 astronauts including: M. Fincke, W. McArthur, J. Williams, S. Williams, M. Lopez-Alegria, C. Anderson, and P. Whitson. CFE consists of 6 approximately 1 to 2 kg handheld experiment units designed to investigate a selection of capillary phenomena of fundamental and applied importance, such as large length scale contact line dynamics (CFE-Contact Line), critical wetting in discontinuous structures (CFE-Vane Gap), and capillary flows and passive phase separations in complex containers (CFE-Interior Corner Flow). Highly quantitative video from the simply performed flight experiments provide data helpful in benchmarking numerical methods, confirming theoretical models, and guiding new model development. In an extensive executive summary, a brief history of the experiment is reviewed before introducing the science investigated. A selection of experimental results and comparisons with both analytic and numerical predictions is given. The subsequent chapters provide additional details of the experimental and analytical methods developed and employed. These include current presentations of the state of the data reduction which we anticipate will continue throughout the year and culminate in several more publications. An extensive appendix is used to provide support material such as an experiment history, dissemination items to date (CFE publication, etc.), detailed design drawings, and crew procedures. Despite the simple nature of the experiments and procedures, many of the experimental results may be practically employed to enhance the design of spacecraft engineering

  13. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions.

  14. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully on mission STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery soars above billowing clouds of steam and smoke into clear blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. The crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original Mercury 7 astronauts. Glenn is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  15. Mission planning parameters for the Space Shuttle large format camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of various Space Shuttle mission parameters on the efficient and meaningful utilization of the large format camera (LFC) as a photographic acquisition system. Some of the LFC's vital statistics and its mounting within the Orbiter payload are described. LFC characteristics and mounting dictate certain mission parameters. The controlling parameters are orbit inclinations, launch time of year, launch time of day, orbital altitude, mission duration, overlap selection, film capacity, and climatological prediction. A mission case is evaluated relative to controlling parameters and geographical area(s) of interest.

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques for scheduling Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of NASA Space Shuttle missions is a complex, labor-intensive process requiring the expertise of experienced mission planners. We have developed a planning and scheduling system using combinations of artificial intelligence knowledge representations and planning techniques to capture mission planning knowledge and automate the multi-mission planning process. Our integrated object oriented and rule-based approach reduces planning time by orders of magnitude and provides planners with the flexibility to easily modify planning knowledge and constraints without requiring programming expertise.

  17. Vision for Micro Technology Space Missions. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Neil

    2005-01-01

    It is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and it is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and consider potential long-term, perhaps disruptive or revolutionary, impacts that MEMS technology may have for future civilian space applications. A general discussion of the potential for MEMS in space applications is followed by a brief showcasing of a few selected examples of recent MEMS technology developments for future space missions. Using these recent developments as a point of departure, a vision is then presented of several areas where MEMS technology might eventually be exploited in future Science and Exploration mission applications. Lastly, as a stimulus for future research and development, this chapter summarizes a set of barriers

  18. Bounding the Spacecraft Atmosphere Design Space for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Perka, Alan T.; Duffield, Bruce E.; Jeng, Frank F.

    2005-01-01

    The selection of spacecraft and space suit atmospheres for future human space exploration missions will play an important, if not critical, role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost of such missions. Internal atmosphere pressure and composition (particularly oxygen concentration) influence many aspects of spacecraft and space suit design, operation, and technology development. Optimal atmosphere solutions must be determined by iterative process involving research, design, development, testing, and systems analysis. A necessary first step in this process is the establishment of working bounds on the atmosphere design space.

  19. Space radiation incident on SATS missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A special orbital radiation study was conducted in order to evaluate mission encountered energetic particle fluxes. This information is to be supplied to the project subsystem engineers for their guidance in designing flight hardware to withstand the expected radiation levels. Flux calculations were performed for a set of 20 nominal trajectories placed at several altitudes and inclinations. Temporal variations in the ambient electron environment were considered and partially accounted for. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model, extrapolated to the tentative SATS launch epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integrations ware performed with the latest proton and electron environment models, using new computational methods. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form. Estimates of energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission at selected integral energies ranging from 10 to 100 Mev, calculated for a year of maximum solar activity during the next solar cycle.

  20. Potential anesthesia protocols for space exploration missions.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Matthieu; Watkins, Sharmila D; Lebuffe, Gilles; Clark, Jonathan B

    2013-03-01

    In spaceflight beyond low Earth's orbit, medical conditions requiring surgery are of a high level of concern because of their potential impact on crew health and mission success. Whereas surgical techniques have been thoroughly studied in spaceflight analogues, the research focusing on anesthesia is limited. To provide safe anesthesia during an exploration mission will be a highly challenging task. The research objective is thus to describe specific anesthesia procedures enabling treatment of pre-identified surgical conditions. Among the medical conditions considered by the NASA Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability element, those potentially necessitating anesthesia techniques have been identified. The most appropriate procedure for each condition is thoroughly discussed. The substantial cost of training time necessary to implement regional anesthesia is pointed out. Within general anesthetics, ketamine combines the unique advantages of preservation of cardiovascular stability, the protective airway reflexes, and spontaneous ventilation. Ketamine side effects have for decades tempered enthusiasm for its use, but recent developments in mitigation means broadened its indications. The extensive experience gathered in remote environments, with minimal equipment and occasionally by insufficiently trained care providers, confirms its high degree of safety. Two ketamine-based anesthesia protocols are described with their corresponding indications. They have been designed taking into account the physiological changes occurring in microgravity and the specific constraints of exploration missions. This investigation could not only improve surgical care during long-duration spaceflights, but may find a number of terrestrial applications in isolated or austere environments. PMID:23513283

  1. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  2. Attracting Students to Space Science Fields: Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Donald R.; Lovegrove, William P.; Samec, Ronald G.

    Attracting high school students to space science is one of the main goals of Bob Jones University's annual Mission to Mars (MTM). MTM develops interest in space exploration through a highly realistic simulated trip to Mars. Students study and learn to appreciate the challenges of space travel including propulsion life support medicine planetary astronomy psychology robotics and communication. Broken into teams (Management Spacecraft Design Communications Life Support Navigation Robotics and Science) they address the problems specific to each aspect of the mission. Teams also learn to interact and recognize that a successful mission requires cooperation. Coordinated by the Management Team the students build a spacecraft and associated apparatus connect computers and communications equipment train astronauts on the mission simulator and program a Pathfinder-type robot. On the big day the astronauts enter the spacecraft as Mission Control gets ready to support them through the expected and unexpected of their mission. Aided by teamwork the astronauts must land on Mars perform their scientific mission on a simulated surface of mars and return home. We see the success of MTM not only in successful missions but in the students who come back year after year for another MTM.

  3. Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

  4. Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

  5. Space mission scenario development and performance analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a new and innovative approach for a rapid spacecraft multi-disciplinary performance analysis using a tool called the Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW). To meet the needs of new classes of space missions, analysis tools with proven models were developed and integrated into a framework to enable rapid trades and analyses between spacecraft designs and operational scenarios during the formulation phase of a mission. Generally speaking, spacecraft resources are highly constrained on deep space missions and this approach makes it possible to maximize the use of existing resources to attain the best possible science return. This approach also has the potential benefit of reducing the risk of costly design changes made later in the design cycle necessary to meet the mission requirements by understanding system design sensitivities early and adding appropriate margins. This paper will describe the approach used by the Mars Science Laboratory Project to accomplish this result.

  6. Social and cultural issues during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Gushin, V.; Weiss, D. S.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. STS-55 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the Space Shuttle Payloads, Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Booster, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, and the Main Engine subsystems performance during the 55th flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the 14th flight of Columbia is presented.

  8. Analysis of Space Coherent LIDAR Wind Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of a coherent Doppler lidar proposed by a team comprising the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Space Company, University of Wisconsin and Los Alamos National Laboratory to NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program was performed. The design went through several iterations and only the performance of the final design is summarized here.

  9. In-Flight Manual Electronics Repair for Deep-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard; Easton, John; Struk, Peter; Anderson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Severe limitations on mass and volume available for spares on long-duration spaceflight missions will require electronics repair to be conducted at the component level, rather than at the sub-assembly level (referred to as Orbital Replacement Unit, or 'ORU'), as is currently the case aboard the International Space Station. Performing reliable component-level repairs in a reduced gravity environment by crew members will require careful planning, and some specialty tools and systems. Additionally, spacecraft systems must be designed to enable such repairs. This paper is an overview of a NASA project which examines all of these aspects of component level electronic repair. Results of case studies that detail how NASA, the U.S. Navy, and a commercial company currently approach electronics repair are presented, along with results of a trade study examining commercial technologies and solutions which may be used in future applications. Initial design recommendations resulting from these studies are also presented.

  10. Manned orbital systems concepts study. Book 3: Configurations for extended duration missions. [mission planning and project planning for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mission planning, systems analysis, and design concepts for the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system for extended manned operations are described. Topics discussed are: (1) payloads, (2) spacecraft docking, (3) structural design criteria, (4) life support systems, (5) power supplies, and (6) the role of man in long duration orbital operations. Also discussed are the assembling of large structures in space. Engineering drawings are included.

  11. Design Reference Missions for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenthal, J.; Abraham, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential, but uncertain, NASA mission portfolio out to a time horizon of 20 years, to identify mission concepts that potentially could benefit from optical communication, considering their communications needs, the environments in which they would operate, and their notional size, weight, and power constraints. A set of 12 design reference missions was selected to represent the full range of potential missions. These design reference missions span the space of potential customer requirements, and encompass the wide range of applications that an optical ground segment might eventually be called upon to serve. The design reference missions encompass a range of orbit types, terminal sizes, and positions in the solar system that reveal the chief system performance variables of an optical ground segment, and may be used to enable assessments of the ability of alternative systems to meet various types of customer needs.

  12. Space Station Mission Planning System (MPS) development study. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klus, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    The process and existing software used for Spacelab payload mission planning were studied. A complete baseline definition of the Spacelab payload mission planning process was established, along with a definition of existing software capabilities for potential extrapolation to the Space Station. This information was used as a basis for defining system requirements to support Space Station mission planning. The Space Station mission planning concept was reviewed for the purpose of identifying areas where artificial intelligence concepts might offer substantially improved capability. Three specific artificial intelligence concepts were to be investigated for applicability: natural language interfaces; expert systems; and automatic programming. The advantages and disadvantages of interfacing an artificial intelligence language with existing FORTRAN programs or of converting totally to a new programming language were identified.

  13. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  14. Reliable Multicore Processors for NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos; Rennels, David; Some, Raphael; Cabanas-Holmen, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The current trend in commercial processors of moving to many cores (30 to100 and beyond) on a single die poses both an opportunity and a challenge for space based processing. 1 2 The opportunity is to leverage this trend for space application and thus provide an order of magnitude increase in onboard processing capability. The challenge is to provide the requisite reliability in an extremely challenging environment. In this paper, we will discuss the requirements for reliable space based multicore computing and approaches being explored to deliver this capability within NASA's extremely tight power, mass, and cost constraints.

  15. Primary electric propulsion for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.; Terdan, F. F.; Myers, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    A general methodology is presented which allows prediction of the overall characteristics of thrust systems employing electron-bombardment ion thrusters. Elements of the thrust system are defined and their characteristics presented in a parametric fashion. Two system approaches are evaluated where power management and control elements and thruster characteristics were substantially different. For an assumed system approach, the methodology presented predicts overall system properties, such as input power and mass, when major mission and thrust system parameters, such as trip time and specific impulse, are assumed.

  16. Advanced radioisotope power sources for future deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    2001-02-01

    The use of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) has been well established for deep space mission applications. The success of the Voyager, Galileo, Cassini and numerous other missions proved the efficacy of these technologies in deep space. Future deep space missions may also require Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) technologies to accomplish their goals. In the Exploration of the Solar System (ESS) theme, several missions are in the planning stages or under study that would be enabled by ARPS technology. Two ESS missions in the planning stage may employ ARPS. Currently planned for launch in 2006, the Europa Orbiter mission (EO) will perform a detailed orbital exploration of Jupiter's moon Europa to determine the presence of liquid water under the icy surface. An ARPS based upon Stirling engine technology is currently baselined for this mission. The Pluto Kuiper Express mission (PKE), planned for launch in 2004 to study Pluto, its moon Charon, and the Kuiper belt, is baselined to use a new RTG (F-8) assembled from parts remaining from the Cassini spare RTG. However, if this unit is unavailable, the Cassini spare RTG (F-5) or ARPS technologies would be required. Future missions under study may also require ARPS technologies. Mission studies are now underway for a detailed exploration program for Europa, with multiple mission concepts for landers and future surface and subsurface explorers. For the orbital phase of these missions, ARPS technologies may provide the necessary power for the spacecraft and orbital telecommunications relay capability for landed assets. For extended surface and subsurface operations, ARPS may provide the power for lander operations and for drilling. Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) will perform a detailed study of Saturn's rings and ring dynamics. The Neptune Orbiter (NO) mission will perform a detailed multi disciplinary study of Neptune. Titan Explorer (TE) will perform in-situ exploration of Saturn's moon Titan, with both

  17. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  18. Implementation of Satellite Formation Flight Algorithms Using SPHERES Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandy, Christophe P.; Sakamoto, Hiraku; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The MIT's Space Systems Laboratory developed the Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) as a risk-tolerant spaceborne facility to develop and mature control, estimation, and autonomy algorithms for distributed satellite systems for applications such as satellite formation flight. Tests performed study interferometric mission-type formation flight maneuvers in deep space. These tests consist of having the satellites trace a coordinated trajectory under tight control that would allow simulated apertures to constructively interfere observed light and measure the resulting increase in angular resolution. This paper focuses on formation initialization (establishment of a formation using limited field of view relative sensors), formation coordination (synchronization of the different satellite s motion) and fuel-balancing among the different satellites.

  19. Preliminary analysis of space mission applications for electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. A.; Rice, E. E.; Earhart, R. W.; Conlon, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using electromagnetically launched EML payloads propelled from the Earth's surface to LEO, GEO, lunar orbit, or to interplanetary space was assessed. Analyses of the designs of rail accelerators and coaxial magnetic accelerators show that each is capable of launching to space payloads of 800 KG or more. A hybrid launcher in which EML is used for the first 2 KM/sec followed by chemical rocket stages was also tested. A cost estimates study shows that one to two EML launches per day are needed to break even, compared to a four-stage rocket. Development models are discussed for: (1) Earth orbital missions; (2) lunar base supply mission; (3) solar system escape mission; (4) Earth escape missions; (5) suborbital missions; (6) electromagnetic boost missions; and (7) space-based missions. Safety factors, environmental impacts, and EML systems analysis are discussed. Alternate systems examined include electrothermal thrustors, an EML rocket gun; an EML theta gun, and Soviet electromagnetic accelerators.

  20. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  1. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  2. Precision Laser Development for Gravitational Wave Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, such as the gravitational-wave mission LISA, and GRACE follow-on, by fully utilizing the mature wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where a simple and reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Non-planar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier, which are widely used for sensitive laser applications on the ground.

  3. A densitometric analysis of IIaO film flown aboard the space shuttle transportation system STS #3, 7, and 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since the United States of America is moving into an age of reusable space vehicles, both electronic and photographic materials will continue to be an integral part of the recording techniques available. Film as a scientifically viable recording technique in astronomy is well documented. There is a real need to expose various types of films to the Shuttle environment. Thus, the main objective was to look at the subtle densitometric changes of canisters of IIaO film that was placed aboard the Space Shuttle 3 (STS-3).

  4. Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Jacob

    Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

  5. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  6. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station Mission: Science Objectives and Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M. S.; Flittner, D. E.; McCormick, M. P.; Gasbarre, J. F.; Damadeo, R. P.; Hill, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) is a strategic climate continuity mission which was included in NASA's 2010 plan, "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space." SAGE III/ISS continues the long-term, global measurements of trace gases and aerosols begun in 1979 by SAGE I and continued by SAGE II and SAGE III on Meteor 3M. Using a well characterized occultation technique, the SAGE III instrument's spectrometer will measure vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases relevant to ozone chemistry. The mission will launch in 2016 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft.The primary objective of SAGE III/ISS is to monitor the vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere to enhance our understanding of ozone recovery and climate change processes in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. SAGE III/ISS will provide data necessary to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, extend the SAGE III aerosol measurement record that is needed by both climate models and ozone models, and gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense community scrutiny for accuracy and stability. SAGE ozone data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol.The ISS inclined orbit of 51.6 degrees is ideal for SAGE III measurements because the orbit permits solar occultation measurement coverage to approximately +/- 70 degrees of latitude. SAGE III/ISS will make measurements using the solar occultation measurement technique, lunar occultation measurement technique, and the limb scattering measurement technique. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III/ISS mission, its

  7. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The testbed role of an early (1990-95) manned space station in large space structures technology development is defined and conceptual designs for large space structures development missions to be conducted at the space station are developed. Emphasis is placed on defining requirements and benefits of development testing on a space station in concert with ground and shuttle tests.

  8. Potential Large Decadal Missions Enabled by Nasas Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  9. Astronaut Leroy Chiao, assigned as mission specialist for the mission, prepares to ascend stairs to

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-72 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronaut Leroy Chiao, assigned as mission specialist for the mission, prepares to ascend stairs to the flight deck of the fixed base Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Chiao will join an international mission specialist and four other NASA astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour for a scheduled nine-day mission, now set for the winter of this year.

  10. Astronaut Brian Duffy, mission commander for the STS-72 mission, prepares to ascend stairs to the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-72 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronaut Brian Duffy, mission commander for the STS-72 mission, prepares to ascend stairs to the flight deck of the fixed base Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Duffy will be joined by four other NASA astronauts and an international mission specialist aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour for a scheduled nine-day mission, now set for the winter of this year.

  11. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, re-use and or re-purpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  12. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains. PMID:12269347

  13. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  14. Manned Mars mission accomodation by the evolutionary Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. Brian; Murray, Robert N.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that an unmanned launch capability of about 90 metric tons to the Space Station altitude and inclination is required to support the buildup of the manned Mars mission. The paper presents details of the assembly sequence including the analysis and conceptual design of additional truss and other facilities required at the Space Station. It is noted that the The Critical Evaluation Task Force configuration (dual keel) can evolve to accommodate the Mars space vehicle buildup.

  15. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  16. Heritage Systems Engineering Lessons from NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for all five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to be the result of technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the systemwide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight applications

  17. A new paradigm for space astrophysics mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Atkinson, Charles; Breckinridge, Jim; Conti, Alberto; Feinberg, Lee; Lillie, Charles; MacEwen, Howard; Polidan, Ronald; Postman, Marc; Matthews, Gary; Smith, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost-constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future space astrophysics missions. Within the conventional cost models for large observatories, executing a flagship "mission after next" appears to be unstainable. To achieve our nation's science ambitions requires a new paradigm of system design, development and manufacture. This paper explores the nature of the current paradigm and proposes a series of steps to guide the entire community to a sustainable future.

  18. A multinational Mars mission for the International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University's 1991 design project activity has yielded a report on the organization and implementation of a multinational program for manned exploration of Mars; the organization encompasses a political as well as a technical component. This International Manned Mission employs an artificial-gravity spacecraft with nuclear-electric propulsion for interplanetary transfer. An unmanned cargo mission precedes the piloted flights to increase the mass deliverable to Mars, as well as to serve as a testbed for interplanetary vehicle design.

  19. Risks of radiation cataracts from interplanetary space missions.

    PubMed

    Lett, J T; Lee, A C; Cox, A B

    1994-11-01

    Recognition of the human risks from radiation exposure during manned missions in deep space has been fostered by international co-operation; interagency collaboration is facilitating their evaluation. Further co-operation can lead, perhaps by the end of this decade, to an evaluation of one of the three major risks, namely radiation cataractogenesis, sufficient for use in the planning of the manned mission to Mars. PMID:11538452

  20. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  1. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  2. Performances of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) GC-MS suite aboard ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Grand, N.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Humeau, O.; Danell, R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Belmahdi, I.; Coll, P. J.; Lustrement, B.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Stalport, F.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover (Pasteur) will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples collected by the rover, with a particular focus on the characterization of the organic content. Samples will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. The core of the MOMA instrument is a dual source UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC) ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) which provides the unique capability to characterize a broad range of compounds, including both of volatile and non-volatile species. Samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]) which increase the volatility of complex organic species. With the goal to optimize this instrumentation, and especially the GC-ITMS coupling, a series of tests is currently being carried out with prototypes of MOMA instrumentation and with the ETU models wich is similar to the flight model. The MOMA oven and tapping station are also part of these end-to-end experiments. Qualitative and quantitative tests has been done on gas, liquid and solid samples. The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. Both prototypes individually meet the performance requirements, but this work particularly demonstrates the capabilities of the critical GC-MS interface. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: Funding provided by the Mars Exploration Program (point of contact, George Tahu, NASA/HQ). MOMA is a collaboration between NASA and ESA (PI

  3. Reconfigurable Computing Concepts for Space Missions: Universal Modular Spares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, M. Clinton

    2007-01-01

    Computing hardware for control, data collection, and other purposes will prove many times over crucial resources in NASA's upcoming space missions. Ability to provide these resources within mission payload requirements, with the hardiness to operate for extended periods under potentially harsh conditions in off-World environments, is daunting enough without considering the possibility of doing so with conventional electronics. This paper examines some ideas and options, and proposes some initial approaches, for logical design of reconfigurable computing resources offering true modularity, universal compatibility, and unprecedented flexibility to service all forms and needs of mission infrastructure.

  4. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  5. Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

  6. Space missions to the exoplanets: Will they ever be possible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Giancarlo

    There is no doubt that the discovery of exoplanets has made interstellar space mission much more interesting than they were in the past. The possible discovery of a terrestrial type plane at a reasonable distance will give a strong impulse in this direction. However, there are doubts that such long range space mission will ever become feasible at all and, in case they will be, it is impossible to forecast a timeframe for them. At present, precursor interstellar missions are planned, but they fall way short from yielding interesting information about exoplanets, except perhaps in the case of missions to the focal line of the Sun’s gravitational lens, whose usefulness in this context is still to be demonstrated. They are anyway an essential step in the roadmap toward interstellar missions. Often the difficulties linked with interstellar missions are considered as related with the huge quantity of energy required for reaching the target star system within a reasonable timeframe. While this may well be a showstopper, it is not the only problem to be solved to make them possible. Two other issues are those linked with the probe’s autonomy and the telecommunications required to transmit large quantities of information at those distances. Missions to the exoplanets may be subdivided in the following categories: 1) robotic missions to the destination system, including flybys; 2) robotic missions including landing on an exoplanet; 3) robotic sample return missions; 4) human missions. The main problem to be solved for missions of type 1 is linked with propulsion and with energy availability, while autonomy (artificial intelligence) and telecommunication problems are more or less manageable with predictable technologies. Missions of type 2 are more demanding for what propulsion is concerned, but above all require a much larger artificial intelligence and also will generate a large amount of data, whose transmission back to Earth may become a problem. The suggestion of

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Mission. Tracing Einstein's Geodesics in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; McNamara, Paul W.

    2010-03-01

    LISA Pathfinder, formerly known as SMART-2, is the second of the European Space Agency’s Small Missions for Advance Research and Technology, and is designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, by testing the core assumption of gravitational wave detection and general relativity: that free particles follow geodesics. The new technologies to be demonstrated in a space environment include: inertial sensors, high precision laser interferometry to free floating mirrors, and micro-Newton proportional thrusters. LISA Pathfinder will be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011 into a low Earth orbit. By a transfer trajectory, the sciencecraft will enter its final orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point. First science results are expected approximately 3 months thereafter. Here, we give an overview of the mission including the technologies being demonstrated.

  8. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  10. Solar and heliospheric physics space missions for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed space missions or observing facilities for the late 1980s and early 1990s that would enable research on specific problems in solar and heliospheric physics are reviewed. For studies of the sun's interior, mission possibilities include the Solar Internal Dynamics Mission (SIDM) or the Solar Beacon to provide continuous monitoring of solar oscillations, and the Starprobe grazing encounter flyby. Visible surface atmospheres of the sun may be studied by the repair of the Solar Maximum Mission, and an Advanced Solar Observatory making observations from the X-ray to the IR. Possible missions investigating the inner corona would involve the proposed Solar Interplanetary Satellite (SIS), which would complement the single-spacecraft International Solar Polar Mission, the Solar Corona Diagnostics Mission (SCDM), and Starprobe. The SIS, Interplanetary Physics Laboratory and SCDM missions would also permit measurement of the solar wind. Experiments of opportunity based on the SMM, SIS, SCDM and SIDM projects may be used for studies of solar-terrestrial interactions, together with dedicated programs such as the Solar Terrestrial Observatory.

  11. NASA'S Space Launch System: Opening Opportunities for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will

  12. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the International Space Station (ISS): Mission Description and Science Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Mach, D. M.; Bateman, M.; Walker, T. D.; Buechler, D.; Koshak, W. J.; OBrien, S.; Wilson, T.; Colley, E. C.; Abbott, T.; Carter, J.; Pavelitz, S.; Coker, C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners have developed and demonstrated space-based lightning observations as an effective remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) continues to provide global observations of total lightning after 17 years on-orbit. In April 2013, a space-qualified LIS built as the flight spare for TRMM, was selected for flight as a science mission on the International Space Station. The ISS LIS (or I-LIS as Hugh Christian prefers) will be flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) H5 mission, which has a January 2016 baseline launch date aboard a SpaceX launch vehicle for a 2-4 year or longer mission. The LIS measures the amount, rate, and radiant energy of global lightning. More specifically, it measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution, millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. It has been found that the characteristics of lightning that LIS measures can be quantitatively coupled to both thunderstorm and other geophysical processes. Therefore, the ISS LIS lightning observations will provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines, including weather, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and lightning physics. A unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning, especially valuable for operational applications over data sparse regions such as the oceans. The ISS platform will also uniquely enable LIS to provide simultaneous and complementary observations with other payloads such as the European Space Agency's Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) that will be exploring

  13. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like 10,000 fireworks going off at once, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  14. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  15. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-118 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by the colorful Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) boasts its newest configuration upon the departure of Space Shuttle Endeavor and STS-118 mission. Days earlier, construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of supplies.

  17. Electromagnetically launched micro spacecraft for space science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of using very small spacecraft launched by an electromagnetic launcher located in low earth orbit to perform space science missions. This paper includes a discussion of flight time versus distance performance, potential missions, electromagnetic launchers, micro spacecraft concepts, high G technology and a conceptual launcher design. It is suggested that the present is an especially good time to investigate the subject concept due to the current launch vehicle crisis for space science, and due to the large amounts of resources that the SDIO is spending on the development of the technology for electromagnetic launchers and projectiles.

  18. Habitability issues in long duration undersea and space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.; Every, M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The report reviews a number of studies in the area of habitability. Emphasis was placed on extracting from these studies that information most relevant to any long-term mission in confinement. It is concluded that, whereas the basic laws of habitability are known, there is much yet to be learned concerning development of social structures in small groups in relative isolation, planning for necessary hygiene needs, development of proper work spaces, and construction of internal and external communications systems. With respect to testing for habitability and the documentation of habitability principles, the space program was found to be considerably more advanced than was the program for undersea missions.

  19. DSN co-observing operations to support space VLBI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunin, Valery I.; Kuiper, Thomas B.; Wolken, Pamela R.

    1994-01-01

    Reliable radio astronomy support of space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) missions by ground radio telescopes is mandatory in order to achieve a high scientific return from the missions. The 70 m DSN antennas along with other ground radio telescopes will perform as the ground segment of the earth-space interferometer. Improvements of radio astronomy VLBI operations at the DSN to achieve higher reliability, efficiency, flexibility, and lower operations costs is a major goal in preparing for radio astronomy support of SVLBI. To help realize this goal, a remote control and monitoring mode for radio astronomy operations at the DSN has been developed.

  20. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

  1. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  2. Protocol Sensing Across Multiple Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Gray, Andrew; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present sensing performance using an architecture for a reconfigurable protocol chip for spacebased applications. Toward utilizing the IP packet architecture, utilizing data link layer framing structures for multiplexed data on a channel are the targeted application considered for demonstration purposes. Specifically, we examine three common framing standards and present the sensing performance of these standards and their relative de-correlation metrics. Some analysis is performed to investigate the impact of lossy links and on the number of packets required to perform a decision with some probability. Finally, we present results on a demonstration platform that integrated reconfigurable sensing technology into the Ground Station Interface Device (GRID) for End-to-End IP demonstrations in space.

  3. Modeling and Simulation for Multi-Missions Space Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Max

    2011-01-01

    Asteroids and Near-Earth Objects [NEOs] are of great interest for future space missions. The Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle [MMSEV] is being considered for future Near Earth Object missions and requires detailed planning and study of its Guidance, Navigation, and Control [GNC]. A possible mission of the MMSEV to a NEO would be to navigate the spacecraft to a stationary orbit with respect to the rotating asteroid and proceed to anchor into the surface of the asteroid with robotic arms. The Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation [DARTS] laboratory develops reusable models and simulations for the design and analysis of missions. In this paper, the development of guidance and anchoring models are presented together with their role in achieving mission objectives and relationships to other parts of the simulation. One important aspect of guidance is in developing methods to represent the evolution of kinematic frames related to the tasks to be achieved by the spacecraft and its robot arms. In this paper, we compare various types of mathematical interpolation methods for position and quaternion frames. Subsequent work will be on analyzing the spacecraft guidance system with different movements of the arms. With the analyzed data, the guidance system can be adjusted to minimize the errors in performing precision maneuvers.

  4. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderArk, Steve; Curtis, Kelly D.

    1999-01-01

    During the relatively short-duration Space Shuffle missions, a psychological support program for the astronauts has not been required. Such missions primarily require providing occasional communication with family members by means of audio, video or e-mail, and some diversions such as CD players. During the NASA-Mir Program, conducted from March 1995 through June 1998, mission duration increased to 4-6 months. As a result of these changes it was necessary for NASA to establish an operational Human Behavior and Performance Group (HBPG) to develop and implement a comprehensive program of psychological support. The Mir experience provided the opportunity to develop and implement a psychological support program for long-duration space missions. Many factors influence the support program, including individual preferences, mission duration, and environmental factors such as habitable and personal areas. Lessons learned from the Mir experience are being applied to improve the ISS psychological support program plan. This presentation will address which includes various preflight, in-flight, and post-flight support activities and tools that NASA's HBPG will provide to astronauts and their families for ISS missions.

  5. Next Generation Simulation Framework for Robotic and Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Balaram, J.; Jain, Abhinandan; Kuo, Calvin; Lim, Christopher; Myint, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Dartslab team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has a long history of developing physics-based simulations based on the Darts/Dshell simulation framework that have been used to simulate many planetary robotic missions, such as the Cassini spacecraft and the rovers that are currently driving on Mars. Recent collaboration efforts between the Dartslab team at JPL and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have led to significant enhancements to the Dartslab DSENDS (Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing) software framework. The new version of DSENDS is now being used for new planetary mission simulations at JPL. JSC is using DSENDS as the foundation for a suite of software known as COMPASS (Core Operations, Mission Planning, and Analysis Spacecraft Simulation) that is the basis for their new human space mission simulations and analysis. In this paper, we will describe the collaborative process with the JPL Dartslab and the JSC MOD team that resulted in the redesign and enhancement of the DSENDS software. We will outline the improvements in DSENDS that simplify creation of new high-fidelity robotic/spacecraft simulations. We will illustrate how DSENDS simulations are assembled and show results from several mission simulations.

  6. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions

  7. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  8. Pointing and Tracking Concepts for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. W.; Lee, S.; Chen, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of a FY1998 effort on the design and development of an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for the Advanced Deep Space System Development (ADSSD) Project. This study was funded by the JPL X2000 program to develop an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for use in future planetary missions. The goal of this development effort was aimed at providing prototype hardware with the capability of performing uplink, downlink, and ranging functions from deep space distances. Such a system was envisioned to support future deep space missions in the Outer Planets/Solar Probe (OPSP) mission set such as the Pluto express and Europa orbiter by providing a significant enhancement of data return capability. A study effort was initiated to develop a flyable engineering model optical terminal to support the proposed Europa Orbiter mission - as either the prime telecom subsystem or for mission augmentation. The design concept was to extend the prototype lasercom terminal development effort currently conducted by JPL's Optical Communications Group. The subsystem would track the sun illuminated Earth at Europa and farther distances for pointing reference. During the course of the study, a number of challenging issues were found. These included thermo-mechanical distortion, straylight control, and pointing. This paper focuses on the pointing aspects required to locate and direct a laser beam from a spacecraft (S/C) near Jupiter to a receiving station on Earth.

  9. Trade Space Assessment for Human Exploration Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. Kent

    2006-01-01

    Many human space exploration mission architecture assessments have been performed over the years by diverse organizations and individuals. Direct comparison of metrics among these studies is extremely difficult due to widely varying assumptions involving projected technology readiness, mission goals, acceptable risk criteria, and socio-political environments. However, constant over the years have been the physical laws of celestial dynamics and rocket propulsion systems. A finite diverse yet finite architecture trade space should exist which captures methods of human exploration - particularly of the Moon and Mars - by delineating technical trades and cataloging the physically realizable options of each. A particular architectural approach should then have a traceable path through this "trade tree". It should be pointed out that not every permutation of paths will result in a physically realizable mission approach, but cataloging options that have been examined by past studies should help guide future analysis. This effort was undertaken in two phases by multi-center NASA working groups in the spring and summer of 2004 using more than thirty years of past studies to "flesh out" the Moon-Mars human exploration trade space. The results are presented, not as a "trade tree", which would be unwieldy, but as a "menu" of potential technical options as a function of mission phases. This is envisioned as a tool to aid future mission designers by offering guidance to relevant past analyses.

  10. Modelling and simulation of the space mission MICROSCOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, Stefanie; List, Meike; Selig, Hanns; Rath, Hans; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2011-01-01

    MICROSCOPE is a French space mission for testing the weak equivalence principle (WEP). The mission goal is the determination of the Eötvös parameter η with an accuracy of 10 -15. The French space agency CNES is responsible for the satellite which is developed and produced within the Myriade series. The satellite's payload T-SAGE (Twin Space Accelerometer for Gravitation Experimentation) is developed and built by the French institute ONERA. It consists of two high-precision capacitive differential accelerometers. One accelerometer is used as reference sensor with two test masses of platinum, the science sensor contains a platinum and a titanium proof mass. The detection of the test mass movement and their control is done via a complex electrode system. As a member of the MICROSCOPE performance team, the German department ZARM will be involved in the data analysis of the MICROSCOPE mission. For this purpose, mission simulations and the preparation of the mission data evaluation in close cooperation with the French partners CNES, ONERA and OCA are realised. The development status of the simulation tool which will represent the complex spacecraft dynamics and all error sources in order to design and test data reduction procedures is presented and some features are discussed in detail.

  11. Microbial contamination monitoring and control during human space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Houdt, Rob; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Leys, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity and resilience of microorganisms makes them unavoidable in most environments including space habitats. The impaired immune system of astronauts in flight raises the level of concern about disease risk during human space missions and additionally these biological contaminants may affect life support systems and hardware. In this review, the microbial contamination observed in manned space stations and in particular the International Space Station ISS will be discussed, demonstrating that it is a microbiologically safe working and living habitat. Microbial contamination levels were in general below the implemented quality standards, although, occasional contamination hazard reports indicate that the current prevention and monitoring strategies are the strict minimum.

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Chen-wan L.

    1993-07-20

    This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

  13. A space-based mission to characterize the IEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Ross; Eßmann, Olaf; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hoffmann, Harald; Kührt, Ekkehard; Messina, Gabriele; Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Müller, Hartmut; Pedersen, Jakob Fromm

    2013-09-01

    In 2007 the German Space Agency (DLR) initiated the Kompaktsatellit series of small satellites. With growing scientific interest in the threat of future asteroid impacts on Earth, the first mission selected for the Kompaktsatellit programme was AsteroidFinder, a mission to characterise the unknown Inner Earth Object (IEO) population. The mission is based around the AsteroidFinder Instrument (AFI), a high-performance optical telescope, with asteroids identified on-ground via their apparent motion against the fixed star background. Such a challenging mission implies significant demands on the Kompaktsatellit bus platform required to support the AFI. The tight constraints of small satellite design, namely time, finance and available mass, require innovative solutions to problems. With a launch scheduled for 2014 and the project due to enter Phase C in 2011, the challenges of achieving high science with a small satellite are already apparent.

  14. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  15. Navigation of space VLBI missions: Radioastron and VSOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Jordan

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Russian and Japanese space agencies will each place into highly elliptic earth orbit a radio telescope consisting of a large antenna and radio astronomy receivers. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques will be used to obtain high resolution images of radio sources observed by the space and ground based antennas. Stringent navigation accuracy requirements are imposed on the space VLBI missions by the need to transfer an ultra-stable ground reference frequency standard to the spacecraft and by the demands of the VLBI correlation process. Orbit determination for the mission will be the joint responsibility of navigation centers in the U.S., Russia, and Japan with orbit estimates based on combining tracking data from NASA, Russian, and Japanese sites. This paper describes the operational plans, the inter-agency coordination, and data exchange between the navigation centers required for space VLBI navigation.

  16. A decade on board America's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular moments from a decade (1981-1991) of Space Shuttle missions, captured on film by the astronauts who flew the missions, are presented. First hand accounts of astronauts' experiences aboard the Shuttle are given. A Space Shuttle mission chronology featuring flight number, vehicle name, crew, launch and landing dates, and mission highlights is given in tabular form.

  17. Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500 km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100 MT payload into a 1500 km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10 MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space nuclear reactor technology are assumed. It is shown that nuclear electric ion propulsion offers more than twice the payload for the Mars mission relative to the case when a nuclear thermal rocket is used for the trans-Mars injection maneuver at Earth, and about the same payload advantage relative to the case when solar electric propulsion is used for the Mars heliocentric transfer. For missions to the outer planets nuclear electric ion propulsion increases the payload mass fraction by a factor of two or more compared with high thrust systems that utilize gravity assist trajectories.

  18. PUS Services Software Building Block Automatic Generation for Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candia, S.; Sgaramella, F.; Mele, G.

    2008-08-01

    The Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) has been specified by the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) and issued as ECSS-E-70-41A to define the application-level interface between Ground Segments and Space Segments. The ECSS-E- 70-41A complements the ECSS-E-50 and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for packet telemetry and telecommand. The ECSS-E-70-41A characterizes the identified PUS Services from a functional point of view and the ECSS-E-70-31 standard specifies the rules for their mission-specific tailoring. The current on-board software design for a space mission implies the production of several PUS terminals, each providing a specific tailoring of the PUS services. The associated on-board software building blocks are developed independently, leading to very different design choices and implementations even when the mission tailoring requires very similar services (from the Ground operative perspective). In this scenario, the automatic production of the PUS services building blocks for a mission would be a way to optimize the overall mission economy and improve the robusteness and reliability of the on-board software and of the Ground-Space interactions. This paper presents the Space Software Italia (SSI) activities for the development of an integrated environment to support: the PUS services tailoring activity for a specific mission. the mission-specific PUS services configuration. the generation the UML model of the software building block implementing the mission-specific PUS services and the related source code, support documentation (software requirements, software architecture, test plans/procedures, operational manuals), and the TM/TC database. The paper deals with: (a) the project objectives, (b) the tailoring, configuration, and generation process, (c) the description of the environments supporting the process phases, (d) the characterization of the meta-model used for the generation, (e) the

  19. Tropospheric Wind Measurements from Space: The SPARCLE Mission and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

    1998-01-01

    For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

  20. International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-117 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Eight days of construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). Back dropped by the blackness of space, its newly expanded configuration is revealed as pilot Lee Archambault conducts a fly around upon departure from the station on June 19, 2007.

  1. Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

  2. Mask Design for the Space Interferometry Mission Internal Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, David; Zhao, Feng; Korechoff, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mask design used for the internal metrology of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Included is information about the project, the method of measurements with SIM, the internal metrology, numerical model of internal metrology, wavefront examples, performance metrics, and mask design

  3. Technology assessment of advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Six general classes of technology requirements derived during the mission definition phase of the study were identified as having maximum importance and urgency, including autonomous world model based information systems, learning and hypothesis formation, natural language and other man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators and robot systems, and computer science and technology.

  4. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

  5. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The current technical effort is part of the fourth phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addresses the costs of the First Lunar Outpost habitat and alternatives to this habitat.

  6. Probabilistic Assessment of Radiation Risk for Astronauts in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; DeAngelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the health risks to astronauts from space radiation exposure are necessary for enabling future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons, (less than 100 MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include protons and heavy ions of higher energies. While the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the solar activity cycle, SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, phi. The risk of radiation exposure from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection, including determining the shielding and operational requirements for astronauts and hardware. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which would be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of time within a solar cycle using a nonhomogeneous Poisson model to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, (phi)30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and a lunar rover during defined space mission periods. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks for space exploration.

  7. Mission Statements, Physical Space, and Strategy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugazzotto, Sam J.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of higher education institutions has bases in institutional structures and cultures. However, structure and culture represent abstract concepts while institutions realize high performance in practice. Given their salience in higher education, mission statements and campus space bring structure and culture into the realm of…

  8. Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

  9. Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Criag E.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

  10. Use of Concurrent Engineering in Space Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, conceptual-phase (proposal level) design of space missions has been improved considerably. Team structures, tool linkage, specialized facilities known as design centers and scripted processes have been demonstrated to cut proposal-level engineering design time from a few months to a few weeks.

  11. Earth science space missions in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grofic, B.

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) published “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, 2007” , commonly known as the “ Decadal Survey” . This report called for a balanced set of Earth Science Missions across the Earth Science research spectrum. In response, in February 2008, NASA's Earth Science Division reorganized into two program offices: The Earth Systematic Missions Program Office (ESM PO) at Goddard Space Flight Center which includes satellites making continuous measurements of the Earth's climate, and the Earth System Science Pathfinder Program Office (ESSP PO) at Langley Research Center which develops pathfinder missions through Announcements of Opportunity. In June 2010 NASA published its plan to achieve the goals of the Decadal Survey, “ Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space.” This plan includes support for the Decadal Survey missions as well as a set of “ climate continuity missions” to address the scientific need for data continuity of key climate observations. In 2011 the NRC revisited the Decadal Survey report and published “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey” . This report notes that progress on the Decadal Survey plan has been slower than planned due to budget shortfalls and launch vehicle failures, and stresses that the goals of the Decadal Survey are as important as ever and must still yield a scientifically-balanced program. This paper will discuss the current status of the mission/mission study portfolios of the ESMP Program and the Earth Venture solicitations of the ESSP Program and how the Programs support the goals established and reiterated by the NRC, and will discuss the risks and challenges faced by t- e Programs as together they strive to meet these goals.

  12. Autonomous medical care for exploration class space missions.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2008-04-01

    The US-based health care system of the International Space Station contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in low Earth orbit for the International Space Station is designed to support a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the moon are similar to low Earth orbit class missions but also include an additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has identified five levels of care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. To implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new crew medical officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics. PMID:18385587

  13. Soyuz 24 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz. This is the first time all samples were acquired with the mini-grab samplers. The toxicological assessment of 15 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C(13)-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 75, 97 and 79%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned on Soyuz 24

  14. ATLAS-2 and UARS correlative measurement opportunities during Space Shuttle mission on April 8-17, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Edwin F.; Denn, Fred M.; Gibson, Gary G.

    1993-01-01

    The second ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-2) mission was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery from 8-17 Apr. 1993. The nighttime launch at 0529 Greenwich Mean Time provided maximum solar occultation sunrise coverage of the northern latitudes by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument. The ATLAS-2 Earth-viewing instruments provided a large number of measurements which were nearly coincident with observations from experiments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Based on instrument operating schedules during the ATLAS-2 mission, simulations were performed to determine when and where correlative measurements between ATLAS and UARS instruments occurred. Results of these orbital and instrument simulations provide valuable information for the ATLAS and UARS scientists to compare measurements between various instruments on the two satellites.

  15. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  16. Launch and Assembly Reliability Analysis for Human Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cates, Grant; Gelito, Justin; Stromgren, Chel; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2012-01-01

    NASA's future human space exploration strategy includes single and multi-launch missions to various destinations including cis-lunar space, near Earth objects such as asteroids, and ultimately Mars. Each campaign is being defined by Design Reference Missions (DRMs). Many of these missions are complex, requiring multiple launches and assembly of vehicles in orbit. Certain missions also have constrained departure windows to the destination. These factors raise concerns regarding the reliability of launching and assembling all required elements in time to support planned departure. This paper describes an integrated methodology for analyzing launch and assembly reliability in any single DRM or set of DRMs starting with flight hardware manufacturing and ending with final departure to the destination. A discrete event simulation is built for each DRM that includes the pertinent risk factors including, but not limited to: manufacturing completion; ground transportation; ground processing; launch countdown; ascent; rendezvous and docking, assembly, and orbital operations leading up to trans-destination-injection. Each reliability factor can be selectively activated or deactivated so that the most critical risk factors can be identified. This enables NASA to prioritize mitigation actions so as to improve mission success.

  17. Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 1; General Technology Capabilities for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the scope of NASA s mission in the coming decade are profound and demand nimble, yet insightful, responses. On-board clinical and environmental diagnostics must be available for both mid-term lunar and long-term Mars exploration missions in an environment marked by scarce resources. Miniaturization has become an obvious focus. Despite solid achievements in lab-based devices, broad-based, robust tools for application in the field are not yet on the market. The confluence of rapid, wide-ranging technology evolution and internal planning needs are the impetus behind this work. This report presents an analytical tool for the ongoing evaluation of promising technology platforms based on mission- and application-specific attributes. It is not meant to assess specific devices, but rather to provide objective guidelines for a rational down-select of general categories of technology platforms. In this study, we have employed our expertise in the microgravity operation of fluidic devices, laboratory diagnostics for space applications, and terrestrial research in biochip development. A rating of the current state of technology development is presented using the present tool. Two mission scenarios are also investigated: a 30-day lunar mission using proven, tested technology in 5 years; and a 2- to 3-year mission to Mars in 10 to 15 years.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope: Science and Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA for launch later this decade. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and peer through dusty clouds to see star and planet formation at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns. The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5- year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations.

  19. Role of Lidar Technology in Future NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2008-01-01

    The past success of lidar instruments in space combined with potentials of laser remote sensing techniques in improving measurements traditionally performed by other instrument technologies and in enabling new measurements have expanded the role of lidar technology in future NASA missions. Compared with passive optical and active radar/microwave instruments, lidar systems produce substantially more accurate and precise data without reliance on natural light sources and with much greater spatial resolution. NASA pursues lidar technology not only as science instruments, providing atmospherics and surface topography data of Earth and other solar system bodies, but also as viable guidance and navigation sensors for space vehicles. This paper summarizes the current NASA lidar missions and describes the lidar systems being considered for deployment in space in the near future.

  20. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Endeavour rockets off Launch Pad 39B, spewing clouds of smoke and steam, a majestic heron soars over the nearby water and Endeavour'''s reflection. Liftoff occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. The Shuttle and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  1. The Virtual Space Telescope: A New Class of Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Many science investigations proposed by GSFC require two spacecraft alignment across a long distance to form a virtual space telescope. Forming a Virtual Space telescope requires advances in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) enabling the distribution of monolithic telescopes across multiple space platforms. The capability to align multiple spacecraft to an intertial target is at a low maturity state and we present a roadmap to advance the system-level capability to be flight ready in preparation of various science applications. An engineering proof of concept, called the CANYVAL-X CubeSat MIssion is presented. CANYVAL-X's advancement will decrease risk for a potential starshade mission that would fly with WFIRST.

  2. Temporal Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William P.; Hua, Hook; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has the responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future JPL deep space missions are ready as needed; as such he is responsible for the development of a Strategic Plan. As part of the planning effort, he has supported the development of a structured approach to technology prioritization based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) team. A major innovation reported here is the addition of a temporal model that supports scheduling of technology development as a function of time. The JPL Strategic Technology Plan divides the required capabilities into 13 strategic themes. The results reported here represent the analysis of an initial seven.

  3. Ecological Niches for Space Missions in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (30 micrometers-750 micrometers) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the fares is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80 - 100 micrometers. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 micrometers. Existing and planned survey missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, survey area, and sensitivity. In this 4-dimensional parameter space, the flares is found to be substantially behind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be wellsuited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory.

  4. Ecological Niches for Space Missions in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (30 micron-750 micron) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts, this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, survey speed, and sensitivity. In this parameter space, the opportunity for future far-IR and submillimeter missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will answer fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory.

  5. Maximizing Science Capability for Far-Infrared Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Leisawitz, Dave; Moseley, Harvey; Staguhn, Johannes; Voellmer, George

    2004-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (20 microns-800 microns) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, mapping speed, and sensitivity. In this 5-dimensional parameter space, the far-IR is substantially be-hind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be well-suited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory. Ultimately, a long baseline submillimeter interferometer is necessary to provide sensitivity and angular resolution.

  6. Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Atwell, W.; Beever, R.; Hardy, A.

    In order to make an assessment of radiation risk during manned missions in space, it is necessary first to have as accurate an estimation as possible of the radiation environment within the spacecraft to which the astronauts will be exposed. Then, with this knowledge and the inclusion of body self-shielding, estimations can be made of absorbed doses for various body organs (skin, eye, blood-forming organs, etc.). A review is presented of our present knowledge of the radiation environments and absorbed doses expected for several space mission scenarios selected for our development of the new radiation protection guidelines. The scenarios selected are a 90-day mission at an altitude (450 km) and orbital inclinations (28.5°, 57° and 90°) appropriate for NASA's Space Station, a 15-day sortie to geosynchronous orbit and a 90-day lunar mission. All scenarios chosen yielded dose equivalents between five and ten rem to the blood forming organs if no large solar particle event were encountered. Such particle events could add considerable exposure particularly to the skin and eye for all scenarios except the one at 28.5° orbital inclination.

  7. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  8. The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

  9. Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

  10. Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

  11. EVA crew workstation provisions for Skylab and Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Saenger, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A synopsis of scheduled extravehicular activities (EVA) for a nominal Skylab mission is presented with an overview of EV workstation equipment developed for the program. Also included are the unprogrammed extravehicular activities and supporting equipment that was quickly developed and retrofitted in a series of successful operations to salvage the crippled Skylab Cluster during the Skylab 1 Mission. Because EVA appears to be a requirement for the Space Shuttle Program, candidate EV workstations are discussed in terms of effective and economical Shuttle payload servicing and maintenance. Several such concepts, which could provide a versatile, portable EV support system, are presented.

  12. Automated design of multiphase space missions using hybrid optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving the associated continuous optimal control problem. This strategy, however, will most likely yield a sub-optimal solution, as the problem is sophisticated for several reasons. For example, the number of events in the optimal mission structure is not known a priori and the system equations of motion change depending on what event is current. In this work a framework for the automated design of multiphase space missions is presented using hybrid optimal control (HOC). The method developed uses two nested loops: an outer-loop that handles the discrete dynamics and finds the optimal mission structure in terms of the categorical variables, and an inner-loop that performs the optimization of the corresponding continuous-time dynamical system and obtains the required control history. Genetic algorithms (GA) and direct transcription with nonlinear programming (NLP) are introduced as methods of solution for the outer-loop and inner-loop problems, respectively. Automation of the inner-loop, continuous optimal control problem solver, required two new technologies. The first is a method for the automated construction of the NLP problems resulting from the use of a direct solver for systems with different structures, including different numbers of categorical events. The method assembles modules, consisting of parameters and constraints appropriate to each event, sequentially according to the given mission structure. The other new technology is for a robust initial guess generator required by the inner-loop NLP problem solver. Two new methods were developed for cases including low-thrust trajectories. The first method, based on GA

  13. Space Technology 5 - A Successful Micro-Satellite Constellation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Candace; Webb, Evan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST5) constellation of three micro-satellites was launched March 22, 2006. During the three-month flight demonstration phase, the ST5 team validated key technologies that will make future low-cost micro-sat constellations possible, demonstrated operability concepts for future micro-sat science constellation missions, and demonstrated the utility of a micro-satellite constellation to perform research-quality science. The ST5 mission was successfully completed in June 2006, demonstrating high-quality science and technology validation results.

  14. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  15. Space Shuttle to deploy Magellan planetary science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of Space Shuttle Mission STS-30 are described along with major flight activities, prelaunch and launch operations, trajectory sequence of events, and landing and post-landing operations. The primary objective of STS-30 is to successfully deploy the Magellan spacecraft into low earth orbit. Following deployment, Magellan will be propelled to its Venus trajectory by an Inertial Upper Stage booster. The objectives of the Magellan mission are to obtain radar images of more than 70 percent of Venus' surface, a near-global topographic map, and near-global gravity field data. Secondary STS-30 payloads include the Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA) and the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE).

  16. Probabilistic assessment of radiation risk for astronauts in space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; De Angelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-04-01

    Accurate estimations of the health risks to astronauts due to space radiation exposure are necessary for future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include high-energy protons and heavy ions. While the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle, the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, ϕ. The risk of radiation exposure to astronauts as well as to hardware from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which could be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of solar cycle phase using a non-homogeneous Poisson model [1] to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy>30 MeV, Φ30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses, for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and for a lunar rover during space missions of defined durations. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning for future manned space exploration missions. Internal documentation of NASA Constellation Trade Study (F.A. Cucinotta, personal communication).

  17. Astronaut John Glenn aboard the U.S.S. Randolph after MA-6 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 6 space flight, relaxes aboard the carrier U.S.S. Randolph following his earth-orbital mission. Glenn was transferred to the Randolph from the U.S.S. Noa after his return from his earth-orbital mission.

  18. Application of a Modified Gas Chromatograph to Analyze Space Experiment Combustion Gases on Space Shuttle Mission STS-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coho, William K.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanZandt, David M.

    1998-01-01

    A space experiment designed to study the behavior of combustion without the gravitational effects of buoyancy was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on July 1, 1997. The space experiment, designated as Combustion Module-1 (CM-1), was one of several manifested on the Microgravity Sciences Laboratory - 1 (MSL-1) mission. The launch, designated STS-94, had the Spacelab Module as the payload, in which the MSL-1 experiments were conducted by the Shuttle crewmembers. CM-1 was designed to accommodate two different combustion experiments during MSL-1. One experiment, the Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number experiment (SOFBALL), required gas chromatography analysis to verify the composition of the known, premixed gases prior to combustion, and to determine the remaining reactant and the products resulting from the combustion process in microgravity. A commercial, off-the-shelf, dual-channel micro gas chromatograph was procured and modified to interface with the CM-1 Fluids Supply Package and the CM-1 Combustion Chamber, to accommodate two different carrier gases, each flowing through its own independent column module, to withstand the launch environment of the Space Shuttle, to accept Spacelab electrical power, and to meet the Spacelab flight requirements for electromagnetic interference (EMI) and offgassing. The GC data was down linked to the Marshall Space Flight Center for near-real time analysis, and stored on-orbit for post-flight analysis. The gas chromatograph operated successfully during the entire SOFBALL experiment and collected 309 runs. Because of the constraints imposed upon the gas chromatograph by the CM-1 hardware, system and operations, it was unable to measure the gases to the required accuracy. Future improvements to the system for a re-flight of the SOFBALL experiment are expected to enable the gas chromatograph to meet all the requirements.

  19. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its

  20. Evaluation of the MICAST #2-12 AI-7wt%Si Sample Directionally Solidified Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, Surendra N.; Ghods, Masoud; Angart, Samuel G.; Lauer, Mark; Grugel, Richard N.; Poirier, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The US team of the European led "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions" (MICAST) program recently received a third Aluminum - 7wt% silicon alloy that was processed in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station. The sample, designated MICAST#2-12, was directionally solidified in the Solidification with Quench Furnace (SQF) at a constant rate of 40micometers/s through an imposed temperature gradient of 31K/cm. Procedures taken to evaluate the state of the sample prior to sectioning for metallographic analysis are reviewed and rational for measuring the microstructural constituents, in particular the primary dendrite arm spacing (Lambda (sub1)), is given. The data are presented, put in context with the earlier samples, and evaluated in view of a relevant theoretical model.

  1. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  2. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  3. Soyuz 7 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of one grab sample canister (GSC), 6 dual sorbent tubes (DSTs), and 20 formaldehyde badges returned aboard Soyuz 7 are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the GSC were 84-89%. The recoveries of the less volatile surrogates from the DSTs were 87 to 112%; however, 13C-acetone was only recovered at 53-59%. Formaldehyde recoveries from 2 lab controls were 87 and 95%; trip controls were not returned to ground.

  4. Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainties for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Peterson, L. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.; Dicello, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to the lack of data and knowledge. We discuss an uncertainty assessment within the linear-additivity model using the approach of Monte Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios. This approach leads to estimates of the uncertainties in cancer risk projections of 400-600% for a Mars mission. The uncertainties in the quality factors are dominant. Using safety standards developed for low-Earth orbit, long-term space missions (>90 days) outside the Earth's magnetic field are currently unacceptable if the confidence levels in risk projections are considered. Because GCR exposures involve multiple particle or delta-ray tracks per cellular array, our results suggest that the shape of the dose response at low dose rates may be an additional uncertainty for estimating space radiation risks.

  5. Space radiation cancer risks and uncertainties for Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Schimmerling, W; Wilson, J W; Peterson, L E; Badhwar, G D; Saganti, P B; Dicello, J F

    2001-11-01

    Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to the lack of data and knowledge. We discuss an uncertainty assessment within the linear-additivity model using the approach of Monte Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios. This approach leads to estimates of the uncertainties in cancer risk projections of 400-600% for a Mars mission. The uncertainties in the quality factors are dominant. Using safety standards developed for low-Earth orbit, long-term space missions (>90 days) outside the Earth's magnetic field are currently unacceptable if the confidence levels in risk projections are considered. Because GCR exposures involve multiple particle or delta-ray tracks per cellular array, our results suggest that the shape of the dose response at low dose rates may be an additional uncertainty for estimating space radiation risks. PMID:11604093

  6. Software Construction and Analysis Tools for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA and its international partners will increasingly depend on software-based systems to implement advanced functions for future space missions, such as Martian rovers that autonomously navigate long distances exploring geographic features formed by surface water early in the planet's history. The software-based functions for these missions will need to be robust and highly reliable, raising significant challenges in the context of recent Mars mission failures attributed to software faults. After reviewing these challenges, this paper describes tools that have been developed at NASA Ames that could contribute to meeting these challenges; 1) Program synthesis tools based on automated inference that generate documentation for manual review and annotations for automated certification. 2) Model-checking tools for concurrent object-oriented software that achieve memorability through synergy with program abstraction and static analysis tools.

  7. Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations

  8. Radiation hazards on space missions outside the magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Letaw, J R; Silberberg, R; Tsao, C H

    1989-01-01

    Future space missions outside the magnetosphere will subject astronauts to a hostile and unfamiliar radiation environment. An annual dose equivalent to the blood-forming organs (BFOs) of approximately 0.5 Sv is expected, mostly from heavy ions in the galactic cosmic radiation. On long-duration missions, an anomalously-large solar energetic particle event may occur. Such an event can expose astronauts to up to approximately 25 Gy (skin dose) and up to approximately 2 Sv (BFO dose) with no shielding. The anticipated radiation exposure may necessitate spacecraft design concessions and some restriction of mission activities. In this paper we discuss our model calculations of radiation doses in several exo-magnetospheric environments. Specific radiation shielding strategies are discussed. A new calculation of aluminum equivalents of potential spacecraft shielding materials demonstrates the importance of low-atomic-mass species for protection from galactic cosmic radiation. PMID:11537305

  9. Space nuclear reactor power-perception, requirements, and mission integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenberg, Lon; Martin, C. R.

    The authors describe the opportunities for the military and the civil sector given a successful development of a space reactor power system. The centerpiece is the SP-100 program. Numerous studies have identified serious design limitations for military missions. These same studies suggest that thermionic technology has great promise for military missions. By way of highlighting some of the concerns over the current SP-100 program, the authors focus on some of the technology issues. Recently, as a result of two military studies, the military and the Department of Energy (DOE) have proposed a memorandum of understanding to cosponsor a second reactor development program based on thermionic technology. The authors believe the DOE should strongly endorse joint development of thermionics with the military. Additionally, the reactor power source should be closely integrated with a particular mission.

  10. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia casts ghost-like shadows on the clouds of smoke and steam surrounding it. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA's future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency's Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle's evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to deep space.

  12. NASA'S Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA’s future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle’s potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle’s evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to

  13. Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-08-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

  14. Space construction system analysis study: Project systems and missions descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Three project systems are defined and summarized. The systems are: (1) a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Development Flight Test Vehicle configured for fabrication and compatible with solar electric propulsion orbit transfer; (2) an Advanced Communications Platform configured for space fabrication and compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion; and (3) the same Platform, configured to be space erectable but still compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion. These project systems are intended to serve as configuration models for use in detailed analyses of space construction techniques and processes. They represent feasible concepts for real projects; real in the sense that they are realistic contenders on the list of candidate missions currently projected for the national space program. Thus, they represent reasonable configurations upon which to base early studies of alternative space construction processes.

  15. Large size greenhouse for long-term space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    Crew space flights require on-going delivery of food, air and water from Earth. A long time missions in far space cannot be realized without self-supported life system, when food, air and water will be reused. For ecological self-regulated life support system a large volume of green house is needed. An inflatable construction of composite materials cured directly in free space environment is a way for development of large greenhouse. The rigidization of the frame by the way of chemical reaction of polymerization is viewed as real way. The large volume greenhouse created on Earth orbit is proposed. The construction and material of space greenhouse are considered based on results of biological investigations in space flights.

  16. Apollo 16 Crew Aboard Rescue Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Command Module splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on April 27, 1972 after an 11-day moon exploration mission. The 3-man crew is shown here aboard the rescue ship, USS Horton. From left to right are: Mission Commander John W. Young, Lunar Module pilot Charles M. Duke, and Command Module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II. The sixth manned lunar landing mission, the Apollo 16 (SA-511) lifted off on April 16, 1972. The Apollo 16 mission continued the broad-scale geological, geochemical, and geophysical mapping of the Moon's crust, begun by the Apollo 15, from lunar orbit. This mission marked the first use of the Moon as an astronomical observatory by using the ultraviolet camera/spectrograph which photographed ultraviolet light emitted by Earth and other celestial objects. The Lunar Roving Vehicle, developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, was also used.

  17. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration Class Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The US-based health care system of the International Space Station (ISS) contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for the ISS is designed to enable a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the Moon are similar to LEO class missions with the additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DCMF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. NASA has identified five Levels of Care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. In order to implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new Crew Medical Officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics.

  18. Estimating the Deep Space Network modification costs to prepare for future space missions by using major cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops a cost model to do long range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSN) support of future space missions. The paper focuses on the costs required to modify and/or enhance the DSN to prepare for future space missions. The model is a function of eight major mission cost drivers and estimates both the total cost and the annual costs of a similar future space mission. The model is derived from actual cost data from three space missions: Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. Estimates derived from the model are tested against actual cost data for two independent missions, Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS).

  19. Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

  20. Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Performance During Space Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Wyatt, James K.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Hughes, Rod J.

    2003-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms may be disturbed during spaceflight, and these disturbances can affect crewmembers' performance during waking hours. The mechanisms underlying sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in space are not well understood, and effective countermeasures are not yet available. We investigated sleep, circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, and light-dark cycles in five astronauts prior to, during, and after the 16-day STS-90 mission and the IO-day STS-95 mission. The efficacy of low-dose, alternative-night, oral melatonin administration as a countermeasure for sleep disturbances was evaluated. During these missions, scheduled rest activity cycles were 20-35 minutes shorter than 24 hours. Light levels on the middeck and in the Spacelab were very low; whereas on the flight deck (which has several windows), they were highly variable. Circadian rhythm abnormalities were observed. During the second half of the missions, the rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared to be delayed relative to the sleep-wake schedule. Performance during wakefulness was impaired. Astronauts slept only about 6.5 hours per day, and subjective sleep quality was lower in space. No beneficial effects of melatonin (0.3 mg administered prior to sleep episodes on alternate nights) were observed. A surprising finding was a marked increase in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep upon return to Earth. We conclude that these Space Shuttle missions were associated with circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and alterations in REM sleep homeostasis. Shorter than 24-hour rest-activity schedules and exposure to light-dark cycles inadequate for optimal circadian synchronization may have contributed to these disturbances.