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Sample records for aboard ulysses measures

  1. Low Energy Particle Oscillations and Correlations with Hydromagnetic Waves in the Jovian Magnetosphere: Ulysses Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupp, N.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    We report on measurements of energetic particle modulations observed by the HI-SCALE instrument aboard the Ulysses Spacecraft that were associated with the only hydromagnetic wave event measured inside the Jovian magnetosphere by the Ulysses magnetometer investigation.

  2. Ulysses dust measurements near Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Grün, E; Zook, H A; Baguhl, M; Fechtig, H; Hanner, M S; Kissel, J; Lindblad, B A; Linkert, D; Linkert, G; Mann, I B

    1992-09-11

    Submicrometer- to micrometer-sized particles were recorded by the Ulysses dust detector within 40 days of the Jupiter flyby. Nine impacts were recorded within 50 Jupiter radii with most of them recorded after closest approach. Three of these impacts are consistent with particles on prograde orbits around Jupiter and the rest are believed to have resulted from gravitationally focused interplanetary dust. From the ratio of the impact rate before the Jupiter flyby to the impact rate after the Jupiter flyby it is concluded that interplanetary dust particles at the distance of Jupiter move on mostly retrograde orbits. On 10 March 1992, Ulysses passed through an intense dust stream. The dust detector recorded 126 impacts within 26 hours. The stream particles were moving on highly inclined and apparently hyperbolic orbits with perihelion distances of >5 astronomical units. Interplanetary dust is lost rather quickly from the solar system through collisions and other mechanisms and must be almost continuously replenished to maintain observed abundances. Dust flux measurements, therefore, give evidence of the recent rates of production from sources such as comets, asteroids, and moons, as well as the possible presence of interstellar grains. PMID:11538054

  3. Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, W.; Beech, F.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Ulysses are summarized. The primary goal of the Ulysses mission is to explore the Sun, its environment, and possible links between solar variability and terrestrial weather and climate. The Ulysses spacecraft will be injected into an interplanetary orbit toward Jupiter after which the spacecraft travels in a heliocentric, out-of-ecliptic orbit with high heliographic inclination. The Ulysses mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  4. The solar flare and cosmic gamma-ray burst experiment aboard the Ulysses spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boer, Michel; Sommer, Michael; Hurley, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The HUS-Ulysses team has prepared an instrument for the Ulysses spacecraft consisting of 2 Csi detectors and 2 Si surface barrier detectors for measuring x rays in the range 5 to 200 keV with up to 8 ms time resolution. The prime objectives of the experiment are the study of solar flares and cosmic gamma-ray bursts. The Ulysses mission will leave the ecliptic during the forthcoming solar maximum. The total time above ecliptic latitudes + or - 70 degrees is expected to be 230 days. The solar data can be used in conjunction with other experiments to measure the directivity of the emission and for correlative studies.

  5. Ulysses Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Ulysses is a joint mission between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) to explore the heliosphere over the full range of solar latitudes, especially in the polar regions. The goal of the Ulysses mission is to provide an accurate assessment of our total solar environment. This collaborative ESA/NASA mission will, for the first time, explore the heliosphere -- the region of space that is dominated by the Sun-- within a few astronomical units of the Sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes. The path followed by the spacecraft, using a Jupiter gravity-assist to achieve a trajectory extending to high solar latitudes, will enable the highly sophisticated scientific instruments on board to make measurements in the uncharted third dimension of the heliosphere. The Ulysses spacecraft will carry nine scientific instruments to measure the properties of the solar corona, the solar wind, the Sun/wind interface, the heliospheric magnetic field, solar radio bursts, plasma waves, solar X-rays, solar and galactic cosmic rays, and the interplanetary/interstellar neutral gas and dust. Scientists will take advantage of the enormous distance between the spacecraft and the Earth to perform astrophysical measurements and to search for gravitational waves. In conjunction with instrumentation on Earth-orbiting spacecraft, Ulysses will help to precisely locate the mysterious sources of cosmic gamma bursts. The results obtained will help to solve outstanding problems in solar and heliospheric physics, while undoubtedly revealing new and unanticipated phenomena.

  6. Identification of Solar Wind Stream Interfaces: A Comparison of Ulysses Plasma and Composition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, M.; Neugebauer, M.; Smith, E.; Crooker, N.; von Steiger, R.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of the specific entropy argument of solar wind protons, T/n superscript y-1, reveal that nearly every occurrence of a high-speed stream seen at Ulysses in 1992-3 is characterized by an abrupt interface at its trailing edge.

  7. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  8. Comparison between solar wind latitude distribution derived from Lyman-alpha observations and ULYSSES measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quemarais, E.; Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.

    1995-06-01

    The all-sky interplanetary Lyman-alpha pattern is sensitive to the latitude distribution of the solar wind because of destruction of neutral H by charge-exchange with solar wind protons. Lyman-alpha intensities recorded by Prognoz 5 and 6 in 1976 in a few parts of the sky were demonstrating a decrease of solar wind mass flux by about 30 % from equator to pole, when assuming a sinusoidal variation of this mass flux (harmonic distribution). A new analysis with a discrete variation with latitude has shown a decrease from 0 to 30 deg and then a plateau of constant mass flux up to the pole. This distribution bears a striking resemblance with Ulysses in-situ measurements, showing a clear similarity at 19 years interval. The Ulysses measurements were then used as a model input to calculate an all-sky Lyman-alpha pattern, either with a discrete model or with a harmonic solar wind variation with the same Ulysses equator-to-pole variation. There are conspicuous differences between the two Lyman-alpha patterns, in particular in the downwind region which are discussed in the context of future all-sky measurements with SWAN experiment on SOHO.

  9. Comparison between solar wind latitude distribution derived from Lyman-alpha observations and Ulysses measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quemarais, E.; Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.

    1995-01-01

    The all-sky interplanetary Lyman-alpha pattern is sensitive to the latitude distribution of the solar wind because of destruction of neutral H by charge-exchange with solar wind protons. Lyman-alpha intensities recorded by Prognoz 5 and 6 in 1976 in a few parts of the sky were demonstrating a decrease of solar wind mass flux by about 30 % from equator to pole, when assuming a sinusoidal variation of this mass flux (harmonic distribution). A new analysis with a discrete variation with latitude has shown a decrease from 0 to 30 deg and then a plateau of constant mass flux up to the pole. This distribution bears a striking resemblance with Ulysses in-situ measurements, showing a clear similarity at 19 years interval. The Ulysses measurements were then used as a model input to calculate an all-sky Lyman-alpha pattern, either with a discrete model or with a harmonic solar wind variation with the same Ulysses equator-to-pole variation. There are conspicuous differences between the two Lyman-alpha patterns, in particular in the downwind region which are discussed in the context of future all-sky measurements with SWAN experiment on SOHO.

  10. Comparison of measured and calculated magnetic fields along the Ulysses orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirzhevsky, N. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Svirzhevskaya, A. K.; Stozhkov, Yu. I.

    2015-02-01

    The existence of close relations between the temperature, density and velocity of the solar plasma and the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) was shown along the space probe Ulysses orbit. A simple mathematical formula describing a relation between the HMF and the solar plasma temperature and density was introduced and the expected values of the HMF were calculated using daily and hourly Ulysses data. Correlation coefficients and regression equation between the values of the measured and calculated magnetic fields have been defined. An origin of the peaks in the magnetic field which are observed in the heliospheric sector zone near the corotating interaction regions is discussed as well as the specific role of plasma density and temperature in the formation of magnetic peaks.

  11. Radiation measurements aboard the fourth Gemini flight.

    PubMed

    Janni, J F; Schneider, M F

    1967-01-01

    Two special tissue-equivalent ionization chambers and 5 highly sensitive passive dosimetry packages were flown aboard the recent Gemini 4 flight for the purpose of obtaining precise values of instantaneous dose rate, accumulated dose. and shielding effectiveness. This experiment marked the first time that well-defined tissue dose and radiation survey measurements have been carried out in manned spaceflight operations. Since all measurements were accomplished under normal spacecraft environmental conditions, the biological dose resulted primarily from trapped inner Van Allen Belt radiation encountered by the spacecraft in the South Atlantic Anomaly. The experiment determined the particle type, ionizing and penetrating power, and variation with time and position within the Gemini spacecraft. Measured dose rates ranged from 100 mrad/hr for passes penetrating deeply into the South Atlantic Anomaly to less than 0.1 mrad/hr from lower latitude cosmic radiation. The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by 0.4 gm/cm2 for the 4-day mission, was 82 mrad. Since the 5 passive dosimetry packages were each located in different positions within the spacecraft, the total mission surface dose measured by these detectors varied from 73 to 27 mrad, depending upon location and shielding. The particles within the spacecraft were recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation environment under shielded conditions at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous. PMID:11973852

  12. Interpretation of Solar Wind Ion Composition Measurements from Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    The ion compositions measured in situ in the solar wind are important since the ion fractions carry information on the plasma conditions in the inner corona. The conditions in the inner corona define the properties of the solar wind plasma flow. Thus, if the ion fraction measurements can be used to unravel some of the plasma parameters in the inner corona, they will provide a valuable contribution to solving the heating and acceleration problem of the solar wind. The ion charge states in the solar wind carry information on electron temperature, electron density and ion flow speed. They are also sensitive to the shape of the electron distribution function. Through carefully modeling the solar wind and calculating the ion fractions predicted for different solar wind conditions, constraints on the electron temperature and ion flow speeds can be placed if the electron density is measured using polarization brightness measurements.

  13. Interpretation of Solar Wind Composition Measurements from Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Ion charge states measured in situ in interplanetary space carry information on the properties of the solar wind plasma in the inner corona. This information is, however, not easy to extract from the in situ observations. The goal of the proposal was to determine solar wind models and coronal observations that are necessary tools for the interpretation of charge state observations. It has been shown that the interpretation of the in situ ion fractions are heavily dependent on the assumptions about conditions in the inner corona.

  14. STS-41 Ulysses: Ulysses - The Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Footage shows animation of the planned activities of the Ulysses mission. These activities range from Ulysses' deployment from the spacecraft to the orbits around the red giant. The Ulysses spacecraft mission is to explore the polar regions of the Sun.

  15. Study of the 3D geometry of tangential discontinuities based on simultaneous STEREO and Ulysses measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facsko, Gabor; Reshetnyk, Volodymyr; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Opitz, Andrea; Szabo, Adam; McComas, David

    Tangential discontinuties (TDs) are usually considered as thin planar current sheets frozen in the solar wind flow. Previous studies based on the magnetic field measurements onboard of ACE, Wind, and STEREO A, and B proved that this hypotesis is not valid. The curvature of the TDs were determined in several cases. After applying minimum variance and the cross product methods for Ulysses, ACE and STEREO A and B magnetometer measurements, numerous TDs are identified in 2008 and 2009. The time shift of the TD observations is determinated by correlation analysis of the solar wind speed and the magnetic field variations. The 3D topology of the TD is then determinated in some special cases when the four spacecraft are on the same side of the Sun. After fitting a simple model, the location of the TD formation region can be outlined.

  16. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. II. Fluctuations in the Dust Flow from the Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strub, Peter; Krüger, Harald; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-10-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft provided the first opportunity to identify and study interstellar dust (ISD) in situ in the solar system between 1992 and 2007. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the ISD component in the entire Ulysses dust data set. We analyzed several parameters of the ISD flow in a time-resolved fashion: flux, flow direction, mass index, and flow width. The general picture is in agreement with a time-dependent focusing/defocusing of the charged dust particles due to long-term variations of the solar magnetic field throughout a solar magnetic cycle of 22 years. In addition, we confirm a shift in dust direction of 50° ± 7° in 2005, along with a steep, size-dependent increase in flux by a factor of 4 within 8 months. To date, this is difficult to interpret and has to be examined in more detail by new dynamical simulations. This work is part of a series of three papers. This paper concentrates on the time-dependent flux and direction of the ISD. In a companion paper we analyze the overall mass distribution of the ISD measured by Ulysses, and a third paper discusses the results of modeling the flow of the ISD as seen by Ulysses.

  17. Ulysses: UVCS Coordinated Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Corti, G.; Simnett, G.; Noci, G.; Romoli, M.; Kohl, J.; Goldstein, B.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from coordinated observations in which instruments on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Ulysses were used to measure the density and flow speed of plasma at the Sun and to again measure the same properties of essentially the same plasma in the solar wind. Plasma was sampled by Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) at 3.5 and 4.5 solar radii and by Ulysses/SWOOPS at 5 AU. Data were acquired during a nearly 2 week period in May-June 1997 at a latitude of 9-10 degrees north of the equator, on the east limb and, hence, in the streamer belt and the source location of slow wind. Density and outflow speed are compared, in order to check for preservation of the near Sun characteristics in the interplanetary medium. By chance, Ulysses was at the very northern edge of the visible streamer belt. Nevertheless, no evidence of fast wind, or mixing with fast wind coming from the northern polar coronal hole, was evident at Ulysses. The morphology of the streamer belt was similar at the beginning and end of the observation period, but was markedly different during the middle of the period. A corresponding change in density (but not flow speed) was noted at Ulysses.

  18. Heavy Cosmic Ray Measurement Aboard Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Krause, J.; Fischer, E.; Enge, W.

    1985-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 plastic track detectors was exposed to cosmic radiation during the 10 days mission aboard Spacelab-1. A part of the stack was rotated one revolution within 7 days. The impact time of most of the particles was correlated with the orbit position of the shuttle and thus with geomagnetic field parameters. The analysis of heavy particles with charge Z greater than or equal to 6 in the energy range 50-150 MeV per nucleon with special emphasis on geomagnetically forbidden particles is reported.

  19. Composition Of The Inner Source Measured With The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer On Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.; Geiss, J.

    2010-03-25

    To explain the unexpected discovery of C{sup +}, the existence of an inner source of pickup ions close to the Sun was proposed. We report on detailed analyses of the composition and the radial and latitudinal variations of inner source pickup ions measured with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on Ulysses from 1991 to 1998, approaching and during solar minimum. We find that the C{sup +} intensity drops off with radial distance R as R{sup -1.53}, peaks at mid latitudes and drops to its lowest value in the ecliptic. In addition to C{sup +}, N{sup +}, O{sup +}, Ne{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, S{sup +}, K{sup +}, CH{sup +}, NH{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, MgH{sup +}, HCN{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sup +} and many other heavy ions and molecular ions are observed. Possible causes for the unexpected latitudinal variations and the neutral source(s) producing the inner source pickup ions are discussed.

  20. Skindeep Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Ariela

    2008-01-01

    This essay is about Joyce as an epidermist and Joyce as a chronicler and cataloguer of the "skindeep" surfaces of Dublin in Ulysses. The book is crowded with skins: tanned skins, blushing skins, skins enhanced by makeup and creams, skins marked by race or religion, skins legible and visible, skins imagined and inaccessible and associated with both authenticity and disguise. Skin in Joyce becomes, in Steven Connor's terms, in The Book of Skin, "a place of minglings; a mingling of places," a space where medical, cultural, and aesthetic meanings jostle and intersect and are inscribed and projected on the surface that both expresses and conceals the subject. A skin-deep analysis of Ulysses can reveal to us the entanglement of surface and depth that characterizes Joyce's novel. PMID:20836270

  1. Pickup Protons: Comparisons using the Three-Dimensional MHD HHMS-PI model and Ulysses SWICS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Detman, Thomas; Gloecker, George; Gloeckler, Christine; Dryer, Murray; Sun, Wei; Intriligator, James; Deehr, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We report the first comparisons of pickup proton simulation results with in situ measurements of pickup protons obtained by the SWICS instrument on Ulysses. Simulations were run using the three dimensional (3D) time-dependent Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System with Pickup Protons (HHMS-PI). HHMS-PI is an MHD solar wind model, expanded to include the basic physics of pickup protons from neutral hydrogen that drifts into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium. We use the same model and input data developed by Detman et al. (2011) to now investigate the pickup protons. The simulated interval of 82 days in 2003 2004, includes both quiet solar wind (SW) and also the October November 2003 solar events (the Halloween 2003 solar storms). The HHMS-PI pickup proton simulations generally agree with the SWICS measurements and the HHMS-PI simulated solar wind generally agrees with SWOOPS (also on Ulysses) measurements. Many specific features in the observations are well represented by the model. We simulated twenty specific solar events associated with the Halloween 2003 storm. We give the specific values of the solar input parameters for the HHMS-PI simulations that provide the best combined agreement in the times of arrival of the solar-generated shocks at both ACE and Ulysses. We show graphical comparisons of simulated and observed parameters, and we give quantitative measures of the agreement of simulated with observed parameters. We suggest that some of the variations in the pickup proton density during the Halloween 2003 solar events may be attributed to depletion of the inflowing local interstellar medium (LISM) neutral hydrogen (H) caused by its increased conversion to pickup protons in the immediately preceding shock.

  2. Self-similar evolution of interplanetary magnetic clouds and Ulysses measurements of the polytropic index inside the cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Berdichevsky, D.

    1997-01-01

    A self similar model for the expanding flux rope is developed for a magnetohydrodynamic model of interplanetary magnetic clouds. It is suggested that the dependence of the maximum magnetic field on the distance from the sun and the polytropic index gamma has the form B = r exp (-1/gamma), and that the ratio of the electron temperature to the proton temperature increases with distance from the sun. It is deduced that ion acoustic waves should be observed in the cloud. Both predictions were confirmed by Ulysses observations of a 1993 magnetic cloud. Measurements of gamma inside the cloud demonstrate sensitivity to the internal topology of the magnetic field in the cloud.

  3. The local interstellar medium based on ISN He observations with Ulysses and IBEX and future IMAP measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzowski, M.; Swaczyna, P.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokol, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galli, A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    Direct sampling is an efficient and effective method for studying the local neutral interstellar matter. With first measurements performed in the 1990s by GAS experiment onboard Ulysses, followed by IBEX observations since 2009, we have now a ~20 year long coverage. These observations provide a unique sample of interstellar matter from a spatial region with the dimensions close to the mean free path for atom-ion and atom-atom collisions in the local interstellar medium. Recent analyses of available GAS and IBEX data have resulted in a consolidation of the flow velocity vector and gas temperature of ISN He ahead of the heliosphere. The present GAS and IBEX velocity vectors are in agreement with the determination based on the first two Ulysses ISN observation seasons, but the temperature is markedly higher, by at least 1000 K, than the original determination. In addition, IBEX observations revealed the existence of an additional population of neutral He, dubbed the Warm Breeze, which is likely the secondary population of He produced in the outer heliosheath. We will briefly present the analysis of GAS observations from all three Ulysses orbits and focus on a detailed analysis of IBEX observations from the first six ISN He observation seasons. The velocity vector and temperature obtained from individual IBEX observation seasons vary around the global best-fit values, which is most likely due to statistical fluctuations in the data. An important aspect of the ISN gas studies is the Warm Breeze, which partly overlaps with the ISN population on the sky. Therefore it must be studied in parallel with the ISN gas. Observations of ISN He could provide insight into various hypothetical departures of ISN He from the ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, but a significant portion of the sky most interesting in this respect is blocked by the local magnetospheric signal, which will not interfere with the observations planned for the IMAP mission.

  4. Ulysses Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 18 July 2002) It is helpful to look at the context for this THEMIS image, which covers a large area over the summit of Ulysses Patera. Ulysses Patera is one of the many volcanoes that make up the giant Tharsis volcanic province, although Ulysses itself is fairly small in comparison to the other volcanoes in this area. In the context image, there are 3 circular features near the top of the volcano. The large, central feature is called a 'caldera', and is the result of volcanic activity at Ulysses. The other two circular features are impact craters. The THEMIS image primarily spans across the central caldera, but also covers a portion of the northernmost impact crater. We know that the large central caldera must have formed earlier than the two craters, because its circular form has been cut by the smaller crater rims. In the THEMIS image, there are stair-stepping plateaus in the northern portion of the image. These are part of the rim of the northern crater, and are caused by collapse or subsidence after the impact event. Just to the south of this crater, 'rayed' patterns can be seen on part of the caldera floor. The rayed pattern is most likely due to a landslide of material down the crater rim slope. Another possibility is that the impact that formed the northern crater caused material to be ejected radially, and then parts of the ejecta have either been buried or eroded away. Other signs of mass movement events in this image are dark streaks, caused by dust avalanches, visible in the caldera's northern wall. In the central portion of the image, there are two lobe-shaped features-one overlaps the other-that appear to have flowed westward. It is likely that these features are ejecta lobes, because they are located adjacent to the southeastern crater (see context image). The fluidized appearance of these ejecta lobes is probably due to a significant amount of ice or water being present in the soil at the time

  5. Survey of caveats in low-energy particle measurements: Ulysses/HI-SCALE and ACE/EPAM Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marhavilas, P. K.; Malandraki, O. E.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.

    2015-11-01

    "Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra, Composition, and Anisotropy at Low Energies" (HI-SCALE) onboard the ULYSSES spacecraft, and "Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor" (EPAM) onboard the ACE spacecraft, are very similar instruments and were designed to make measurements of ions and electrons over a broad range of energy and intensity. The ions (Ei≥50 keV) and electrons (Ee≥30 keV) are detected by five separate solid-state detector telescopes, oriented to provide essentially complete pitch-angle coverage from the spinning spacecraft. In this work, through detailed data-analysis (i) we perform a comprehensive quality assessment on, and (ii) depict a detailed survey of day-of-year (DOYs) with existing contamination in the high-resolution low-energy particle measurements recorded by the HI-SCALE and EPAM instruments, throughout the years 1991-2009 (i.e. during the total Ulysses mission lifetime) and 1997-2011, respectively. Two major types of contamination were revealed in our analysis: (i) "solar X-ray contamination" due to saturation (by solar photons) in two (of the four) detector sectors, during the telescope's direct exposure to the solar disk, and (ii) "cross-talk contamination" due to electrons being recorded as ions and vice versa. The results presented in this work will prove to be valuable to future users of these unique data sets and to designers of similar future instruments, supported by SEP validation and propagation models.

  6. Electron Pitch-Angle Distribution in Pressure Balance Structures Measured by Ulysses/SWOOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Sakurai, Takashi; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in the high-latitude solar wind near solar minimum. From previous studies, PBSs are believed to be remnants of coronal plumes. Yamauchi et al [2002] investigated the magnetic structures of the PBSs, applying a minimum variance analysis to Ulysses/Magnetometer data. They found that PBSs contain structures like current sheets or plasmoids, and suggested that PBSs are associated with network activity such as magnetic reconnection in the photosphere at the base of polar plumes. We have investigated energetic electron data from Ulysses/SWOOPS to see whether bi-directional electron flow exists and we have found evidence supporting the earlier conclusions. We find that 45 ot of 53 PBSs show local bi-directional or isotopic electron flux or flux associated with current-sheet structure. Only five events show the pitch-angle distribution expected for Alfvenic fluctuations. We conclude that PBSs do contain magnetic structures such as current sheets or plasmoids that are expected as a result of network activity at the base of polar plumes.

  7. Ulysses-UVCS Coordinated Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Poletto, G.; Simnett, G. M.; Corti, G.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from coordinated observations in which instruments on SOHO and Ulysses were used to measure the density and flow speed of plasma at the Sun and to again measure the same properties of essentially the same plasma in the solar wind. Plasma was sampled by Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) at 3.5 and 4.5 solar radii and by Ulysses at 5 AU. Data were acquired during a nearly 2 week period in May-June 1997 at a latitude of 9-10 degrees north of the equator, on the east limb and, hence, in the streamer belt region and the source location of slow wind. Density and outflow plasma speed are compared, in order to check for preservation of the near Sun characteristics in the interplanetary medium. By chance, Ulysses was at the very northern edge of the visible streamer belt. Nevertheless, no evidence of fast wind, or mixing with fast wind coming from the northern polar coronal hole was evident at Ulysses. The morphology of the streamer belt was the same at the beginning and end of the observation period, but changed markedly during the middle of the period. A corresponding change in density (but not flow speed) was noted at Ulysses.

  8. Sulfur abundances in the solar wind measured by SWICS on Ulysses. [Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, C. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Galvin, A. B.; Ipavich, F. M.; Geiss, J.; Von Steiger, R.; Ogilvie, K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the nine experiments on Ulysses (launched October, 1990), the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer, utilizes an energy per charge deflection system along with time of flight technology to uniquely determine the mass and mass per charge of solar wind particles. Thus the composition of various solar wind types can be analyzed. Using the SWICS data accumulated during the in-ecliptic phase of the mission, we have determined the sulfur abundance, relative to silicon, in two different types of solar wind: transient and coronal hole associated flows. Sulfur is of extreme interest because it is one of the few elements that lies in the transitional region of the FIP-dependent relative abundance enrichment function, observed for solar energetic particles and some types of solar wind flows.

  9. Past and Future SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven; Poletto, G.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of SOHO, it again became possible to carry out quadrature observations. In comparison with earlier observations, the new capabilities of coronal spectroscopy with UVCS and in situ ionization state and composition with Ulysses/SWICS enabled new types of studies. Results from two studies serve as examples: (i) The acceleration profile of wind from small coronal holes. (ii) A high-coronal reconnecting current sheet as the source of high ionization state Fe in a CME at Ulysses. Generally quadrature observations last only for a few days, when Ulysses is within ca. 5 degrees of the limb. This means luck is required for the phenomenon of interest to lie along the radial direction to Ulysses. However, when Ulysses is at high southern latitude in winter 2007 and high northern latitude in winter 2008, there will be unusually favorable configurations for quadrature observations with SOHO and corresponding bracketing limb observations from STEREO A/B. Specifically, Ulysses will be within 5 degrees of the limb from December 2006 to May 2007 and within 10 degrees of the limb from December 2007 to May 2008. These long-lasting quadratures and bracketing STEREO A/B observations overcome the limitations inherent in the short observation intervals of typical quadratures. Furthermore, ionization and charge state measurements like those on Ulysses will also be made on STEREO and these will be essential for identification of CME ejecta - one of the prime objectives for STEREO.

  10. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-dust Mass Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Strub, Peter; Grün, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-10-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium (ISM) surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses interstellar dust data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of a population of “big” interstellar grains (up to 10-13 kg). The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of interstellar dust in the very local ISM. In this paper we analyze the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses interstellar dust measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of interstellar dust. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses interstellar dust data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modeling of the interstellar dust flow applied to Ulysses. We use the latest values for the interstellar hydrogen and helium densities, the interstellar helium flow speed of {v}{ISM∞ }=23.2 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the ratio of radiation pressure to gravity, β, calculated for astronomical silicates. We find a gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud of {R}{{g}/{{d}}}={193}-57+85, and a dust density of (2.1 ± 0.6) × 10-24 kg m-3. For a higher inflow speed of 26 {km} {{{s}}}-1, the gas-to-dust mass ratio is 20% higher, and, accordingly, the dust density is lower by the same amount. The gas-to-dust mass ratio derived from our new analysis is compatible with the value most recently determined from astronomical observations. We confirm earlier results that the very local ISM contains “big” (i.e., ≈1 μm sized) interstellar grains. We find a dust density in the local ISM that is a

  11. Measurement of low energy cosmic rays aboard Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Oschlies, K.; Enge, W.

    1985-01-01

    In December 1983 the first Spacelab mission was launched for a duration of 10 days. Aboard was the Kiel experiment Isotopic Stack designed for measurement of heavy cosmic ray nuclei with nuclear charge equal to or greater than 3 and energies up to some 100MeV/nuc. One part of the stack was rotated in well defined steps registered by an angle encoder to receive information on impact times of the nuclei. Using this time resolving system geomagnetically forbidden particles can be detected. The chemical composition and energy spectra of mainly CNO particles are examined using a rotated 300 microns m thick CR-39 foil beneath a fixed 100 microns m thick Kodak-Cellulose Nitrate foil. About 600 sq cm have been scanned yielding nearly 100 nuclear tracks within an energy range of approximately 8 to 30 MeV/nuc. The calibration is done by means of a postflight irradiation with 410 MeV/nuc Fe-56 at Berkeley Laboratory, California, USA. Relative abundances and energy spectra are presented.

  12. Ulysses: A Solar Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is a film to film transfer of a Media Four production by Charles Finance about the Ulysses Mission to the Sun. The prelaunch production uses graphics, animation, and live footage to describe how Ulysses will use the gravity of Jupiter to lift it out of the ecliptic plane into polar orbit around the Sun.

  13. Properties of the solar wind electrons between 1.1 and 3.3 AU from Ulysses thermal noise measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimovic, M.; Hoang, S.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    1996-07-20

    Using the distribution function f(v) of the solar wind electrons made of two Maxwellians: a core (density n{sub c}, temperature T{sub c}) and a halo (density n{sub h}, temperature T{sub h}), we determine the quasi-thermal noise (QTN) induced by the ambient electrons on the long wire dipole antenna connected to the radio receiver on the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) Experiment. The QTN spectroscopy yields the total electron density n{sub e}, the core temperature T{sub c}, and the core and halo kinetic pressures n{sub c}T{sub c} and n{sub h}T{sub h}. We present the results of n{sub e} and T{sub c} measured between 1.1 and 3.3 AU in the ecliptic plane, from November 1990 to June 1991. We investigate the variation of T{sub c} with the heliocentric distance. We also study this radial gradient as a function of three classes of n{sub e} normalized to 1 AU: Low, intermediate and high densities. The T{sub c} gradient is found to increase with increasing plasma density.

  14. Solar Wind Characteristics from SOHO-Sun-Ulysses Quadrature Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, Giannina; Suess, Steve T.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, we have been running SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory)-Sun-Ulysses quadrature campaigns, aimed at comparing the plasma properties at coronal altitudes with plasma properties at interplanetary distances. Coronal plasma has been observed by SOHO experiments: mainly, we used LASCO (Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment) data to understand the overall coronal configuration at the time of quadratures and analyzed SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation), CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer) and UVCS (Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer) data to derive its physical characteristics. At interplanetary distances, SWICS (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and SWOOPS (Solar Wind Observation over the Poles of the Sun) aboard Ulysses provided us with interplanetary plasma data. Here we report on results from some of the campaigns. We notice that, depending on the geometry of the quadrature, i.e. on whether the radial to Ulysses traverses the corona at high or low latitudes, we are able to study different kinds of solar wind. In particular, a comparison between low-latitude and high-latitude wind, allowed us to provide evidence for differences in the acceleration of polar, fast plasma and equatorial, slow plasma: the latter occurring at higher levels and through a more extended region than fast wind. These properties are shared by both the proton and heavy ions outflows. Quadrature observations may provide useful information also on coronal vs. in situ elemental composition. To this end, we analyzed spectra taken in the corona, at altitudes ranging between approx. 1.02 and 2.2 solar radii, and derived the abundances of a number of ions, including oxygen and iron. Values of the O/Fe ratio, at coronal levels, have been compared with measurements of this ratio made by SWICS at interplanetary distances. Our results are compared with previous findings and predictions from modeling efforts.

  15. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: internal measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Passive radiation dosimeters were exposed aboard the Mir Orbital Station over a substantial portion of the solar cycle in order to measure the change in dose and dose equivalent rates as a function of time. During solar minimum, simultaneous measurements of the radiation environment throughout the habitable volume of the Mir were made using passive dosimeters in order to investigate the effect of localized shielding on dose and dose equivalent. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors to measure absorbed dose and CR-39 PNTDs to measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > or = 5 keV/micrometers. Results from the two detector types were then combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Contrary to expectations, both dose and dose equivalent rates measured during May-October 1991 near solar maximum were higher than similar measurements carried out in 1996-1997 during solar minimum. The elevated dose and dose equivalent rates measured in 1991 were probably due to a combination of intense solar activity, including a large solar particle event on 9 June 1991, and the temporary trapped radiation belt created in the slot region by the solar particle event and ensuing magnetic storm of 24 March 1991. During solar minimum, mean dose and dose equivalent rates were found to vary by factors of 1.55 and 1.37, respectively, between different locations through the interior of Mir. More heavily shielded locations tended to yield lower total dose and dose equivalent rates, but higher average quality factor than did more lightly shielding locations. However, other factors such as changes in the immediate shielding environment surrounding a given detector location, changes in the orientation of the Mir relative to its velocity vector, and changes in the altitude of the station also contributed to the variation. Proton and neutron-induced target

  16. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: internal measurements.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V; Frank, A L

    2002-10-01

    Passive radiation dosimeters were exposed aboard the Mir Orbital Station over a substantial portion of the solar cycle in order to measure the change in dose and dose equivalent rates as a function of time. During solar minimum, simultaneous measurements of the radiation environment throughout the habitable volume of the Mir were made using passive dosimeters in order to investigate the effect of localized shielding on dose and dose equivalent. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors to measure absorbed dose and CR-39 PNTDs to measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > or = 5 keV/micrometers. Results from the two detector types were then combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Contrary to expectations, both dose and dose equivalent rates measured during May-October 1991 near solar maximum were higher than similar measurements carried out in 1996-1997 during solar minimum. The elevated dose and dose equivalent rates measured in 1991 were probably due to a combination of intense solar activity, including a large solar particle event on 9 June 1991, and the temporary trapped radiation belt created in the slot region by the solar particle event and ensuing magnetic storm of 24 March 1991. During solar minimum, mean dose and dose equivalent rates were found to vary by factors of 1.55 and 1.37, respectively, between different locations through the interior of Mir. More heavily shielded locations tended to yield lower total dose and dose equivalent rates, but higher average quality factor than did more lightly shielding locations. However, other factors such as changes in the immediate shielding environment surrounding a given detector location, changes in the orientation of the Mir relative to its velocity vector, and changes in the altitude of the station also contributed to the variation. Proton and neutron-induced target

  17. Ulysses and IBEX Constraints on the Interstellar Neutral Helium Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. E.; Müller, H.-R.

    2015-09-01

    We relax the usual assumption of Maxwellian velocity distributions in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the analysis of neutral He particle data from Ulysses and the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). For Ulysses, the possibility that a narrow component from heavy neutrals is contaminating the He signal is considered, which could potentially explain the lower ISM temperature measured by Ulysses compared to IBEX. The expected heavy element contribution is about an order of magnitude too small to resolve that discrepancy. For IBEX, we find that modest asymmetries in the ISM velocity distribution can potentially improve the quality of fit to the first two years of data, and perhaps improve agreement with the Ulysses measurements.

  18. Variation of fractional electron density fluctuations inside 40 R(sub 0) observed by Ulysses ranging measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard; Armstrong, J. W.; Bird, M. K.; Patzold, M.

    1995-01-01

    The first measurements of fractional electron density fluctuations delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e), where delta-n(sub e) is rms electron density fluctuation and n(sub e) is the mean electron density, have been carried out inside 40 R(sub 0) using 1991 Ulysses dual-frequency S- and X-band (13 and 3.6 cm) ranging (time delay) measurements. In the frequency band of approximately 6 x 10(exp -5) - 8 x 10(exp -4) Hz (periods of 20 min to 5 hr), delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e) varies from a high near 20% in the slow wind close to the neutral line to a low of 1% in the fast wind far from the neutral line. For spatial wavenumber K approximately = 1.4 x 10(exp -6)/km (period of 5 hr at 250 km/s), delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e) is essentially independent of heliocentric distance over 0.03-1.0 AU in the slow wind; it is a factor of 30 lower in the fast wind than in the slow wind inside 0.1 AU, but exhibits dramatic growth with heliocentric distance inside 0.3 AU. This latter result reinforces current views of the evolution of MHD turbulence and the association of Alfven waves with high speed streams based on in situ fields and particles measurements beyond 0.3 AU. That regions of enhanced density fluctuations near or above the neutral line coincide with regions of enhanced density confirms previous conclusions that they are the interplanetary manifestation of the heliospheric current sheet and extensions of coronal streamers. While the regions of enhanced density fluctuations lie within those of enhanced density, they have boundaries that are distinctly more abrupt, suggesting the separation of plasma of different nature and origin.

  19. Ulysses Education and Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angrum, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ulysses is a joint NASA/ESA mission that is exporing a three-dimensional structure of the heliosphere via an orbit over the poles of the Sun. Since its inception, Ulysses, both in NASA and ESA, has had a public and science outreach program; it is only within the last three years that the project has begun to expand its outreach activities to include education.

  20. The Ulysses dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Kissel, J.; Maas, D.; McDonnell, A. M.; Morfill, G.; Schwehm, G.; Zook, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses dust experiment is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10(exp -16) g and 10(exp -6) g in interplanetary space, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of heliocentric distance and ecliptic latitude. Of special interest is the question of what portion is provided by comets, asteroids and interstellar particles. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction, and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multicoincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 10(exp 6) times higher than that of previous in-situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 3.8 kg, consumes 2.2 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 8 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On 27 Oct. 1990 the instrument was switched on. The instrument was configured to flight conditions, and science data collection started immediately. At least 44 dust impacts had been recorded by 13 Jan. 1991. Flux values are given covering the heliocentric distance range from 1.04 to 1.7 AU.

  1. Revisiting Ulysses Observations of Interstellar Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Witte, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive reanalysis of Ulysses observations of interstellar He atoms flowing through the solar system, the goal being to reassess the interstellar He flow vector and to search for evidence of variability in this vector. We find no evidence that the He beam seen by Ulysses changes at all from 1994-2007. The direction of flow changes by no more than ~0.°3 and the speed by no more than ~0.3 km s-1. A global fit to all acceptable He beam maps from 1994-2007 yields the following He flow parameters: V ISM = 26.08 ± 0.21 km s-1, λ = 75.54 ± 0.°19, β = -5.44 ± 0.°24, and T = 7260 ± 270 K where λ and β are the ecliptic longitude and latitude direction in J2000 coordinates. The flow vector is consistent with the original analysis of the Ulysses team, but our temperature is significantly higher. The higher temperature somewhat mitigates a discrepancy that exists in the He flow parameters measured by Ulysses and the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, but does not resolve it entirely. Using a novel technique to infer photoionization loss rates directly from Ulysses data, we estimate a density of n He = 0.0196 ± 0.0033 cm-3 in the interstellar medium.

  2. Discovery of Jovian dust streams and interstellar grains by the ULYSSES spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, E.; Zook, H. A.; Baguhl, M.; Balogh, A.; Bame, S. J.; Fechtig, H.; Forsyth, R.; Hanner, M. S.; Horanyi, M.; Kissel, J.; Lindblad, B.-A.; Linkert, D.; Linkert, G.; Mann, I.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Phillips, J. L.; Polanskey, C.; Schwehm, G.; Siddique, N.; Staubach, P.; Svestka, J.; Taylor, A.

    1993-04-01

    Within 1 AU from Jupiter, the dust detector aboard the Ulysses spacecraft during the flyby on February 8, 1992 recorded periodic bursts of submicron dust particles with durations ranging from several hours to two days and occurring at about monthly intervals. These particles arrived at Ulysses in collimate streams radiating from close to the line-of-sight direction to Jupiter, suggesting a Jovian origin for the periodic bursts. Ulysses also detected a flux of micron-sized dust particles moving in high-velocity retrograde orbits. These grains are identified here as being of interstellar origin.

  3. Ulysses/BATSE observations of cosmic gamma ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, K.; Boer, M.; Sommer, M.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W.; Wilson, R.; Kouveliotou, C.; Cline, T.

    1992-01-01

    The gamma ray burst detector aboard the ESA-NASA Ulysses spacecraft, in operation since Nov. 1990, has detected numerous gamma bursts in conjunction with the BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Observatory. Initial results are presented on burst locations for three events (21 April, 2 May, and 3 May, 1991) obtained by arrival time analysis, and they are compared with the BATSE locations. The arrival time analysis annuli have typical widths of 5'. The preliminary analysis indicates that both experiments are likely to have unresolved systematic errors, but that further work will improve the location accuracy substantially.

  4. Ulysses mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses mission is described in terms of in-Shuttle operations, initial in-orbit operations, routine operations, operational organization, and data gathering and production. The configuration of the Ulysses payload is illustrated, and the flight to orbit is described including a three-hour on-orbit checkout. The first contact was reported at the Deep Space Network station followed by an adjustment of the spacecraft solar-aspect angle and the acquisition of ranging and Doppler data. In-orbit operations include the earth acquisition maneuver, a trajectory correction maneuver, and a payload switch. Continuous data gathering is discussed with reference to the Jupiter encounter and the first and second oppositions and conjunctions. The data-gathering components comprise ground stations, a data-processing computer, and a data-records system. Data production is performed in an off-line mode that does not interfere with the real-time operations.

  5. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: external measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results from the first measurements made on the exterior of a LEO spacecraft of mean dose equivalent rate and average quality factor as functions of shielding depth for shielding less than 1 g/cm2 Al equivalent. Two sets of measurements were made on the outside of the Mir Orbital Station; one near solar maximum in June 1991 and one near solar minimum in 1997. Absorbed dose was measured using stacks of TLDs. LET spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > o r= 5keV/micrometers was measured using stacks of CR-39 PNTDs. Results from the TLD and PNTD measurements at a given shielding depth were combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Measurements made near solar maximum tend to be greater than those made during solar minimum. Both mean dose rate and mean dose equivalent rate decrease by nearly four orders of magnitude within the first g/cm2 shielding illustrating the attenuation of both trapped electrons and low-energy trapped protons. In order to overcome problems with detector saturation after standard chemical processing, measurement of LET spectrum in the least shielded CR-39 PNTD layer (0.005 g/cm2 Al) was carried out using an atomic force microscope. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: external measurements.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V; Frank, A L

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports results from the first measurements made on the exterior of a LEO spacecraft of mean dose equivalent rate and average quality factor as functions of shielding depth for shielding less than 1 g/cm2 Al equivalent. Two sets of measurements were made on the outside of the Mir Orbital Station; one near solar maximum in June 1991 and one near solar minimum in 1997. Absorbed dose was measured using stacks of TLDs. LET spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > o r= 5keV/micrometers was measured using stacks of CR-39 PNTDs. Results from the TLD and PNTD measurements at a given shielding depth were combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Measurements made near solar maximum tend to be greater than those made during solar minimum. Both mean dose rate and mean dose equivalent rate decrease by nearly four orders of magnitude within the first g/cm2 shielding illustrating the attenuation of both trapped electrons and low-energy trapped protons. In order to overcome problems with detector saturation after standard chemical processing, measurement of LET spectrum in the least shielded CR-39 PNTD layer (0.005 g/cm2 Al) was carried out using an atomic force microscope. PMID:12440446

  7. A System for Measurement of Convection Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogatyrev, Gennady P.; Gorbunov, Aleksei V; Putin, Gennady F.; Ivanov, Alexander I.; Nikitin, Sergei A.; Polezhaev, Vadim I.

    1996-01-01

    A simple device for direct measurement of buoyancy driven fluid flows in a low-gravity environment is proposed. A system connecting spacecraft accelerometers data and results of thermal convection in enclosure measurements and numerical simulations is developed. This system will permit also to evaluate the low frequency microacceleration component. The goal of the paper is to present objectives and current results of ground-based experimental and numerical modeling of this convection detector.

  8. Charged particle LET-spectra measurements aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csige, I.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. R.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles was measured in the 5 to 250 keV/micron (water) interval with CR-39 and in the 500 to 1500 keV/micron (water) interval with polycarbonate plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) under different shielding depths in the P0006 experiment. The optimal processing conditions were determined for both PNTDs in relation to the relatively high track densities due to the long term exposure in space. The total track density was measured over the selected samples, and tracks in coincidence on the facing surfaces of two detector sheets were selected for measuring at the same position on each sheet. The short range (SR) and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) components were measured separately with CR-39 PNTDs and the integral dose and dose rate spectra of charged particles were also determined. The high LET portion of the LET spectra was measured with polycarbonate PNTDs with high statistical accuracy. This is a unique result of this exposure due to the low flux of these types of particles for typical spaceflight durations. The directional dependence of the charged particles at the position of the P0006 experiment was also studied by four small side stacks which surrounded the main stack and by analyzing the dip angle and polar angle distributions of the measured SR and GCR particle tracks in the main stack.

  9. Charged particle LET-spectra measurements aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csige, I.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. R.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, John W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles was measured in the 5 to 250 keV/micron (water) interval with CR-39 and in the 250 to 1000 keV/micron (water) interval with polycarbonate plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) under different shielding depths in the P0006 experiment. The optimal processing conditions were determined for both PNTDs in relation to the relatively high track densities due to the long term exposure in space. The total track density was measured over the selected samples, and tracks in coincidence on the facing surfaces of two detector sheets were selected for measuring at the same position on each sheet. The Short Range (SR) and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) components were measured separately. The integral dose and dose rate spectra of charged particles are also given. The high LET portion of the LET spectra was measured with high statistical accuracy. This is a unique result of this experiment due to the low flux of this type of particle under typical shielding conditions.

  10. Inefficiency of sanitation measures aboard commercial aircraft: environmental pollution and disease.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, R

    1977-07-01

    Recent investigations at Tokyo International Airport have proven that environmental pollution resulting from the inefficient disposal of human excretion aboard aircraft is an important problem from the standpoint of quarantine. It is, therefore, recommended that the worldwide aviation industry take immediate measures to improve conditions and eliminate this problem, which has thus far been ignored by aircraft designers, airport administration, and CAB personnel. PMID:329830

  11. Measurement of OH, H2SO4, MSA, and HNO3 Aboard the P-3B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisele, F. L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the measurement of OH, H2SO4, MSA, and HNO3 aboard the P-3B aircraft under the following headings: 1) Performance Report; 2) Highlights of OH, H2SO4, and MSA Measurements Made Aboard the NASA P-3B During TRACE-P; 3) Development and characteristics of an airborne-based instrument used to measure nitric acid during the NASA TRACE-P field experiment.

  12. Spatial gradients of GCR protons in the inner heliosphere derived from Ulysses COSPIN/KET and PAMELA measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieseler, J.; Heber, B.

    2016-05-01

    Context. During the transition from solar cycle 23 to 24 from 2006 to 2009, the Sun was in an unusual solar minimum with very low activity over a long period. These exceptional conditions included a very low interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength and a high tilt angle, which both play an important role in the modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in the heliosphere. Thus, the radial and latitudinal gradients of GCRs are very much expected to depend not only on the solar magnetic epoch, but also on the overall modulation level. Aims: We determine the non-local radial and the latitudinal gradients of protons in the rigidity range from ~0.45 to 2 GV. Methods: This was accomplished by using data from the satellite-borne experiment Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) at Earth and the Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) onboard Ulysses on its highly inclined Keplerian orbit around the Sun with the aphelion at Jupiter's orbit. Results: In comparison to the previous A> 0 solar magnetic epoch, we find that the absolute value of the latitudinal gradient is lower at higher and higher at lower rigidities. This energy dependence is therefore a crucial test for models that describe the cosmic ray transport in the inner heliosphere.

  13. Energetic particle acceleration at corotating interaction regions: Ulysses results

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, M.I.; Marsden, R.G.; Sanderson, T.R.; Gosling, J.T.

    1997-07-01

    We present here statistical properties of energetic ions (tilde 1 MeV) accelerated by corotating interaction regions observed at the Ulysses spacecraft. We have correlated the tilde 1 MeV proton intensity measured near the trailing edges of the interaction regions with their compression ratio. We interpret our results in terms of the plasma conditions experienced at Ulysses and identify a likely source of the low energy seed particles accelerated at the interaction regions.

  14. Menstruation in Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates James Joyce's fascination with a wide variety of medical texts, sexual folklores, religious beliefs, and persistent superstitions about menstruation. That fascination finds its way into Ulysses, which draws upon a number of intertexts to inform a curiosity about the female body most strikingly articulated by Bloom, Molly, and Gerty MacDowell. These intertexts are not simply imported into the novel but are dismantled and interrogated, as Joyce exposes, rather than endorses, clichés of essential femininity. PMID:20836273

  15. Did Ulysses have porphyria?

    PubMed

    Pierach, Claus A

    2004-07-01

    Although the biosynthetic pathway to heme has been well elucidated and errors along that route have been identified and firmly connected to specific diseases, the porphyrias, slight but nonspecific abnormalities, are occasionally invoked as proof of porphyria or in support of other diagnoses. An errant patient with a conundrum of symptoms but without an explanation for them might have to take iatrogenic detours only to learn after what are at times ulyssean vagaries that the initial diagnosis of porphyria is in the end untenable. Thus the porphyrias are superb examples of the interface between laboratory and clinical medicine, in which the occurrence of the Ulysses syndrome can be curtailed through the careful ordering of tests and cogent interpretation of their results. PMID:15252401

  16. Multi-temperature analysis of hard X-ray spectra measured aboard the Prognoz 5 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J.; Jakimiec, J.; Valnicek, B.; Farnik, F.

    1983-01-01

    Following the method of multi-temperature analysis of hard X-ray spectra presented by B. Sylwester et al. (1981), in the present paper the authors analyse the hard X-ray radiation measured aboard the Prognoz 5 satellite by means of a Czechoslovak photometer. The analysis concerns the Feb. 11, 1977 flare event. Using the fluxes measured in 4 energy bands they have calculated the differential emission measure distributions for selected moments during the rise, maximum and decay phases of the flare development. The results of the analysis show that, in the case of the flare in question, the hard X-ray radiation from 6 to 60 keV could have been produced by purely thermal, multi-temperature plasma.

  17. Radiation measurements aboard nasa ER-2 high altitude aircraft with the liulin-4J portable spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchihori, Y.; Benton, E.; Moeller, J.; Bendrick, G.

    The risks to aircrew health posed by prolonged exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation at aircraft altitudes have recently received renewed attention. Civil and military aircraft currently on the drawing board are expected to operate at higher altitudes (>12 km) and fly longer ranges than do existing aircraft, thereby exposing their crews to higher levels of ionizing radiation. for longer periods of time. We are currently carrying out dosimetric measurements of the ionizing radiation environment at ˜20 km altitude using portable Si detectors aboard NASA's two ER-2 high altitude research aircraft. The instruments, Liulin-4J, have been extensively calibrated at several particle accelerators. With these instruments, we can measure not only absorbed dose, but also variation of the absorbed dose as a function of time. We report radiation dose measurements as function of time, altitude, and latitude for several ER-2 missions.

  18. First Results of Noy Measurements Made In Mozaic Aboard Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz-Thomas, A.; Paetz, H.-W.; Houben, N.; Petrick, W.; Heil, T.; Smit, H. G. J.; Kley, D.; Marenco, A.; Nedelec, P.

    The European MOZAIC Program comprises measurements of ozone and water va- por aboard five Airbus A340 aircraft operated by four European airlines. Since the beginning of the project in 1994, more than 130.000 hours of in flight data were col- lected. In the second phase of MOZAIC, a small, light-weight and fully automatic NOy instrument was developed at FZ-Jülich and certified by Lufthansa Technik. The NOy instrument, which is calibrated in-situ with zero air, NO and NO2, was installed aboard an aircraft of Lufthansa in Jan 2001 and is producing data since April 2001 (more than 200 successful flights so far). The instrument is exchanged and serviced at monthly intervals. The detection limit is 50 ppt at an integration time of 4s (principal time resolution 0.1 s). The NOy data obtained from flights between Europe, North America, Asia and Africa are discussed in terms of the correlation with the other trace gases (O3, H2O, and CO) which allow to identify the influence of stratospheric air and pollution plumes from the continental boundary layer. Recent aircraft emissions are detected as short spikes in the high resolution data.

  19. First Results of NOy Measurements Made in MOZAIC Aboard Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz-Thomas, A.; Paetz, H. W.; Houben, N.; Petrick, W.; Heil, T.; Smit, H. G.; Kley, D.; Marenco, A.; Nedelec, P.

    2001-12-01

    The European MOZAIC Program comprises measurements of ozone and water vapor aboard five Airbus A340 aircraft operated by four European airlines. Since the beginning of the project in 1994, more than 150.000 hours of in-flight data were collected. In the second phase of MOZAIC, a small, light-weight and fully automatic NOy instrument was developed at FZ-Jülich and certified by Lufthansa Technik. The NOy instrument, which is calibrated in-situ with zero air, NO and NO2, was installed aboard an aircraft of Lufthansa in Jan 2001 and is producing data since April 2001 (more than 100 successful flights so far). The instrument is exchanged and serviced at monthly intervals. The detection limit is 50 ppt at an integration time of 4s (principal time resolution 0.1 s). The NOy data obtained from flights between Europe, North America, Asia and Africa are discussed in conjunction with ozone and water vapor with respect to the influence of stratospheric air, pollution plumes from the continental boundary layer and aircraft emissions.

  20. Exploring the Possibility of O and Ne Contamination in Ulysses Observations of Interstellar Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Bzowski, Maciej; Sokół, Justyna M.; Möbius, Eberhard; Witte, Manfred; McComas, David J.

    2015-10-01

    We explore the possibility that interstellar O and Ne may be contributing to the particle signal from the GAS instrument on Ulysses, which is generally assumed to be entirely He. Motivating this study is the recognition that an interstellar temperature higher than any previously estimated from Ulysses data could potentially resolve a discrepancy between Ulysses He measurements and those from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Contamination by O and Ne could lead to Ulysses temperature measurements that are too low. We estimate the degree of O and Ne contamination necessary to increase the inferred Ulysses temperature to 8500 K, which would be consistent with both the Ulysses and IBEX data given the same interstellar flow speed. We find that producing the desired effect requires a heavy element contamination level of ∼9% of the total Ulysses/GAS signal. However, this degree of heavy element contribution is about an order of magnitude higher than expected based on our best estimates of detection efficiencies, ISM abundances, and heliospheric survival probabilities, making it unlikely that heavy element contamination is significantly affecting temperatures derived from Ulysses data.

  1. Gigas Meets Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 July 2003

    Roughly halfway between the great volcanoes of Olympus Mons and Pavonis Mons, the graben (troughs) of Ulysses Fossae intersect with the furrows of Gigas (gigantic) Sulci. A clear time sequence is evident: first came the formation of the sulci terrain (to the left), which then was fractured by graben radial to Olympus Mons, followed by flooding of lava. All but the deepest graben are filled by lava in the topographic low between the two volcanic rises.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 11.8, Longitude 234.3 East (125.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Automated system for measurement, collection and processing of hydrometeorological data aboard scientific research vessels of the GUGMS (SIGMA-s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borisenkov, Y. P.; Fedorov, O. M.

    1974-01-01

    A report is made on the automated system known as SIGMA-s for the measurement, collection, and processing of hydrometeorological data aboard scientific research vessels of the Hydrometeorological Service. The various components of the system and the interfacing between them are described, as well as the projects that the system is equipped to handle.

  3. Helium abundance variations in the solar wind: Observations from Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, B.L.; Gosling, J.T.; Mccomas, D.J.; Goldstein, B.E.

    1995-06-01

    The abundance of helium in the solar wind averages approximately 4% but has been observed to vary by more than two orders of magnitude from 0.1 to 30%. Physical processes responsible for this variability are still not clearly understood. Previous work has shown a correlation between low He abundance and coronal streamer plasma and between high He abundance and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The authors now have out-of-ecliptic data on helium in the solar wind from the plasma experiment aboard Ulysses. Tentative results show that the average high-latitude helium concentration is comparable to the in-ecliptic value for the present phase of the solar cycle, that excursions of the hour-averaged abundance very seldom fall outside the range 2.5 to 6.5%, and that there seems to be very little abundance enhancement associated with CMEs encountered at latitudes greater than 30 deg as opposed to the situation commonly encountered with in-ecliptic CMEs. In addition, preliminary observations of a single CME by both ISEE (in-ecliptic) and Ulysses (out-of-ecliptic) show a considerable He enhancement at ISEE with little or no perturbation of the average value at Ulysses` location. This paper will first present new results from the Ulysses mission up to the time of the meeting on the average abundance of helium in the solar wind as a function of spacecraft position, and will then focus on the out-of-ecliptic results including latitudinal abundance variations and observations of abundance enhancements (or lack thereof) in high-latitude CMEs.

  4. Low-Latitude Solar Wind During the Fall 1998 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Biesecker, D. A.; Esser, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Ko, Y.-K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOH0)-Ulysses quadratures occur when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses-included angle is 90 deg. These offer the opportunity to directly compare properties of plasma parcels, observed by SOHO [Dorningo et al.] in the low corona, with properties of the same parcels measured, in due time, in situ, by Ulysses [ Wenzel et al]. We refer the reader to Suess et al. for an extended discussion of SOHO-Ulysses quadrature geometry. Here it suffices to recall that there are two quadratures per year, as SOHO makes its one-year revolution around the Sun. This, because SOHO is at the L1 Lagrangian point, in essentially the same place as the Earth, while Ulysses is in a near-polar -5-year solar orbit with a perihelion of 1.34 AU and aphelion of 5.4 AU.

  5. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. III. Simulations and Data Unveil New Insights into Local Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Veerle J.; Strub, Peter; Krüger, Harald; von Steiger, Rudolf; Frisch, Priscilla

    2015-10-01

    Interstellar dust (ISD) in the solar system was detected in situ for the first time in 1993 by the Ulysses dust detector. The study of ISD is important for understanding its role in star and solar system formation. The goal of this paper is to understand the variability in the ISD observations from the Ulysses mission by using a Monte Carlo simulation of ISD trajectories, with the final aim to constrain the ISD particle properties from simulations and the data. The paper is part of a series of three: Strub et al. describe the variations of the ISD flow from the Ulysses data set, and Krüger et al. focus on its ISD mass distribution. We describe and interpret the simulations of the ISD flow at Ulysses orbit for a wide range of particle properties and discuss four open issues in ISD research: the existence of very big ISD particles, the lack of smaller ISD particles, the shift in dust flow direction in 2005, and particle properties. We conclude that the shift in the dust flow direction in 2005 can best be explained by Lorentz force in the inner heliosphere, but that an extra filtering mechanism is needed to fit the fluxes. A time-dependent filtering in the outer regions of the heliosphere is proposed for this. Also, the high charge-to-mass ratio values found for the heavier particles after 2003 indicate that these particles are lower in density than previously assumed. This method gives new insights into the ISD properties and paves the way toward getting a complete view on the ISD from the local interstellar cloud. We conclude that in combination with the data and simulations, also impact ionization experiments are necessary using low-density dust, in order to constrain the density of the particles.

  6. The Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring concepts and realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, Paul; Angold, Nigel

    1993-01-01

    Ulysses is a joint ESA-NASA mission, the primary purpose of the mission is to make scientific measurements of the Sun outside the plane of the ecliptic. The delay in launching Ulysses, due to the Challenger disaster, meant that the hardware on which the Spacecraft Control and Monitoring System (SCMS) resides was becoming obsolete, and it was decided to convert SCMS to run on a DEC/VAX machine under VMS. The paper will cover the spacecraft, the conversion, the converted SCMS, problems found, and the upgrades implemented for solutions. It will also discuss the future for and enhancements already made to the converted SCMS.

  7. Investigation of Solar Wind Source Regions by Using Ulysses/SWICS/SWOOPS Composition Data and a Potential Field Source Surface Model to map in situ Measurements back onto the Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleikis, T.; Kruse, M. A., II; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; McComas, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.

    2014-12-01

    The fast solar wind most likely originates from coronal holes, primarily the polar coronal holes, as evidently shown by Ulysses/SWICS observations of the solar wind at high heliographic latitudes. The source of the slow solar wind, on the other hand, remains elusive and is still under debate. In order to analyze the transition between different solar wind regimes, we use Ulysses/SWICS/SWOOPS/VHM solar wind and solar wind composition data to investigate solar wind dwell (transition from fast to slow wind) and compression regions (transition from slow to fast wind). Because the solar wind dwells are dynamically pulled apart, thus magnifying the transition region, we can observe the nature of the transition with increased accuracy and, in the near future, will provide limits on models of the origin of the slow solar wind. We map the composition data provided by SWICS back onto the source surface of the sun. Utilizing a Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) model we trace the corresponding magnetic field lines from the source surface down to the photosphere, which provides a direct link between the composition measurements of Ulysses/SWICS and its source on the Sun's photosphere. In addition ot that, we will trace the field lines to several height layers between the photosphere and source surface so that we will be able to create a height profile of the solar wind source regions. Finally, we will calculate the distance from the determined source locations to the borders of the open field line regions in order to look for correlations between solar wind speed, charge state composition and source location. Here we will show results of our back-mapping analysis and preliminary implications for the solar wind source regions.

  8. Ulysses S. Grant and Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role played by Ulysses S. Grant during the four years of Reconstruction before he became President of the United States. Describes the dynamics of the relationship between Grant and Andrew Johnson. Points out that Grant's attitude of service to the laws created by Congress submerged his desire to create a new South. (KO)

  9. ACE to Ulysses Coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, D. J.; Maclennan, C. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    The EPAM charged particle instrument on ACE is the backup for the HISCALE instrument on Ulysses making the two ideally suited for spatial coherence studies over large heliosphere distances. Fluxes of low-energy ( ~50 - 200 keV) electrons are detected in eight spatial sectors on both spacecraft. A spherical harmonic description of the particle flux as a function of time using only the l=0 and l=1 degree coefficients describes most of the observed flux. Here we concentrate on the three l=1 coefficients for the 60--100 kev electrons.Between the two spacecraft these result in nine coherence estimates that are all typically moderately coherent, but the fact that the different coefficients at each spacecraft are also coherent with each other makes interpretation difficult. To avoid this difficulty we estimated the canonical coherences between the two groups of three series. This, in effect, chooses an optimum coordinate system at each spacecraft and for each frequency and estimates the coherence in this frame. Using one--minute data, we find that the canonical coherences are generally larger at high frequencies (3 mHz and above) than they are at low frequencies. This appears to be generally true and does not depend particularly on time, range, etc. However, if the data segment is chosen too long, say > 30 days with 1--minute sampling, the coherence at high frequencies drops. This may be because the spatial and temporal features of the mode are confounded, or possibly because the solar modes p--modes are known to change frequency with solar activity, so do not appear coherent on long blocks.The coherences are not smooth functions of frequency, but have a bimodal distribution particularly in the 100 μHz to 5 mHz range. Classifying the data at frequencies where the canonical coherences are high in terms of apparent polarization and orientation, we note two major families of modes that appear to be organized by the Parker spiral. The magnetic field data on the two

  10. Photolysis frequency measurements aboard Zeppelin NT during PEGASOS 2012/13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Insa; Bohn, Birger; Bachner, Mathias; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Airborne measurements of the solar spectral actinic flux densities for the determination of photolysis frequencies in the atmosphere were performed as part of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS). We present the instrumentation and characterisation of the spectroradiometer systems operated aboard the Zeppelin NT airship and photolysis frequency data obtained in field campaigns in 2012 and 2013. Separate measurements of the upwelling and downwelling components of the actinic flux densities were performed with two instruments covering together a 4π-sr field of view. Since deviations from the ideal 2π-sr angular response of each actinic flux receiver can lead to over- or underestimations of the measured photolysis frequencies, detailed angular sensitivities of the two optical receivers were determined in the laboratory. The influence of the non-ideal behaviour on the photolysis frequency measurements was investigated using radiative transfer calculations of atmospheric radiance distributions under various atmospheric conditions and different ground albedos. Corresponding correction factor were derived. This method is also applicable for other research aircraft operating at higher altitudes. Measurements of the solar actinic flux densities were performed in the wavelength range from 280 - 650 nm with a spectral resolution of about 2 nm and averaged over 3 s. An overview is shown of photolysis frequency data (O3, HNO3, HCHO, H2O2, HNO2, NO2 and NO3) obtained in the atmospheric boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns in the Netherlands, Italy 2012 and Finland 2013. Dependencies of photolysis frequencies on cloud cover, flight altitude and wavelength range of the photolysis process are investigated as well as their influence on the photochemical processing of trace gases. Moreover the instrumentation allows for estimations of height depending spectral albedos. Acknowledgement: Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the

  11. Ulysses, the end of an extraordinary mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Ulysses, a pioneering ESA/NASA mission, was launched in October 1990 to explore uncharted territories - the regions above and below the Sun’s poles - and study our star’s sphere of influence, or heliosphere, in the four dimensions of space and time. Originally designed for a lifetime of five years, the mission has surpassed all expectations. The reams of data Ulysses has returned have forever changed the way scientists view the Sun and its effect on the space surrounding it. Media representatives interested in attending the press conference are invited to register using the attached form. Those not able to attend will have the opportunity to follow the press conference using the following phone number: +33 1 56785733 (listening-mode only). The programme of the event is as follows: The Ulysses Legacy Press Conference 12 June 2008, 15:30, Room 137, ESA Headquarters, 8-10 rue Mario-Nikis, Paris Event programme 15:30 Welcome, by David Southwood, ESA Director of Science and Robotic Exploration (with a joint ESA/NASA statement) 15:40 Ulysses: a modern-day Odyssey, by Richard Marsden, ESA Ulysses Project Scientist and Mission Manager 15:50 The Ulysses scientific legacy: Inside the heliosphere, by Richard Marsden,ESA Ulysses Project Scientist and Mission Manager 16:00 The Ulysses scientific legacy: Outside the heliosphere, by Ed Smith, NASA Ulysses Project Scientist 16:10 Ulysses, the over-achiever: challenges and successes of a 17-year-old mission, by Nigel Angold, ESA Ulysses Mission Operations Manager 16:20 Questions and Answers, Panelists: David Southwood, Richard Marsden, Ed Smith, Nigel Angold and Ed Massey (NASA Ulysses Project Manager) 16:40 Interview opportunities 17:30 End of event

  12. Full-Waveform Inversion Method for Data Measured by the CONSERT Instrument aboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statz, C.; Plettemeier, D.; Herique, A.; Kofman, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    The primary scientific objective of the Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT) aboard Rosetta is to perform a dielectric characterization of comet 67P/Chuyurmov-Gerasimenko's nucleus by means of a bi-static sounding between the lander Philae launched onto the comet's surface and the orbiter Rosetta. For the sounding the lander part of CONSERT will receive and process the radio signal emitted by the orbiter part of the instrument and transmit a signal to the orbiter to be received by CONSERT. With data measured during the first science phase, a three-dimensional model of the material distribution with regard to the complex dielectric permittivity of the comet's nucleus is to be reconstructed. In order to perform the 3D characterization of the nucleus we employ a full-waveform least-squares based inversion in time-domain. The reconstruction is performed on the envelope of the received signal. The direct problem of simulating the wave-propagation inside the comet's nucleus is modelled using a wideband nonstandard finite-differences in time-domain approach and a compensation method to account for the differences in free-space path-loss due to the removal of the carrier in the simulation. This approach will yield an approximation of the permittivity distribution including features large compared to the bandwith of the sounding signal. In order to account for restrictions on the measurement positions by the orbitography and limitations on the instrument dynamic range we employ a regularization technique where the permittivity distribution and the gradient with regard to the permittivity is projected in a domain defined by a viable model of the spatial material distribution. The least-squares optimization step of the reconstruction is performed in such domain on a reduced set of parameters. To demonstrate the viability of the proposed approaches we provide reconstruction results based on simulation data and scale-model laboratory

  13. The scientific mission of Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.; Marsden, R. G.; Page, D. E.; Smith, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    The major aims of the Ulysses' scientific investigations of the heliosphere at all latitudes are described. Missions goals include the assessment of the global three-dimensional properties of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind, the study of the composition of the solar wind plasma at different heliographic latitudes, and the study of the acceleration of energetic particles in solar flares. Waves, shocks and other discontinuities in the solar wind will be investigated through sampling of various plasma conditions, and interplanetary dust and cosmic rays will be analyzed. Other important goals include the search for gamma-ray-burst sources and for low-frequency gravitational waves by using the spacecraft's radio communication link. Achievement of the Ulysses' solar pole trajectory, which will utilize both launch vehicle thrust and gravitational pull, is also described.

  14. Ulysses Composition, Plasma and Magnetic Field Observations of High Speed Solar wind Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    During 1992-3 as the Ulysses spacecraft passed in and out of the southern high speed solar wind stream, the Solar Wind Ion Spectrometer, SWICS made continuous composition and temperature measurements of all major solar wind ions.

  15. Preliminary Results from Coordinated UVCS-CDS-Ulysses Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parenti, S.; Bromage, B. J.; Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Raymond, J. C.; Noci, G.; Bromage, G. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The June 2000 quadrature between the Sun, Earth, and Ulysses took place with Ulysses at a distance of 3.35 AU from the Sun and at heliocentric latitude 58.2 deg south, in the southeast quadrant. This provided an opportunity to observe the corona close to the Sun with Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS) and, subsequently, to sample the same plasma when it reached Ulysses. Here we focus on simultaneous observations of UVCS and CDS made on June 12, 13, 16 and 17. The UVCS data were acquired at heliocentric altitudes ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 solar radii, using different grating positions, in order to get a wide wavelength range. CDS data consisted of Normal Incidence Spectrometer (NIS) full wavelength rasters of 120" x 150" centered at altitudes up to 1.18 solar radii, together with Grazing Incidence Spectrometer (GIS) 4" x 4" rasters within the same field of view, out to 1.2 solar radii. The radial direction to Ulysses passed through a high latitude streamer, throughout the 4 days of observations, Analysis of the spectra taken by UVCS shows a variation of the element abundances in the streamer over our observing interval: however, because the observations were in slightly different parts of the streamer on different days, the variation could be ascribed either to a temporal or spatial effect. The oxygen abundance, however, seems to increase at the edge of the streamer, as indicated by previous analyses. This suggests the variation may be a function of position within the streamer, rather than a temporal effect. Oxygen abundances measured by SWICS on Ulysses are compared with the CDS and UVCS results to see whether changes measured in situ follow the same pattern.

  16. Kilometric type 3 radio bursts observed from high southern ecliptic latitudes by Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Ulysses URAP experiment has provided the first measurements of remote and in-situ wave phenomena from high southern latitudes. Remote sensing of type 3 solar radio bursts constitute an important component of the Ulysses observations. Type 3 radio emissions, which have never before been viewed from outside the ecplitic plane, have been observed by Ulysses to its maximum southern latitude (approximately 80 deg S), although their frequency of occurrence has generally diminished due to the declining phase of the solar cycle. In addition, the Ulysses radio receiver measures both the direction of arrival and the complete polarization state of incident radiation. These physical parameters provide information on the origin and nature of the radio emission. Preliminary analyses have indicated that kilometric type 3 radiation is often approximately 10-20% circularly polarized at the highest URAP frequencies. New directional information provides crucial information on the effects of beaming and scattering of the radiation in the interplanetary medium.

  17. Electromagnetically Interacting Dust Streams During Ulysses' Second Jupiter Encounter

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, H.; Forsyth, R.J.; Graps, A.L.; Gruen, E.

    2005-10-31

    The Jupiter system is a source of collimated burst-like streams of electrically charged 10-nm dust particles. In 2004 the Ulysses spacecraft had its second flyby at Jupiter and from late 2002 to early 2005 it measured a total of 24 dust streams between 0.8 and 3.4 AU from the planet. The grains show strong coupling to the interplanetary magnetic field: their impact directions correlate with the orientation and strength of the interplanetary magnetic field vector (namely its tangential and radial components) and they occur at 26 day intervals, closely matching the solar rotation period. Ulysses measured the dust streams over a large range in jovian latitude (+75 deg. to -35 deg.). Enhanced dust emission was measured along the jovian equator.

  18. Uncertainty analysis for Ulysses safety evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Michael V.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the effort to review the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report and to understand the risk of plutonium release from the Ulysses spacecraft General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermal Generator, the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) performed an integrated, quantitative analysis of the uncertainties of the calculated risk of plutonium release from Ulysses. Using state-of-art probabilistic risk assessment technology, the uncertainty analysis accounted for both variability and uncertainty of the key parameters of the risk analysis. The results show that INSRP had high confidence that risk of fatal cancers from potential plutonium release associated with calculated launch and deployment accident scenarios is low.

  19. Electron energy transport in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scime, Earl; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, J. L.; Corniileau-Wehrlin, N.; Solomon, J.

    1995-01-01

    The electron heat flux in the solar wind has been measured by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment in the ecliptic from 1 to 5 AU and out of the ecliptic during the recently completed pass over the solar south pole and the ongoing pass over the solar north pole. Although the electron heat flux contains only a fraction of the kinetic energy of the solar wind. the available energy is sufficient to account for the non-adiabatic expansion of the solar wind electrons. The Ulysses measurements indicate that the electron heat flux is actively dissipated in the solar wind. The exact mechanism or mechanisms is unknown. but a model based on the whistler heat flux instability predicts radial gradients for the electron heat flux in good agreement with the data. We will present measurements of the correlation between wave activity measured by the unified radio and plasma experiment (URAP) and the electron heat flux throughout the Ulysses mission. The goal is to determine if whistler waves are a good candidate for the observed electron heat flux dissipation. The latitudinal gradients of the electron heat flux. wave activity. and electron pressure will be discussed in light of the changes in the magnetic field geometry from equator to poles.

  20. Type III radio source located by Ulysses/Wind triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Stone, R. G.

    1998-02-01

    Radio triangulation from the widely separated Ulysses and Wind spacecraft is used to reconstruct the trajectory of a type III radio burst in the 3D heliosphere. The derived radio trajectory follows a (Parker) spiral path corresponding to a solar wind speed of about 200 km/s and progresses to the south of the ecliptic plane. These remote radio observations also measure the interplanetary plasma density along the path of the radio source. The derived average density-distance scale is very similar to the previously derived RAE density scale, which was determined in a different way. The results of the radio triangulation, combined with a drift rate analysis, give an average electron exciter speed of about 0.3 c. The radio source size and the brightness temperature as viewed from Ulysses and Wind are determined and compared as a function of observing frequency.

  1. Effects of corotating interaction regions on ULYSSES high energy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Droege, W.; Kunow, H.; Raviart, A.

    1995-09-01

    Since June 1992 the Kiel Electron Telescope on board ULYSSES measures variations of more than 10% in the fluxes of high energy H and He showing a periodicity of about 26 days in coincidence with the passage of corotating interaction regions. (CIR). At low energies MeV protons are accelerated at the shocks of the CIRs. These effects are observed up to high southern latitudes, where the signature of a CIR is no longer visible in plasma or magnetic field data. After passing over the south polar cap ULYSSES has now returned to the solar equator and climbs up to the north pole. In this paper we study the relative intensity variations with latitude and the latitude dependence at solar distances smaller than ever studied before.

  2. Listen to Data: Video 3 Ulysses

    NASA Video Gallery

    This clip contains audified data from the joint European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA Ulysses satellite gathered on October 26, 1995. The participant in Alexander's study was able to detect artifici...

  3. Modeling of Jovian Hectometric Radiation Source Locations: Ulysses Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Reiner, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on Ulysses has provided unique high latitude measurements of Jovian hectometric radiation (HOM) during its encounter with Jupiter in February 1992. URAP was the first radio instrument in the Jovian environment with radio direction-finding capability, which was previously used to determine the HOM source locations in the Jovian magnetosphere. These initial source location determinations were based on several assumptions, including the neglect of refractive effects, which may be tested. We have, for the first time, combined the measured incident ray-direction at the spacecraft with a model magnetosphere to directly trace the rays back to the HOM source. We concentrate on the observations of HOM from high northern latitudes when Ulysses was at distances less than 15 R(sub j). The three- dimensional ray-tracing calculations presented here indicate that the HOM sources probably lie on L shells in the range 3 less than or approximately equal to L less than 7 (tilted dipole magnetic field model) consistent with previous determinations that ignored the effects of refraction. The ray-tracing results, however, indicate that wave refraction due to the Io torus and the magnetic field can significantly influence the precise source location. We show that constraints on the locations imposed by the gyroemission mechanism suggest that the lo torus density may have experienced temporal and/or spatial fluctuations during the Ulysses observations of HOM. Finally, in the cold plasma approximation we demonstrate that even if the emission were nearly linearly polarized near the source region, almost circular polarization will be observed at Ulysses, in agreement with observations.

  4. The radial component of the heliospheric magnetic field: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Balogh, A.; Lepping, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    The radial field component, B(sub R), has been monitored continuously since the Ulysses spacecraft left the ecliptic plane in February 1992 travelling toward the southern pole of the Sun. In order to separate spatial from temporal changes, the Ulysses measurements from 0 to 80 heliographic latitude were compared with in-ecliptic measurements of B(sub R) being made simultaneously by IMP-8. The data revealed essentially the same field strengths and time variations at both locations. The conclusion was drawn that there was no significant latitude gradient in B(sub R) and that the stronger polar cap coronal magnetic fields were being transported equatorward to yield a uniform field in the solar wind. The results contrasted with the predictions of the various source surface models which ignore magnetic stresses within 2.5 solar radii. Since the maximum south latitude was attained in September, 1994, Ulysses has traveled northward toward an ecliptic crossing in March 1995 and onward into the north solar hemisphere. The recent results will be presented and compared with those obtained in the southern hemisphere.

  5. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.

  6. Hypervelocity dust impacts on the Wind spacecraft: Correlations between Ulysses and Wind interstellar dust detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, S. R.; Malaspina, David M.; Andersson, Laila; Horanyi, Mihaly

    2015-09-01

    The Wind spacecraft is positioned just sunward of Earth at the first Lagrange point, while the Ulysses spacecraft orbits above and below the ecliptic plane crossing the ecliptic as far from the Sun as the orbit of Jupiter (˜5 AU). While Wind does not carry a dedicated dust detector, we demonstrate the ability of Wind electric field measurements to detect hypervelocity dust impacts through their impact plasma signatures. Interstellar dust (ISD) and interplanetary dust particles are differentiated based on a yearly modulation of the ISD flux. Measurements of ISD flux variation by Wind are found to be in good agreement with ISD flux variation measured by Ulysses. While measurements of the ISD flow direction through the Solar System determined by Wind could not be directly compared to those from Ulysses, strong variation in ISD flow direction was observed during similar time periods by both spacecraft.

  7. Search for Gravitational Wave Trains with the Spacecraft Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Armstrong, J.; Asmar, S.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Iess, L.; Koyama, Y.; Messeri, A.; Vecchio, A.; Wahlquist, H.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the search for periodic gravitational wave in the mHz band conducted with the spacecraft ULYSSES. Gravitational wave signals generally provide information about the distance of the source; ULYSSES' data have a.

  8. Timepix-based radiation environment monitor measurements aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Kroupa, Martin; Hoang, Son; Idarraga, John; Amberboy, Clif; Rios, Ryan; Hauss, Jessica; Keller, John; Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Turecek, Daniel; Jakubek, Jan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    A number of small, single element radiation detectors, employing the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration's Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) coupled to a specially modified version of the USB-Lite interface for that ASIC provided by the Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP) at the Czech Technical University in Prague, have been developed at the University of Houston and NASA Johnson Space Center. These detectors, officially designated by NASA as Radiation Environment Monitors (REMs), were deployed aboard the International Space Station in late 2012. Six REM units are currently operating on Station Support Computers (SSCs) and returning data on a daily basis. The associated data acquisition software on the SSCs provides both automated data collection and transfer, as well as algorithms to handle adjustment of acquisition rates and recovery and restart of the acquisition software. A suite of ground software analysis tools has been developed to allow rapid analysis of the data and provides a ROOT-based framework for extending data analysis capabilities.

  9. Ulysses mission design after Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthey, Joe L.; Peralta, Fernando; Pojman, Joan L.

    1990-01-01

    The delay of the Ulysses launch from May 1986 to October 1990, because of the Challenger disaster, has altered both the constraints under which the mission must be designed and the timing of several mission critical events. Safety and launch reliability concerns from the Shuttle have increased the effective launch window to durations greater than one hour. Fortuitously high declinations of the launch asymptote (DLA), of the order of the launch site latitude, ameliorate the impact of the new constraints on the launch window. Target overlays in the first hour of the launch window provide higher departure energies that improve mission performance and avoid a science schedule conflict at second opposition near the time of closest Jupiter approach. The mission design starts with the maximum earth departure energy that the upper stage can deliver within the launch constraints. The Jupiter arrival asymptotes are chosen from the optimal point of mission performance in the mission space defined in the Jupiter B-plane by contours mapped by the science and spacecraft constraints. More than half the orbital energy of the earth-to-Jupiter transfer orbit is lost in the Jupiter flyby, and the Jupiter gravitational assist rotates the orbit plane out of the ecliptic to an inclination of about 80 degrees.

  10. Protecting autonomy as authenticity using Ulysses contracts.

    PubMed

    van Willigenburg, Theo; Delaere, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Pre-commitment directives or Ulysses contracts are often defended as instruments that may strengthen the autonomous self-control of episodically disordered psychiatric patients. Autonomy is understood in this context in terms of sovereignty ("governing" or "managing" oneself). After critically analyzing this idea of autonomy in the context of various forms of self-commitment and pre-commitment, we argue that what is at stake in using Ulysses contracts in psychiatry is not autonomy as sovereignty, but autonomy as authenticity. Pre-commitment directives do not function to protect autonomous self-control. They serve in upholding the guidance that is provided by one's deepest identity conferring concerns. We elucidate this concept of autonomy as authenticity, by showing how Ulysses contracts protect the possibility of being "a self." PMID:16029989

  11. The May 1997 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Poletto, G.; Romoli, M.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Simnett, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present results from the May 1997 SOHO-Ulysses quadrature, near sunspot minimum. Ulysses was at 5.1 AU, 100 north of the solar equator, and off the east limb. It was, by chance, also at the very northern edge of the streamer belt. Nevertheless, SWOOPS detected only slow, relatively smooth wind and there was no direct evidence of fast wind from the northern polar coronal hole or of mixing with fast wind. LASCO images show that the streamer belt at 10 N was narrow and sharp at the beginning and end of the two week observation interval, but broadened in the middle. A corresponding change in density, but not flow speed, occurred at Ulysses. Coronal densities derived from UVCS show that physical parameters in the lower corona are closely related to those in the solar wind, both over quiet intervals and in transient events on the limb. One small transient observed by both LASCO and UVCS is analyzed in detail.

  12. Uncertainty analysis for Ulysses safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V. )

    1991-01-01

    As part of the effort to review the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report and to understand the risk of plutonium release from the Ulysses spacecraft General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermal Generator (GPHS-RTG), the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) and the author performed an integrated, quantitative analysis of the uncertainties of the calculated risk of plutonium release from Ulysses. Using state-of-art probabilistic risk assessment technology, the uncertainty analysis accounted for both variability and uncertainty of the key parameters of the risk analysis. The results show that INSRP had high confidence that risk of fatal cancers from potential plutonium release associated with calculated launch and deployment accident scenarios is low.

  13. Charge state composition in coronal hole and CME related solar wind: Latitudinal variations observed by Ulysses and WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvin, A. B.; Gloeckler, G.

    1997-01-01

    Iron charge states in recurrent coronal hole-associated solar wind flows are obtained in the ecliptic by WIND/SMS, while measurements of iron and silicon from the polar coronal holes are available from Ulysses/SWICS. Ulysses/SWICS also provides ion composition of coronal mass ejection (CME)-related solar wind. Both coronal hole-associated and CME-related solar wind charge charges show heliographic latitudinal variations.

  14. Observations of Solar Energetic Particle Events over the Polar Regions of the Sun at Solar Maximum with the Ulysses COSPIN High Energy Telescope and IMP-8*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Zhang, M.

    2002-05-01

    The High Energy Telescope (HET) of the Ulysses COSPIN experi-ment measures intensities and spectra of solar energetic particles (SEPs) with good energy and charge resolution at energies above ~30 MeV/n. During the recent passes over the north and south polar re-gions of the sun, Ulysses observed a number of solar energetic particle events associated with solar activity at low latitudes. Where IMP-8 observations were available, all SEP events observed at proton energies >~30 MeV by Ulysses in the polar regions (solar latitudes above 70 degrees) were also observed at IMP-8. HOwever peak intensities were generally lower and the onsets and rises to maximum were in general significantly slower at Ulysses than at IMP. Anisotropies during the onsets of SEP events at Ulysses were in almost all cases directed outward along the nominal Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field, implying that the source of the particles on the field lines connecting to Ulysses was inside the orbit of Ulysses. In the late stages of events, generally four to five days after onset, particle fluxes at IMP and Ulysses were approximately equal and remained so for the remainder of the decay phase. We will summarize these and other results from both the north and south polar passes and discuss their significance for models of the ac-celeration and propagation of solar energetic particles. * This work was supported in part by NASA Contract JPL-955432 and by NASA Grant NAG5-8032.

  15. Energetic particles and coronal mass ejections in the high latitude heliosphere: Ulysses-LET observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothmer, V.; Sanderson, T. R.; Marsden, R. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R. J.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The COSPIN Low Energy Telescope (LET) onboard the Ulysses spacecraft measures protons, alphas and heavier ions at energies of approximately 1 to 50 MeV/n. Ulysses measurements offer favorable opportunities to study the effects of solar activity in the out-of-ecliptic regions of the heliosphere. Using LET data, we have investigated the properties of transient energetic ions at high heliographic latitudes when Ulysses was permanently immersed in high speed solar wind and magnetically connected to the Sun on open magnetic field lines. Recurrent increases in the fluxes of energetic ions at high heliographic latitudes at frequencies related to the solar rotation period were found to occur in association with co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs). Here we investigate fluxes of energetic particles that showed no relationship to ClRs. From the investigation of plasma and magnetic held data it is found that all of the transient high latitude particle events were associated with the passage of a coronal mass ejection (CME) over Ulysses. Enhancements in particle fluxes several days prior to the arrival of a CME, but with a significant time delay with respect to the estimated CME-onset at the Sun, were most probably associated with interplanetary shocks driven by fast CMEs. These particle events exhibit unusually high rho/alpha-ratios and are not observed for CMEs not driving a shock. However, not all CMEs that passed Ulysses were associated with a particle event. We find evidence that at high solar latitudes, solar flare particles cannot reach Ulysses on open magnetic field lines, but can reach the spacecraft if particles are injected into magnetic flux-ropes (CMEs) at the Sun. These findings are supported by soft X-ray observations from the Japanese Yohkoh-satellite.

  16. Studies of the structure of the plasmasphere as seen by radiosounder measurements aboard the Alovetti-satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.; Doupnik, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The structure of the plasmasphere was studied as seen by radiosounder measurements aboard the Alovetti-2 satellite. Magnetic tape data files were obtained from the NASA Ames Research Center to give a reasonably complete set of high latitude electron density profiles. Considerable effort was expended to develop models of ion flow in the topside ionosphere. These models took both H(+) and O(+) into account and permitted various parameter studies to be made of the various factors which affect H(+) escape in polar wind flows. The results of these studies are included. Extensive computer programs were written to display the measured electron density profiles in ways useful to geophysical analysis. The expected mid-latitude trough was easily discernable in the nightime ionosphere at locations expected from similar observations of the plasmapause. In the dayside ionosphere, however, it proved extremely difficult to find any trough-like phenomena. Using the previously developed computer models, it was possible to study the region where the plasmapause appeared to be absent. It was found that over much of the dayside, large fluxes were computed well inside the plasmapause extending down to L-shells as low as 2.5.

  17. Children's Understanding of the Ulysses Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Katherine S.; Keil, Frank C.; Bloom, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Two studies explored children's understanding of how the presence of conflicting mental states in a single mind can lead people to act so as to subvert their own desires. Study 1 analyzed explanations by children (4-7 years) and adults of behaviors arising from this sort of "Ulysses conflict" and compared them with their understanding of…

  18. The Ulysses Project. Integrating the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan Swenton

    2001-01-01

    Offers a project developed as an outgrowth of sixth-grade students' study of ancient Greece in history, English, drama, and art classes. Explains that the students created sculptures inspired by Greek sculpture that represented student perceptions of the activities and emotions found in the Ulysses myth. (CMK)

  19. Half Sinful Words: Disguised Grief in "Ulysses."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Michael

    As a shrewd technician of the language, A. L. Tennyson rightly understood that words are not controllable; they do not always obey rules. As Tennyson said, words "half reveal and half conceal the soul within." In "Ulysses," the title character's speech to his fellow mariners--where he attempts to explain why he has decided to abandon domestic life…

  20. Deployment of a Fast-GCMS System to Measure C2 to C5 Carbonyls, Methanol and Ethanol Aboard Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apel, Eric C.

    2004-01-01

    Through funding of this proposal, a fast response gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (FGCMS) instrument to measure less than or equal to C4 carbonyl compounds and methanol was developed for the NASA GTE TRACE-P (Global Tropospheric Experiment, Transport And Chemical Evolution Over The Pacific) mission. The system consists of four major components: sample inlet, preconcentration system, gas chromatograph (GC), and detector. The preconcentration system is a custom-built cryogen-conservative system. The GC is a compact, custom-built unit that can be temperature programmed and rapidly cooled. Detection is accomplished with an Agilent Technologies 5973 mass spectrometer. The FGCMS instrument provides positive identification because the compounds are chromatographically separated and mass selected. During TRACE-P, a sample was analyzed every 5 minutes. The FGCMS limit of detection was between 5 and 75 pptv, depending on the compound. The entire instrument package is contained in a standard NASA instrument rack (106 cm x 61 cm x 135 cm), consumes less than 1200 watts and is fully automated with LabViEW 6i. Methods were developed or producing highly accurate gas phase standards for the target compounds and for testing the system in the presence of potential interferents. This report presents data on these tests and on the general overall performance of the system in the laboratory and aboard the DC-8 aircraft during the mission. Vertical profiles for acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, propanal, methyl ethyl ketone, and butanal from FGCMS data collected over the entire mission are also presented.

  1. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2000-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 20001, Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  2. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 2001 Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  3. Refractive index dependence of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnaeni, Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang

    2016-02-01

    We have observed and utilized butterfly wings of Papilio Ulysses for refractive index sensor. We noticed this butterfly wings have photonic crystal structure, which causes blue color appearance on the wings. The photonic crystal structure, which consists of cuticle and air void, is approximated as one dimensional photonic crystal structure. This photonic crystal structure opens potential to several optical devices application, such as refractive index sensor. We have utilized small piece of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings to characterize refractive index of several liquid base on reflectance spectrum of butterfly wings in the presence of sample liquid. For comparison, we simulated reflectance spectrum of one dimensional photonic crystal structure having material parameter based on real structure of butterfly wings. We found that reflectance spectrum peaks shifted as refractive index of sample changes. Although there is a slight difference in reflectance spectrum peaks between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum, the trend of reflectance spectrum peaks as function of sample's refractive index is the similar. We assume that during the measurement, the air void that filled by sample liquid is expanded due to liquid pressure. This change of void shape causes non-similarity between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum.

  4. Effects of spacecraft potential on three-dimensional electron measurements in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, E.E.; Phillips, J.L.; Bame, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Using the three-dimensional, low-energy electron spectrometer aboard the Ulysses spacecraft, the authors have measured the gyrotropicity of electron distributions in the solar wind. In order to make these observations, they have developed a new technique for correcting spacecraft charging effects in three-dimensional, low-energy particle measurements. Comparisons of ion and electron number and current densities, and the alignment of electron temperature anisotropies with the local magnetic field, are presented as evidence of the improvement in the accuracy of the electron moments resulting from the spacecraft charging corrections. The implications of these charging correction technique go beyond simple scalar corrections to the Ulysses measurements. They discuss the effects of their charging correction upon the measurements of temporal and radial gradients in a plasma environment and for two-dimensionally obtained low-energy particle data. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Canopy photosynthesis and transpiration in microgravity: gas exchange measurements aboard Mir.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Bingham, G E; Carman, J G; Campbell, W F; Salisbury, F B; Eames, B K; Sytchev, V; Levinskikh, M A; Podolsky, I

    2000-01-01

    The SVET Greenhouse on-board the Orbital Station Mir was used to measure canopy photosynthesis and transpiration rates for the first time in space. During the Greenhouse IIB experiment on Mir (June-January 1997), carbon and water vapor fluxes from two wheat (cv. Superdwarf) canopies were measured using the US developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS). Gas analyzers capable of resolving CO2 concentration differences of 5 micromoles mol-1 against a background of 0.9% CO2, are necessary to measure photosynthetic and respiratory rates on Mir. The ability of the GEMS gas analyzers to measure these CO2 concentration differences was determined during extensive ground calibrations. Similarly, the sensitivity of the analyzers to water vapor was sufficient to accurately measure canopy evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration, which accounted for over 90% of the water added to the root zone, was estimated using gas exchange and used to estimate substrate moisture content. This paper presents canopy photosynthesis and transpiration data during the peak vegetative phase of development in microgravity. PMID:11543166

  6. A Comparison of Measurements from ATMOS and Instruments Aboard the ER-2 Aircraft: Halogenated Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. Y.; Salawitch, R. J.; Michelsen, H. A.; Gunson, M. R.; Abrams, M. C.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Volk, C. M.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Loewenstein, M.

    1996-01-01

    We compare volume mixing ratio profiles of N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CCl4, SF6, and HCl in the mid-latitude lower stratosphere measured by the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer on the ATLAS-3 Space Shuttle Mission with in situ measurements acquired from the NASA ER-2 aircraft during Nov. 1994. Good agreement is found between ATMOS and in situ correlations of [CFC-11], [CFC-12], and [SF6] with [N2O]. ATMOS measurements of [CCl4] are 15% high compared to ER-2 data, but agree within the systematic uncertainties. ATMOS observations of [HCl] vs [N2O] are within approximately 10% of ER-2 data for [HCl] > 1 ppbv, but exceed in situ measurements by larger fractional amounts for smaller [HCl]. ATMOS measurements of [ClONO2] agree well with values inferred from in situ observations of [ClO], [NO], and [O3]. The sum of [HCl] and [ClONO2] observed by ATMOS, supplemented by a minor contribution from [ClO] estimated with a photochemical model, is consistent with the levels of inorganic chlorine inferred from in situ measurements of chlorine source gases.

  7. (abstract) An Extensive Search for Interplanetary Slow-mode Shocks: Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, R.; Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.

    1996-01-01

    Ulysses has accumulated five years of interplanetary solar wind plasma and IMF measurements. These data cover from 1 to approximately 5 AU and all the heliographic latitudes. Based on these data, we perform an extensive search for the slow-mode shocks. We find a considerable number of discontinuities that have large magnetic field magnitude changes and also large field normal components.

  8. A review of solar wind ion and electron plasma distributions: Present understanding and Ulysses results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B. E.

    1996-07-20

    Unlike the oral version of this paper at Solar Wind 8, this written version is not intended as an overview of the observational aspects of solar wind ion and electron distributions, but discusses only recent results in this area with emphasis on Ulysses measurements. Although primarily a review, some new results on solar wind proton temperatures at high latitudes are presented.

  9. Stream interfaces and energetic ions in corotating interaction regions: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    SciTech Connect

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Siscoe, George L.; Wibberenz, Gerd; Kunow, Horst; Gosling, John T.

    1996-07-20

    Ulysses measurements of energetic solar wind ions (5-23 MeV) associated with the trailing reverse shock found to be consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers. The observations cover the middle latitude region 20-30 deg.of south heliosphere.

  10. Structures in the polar solar wind: Plasma and field observations from Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Barraclough, B.L.; Gosling, J.T.; Hammond, C.M.; Phillips, J.L.; Neugebauer, M.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    The Ulysses measurements of the solar wind plasma and magnetic fields for the 36-69 deg.south latitude are analyzed. The plasma compressional structures and pressure balance structures are identified in addition to Alfven waves and coronal mass ejection. {copyright} {bold 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Stream interfaces and energetic ions in corotating interaction regions: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    SciTech Connect

    Intriligator, D.S.; Siscoe, G.L. |; Wibberenz, G.; Kunow, H.; Gosling, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    Ulysses measurements of energetic solar wind ions (5-23 MeV) associated with the trailing reverse shock found to be consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers. The observations cover the middle latitude region 20-30 deg.of south heliosphere. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.

  13. Electron Heat Flux Instabilities: Ulysses and LEIA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Robert; Balkey, Matthew; Boivin, Robert; Kline, John; Scime, Earl

    1999-11-01

    Electron heat flux, the non-vanishing third moment of an electron velocity distribution, represent of source of free energy that can drive electromagnetic instabilities. Linear Vlasov theory calculations indicate that at high electron beta, beta 1, the whistler heat flux instability is the most unstable electromagnetic mode. Assuming that the growth of the instability leads to electron velocity space diffusion that reduces the electron heat flux, it is possible to calculate the maximum allowable electron heat flux in a high beta plasma. Observations by the Ulysses spacecraft over 1 to 5 AU are generally supportive of a model of electron heat flux regulation based on excitation of the whistler heat flux instability. To perform controlled experiments on similar high beta plasmas, an electron gun has been installed in the Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropies (LEIA) space simulation chamber. The electron gun is rapidly scanned in energy to simulate an energetic electron tail, an electron heat flux. Comparisons of Ulysses and LEIA electron distribution functions and plasma parameters will be presented. The electron distributions in LEIA are measured with a retarding potential analyzer and a curved plate electrostatic analyzer probe. Measurements of electromagnetic fluctuations in LEIA will be presented if available.

  14. Initial Results from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Swenson, Charles; Thompson, Don; Barjatya, Aroh; Koontz, Steven L.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Minow, Joseph; Craven, Paul; Coffey, Victoria; Parker, Linda; Bui, Them

    2007-01-01

    The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a multi-probe package designed to measure the floating potential of the 1nternational Space Station (ISS) as well as the density and temperature of the local ionospheric plasma environment. The role oj the FPMU is to provide direct measurements of ISS spacecraft charging as continuing construction leads to dramatic changes in ISS size and configuration. FPMU data are used for refinement and validation of the ISS spacecraft charging models used to evaluate the severity and frequency of occurrence of ISS charging hazards. The FPMU data and the models are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed hazard controls. The FPMU consists of four probes: a floating potential probe, two Langmuir probes. and a plasma impedance probe. These probes measure the floating potential of the ISS, plasma density, and electron temperature. Redundant measurements using different probes support data validation by inter-probe comparisons. The FPMU was installed by ISS crewmembers, during an ExtraVehicular Activity, on the starboard (Sl) truss of the ISS in early August 2006, when the ISS incorporated only one 160V US photovoltaic (PV) array module. The first data campaign began a few hours after installation and continued for over five days. Additional data campaigns were completed in 2007 after a second 160V US PV array module was added to the ISS. This paper discusses the general performance characteristics of the FPMU as integrated on ISS, the functional performance of each probe, the charging behavior of the ISS before and after the addition of a second 160V US PV array module, and initial results from model comparisons.

  15. In situ measurements of IO and reactive iodine aboard the RV Sonne during SHIVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Dwayne; Walker, Hannah; Ingham, Trevor; Huang, Ru-Jin; Wittrock, Folker

    2013-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are emitted from the oceans by marine species such as macroalgae and phytoplankton and contribute to halogen loading in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project combined ship-borne, aircraft-based and ground-based measurements in and over the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea, and around the coast of Malaysian Borneo. In this paper we present measurements of IO radicals in coastal and open ocean regions made onboard the German research vessel RV Sonne in November 2011 between Singapore and Manila, via the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo (South China Sea) and the Sulu Sea. In situ measurements of IO were made on 12 days by the University of Leeds laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument, with a detection limit of 0.3 pptv for a 30 minute averaging period. The cruise average IO concentration was found to be 1.2 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 2.4 pptv in the middle of the Sulu Sea, an area known for high biological activity. Only a weak diurnal profile was observed, with IO detected above the detection limit on 10 out of the 11 nights when the LIF instrument was operational. Measurements of IO at night in the open ocean have not previously been reported and indicate the presence of gas phase or heterogeneous mechanisms that recycle iodine species without requiring light. There was reasonable agreement for IO concentrations measured by the University of Leeds LIF and the University of Bremen MAX-DOAS instruments, for which a comparison will be presented. I2, ICl and HOI were measured by the University of Mainz using a coupled diffusion denuder system followed by analysis using gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectroscopy, with a detection of 0.17 pptv for 30 mins (I2). The cruise average I2 concentration was found to be 2.0 pptv, with a maximum concentration observed during one night of 12.7 pptv on the northern coast

  16. Invited article: data analysis of the floating potential measurement unit aboard the international space station.

    PubMed

    Barjatya, Aroh; Swenson, Charles M; Thompson, Donald C; Wright, Kenneth H

    2009-04-01

    We present data from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) that is deployed on the starboard truss of the International Space Station. The FPMU is a suite of instruments capable of redundant measurements of various plasma parameters. The instrument suite consists of a floating potential probe, a wide-sweeping spherical Langmuir probe, a narrow-sweeping cylindrical Langmuir probe, and a plasma impedance probe. This paper gives a brief overview of the instrumentation and the received data quality, and then presents the algorithm used to reduce I-V curves to plasma parameters. Several hours of data are presented from August 5, 2006 and March 3, 2007. The FPMU derived plasma density and temperatures are compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and Utah State University-Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurement (USU-GAIM) models. Our results show that the derived in situ density matches the USU-GAIM model better than the IRI, and the derived in situ temperatures are comparable to the average temperatures given by the IRI. PMID:19405644

  17. Invited Article: Data analysis of the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Barjatya, Aroh; Swenson, Charles M.; Thompson, Donald C.; Wright, Kenneth H. Jr.

    2009-04-15

    We present data from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) that is deployed on the starboard truss of the International Space Station. The FPMU is a suite of instruments capable of redundant measurements of various plasma parameters. The instrument suite consists of a floating potential probe, a wide-sweeping spherical Langmuir probe, a narrow-sweeping cylindrical Langmuir probe, and a plasma impedance probe. This paper gives a brief overview of the instrumentation and the received data quality, and then presents the algorithm used to reduce I-V curves to plasma parameters. Several hours of data are presented from August 5, 2006 and March 3, 2007. The FPMU derived plasma density and temperatures are compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and Utah State University-Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurement (USU-GAIM) models. Our results show that the derived in situ density matches the USU-GAIM model better than the IRI, and the derived in situ temperatures are comparable to the average temperatures given by the IRI.

  18. Data Analysis of the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barjatya, Aroh; Swenson, Charles M.; Thompson, Donald C.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    We present data from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), that is deployed on the starboard (S1) truss of the International Space Station. The FPMU is a suite of instruments capable of redundant measurements of various plasma parameters. The instrument suite consists of: a Floating Potential Probe, a Wide-sweeping spherical Langmuir probe, a Narrow-sweeping cylindrical Langmuir Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe. This paper gives a brief overview of the instrumentation and the received data quality, and then presents the algorithm used to reduce I-V curves to plasma parameters. Several hours of data is presented from August 5th, 2006 and March 3rd, 2007. The FPMU derived plasma density and temperatures are compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and USU-Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurement (USU-GAIM) models. Our results show that the derived in-situ density matches the USU-GAIM model better than the IRI, and the derived in-situ temperatures are comparable to the average temperatures given by the IRI.

  19. Measurement of energetic particle radiation at the synchronous altitude aboard ATS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulikas, G. A.; Blake, J. B.; Imamoto, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation energetic electron-proton spectrometer operating on ATS-6 is described. This experiment detects energetic electrons in four channels between 140 keV and greater than 3.9 MeV, measures energetic protons in five energy channels between 2.3 and 80 MeV and energetic alpha particles in three channels between 9.4 and 94 MeV. After more than a year of operation in orbit, the experiment continues to return excellent data on the behavior of energetic magnetospheric electrons as well as information regarding the fluxes of solar protons and alpha particles.

  20. Cloud particle effects on laminar flow and instrumentation for their measurement aboard a NASA LFC aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Fischer, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Fuel costs account now for approximately 60 percent of the direct operating costs of airlines and future commercial transport will utilize advanced technologies for saving fuel on the basis of drag reduction. Laminar flow control (LFC) represents such an advanced technology. A new laminar flow wing on a reconfigured WB-66 aircraft was tested in the X-21 flight program. The tests confirmed that extensive laminar flow could be achieved at subsonic transport cruise conditions. Factors affecting adversely the maintenance of laminar flow were found to be related to ice particles encountered during the penetration of cirrus clouds or haze. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of ice particles on LFC, taking into account the results obtained in the Leading Edge Flight Test (LEFT) being conducted by NASA. Attention is given to ice particle measurements in the LEFT program.

  1. A Treatment of Measurements of Heptane Droplet Combustion Aboard MSL-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, M. D.; Colantonio, R. O.; Crouch, R. K.; Dryer, F. L.; Haggard, J. B.; Linteris, G. T.; Marchese, A. J.; Nayagam, V.; Voss, J. E.; Williams, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of measurements on the burning of free n-heptane droplets (that is, droplets without fiber supports) performed in Spacelab during the flights of the first Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) are presented. The droplet combustion occurred in oxidizing atmospheres which were at an ambient temperature within a few degrees of 300 K. A total of 34 droplets were burned in helium-oxygen atmospheres having oxygen mole fractions ranging from 20 to 50 percent, at pressures from 0.25 to 1.00 bar. In addition, four droplets were burned in air at 1.00 bar, bringing the total number of droplets for which combustion data were secured to 38; two of these four air tests were fiber-supported to facilitate comparisons with other fiber-support experiments, results of which also are given here. Initial diameters of free droplets ranged from about 1 to 4 mm. The primary data obtained were histories of droplet diameters, recorded in backlight on 35 mm film at 80 frames per second, and histories of flame diameters, inferred from emissions through a narrow-band interference filter centered at the 310 micron OH chemiluminescent ultraviolet band, recorded at 30 frames per second by a intensified-array camera. These data are reported here both in raw form and in a smoothed form with estimated error bars. In addition, summaries are presented of measured burning-rate constants, final droplet diameters, and final flame diameters. Both diffusive and radiative extinctions were exhibited under different conditions. Although some interpretations are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the combustion mechanisms, the principal intent of this report is to provide a complete, documented data set for future analysis.

  2. Low-Latitude Solar Wind During the Fall 1998 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, G.; Suess, Steven T.; Biesecker, D.; Esser, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Zurbuchen, T.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Fall 1998 SOlar-Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) - Ulysses quadrature occurred when Ulysses was at 5.2 AU, 17.4 deg South of the equator, and off the West line of the Sun. SOHO coronal observations, at heliocentric distances of a few solar radii, showed that the line through the solar center and Ulysses crossed, over the first days of observations, a dark, weakly emitting area and through the northern edge of a streamer complex during the second half of the quadrature campaign. Ulysses in situ observations showed this transition to correspond to a decrease from higher speed wind typical of coronal hole flow to low speed wind. Physical parameters (density, temperature, flow speed) of the low latitude coronal plasma sampled over the campaign are determined using constraints from what is the same plasma measured later in situ and simulating the intensities of the Hydrogen Lyman-alpha and OVI 1032 and 1037 Angstrom lines, measured by the Ultra Violet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on SOHO. The densities, temperatures and outflow speed are compared with the same characteristic flow parameters for high-latitude fast wind streams and typical slow solar wind.

  3. RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C. Edward; Klee, Paul M.

    1997-01-10

    Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted.

  4. He abundance variations in the solar wind: Observations from Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, B.L.; Gosling, J.T.; Phillips, J.L.; McComas, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Goldstein, B.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Ulysses mission is providing the first opportunity to observe variations in solar wind plasma parameters at heliographic latitudes far removed from the ecliptic plane. We present an overview of the solar wind speed and the variability in helium abundance, [He] data on [He] in six high latitude coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and a superposed epoch analysis of [He] variations at the seven heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossings made during the rapid-latitude-scan portion of the mission. The differences in the variability of the solar wind speed and [He] in high latitude and equatorial regions are quite striking. Solar wind speed is generally low but highly variable near the solar equator, while at higher latitudes the average speed is quite high with little variability. [He] can vary over nearly two decades at low solar latitudes, while at high latitudes it varies only slightly. In contrast to the high [He] that is commonly associated with CMEs observed in the ecliptic, none of the six high-speed CMEs encountered at high southern heliographic latitudes showed any significant variation in helium content. A superposed epoch analysis of the [He] during all seven HCS crossings made as Ulysses passed from the southern to northern solar hemisphere shows the expected [He] minimum near the crossing and a broad region of low [He] around the crossing time. We discuss how our solar wind [He] observations may provide an accurate measure of the helium composition for the entire convective zone of the Sun.

  5. Jupiter's magnetosphere: Plasma description from the Ulysses flyby

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S.J.; Barraclough, B.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gisler, G.R.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Thomsen, M.F. ); Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M. )

    1992-09-11

    Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A boundary layer populated by a varying mixture of solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas was found inside the magnetopause, again as at Earth. In the middle magnetosphere, large electron density excursions were detected with a 10-hour periodicity as planetary rotation carried the tilted plasma sheet past Ulysses. Deep in the magnetosphere, Ulysses crossed a region, tentatively described as magnetically connected to the Jovian polar cap on one end and to the interplanetary magnetic field on the other. In the inner magnetosphere and Io torus, where corotation plays a dominant role, measurements could not be made because of extreme background rates from penetrating radiation belt particles.

  6. RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Ulysses solar wind plasma observations at high latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, P.; Bame, S.J.; Barraclough, B.L.

    1996-10-01

    Ulysses reached its peak northerly heliolatitude of 80.2{degrees}N on July 31, 1995, and now is moving towards aphelion at 5.41 AU which it will reach in May, 1998. We summarize measurements from the solar wind plasma experiment, SWOOPS, emphasizing northern hemispheric observations but also providing southern and equatorial results for comparison. The solar wind momentum flux during Ulysses` fast pole-to- pole transit at solar minimum was significantly higher over the poles than at near-equatorial latitudes, suggesting a non-circular cross section for the heliosphere. Furthermore, modest asymmetries in the wind speed, density, and mass flux were observed between the two hemispheres during the fast latitude scan. The solar wind was faster and less dense in the north than in the south. These asymmetries persist in the most recent high- and mid-latitude data but are less pronounced. As of July 1, 1996 the northern fast solar wind has lacked any strong stream interactions or shocks and, although a comprehensive search has not yet been made, no CMEs have yet been identified during this interval. On the other hand, Alfv{acute e}nic, compressional, and pressure balanced features are abundant at high latitudes. The most recent data, at 4 AU and 32{degrees}N, has begun to show the effects of solar rotation modulated features in the form of recurrent compressed regions.

  8. Children's understanding of the Ulysses conflict.

    PubMed

    Choe, Katherine S; Keil, Frank C; Bloom, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Two studies explored children's understanding of how the presence of conflicting mental states in a single mind can lead people to act so as to subvert their own desires. Study 1 analyzed explanations by children (4--7 years) and adults of behaviors arising from this sort of 'Ulysses conflict' and compared them with their understanding of conflicting desires in different minds, as well as with changes of mind within an individual across time. The data revealed that only the adults were able to adequately explain the Ulysses conflict. Study 2 asked children (4--7 years) and adults to choose among three explicitly presented competing explanations for self-subverting behaviors. The results suggest that an understanding of the influence of conflicting mental states on behaviors does not occur until at least 7 years of age. PMID:16048510

  9. Microstructures in the Polar Solar Wind: Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuruyani, Bruce T.; Arballo, J. K.; Galvan, C.; Goldstein, B. E.; Lakhina, G. S.; Sakurai, R.; Smith, E. J.; Neugebauer, M.

    1999-01-01

    We find that small (10-200 rP) magnetic decreases comprise a dominant part of the polar solar wind microstructure at Ulysses distances (2.2 AU). These magnetic field dips are almost always bounded by tangential discontinuities, a feature which is not well understood at this time. Hundreds of these events have been examined in detail and a variety of types have been found. These will be described. It is speculated that these structures have been generated by perpendicular heating of ions closer to the Sun and have then been convected to distances of Ulysses. Such structures may be very important for the rapid cross- field diffusion of ions in the polar regions of the heliosphere.

  10. Solar EUV Irradiance Measurements by the Auto-Calibrating EUV Spectrometers (SolACES) Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Nikutowski, B.; Jacobi, C.; Brunner, R.; Erhardt, C.; Knecht, S.; Scherle, J.; Schlagenhauf, J.

    2014-05-01

    SolACES is part of the ESA SOLAR ISS mission that started aboard the shuttle mission STS-122 on 7 February 2008. The instrument has recorded solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance from 16 to 150 nm during the extended solar activity minimum and the beginning solar cycle 24 with rising solar activity and increasingly changing spectral composition. The SOLAR mission has been extended from a period of 18 months to > 8 years until the end of 2016. SolACES is operating three grazing incidence planar grating spectrometers and two three-current ionization chambers. The latter ones are considered as primary radiometric detector standards. Re-filling the ionization chambers with three different gases repeatedly and using overlapping band-pass filters, the absolute EUV fluxes are derived in these spectral intervals. This way the serious problem of continuing efficiency changes in space-borne instrumentation is overcome during the mission. Evaluating the three currents of the ionization chambers, the overlapping spectral ranges of the spectrometers and of the filters plus inter-comparing the results from the EUV photon absorption in the gases with different absorption cross sections, there are manifold instrumental possibilities to cross-check the results providing a high degree of reliability to the spectral irradiance derived. During the mission a very strong up-and-down variability of the spectrometric efficiency by orders of magnitude is observed. One of the effects involved is channeltron degradation. However, there are still open questions on other effects contributing to these changes. A survey of the measurements carried out and first results of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) data are presented. Inter-comparison with EUV data from other space missions shows good agreement such that the international effort has started to elaborate a complete set of EUV-SSI data taking into account all data available from 2008 to 2013.

  11. Tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry measurements utililzed aboard aircraft and in accelerator based space radiation shielding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard

    The space radiation environment presents a potential hazard to the humans, electronics and materials that are exposed to it. Particle accelerator facilities such as the NASA Space Ra-diation Laboratory (NSRL) and Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) provide particle radiation of specie and energy within the range of that found in the space radiation environment. Experiments performed at these facilities determine various endpoints for bio-logical, electronic and materials exposures. A critical factor in the performance of rigorous scientific studies of this type is accurate dosimetric measurements of the exposures. A Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a microdosimeter that may be used to measure absorbed dose, average quality factor (Q) and dose equivalent of the particle beam utilized in these experiments. In this work, results from a variety of space radiation shielding studies where a TEPC was used to perform dosimetry in the particle beam will be presented. These results compare the absorbed dose and dose equivalent measured downstream of equal density thicknesses of stan-dard and multifunctional shielding materials. The standard materials chosen for these shielding studies included High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and aluminum alloy, while the multifunc-tional materials included carbon composite infused with single walled carbon nanotubes. High energy particles including proton, silicon and iron nuclei were chosen as the incident radia-tion for these studies. Further, TEPC results from measurements taken during flights aboard ER-2 and KC-135 aircraft will also be discussed. Results from these flight studies include TEPC measurements for shielded and unshielded conditions as well as the effect of vibration and electromagnetic exposures on the TEPC operation. The data selected for presentation will highlight the utility of the TEPC in space radiation studies, and in shielding studies in particular. The lineal energy response function of the

  12. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatry: a matter of good care?

    PubMed

    Gremmen, I; Widdershoven, G; Beekman, A; Zuijderhoudt, R; Sevenhuijsen, S

    2008-02-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged in terms of autonomy conceived of as the right to non-intervention. On the basis of our empirical investigations into the experiences of persons directly involved with Ulysses arrangements, we argue that a care ethics perspective may broaden and deepen the debate on Ulysses arrangements, by introducing additional concepts, such as vulnerability, responsibility and mutuality, and by refining familiar concepts, such as autonomy. PMID:18234942

  13. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemler, Richard J.; Kelly, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source—Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances.

  14. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    SciTech Connect

    Hemler, R.J.; Kelly, C.E. )

    1993-01-10

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances.

  15. Warmer Local Interstellar Medium: A Possible Resolution of the Ulysses-IBEX Enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Frisch, P.; Fuselier, S. A.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T.; Möbius, E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Sokół, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Witte, M.

    2015-03-01

    Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) measurements from 2009-2010 identified a set of possible solutions with very tight coupling between the interstellar He inflow longitude, latitude, speed, and temperature. The center of this allowable parameter space suggested that the heliosphere could be moving more slowly and in a slightly different direction with respect to the interstellar medium than indicated by earlier Ulysses observations. In this study we examine data from 2012-2014 and compare results from an analytic analysis and a detailed computer model. For observations where the IBEX spacecraft pointing is near the ecliptic plane, the latest measurements indicate a different portion of IBEX's four-dimensional tube of possible parameters—one that is more consistent with the Ulysses flow direction and speed, but with a much higher temperature. Together, the current combined IBEX/Ulysses values we obtain are V ISM∞ ~ 26 km s-1, λISM∞ ~ 75°, βISM∞ ~ -5°, and T He∞ ~ 7000-9500 K. These indicate that the heliosphere is in a substantially warmer region of the interstellar medium than thought from the earlier Ulysses observations alone, and that this warmer region may be roughly isothermal. However, measurements taken when IBEX was pointing ~5° south of the ecliptic are inconsistent with this solution and suggest a slower speed, lower temperature, and flow direction similar to IBEX's prior central values. IBEX measures much deeper into the tails of the distributions of the inflowing interstellar material than Ulysses did and these observations indicate that the heliosphere's interstellar interaction is likely far more complex and interesting than previously appreciated.

  16. Minor species from comet 67P as measured from the VIRTIS-H instrument aboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Encrenaz, T.; Debout, V.; Erard, S.; Leyrat, C.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Drossart, P.; Arnold, G.; Biver, N.; Crovisier, J.; Schmitt, B.; Fougere, N.; Combi, M.; Virtis Team

    2015-10-01

    Since July 2014, the Visual IR Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) onboard the ESA's Rosetta spacecraft has intensively observed comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G). First results were published in [3]. VIRTIS is composed of two channels, -M for mapping and -H for high resolution, working in the 0.25-5 μm and 2-5 μm wavelength domains, respectively [4]. In addition to nucleus mapping observations, limb observations were carried out to obtain spectra of the coma, and to detect fluorescence emissions of gas phase species. H2O, CO2, CO and organics have strong vibrational bands in the 2.5-5 μm range. The n3 vibrational bands of H2O and CO2 at 2.67 and 4.27 μm, respectively, were detected in mid-October 2014 using VIRTIS-H, and observed regularly since then [1,2]. In this contribution, we will present observations of minor species, such as OCS, CO, CH4, NH3, CH3OH. These species have been detected in cometary atmospheres, some of them in comet 67P by other Rosetta instruments. Model simulations show that they should be detected with VIRTIS-H near perihelion. Observations with the VIRTIS instrument will allow us to investigate whether the outgassing distributions of the species and diurnal variations are related to their volatility. Data acquired in the November 2014 to January 2015 period indicate a very low CO abundance relative to water of less than 1.9% (3-sigma), and a CO/CO2 upper limit of 0.7 (3- sigma), which show that 67P/C-G is CO-poor, as measured for other Jupiter-family comets.

  17. Preliminary Results of Observations of Comets De Vico and Hyakutake by the Ulysses Comet Watch Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, C. C.; Brandt, J. C.; Yi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Cometary interactions with the solar wind allow us to use comets as probes of the inner regions of the heliosphere. During their close passage to the Sun, comets are exposed to different environments depending on their latitude. Until recently, characterizing these environments has been difficult because most spacecraft studying the sun have been confined to studying its mid-latitudes. A valuable source of information about the differing regimes of the solar wind is the joint ESA/NASA ULYSSES mission, which is the first spacecraft to explore the polar regions of the heliosphere. In 1995, ULYSSES' orbit covered a range of solar latitudes from -80 degrees to +80 degrees - an interval referred to as the 'fast latitude scan.' The Ulysses Comet Watch incorporates in-situ measurements during these periods by the ULYSSES spacecraft with images contributed by a world-wide network of observers (both amateur and professional). Bright comets whose paths come within 20 degrees solar latitude of the spacecraft are considered especially good targets for correlation between spacecraft data and plasma tail activity. Ulysses findings of interest to cometary plasma research are: Verification of global differences in solar wind properties (speed and density) at different solar latitudes. At polar latitudes - ranging from roughly +/-30 degrees to +/-80 degrees - the solar wind speed is about 750 kilometers/sec, and has a proton density (1 AU) around 3 cm(exp -3). Changes in properties are small and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is not seen. In the equatorial latitudes (roughly +30 to -30 degrees), the average solar wind speed is about 450 kilometers/sec, with an average proton density (at 1 AU) around 9 cm(exp -3). The HCS is seen and changes in properties can be large. An object, spacecraft or comet, at a given latitude, can be entirely in the polar, entirely in the equatorial, or can experience both - sort of a transition region.

  18. Stereoscopic observations of a solar hard x-ray flare with Ulysses, PVO, GRO and Yohkoh spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.R.; Hurley, K.; McTiernan, J.M.; Slocum, T. ); Laros, J.G.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebsadel, R.W. ); Sommer, M. ); Yoshimuri, M. ) Ohki, K. )

    1992-01-01

    Hard X-ray/gamma-ray spectrometers aboard two interplanetary spacecraft, Ulysses and Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), and two near-Earth spacecraft, Yohkoh and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO/BATSE), are currently in operation. A unique set of circumstances have permitted the observation of the 15 November 1991 (2238 UT) flare by all the four instruments. This intense flare (GOES class X 1.5) was associated with the bright (3B) H-alpha flare located on the disk (S13, W19) in the active region 6919. At the time of the flare, the Ulysses and PVO spacecraft were located respectively 101[degree] and 52[degree] west of the Sun-Earth line. Thus the view angles for the PVO and Ulysses instruments were quite different from those of the near-Earth instruments on GRO and Yohkoh. The preliminary photon energy spectra observed by the four instruments at different times during the flare will be presented and their implications regarding the directivity of hard X-ray sources in flares will be discussed.

  19. Regulation of the solar wind electron heat flux from 1 to 5 AU: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, E.E.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gary, S.P.; Phillips, J.L.; Balogh, A.

    1994-12-01

    In this study the authors use observations from the three-dimensional electron spectrometer and magnetometer aboard the Ulysses spacecraft to examine the solar wind electron heat flux from 1.2 to 5.4 AU in the ecliptic plane. Throughout Ulysses` transit to 5.4 AU, the electron heat flux decreases more rapidly ({approximately}R{sup {minus}3.0}) than simple collisionless expansion along the local magnetic field and is smaller than expected for a thermal gradient heat flux, q{sub {parallel}}e(r)={minus}k{sub {parallel}}{del}{sub {parallel}}T{sub e}(r). The radial gradients and magnitudes expected for a number of electron heat flux regulatory mechanisms are examined and compared to the observations. The best agreement is found for heat flux regulation by the whistler heat flux instability. The upper bound and radial scaling for the electron heat flux predicted for the whistler heat flux instability are consistent with observations.

  20. Regulation of the solar wind electron heat fluxfrom 1 to 5 AU: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scime, Earl E.; Bame, Samuel J.; Feldman, William C.; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, John L.; Balogh, Andre

    1994-01-01

    In this study we use observations from the three-dimensional electron spectrometer and magnetometer aboard the Ulysses spacecraft to examine the solar wind electron heat flux from 1.2 to 5.4 AU in the ecliptic plane. Throughout Ulusses' transit to 5.4 AU, the electron heat flux decreases more rapidly (approximately R(exp -30)) than simple collisionless expansion along the local magnetic field and is smaller than expected for a thermal gradient heat flux, q(sub parallel e) (r) = - Kappa(sub parallel) del(sub parallel) T(sub e)(r). The radial gradients and magnitudes expected for a number of electron heat flux regulatory mechanisms are examined and compared to the observations. The best agreement is found for heat flux regulation by the whistler heat flux instability. The upper bound and radial scaling for the electron heat flux predicted for the whistler heat flux instability are consistent with the observations.

  1. Ozone sonde measurements aboard long-range boundary-layer pressurized balloons over the western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheusi, François; Barret, Brice; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Durand, Pierre; Jambert, Corinne

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPBs) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electro-chemical cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (due to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPBs. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electro-chemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, the strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is left at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Therefore, the typical measurement sequence is composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a two-minute acquisition period. (Note that the time intervals given here are indicative. All can be adjusted before and during the flight.) Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 will be first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then, we will illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during the three summer field campaings of the coordinated project

  2. Thwarting the Diseased Will: Ulysses Contracts, the Self and Addiction.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    Ulysses contracts are a particular type of advance directive that has been advocated for use in mental health settings and addictions treatment. Taking their name from the legend of Ulysses, such contracts are distinctive insofar as they are designed to thwart certain anticipated future wishes rather than realize them. In this paper, I consider what Ulysses contracts reveal about contemporary conceptions of addiction and the self. Drawing on discussions of Ulysses contracts in the psychiatric and addictions literature, as well as historical and contemporary examples of such, I show that Ulysses contracts are premised on a split between the present 'rational' self and the future 'irrational' self, thereby reproducing a very particular notion of addiction--one that serves to naturalize certain ways of thinking about freedom, choice, coercion, and the self. PMID:25374370

  3. Ulysses directives in The Netherlands: opinions of psychiatrists and clients.

    PubMed

    Varekamp, I

    2004-12-01

    In this article we present a study on the opinions of Dutch psychiatrists and clients on Ulysses directives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 clients and 17 psychiatrists. Most respondents were proponents of Ulysses directives. The most frequently mentioned objective of these directives was to secure timely admission to hospital, although a large minority was mainly interested in giving patients influence on treatment decisions. Psychiatrists differed on how much autonomy they preferred with regard to decisions about the moment of admission and kind of treatment. Clients also differed in this respect. Pressure from others to execute a Ulysses directive, and premature admission to the hospital were mentioned as risks of Ulysses directives. Crisis cards were seen as an alternative by many psychiatrists and some clients. Recommendations are made for a good functioning of Ulysses directives, and the appropriateness of crisis cards as an alternative for a number of patients is discussed. PMID:15488996

  4. The hot plasma environment at jupiter: ulysses results.

    PubMed

    Lanzerotti, L J; Armstrong, T P; Gold, R E; Anderson, K A; Krimigis, S M; Lin, R P; Pick, M; Roelof, E C; Sarris, E T; Simnett, G M; Maclennan, C G; Choo, H T; Tappin, S J

    1992-09-11

    Measurements of the hot plasma environment during the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter have revealed several new discoveries related to this large rotating astrophysical system. The Jovian magnetosphere was found by Ulysses to be very extended, with the day-side magnetopause located at approximately 105 Jupiter radii. The heavy ion (sulfur, oxygen, and sodium) population in the day-side magnetosphere increased sharply at approximately 86 Jupiter radii. This is somewhat more extended than the "inner" magnetosphere boundary region identified by the Voyager hot plasma measurements. In the day-side magnetosphere, the ion fluxes have the anisotropy direction expected for corotation with the planet, with the magnitude of the anisotropy increasing when the spacecraft becomes more immersed in the hot plasma sheet. The relative abundances of sulfur, oxygen, and sodium to helium decreased somewhat with decreasing radial distance from the planet on the day-side, which suggests that the abundances of the Jupiter-derived species are dependent on latitude. In the dusk-side, high-latitude region, intense fluxes of counter-streaming ions and electrons were discovered from the edge of the plasma sheet to the dusk-side magnetopause. These beams of electrons and ions were found to be very tightly aligned with the magnetic field and to be superimposed on a time- and space-variable isotropic hot plasma background. The currents carried by the measured hot plasma particles are typically approximately 1.6 x 10(-4) microamperes per square meter or approximately 8 x 10(5) amperes per squared Jupiter radius throughout the high-latitude magnetosphere volume. It is likely that the intense particle beams discovered at high Jovian latitudes produce auroras in the polar caps of the planet. PMID:17776161

  5. Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, P. A.; Snowden, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The baseline Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system (SCMS) concepts and the converted SCMS, residing on a DEC/VAX 8350 hardware, are considered. The main functions of the system include monitoring and displaying spacecraft telemetry, preparing spacecraft commands, producing hard copies of experimental data, and archiving spacecraft telemetry. The SCMS system comprises over 20 subsystems ranging from low-level utility routines to the major monitoring and control software. These in total consist of approximately 55,000 lines of FORTRAN source code and 100 VMS command files. The SCMS major software facilities are described, including database files, telemetry processing, telecommanding, archiving of data, and display of telemetry.

  6. The Ulysses Cosmic Ray and Solar Particle Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Anglin, J. D.; Balogh, A.; Bercovitch, M.; Bouman, J. M.; Budzinski, E. E.; Burrows, J. R.; Carvell, R.; Connell, J. J.; Ducros, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses experimental program termed Cosmic Ray and Solar Particle Investigation (COSPIN) is described, with special attention given to the scientific objectives of the COSPIN, the measurements performed, the initial postlaunch results, and the characteristics of the individual COSPIN instruments. The instrument package of the COSPIN experiment includes the Low Energy Telescope, the High Energy Telescope, the High-Flux Telescope, the Electron Telescope, the Digital Processing Unit, two Anisotropy Telescopes, and two dc/dc power converters. Preliminary results obtained from quick-look data from COSPIN telescopes showed that the instruments are functioning properly and that their design has achieved both the wide dynamic range and the precision required in this mission.

  7. Solar Activity and GCR Particle Flux Variations: Assessment and Modeling with Ulysses and ACE/CRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saganti, Premkumar

    Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) environment during the current and historically known lower solar minimum condition indicate some of the very high anticipated measurements of particle spectral data. Data from the Ulysses spacecraft in the polar orbit about the sun during the years 2004 and 2008 (about 5 AU) provided proton and alpha particle flux data and showed such anticipated high particle flux variations. Also, ACE/CRIS spacecraft data during the years 2007 and 2009 showed some of the high particle flux measurements of several heavy ions such as oxygen and iron. We present Ulysses and ACE/CRIS measured particle flux data and discuss their high density and variations in the context of the current low solar activity for depicting current space radiation environment.

  8. Neutral interstellar helium parameters based on Ulysses/GAS and IBEX-LO observations: What are the reasons for the differences?

    SciTech Connect

    Katushkina, O. A.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Wood, B. E.; McMullin, D. R.

    2014-07-01

    Recent analysis of the interstellar helium fluxes measured in 2009-2010 at Earth's orbit by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has suggested that the interstellar velocity (both direction and magnitude) is inconsistent with that derived previously from Ulysses/GAS observations made in the period from 1990 to 2002 at 1.5-5.5 AU from the Sun. Both results are model dependent, and models that were used in the analyses are different. In this paper, we perform an analysis of the Ulysses/GAS and IBEX-Lo data using our state-of-the-art three-dimensional time-dependent kinetic model of interstellar atoms in the heliosphere. For the first time, we analyze Ulysses/GAS data from year 2007, the closest available Ulysses/GAS observations in time to the IBEX observations. We show that the interstellar velocity derived from the Ulysses 2007 data is consistent with previous Ulysses results and does not agree with the velocity derived from IBEX. This conclusion is very robust since, as is shown in the paper, it does not depend on the ionization rates adopted in theoretical models. We conclude that Ulysses data are not consistent with the new local interstellar medium (LISM) velocity vector from IBEX. In contrast, IBEX data, in principle, could be explained with the LISM velocity vector derived from the Ulysses data. This is possible for the models where the interstellar temperature increased from 6300 K to 9000 K. There is a need to perform further studies of possible reasons for the broadening of the helium signal core measured by IBEX, which could be an instrumental effect or could be due to unconsidered physical processes.

  9. Neutral Interstellar Helium Parameters Based on Ulysses/GAS and IBEX-Lo Observations: What are the Reasons for the Differences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katushkina, O. A.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Wood, B. E.; McMullin, D. R.

    2014-07-01

    Recent analysis of the interstellar helium fluxes measured in 2009-2010 at Earth's orbit by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has suggested that the interstellar velocity (both direction and magnitude) is inconsistent with that derived previously from Ulysses/GAS observations made in the period from 1990 to 2002 at 1.5-5.5 AU from the Sun. Both results are model dependent, and models that were used in the analyses are different. In this paper, we perform an analysis of the Ulysses/GAS and IBEX-Lo data using our state-of-the-art three-dimensional time-dependent kinetic model of interstellar atoms in the heliosphere. For the first time, we analyze Ulysses/GAS data from year 2007, the closest available Ulysses/GAS observations in time to the IBEX observations. We show that the interstellar velocity derived from the Ulysses 2007 data is consistent with previous Ulysses results and does not agree with the velocity derived from IBEX. This conclusion is very robust since, as is shown in the paper, it does not depend on the ionization rates adopted in theoretical models. We conclude that Ulysses data are not consistent with the new local interstellar medium (LISM) velocity vector from IBEX. In contrast, IBEX data, in principle, could be explained with the LISM velocity vector derived from the Ulysses data. This is possible for the models where the interstellar temperature increased from 6300 K to 9000 K. There is a need to perform further studies of possible reasons for the broadening of the helium signal core measured by IBEX, which could be an instrumental effect or could be due to unconsidered physical processes.

  10. Nuclear risk analysis of the Ulysses mission

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, B.W.; Vaughan, F.R. ); Englehart, D.R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The use of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide on the Space Shuttle-launched Ulysses mission implies some level of risk due to potential accidents. This paper describes the method used to quantify risks in the Ulysses mission Final Safety Analysis Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The starting point for the analysis described herein is following input of source term probability distributions from the General Electric Company. A Monte Carlo technique is used to develop probability distributions of radiological consequences for a range of accident scenarios thoughout the mission. Factors affecting radiological consequences are identified, the probability distribution of the effect of each factor determined, and the functional relationship among all the factors established. The probability distributions of all the factor effects are then combined using a Monte Carlo technique. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) by mission sub-phase, phase, and the overall mission. The CCDFs show the total probability that consequences (calculated health effects) would be equal to or greater than a given value.

  11. He abundance variations in the solar wind: Observations from Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, B.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Goldstein, B.E.

    1996-07-01

    The Ulysses mission is providing the first opportunity to observe variations in solar wind plasma parameters at heliographic latitudes far removed from the ecliptic plane. We present here an overview of the solar wind speed and the variability in helium abundance, [He], for the entire mission to date, data on [He] in six high-latitude coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and a superposed epoch analysis of [He] variations at the seven heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossings made during the rapid-latitude-scan portion of the mission. The differences in the variability of the solar wind speed and [He] in high-latitude and equatorial regions are quite striking. Solar wind speed is generally low but highly variable near the solar equator, while at higher latitudes the average speed is quite high (average speed around 760 km/s) with little variability. [He] can vary over nearly two decades at low solar latitudes, while at high latitudes it varies only slightly around an average value of {approximately}4.3{percent}. In contrast to the high [He] that is often associated with CMEs observed near the ecliptic, none of the six high-speed CMEs encountered at high southern heliographic latitudes showed any significant variation in helium content from average values. Reasons for this difference between high and low latitude CME observations are not yet understood. A superposed epoch analysis of the [He] during all seven HCS crossings made as Ulysses passed from the southern to northern solar hemisphere shows the expected [He] minimum near the crossing and a broad ({plus_minus}3day) period of low [He] around the crossing time. We briefly discuss how our solar wind [He] observations may provide an accurate measure of the helium composition for all regions of the sun lying above the helium ionization zone. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Stream interfaces and energetic ions II: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Siscoe, George L.; Wibberenz, Gerd; Kunow, Horst; Gosling, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses measurements of energetic and solar wind particles taken near 5 AU between 20 and 30 degrees south latitude during a well-developed recurring corotating interaction region (CIR) show that the CIR's corotating energetic ion population (CEIP) associated with the trailing reverse shock starts within the CIR at the stream interface. This is consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers 10 and 11 in the ecliptic plane between 4 and 6 AU. The Ulysses/Pioneer finding is noteworthy since the stream interface is not magnetically connected to the reverse shock, but lies 12-17 corotation hours from it. Thus, the finding seems to be inconsistent with the basic model that generates CEIP particles at the reverse shock and propagates them along field lines. Eliminating the inconsistency probably entails an extension of the standard model such as cross-field diffusion or a non-shock energization process operating near the stream interface closer to the sun.

  13. Electron impact ionization rates for interstellar H and He atoms near interplanetary shocks: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W.C.; Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.; Isenberg, P.A.

    1996-07-01

    Solar wind plasma data measured during the near-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission between October, 1990 and January, 1993 were studied to determine the relative importance of electron-impact ionization to the total ionization rates of interstellar hydrogen and helium atoms. During times of quiet flow conditions electron-impact ionization rates were found to be generally low, of the order of 1{percent} of the total ionization rates. However, just downstream of the strongest CME- and CIR-driven shock waves encountered by Ulysses, the electron impact-ionization rate at times was more than 10{percent} that of the charge-exchange rate for hydrogen and more than 100{percent} that of the photoionization rate for helium. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Ulysses - An ESA/NASA cooperative programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, W.; Eaton, D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperation between ESA and NASA is discussed, noting that the Memorandum of Understanding lays the framework for this relationship, defining the responsibilities of ESA and NASA and providing for appointment of leadership and managers for the project. Members of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA's ESTEC staff have been appointed to leadership positions within the project and ultimate control of the project rests with the Joint Working Group consisting of two project managers and two project scientists, equally representing both organizations. Coordination of time scales and overall mission design is discussed, including launch cooperation, public relations, and funding of scientific investigations such as Ulysses. Practical difficulties of managing an international project are discussed such as differing documentation requirements and communication techniques, and assurance of equality on projects.

  15. Ulysses operations at Jupiter - Planning for the unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angold, N.; Beech, P.; Garcia-Perez, R.; Mcgarry, A.; Standley, S.

    1992-01-01

    The operational preparations for the Ulysses encounter with Jupiter are described with particular attention given to requirements for survival in the Jovian environment, ground-segment planning, a deep-space network, and encounter activities. It is concluded that the successful operation of the Ulysses spacecraft at Jupiter was the culmination of many years of activity, from spacecraft design and mission planning to the coordination of the encounter activities and production of the detailed timeline.

  16. Making a clean break: addiction and Ulysses contracts.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2008-01-01

    I examine current models of self-destructive addictive behaviour, and argue that there is an important place for Ulysses contracts in coping with addictive behaviour that stems from certain problematic preference structures. Given the relevant preference structures, interference based on a Ulysses contract need not involve questionably favouring an agent's past preferences over her current preferences, but can actually be justified in terms of the agent's current concerns and commitments. PMID:18154586

  17. ULYSSES - an expert-system-based VLSI design environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ulysses is a VLSI computer-aided design (CAD) environment which effectively addresses the problems associated with CAD tool integration. Specifically, Ulysses allows the integration of CAD tools into a design automation (DA) system, the codification of a design methodology, and the representation of a design space. Ulysses keeps track of the progress of a design and allows exploration of the design space. The environment employs artificial intelligence techniques, functions as an interactive expert system, and interprets descriptions of design tasks encoded in the scripts language. An integrated-circuit silicon compilation task is presented as an example of the ability of Ulysses to automatically execute CAD tools to solve a problem where inferencing is required to obtain a viable VLSI layout. The inferencing mechanism, in the form of a controlled production system, allows Ulysses to recover when routing channel congestion or over-constrained leaf-cell boundary conditions make it impossible for CAD tools to complete layouts. Also, Ulysses allows the designer to intervene while design activities are being carried out. Consistency-maintenance rules encoded in the scripts language enforce geometric floor-plan consistency when CAD tools fail and when the designer makes adjustments to a VLSI chip layout.

  18. Ulysses and IMP-8 Observations of Cosmic Rays and So-lar Energetic Particles from the South Pole to the North Pole of the Sun near Solar Maximum*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; Zhang, M.

    2001-12-01

    The High Energy Telescope (HET) of the Ulysses COSPIN experiment measures intensities of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles (SEPs) with good energy and charge resolution at energies above about 30 MeV/n. Since passing over the South Polar regions of the Sun near solar maximum in late 2000 Ulysses has been rapidly traversing solar latitude in its so-called Fast Latitude Scan (FLS), passing through perihelion near the sun's equator in May 2001. Maximum northern latitude (80.2 deg N) will be reached in October 2001. HET observations since the onset of solar activity, including the South Polar pass and the first part of the FLS, show that SEPs from large events were commonly observed at both Ulysses and Earth (IMP-8) regardless of the radial, latitudinal, or longitudinal separations between Ulysses and Earth. During the decay phases of the events intensities were often almost equal at Ulysses and IMP, even when Ulysses was over the Sun's South Pole and the associated flare site was in the northern hemisphere. This suggests that propagation of particles across the average interplanetary magnetic field in the inner heliosphere is effective enough to relax longitudinal and latitudinal particle intensity gradients within a few days. For galactic cosmic rays, observations from the FLS so far show that latitudinal gradients resulting from solar modulation at solar maximum are <1%/degree, and are in fact consistent with zero to the accuracy of our measurements. The small gradients also suggest effective propagation in the latitudinal direction. We will report observations from the continuing FLS, give a first report of Ulysses observations over the sun's North Polar Regions, and discuss the significance of the results for models of energetic charged particle propagation through the heliosphere. * This work was supported in part by NASA Contract JPL-955432 and by NASA Grant NAG5-8032.

  19. Modeling Spectral Turnovers in Interplanetary Shocks Observed by ULYSSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerlin, E. J.; Baring, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere provide excellent test cases for the simulation and theory of particle acceleration at shocks thanks to the presence of in-situ measurements and a relatively well understood initial particle distribution. The Monte-Carlo test particle simulation employed in this work has been previously used to study injection and acceleration from thermal energies into the high energy power-law tail at co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) in the heliosphere presuming a steady state planar shock (Summerlin & Baring, 2006, Baring and Summerlin, 2008). These simulated power-spectra compare favorably with in-situ measurements from the ULYSSES spacecraft below 60 keV. However, to effectively model the high energy exponential cutoff at energies above 60 keV observed in these distributions, simulations must apply spatial or temporal constraints to the acceleration process. This work studies the effects of a variety of temporal and spatial co! nstraints (including spatial constraints on the turbulent region around the shock as determined by magnetometer data, spatial constraints related to the scale size of the shock and constraints on the acceleration time based on the known limits for the shock's lifetime) on the high energy cut-off and compares simulated particle spectra to those observed by the ULYSSES HI-SCALE instrument in an effort to determine which constraint is creating the cut-off and using that constraining parameter to determine additional information about the shock that can not, normally, be determined by a single data point, such as the spatial extent of the shock or how long the shock has been propagating through the heliosphere before it encounters the spacecraft. Shocks observed by multiple spacecraft will be of particular interest as their parameters will be better constrained than shocks observed by only one spacecraft. To achieve these goals, the simulation will be modified to include the re! trodictive approach of Jones

  20. A Detection of the Same Hot Plasma in the Corona: During a CME and Later at Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    We show direct evidence for the same very hot plasma being detected remotely from SOHO in the corona and subsequently, at Ulysses in the solar wind. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that such an unambiguous identification has been made in the case of hot plasma. This detection complements studies correlating other plasma and field properties observed to the properties measured at the source in the corona. This observation takes advantage of a SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadrature, during which the Sun-Ulysses included angle is $90^\\circ$ and it is possible to observe with Ulysses instruments the same plasma that has previously been remotely observed with SOHO instruments in the corona on the limb of the Sun. The identification builds on an existing base of separate SOHO and interplanetary detections of hot plasma. SOHO/UVCS has found evidence for very hot coronal plasma in current sheets in the aftermath of CMEs in the [Fe XVIII] $\\lambda$ \\AA\\ line, implying a temperature on the order of $6\\times 10(exp 6)$ K. This temperature is unusually high even for active regions, but is compatible with the high temperature predicted in current sheets. In the solar wind, ACE data from early 1998 to middle 2000 revealed high frozen-in Fe charge state in many cases to be present in interplanetary plasma.

  1. HIGH LATITUDE ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS OF THE H/HE INTENSITY RATIO UNDER SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. GOSLING; D. LARIO; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    We analyze measurements of the 0.5-1.0 MeV/nucleon H/He intensity ratio from the Ulysses spacecraft during its first (1992-94) and second (1999-2000) ascent to southern high latitude regions of the heliosphere. These cover a broad range of heliocentric distances (from 5.2 to 2.0 AU) and out-of-ecliptic latitudes (from 18{degree}S to 80{degree}S). During Ulysses' first southern pass, the HI-SCALE instrument measured a series of enhanced particle fluxes associated with the passage of a recurrent corotating interaction region (CIR). Low values ({approximately}6) of the H/He ratio were observed in these recurrent corotating events, with a clear minimum following the passage of the corotating reverse shock. When Ulysses reached high southern latitudes (>40{degree}S), the H/He ratio always remained below {approximately}10 except during two transient solar events that brought the ratio to high (>20) values. Ulysses' second southern pass was characterized by a higher average value of the H/He ratio. No recurrent pattern was observed in the energetic ion intensity which was dominated by the occurrence of transient events of solar origin. Numerous CIRs, many of which were bounded by forward and reverse shock pairs, were still observed in the solar wind and magnetic field data. The arrival of those CIRs at Ulysses did not always result in a decrease of the H/He ratio; on the contrary, many CIRs showed a higher H/He ratio than some transient events. Within a CIR, however, the H/He ratio usually increased around the forward shock and decreased towards the reverse shock. Throughout the second ascent to southern heliolatitudes, the H/He ratio seldom decreased below {approximately}10 even at high latitudes (>40{degree}S). We interpret these higher values of the H/He ratio in terms of the increasing level of solar activity together with the poor definition and short life that corotating solar wind structures have under solar maximum conditions. The global filling of the heliosphere

  2. In-situ measurements of chlorine activation, nitric acid redistribution and ozone depletion in the Antarctic lower vortex aboard the German research aircraft HALO during TACTS/ESMVal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Ziereis, Helmut; Hoor, Peter; Bozem, Heiko; Müller, Stefan; Zahn, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Oelhaf, Hermann; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In-situ measurements of stratospheric chlorine compounds are rare and exhibit the potential to gain insight into small scale mixing processes where stratospheric air masses of different origin and history interact. In addition, the relationship with chemically stable trace gases helps to identify regions that have been modified by chemical processing on polar stratospheric clouds. To this end, in-situ measurements of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, NOy, N2O and O3 have been performed in the Antarctic Polar Vortex in September 2012 aboard the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Rang research aircraft) during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition in the UTLS/Earth System Model Validation) mission. With take-off and landing in Capetown, HALO sampled vortex air with latitudes down to 65°S, at altitudes between 8 and 14.3 km and potential temperatures between 340 and 390 K. Before intering the vortex at 350 K potential temperature, HALO additionally sampled mid-latitude stratospheric air. The trace gas distributions at the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex show distinct signatures of processed upper stratospheric vortex air and chemically different lower stratospheric / upper tropospheric air. Diabatic descend of the vortex transports processed air into the lower stratosphere. Here small scale filaments of only a few kilometers extension form at the lower vortex boundary due to shear stress, ultimately leading to transport and irreversible mixing. Comparison of trace gas relationships with those at the beginning of the polar winter reveals substantial chlorine activation, ozone depletion de- and renitrification with high resolution. Furthermore, the measurements are compared to the chemistry climate models EMAC and supported by ECMWF analysis. Finally, we compare the Antarctic measurements with new measurements of ClONO2, HCl and HNO3 aboard HALO obtained during the Arctic mission POLSTRACC (POLar STratosphere in a Changing Climate) based in Kiruna (Sveden

  3. Ulysses orbit determination at high declinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelrath, Timothy P.; Lewis, George D.

    1995-01-01

    The trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft caused its geocentric declination to exceed 60 deg South for over two months during the Fall of 1994, permitting continuous tracking from a single site. During this time, spacecraft operations constraints allowed only Doppler tracking data to be collected, and imposed a high radial acceleration uncertainty on the orbit determination process. The unusual aspects of this situation have motivated a re-examination of the Hamilton-Melbourne results, which have been used before to estimate the information content of Doppler tracking for trajectories closer to the ecliptic. The addition of an acceleration term to this equation is found to significantly increase the declination uncertainty for symmetric passes. In addition, a simple means is described to transform the symmetric results when the tracking pass is non-symmetric. The analytical results are then compared against numerical studies of this tracking geometry and found to be in good agreement for the angular uncertainties. The results of this analysis are applicable to the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission and to any other missions with high declination trajectories, as well as to missions using short tracking passes and/or one-way Doppler data.

  4. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seuss, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over approximately 10 hours. A small CME was reported in C2. A substantial interplanetary CME (ICME) was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. This detection illustrates the properties of an ICME for a known solar source and demonstrates that the identification can be done even beyond 3 AU. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied. We report on the SOHO observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the solar limb and the subsequent in situ detection at Ulysses, which was near quadrature at the time, above the location of the CME. SOHO-Ulysses quadrature was 13 June, when Ulysses was 3.36 AU from the Sun and 58.2 degrees south of the equator off the east limb. The slow streamer blowout was on 10 June, when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses angle was 87 degrees.

  5. ULYSSES comes full circle, before revisiting the Sun's poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    From its unique perspective, Ulysses has provided scientists with the very first all-round map of the heliosphere, the huge bubble in space filled by the Sun's wind. The Earth swims deep inside the heliosphere, and gusts and shocks in the solar wind can harm satellites, power supplies and ommunications. They may also affect our planet's weather. A better grasp of the solar weather in the heliosphere is therefore one of the major aims of ESA's science programme. In a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, Ulysses was launched towards Jupiter in October 1990 by the US space shuttle Discovery. Arriving in February 1992, Ulysses stole energy from the giant planet in a slingshot manoeuvre and was propelled back towards the Sun in an elongated orbit almost at right angles to the ecliptic plane, where the Earth and other planets circle the Sun. "This month Ulysses returns to the point in space where its out-of-ecliptic journey began, but Jupiter isn't there," explains Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist for Ulysses. "Following its own inexorable path around the Sun, Jupiter is far away on the opposite side of the Solar System. So Ulysses' course will not be changed a second time. The spacecraft is now in effect a man-made comet, forever bound into a 6-year polar orbit around the Sun." Ulysses now starts its second orbit. It will travel over the poles of the Sun in 2000-2001 just as the count of dark sunspots is expected to reach a maximum. With its operational life extended for the Ulysses Solar Maximum Mission, the spacecraft will find the heliosphere much stormier than during its first orbit. Discoveries so far Like its mythical namesake, Ulysses has already had an eventful voyage of discovery. Its unique trajectory has provided the scientific teams with a new perspective, from far out in space and especially in the previously unknown regions of the heliosphere over the Sun's poles. Passing within 9.8 degrees of the polar axis, the highly

  6. Spatial evolution of 26-day recurrent galactic cosmic ray decreases: Correlated Ulysses COSPIN/KET and SOHO COSTEP observations

    SciTech Connect

    Heber, B.; Bothmer, V.; Droege, W.

    1998-12-31

    In December 1995 the Ulysses spacecraft was at a radial distance of 3 AU from the Sun and 60{degree} northern heliographic latitude. To that time the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) started its mission. On board of both spacecraft particle sensors are measuring electrons, protons and helium nuclei in the MeV to GeV energy range. In early 1996 the counting rates of several hundred MeV galactic cosmic rays at Ulysses and at SOHO (Earth orbit) were modulated by recurrent cosmic ray decreases (RCRDs). The RCRDs at SOHO were found to be associated with a corotating interaction region (CIRs). A Lomb (spectral) analysis was performed on the galactic cosmic ray flux from February 1996 to June 1996. Surprisingly, the most probable frequency is {approximately} 28 days and not 26 or 27 days, corresponding to one solar rotation. The amplitude of the RCRDs is {approximately} 2.3% on both spacecraft. The variation in the solar wind speed shows the same periodicities and is anticorrelated to the variation in the cosmic ray flux. In contrast to the RCRDs the amplitude found in the solar wind speed is four times larger at WIND (120 km/s) than at Ulysses (32 km/s). The solar wind proton density and magnetic field strength yielded no significant periodicities, neither at Ulysses nor at WIND. Comparing the RCRDs with coronal hole structures observed in the FE XIV line, they found that a single coronal hole close to the heliographic equation can account for the RCRDs observed simultaneously at Ulysses and SOHO. The coronal hole boundaries changed towards lower Carrington longitudes and vanished slowly. The changes of the boundaries during the investigated period could explain a 28 day periodicity.

  7. Development and Use of the Galileo and Ulysses Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Gary L; Hemler, Richard J; Schock, Alfred

    1994-10-01

    Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, October 1994. The Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Ulysses mission to explore the polar regions of the Sun required a new power source: the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generator (GPHS-RTG), the most powerful RTG yet flow. Four flight-qualified GPHS-RTGs were fabricated with one that is being used on Ulysses, two that are being used on Galileo and one that was a common spare (and is now available for the Cassini mission to Saturn). In addition, and Engineering Unit and a Qualification Unit were fabricated to qualify the design for space through rigorous ground tests. This paper summarizes the ground testing and performance predictions showing that the GPHS-RTGs have met and will continue to meet or exceed the performance requirements of the ongoing Galileo and Ulysses missions. There are two copies in the file.

  8. Instrumented experiments aboard the frigate WOLF. Wolf 2: Measurement results of the 5.5 kg TNT in the crew aft sleeping compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhagen, T. L. A.; Vandekasteele, R. M.

    1992-08-01

    Within the framework of the research into the vulnerability of ships, an experimental investigation took place in 1989 aboard the frigate 'Wolf.' The recordings of an instrumented experiment in the crew aft sleeping compartment are presented. During this experiment, a nonfragmenting charge of 5.5 kg TNT was initiated. Preceding the 5.5 kg TNT experiment, a 2 kg TNT experiment was performed on the same day. Later that day the 15 kg TNT experiment took place. Reparation/modification of the instrumentation was not possible. The settings of the instrumentation equipment were based on the expected extreme responses of the 15 kg TNT experiment later that day which had, however, an influence on the signal to noise ratio. The blast measurements seem to have recorded correctly. The quasi static pressure in the experiment compartment as well as in the adjacent compartments showed classical behavior. The strain measurements seemed to be good, although some of them malfunctioned after a period of time.

  9. How to justify enforcing a Ulysses contract when Ulysses is competent to refuse.

    PubMed

    Davis, John K

    2008-03-01

    Sometimes the mentally ill have sufficient mental capacity to refuse treatment competently, and others have a moral duty to respect their refusal. However, those with episodic mental disorders may wish to precommit themselves to treatment, using Ulysses contracts known as "mental health advance directives." How can health care providers justify enforcing such contracts over an agent's current, competent refusal? I argue that providers respect an agent's autonomy not retrospectively--by reference to his or her past wishes-and not merely synchronically--so that the agent gets what he or she wants right now-but diachronically and prospectively, acting so that the agent can shape his or her circumstances as the agent wishes over time, for the agent will experience the consequences of providers' actions over time. Mental health directives accomplish this, so they are a way of respecting the agent's autonomy even when providers override the agent's current competent refusal. PMID:18561579

  10. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  11. Ulysses Observations of Alfven and Magnetosonic Waves at High Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    Ulysses observations provide a unique opportunity to study diverse problems related to Alfven and magnetosonic waves. The large amplitude of the Alfven waves influences the distribution functions of the spiral angle, the azimuthal field component and, possibly, the radial component such that their averages are not equal to their most probable values.

  12. The Galileo/Mars Observer/Ulysses Coincidence Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    From March 21 to April 11, 1993 the Galileo, Mars Observer and Ulysses spacecraft were tracked in a coincidence experiment, searching for low-frequency (millihertz) gravitational radiation. In the spacecraft Doppler technique, the earth and a distant spacecraft act as separated test masses.

  13. Ulysses and WIND simultaneous observations of the radio emission associated with the 6-7 January 1997 coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, S.; Maksimovic, M.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    The three dimensional source location of interplanetary type 2 radio bursts is intended to be determined from two spacecraft observations, performed by the radio receivers onboard the WIND and Ulysses spacecraft and associated with the interplanetary coronal mass ejection detected by the large advanced spectrometer coronagraph (LASCO) from the SOHO spacecraft. The intensity time profiles recorded by WIND and Ulysses were compared and their directivity is found to vary from one component of radio emission to another. The three dimensional location was obtained by radio triangulation and was deduced from the direction measured at WIND and the difference of the arrival times measured at both spacecraft. The sensitivity of both determination methods to wave scattering and refraction was discussed.

  14. Measurement of OH, H2SO4, MSA, NH3 and DMSO Aboard the NASA P-3B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisele, Fred

    2001-01-01

    This project involved the installation of a downsized multichannel mass spectrometer instrument on the NASA P-3B aircraft and its subsequent use on the PEM-Tropics B mission. The new instrument performed well, measuring a number of difficult-to-measure compounds and providing much new photochemical and sulfur data as well as possibly uncovering a new nighttime DMSO source. The details of this effort are discussed.

  15. Polar Coronal Holes during the Past Solar Cycle: Ulysses Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Steiger, R.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2009-12-01

    During its nearly 19 year mission, Ulysses pioneered novel measurements of the three-dimensional heliosphere and particularly provided the first in situ observations of solar wind from polar coronal holes (PCHs). These PCH-associated solar wind streams show long-term variability in both dynamic and also compositional signatures. Between the polar passages in 1994-95 and in 2007-08, the C and O freeze-in temperatures measured in high-latitude solar wind have decreased by ~15 % and are now around 0.86 MK and 1.0 MK, respectively. Si and Fe ionization states also exhibit a substantial cooling with a reduction of 0.4 and 0.5 charge states on average, respectively. On the other hand, there no significant changes of the elemental composition of the solar wind, as exhibited through the First Ionization Potential fractionation effect, which has remained at f = 1.8±0.3 during both sets of polar passages, i.e., enhanced to the photospheric composition (f = 1). Thus, it appears that the PCH of cycle 23 are cooler overall than those of cycle 22, while their elemental composition has remained unchanged, thus confirming their status as the “ground state” of the solar wind. These observations, together with the observed ~15 % reduction of the heliospheric magnetic field (Smith and Balogh, 2008), and the ~17 % and ~14 % reductions in density and temperature, respectively (McComas et al., 2008), provide a unique test for theories of the solar wind and its composition, in particular for the concept of freezing-in of charge states and of the FIP fractionation effect. We will present results from this analysis of SWICS data and also discuss the scientific implications of these novel results.

  16. LIF measurements of HOx radicals in the lower troposphere aboard the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaign 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomm, Sebastian; Broch, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Li, Xin; Lohse, Insa; Lu, Keding; Mentel, Thomas; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Wolfe, Glenn; Wahner, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key compounds for the degradation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Therefore, accurate and precise measurements of HOx radicals (= OH + HO2) at different altitudes and in different regions are necessary to test our understanding of atmospheric chemical processes. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is of special interest as it is chemically the most active part of the atmosphere. Until today there is a general lack of measurements investigating the distribution of radicals, trace gases, and aerosols in the PBL with high spatial resolution. Here, we present results of two measurement campaigns performed from May - July 2012 in the metropolitan area of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and in the Po valley region in Italy as part of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS). We used the Zeppelin NT as an airborne platform for measurements of HOx radical concentrations and total OH reactivity applying a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument. In addition a comprehensive set of other trace gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO), photolysis frequencies, particle number concentration, and meteorological parameters were measured. The airship Zeppelin NT allowed us to perform unique flight patterns, including localized height profiles up to 900 m above ground and transect flights at low flight speeds. We present measured data for the HOx radical concentrations and the total OH reactivity along with a model analysis of the radical chemistry. Maximum daytime concentrations were 2.0 × 107cm-3 for OH and 1.5 × 109cm-3 for HO2. Typical values for the total OH reactivity were smaller than 10 s-1. During the morning hours, vertical gradients in radical and trace gas concentrations were observed indicating a layered atmospheric structure. The vertical gradients vanished after sunrise due to enhanced convective mixing of the PBL.

  17. Cosmic ray modulation at the solar maximum: Ulysses observations during the fast latitude scan of the inner heliosphere*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.

    2002-05-01

    Starting at the maximum southern latitude of 80o in November 2000, Ulysses made a fast latitude scan of the inner heliosphere within approximately one year at the time of maximum solar activity. It passed through a perihelion at 1.34 AU near the solar equator in May 2001, and reached its maximum northern latitude in October 2001. The fast latitude scan provides best conditions for the determination of cosmic ray latitudinal gradients because of little expected drift of instrument performance and a small coverage of radial distance (2.2 to 1.34 AU). Although the time period is dominated by solar energetic particle events, measurements from the High-Energy Telescope on the Ulysses COSPIN experiment together with simultaneous measurements from the University of Chicago Charge Particle Telescope on IMP-8 near Earth made during rare solar quiet time periods found that the latitudinal gradient of cosmic ray intensities is essentially zero for all nuclei of energies above 30 MeV/n. Compared to the measurements of small cosmic ray latitude gradients made by Ulysses' first fast latitude scan at the 1994-1995 solar minimum, this observation indicates that the inner heliosphere is more spherically symmetric at the solar maximum. In this paper, we will discuss its implications to the understanding of the structure of heliospheric magnetic fields and the mechanisms of particle transport. * This work was supported in part by NASA Contract JPL-955432 and by NASA Grants NAG5-11036 and NAG5-10888

  18. Solar and airglow measurements aboard the two suborbital flights NASA 36.098 and 36.107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    This suborbital program, involving the University of Colorado (CU), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), University of California at Berkeley (UCB), and Boston University (BU), has resulted in two rocket flights from the White Sands Missile Range, one in 1992 and one in 1993 as NASA 36.098 and 36.107 respectively. The rocket payload includes five solar instruments and one airglow instrument from CU/NCAR and one solar instrument and two airglow instruments from UCB/BU. This report discusses results on solar radiation measurements and the study of thermospheric airglow, namely the photoelectron excited emissions from N2 and O, for the CU/NCAR program.

  19. Measurement of OCS, CO2, CO and H2O aboard NASA's WB-57 High Altitude Platform Using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leen, J. B.; Owano, T. G.; Du, X.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere and has been implicated in controlling the sulfur budget and aerosol loading of the stratosphere. In the troposphere, OCS is irreversibly consumed during photosynthesis and may serve as a tracer for gross primary production (GPP). Its primary sources are ocean outgassing, industrial processes, and biomass burning. Its primary sinks are vegetation and soils. Despite the importance of OCS in atmospheric processes, the OCS atmospheric budget is poorly determined and has high uncertainty. OCS is typically monitored using either canisters analyzed by gas chromatography or integrated atmospheric column measurements. Improved in-situ terrestrial flux and airborne measurements are required to constrain the OCS budget and further elucidate its role in stratospheric aerosol formation and as a tracer for biogenic volatile organics and photosynthesis. Los Gatos Research has developed a flight capable mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to simultaneously quantify OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O in ambient air at up to 2 Hz. The prototype was tested on diluted, certified samples and found to be precise (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O to better than ±4 ppt, ±0.2 ppm, ±0.31 ppb, and ±3.7 ppm respectively, 1s in 1 sec) and linear (R2 > 0.9997 for all gases) over a wide dynamic range (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O ranging from 0.2 - 70 ppb, 500 - 3000 ppm, 150 - 480 ppb, and 7000 - 21000 ppm respectively). Cross-interference measurements showed no appreciable change in measured OCS concentration with variations in CO2 (500 - 3500 ppm) or CO. We report on high altitude measurements made aboard NASA's WB-57 research aircraft. Two research flights were conducted from Houston, TX. The concentration of OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O were continuously recorded from sea level to approximately 60,000 feet. The concentration of OCS was observed to increase with altitude through the troposphere due to the

  20. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  1. Effects of shuttle bay environment on UV sensitive photographic film results of measurements aboard STS-7 and STS-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreplin, R. W.; Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    Schumann emulsions, having low gelatin content and no protective gelatin overcoating, are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions and handling. Experiments using this emulsion are to be flown on the space shuttle within the cargo-bay. Because the environment of the cargo-bay is unknown, a Get-Away-Special payload was designed to expose Kodak-type SO 652 Schumann emulsion to the residual atmosphere of the cargo-bay. The experiment was programmed to make exposures for various time periods to determine the maximum length of time the film could be exposed in making a measurement and what precautions would be required to preserve the film during ascent into orbit and reentry. The results of the STS-7 and STS-8 flights indicated that long exposures in the shuttle bay do not produce high fog levels in orbit. Observations of severe bleaching of the latent image makes protection of the emulsion during reentry manditory and increase of fog levels with time set a limit of four weeks (preferably less than three) between installation and recovery of the emulsion for processing.

  2. Warmer Local Interstellar Medium: Resolving the Ulysses-Ibex Enigma and the Promise of IMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Frisch, P. C.; Fuselier, S.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Witte, M.

    2014-12-01

    While charged particles from the local interstellar medium (LISM) are convected around our heliosphere with the magnetized LISM flow, the neutral interstellar atoms flow directly into and through the heliosphere. Initial measurements from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) suggested that the heliosphere could be moving more slowly with respect to the interstellar medium than indicated by earlier observations from the Ulysses spacecraft. In this study we refine the range of possible IBEX flow parameters based on the latest measurements and show that both spacecraft's data could be consistent with a single flow velocity for a much larger interstellar neutral temperature (7000-9000K) than previously found. Combining the IBEX and Ulysses observations suggests that the heliosphere is currently in a substantially warmer region of the interstellar medium than previously thought. This study examines this possible resolution of the prior apparent disconnect between these observations. We further examine the incredible improvement in interstellar observations - and our understanding of the local interstellar medium - that the envisioned Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) will provide.

  3. Electron impact ionization rates for interstellar neutral H and He atoms near interplanetary shocks: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Gosling, J. T.; Isenberg, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    During average solar wind flow conditions at 1 AU, ionization rates of interstellar neutrals that penetrate into the inner heliosphere are dominated by charge exchange with solar wind protons for H atoms, and by photoionization for He atoms. During occurrences of strong, coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven interplanetary shock waves near 1 AU, electron impact ionization can make substantial, if not dominating, contributions to interstellar neutral ionization rates in the regions downstream of the shocks. However, electron impact ionization is expected to be relatively less important with increasing heliocentric distance because of the decrease in electron temperature. Ulysses encountered many CME-driven shocks during its journey to and beyond Jupiter, and in addition, encountered a number of strong corotating interaction region (CIR) shocks. These shocks generally occur only beyond approximately 2 AU. Many of the CIR shocks were very strong rivalling the Earth's bow shock in electron heating. We have compared electron impact ionization rates calculated from electron velocity distributions measured downstream from CIR shocks using the Ulysses SWOOPS experiment to charge-exchange rates calculated from measured proton number fluxes and the photoionization rate estimated from an assumed solar photon spectrum typical of solar maximum conditions. We find that, although normally the ratio of electron-impact ionization rates to charge-exchange (for H) and to photoionization (for He) rates amounts to only about one and a few tens of percent, respectively, downstream of some of the stronger CIR shocks they amount to more than 10% and greater than 100%, respectively.

  4. The solar wind neon abundance observed with ACE/SWICS and ULYSSES/SWICS

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, Paul; Raines, Jim M.; Lepri, Susan T.; Thomas, Jonathan W.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Landi, Enrico; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Von Steiger, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    Using in situ ion spectrometry data from ACE/SWICS, we determine the solar wind Ne/O elemental abundance ratio and examine its dependence on wind speed and evolution with the solar cycle. We find that Ne/O is inversely correlated with wind speed, is nearly constant in the fast wind, and correlates strongly with solar activity in the slow wind. In fast wind streams with speeds above 600 km s{sup –1}, we find Ne/O = 0.10 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the extensive polar observations by Ulysses/SWICS. In slow wind streams with speeds below 400 km s{sup –1}, Ne/O ranges from a low of 0.12 ± 0.02 at solar maximum to a high of 0.17 ± 0.03 at solar minimum. These measurements place new and significant empirical constraints on the fractionation mechanisms governing solar wind composition and have implications for the coronal and photospheric abundances of neon and oxygen. The results are made possible by a new data analysis method that robustly identifies rare elements in the measured ion spectra. The method is also applied to Ulysses/SWICS data, which confirms the ACE observations and extends our view of solar wind neon into the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  5. Measurements of Acidic Gases and Aerosol Species Aboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft During the Pacific Exploratory Mission in the Tropics (PEM-Tropics A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    1999-01-01

    We received funding to provide measurements of nitric acid (HNO3), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and the chemical composition of aerosols aboard the NASA Ames DC-8 research aircraft during the PEM-Tropics A mission. These measurements were successfully completed and the final data resides in the electronic archive (ftp-gte.larc.nasa.gov) at NASA Langley Research Center. For the PEM-Tropics A mission the University of New Hampshire group was first author of four different manuscripts. Three of these have now appeared in the Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, included in the two section sections on PEM-Tropics A. The fourth manuscript has just recently been submitted to this same journal as a stand alone paper. All four of these papers are included in this report. The first paper (Influence of biomass combustion emissions on the distribution of acidic trace gases over the Southern Pacific basin during austral springtime) describes the large-scale distributions of HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH. Arguments were presented to show, particularly in the middle tropospheric region, that biomass burning emissions from South America and Africa were a major source of acidic gases over the South Pacific basin. The second paper (Aerosol chemical composition and distribution during the Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM) Tropics) covers the aerosol aspects of our measurement package. Compared to acidic gases, O3, and selected hydrocarbons, the aerosol chemistry showed little influence from biomass burning emissions. The data collected in the marine boundary layer showed a possible marine source of NH3 to the troposphere in equatorial areas. This source had been speculated on previously, but our data was the first collected from an airborne platform to show its large-scale features. The third paper (Constraints on the age and dilution of Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics biomass burning plumes from the natural radionuclide tracer Pb-210) utilized the unexpectedly

  6. Relation Between Polar Plumes and Fine Structure in the Solar Wind from Ulysses High-Latitude Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Sakurai, Takashi; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ulysses observations showed that pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in the high-latitude and high-speed solar winds near the solar minimum. On the other hand, coronal plumes are common in polar coronal holes. PBSs are believed to be remnants of coronal plumes and to be related to network activity such as magnetic reconnection in the photosphere from previous studies. This suggests that information on the magnetic structure of PBSs would help to confirm the relation between PBSs and polar plumes We have investigated the magnetic structures of the PBSs by applying a minimum variance analysis to Ulysses/Magnetometer data and by examining the pitch-angle distribution of energetic electrons measured with Ulysses/SWOOPS. We have found that PBSs have relatively more tangential discontinuities rather than rotational from the minimum variance analysis. Further, most PBSs also show bi-directional electron flux or isotropic pitch-angle distribution or the distribution expected in association with current-sheet structures from the analysis of high-energy electron data. In this, we find further evidence that PBSs are generated due by network activity at the base of polar plumes and their magnetic structures are like current sheets or plasmoids.

  7. Dynamical Evolution of the Inner Heliosphere Approaching Solar Activity Maximum: Interpreting Ulysses Observations Using a Global MHD Model. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we describe a series of MHD simulations covering the time period from 12 January 1999 to 19 September 2001 (Carrington Rotation 1945 to 1980). This interval coincided with: (1) the Sun s approach toward solar maximum; and (2) Ulysses second descent to the southern polar regions, rapid latitude scan, and arrival into the northern polar regions. We focus on the evolution of several key parameters during this time, including the photospheric magnetic field, the computed coronal hole boundaries, the computed velocity profile near the Sun, and the plasma and magnetic field parameters at the location of Ulysses. The model results provide a global context for interpreting the often complex in situ measurements. We also present a heuristic explanation of stream dynamics to describe the morphology of interaction regions at solar maximum and contrast it with the picture that resulted from Ulysses first orbit, which occurred during more quiescent solar conditions. The simulation results described here are available at: http://sun.saic.com.

  8. Stream interfaces and energetic ions 2: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Siscoe, George L.; Wibberez, Gerd; Kunow, Horst; Gosling, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses measurements of energetic and solar wind particles taken near 5 AU between 20 and 30 degrees south latitude during a well-developed recurring corotating interaction region (CIR) show that the CIR's corotating energetic ion population (CEIP) associated with the trailing reverse shock starts within the CIR at the stream interface. This is consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers 10 and 11 in the ecliptic plane between 4 and 6 AU. The Ulysses/Pioneer finding noteworthy since the stream interface is not magnetically connected to the reverse shock but lies 12-17 corotation hours from it. Thus, the finding to be inconsistent with the basic model that generates CEIP particles at the reverse shock and propagates them along field lines Eliminating the inconsistency probably entails an extension of the standard model. We consider two possible extensions cross-field diffusion and energetic particles generation closer to the sun in the gap between the stream interface and the reverse shock.

  9. An interpretation of the broadband VLF waves near the Io torus as observed by Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Macdowell, R. J.; Hess, R. A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Stone, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements for the Ulysses trajectory to attain high ecliptic latitudes using a Jovian gravitational assist resulted in a fortuitous passage through the Io torus region. Specifically, the spacecraft spent many hours at latitudes just above the torus. During this time the low-frequency cutoff of an ordinary mode (O mode) emission allowed a determination of the local electron plasma frequency (i.e., electron density) along the northern flank of the torus. Also, near a Jovian System III longitude of 100 deg, the spacecraft flew past a set of active field lines that have been previously identified to be associated with the hectometric generation region. During the passage, Ulysses observed a newly discovered O mode component and a whistler mode emission similar to that observed by Voyager 1 13 years previously. All of the broadband VLF emissions imply the presence of a particular population of electrons. We suggest that broadband VLF emissions can be used as a `particle detector' to qualitatively measure the electron plasma conditions in the torus region and identify active regions.

  10. The magnetic field investigation on the Ulysses mission - Instrumentation and preliminary scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, A.; Beek, T. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Hedgecock, P. C.; Marquedant, R. J.; Smith, E. J.; Southwood, D. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the heliosphere is the three-dimensional structure of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetic field investigation on Ulysses, the first space probe to explore the out-of-ecliptic and polar heliosphere, aims at determining the large-scale features and gradients of the field, as well as the heliolatitude dependence of interplanetary phenomena so far only observed near the ecliptic plane. The Ulysses magnetometer uses two sensors, one a Vector Helium Magnetometer, the other a Fluxgate Magnetometer. Onboard data processing yields measurements of the magnetic field vector with a time resolution up to 2 vectors/second and a sensitivity of about 10 pT. Since the switch-on of the instrument in flight on 25 October 1990, a steady stream of observations has been made, indicating that at this phase of the solar cycle the field is generally disturbed: several shock waves and a large number of discontinuities have been observed, as well as several periods with apparently intense wave activity. The paper gives a brief summary of the scientific objectives of the investigation, followed by a detailed description of the instrument and its characteristics. Examples of wave bursts, interplanetary shocks and crossings of the heliospheric current sheet are given to illustrate the observations made with the instrument.

  11. Investigation of solar wind source regions using Ulysses composition data and a PFSS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleikis, Thies; Kruse, Martin; Berger, Lars; Drews, Christian; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the source regions for different solar wind types. While it is well known that the fast solar wind originates from inside Coronal Holes, the source regions for the slow solar wind are still under debate. For our study we use Ulysses compositional and plasma measurements and map them back to the solar corona. Here we use a potential field source surface model to model the coronal magnetic field. On the source surface we assign individual open field lines to the ballistic foot points of Ulysses. We do not only consider the photospheric origin of these field lines, but rather attempt to trace them across several height levels through the corona. We calculate the proximity of the field lines to the coronal hole border for every height level. The results are height profiles of these field lines. By applying velocity and charge state ratio filters to the height profiles, we can demonstrate that slow wind is produced close to the coronal hole border. In particular, we find that not only the proximity to the border matters, but also that the bending of the field lines with respect to the coronal hole border plays a crucial role in determining the solar wind type.

  12. RTGs - The powering of Ulysses. [Radio-isotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastal, E. F.; Campbell, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The radio-isotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) for Ulysses' electronic supply is described noting that lack of sufficient sunlight renders usual solar cell power generation ineffective due to increased distance from sun. The history of the RTG in the U.S.A. is reviewed citing the first RTG launch in 1961 with an electrical output of 2.7 W and the improved Ulysses RTG, which provides 285 W at mission beginning and 250 W at mission end. The RTG concept is discussed including the most recent RTG technology developed by the DOE, the General Purpose Heat Source RTG (GPHS-RTG). The system relies upon heat generated by radioactive decay using radioactive plutonium-238, which is converted directly to energy using the Seebeck method.

  13. Disappearance of the heliospheric sector structure at Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.J.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B.E.; Tsurutani, B.T. ); Balogh, A.; Erdoes, G.; Forsyth, R.J. ); Bame, S.J.; Phillips, J.L. )

    1993-11-05

    In May, 1993, the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) ceased to be seen by the Ulysses spacecraft at a heliocentric latitude of [approximately]30[degrees]S and distance of 4.7 AU. The disappearance of the HCS coincided with the solar wind speed remaining >560 km/s and with the disappearance of one of four interaction regions previously seen on each solar rotation. The heliographic latitude of the disappearance of the HCS at Ulysses was 11[degrees] equatorward of the latitude of the magnetic neutral sheet computed at the source surface at 2.5 solar radii, and it occurred a half year earlier than predicted on the basis of the persistence of the time profile of the neutral sheet tilt from one solar cycle to the next. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Elemental composition variations in the solar wind: Comparisons between Ulysses and ACE within different solar wind regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilleri, P.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The elemental composition of the solar wind is likely established at the base of the corona, a conclusion based on the observed dependence of solar wind abundances on the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. Although the plasma conditions within the ecliptic solar wind are highly variable, the elemental composition is less so, and is an indicator of the nature of the solar source. In particular, coronal hole (CH, fast) solar wind tends to have less of a FIP enhancement of the low -FIP elements (e.g., Fe, Mg, Si) than interstream (IS, slow) solar wind. The elemental composition of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is more variable, but tends to be similar to IS composition. The question we address here is how much does the average composition of the different solar wind regimes vary over the course of the solar cycle and between solar cycles. For the most recent solar cycle, which included the unusually deep and prolonged solar minimum (2006 - 2010) Lepri et al. (2013) have shown measurable drifts in the elemental composition within solar wind regimes using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS). In contrast, von Steiger and Zurbuchen (2011) have shown using Ulysses SWIC data that the composition of the very fast polar coronal hole flow has remained constant. Here, we extend the Lepri et al. ecliptic analysis to include data from Ulysses, which allows us to expand the analysis to the previous solar cycle (1990 - 2001), as well as check consistency with their recent solar cycle results. (Note that although Ulysses was nominally a polar mission, it spent considerable time at low latitudes as well.) A major driver for this investigation is the Genesis Mission solar wind sample analysis. Namely, was the solar wind sampled by Genesis between late 2001 and early 2004 typical of the solar wind over longer time scales, and hence a representative sample of the long-term solar wind, or was it somehow unique

  15. Ulysses - an application for the projection of molecular interactions across species.

    PubMed

    Kemmer, Danielle; Huang, Yong; Shah, Sohrab P; Lim, Jonathan; Brumm, Jochen; Yuen, Macaire M S; Ling, John; Xu, Tao; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Ouellette, B F Francis

    2005-01-01

    We developed Ulysses as a user-oriented system that uses a process called Interolog Analysis for the parallel analysis and display of protein interactions detected in various species. Ulysses was designed to perform such Interolog Analysis by the projection of model organism interaction data onto homologous human proteins, and thus serves as an accelerator for the analysis of uncharacterized human proteins. The relevance of projections was assessed and validated against published reference collections. All source code is freely available, and the Ulysses system can be accessed via a web interface http://www.cisreg.ca/ulysses. PMID:16356269

  16. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Juan

    2010-03-01

    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee. PMID:20106528

  17. Effects of corotating interaction regions on Ulysses high energy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Droege, W.; Kunow, H.; Heber, B.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Sierks, H.; Wibberenz, G.; Raviart, A.; Ducros, R.; Ferrando, P.; Rastoin, C.; Gosling, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    We investigate the intensity variation of low energy ({approximately}6{endash}23MeV/N) heliospheric ions and of galactic protons (250{endash}2200 MeV) observed by the Kiel Electron Telescope onboard the Ulysses spacecraft associated with Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR) from mid-1992 to end of June 1995. This period covers Ulysses{close_quote} transit to high southern latitudes, the south polar pass, return to the solar equator and ascent to the north pole up to 70{degree}. We find that the flux of high energy protons exhibits a periodicity of about 26 days with a relative intensity variation of 10{percent}. At latitudes below {approximately}50{degree} the recurrent variations of galactic protons are in coincidence with the passage of CIRs and enhancements of low energies protons and alpha particles which are accelerated at the shocks of the CIRs. The modulation of galactic protons is observed up to high southern latitudes, where the signatures of a CIR are no longer visible in plasma or magnetic field data. The periodicity does not depend on latitude and its phase apparently remains constant during Ulysses{close_quote} pass over the south pole as well as through the solar equator. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Effects of corotating interaction regions on Ulysses high energy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Droege, W.; Kunow, H.; Heber, B.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Sierks, H.; Wibberenz, G.; Raviart, A.; Ducros, R.; Ferrando, P.; Rastoin, C.; Paizis, C.; Gosling, J. T.

    1996-07-20

    We investigate the intensity variation of low energy ({approx}6-23 MeV/N) heliospheric ions and of galactic protons (250-2200 MeV) observed by the Kiel Electron Telescope onboard the Ulysses spacecraft associated with Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR) from mid-1992 to end of June 1995. This period covers Ulysses' transit to high southern latitudes, the south polar pass, return to the solar equator and ascent to the north pole up to 70 deg. We find that the flux of high energy protons exhibits a periodicity of about 26 days with a relative intensity variation of 10%. At latitudes below {approx}50 deg. the recurrent variations of galactic protons are in coincidence with the passage of CIRs and enhancements of low energies protons and alpha particles which are accelerated at the shocks of the CIRs. The modulation of galactic protons is observed up to high southern latitudes, where the signatures of a CIR are no longer visible in plasma or magnetic field data. The periodicity does not depend on latitude and its phase apparently remains constant during Ulysses' pass over the south pole as well as through the solar equator.

  19. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Radial Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During quadrature, plasma seen on the limb of the Sun, along the radi al direction to Ulysses, by SOHO or STEREO can be sampled in situ as lt later passes Ulysses. A figure shows a coronagraph image, the rad ial towards Ulysses at 58 deg. S. and the SOHO/UVCS slit positions d uring one set of observations. A CME subsequently occurred and passed Ulysses (at 3/4 AU) 15 days later.

  20. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  1. Cassini RTG acceptance test results and RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-06-01

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents The thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F-2, F-6, and F-7. F-5 is tile back-up RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at die Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on than tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also showing. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over five percent are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  2. Cassini RTG acceptance test results and RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-12-31

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, mass properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents the thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F-2, F-6, and F-7. F-5 is the backup RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at the Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on these tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also shown. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over 5% are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  3. Ulysses observations of wave activity at interplanetary shocks and implications for type II radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel-Frey, D. |; Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.J.; Stone, R.G.; Phillips, J.L. |

    1997-02-01

    We present the first quantitative investigation of interplanetary type II radio emission in which in situ waves measured at interplanetary shocks are used to compute radio wave intensities for comparison with type II observations. This study is based on in situ measurements of 42 in-ecliptic forward shocks as well as 10 intervals of type II emission observed by the Ulysses spacecraft between 1 AU and 5 AU. The analysis involves comparisons of statistical properties of type II bursts and in situ waves. Most of the 42 shocks are associated with the occurrence of electrostatic waves near the time of shock passage at Ulysses. These waves, which are identified as electron plasma waves and ion acoustic-like waves, are typically most intense several minutes before shock passage. This suggests that wave-wave interactions might be of importance in electromagnetic wave generation and that type II source regions are located immediately upstream of the shocks. We use the in situ wave measurements to compute type II brightness temperatures, assuming that emission at the fundamental of the electron plasma frequency is generated by the merging of electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves or the decay of electron plasma waves into ion acoustic and transverse waves. Second harmonic emission is assumed to be produced by the merging of electron plasma waves. The latter mechanism requires that a portion of the electron plasma wave distribution is backscattered, presumably by density inhomogeneities in regions of observed ion acoustic wave activity. The computed type II brightness temperatures are found to be consistent with observed values for both fundamental and second harmonic emission, assuming that strong ({approx_equal}10{sup {minus}4}V/m) electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves are coincident and that the electron plasma waves have phase velocities less than about 10 times the electron thermal velocity. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Cassini RTG Acceptance Test Results and RTG Performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kelly, C. E.; Klee, P. M.

    1997-06-01

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents The thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F 2, F 6, and F 7. F 5 is tile back up RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at die Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on than tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also showing. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over five percent are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  5. Null fields in the outer Jovian magnetosphere: ULYSSES observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, P. L.; Balogh, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Southwood, D. J.; Fazakerley, A.

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports on a magnetic field phenomenon, hereafter referred to as null fields, which were discovered during the inbound pass of the recent flyby of Jupiter by the Ulysses spacecraft. These null fields which were observed in the outer dayside magnetosphere are characterised by brief but sharp decreases of the field magnitude to values less than 1 nT. The nulls are distinguished from the current sheet signatures characteristic of the middle magnetosphere by the fact that the field does not reverse across the event. A field configuration is suggested that accounts for the observed features of the events.

  6. Ulysses Data Analysis: Magnetic Topology of Heliospheric Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooker, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    In this final technical report on research funded by a NASA grant, a project overview is given by way of summaries on nine published papers. Research has included: 1) Using suprathermal electron data to study heliospheric magnetic structures; 2) Analysis of magnetic clouds, coronal mass ejections (CME), and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS); 3) Analysis of the corotating interaction region (CIR) which develop from interactions between solar wind streams of different velocities; 4) Use of Ulysses data in the interpretation of heliospheric events and phenomena.

  7. "Their pineal glands aglow": Theosophical physiology in Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Morrisson, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that Joyce's engagements with the Theosophy of the Dublin literary world amount to more than simple parody. In Ulysses, Joyce portrays Theosophy's efforts to offer an alternative understanding of physiology to that of the medical establishment as a form of boundary work, an adaptation of the discourse of modern medical research to fashion modern mysticism as a science. Ultimately, Joyce rejects Theosophical physiology and its evolutionary scientism because it provides an unsatisfactory rhetorical body, a failed attempt to renegotiate the boundaries between scientific materialism and spirituality in the awkward modernity of Dublin in 1904. PMID:20836274

  8. Ulysses contracts for the doctor and for the patient.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Mats G; Hakama, Matti

    2010-05-01

    Research subjects participating in randomised clinical trials have a right to drop out of a study without specifying any reason for this. However, leaving a trial may be contradictory to their own general interests in medical research since drop outs may lead to biased conclusions and loss of valuable medical information. We suggest in this paper that self-binding "Ulysses contracts" that are non-exploitative and based on autonomous decisions by research subjects as well as by investigating doctors should be implemented with stopping rules adjusted to the needs of different kinds of randomised clinical trials. PMID:20227524

  9. Electron energy transport in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, E.E.; Gary, S.P.; Phillips, J.L.; Balogh, A.; Lengyel-Frey, D.

    1996-07-01

    Previous analysis suggests that the whistler heat flux instability is responsible for the regulation of the electron heat flux of the solar wind. For an interval of quiescent solar wind during the in-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission, the plasma wave data in the whistler frequency regime are compared to the predictions of the whistler heat flux instability model. The data is well constrained by the predicted upper bound on the electron heat flux and a clear correlation between wave activity and electron heat flux dissipation is observed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Electron energy transport in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, Earl E.; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, John L.; Balogh, Andre; Lengyel-Frey, Denise

    1996-07-20

    Previous analysis suggests that the whistler heat flux instability is responsible for the regulation of the electron heat flux of the solar wind. For an interval of quiescent solar wind during the in-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission, the plasma wave data in the whistler frequency regime are compared to the predictions of the whistler heat flux instability model. The data is well constrained by the predicted upper bound on the electron heat flux and a clear correlation between wave activity and electron heat flux dissipation is observed.

  11. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2003-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over a period of 17 hours. Within this interval, a small CME was reported in C2. Nothing was reported in C3. The ejecta was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. The interplanetary CME (ICME) displayed all the properties of a typical ICME. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied.

  12. Management experience of an international venture in space The Ulysses mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshida, Ronald Y.; Meeks, Willis G.

    1986-01-01

    The management of the Ulysses project, a probe which will fly a solar polar orbit, is described. The 5-yr mission will feature a flyby of Jupiter to deflect the spacecraft into a high-inclination orbit. Data on the solar corona, solar wind, the sun-wind interface, the heliospheric magnetic field, solar and nonsolar cosmic rays, etc., will be gathered as a function of the solar latitude. NASA will track and control the probe with the Deep Space Network. JPL provides project management for NASA while the Directorate of Scientific Programs performs ESA management functions. The DOE will provide a radioisotope thermoelectric generator while NASA and ESA each supply half the scientific payload. A NASA-ESA Joint Working Group meets about twice per year to monitor the project and discuss the technical and scientific requirements. Safety issues and measures which are being addressed due to the presence of the Pu-238 heat source for the RTG are discussed.

  13. Galactic and anomalous cosmic rays through the solar cycle: New insights from Ulysses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Potgieter, M. S.

    Cosmic ray research began in 1912 when Victor Hess measured the intensity of the then unknown ionizing radiation with an electroscope in a balloon up to an altitude of about 5,000 m. He discovered that this very penetrating radiation, later called cosmic rays, was coming from outside the atmosphere (for a historic review, see Simpson, 2001).The systematic experimental study of cosmic rays began in the 1930s, using ground-based and balloon-borne ionization chambers. In the 1950s it expanded on a much larger scale with neutron monitors, coordinated world-wide during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957 (Simpson, 2000). When Parker (1958) described the solar wind, the theoretical research of cosmic rays began, stimulated by the beginning of in situ space observations that have led over four decades to important space missions, including the Ulysses mission to high heliolatitudes.

  14. Ulysses radio occultation observations of the Io plasma torus during the Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, M. K.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Edenhofer, P.; Funke, O.; Paetzold, M.; Volland, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radio signals from Ulysses were used to probe the Io plasma torus (IPT) shortly after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. The frequencies of the two downlinks at S-band (2.3 gigahertz) and X-band (8.4 gigahertz) were recorded, differenced, and integrated in order to derive the columnar electron density of the IPT. The measurements agree qualitatively with contemporary models of the IPT based on Voyager data, but significant differences are apparent as well. The overall level of the IPT electron density is approximately the same as the prediction, implying that the amount of gas (or plasma) injected from Io is similar to that observed during the Voyager era. On the other hand, the IPT seems to be less extended out of the centrifugal equator, implying a smaller plasma temperature than predicted.

  15. Encounter of the Ulysses Spacecraft with the Ion Tail of Comet McNaught

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gosling, J. T.; Rees, A.; Skoug, R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Armstrong, T. P.; Combi, M. R.; Makinen, T.; McComas, D. J.; VonSteiger, R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Smith, E. J.; Geiss, J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    Comet McNaught was the brightest comet observed from Earth in the last 40 years. For a period of five days in early 2007 February, four instruments on the Ulysses spacecraft directly measured cometary ions and key properties of the interaction of the comet's ion tail with the high-speed solar wind from the polar regions of the Sun. Because of the record-breaking duration of the encounter, the data are unusually comprehensive. O3(+) ions were detected for the first time in a comet tail, coexisting with singly charged molecular ions with masses in the range 28-35 amu. The presence of magnetic turbulence and of ions with energies up to approximately 200 keV indicate that at a distance of approximately 1.6 AU from the comet nucleus, the ion tail McNaught had not yet reached equilibrium with the surrounding solar wind.

  16. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  17. New aspartic proteinase of Ulysses retrotransposon from Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2004-06-01

    This work is focused on the investigation of a proteinase of Ulysses mobile genetic element from Drosophila virilis. The primary structure of this proteinase is suggested based on comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of aspartic proteinases from retroviruses and retrotransposons. The corresponding cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein accumulated in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein (12 kD) was subjected to refolding and purified by affinity chromatography on pepstatin-agarose. Proteolytic activity of the protein was determined using oligopeptide substrates melittin and insulin B-chain. It was found that the maximum of the proteolytic activity is displayed at pH 5.5 as for the majority of aspartic proteinases. We observed that hydrolysis of B-chain of insulin was totally inhibited by pepstatin A in the micromolar concentration range. The molecular weight of the monomer of the Ulysses proteinase was determined by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry. PMID:15236611

  18. Electron Heat Flux in Pressure Balance Structures at Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Sakurai, Takashi; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in the high-latitude solar wind near solar minimum. Rom previous studies, PBSs are believed to be remnants of coronal plumes and be related to network activity such as magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. We investigated the magnetic structures of the PBSs, applying a minimum variance analysis to Ulysses/Magnetometer data. At 2001 AGU Spring meeting, we reported that PBSs have structures like current sheets or plasmoids, and suggested that they are associated with network activity at the base of polar plumes. In this paper, we have analyzed high-energy electron data at Ulysses/SWOOPS to see whether bi-directional electron flow exists and confirm the conclusions more precisely. As a result, although most events show a typical flux directed away from the Sun, we have obtained evidence that some PBSs show bi-directional electron flux and others show an isotropic distribution of electron pitch angles. The evidence shows that plasmoids are flowing away from the Sun, changing their flow direction dynamically in a way not caused by Alfven waves. From this, we have concluded that PBSs are generated due to network activity at the base of polar plumes and their magnetic structures axe current sheets or plasmoids.

  19. Theoretical Plasma Distribution Consistent With Ulysses Magnetic Field Observations in a High-Speed Solar Wind Tangential Discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, J. De; Roth, M.; Lemaire, J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Ho, C. M.; Hammond, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    The overall multi-layer structure of the magnetic field observed by Ulysses across a broad solar wind tangential discontinuity can be reproduced fairly well by means of a kinetic model. Such a simulation provides complementary information about the velocity distribution functions, which are not always known due to the low time resolution inherent in plasma measurements. The success of such a simulation proves that our kinetic model can be used as a realistic basis for further studies of the structure and stability of tangential discontinuities.

  20. POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR A FISK-TYPE HELIOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD. I. ANALYZING ULYSSES/KET ELECTRON OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sternal, O.; Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Potgieter, M. S.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.

    2011-11-01

    The propagation of energetic charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field is one of the fundamental problems in heliophysics. In particular, the structure of the heliospheric magnetic field remains an unsolved problem and is discussed as a controversial topic. The first successful analytic approach to the structure of the heliospheric magnetic field was the Parker field. However, the measurements of the Ulysses spacecraft at high latitudes revealed the possible need for refinements of the existing magnetic field model during solar minimum. Among other reasons, this led to the development of the Fisk field. This approach is highly debated and could not be ruled out with magnetic field measurements so far. A promising method to trace this magnetic field structure is to model the propagation of electrons in the energy range of a few MeV. Employing three-dimensional and time-dependent simulations of the propagation of energetic electrons, this work shows that the influence of a Fisk-type field on the particle transport in the heliosphere leads to characteristic variations of the electron intensities on the timescale of a solar rotation. For the first time it is shown that the Ulysses count rates of 2.5-7 MeV electrons contain the imprint of a Fisk-type heliospheric magnetic field structure. From a comparison of simulation results and the Ulysses count rates, realistic parameters for the Fisk theory are derived. Furthermore, these parameters are used to investigate the modeled relative amplitudes of protons and electrons, including the effects of drifts.

  1. RADIAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE DURING EARTH AND ULYSSES ALIGNMENT OF 2007 AUGUST

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amicis, R.; Bruno, R.; Pallocchia, G.; Bavassano, B.; Telloni, D.; Carbone, V.; Balogh, A.

    2010-07-01

    At the end of 2007 August, during the minimum of solar cycle 23, a lineup of Earth and Ulysses occurred, giving the opportunity to analyze, for the first time, the same plasma sample at different observation points, namely at 1 and 1.4 AU. In particular, it allowed us to study the radial evolution of solar wind turbulence typical of fast wind streams as proposed in a Coordinated Investigation Programme for the International Heliophysical Year. This paper describes both the macrostructure and the fluctuations at small scales of this event. We find that soon after detecting the same fast stream, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observed a change of magnetic polarity being the interplanetary current sheet located between the orbits of the two spacecraft. Moreover, we observe that the compression region formed in front of the fast stream detected at ACE's location evolves in a fast forward shock at Ulysses' orbit. On the other hand, small-scale analysis shows that turbulence is evolving. The presence of a shift of the frequency break separating the injection range from the inertial range toward lower frequencies while distance increases is a clear indication that nonlinear interactions are at work. Moreover, we observe that intermittency, as measured by the flatness factor, increases with distance. This study confirms previous analyses performed using Helios observations of the same fast wind streams at different heliocentric distances, allowing us to relax about the hypothesis of the stationarity of the source regions adopted in previous studies. Consequently, any difference noticed in the solar wind parameters would be ascribed to radial (time) evolution.

  2. Fast response resonance fluorescence CO measurements aboard the C-130: Instrument characterization and measurements made during North Atlantic Regional Experiment 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbig, Christoph; Kley, Dieter; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Kent, Joss; Dewey, Ken; McKenna, Danny S.

    1996-12-01

    The resonance fluorescence instrument for the measurement of atmospheric CO described by Volz and Kley [1985] was characterized in the laboratory and adapted for use on aircraft. A major finding was that the background signal is largely due to continuum resonance Raman scattering by molecular oxygen and thus cannot be reduced by better design. The instrument was deployed on the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) C-130 Hercules during August 1993 and in subsequent missions. The instrument achieved a detection limit (3σ) of 5 ppb at a time resolution of 30 s. For a typical CO concentration of 100 ppb, the signal-to-noise ratio (1σ) was 15 for an integration time of 2 s, which was the minimum time resolution that could be obtained during the flights because of limited pump capacity. Data collected over the North Atlantic show distinct layers of CO above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) that are well correlated with enhanced NOy mixing ratios and indicate transport of pollution from the American continent. Such layers, albeit much less pronounced, were encountered in westerly flow in the midtroposphere west of the coast of Portugal. Fairly high mixing ratios were observed in the lower troposphere associated with transport from southern Europe.

  3. Omnidirectional light absorption of disordered nano-hole structure inspired from Papilio ulysses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Fang, Xiaotian; Huang, Yiqiao; Liu, Qinglei; Bai, Mingwen; Zhang, Di

    2014-07-15

    Butterflies routinely produce nanostructured surfaces with useful properties. Here, we report a disordered nano-hole structure with ridges inspired by Papilio ulysses that produce omnidirectional light absorption compared with the common ordered structure. The result shows that the omnidirectional light absorption is affected by polarization, the incident angle, and the wavelength. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the stable omnidirectional light absorption is achieved in the structure inspired from the Papilio ulysses over a wide incident angle range and with various wavelengths. This explains some of the mysteries of the structure of the Papilio ulysses butterfly. These conclusions can guide the design of omnidirectional absorption materials. PMID:25121688

  4. Imaging sprites aboard TARANIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth; Sato, Mitsuteru; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Grosjean, Olivier

    TLE (Transient Luminous Event) is the generic name for phenomena which occur over thundercloud from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere (20 to 100 km-height). They are called sprites, elves, blue jets, gigantic jets . . . Each class of phenomenon has their own properties: duration, vertical and horizontal extension, delay after their parent lightning. They are mainly observed from ground since 1990 and from space since 2004 with the ISUAL experiment. All these observations have been done pointing at the limb. We propose an experiment, to image and characterize TLEs and lightning from space, which novelty is looking at the nadir. This concept was tested by the CEA with the Lightning and Sprite Observations on board the International Space Station from 2001 to 2004. The advantage of this point of view is that other radiations (as gamma-rays, electron beams, or electrostatic field) emitted mainly vertically and simultaneously to TLE or lightning can be observed with the same satellite, but the difficulty is how the superimposed light from lightning and TLE can be differentiate. Taking account this constraint and other ones due to satellite accommodation, we define a set of sensors allowing the detection, the localisation and the characterisation of lightning and TLE. Our studies show that two cameras and four photometers are necessary to reach those objectives. This experiment, called MCP for MicroCameras and Photometers, will be aboard TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiations from lightNIngs and Sprites) which is a microsatellite project of the CNES Myriade program with a launch planned in 2011. The photometer set will be provided by a Japanese team joining Hokkaido and Tohoku Universities and ISAS/JAXA. In this talk, we will present the main scientific goals of MCP. Need requirement studies (particularly radiometric analysis including sensor trade-off) will be described. We will finish describing the actual development status of the sensors.

  5. Status of Knowledge after Ulysses and SOHO: Session 2: Investigate the Links between the Solar Surface, Corona, and Inner Heliosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As spacecraft observations of the heliosphere have moved from exploration into studies of physical processes, we are learning about the linkages that exist between different parts of the system. The past fifteen years have led to new ideas for how the heliospheric magnetic field connects back to the Sun and to how that connection plays a role in the origin of the solar wind. A growing understanding these connections, in turn, has led to the ability to use composition, ionization state, the microscopic state of the in situ plasma, and energetic particles as tools to further analyze the linkages and the underlying physical processes. Many missions have contributed to these investigations of the heliosphere as an integrated system. Two of the most important are Ulysses and SOHO, because of the types of measurements they make, their specific orbits, and how they have worked to complement each other. I will review and summarize the status of knowledge about these linkages, with emphasis on results from the Ulysses and SOHO missions. Some of the topics will be the global heliosphere at sunspot maximum and minimum, the physics and morphology of coronal holes, the origin(s) of slow wind, SOHO-Ulysses quadrature observations, mysteries in the propagation of energetic particles, and the physics of eruptive events and their associated current sheets. These specific topics are selected because they point towards the investigations that will be carried out with Solar Orbiter (SO) and the opportunity will be used to illustrate how SO will uniquely contribute to our knowledge of the underlying physical processes.

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Ulysses Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Final (Tier 2) Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by implementation of the Ulysses mission, a space flight mission to observe the polar regions of the Sun. The proposed action is completion of preparation and operation of the Ulysses spacecraft, including its planned launch at the earliest available launch opportunity on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle in October 1990 or in the backup opportunity in November 1991. The alternative is canceling further work on the mission. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. This alternative was further evaluated and eliminated from consideration when, in November 1988, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4, notified that it could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The Titan 4 launch vehicle is no longer a feasible alternative to the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special (PAM-S) for the November 1991 launch opportunity. The only expected environment effects of the proposed action are associated with normal launch vehicle operation and are treated elsewhere. The environmental impacts of normal Shuttle launches were addressed in existing NEPA documentation and are briefly summarized. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects were judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. There could also be environmental impacts associated with the accidental release of radiological material during launch, deployment, or interplanetary trajectory injection of the Ulysses spacecraft. Intensive analysis indicates that the probability of release is small. There are no environmental

  7. (abstract) ARGOS: a System to Monitor Ulysses Nutation and Thruster Firings from Variations of the Spacecraft Radio Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElrath, T. P.; Cangahuala, L. A.; Miller, K. J.; Stravert, L. R.; Garcia-Perez, Raul

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses is a spin-stabilized spacecraft that experienced significant nutation after its launch in October 1990. This was due to the Sun-spacecraft-Earth geometry, and a study of the phenomenon predicted that the nutation would again be a problem during 1994-95. The difficulty of obtaining nutation estimates in real time from the spacecraft telemetry forced the ESA/NASA Ulysses Team to explore alternative information sources. The work performed by the ESA Operations Team provided a model for a system that uses the radio signal strength measurements to monitor the spacecraft dynamics. These measurements (referred to as AGC) are provided once per second by the tracking stations of the DSN. The system was named ARGOS (Attitude Reckoning from Ground Observable Signals) after the ever-vigilant, hundred-eyed giant of Greek Mythology. The ARGOS design also included Doppler processing, because Doppler shifts indicate thruster firings commanded by the active nutation control carried out onboard the spacecraft. While there is some visibility into thruster activity from telemetry, careful processing of the high-sample-rate Doppler data provides an accurate means of detecting the presence and time of thruster firings. DSN Doppler measurements are available at a ten-per-second rate in the same tracking data block as the AGC data.

  8. A Review of Discontinuities (and Alfven Waves) in Interplanetary Space: Ulysses Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Ho, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Ulysses mission explored for the first time our heliosphere at all latitudes up to +/-80 and therefore has been an ideal mission to study potential gradients in heliolatitude of discontinuity occurrence rates and types.

  9. A Review of Discontinuities (and Alfven Waves) in Interplanetary Space: Ulysses Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Ho, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Ulysses mission explored for the first time our heliosphere at all latitudes up to +/-80 and therefore has been an ideal mission to study potential gradients in heliolatitude(and radial distance) of discontinuity occurrence rates and types.

  10. Ulysses: A functional description and simulation software system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, T. W.; Hendry, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Current design tools for digital circuits and systems are not well-integrated among the behavioral, gate, and transistor levels of design. Ulysses is a prototype software system that consists of a description language, a description compiler, and a simulator that make no distinction among these levels. The language is uniform over the entire range of logical descriptions, the description is hierarchical with no fundamental restrictions on depth or mixing of levels, and the simulator is fully integrated with the description. The structure of the language, compiler, and simulator are described in terms of their relationships to the abstractions of physical systems that are made in order to create logical descriptions and models of behavior.

  11. GPHS-RTG launch accident analysis for Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, C.T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the safety program conducted to determine the response of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to potential launch accidents of the Space Shuttle for the Galileo and Ulysses missions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provided definition of the Shuttle potential accidents and characterized the environments. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program (LASEP) was developed by GE to analyze the RTG response to these accidents. RTG detailed response to Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) fragment impacts, as well as to other types of impact, was obtained from an extensive series of hydrocode analyses. A comprehensive test program was conducted also to determine RTG response to the accident environments. The hydrocode response analyses coupled with the test data base provided the broad range response capability which was implemented in LASEP.

  12. Coercion and pressure in psychiatry: lessons from Ulysses

    PubMed Central

    Widdershoven, Guy; Berghmans, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Coercion and pressure in mental healthcare raise moral questions. This article focuses on moral questions raised by the everyday practice of pressure and coercion in the care for the mentally ill. In view of an example from literature—the story of Ulysses and the Sirens—several ethical issues surrounding this practice of care are discussed. Care giver and patient should be able to express feelings such as frustration, fear and powerlessness, and attention must be paid to those feelings. In order to be able to evaluate the intervention, one has to be aware of the variety of goals the intervention can aim at. One also has to be aware of the variety of methods of intervention, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Finally, an intervention requires a context of care and responsibility, along with good communication and fair treatment before, during and after the use of coercion and pressure. PMID:17906050

  13. Historical vignette #8. General Ulysses S. Grant's hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G B

    1987-11-01

    Many biographers have discussed the throat cancer that plagued General Ulysses S. Grant toward the end of his life. However, little attention has been focused on his orthopaedic problems. On Christmas Eve in 1883, Grant slipped on an icy walk and fell. Following this accident he was bedridden for weeks and orthopaedically disabled for the remainder of his life. Although biographers have documented this incident, the outcome of the accident has been variously attributed to a sprain, muscle rupture, or simply a lack of exercise. The history of the injury and the nature of the symptoms and disability, which suggest that the General may have sustained a hip fracture, are reviewed with a discussion of the state of hip fracture diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis taken from the textbooks of the period. PMID:3332717

  14. Inflight performance of the Ulysses reaction control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGarry, Andrew; Berry, William; Parker, David

    1997-01-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft has been exploring the heliosphere since October 1990 in a six-year polar orbit. Despite varying operational demands, the pressure-fed monopropellant hydrazine reaction control system (RCS) has experienced few problems. The observed anomalies, having minimal operational impact, include plume impingement effects, electrical power overload effects and hydrazine gas generation effects. These anomalies are presented and discussed, with emphasis on the first observation of gas in the hydrazine propellant. The relatively low gas generation rate is attributed to: the use of high purity hydrazine; the configuration of the spin-stabilized spacecraft; the extensive use of titanium alloys; and the efficiency of the thermal control of the propellant tank which maintains a temperature of 21 C.

  15. Coercion and pressure in psychiatry: lessons from Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Widdershoven, Guy; Berghmans, Ron

    2007-10-01

    Coercion and pressure in mental healthcare raise moral questions. This article focuses on moral questions raised by the everyday practice of pressure and coercion in the care for the mentally ill. In view of an example from literature-the story of Ulysses and the Sirens-several ethical issues surrounding this practice of care are discussed. Care giver and patient should be able to express feelings such as frustration, fear and powerlessness, and attention must be paid to those feelings. In order to be able to evaluate the intervention, one has to be aware of the variety of goals the intervention can aim at. One also has to be aware of the variety of methods of intervention, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Finally, an intervention requires a context of care and responsibility, along with good communication and fair treatment before, during and after the use of coercion and pressure. PMID:17906050

  16. Simultaneous Observations of Evolution in SEP Elemental Composition on Widely-Separated Spacecraft: Comparisons between Ulysses and ACE/Wind in Late 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylka, A. J.; Malandraki, O.; Ng, C. K.; Marsden, R. G.; Tranquille, C.

    2010-12-01

    As demonstrated by numerous studies in Solar Cycle 23, temporal evolution in elemental composition is a powerful tool for investigating the acceleration and transport processes that govern large, gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Extending such studies to simultaneous observations at widely-separated spacecraft is a key objective of the STEREO mission. However, as of August 2010, the Sun has not produced any sufficiently large SEP events to facilitate such studies. We have therefore undertaken comparisons of simultaneous SEP observations near Earth (by Wind, ACE, and GOES) and at Ulysses. Specifically, we have examined several large SEP events in late 2001, when Ulysses was beyond 2 AU and at high northern solar latitudes, immersed in the fast solar wind. Although the collecting power of the COSPIN/Low Energy Telescope (LET) on Ulysses is only ˜1% as large as that of solar heavy-ion instruments on ACE and Wind (and ˜10% as large as those on STEREO), it nevertheless has provided statistically-meaningful measurements in these events. We compare time evolution in the Fe/O ratio, as well as proton spectra and intensities, and examine how well systematic differences between Ulysses and the near-Earth measurements can be explained by a SEP transport model (Ng, Reames, & Tylka 2003). We also examine solar ions and their spectra in the late decay phase of events, in the so-called “reservoir” regions. We discuss implications of these observations for models of SEP transport. Supported by NASA under grants NNH09AK79I and NNX09AU98G and by European Commission Grant FP7-COMESEP.

  17. Ulysses-ARTEMIS radio observation of energetic flare electron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, S.; Moncuquet, M.; Poquerusse, M.

    1995-01-01

    Type 3 radio bursts allow us to follow energetic electrons ejected by solar flares into the interplanetary medium, even when the observer is far away from the electrons. The emission frequency f(sub p) is related to the ambient density n(sub e) by f(sub p) varies as the square root of n(sub e), and as a function of the distance r to the sun we have approximately n(sub e) varies as r(exp -2); as a consequence, on a 1/f - t dynamic spectrum type 3 bursts appear as nearly straight traces, whose slope gives an estimation of the source speed. We used the data of the URAP radio receiver on Ulysses (1-1000 kHz), observing sources in the solar wind, and the ground data of the ARTEMIS spectrograph (100-500 MHz), observing sources of the corona, over the years 1991-1994. We found a surprisingly large number of excellent high-frequency - low-frequency associations. A type 3 burst group on ARTEMIS (10 to 100 bursts over 1 to 10 minutes) typically gives rise to one isolated burst on Ulysses. As bursts often start in high frequencies during the maximum phase of flares, this demonstrates in a very convincing manner that some of the flare electrons themselves make it all the way to the interplanetary medium. We discuss decorrelation cases in the context of geometrical configuration between the active region and the two observing sites. We also study how apparent electron speeds vary with the distance to the sun.

  18. Preliminary spatial analysis of combined BATSE/Ulysses gamma-ray burst locations

    SciTech Connect

    Kippen, R. Marc; Hurley, Kevin; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.

    1998-05-16

    We present the preliminary spatial analysis of 278 bursts that have been localized by BATSE and the two-spacecraft Compton/Ulysses Interplanetary Network. The large number and superior accuracy of the combined BATSE/Ulysses locations provides improved sensitivity to small-angle source properties. We find that the locations are consistent with large- and small-scale isotropy, with no significant small-angle clustering. We constrain the fraction of sources in clusters and discuss the implications for burst repetition.

  19. Occurrence of high-beta superthermal plasma events in the close environment of Jupiter's bow shock as observed by Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Marhavilas, P. K.; Sarris, E. T.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.

    2011-01-04

    The ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure (or of their energy densities) which is known as the plasma parameter 'beta'({beta}) has important implications to the propagation of energetic particles and the interaction of the solar wind with planetary magnetospheres. Although in the scientific literature the contribution of the superthermal particles to the plasma pressure is generally assumed negligible, we deduced, by analyzing energetic particles and magnetic field measurements recorded by the Ulysses spacecraft, that in a series of events, the energy density contained in the superthermal tail of the particle distribution is comparable to or even higher than the energy density of the magnetic field, creating conditions of high-beta plasma. More explicitly, in this paper we analyze Ulysses/HI-SCALE measurements of the energy density ratio (parameter {beta}{sub ep}) of the energetic ions'(20 keV to {approx}5 MeV) to the magnetic field's in order to find occurrences of high-beta ({beta}{sub ep}>1) superthermal plasma conditions in the environment of the Jovian magnetosphere, which is an interesting plasma laboratory and an important source of emissions in our solar system. In particular, we examine high-beta ion events close to Jupiter's bow shock, which are produced by two processes: (a) bow shock ion acceleration and (b) ion leakage from the magnetosphere.

  20. CMEs at High Northern Latitudes During Solar Maximum : Ulysses and SOHO Correlated Observations.

    SciTech Connect

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Gosling, J. T.; Steinberg, J. T; Riley, P.; Forsyth, R. J.; St. Cyr, Orville Chris,

    2002-01-01

    From September through November 2001, Ulysses was almost continuously immersed in polar coronal hole (CH) flow during its northern polar pass of the Sun. For much of this time, the flow was fast (> 700 km/s) and steady, quite similar to the steady unstructured flow observed during Ulysses first polar orbit near solar minimum. During the three months Ulysses transited the northern polar CH it observed 5 coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Of these, two were clearly over-expanding and two were at least partially driven by overexpansion. The phenomenon of over-expansion was frequently observed at high latitudes during Ulysses first orbit. The recurrence of over-expanding CMEs during the second orbit at high latitudes indicates that this is a phenomenon apparently unique to and typical of CMEs embedded in polar CH flow. Ulysses was nearly above the solar limb during this three-month interval, providing an opportunity to use LASCO/SOHO observations to study the initial velocity profiles of the CMEs observed further out by Ulysses. These initial conditions were used as inputs into a hydrodynamic code, the results of which are reported here.

  1. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  2. Measurements of HNO3, SO2 High Resolution Aerosol SO4 (sup 2-), and Selected Aerosol Species Aboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft: During the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific Airborne Mission (TRACE-P)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    2004-01-01

    The UNH investigation during TRACE-P provided measurements of selected acidic gases and aerosol species aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. Our investigation focused on measuring HNO3, SO2, and fine (less than 2 microns) aerosol SO4(sup 2-) with two minute time resolution in near-real-time. We also quantified mixing ratios of aerosol ionic species, and aerosol (210)Pb and (7)Be collected onto bulk filters at better than 10 minute resolution. This suite of measurements contributed extensively to achieving the principal objectives of TRACE-P. In the context of the full data set collected by experimental teams on the DC-8, our observations provide a solid basis for assessing decadal changes in the chemical composition and source strength of Asian continental outflow. This region of the Pacific should be impacted profoundly by Asian emissions at this time with significant degradation of air quality over the next few decades. Atmospheric measurements in the western Pacific region will provide a valuable time series to help quantify the impact of Asian anthropogenic activities. Our data also provide important insight into the chemical and physical processes transforming Asian outflow during transport over the Pacific, particularly uptake and reactions of soluble gases on aerosol particles. In addition, the TRACE-P data set provide strong constraints for assessing and improving the chemical fields simulated by chemical transport models.

  3. Simultaneous Chandra X ray, Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet, and Ulysses Radio Observations of Jupiter's Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Lugaz, N.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cravens, T. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Ford, P.; Grodent, D.; Bhardwaj. A.; MacDowall, R. J.; Desch, M. D. 8; Majeed, T.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter carried out by the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) instrument over 24-26 February 2003 show that the auroral X-ray spectrum consists of line emission consistent with high-charge states of precipitating ions, and not a continuum as might be expected from bremsstrahlung. The part of the spectrum due to oxygen peaks around 650 eV, which indicates a high fraction of fully stripped oxygen in the precipitating ion flux. A combination of the OVIII emission lines at 653 eV and 774 eV, as well as the OVII emission lines at 561 eV and 666 eV, are evident in the measure auroral spectrum. There is also line emission at lower energies in the spectral region extending from 250 to 350 eV, which could be from sulfur and/or carbon. The Jovian auroral X-ray spectra are significantly different from the X-ray spectra of comets. The charge state distribution of the oxygen ions implied by the measured auroral X-ray spectra strongly suggests that independent of the source of the energetic ions, magnetospheric or solar wind, the ions have undergone additional acceleration. This spectral evidence for ion acceleration is also consistent with the relatively high intensities of the X rays compared with the available phase space density of the (unaccelerated) source populations of solar wind or magnetospheric ions at Jupiter, which are orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed emissions. The Chandra X-ray observations were executed simultaneously with observations at ultraviolet wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope and at radio wavelengths by the Ulysses spacecraft. These additional data sets suggest that the source of the X rays is magnetospheric in origin and that the precipitating particles are accelerated by strong field-aligned electric fields, which simultaneously create both the several-MeV energetic ion population and the relativistic electrons observed in situ by Ulysses that are correlated with approx.40 min quasi

  4. Simultaneous Chandra X-ray, HST Ultraviolet, and Ulysses Radio Observations of Jupiter's Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Lugaz, N.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cravens, T. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Ford, P.; Grodent, D.; Bhardwaj, A.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter carried out by the Chandra ACIS-S instrument over 24-26 February, 2003, show that the auroral X-ray spectrum consists of line emission consistent with high-charge states of precipitating ions, and not a continuum as might be expected from bremsstrahlung. The part of the spectrum due to oxygen peaks around 650 eV, which indicates a high fraction of fully-stripped oxygen in the precipitating ion flux. A combination of the OVIII emission lines at 653 eV and 774 eV, as well as the OVII emission lines at 561 eV and 666 eV, are evident in the measure auroral spectrum. There is also line emission at lower energies in the spectral region extending from 250 to 350 eV, which could be from sulfur and/or carbon. The Jovian auroral X- ray spectra are significantly different from the X-ray spectra of comets. The charge state distribution of the oxygen ions implied by the measured auroral X-ray spectra strongly suggests that, independent of the source of the energetic ions - magnetospheric or solar wind - the ions have undergone additional acceleration. This spectral evidence for ion acceleration is also consistent with the relatively high intensities of the X-rays compared to the available phase space density of the (unaccelerated) source populations of solar wind or magnetospheric ions at Jupiter, which are orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed emissions. The Chandra X-ray observations were executed simultaneously with observations at ultraviolet wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope and at radio wavelengths by the Ulysses spacecraft. These additional data sets suggest that the source of the X-rays is magnetospheric in origin, and that the precipitating particles are accelerated by strong field-aligned electric fields, which simultaneously create both the several-MeV energetic ion population and the relativistic electrons observed in situ by Ulysses that are correlated with approximately 40 minute quasi-periodic radio outbursts.

  5. Ulysses observations of auroral hiss at high Jovian latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Macdowall, R. J.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Stone, R. G.; Kellogg, P. J.; Lin, N.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Canu, P.; Bame, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    During the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter, a whistler-mode emission was periodically detected by the unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) experiment during intervals when the spacecraft extended to high magnetic latitudes. The signal was detected between the local electron plasma frequency and lower hybrid resonance and appears as a funnel-shaped structure on frequency-versus-time spectrograms; these characteristics are very reminiscent of whistler-mode auroral hiss observed at high latitudes at Earth. Ray tracing of the emission occurrences suggests the emission source is on magnetic field lines extending out to at least 65 R(sub J). This location associates the emission with the boundary between open and closed field lines -- not the Io torus. The emission radiates about 10(exp 7) W of power. Consequently, the auroral input power derived from the solar wind to drive the emission is believed to be 10(exp 10-12) W (or about 1% of the energy associated with Io torus electrical processes).

  6. ULF waves in the Io torus: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Naiguo; Kellogg, P. J.; Macdowell, R. J.; Mei, Y.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Canu, P.; De Villedary, C.; Rezeau, L.; Balogh, L.; Forsyth, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the Io torus, Ulysses has observed intense ultralow frequency (ULF) wave activity in both electric and magnetic components. Such ULF waves have been previously suggested as the source of ion precipitation leading to Jovian aurorae. The peaks of the wave spectra are closely related to the ion cyclotron frequencies, which is evidence of the waves being ion cyclotron waves (ICWs). Analysis of the dispersion relation using a multicomponent density model shows that at high latitudes (approximately 30 deg), peak frequencies of the waves fall into L mode branches of guided or unguided ICWs. Near the equator, in addition to the ICWs below f(sub cO(2+)), there are strong signals at approximately 10 Hz which require an unexpectedly large energetic ion temperature anistropy to be explained by the excitation of either convective or nonconvective ion cyclotron instabilities. Their generation mechanism remains open for the future study. Evaluation of the Poynting vector and the dispersion relation analysis suggest that the waves near the equator had a small wave angle relative to the magnetic field, while those observed at high latitudes were more oblique. The polarization of the waves below f(sub cH(+)) is more random than that of the whistler mode waves, but left-hand-polarized components of the waves can still be seen. The intensity of the ICWs both near the equator and at high latitudes are strong enough to meet the requirement for producing strong pitch angle scattering of energetic ions.

  7. Detectability of electrostatic decay products in Ulysses and Galileo observations of type 3 solar radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    Recent in situ Ulysses and Galileo observations of the source regions of type 3 solar radio bursts appear to show an absence of ion acoustic waves S produced by nonlinear Langmuir wave processes such as the electrostatic (ES) decay, in contradiction with earlier ISEE 3 observations and analytic theory. This letter resolves these apparent contradictions. Refined analyses of the maximum S-wave electric fields produced by ES decay and of the characteristics of the Ulysses Wave Form Analyzer (WFA) instrument show that the bursty S waves observed by the ISEE 3 should be essentially undetectable by the Ulysses WFA. It is also shown that the maximum S-wave levels predicted for the Galileo event are approximately less than the instrumental noise level, thereby confirming an earlier suggestion. Thus, no contradictions exist between the ISEE 3 and Ulysses/Galileo observation, and no evidence exists against ES decay in the published Ulysses and Galileo data. All available data are consistent with, or at worst not inconsistent with, the ES decay proceeding and being the dominant nonlinear process in type 3 bursts.

  8. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    SciTech Connect

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr. ); Gray, L.B. ); Huff, D.A. ); Klug, N.P. ); Winchester, R.O. )

    1991-01-01

    The recent 6 October 1990 launch and deployment of the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft from the Space Shuttle {ital Discovery} culminated an extensive safety review and evaluation effort by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP). After more than a year of detailed independent review, study, and analysis, the INSRP prepared a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the Ulysses mission, in accordance with Presidential Directive-National Security Council memorandum 25. The SER, which included a review of the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and an independent characterization of the mission risks, was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in its decision to request launch approval as well as by the Executive Office of the President in arriving at a launch decision based on risk-benefit considerations. This paper provides an overview of the Ulysses mission and the conduct as well as the results of the INSRP evaluation. While the mission risk determined by the INSRP in the SER was higher than that characterized by the Ulysses project in the FSAR, both reports indicated that the radiological risks were relatively small. In the final analysis, the SER proved to be supportive of a positive launch decision. The INSRP evaluation process has demonstrated its effectiveness numerous times since the 1960s. In every case, it has provided the essential ingredients and perspective to permit an informed launch decision at the highest level of our Government.

  9. Identification of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections at Ulysses Using Multiple Solar Wind Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, I. G.

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have discussed the identification of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) near the Earth based on various solar wind signatures. In particular, methods have been developed of identifying regions of anomalously low solar wind proton temperatures ( T p) and plasma compositional anomalies relative to the composition of the ambient solar wind that are frequently indicative of ICMEs. In this study, similar methods are applied to observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that was launched in 1990 and placed in a heliocentric orbit over the poles of the Sun. Some 279 probable ICMEs are identified during the spacecraft mission, which ended in 2009. The identifications complement those found independently in other studies of the Ulysses data, but a number of additional events are identified. The properties of the ICMEs detected at Ulysses and those observed near the Earth and in the inner heliosphere are compared.

  10. STS-41 Ulysses Breakfast, Suit-up, C-7 Exit, Launch and ISOS Cam Views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-41, Commander Richard N. Richards, Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Mission Specialists William M. Shepherd, Bruce E. Melnick, and Thomas D. Akers, participating in the traditional activities the day of their flight. The crew are seen eating breakfast, suiting-up, walking out to the Astronaut-Van, putting on life vests in the 'White Room' area, and entering the crew module of the Discovery Orbiter. Footage also includes preparation of the Ulysses Payload. Engineers are seen loading Ulysses to the upper stage, transferring Discovery to an upright position, bolting Discovery to the external tank, rolling Discovery out to the launch pad, and finally installing the Ulysses Payload inside Discovery. Also shown are both night and morning panoramic shots of the shuttle on the pad, main engine start, ignition, liftoff, booster separation, and various camera views of the launch.

  11. Update of Ulysses FSAR results using updated NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-18

    The mission risk results reported in the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) issued on March 14, 1990, were based on initiating accident probabilities the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) on July 13, 1988. These probabilities were provided in terms of ranges; the geometric mean of these ranges were used in the development and presentation of the results in the FSAR for source terms, radiological consequences and risks. Subsequent to the issuance of the FSAR, DOE received a revised set of probabilities from NASA. These probabilities were presented in terms of distributions for each initiating accident and characterized by a mean and cumulative percentile values. NASA recommended that DOE use the updated probabilities to update the Ulysses FSAR results. Accordingly, at the request of DOE, this letter report has been prepared to evaluate the changes in the Ulysses FSAR results when the updated mean probabilities are used.

  12. Relation Between Pressure Balance Structures and Polar Plumes from Ulysses High Latitude Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Suess, Steven T.; Sakurai, T.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ulysses observations have shown that pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in high-latitude, fast solar wind near solar minimum. Previous studies of Ulysses/SWOOPS plasma data suggest these PBSs may be remnants of coronal polar plumes. Here we find support for this suggestion in an analysis of PBS magnetic structure. We used Ulysses magnetometer data and applied a minimum variance analysis to discontinuities. We found that PBSs preferentially contain tangential discontinuities, as opposed to rotational discontinuities and to non-PBS regions in the solar wind. This suggests that PBSs contain structures like current sheets or plasmoids that may be associated with network activity at the base of plumes.

  13. Relation between Pressure Balance Structures and Polar Plumes from Ulysses High Latitude Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Ulysses observations have shown that pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in high-latitude, fast solar wind near solar minimum. Previous studies of Ulysses/SWOOPS plasma data suggest these PBSs may be remnants of coronal polar plumes. Here we find support for this suggestion in an analysis of PBS magnetic structure. We used Ulysses magnetometer data and applied a minimum variance analysis to magnetic discontinuities in PBSs. We found that PBSs preferentially contain tangential discontinuities, as opposed to rotational discontinuities and to non-PBS regions in the solar wind. This suggests that PBSs contain structures like current sheets or plasmoids that may be associated with network activity at the base of plumes.

  14. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  15. Interstellar He Parameters in Front of the Heliosphere: View from Ibex and Ulysses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokol, J. M.; Moebius, E.; Leonard, T.; Heirtzler, D.; Hlond, M.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Witte, M.; Wurz, P.; Rodriguez, D.; Schwadron, N.; Fuselier, S.; McComas, D. J.; Kucharek, H.

    2014-12-01

    The initial analyses of the Ulysses and IBEX interstellar neutral (ISN) gas observations showed small but significant differences in the ISN flow parameters. In particular, the IBEX observations have defined a narrow and tightly coupled tube in the 4-dimensional ISN parameter space (temperature and inflow speed, longitude, and latitude), which extended to the original Ulysses flow vector but with a somewhat different optimum set of values. However, adopting the Ulysses velocity vector resulted in a significantly higher temperature. Interestingly, the optimum flow vector obtained with IBEX resulted in the same temperature obtained from the Ulysses GAS analysis. These intriguing results were the starting point for a hypothesis that then was tested with a literature study from the past four decades, i.e., that the flow direction of interstellar He may be changing over time. Here, we analyze the data from both experiments using the Warsaw Test Particle Model, i.e., same simulation program and ionization rate model. For Ulysses GAS, we use the original data set and, in addition, the same set reprocessed with improved information on the instrument pointing in the sky. For IBEX, we model a subtle, previously unaccounted for data throughput issue for the first two observation seasons, and we analyze, for the first time, data from the two most recent seasons, when the data throughput issue was eliminated through a mode change and when the IBEX pointing strategy was changed to improve the sensitivity of the observations to tighten the possible range of the ISN flow parameters. In addition, we have refined the data uncertainty system, improved the analysis of the IBEX pointing information, and we now explicitly take into account the newly discovered Warm Breeze. In combination, we present the ISN velocity vector relative to the Sun and the He temperature for the entire Ulysses GAS observations and the past two IBEX-Lo observation seasons as a time series from 1994 until 2014.

  16. ISS Update: Science Aboard Kounotori3

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Pete Hasbrook, associate program scientist, about the experiments traveling to the International Space Station aboard the H-II Transfer Vehicle...

  17. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Ulysses Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by the preparation and operation of the Ulysses spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The launch configuration will use the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special(PAM-S) combination. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. However, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4 for NASA, could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal Shuttle launch operations. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects have been judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. In the event of (1) an accident during launch, or (2) reentry of the spacecraft from earth orbit, there are potential adverse health and environmental effects associated with the possible release of plutonium dioxide from the spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). The potential effects considered in this EIS include risks of air and water quality impacts, local land area contamination, adverse health and safety impacts, the disturbance of biotic resources, impacts on wetland areas or areas containing historical sites, and socioeconomic impacts. Intensive analysis of the possible accidents associated with the proposed action are underway and preliminary results indicate small health or environmental risks. The results of a Final Safety Analysis Report will be available for inclusion into the final EIS.

  18. On the Response of the Ulysses RTG to the Impact of Large SRM-Fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera

    1990-01-01

    Presented at the Seventh Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems in Albuquerque, NM, January 7-11, 1990. It will be shown that end-on impacts, which are more likely to occur with Ulysses than with Galileo, will produce greater average fueled clad distortion than was typical of Galileo. Fortunately, the predicted distortions remain well within the Galileo database. It will also be shown that the 2-dimensional calculations which were performed for the Galileo configuration were indeed valid in that application and are also valid for the Ulysses configuration. There are three copies in the file.

  19. The Ulysses Supplement to the BATSE 3B Catalog of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, K.

    1998-01-01

    We present Interplanetary Network Localization information for 219 gamma-ray burst of the 3rd BATSE catalog, obtained by analyzing the arrival times of these bursts at the Ulysses and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) spacecraft. For any given burst observed by these two spacecraft, arrival time analysis (triangulation) results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose width varies between 7 arcseconds and 32 arcminutes, depending on the intensity and time history of the burst, and the distance of the Ulysses spacecraft from Earth. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in an average reduction of the error box area by a factor of 30.

  20. Ulysses solar wind plasma observations from peak southerly latitude through perihelion and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.L.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M.; Hammond, C.M.

    1996-07-01

    We present Ulysses solar wind plasma data from the peak southerly latitude of {minus}80.2{degree} through +64.9{degree} latitude on June 7, 1995. Ulysses encountered fast wind throughout this time except for a 43{degree} equatorial band. Mass flux was nearly constant with latitude, while speed (density) had positive (negative) poleward gradients. Momentum flux was highest at high latitudes, suggesting a latitudinal asymmetry in the heliopause cross section. Solar wind energy flux density was also highest at high latitudes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Ulysses solar wind plasma observations from peak southerly latitude through perihelion and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.L.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M.; Hammond, C.M.

    1995-09-01

    We present Ulysses solar wind plasma data from the peak southerly latitude of {minus}80.2{degrees} through +64.9{degrees} latitude on June 7, 1995. Ulysses encountered fast wind throughout this time except for a 43{degrees} band centered on the solar equator. Median mass flux was nearly constant with latitude, while speed and density had positive and negative poleward gradients, respectively. Solar wind momentum flux was highest at high latitudes, suggesting a latitudinal asymmetry in the heliopause cross section. Solar wind energy flux density was also highest at high latitudes.

  2. Effects of the 5 October 1996 CME at 4.4 AU: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, R.G.; Desai, M.I.; Sanderson, T.R.; Forsyth, R.J.; Gosling, J.T.

    1997-09-01

    The authors present observations from Ulysses associated with a large coronal mass ejection (CME) that lifted off the west limb of the Sun on 5 October, 1996. The study focuses on the effects of the interplanetary counterpart of the CME on the energetic particle populations at the location of Ulysses, in particular the effect on the sequence of corotating enhancements that had been observed prior to its arrival. They conclude that, despite its large spatial extent, the CME caused no permanent deformation of the heliospheric current sheet.

  3. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A., Jr.; Huff, Darrell A.; Gray, Leven B.; Klug, Norman P.; Winchester, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    After over a year of detailed independent review, a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) was prepared for the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft mission. An overview is presently given of the Ulysses mission as well as the conduct and results of the evaluation process; in the final analysis, the SER was supportive of a positive launch decision. Eleven key accident scenarios were carried through to complete analysis, out of a total of 19 possible accidents involving a potential for fuel release to the spacecraft environment.

  4. X-ray bright points and high-speed wind streams: A preliminary analysis from Yohkoh and Ulysses data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, Giannina; Suess, Steven T.; Khan, J. I.; Uchida, Y.; Hiei, E.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Strong, K. T.; Harvey, K. L.

    1994-01-01

    The following aspect of the solar wind mass flux, and of its variation, is examined: whether coronal plumes might be responsible for the long-term variability of the mass flux in high-speed streams emanating from coronal holes. The assumption that plumes are rooted in coronal bright points (BP's) is made. The behavior of X-ray BP's, imaged by the Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope (SXT), during a seven month period when Ulysses experiments observed a series of recurrent high-speed streams, is analyzed. If plumes/BP's are sources of the wind mass flux, changes in the coronal hole BP density to mimic changes of the mass flux in high-speed streams are expected. SOHO will have the capability of measuring the solar wind speed/density at small heliocentric distances while simultaneously observing coronal BP's and coronal plumes.

  5. Flow properties of the solar wind obtained from white light data, Ulysses observations and a two-fluid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Using the empirical constraints provided by observations in the inner corona and in interplanetary space. we derive the flow properties of the solar wind using a two fluid model. Density and scale height temperatures are derived from White Light coronagraph observations on SPARTAN 201-1 and at Mauna Loa, from 1.16 to 5.5 R, in the two polar coronal holes on 11-12 Apr. 1993. Interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux are taken from the Ulysses south polar passage. By comparing the results of the model computations that fit the empirical constraints in the two coronal hole regions, we show how the effects of the line of sight influence the empirical inferences and subsequently the corresponding numerical results.

  6. Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Tatsuya; Oguma, Hiroyuki; Morino, Isamu; Higurashi, Akiko; Aoki, Tadao; Inoue, Gen

    2004-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese satellite to monitor column density of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. GOSAT will be launched in 2008. The data measured by a GOSAT sensor and ground-based monitoring station data will be used into an atmospheric transport inverse model to identify source/sink amount of CO2 in a sub-continental scale. One of the main GOSAT sensors is a nadir-looking Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which covers Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) region to measure column density of CO2. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is promoting researches on CO2 and CH4 sensitivity analysis, error analysis, data retrieval algorithm study, ground-based/air-borne validation strategy, and a plan of inverse model study for the SWIR FTS. A Bread-board model (BBM) of the SWIR FTS was built and tested by ground-based and airborne measurements. Several sets of the CO2 and CH4 radiance spectra over rice fields were obtained by the test measurements, and it was confirmed that the airborne measurements with a vibration insulator are effective for onboard measurements. Moreover, several improvement items of BBM have become clear.

  7. Measurements of Nitric Acid and Aerosol Species Aboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft During the SASS Ozone and Nitrogen Oxide Experiment (SONEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    1999-01-01

    The SASS Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment (SONEX) over the North Atlantic during October/November 1997 offered an excellent opportunity to examine the budget of total reactive nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the upper troposphere (8 - 12 km altitude). The median measured NO(sub y) mixing ratio was 425 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Two different methods were used to measure HNO3: (1) the mist chamber technique and, (2) chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Two merged data sets using these HNO3 measurements were used to calculate NO(sub y) by summing the reactive nitrogen species (a combination of measured plus modeled results) and comparing the resultant values to measured NO(sub y) (gold catalytic reduction method). Both comparisons showed good agreement in the two quantities (slope > 0.9 and r(exp 2) > 0.9). Thus, the total reactive nitrogen budget in the upper troposphere over the North Atlantic can be explained in a general manner as a simple mixture of NO(sub x). (NO + NO2), HNO3, and PAN. Median values of NO(sub x)/NO(sub y) were approximately equal to 0.25, HNO3/NO(sub y) were approximately equal to 0.35 and Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN)/NO(sub y) were approximately equal to 0. 17. Particulate NO3 and alkyl nitrates together composed <10 % of NO(sub y), while model estimated HNO4 averaged 12%.

  8. Measurements of Nitric Acid and Aerosol Species Aboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft During the SASS OZone and Nitrogen Oxide Experiment (SONEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    1999-01-01

    The SASS Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment (SONEX) over the north Atlantic during October/November 1997 offered an excellent opportunity to examine the budget of total reactive nitrogen (NO(y)) in the upper troposphere (8 - 12 km altitude). The median measured NO(y) mixing ratio was 425 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Two different methods were used to measure HNO3: (1) the mist chamber technique and, (2) chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Two merged data sets using these HNO3 measurements were used to calculate NO(y) by summing the reactive nitrogen species (a combination of measured plus modeled results) and comparing the resultant values to measured NO(y) (gold catalytic reduction method). Both comparisons showed good agreement in the two quantities (slope greater than 0.9 and r(sup 2) greater than 0.9). Thus, the total reactive nitrogen budget in the upper troposphere over the North Atlantic can be explained in a general manner as a simple mixture of NO(x). (NO + NO2), HNO3, and PAN. Median values of NO(x)/NO(y) were approx. = 0.25, HNO3/NO(y) approx. = 0.35 and PAN/NO(y) approx. = 0.17. Particulate NO3 and alkyl nitrates together composed less than 10% of NO(y), while model estimated HNO4 averaged 12%.

  9. Simultaneous, In-situ Measurement of NO3, N2O5 and NO2 via Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy aboard an Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, W. P.; Brown, S. S.; Osthoff, H. D.; Ciciora, S. J.; Paris, M. W.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    This contribution describes improvements to an existing instrument for aircraft measurements of NO3 and N2O5 in the troposphere via cavity ring-down spectroscopy [Brown, et al., 2002; Dubé, et al., 2006]. The instrument was specifically designed and constructed for operation on the NOAA WP-3. The improvements include the incorporation of two additional cavity ring-down channels, reduced residence time for more rapid sampling and reduced inlet losses; higher reflectivity mirrors to improve instrument sensitivity; and a calibration system based on the conversion of NO3 and N2O5 to NO2. The instrument now consists of a total of four measurement channels, three at 662 nm for measuring NO3, N2O5, and a reference channel to track background changes on a rapid time scale, and one at 532 nm for measurement of NO2 [Osthoff, et al., 2006]. This paper describes the specifics of these design changes, the resultant improvements in the measurement and the performance of the instrument during the TexAQS/GoMACCS campaign in Houston, TX in 2006. Brown, S. S., H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara (2002), Simultaneous in-situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Rev. Sci. Instr., 73, 3291-3301. Dube, W. P., S. S. Brown, H. D. Osthoff, M. R. Nunley, S. J. Ciciora, M. W. Paris, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara (2006), Aircraft instrument for simultaneous, in-situ measurements of NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Rev. Sci. Instr., 77, 034101. Osthoff, H. D., S. S. Brown, T. B. Ryerson, T. J. Fortin, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, A. Pettersson, T. Baynard, W. P. Dube, S. J. Ciciora, and A. R. Ravishankara (2006), Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy, J. Geophys. Res., D12305, doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.

  10. Measurements of HOx radicals and the total OH reactivity (kOH) in the planetary boundary layer over southern Finland aboard the Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broch, Sebastian; Gomm, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bachner, Mathias; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Li, Xin; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Thayer, Mitchell; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The concentration of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals (also named HOx) and the total OH reactivity were measured over southern Finland and during transfer flights over Germany, Denmark and Sweden aboard the Zeppelin NT airship within the framework of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) field campaign in 2013. The measurements were performed with a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument which was installed on top of the airship. Together with a comprehensive set of trace gas (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO, VOCs), photolysis frequencies and aerosol measurements as well as the measurement of meteorological parameters, these data provide the possibility to test the current understanding of the chemical processes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over different landscapes and in different chemical regimes. The unique flight performance of the Zeppelin NT allowed us to measure transects at a constant altitude as well as vertical profiles within the range of 80 m to 1000 m above ground. The transect flights show changes in the HOx distribution and kOH while crossing different chemical regimes on the way from Friedrichshafen, Germany to Jämijärvi, Finland over Germany, Denmark and Sweden. Vertical profile flights over the boreal forest close to Jämijärvi and Hyytiälä (both Finland) gave the opportunity to investigate the layering of the PBL and with that the vertical distribution of HOx and kOH with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Gradients in the HOx concentration and kOH were measured between the different layers during the early morning hours. The maximum radical concentrations found during the campaign were 1.0 x 107 cm-3 for OH and 1.0 x 109 cm-3 for HO2. The total OH reactivity measured in Finland was much lower than what was reported before in the literature from ground based measurements and ranged from 1 s-1 to 6 s-1. Acknowledgement: PEGASOS project funded by the European

  11. Ulysses observations of a recurrent high speed solar wind stream and the heliomagnetic streamer belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gosling, J. T.; Harvey, J. W.; Mccomas, D. J.; Neugebauer, M.; Phillips, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Near-ecliptic solar wind observations by Ulysses on its way to the polar regions of the Sun, compared with those from IMP 8 at 1 AU, showed that high-speed streams decay and broaden with heliocentric distance from IMP 8 to Ulysses, as expected. In July 1992 while traveling south at approximately 13 deg S and 5.3 AU, Ulysses encountered a recurrent high-speed stream, that may also have been observed at IMP 8. The stream has been observed a total of 14 times, once in each solar rotation through June 1993 at approximately 34 deg S. The source of the high-speed stream is an equatorward extension of the south polar coronal hole. From July 1992 through June 1993, averages of solar wind peak speed increased while density decreased with heliographic latitude. Both the stream and a low-speed, high-density flow, presumably associated with the heliomagnetic (coronal) streamer belt encircling the heliomagnetic equator, crossed Ulysses with the solar rotation period until April 1993 when the spacecraft was at approximately 29 deg S heliographic latitude. After this time, as the spacecraft climbed to higher latitudes, the central portion of the streamer belt with lowest speed and highest density disappeared. Therefore, at its maximum inclination, the belt was tilted at approximately 29 deg to the heliographic equator at this point in the solar cycle.

  12. A Pair of Forward and Reverse Slow-Mode Shocks Detected by Ulysses at 5AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lin, N.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Smith, E. J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Lakhina, G. S.; Buti, B.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first finding of a pair of forward and reverse slow-mode shocks in the distant heliosphere using plasma and magnetic field data from the Ulysses spacecraft located at 5.3 AU and 9 degrees South heliolatitude.

  13. Energetic particles and coronal mass ejections in the high latitude heliosphere: Ulysses-LET observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bothmer, V.; Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Trattner, K. J.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R. J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Uchida, Y.; Hudson, H. S.

    1996-07-20

    We have investigated energetic ions of non-corotating nature in the high latitude heliosphere. Major particle events were observed by Ulysses up to latitudes of 60 deg. S. All were associated with passage of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) over the spacecraft. The relationship of these events with solar activity was investigated using Yohkoh soft X-ray images.

  14. Magnetic Field Structure of Pressure Balanced Structures from Ulysses High Latitudes Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Suess, S. T.; Sakurai, T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ulysses observations showed that pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in the high-latitude solar winds near the solar minimum. On the other hand, coronal plumes are common in polar coronal holes near the solar minimum. It is therefore considered that the PBSs would be remnants of plumes. Several detailed studies of the PBSs have been made from Ulysses/SWOOPS observations, but study of their magnetic structures has not yet been done. The study of the magnetic structure is important because previous observations and theoretical models of plumes indicate that they are related to the network activity such as magnetic reconnection on the photosphere. We have investigated the magnetic structures of the PBSs with Ulysses magnetometer and SWOOPS data. We have found that magnetic reversals in radial magnetic field take place while the spacecraft passes through most of the PBSs These magnetic reversals have been interpreted as large amplitude Alfv/'enic fluctuations but our results suggest that Ulysses is also traversing current sheets of plasmoids associated with network activity at the base of plumes.

  15. (abstract) Ulysses Solar Wind Ion Temperatures: Radial, Latitudinal, and Dynamical Dependencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Smith, E. J.; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D. J.; Balogh, A.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the Ulysses SWOOPS plasma experiment are used to determine the dependencies of solar wind ion temperatures upon radial distance, speed, and other parameters, and to estimate solar wind heating. Comparisons with three dimensional temperature estimates determined from the ion spectra by a least squares fitting program will be provided (only small samples of data have been reduced with this program).

  16. Ulysses observations of a recurrent high speed solar wind stream and the heliomagnetic streamer belt

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L. ); Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M. ); Harvey, J.W.

    1993-11-05

    Near-ecliptic solar wind observations by Ulysses on its way to the polar regions of the Sun, compared with those from IMP 8 at 1 AU, showed that high-speed streams decay and broaden with heliocentric distance from IMP 8 to Ulysses, as expected. In July 1992 while travelling south at [approximately]13[degrees]S and 5.3 AU, Ulysses encountered a recurrent high-speed stream, that may also have been observed at IMP 8. The stream has been observed a total of 14 times, once in each solar rotation through June 1993 at [approximately]34[degrees]S. The source of the high-speed stream is an equatorward extension of the south polar coronal hole. From July 1992 through June 1993, averages of solar wind peak speed increased while density decreased with heliographic latitude. Both the stream and a low-speed, high-density flow, presumably associated with the heliomagnetic (coronal) streamer belt encircling the heliomagnetic equator, crossed Ulysses with the solar rotation period until April 1993 when the spacecraft was at [approximately]29[degrees]S heliographic latitude. After this time, as the spacecraft climbed to higher latitudes, the central portion of the streamer belt with lowest speed and highest density disappeared. Therefore, at its maximum inclination, the belt was tilted at [approximately]29[degrees] to the heliographic equator at this point in the solar cycle. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  17. The underlying magnetic field direction in Ulysses observations of the southern polar heliosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, R.J.; Balogh, A.; Smith, E.J.; Murphy, N.; McComas, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Magnetic field data provided by the Ulysses spacecraft between May 1993 and January 1995 are presented for the south latitudes 30-80 dg. The deflections of the magnetic field direction are attributed to the intense Alfven waves. {copyright} {bold 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE DUE TO COUPLING BETWEEN THE INTERSTELLAR AND INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELDS. IV. SOLAR CYCLE MODEL BASED ON ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Suess, S. T.; Borovikov, S. N.; Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-07-20

    The solar cycle has a profound influence on the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) on more than one timescales. Also, there are substantial differences in individual solar cycle lengths and SW behavior within them. The presence of a slow SW belt, with a variable latitudinal extent changing within each solar cycle from rather small angles to 90 Degree-Sign , separated from the fast wind that originates at coronal holes substantially affects plasma in the inner heliosheath (IHS)-the SW region between the termination shock (TS) and the heliopause (HP). The solar cycle may be the reason why the complicated flow structure is observed in the IHS by Voyager 1. In this paper, we show that a substantial decrease in the SW ram pressure observed by Ulysses between the TS crossings by Voyager 1 and 2 contributes significantly to the difference in the heliocentric distances at which these crossings occurred. The Ulysses spacecraft is the source of valuable information about the three-dimensional and time-dependent properties of the SW. Its unique fast latitudinal scans of the SW regions make it possible to create a solar cycle model based on the spacecraft in situ measurements. On the basis of our analysis of the Ulysses data over the entire life of the mission, we generated time-dependent boundary conditions at 10 AU from the Sun and applied our MHD-neutral model to perform a numerical simulation of the SW-LISM interaction. We analyzed the global variations in the interaction pattern, the excursions of the TS and the HP, and the details of the plasma and magnetic field distributions in the IHS. Numerical results are compared with Voyager data as functions of time in the spacecraft frame. We discuss solar cycle effects which may be reasons for the recent decrease in the TS particles (ions accelerated to anomalous cosmic-ray energies) flux observed by Voyager 1.

  19. Three-dimensional Features of the Outer Heliosphere due to Coupling between the Interstellar and Interplanetary Magnetic Fields. IV. Solar Cycle Model Based on Ulysses Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Suess, S. T.; Borovikov, S. N.; Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J.; Zank, G. P.

    2013-07-01

    The solar cycle has a profound influence on the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) on more than one timescales. Also, there are substantial differences in individual solar cycle lengths and SW behavior within them. The presence of a slow SW belt, with a variable latitudinal extent changing within each solar cycle from rather small angles to 90°, separated from the fast wind that originates at coronal holes substantially affects plasma in the inner heliosheath (IHS)—the SW region between the termination shock (TS) and the heliopause (HP). The solar cycle may be the reason why the complicated flow structure is observed in the IHS by Voyager 1. In this paper, we show that a substantial decrease in the SW ram pressure observed by Ulysses between the TS crossings by Voyager 1 and 2 contributes significantly to the difference in the heliocentric distances at which these crossings occurred. The Ulysses spacecraft is the source of valuable information about the three-dimensional and time-dependent properties of the SW. Its unique fast latitudinal scans of the SW regions make it possible to create a solar cycle model based on the spacecraft in situ measurements. On the basis of our analysis of the Ulysses data over the entire life of the mission, we generated time-dependent boundary conditions at 10 AU from the Sun and applied our MHD-neutral model to perform a numerical simulation of the SW-LISM interaction. We analyzed the global variations in the interaction pattern, the excursions of the TS and the HP, and the details of the plasma and magnetic field distributions in the IHS. Numerical results are compared with Voyager data as functions of time in the spacecraft frame. We discuss solar cycle effects which may be reasons for the recent decrease in the TS particles (ions accelerated to anomalous cosmic-ray energies) flux observed by Voyager 1.

  20. A survey of low frequency waves at Jupiter: The Ulysses encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Southwood, David J.; Smith, Edward J.; Balogh, Andre

    1993-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of low-frequency (LF) plasma waves detected during the Ulysses Jupiter flyby. In the Jovian foreshock, two predominant wave periods are detected: 10(exp 2)-s and 5-s, as measured in the spacecraft frame. The 10(exp 2)-s waves are highly nonlinear propagate at large angles to vector-B(sub 0) (typically 50 deg), are steepened, and sometimes have attached whistler packets. For the interval analyzed the 10(exp 2)-s waves had mixed right-and left-hand polarizations. We argue that these are all consistent with being right-hand magnetosonic waves in the solar wind frame. The 10(exp 2)-s waves with attached whistler are similar to cometary waves. The trailing portions are linearly polaraized and the whistler portions circularly polarized with amplitudes decreasing linearly with time. The emissions are generated by approximately 2-keV protons flowing from the Jovian bow shock/magnetosheath into the upstream region. The instability is the ion beam instability. Higher Z ions were considered as a source of the waves but have been ruled out because of the low sunward velocities needed for their resonance. The 5-s waves have delta vector-B/B(sub 0 approximately = 0.5, are compressive and are left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame. Local generation by three different resonant interactions were considered and have been ruled out. One possibility is that these waves are whistler mode by-products of the steepened lower-frequency magnetosonic waves. Mirror mode structures were detected throughout the outbound magnetosheath passes. For these structures, the theta(sub kB) values were consistently in the range of 80 deg to 90 deg, exceptionally high values.

  1. The low energy magnetic spectrometer on Ulysses and ACE response to near relativistic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Bruno; Filipe Maia, Dalmiro Jorge; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Patterson, J. Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We show that the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra Composition and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HISCALE) on board the Ulysses spacecraft and the Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on board the Advance Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft can be used to measure properties for ion populations with kinetic energies in excess of 1 GeV. This previously unexplored source of information is valuable for understanding the origin of near relativistic ions of solar origin. Methods: We model the instrumental response from the low energy magnetic spectrometers from EPAM and HISCALE using a Monte Carlo approach implemented in the Geant4 toolkit to determine the response of different energy channels to energies up to 5 GeV. We compare model results with EPAM observations for 2012 May 17 ground level solar cosmic ray event, including directional fluxes. Results: For the 2012 May event, all the ion channels in EPAM show an onset more than one hour before ions with the highest nominal energy range (1.8 to 4.8 MeV) were expected to arrive. We show from Monte Carlo simulations that the timing at different channels, the ratio between counts at the different channels, and the directional fluxes within a given channel, are consistent with and can be explained by the arrival of particles with energies from 35 MeV to more than 1 GeV. Onset times for the EPAM penetrating protons are consistent with the rise seen in neutron monitor data, implying that EPAM and ground neutron monitors are seeing overlapping energy ranges and that both are consistent with GeV ions being released from the Sun at 10:38 UT.

  2. Comparison of Natural Narrow-banded Emissions and Sounder Stimulated Resonances In The Magnetospheres of Jupiter and The Earth (ulysses and Image Spacecraft)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Benson, R. F.; MacDowall, R.

    The sounder stimulated resonances observed by Ulysses in JupiterSs Io torus re- vealed a spectrum of frequencies which has been interpreted in terms of Dn reso- nances together with electron plasma frequency fpe and Bernstein Qn resonances in order to determine the electron density and magnetic field strength (Osherovich et al. 1993; Benson et al. 1997). The presence of Dn resonances (cylindrical eigen- modes with frequencies proportional sqrtn, n = 1, 2, ...) has been predicted for the Io torus on the basis of the classification of the EarthSs Ionospheric sounder stim- ulated resonances (Osherovich 1987, 1989; Osherovich and Benson 1991; Benson and Osherovich 1992). The magnetic field strength measured by the Ulysses mag- netometer confirmed the values found from resonances to within a few percent. An alternative interpretation suggested that the Ulysses relaxation sounder did not excite Dn in JupiterSs magnetosphere( Le Sagre et al. 1998) and the topic has been subject to a recent debate (Canu 2001a; Benson et al. 2001; Canu 2001b) . We show that Dn resonances are present in both sounder stimulated spectra and in natural emissions ob- served by Ulysses during the inbound and outbound part of the trajectory inside the Io torus. The natural emissions (no sounding) have the same frequencies as their sounder stimulated counterparts. IMAGE/RPI observations, which confirm the specific rela- tion between Dn, fp and fce and for the subsidiary resonances Dn+ and Dn-, will also be presented. References: Benson, R.F. and V.A. Osherovich, Canu, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 19413, 1992. Benson, R.F. et al., Radio Sci., 32, 1127, 1997. Benson, R.F. et al., Radio Sci., 36, 1649, 2001. Canu, P., Radio Sci., 36, 171, 2001a. Canu, P., Radio Sci., 36, 1645, 2001b. Le Sagre, P. et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26667, 1998. 1 Osherovich, V. A., J. Geophys. Res., 92, 316, 1987. Osherovich, V. A., J. Geophys. Res., 94, 5530, 1989. Osherovich, V. A. and R.F. Benson, ., J. Geophys. Res., 96

  3. Solar Energetic Particle spectral and compositional invariance in the 3-D Heliosphere: Ulysses and ACE/WIND comparisons in late 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.; Marsden, Richard G.; Tranquille, Cecil; Patterson, Doug; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2013-04-01

    We carry out the first detailed examination and comparison of elemental spectra and composition in the late decay phase of two Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events in the so-called 'reservoir' regions, between spacecraft widely separated in latitude, as well as in longitude and radial distance in the Heliosphere. Energetic particle data from instruments onboard the Ulysses spacecraft located at a high heliospheric latitude of about 70 deg N and at a heliocentric distance of about 2.5 AU and from spacecraft at L1 are used in this work. Particle intensities over time are observed to be in close agreement following the shock passage over the widely separated spacecraft. Electron measurements were used to identify the extent of the particle reservoir. In this update on reservoir composition studies, we extend our previous work to sub-MeV/nucleon energies, using measurements from HI-SCALE on Ulysses and EPAM on ACE. Implications of the observations for models of SEP transport are also discussed. Acknowledgments: The presented work has received funding from the European Union FP7 project COMESEP (263252) and has also been supported by NASA under grants NNH09AK79I and NNX09AU98G (AJT).

  4. Combined Ulysses Solar Wind and SOHO Coronal Observations of Several West Limb Coronal Mass Ejections. Appendix 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funsten, H. O.; Gosling, J. T.; Riley, P.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Forsyth, R. J.; Howard, R. A.; Schwenn, R.

    2001-01-01

    From October 1996 to January 1997, Ulysses was situated roughly above the west limb of the Sun as observed from Earth at a heliocentric distance of about 4.6 AU and a latitude of about 25 deg. This presents the first opportunity to compare Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) limb observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) directly with their solar wind counterparts far from the Sun using the Ulysses data. During this interval, large eruptive events were observed above the west limb of the Sun by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on SOHO on October 5, November 28, and December 21-25, 1996. Using the combined plasma and magnetic field data from Ulysses, the October 5 event was clearly identified by several distinguishing signatures as a CME. The November 28 event was also identified as a CME that trailed fast ambient solar wind, although it was identified only by an extended interval of counterstreaming suprathermal electrons. The December 21 event was apparently characterized by a six-day interval of nearly radial field and a plasma rarefaction. For the numerous eruptive events observed by the LASCO coronagraph during December 23-25, Ulysses showed no distinct, CMEs, perhaps because of intermingling of two or more of the eruptive events. By mapping the Ulysses observations back in time to the Sun assuming a constant flow speed, we have identified intervals of plasma that were accelerated or decelerated between the LASCO and Ulysses observations.

  5. Imaging observations of Jupiter's sodium magneto-nebula during the Ulysses encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendillo, Michael; Flynn, Brian; Baumgardner, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Jupiter's great sodium nebula represents the largest visible structure traversed by the Ulysses spacecraft during its encounter with the planet in February 1992. Ground-based imaging conducted on Mount Haleakala, Hawaii, revealed a nebula that extended to at least +/- 300 Jovian radii; it was somewhat smaller in scale and less bright than previously observed. Analysis of observations and results of modeling studies suggest reduced volcanic activity on the moon Io, higher ion temperatures in the plasma torus, lower total plasma content in the torus, and fast neutral atomic clouds along the Ulysses inbound trajectory through the magnetosphere. Far fewer neutrals were encountered by the spacecraft along its postencounter, out-of-ecliptic trajectory.

  6. Ulysses at 50 deg south: Constant immersion in the high-speed solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. L.; Balogh, A.; Bame, S. J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gosling, J. T.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Mccomas, D. J.; Neugebauer, M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Wang, Y.-M.

    1994-01-01

    We present speed observations from the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment through 50 deg south latitude. The pronounced speed modulation arising from solar rotation and the tilt of the heliomagnetic current sheet has nearly disappeared. Ulysses is now observing wind speeds in the 700 to 800 km/s range, with a magnetic polarity indicating an origin in the large south polar coronal hole. The strong compressions, rarefractions, and shock waves previously seen have weakened or disappeared. Occasional coronal mass ejections characterized by low plasma density caused by radial expansion have been observed. The coronal configuration was simple and stable in 1993, indicating that the observed solar wind changes were caused by increasing spacecraft latitude. Trends in prevailing speed with increasing latitude support previous findings. A decrease in peak speed southward of 40 deg latitude may indicate that the fastest solar wind comes from the equatorial extensions of the polar coronal holes.

  7. Final (Tier 1) environmental impact statement for the Galileo and Ulysses Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Presented here is a Final (Tier 1) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) addressing the potential environmental consequences associated with continuing the modifications of the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft for launch using a booster/upper stage combination that is different from the one planned for use prior to the Challenger accident, while conducting the detailed safety and environmental analysis in order to preserve the October 1989 launch opportunity for Galileo and an October 1990 launch opportunity for Ulysses. While detailed safety and environmental analyses associated with the missions are underway, they currently are not complete. Nevertheless, sufficient information is available to enable a choice among the reconfiguration alternatives presented. Relevant assessments of the potential for environmental impacts are presented.

  8. The Ulysses Supplement to the BATSE 4B Catalog of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, K.; Briggs, Michael S.; Kippen, Richard M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Cline, T. L.; Boer, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present Interplanetary Network Localization information for 150 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment(BATSE) between the end of the 3rd BATSE catalog and the end of the 4th BATSE catalog obtained by analyzing the arrival times of these bursts at the Ulysses and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) spacecraft. For any given burst observed by these two spacecraft, arrival time analysis (triangulation) results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose width varies between 7 arcseconds and 2.3 degrees, depending on the intensity and time history of the burst, and the distance of the Ulysses spacecraft from Earth. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in an average reduction of the error box area by a factor of 25.

  9. Determination of Position of Jupiter From Very-Long Baseline Interferometry Observations of Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; McElrath, T. P.; Mannucci, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the Ulysses spacecraft near its encounter with Jupiter on 1992 February 8 were made to determine the angular position of Jupiter with respect to well known extragalactic radio sources. Spacecraft range and Doppler data were used to determine the position of the spacecraft with respect to Jupiter. Thirty-one VLBI observations of the spacecraft were made within 30 days of Ulysses closest approach to Jupiter, using the California-Spain and California-Australia baselines of NASA's Deep Space Network. When combined, these data determine the position of Jupiter at the time of encounter with an accuracy of 0.003 min in right ascension and 0.005 sec in declination. In addition, the Earth-Jupiter distance was determined with 20 m accuracy.

  10. Ulysses at 50{degrees} south: Constant immersion in the high-speed solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.L.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Balogh, A.; Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M.; Hoeksema, J.T.; Sheeley, N.R. Jr.; Wang, Y.M.

    1994-06-15

    The authors present speed observations from the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment through 50{degrees} south latitude. The pronounced speed modulation arising from solar rotation and the tilt of the heliomagnetic current sheet has nearly disappeared. Ulysses is now observing wind speeds in the 700 to 800 km s{sup {minus}1} range, with a magnetic polarity indicating an origin in the large south polar coronal hole. The strong compressions, rarefactions, and shock waves previously seen have weakened or disappeared. Occasional coronal mass ejections characterized by low plasma density caused by radial expansion have been observed. The coronal configuration was simple and stable in 1993, indicating that the observed solar wind changes were caused by increasing latitude support previous findings. A decrease in peak speed southward of 40{degrees} latitude may indicate that the fastest solar wind comes from the equatorial extensions of the polar coronal holes. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Suprathermal electron loss cone distributions in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Hammond, C. M.; Forsyth, R. J.

    1996-07-20

    We present observations by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment of a new class of suprathermal electron signatures. At low solar latitudes and heliocentric distances beyond 3.37 AU Ulysses encountered seven intervals, ranging in duration from 1 hour to 22 hours, in which the suprathermal distributions included an antisunward field-aligned beam and a return population with a flux dropout typically spanning {+-}60 deg. from the sunward field-aligned direction. All events occurred between the forward and reverse shocks or waves bounding corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The observations support a scenario in which the sunward-moving electrons result from reflection of the prevailing antisunward field-aligned beam at magnetic field compressions downstream from the spacecraft, with wide loss cones caused by the relatively weak mirror ratio. This hypothesis requires that the field magnitude within the CIRs actually increased locally with increasing field-aligned distance from the Sun.

  12. Suprathermal electron loss cone distributions in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Hammond, C.M.; Forsyth, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    We present observations by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment of a new class of suprathermal electron signatures. At low solar latitudes and heliocentric distances beyond 3.37 AU Ulysses encountered seven intervals, ranging in duration from 1 hour to 22 hours, in which the suprathermal distributions included an antisunward field-aligned beam and a return population with a flux dropout typically spanning {plus_minus}60 ft from the sunward field-aligned direction. All events occurred between the forward and reverse shocks or waves bounding corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The observations support a scenario in which the sunward-moving electrons result from reflection of the prevailing antisunward field-aligned beam at magnetic field compressions downstream from the spacecraft, with wide loss cones caused by the relatively weak mirror ratio. This hypothesis requires that the field magnitude within the CIRs actually increased locally with increasing field-aligned distance from the Sun.

  13. Using ACE and Ulysses to investigate the heliographic transport of energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian M.

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and the Ulysses spacecraft follow radically different trajectories, allowing the Sun to be simultaneously studied from 2 different perspectives. Data from the low energy particle instruments carried by these spacecraft reveals energetic particles accelerated at the Sun can access large angular extents of the interplanetary medium. We look at a rare case when the heliographic transport of energetic electrons was apparently prevented and speculate upon the ability of the corona to inhibit the propagation of these particles.

  14. Generation and reduction of the data for the Ulysses gravitational wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, R.; Bonifazi, P.; Iess, L.; Trager, G. B.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure for the generation and reduction of the radiometric data known as REGRES is described. The software is implemented on a HP-1000F computer and was tested on REGRES data relative to the Voyager I spacecraft. The REGRES data are a current output of NASA's Orbit Determination Program. The software package was developed in view of the data analysis of the gravitational wave experiment planned for the European spacecraft Ulysses.

  15. SPATIALLY DEPENDENT HEATING AND IONIZATION IN AN ICME OBSERVED BY BOTH ACE AND ULYSSES

    SciTech Connect

    Lepri, Susan T.; Laming, J. Martin; Rakowski, Cara E.; Von Steiger, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    The 2005 January 21 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed from January 21-February 4 at Ulysses (5.3 AU). Previous studies of this ICME have found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event allows us to study spatial variation across the ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. In order to examine the spatial dependence of the heating in this ICME, we present an analysis and comparison of the heavy ion composition observed during the passage of the ICME at L1 and at Ulysses. Using SWICS, we compare the heavy ion composition across the two different observation cuts through the ICME and compare it with predictions for heating during the eruption based on models of the time-dependent ionization balance throughout the event.

  16. Simultaneous Chandra X-ray, HST UV, and Ulysses Radio Observations of Jupiter's Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    R. Elsner; Bhardwaj, A.; Waite, H.; Lugaz, N.; Majeed, T.; Cravens, T.; Gladstone, G.; Ford, P.; Grodent, D.; MacDowell, R.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter carried out by the Chandra ACIS-S instrument over 24-26 February, 2003, show that the auroral X-ray spectrum consists of line emission consistent with high-charge states of precipitating ions, and not a continuum as might be expected from remsstrahlung. The part of the spectrum due to oxygen peaks around 650 eV, which indicates a high fraction of fully-stripped oxygen in the precipitating ion flux. The OVIII emission lines at 653 eV and 774 eV, as well as the OVII emission lines at 561 eV and 666 eV, are clearly identified. There is also line emission at lower energies in the spectral region extending from 250 to 350 eV for which sulfur and carbon lines are possible candidates. The Jovian auroral spectra differ significantly from measured cometary X-ray spectra. The charge state distribution of the oxygen ion emission evident in the measured auroral spectra strongly suggests that, independent of the source of the energetic ions (magnetospheric or solar wind) the ions have undergone additional acceleration. For the magnetospheric case, acceleration to energies exceeding 10 MeV is apparently required. The ion acceleration also helps to explain the high intensities of the X-rays observed. The phase space densities of unaccelerated source populations of either solar wind or magnetospheric ions are orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed emissions. The Chandra X-ray observations were executed simultaneously with observations at ultraviolet wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope and at radio wavelengths by the Ulysses spacecraft. These additional data sets provide interesting hints as to the location of the source region and the acceleration characteristics of the generation mechanism. The combined observations suggest that the source of the X rays is magnetospheric in origin, and that strong field-aligned electric fields are present which simultaneously create both the several-MeV energetic ion population and the relativistic

  17. The effects of coronal mass ejection on galactic cosmic rays in the high latitude heliosphere: Observations from Ulysses` first orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Bothmer, V.; Heber, B.; Kunow, H.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Wibberenz, G.; Gosling, J.T.; Balogh, A.; Raviart, A.; Paizis, C.

    1997-10-01

    During its first solar orbit the Ulysses spacecraft detected several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at high heliographic latitudes. The authors present first observations on the effects of these high latitude CMEs on galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) using measurements from the Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) which is part of the Cosmic Ray and Solar Particle Investigation (COSPIN) experiment, the Los Alamos SWOOPS (Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun) experiment and the magnetic field experiments. They find the passage of these CMEs over the spacecraft to be associated with short term decreases of GCR intensities The relatively weak shocks in these events, driven by the CMEs` over-expansion, had no strong influence on the GCRs. The intensity minimums of GCRs occurred on closed magnetic field lines inside the CMEs themselves as indicated by bidirectional fluxes of suprathermal electrons. Short episodes of intensity increases of GCRs inside CMEs at times when the bidirectional fluxes of suprathermal electrons disappeared, can be interpreted as evidence that GCRs can easily access the interior of those CMEs in which open magnetic field lines are embedded.

  18. Gamma-ray burst observations with the [ital Compton]/[ital Ulysses]/[ital Pioneer]-[ital Venus] network

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, T.L. ); Hurley, K.C. ); Sommer, M. ); Boer, M.; Niel, M. ); Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B. ); Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W. )

    1993-07-05

    The third and latest interplanetary network for the precise directional analysis of gamma ray bursts consists of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in [ital Compton] [ital Gamma] [ital Ray] [ital Observatory] and instruments on [ital Pioneer]-[ital Venus] [ital Orbiter] and the deep-space mission [ital Ulysses]. The unsurpassed resolution of the BATSE instrument, the use of refined analysis techniques, and [ital Ulysses]' distance of up to 6 AU all contribute to a potential for greater precision than had been achieved with former networks. Also, the departure of [ital Ulysses] from the ecliptic plane in 1992 avoids any positional alignment of the three instruments that would lessen the source directional accuracy.

  19. Energetic H/He intensity ratio under solar maximum and solar minimum conditions: Ulysses observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, D.; Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B.; Ho, G. C.; Maclennan, C. G.; Gosling, J. T.

    2003-08-01

    We study the solar cycle variability of the heliospheric energetic proton-to-helium abundance ratios. We use 0.5-1.0 MeV nucleon -1 proton and helium intensities observed by the Ulysses spacecraft at both high and low heliographic latitudes. Ulysses observations show that during solar maximum the 0.5-1.0 MeV nucleon -1H/He intensity ratios are, on average, higher than during solar minimum. Under solar minimum conditions the interaction between slow and fast solar wind streams is strong, producing long-lasting and stable corotating interaction regions (CIRs) which are efficient accelerators of pickup He +. During solar maximum, transient events of solar origin (characterized by high H/He ratios) are able to globally fill the heliosphere. In addition, the absence of large and stable coronal holes results in a lack of recurrent strong corotating solar wind interactions, and consequently a less efficient acceleration of pickup He +. Even when solar wind stream interaction regions (SIRS) are observed, the H/He intensity ratio during solar maximum rarely decreases to the low (˜6) values typically observed during solar minimum CIR events. The latest data collected by Ulysses during its solar maximum descent from northern polar latitudes (mid-2002) show nearly-recurrent CIR events, which occasionally decrease the H/He ratios to these low (˜6) values. The still frequent occurrence of SEP events, however, produces increases of the H/He intensity ratios to high (˜30) values. Although SEP events still dominate the particle population in the inner heliosphere, the low H/He ratios observed in these specific CIR events suggest an efficient acceleration of pickup He + rather than the acceleration of remnant SEP material.

  20. Constraints on Solar Wind Acceleration Mechanisms from Ulysses Plasma Observations: The First Polar Pass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Aaron; Gazis, Paul R.; Phillips, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The mass flux density and velocity of the solar wind at polar latitudes can provide strong constraints on solar wind acceleration mechanisms. We use plasma observations from the first polar passage of the Ulysses spacecraft to investigate this question. We find that the mass flux density and velocity are too high to reconcile with acceleration of the solar wind by classical thermal conduction alone. Therefore acceleration of the high-speed must involve extended deposition of energy by some other mechanism, either as heat or as a direct effective pressure, due possibly to waves and/or turbulence, or completely non-classical heat transport.

  1. Inconsistency of Ulysses Millisecond Langmuir Spikes with Wave Collapse in Type 3 Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent Ulysses observations of millisecond spikes superposed on broader Langmuir wave packets in type 3 radio sources are compared quantitatively with constraints from the theory of wave collapse. It is found that both the millisecond spikes and the wave packets have fields at least 10 times too small to be consistent with collapse, contrary to previous interpretations in terms of this process. Several alternative explanations are considered and it is argued that the spikes should be interpreted as either non-collapse phenomena or observational artifacts. To the extent the observations are representative, this rules out theories for type 3 bursts at approx. 1 - 4 AU that rely on collapse.

  2. The Ulysses contract in obstetrics: a woman's choices before and during labour.

    PubMed

    Burcher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Women recognise that labour represents a mind-altering event that may affect their ability to make and communicate decisions and choices. For this reason, birth plans and other pre-labour directives can represent a form of Ulysses contract: an attempt to make binding choices before the sometimes overwhelming circumstances of labour. These choices need to be respected during labour, but despite the reduced decisional and communicative capacity of a labouring woman, her choices, when clear, should supersede decisions made before labour. PMID:23065492

  3. BeppoSAX/Ulysses observations of cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, K.; Cline, T.; Frontera, F.; Dal Fiume, D.; Orlandini, M.

    1998-05-16

    BeppoSAX has been added to the 3rd Interplanetary Network of gamma-ray burst detectors. Of the {approx_equal}8 events observed to date by Ulysses and the BeppoSAX Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM), four have been localized by triangulation, resulting in annuli whose 3 {sigma} widths are as small as 63{sup ''}. These data give error boxes whose sizes can be as much as an order of magnitude smaller than those obtained with the SAX Wide Field Camera (WFC). They can be used to confirm the association between fading X-ray and optical sources and gamma-ray bursts.

  4. Interpreting Ulysses data using inverse scattering theory: Oblique Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Harry R.; Reynolds, M. A.; Hamilton, R. L.

    2015-03-01

    Solitary wave structures observed by the Ulysses spacecraft in the solar wind were analyzed using both inverse scattering theory and direct numerical integration of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Several of these structures were found to be consistent with soliton solutions of the DNLS equation. Such solitary structures have been commonly observed in the space plasma environment and may, in fact, be long-lived solitons. While the generation of these solitons may be due to an instability mechanism, e.g., the mirror instability, they may be observable far from the source region due to their coherent nature.

  5. The Ulysses solar wind plasma investigation: Description and initial in-ecliptic results

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S. J.; Phillips, J. L.; McComas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1991-01-01

    During the in-ecliptic flight of Ulysses from the Earth toward its encounter with Jupiter, the Los Alamos solar wind plasma experiment has performed well. Briefly described, the instrumentation contains two independent electrostatic analyzers, one for ions and one for electrons. Initial analysis of solar wind electron core temperatures obtained between 1.15 and 3.76 AU yields a gradient of T {proportional to} R{sup {minus}0.7} which is flatter than expected for adiabatic expansion of a single-temperature Maxwellian velocity distribution and steeper than that obtained from Mariner-Voyager.

  6. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadratures the geometry of the configuration makes it possible to sample "in situ" the plasma parcels that are remotely observed in the corona. Although the quadrature position occurs at a well defined instant in time, we typically take data while Ulysses is within +/- 5 degrees of the limb, with the understanding that plasma sampled by Ulysses over this time interval can all be traced to its source in the corona. The relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses in winter 2007 (19 Dec 2006-28 May 2007) are unusual: the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is always between 85 and 95 degrees - the quadrature lasts for 5 months! This provides an opportunity for extended observations of specific observing objectives. In addition, in summer 2007, Ulysses (at 1.34 AU) is in near-radial alignment with Earth/ACE/Wind and SOHO, allowing us to analyze radial gradients and propagation in the solar wind and inner heliosphere. Our own quadrature campaigns rely heavily on LASCO and UVCS coronal observations: LASCO giving the overall context above 2 solar radii while the UVCS spectrograph acquired data from - 1.5 to, typically, 4-5 solar radii. In the past, coronal parameters have been derived from data acquired by these two experiments and compared with "in situ" data of Ulysses' SWOOPS and SWICS. Data from other experiments like EIT, CDS, SUMER, Sac Peak Fe XIV maps, magnetic field maps from the Wilcox solar magnetograph, MLSO, from MDI, and from the Ulysses magnetograph experiment have been, and will be, used to complement LASCO/UVCS/SWOOPS and SWICS data. We anticipate that observations by ACE/WIND/STEREO/Hinode and other missions will be relevant as well. During the IHY campaigns, Ulysses will be 52-80 degrees south in winter 2007, near sunspot minimum. Hence, our own scientific objective will be to sample high speed wind or regions of transition between slow and fast wind. This might be a very interesting situation - not met in previous quadratures - allowing

  7. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  8. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Harvey, C. C.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; De Villedary, C.; Fainberg, J.; Farrell, W. M.; Goetz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of auroral-like hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the Io plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the Io torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  9. Geology of the small Tharsis volcanoes: Jovis Tholus, Ulysses Patera, Biblis Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Jovis Tholus, Ulysses Patera, and Biblis Patera, three small volcanoes in the Tharsis area of Mars, provide important insight into the evolution of volcanism on Mars. All three are interpreted to be shield volcanoes, indicating that shield volcansim was present from the outset in Tharsis. Jovis Tholus is the least complex with simple repeated outpouring of lavas and caldera-forming events. Ulysses Patera is dominated by a giant caldera within which is a line of cinder cones or domes suggesting terminal stages of volcanism in which the magma had either significant volatiles or increased viscosity. Biblis Patera is characterized by nested calderas which have expanded by block faulting of the flank; it also exhibits lava flows erupted onto the flanks from events along concentric fractures. These shields are different from the younger Tharsis Montes shields only in terms of the volume of erupted material. The limited shield volume suggests that the magma source which fed the shields was rapidly depleted. The relatively large size ofthe calderas probably results from relatively large, shallow magma bodies rather than significant burial of the flanks by younger lavas. Eruption rates consistent with typical terrestrial basaltic eruptiuon rates suggest that these volcanoes were probably built over time spans of 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 5) years. Stratigraphic ages range from Early to Upper Hesperian; absolute ages range from 1.9 to 3.4 Ga.

  10. [Rethinking the challenges of Ulysses and Faust: health, the individual and history].

    PubMed

    Melo-Filho, D A

    1995-01-01

    Concentrating on two historical synecdoches, Ulysses and Faust, this article takes up the etymology of the Latin term salute as a unit lying somewhere between "existential needs" and "especially human needs", leading to the challenge of satisfying the need for "conservation of life" and at the same time to "surpass it, go beyond it". Both meanings are present in Ulysses attitude of not succumbing to the siren s melody and in Faust s desire to rise above everyday life. Some aspects of the Marxist conception of the philosophy of history and Althusser s Structuralist Marxism are criticized. Also, in light of Marxist-Hellerian theory, the article analyzes the hypothesis that the target of the final reports of the VIII National Health Conference was "particular man" and not the individual, since health is treated only as "an existential need", and does not envisage the generic human. As a theoretical challenge, the text, in search of the unfolding individual, finally recommends the construction of "epistemological sutures" between nature and society, everyday life and universality, and the young and old Marx. PMID:14528347

  11. Ulysses Observations of Tripolar Guide-Magnetic Field Perturbations Across Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S.; Peng, B.; Markidis, S.; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D. J.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report observations from 15 solar wind reconnection exhausts encountered along the Ulysses orbit beyond 4 AU in 1996-1999 and 2002-2005. The events, which lasted between 17 and 45 min, were found at heliospheric latitudes between -36o and 21o with one event detected as high as 58o. All events shared a common characteristic of a tripolar guide-magnetic field perturbation being detected across the observed exhausts. The signature consists of an enhanced guide field magnitude within the exhaust center and two regions of significantly depressed guide-fields adjacent to the center region. The events displayed magnetic field shear angles as low as 37o with a mean of 89o. This corresponds to a strong external guide field relative to the anti-parallel reconnecting component of the magnetic field with a mean ratio of 1.3 and a maximum ratio of 3.1. A 2-D kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions reveals that tripolar guide fields form at current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as two magnetic islands interact with one another for such strong guide fields. The Ulysses observations are also compared with the results of a 3-D kinetic simulation of multiple flux ropes in a strong guide field.

  12. A review of solar wind ion and electron plasma distribution functions: Present understanding and Ulysses results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.E.

    1995-06-01

    The present understanding of the distribution functions of the solar wind ion and electron thermal/suprathermal populations will be reviewed covering selected theoretical and observational topics. Roughly half the review will be devoted to recent discoveries (since Solar Wind 7). Among recent results are those of the Ulysses mission. The SWICS experiment observed pick-up protons and alpha particles, and acceleration of these particles at interplanetary shocks. Positive ion phenomena observed by SWOOPS include enhanced proton-alpha particle differential streaming both: (1) at high latitudes; and (2) in the ecliptic beyond 1 AU in the vicinity of shocks. The SWOOPS positive ion observations also demonstrate relative constancy of the entropy per proton at high latitudes beyond about 2.5 AU. Double beaming in both protons and alphas is observed by SWOOPS on either side of the current sheet, but not within; a possible explanation is reconnection at the edge of the current sheet. SWOOPS observed bi-directional streaming of electrons beyond 2 AU not only within Coronal Mass Ejections, but also upstream of corotating interplanetary shocks. Latitudinal and radial gradients of Ulysses electron core and halo temperatures will be discussed, as will work in progress on the three dimensional (in velocity space) properties of ion distributions.

  13. Suprathermal electron loss cone distributions in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Hammond, C.M.; Forsyth, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    We present observations by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment of a new class of suprathermal electron signatures. At low solar latitudes and heliocentric distances beyond 3.37 AU Ulysses encountered seven intervals, ranging in duration from 1 hour to 22 hours, in which the suprathermal distributions included an antisunward field-aligned beam and a return population with a flux dropout typically spanning {plus_minus}60{degree} from the sunward field-aligned direction. All events occurred between the forward and reverse shocks or waves bounding corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The observations support a scenario in which the sunward-moving electrons result from reflection of the prevailing antisunward field-aligned beam at magnetic field compressions downstream from the spacecraft, with wide loss cones caused by the relatively weak mirror ratio. This hypothesis requires that the field magnitude within the CIRs actually increased locally with increasing field-aligned distance from the Sun. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. A Primary Source to Supplement High School History Textbooks in a Character Study of Ulysses S. Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    This paper discusses the use of General Horace Porter, President Ulysses S. Grant's personal friend and closest adviser through the latter stages of the U.S. Civil War and into Grant's presidency. During the Civil War, Porter made field observations, suggested strategy, and relayed orders among commanders. As adviser to the president, Porter wrote…

  15. Evidence, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, for an Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Laing, P. A.; Lau, E. L.; Liu, A. S.; Nieto, M. M.; Turyshev, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude 8.5 x 10(sup -8) cm/s(sup 2), directed towards the Sun.

  16. Wide and Narrow CMEs and Their Source Explosions Observed at the Spring 2003 SOHO-Sun-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven; Corti, G.; Poletto, G.; Sterling, A.; Moore, R.

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the spring 2003 Ulysses-SOHO-Sun quadrature, Ulysses was off the East limb of the Sun at 14.5 degrees north latitude and 4.91 AU. LASCO/C2 images show small transient events that originated from near the limb on May 25, 26 and 27 in the north-east quadrant, along with a large Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) that originated from an active region near disk center on May 26. Ulysses data bear clear signatures of the large CME, specifically including an enhanced abundance of highly ionized Fe. SOHO/UVCS spectra at 1.75 solar radii, near the radial direction to Ulysses, give no evidence of emission from high temperature lines, even for the large CME: instead, for the small events, occasional transient high emission in cool lines was observed, such as the CIII 977 Angstrom line usually absent at coronal levels. Each of these events lasted ca. 1 hour or less and never affected lines from ions forming above ca. 106K. Compact eruptions in Helium 304 Angstrom EIT images, related to the small UVCS transients, were observed at the limb of the Sun over the same period. At least one of these surge events produced a narrow CME observed in LASCO/C2. Most probably all these events are compact magnetic explosions (surges/jets, from around a small island of included polarity) which ejected cool material from lower levels. Ulysses data have been analyzed to find evidence of the cool, narrow CME events, but none or little was found. This puzzling scenario, where events seen by UVCS have no in situ counterparts and vice versa, can be partially explained once the region where the large CME originated is recognized as being at the center of the solar disk so that the CME material was actually much further from the Sun than the 1.7 Rsun height of the UVCS slit off the limb. Conversely, the narrow events may simply have missed Ulysses or been too brief for reliable signatures in composition and ionization state. A basic feature demonstrated by these observations is that large

  17. Complex researches aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhyl, Yu. A.

    Special Research and Development Bureau SRDB is a general organizer on Ukrainian part of three Ukrainian- Russian joint experiments to be implemented aboard the Russian segment of International Space Station RS-ISS Experiment Material- Friction It is proposed to carry out a series of comparative tribological research under conditions of orbital flight aboard the ISS versus those in on- ground laboratory conditions To meet these objectives there will be employed a special onboard 6-module Space- borne tribometer- facility The on- ground research will be implemented under conditions of laboratory simulation of Space environmental factors Results thus obtained would enable one to forecast a behavior of friction pairs as well as functional safety and lifetime of the space- vehicle This experiment will also enable us determine an adequacy of tribological results obtained under conditions of outer Space and on- ground simulation Experiment Penta- Fatigue It is proposed to develop fabricate and deliver aboard the RS-ISS a facility intended for studies of SEF- influence on characteristics of metallic and polymeric materials resistance to fatigue destruction Such a project to be implemented in outer Space for the first ever time would enable us to estimate the parameter of cosmic lifetime for constructional materials due to such mechanical characteristic as fatigue strength so as to enable selection of specific sorts of constructional materials appropriate to service in Space technologies At the same time

  18. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  19. New aspects of the RPW instrument antennas aboard Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampl, Manfred; Kapper, Michael; Plettemeier, Dirk; Rucker, Helmut O.; Maksimovic, Milan

    2013-04-01

    The E-field sensors (boom antennas) of the RPW instrument aboard the Solar Orbiter spacecraft are subject to severe influence of the conducting spacecraft body and other large structures such as the solar panels in close vicinity of the antennas. In this contribution we outline our newest results in finding the true properties of the antennas with additional emphasis on the influence of the built-in heating circuit for deployment. Knowledge of the true properties of the connected antenna system and receiver hardware is an essential component in ensuring the overall performance of a scientific radio and plasma wave instrument. Compared to other spaceborne multiport scatterers, the ANT sensors aboard Solar Orbiter are more sophisticated in mechanical design with features including tubular shaped pipes with radiators along with several hinges. This combined with the challenging environment (closest proximity to Sun is about 0.29 AU) makes finding the true properties even more pressing than with previous spaceborne radio astronomy observatories. Our numerical investigations also provide an important benchmark against measured antenna characteristics using a scale model of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft in an anechoic chamber. The current calibration results are to provide useful input to goniopolarimetry techniques like polarization analysis, direction finding and ray tracing, all of which depend crucially on the effective axes, allowing for significant improvements to the corresponding scientific data analysis.

  20. Chaos Theory and James Joyce's "ulysses": Leopold Bloom as a Human COMPLEX@SYSTEM^

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Peter Francis

    1995-01-01

    These four ideas apply as much to our lives as to the life of Leopold Bloom: (1) A trivial decision can wholly change a life. (2) A chance encounter can dramatically alter life's course. (3) A contingent nexus exists between consciousness and environment. (4) A structure of meaning helps us interpret life's chaos. These ideas also relate to a contemporary science called by some "chaos theory." The connection between Ulysses and chaos theory enhances our understanding of Bloom's day; it also suggests that this novel may be about the real process of life itself. The first chapter explains how Joyce's own essays and comments to friends compel attention to the links between Ulysses and chaos theory. His scientific contemporaries anticipated chaos theory, and their ideas seem to have rubbed off on him. We see this in his sense of trivial things and chance, his modernistic organizational impulses, and the contingent nature of Bloom's experience. The second chapter studies what chaos theory and Joyce's ideas tell us about "Ithaca," the episode which particularly implicates our processes of interpreting this text as well as life itself as we face their chaos. The third chapter examines Bloom's close feel for the aboriginal world, a contingency that clarifies his vulnerability to trivial changes. The fourth chapter studies how Bloom's stream of consciousness unfolds--from his chance encounters with trivial things. Beneath this stream's seeming chaos, Bloom's distinct personality endures, similar to how Joyce's schemas give Ulysses an imbedded, underlying order. The fifth chapter examines how trivial perturbations, such as Lyons' misunderstanding about "Throwaway," produce small crises for Bloom, exacerbating his seeming impotence before his lonely "fate.". The final chapter analyzes Bloom's views that fate and chance dictate his life. His views provide an opportunity to explore the implications chaos theory has for our understanding of free will and determinism. Ultimately

  1. Lessons learned from the Galileo and Ulysses flight safety review experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1998-01-15

    In preparation for the launches of the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft, a very comprehensive aerospace nuclear safety program and flight safety review were conducted. A review of this work has highlighted a number of important lessons which should be considered in the safety analysis and review of future space nuclear systems. These lessons have been grouped into six general categories: (1) establishment of the purpose, objectives and scope of the safety process; (2) establishment of charters defining the roles of the various participants; (3) provision of adequate resources; (4) provision of timely peer-reviewed information to support the safety program; (5) establishment of general ground rules for the safety review; and (6) agreement on the kinds of information to be provided from the safety review process.

  2. Jovian electron propagation in three dimensions of the heliosphere: The Ulysses investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Smith, D. A.; Zhang, M.

    1993-01-01

    We report investigations of Jovian relativistic electrons in the interplanetary medium that provide new insights into both the physical processes by which the Jovian magnetosphere releases its trapped, relativistic electrons into the interplanetary medium, and the modes of their interplanetary propagation. These studies were dependent on the unique postencounter trajectory for Ulysses. The spacecraft remained close to the radial distance of Jupiter (approximately 5.2 AU) and moved southward on the duskside by only approximately 12 deg in heliographic latitude and less than 8 deg in the heliographic azimuth relative to Jupiter for the period of approximately 100 deg days of this study. During this period the nominal Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field with its alternating polarities sector structure established direct magnetic field line connections frequently between Jupiter and the spacecraft. These unique conditions made it possible to investigate in detail, for approximately four solar rotations, both the Jovian electron burst phenomenon and the continuous, diffusive interplanetary propagation of Jovian electrons.

  3. Plasma wave phenomena observed at interplanetary shocks by the Ulysses URAP experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.; Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study of 24 interplanetary shocks observed by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) on the Ulysses spacecraft are presented. These shocks, observed between approximately 1 and 4 AU, display a variety of wave phenomena similar to those detected in earlier studies of shocks near 1 AU. The correspondence of the observed low frequency magnetic and electric field waves with the parallel index of refraction for whistler waves was investigated. Observed B/E ratios are found to be typically about a factor of 0.7 times the computed index of refraction, supporting the whistler interpretation of these waves, but also implying a prevalent electrostatic wave component which may be due to whistlers propagating at an angle to the interplanetary magnetic field. A statistical correlation of the amplitudes of the various types of waves with shock and solar wind properties is presented.

  4. Ulysses observations of energetic ions over the south pole of the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, T. R.; Bothmer, V.; Marsden, R. G.; Trattner, K. J.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R. J.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1996-07-20

    We present here observations of energetic ions during the following phases of the Ulysses prime mission: the first south polar pass, the low-latitude pass and part of the first north polar pass. Peaks are observed in the energetic ion intensity which recur either once per solar rotation during the ascent to high southern latitudes, or twice per rotation during the low latitude pass. The intensity of the peaks also rises with each major solar event, decaying slowly thereafter over a period of several rotations. The peaks are observed up to {approx}70 deg. during the ascent to high southern latitudes, but not seen again until around 45 deg. during the descent, this asymmetry most likely being caused by a decrease in the number of solar events.

  5. Ulysses Observations of the Magnetic Connectivity between CMEs and the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Gosling, J. T.; Crooker, N. U.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic connectivity of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Sun using Ulysses observations of suprathermal electrons at various distances between 1 AU and 5.2 AU. Drawing on ideas concerning the eruption and evolution of CMEs, we had anticipated that there might be a tendency for CMEs to contain progressively more open field lines, as reconnection back at the Sun either opened or completely disconnected previously closed field lines threading the CMEs. Our results, however, did not yield any discernible trend. By combining the potential contribution of CMEs to the heliospheric flux with the observed build-up of flux during the course of the solar cycle we also derive a lower limit for the reconnection rate of CMEs that is sufficient to avoid the "flux catastrophe" paradox. This rate is well below our threshold of detectability.

  6. ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN CORONAL, MASS EJECTIONS AND THE SUN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Goslin, J. T.; Crooker, . U.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic connectivity of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Sun using Ulysses observations of suprathermal electrons at various distances between 1 and 5.2 AU. Drawing on ideas concerning the eruption and evolution of CMEs, we had anticipated that there might be a tendency for CMEs to contain progressively more open field lines, as reconnection back at the Sun either opened or completely disconnected previously closed field lines threading the CMEs. Our results, however, did not yield any discernible trend. By combining the potential contribution of CMEs to the heliospheric flux with the observed buildup of flux during the course of the solar cycle, we also derive a lower limit for the reconnection rate of CMEs that is sufficient to avoid the "flux catastrophe" paradox. This rate is well below our threshold of detectability. Subject headings: solar wind - Sun: activity - Sun: corona - Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - On-line material: color figure Sun: magnetic fields

  7. [Emigration in hard conditions: the Immigrant Syndrome with chronic and multiple stress (Ulysses' Syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Achotegui, Joseba

    2005-01-01

    During the latest years, immigrant populations have been living in very hard conditions. To million people, migration is becoming a process with a high level of stress surpassing the human being capacity of adaptation. This people are prone to suffer the Immigrant Syndrome with chronic and multiple stress and the so called Ulysses Syndrome, what is becoming a serious health problem in the countries that receive the immigrants. This situation is the by-product of the unjust globalization and of the worsening of the living and health conditions of those undergoing such a displacement. In this article, the author postulates a relationship between the high level of stress suffered by the immigrants and their presentation of psychopathological symptoms. PMID:15912217

  8. Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel Power System Subpanel review for the Ulysses mission

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's assessment of the nuclear safety of NASA's Ulysses Mission to investigate properties of the sun, the Power System Subpanel has reviewed the safety analyses and risk evaluations done for the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator which provides on-board electrical power for the spacecraft. This paper summarizes the activities and results of that review. In general, the approach taken in the primary analysis, executed by the General Electric Company under contract to the Department of Energy, and the resulting conclusions were confirmed by the review. However, the Subpanel took some exceptions and modified the calculations accordingly, producing an independent evaluation of potential releases of radioactive fuel in launch and reentry accidents. Some of the more important of these exceptions are described briefly.

  9. Ulysses-Wind stereoscopic study of type III radiation pattern over a large latitude range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, X.; Maksimovic, M.; Hoang, S.

    2006-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are generated by suprathermal electrons, accelerated from solar active region and travelling outwards along open magnetic field lines to lower densities in the interplanetary medium (IPM). Along their path in the IPM, these electrons trigger radio emission at the fundamental (F) and/or harmonic (H) of the local plasma frequency fp. We have selected 278 type III bursts observed simultaneously by Wind and Ulysses spacecraft (s/c) during all the year 2001. Deriving radio sources trajectory by diffrent ways, we have deduced some type III characteristics and derived apparent radiation pattern at low frequencies over a large latitude range. First results confirm that radiation pattern shifts east when frequency decreases (Hoang et al. 1997). It brings new evidence of strong refraction effects in local density gradients.

  10. Ulysses{close_quote} rapid crossing of the polar coronal hole boundary

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.

    1998-02-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft crossed from the slow dense solar wind characteristic of the solar streamer belt into the fast, less dense flow from the northern polar coronal hole over a very short interval (several days) in late March 1995. The spacecraft, which was at 1.35 AU and {approximately}19{degree} north heliographic latitude, moving northward in its orbit, remained in the fast solar wind from then through summer 1996. This boundary crossing is unique in that the combination of the spacecraft motion and rotation of the structure past the spacecraft caused Ulysses to move smoothly and completely from one regime into the other. In this study we examine this crossing in detail. The crossing is marked by a region of enhanced pressure, typical of stream interaction regions, which extends {approximately}2{times}10{sup 7}km across. We find that the transition between the slow and fast regimes occurs on several temporal, and hence spatial, scales. On the shortest scale ({lt}8{times}10{sup 4}km) the stream interface is a tangential discontinuity where the proton and core electron densities and ion and electron pressures all drop while the magnetic pressure jumps to maintain a rough pressure balance. The alpha to proton ratio also jumps across the stream interface to reach the comparatively constant polar hole value of {approximately}4.3{percent}. On larger scales (a few {times}10{sup 6}km) the proton and alpha temperatures rise to their high-speed wind values. Finally, on the largest scale ({approximately}10{sup 8}km) the solar wind speed ramps up from {approximately}400kms{sup {minus}1} to {approximately}750kms{sup {minus}1}, typical of polar hole flows. While it seems likely that the stream interface maps back to a sharp boundary near the Sun, the large region of increasing flow speed suggests that there is also an extended gradient in solar wind source speed close to the Sun. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  11. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatric treatment: towards proposals for their use based on 'sharing' legal capacity.

    PubMed

    Bielby, Phil

    2014-06-01

    A 'Ulysses arrangement' (UA) is an agreement where a patient may arrange for psychiatric treatment or non-treatment to occur at a later stage when she expects to change her mind. In this article, I focus on 'competence-insensitive' UAs, which raise the question of the permissibility of overriding the patient's subsequent decisionally competent change of mind on the authority of the patient's own prior agreement. In "The Ethical Justification for Ulysses Arrangements", I consider sceptical and supportive arguments concerning competence-insensitive UAs, and argue that there are compelling reasons to give such UAs serious consideration. In "Decisional Competence and Legal Capacity in UAs", I examine the nature of decisional competence and legal capacity as they arise in UAs, an issue neglected by previous research. Using the distinctions which emerge, I then identify the legal structure of a competence-insensitive UA in terms of the types of legal capacity it embodies and go on to explain how types of legal capacity might be shared between the patient and a trusted other to offer support to the patient in the creation and implementation of a competence-insensitive UA. This is significant because it suggests possibilities for building patient support mechanisms into models of legal UAs, which has not addressed in the literature to date. Drawing on this, in "Using Insights from the Competence/Capacity Distinction to Enhance Patient Support in UAs", I offer two possible models to operationalize competence-insensitive UAs in law that allow for varying degrees of patient support through the involvement of a trusted other. Finally, I outline some potential obstacles implementing these models would face and highlight areas for further research. PMID:22773305

  12. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  13. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  14. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  15. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  16. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  17. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  19. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  20. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  1. Ulysses observations of a {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} in the high-speed solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Forsyth, R.J.

    1998-02-01

    Ulysses observations at mid and high heliographic latitudes have revealed a solar wind devoid of the large variations in density, temperature, and speed that are commonly observed at low latitudes. One event, however, observed on May 1, 1996, while Ulysses was located at {approximately}3.7AU and 38.5{degree}, stands out in the plasma data set. The structure, which is unique in the Ulysses high-latitude data set, is seen as a drop in proton density of almost an order of magnitude and a comparable rise in proton temperature. The event lasts {approximately}3(1)/(2) hours giving the structure a size of {approximately}9.6{times}10{sup 6}km (0.06 AU) along the spacecraft trajectory. Minimum variance analysis of this interval indicates that the angle between the average magnetic field direction and the minimum variance direction is {approximately}92{degree}, suggesting that the {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} may be approximated by a series of planar slabs separated by several tangential discontinuities. We discuss several possible explanations for the origin of this structure, but ultimately the origin of the density hole remains unknown. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  2. Spatial evolution of 26-day recurrent galactic cosmic ray decreases: Correlated Ulysses COSPIN/KET and SOHO COSTEP observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heber, B.; Bothmer, V.; Droege, W.; Kunow, H.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Posner, A.; Ferrando, P.; Raviart, A.; Paizis, C.; McComas, D.; Forsyth, R. J.; Szabo, A.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    A Lomb (spectral) analysis was performed on the galactic comsic ray flux from February 1996 to June 1996. The most probable frequency is approximately 28 days and not 26 or 27 days, corresponding to one solar rotation. The amplitude of the recurrent cosmic ray decreases (RCRDs) is approximately 2.3 percent on both spacecraft. The variation in the solar wind speed shows the same periodicites and is anticorrelated to the variation in the cosmic ray flux. In contrast to the RCRDs, the amplitude found in the solar wind speed is four times larger at WIND (120 km/s) than at Ulysses (32 km/s). The solar wind proton density and magnetic field strength yielded no significant periodicities, neither at Ulysses nor at WIND. Comparing the RCRDs with coronal hole structures observed in the FE XIV line, it was found that a single coronal hole close to the heliographic equator can account for the RCRDs observed 'simultaneously' at Ulysses and SOHO. The coronal hole boundaries changed towards lower Carrington longitudes and vanished slowly. The changes of the boundaries during the investigated period could explain a 28-day periodicity.

  3. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  4. Ulysses field and plasma observations of magnetic holes in the solar wind and their relation to mirror-mode structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalter, Daniel; Neugebauer, Marcia; Goldstein, Bruce E.; Smith, Edward J.; Bame, Samuel J.; Balogh, Andre

    1994-01-01

    The term 'magnetic hole' has been used to denote isolated intervals when the magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field drops to a few tenths, or less, of its ambient value for a time that corresponds to a linear dimension of tens to a few hundreds of proton gyro-radii. Data obtained by the Ulysses magnetometer and solar wind anlayzer have been combined to study the properties of such magnetic holes in the solar wind between 1 AU and 5.4 AU and to 23 deg south latitude. In order to avoid confusion with decreases in field strength at interplanetary discontinuities, the study has focused on linear holes across which the field direction changed by less than 5 deg. The holes occurred preferentially, but not without exception, in the interaction regions on the leading edges of high-speed solar wind streams. Although the plasma surrounding the holes was generally stable against the mirror instability, there are indications that the holes may have been remnants of mirror-mode structures created upstream of the points of observation. Those indications include the following: (1) For the few holes for which proton of alpha-particle pressure could be measured inside the hole, the ion thermal pressure was always greater than in the plasma adjacent to the holes. (2) The plasma surrounding many of the holes was marginally stable for the mirror mode, while the plasma environment of all holes was significantly closer to mirror instability than was the average solar wind. (3) The plasma containing trains of closely spaced holes was closer to mirror instability than was the plasma containing isolated holes. (4) The near-hole plasma had much higher ion beta (ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) than did the average solar wind. (5) Near the holes, T(sub perp)/T(sub parallel) tended to be either greater than 1 or larger than in the average wind. (6) The proton and alpha-particle distribution functions measured inside the holes occasionally exhibited the flattened phase

  5. [Comparative study of the proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and aboard a stratospheric balloon].

    PubMed

    Tixador, R; Richoilley, G; Gasset, G; Planel, H

    1982-05-17

    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlessness in the biological response are discussed. PMID:6814711

  6. Apollo 16 Crew Aboard Rescue Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Command Module splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on April 27, 1972 after an 11-day moon exploration mission. The 3-man crew is shown here aboard the rescue ship, USS Horton. From left to right are: Mission Commander John W. Young, Lunar Module pilot Charles M. Duke, and Command Module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II. The sixth manned lunar landing mission, the Apollo 16 (SA-511) lifted off on April 16, 1972. The Apollo 16 mission continued the broad-scale geological, geochemical, and geophysical mapping of the Moon's crust, begun by the Apollo 15, from lunar orbit. This mission marked the first use of the Moon as an astronomical observatory by using the ultraviolet camera/spectrograph which photographed ultraviolet light emitted by Earth and other celestial objects. The Lunar Roving Vehicle, developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, was also used.

  7. Biological investigations aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tairbekov, M. G.; Parfyonov, G. P.; Platonova, R. W.; Abramova, V. M.; Golov, V. K.; Rostopshina, A. V.; Lyubchenko, V. Yu.; Chuchkin, V. G.

    Experiments on insects, higher plants and lower fungi were carried out aboard the biological satellite Cosmos-1129, in Earth orbit, from 25 September to 14 October 1979. The main objective of these experiments was to gain more profound knowledge of the effect of weightlessness on living organisms and to study the mechanisms by which these various organisms with different life cycles can adjust and develop in weightlessness. Experiments on insects (Drosophila melanogaster) were made with a view towards understanding gravitational preference in flies, the life cycle of which took place on board the biosatellite under conditions of artificial gravity. Experiments on higher plants (Zea mays, Arabidopsis taliana, Lycopersicum esculentum) and lower fungi (Physarum polycephalum) were performed.

  8. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  9. Ulysses observations of electron and proton components in a magnetic cloud and related wave activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to a smooth rotation of the magnetic field vector, magnetic clouds have a low proton temperature T(sub p). Their expansion in the solar wind leads to depletion and therefore the ion component cools down. It has been shown recently that the electron component in magnetic clouds behaves differently: when the cloud expands, electron temperature Te anti correlates with density and therefore Te increases in the cloud, creating favorable conditions for the rise of ion-acoustic waves. For the magnetic cloud observed by Ulysses on June 10 - 12, 1993 at 4.64 AU at S 32.5 deg, we present observations for both electron and proton components and related plasma wave activity. Our results confirm the anti correlation between T(sub e) and electron density and also exhibit a high ratio of T(sub e)/T(sub P) in the cloud. Since Landau damping is not effective for T(sub e)/T(sub p) much greater than 1, Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves are expected in the cloud. Calculation of ion acoustic wave frequencies in the cloud and comparison with observed wave activity confirm this expectation. As in our previous work, we show that the electron component in the cloud obeys a polytropic law with gamma is less than 1 (gamma approximately equals 0.3-0.4). The dynamics of the magnetic cloud are determined to a large degree by the dominating electron pressure.

  10. A cylindrical current sheet over the South solar pole observed by Ulysses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarova, Olga; Kislov, Roman; Malova, Helmi; Obridko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    We provide the first evidence for the existence of a quasi-stable cylindrical current sheet over the South solar pole as observed by Ulysses in 2006, near the solar minimum, when it reached maximal heliolatitude of 79.7 degrees at 2.4 AU. It took place inside a fast speed stream from the coronal hole, and the tube was presumably crossed rather far from the center within two degrees of heliolatitude and ~10 degrees of heliolongitude. During the spacecraft passage throughout the structure, the solar wind velocity was approximately twice as little, the solar wind density was 20 times lower than the surrounded plasma values, but the temperature was twice as large in the point closest to the pole. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strongly decreased due to sharp variations in the IMF radial component (RTN) that changed its sign twice, but other components did not show changes out of usual stochastic behavior. Both the behavior of the IMF, rotation of the plasma flow direction and other features indicate the occurrence of cylindrical current sheet. We discuss its solar origin and present modeling that can explain the observations.

  11. Field-aligned currents in the Jovian magnetosphere during the Ulysses flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Southwood, D. J.; Balogh, A.; Smith, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    The data recorded by the dual vector helium/fluxgate magnetometer flown onboard the Ulysses spacecraft during the flyby of Jupiter in February 1992 are analyzed with the aim of identifying the presence of field-aligned current signatures. Field-aligned current flow is expected wherever stress is being transmitted electromagnetically along the magnetic field direction. Sources of such currents at Jupiter are departures within the magnetosphere from corotation, momentum transfer from the solar wind, or centrifugally driven magnetospheric outflow. It is pointed out that the azimuthal field component provides a simple first-order means of monitoring the presence of currents, the currents occurring in regions where the azimuthal component changes significantly. The data from both inbound and outbound passes show evidence of 'leading' and 'lagging' azimuthal field signatures where the field bends out of the meridian, and which are signatures symptomatic of current systems associated with departures from corotation. On the outbound pass, the most intense signatures are found where the field switches from a configuration symptomatic of the field lagging corotation to a configuration representing the field leading. The latter configuration also corresponds to a tail-like displacement of the field and, indeed, the magnetometer data alone cannot distinguish the source of the current system, which could be due to solar wind magnetosphere coupling or which may arise from internal stress imbalance.

  12. The speeds of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind at mid heliographic latitudes: Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.

    1994-01-01

    Six CMEs (coronal mass ejections) have been detected in the Ulysses plasma observations poleward of S31 deg. The most striking aspect of these mid-latitude CMEs was their high speeds; the overall average speed of these CMEs was approximately 740 km/s, which was comparable to that of the rest of the solar wind at these latitudes. This average CME speed is much higher than average CME speeds observed in the solar wind in the ecliptic or in the corona close to the Sun. The evidence indicates that the CMEs were not pushed up to high speeds in interplanetary space by interaction with trailing high-speed plasma. Rather, they simply seem to have received the same basic acceleration as the rest of the solar wind at these mid-latitudes. Our results suggest that the basic acceleration process for many CMEs at all latitudes is essentially the same as for the normal solar wind. Frequently most of this acceleration must occur well beyond 6 solar radii from Sun center.

  13. Ion-cyclotron waves at Jupiter - Possibility of detection by Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, YI; Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Recent thermal plasma data and a computer code by Horne (1989) are employed to evaluate the linear-path-integrated gain of waves propagating through the Io to predict the Jovian plasma-wave environment. Estimates of the nonlinear saturation amplitudes are utilized with the thermal plasma data from two frequency bands to study the convective growth of the ion-cyclotron (IC) waves. Strong cyclotron resonant damping is theorized to prevent wave propagation to the lower latitudes, and the thermal plasma and cyclotron resonant energetic ions are expected to further confine the IC waves. L-mode waves below the O(+) gyrofrequency in the equatorial region of the torus are shown to inhabit an unstable region. The IC waves probably achieve nonlinear amplitudes regardless of plasma properties due to the rapid amplification in this region. It is suggested that the Ulysses data complicate the identification of the waves because the magnetometer is not adequately sensitive and because of the low frequency of the plasma-wave detector.

  14. Validation of a Coupled Source Surface to MHD Model System at ACE and Ulysses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detman, T.; Fry, C. D.; Smith, Z.; Dryer, M.; Intriligator, D.

    2005-05-01

    The Potential Field Source Surface model [Wang and Sheeley, 1988] combined with the Current Sheet modification [Schatten, 1971] is now in routine operation at the NWS Space Environment Center of NOAA. We use the sequence of source surface current sheet (SSCS) maps so produced. We developed a set of relatively simple empirical relationships to translate the SSCS map parameters into time-dependent MHD model lower boundary conditions at 0.1 AU. This system provides the 3D time-dependent slowly evolving background solar wind conditions in the inner heliosphere. To this system we add shock initiation perturbations to the lower boundary condition based on observed solar flares, CMEs and Type II solar radio bursts. The necessary shock descriptive parameters are generated in near real-time from these data. We compare simulated results with ACE solar wind observations. We have retrospectively adjusted the shock initiation parameters to maximize agreement with ACE observations, and extended the MHD model outer boundary to 10 AU. We will show results and comparisons of model results with Ulysses observations during the 2003 Halloween epoch. This work was partially funded by a NASA Living With a Star (LWS) TR&T grant through NOAA Work Order No.W-10,118 (ZS and TRD) and NASA Grant NAG-12527 (CDF and MD), by University Partnering for Operational Support program (UPOS) sponsored jointly by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army (CDF and MD), and by Carmel Research Center (DI).

  15. Ulysses Observations of the Properties of Multiple Ion Beams in the Solar Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B. E.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Neugebauer, M.

    2010-03-25

    Properties of multiple ion beams in the solar wind beyond 1 AU as observed by the SWOOPS experiment on Ulysses are discussed. The solar wind proton distributions are approximated by a two beam bi-Maxwellian model. The slower outward traveling beam typically comprises the majority of the solar wind density. Differential streaming between the slower and faster proton beams decreases with distance from the Sun. The greatest difference between the beams in their evolution with distance from the Sun is that the parallel temperature component of the faster beam decreases more rapidly, r{sup -1.22}, than that of the slower beam, r{sup -0.39}. The difference in behavior for the perpendicular components (r{sup -0.46} for the faster beam and r{sup -0.73} for the slower beam) is real but less marked. The indication that relative perpendicular cooling is less for the faster beam while relative parallel cooling is greater and differential beam speed decreases is generally consistent with expectations from a streaming instability between the two proton beams. We have observed a dependence of the temperature anisotropy of the faster proton beam on the drift speed of the faster beam with respect to the slower beam; for large drifts (about 1.6 V{sub A}) the anisotropy, T{sub |}/T{sub perpendicular}, is smaller (about 0.8), whereas for slower drifts the parallel temperature is relatively hotter (anisotropy ratio of about 1.5).

  16. The speeds of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind at mid heliographic latitudes: Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M.

    1994-06-15

    Six CMEs have been detected in the Ulysses plasma observations poleward of S31{degrees}. The most striking aspect of these mid-latitude CMEs was their high speeds; the overall average speed of these CMEs was {approximately}740 km s{sup {minus}1}, which was comparable to that of the rest of the solar wind at these latitudes. This average CME speed is much higher than average CME speeds observed in the solar wind in the ecliptic or in the corona close to the Sun. The evidence indicates that the CMEs were not pushed up to high speeds in interplanetary space by interaction with trailing high-speed plasma. Rather, they simply seem to have received the same basic acceleration as the rest of the solar wind at these mid-latitudes. These results suggest that the basic acceleration process for many CMEs at all latitudes is essentially the same as for the normal solar wind. Frequently most of this acceleration must occur well beyond 6 solar radii from Sun`sj center. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Preliminary analysis of a CME observed by SOHO and Ulysses Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.; Romoli, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last week of November 2002 SOHO/LASCO observed several Coronal Mass Ejections, most of which occurring in the NW quadrant. At that time SOHO/UVCS was involved in a SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadrature campaign, making observations off the west limb of the Sun, at a northern latitude of 27 deg. Here we focus on data taken at 1.7 solar radii, over a time interval of approx. 7 hours, on 26/27 November 2002, when a large streamer disruption was imaged by LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. UVCS spectra revealed the presence of lines from both high and low ionization ions, such as C III, O VI, Si VIII, IX, and XII, Fe X and XVIII, which brighten at different times, with a different time scale and at different positions and are apparently related to different phenomena. In particular, the intensity increase and fast disappearance of the C III 977 Angstrom line represents the passage through the UVCS slit of cold material released in a jet imaged by EIT in the He II 304 Angstrom line. The persistent presence of the Fe XVIII 974 Angstrom line is not easily related to any special feature crossing the UVCS slit. We suggest to interpret this behavior in terms of the reconnection events which lead to the formation of loops observed in the EIT He II 304 Angstrom line.

  18. Ion energy equation for the high-speed solar wind: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Riley, P.; Goldstein, B.E.; Balogh, A.

    1998-07-01

    Ulysses data in the high-speed solar wind that cover a wide range of latitudes centered on the solar poles were studied to test whether a polytrope law can be used to close the ion energy equation. Three approaches were taken. We determined the correlation between proton temperature and density (1) in the free expansion of the high-speed solar wind between 1.5 and 4.8 AU, (2) in steepened microstreams at high latitudes, and (3) at the edges of the equatorial band of solar wind variability. Strong correlations were observed in all data subsets that are consistent with a single polytrope relation, T{sub p}=aN{sub p}{sup ({gamma}{sup {asterisk}}{minus}1)}, where our best estimate for {gamma}{sup {asterisk}} is between 1.5 and 1.7. The best fitting relation is T{sub p}=(2.0{plus_minus}0.13){times}10{sup 5} N{sub p}{sup 0.57}. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  19. Solar Wind Electron Strahls Associated with a High-Latitude CME: Ulysses Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, M.; Pomoell, J.; Poedts, S.; Dumitrache, C.; Popescu, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Counterstreaming beams of electrons are ubiquitous in coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - although their existence is not unanimously accepted as a necessary and/or sufficient signature of these events. We continue the investigation of a high-latitude CME registered by the Ulysses spacecraft on 18 - 19 January 2002 (Dumitrache, Popescu, and Oncica, Solar Phys. 272, 137, 2011), by surveying the solar-wind electron distributions associated with this event. The temporal evolution of the pitch-angle distributions reveals populations of electrons that are distinguishable through their anisotropy, with clear signatures of i) electron strahls, ii) counter-streaming in the magnetic clouds and their precursors, and iii) unidirectionality in the fast wind preceding the CME. The analysis of the counter-streams inside the CME allows us to elucidate the complexity of the magnetic-cloud structures embedded in the CME and to refine the borders of the event. Identifying such strahls in CMEs, which preserve properties of the low β [<1] coronal plasma, gives more support to the hypothesis that these populations are remnants of the hot coronal electrons that escape from the electrostatic potential of the Sun into the heliosphere.

  20. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  1. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  2. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  3. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  4. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  5. Energetic particle spectral and compositional invariance in the 3-D Heliosphere: Comparison between Ulysses and ACE/WIND in late 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, O. E.; Tylka, A. J.; Ng, C. K.; Marsden, R. G.; Tranquille, C.; Patterson, D.; Armstrong, T. P.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Dorrian, G.

    2012-04-01

    Basic research on Space Weather carried out at the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the National Observatory of Athens within the framework of COMESEP, a collaborative project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union is presented in this work. We carry out the first detailed examination and comparison of elemental spectra and composition in the late decay phase of two Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events in the so-called 'reservoir' regions, between spacecraft widely separated in latitude, as well as in longitude and radial distance in the Heliosphere. Energetic particle data from instruments onboard the Ulysses spacecraft located at a high heliospheric latitude of ~70° N and at a heliocentric distance of ~2.5 AU and from spacecraft at L1 are used in this work. Particle intensities over time are observed to be in close agreement following the shock passage over the widely separated spacecraft. Electron measurements were used to identify the extent of the particle reservoir. Implications of the observations for models of SEP transport are also discussed. Acknowledgments: The presented work has received funding from the European Union FP7 project COMESEP (263252) and has also been supported by NASA under grants NNH09AK79I and NNX09AU98G (AJT).

  6. Prediction of galactic cosmic ray proton intensities from simultaneous proton and electron measurements during an A smaller than zero solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, Bernd; Gieseler, Jan; Herbst, Klaudia; Kopp, Andreas; Müller-Mellin, Reinhold; Fichtner, Horst; Scherer, Klaus; Steinhilber, Friedhelm; Potgieter, Marius; Ferreira, Stefan

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are high energy charged particles, mainly protons and doubly ionized helium, originating in the galaxy and striking the Earth from all directions. There are three lines of defends which protect humans on Earth against this radiation. While the inner two shields, the atmosphere and magnetosphere, protect us against cosmic rays from several hundreds of MeV/nuc to about 15 GeV/nuc depending on geomagnetic latitude, the outer shield, the heliosphere, is reducing the intensities of particles with energies up to a few tens of GeV. This reduction depends on the solar activity and can vary by a few ten percent at 5 GeV to several orders of magnitude at a few tenth of MeV. Nevertheless, on a long journey to Mars galactic cosmic rays will pose a risk to astronauts of receiving a harmful dose of radiation. An often used tool to describe this modulation is the force-field solution. This approximation can not take into account the differences between positive and negative solar magnetic epochs or the difference in the modulation of electrons and protons. The current solar minimum is the lowest observed since the space area. The intensity of GCR electrons measured by the Kiel Electron Telescope aboard Ulysses exceed that of protons by more than 30

  7. Comparison between Measured and Simulated Radiation Doses in the Matoroshka-R Spherical phantom Experiment#1 and Area Monitoring aboard International Space Station using PADLES from May - Sep. 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Aiko; Tolochek, Raisa; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Nikolaev, Igor; Tawara, Hiroko; Kitajo, Keiichi; Shimada, Ken

    The measurement of radiation environmental parameters in space is essential to support radiation risk assessments for astronauts and establish a benchmark for space radiation models for present and future human space activities. Since Japanese Experiment Module ‘KIBO’ was attached to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008, we have been performing continuous space radiation dosimetery using a PADLES (Passive Dosimeter for Life-Science Experiments in Space) consisting of CR-39 PNTDs (Plastic Nuclear track detectors) and TLD-MSOs (Mg2SiO4:Tb) for various space experiments onboard the ‘KIBO’ part of the ISS. The MATROSHKA-R experiments aims to verify of dose distributions in a human body during space flight. The phantom consists of tissue equivalent material covered by a poncho jacket with 32 pockets on the surface. 20 container rods with dosimeters can be struck into the spherical phantom. Its diameter is 370 mm and it is 32 kg in weight. The first experiment onboard the KIBO at Forward No.2 area (JPM1F2 Rack2) was conducted over 114 days from 21 May to 12 September 2012 (the installation schedule inside the phantom) on the way to solar cycle 24th upward curve. 16 PADLES packages were deployed into 16 poncho pockets on the surface of the spherical phantom. Another 12 PADLES packages were deployed inside 4 rods (3 packages per rod in the outer, middle and inner side). Area monitoring in the KIBO was conducted in the same period (Area PADLES series #8 from 15 May to 16 September, 2012). Absorbed doses were measured at 17 area monitoring points in the KIBO and 28 locations (16 packages in poncho pockets and 12 inside 4 rods) in the phantom. The maximum value measured with the PADLES in the poncho pockets on the surface of the spherical phantom facing the outer wall was 0.43 mGy/day and the minimum value measured with the PADLES in the poncho pockets on the surface of the spherical phantom facing the KIBO interior was 0.30 mGy/day. The maximum absorbed

  8. Scientific results of the MIPAS experiment aboard ENVISAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Herbert

    H. Fischer and the MIPAS team The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aboard the Euro-pean satellite ENVISAT is a limb sounder measuring the thermal emission (4.15 to 14.6m) of atmospheric trace gases and particles with high spectral resolution. Due to the special limb viewing geometry MIPAS yields global coverage of atmospheric parameters from pole to pole every day. The altitude range detected covers the upper troposphere, the stratosphere and the mesosphere by using the nominal measurement mode. MIPAS data have been applied to retrieve operationally vertical profiles of the temperature and the six key species H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, HNO3 and NO2. In addition a large number of other parameters have been derived with non-operational research algorithms (H. Fischer et al. 2008). Many scientific results have already been published in peer-reviewed journals. In this talk only a selection of more recent results will be presented including the pollution of the upper troposphere, the troposphere-stratosphere exchange, the dynamics and chemistry of the stratosphere, polar stratospheric clouds as well as trends of H2O concentration in the UT/LS for climate investigations.

  9. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-06-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  10. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  11. Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Turyshev, S.G.; Laing, P.A.; Liu, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1998-10-01

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude {approximately}8.5{times}10{sup {minus}8} cm/s{sup 2} , directed towards the Sun. Two independent codes and physical strategies have been used to analyze the data. A number of potential causes have been ruled out. We discuss future kinematic tests and possible origins of the signal. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Plasma wave phenomena at interplanetary shocks observed by the Ulysses URAP experiment. [Unified Radio and Plasma Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.; Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Harvey, C.; Mangeney, A.; Kellogg, P.; Thiessen, J.; Canu, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present Ulysses URAP observations of plasma waves at seven interplanetary shocks detected between approximately 1 and 3 AU. The URAP data allows ready correlation of wave phenomena from .1 Hz to 1 MHz. Wave phenomena observed in the shock vicinity include abrupt changes in the quasi-thermal noise continuum, Langmuir wave activity, ion acoustic noise, whistler waves and low frequency electrostatic waves. We focus on the forward/reverse shock pair of May 27, 1991 to demonstrate the characteristics of the URAP data.

  13. Medicine in the age of " Ulysses ": James Joyce's portrait of life, medicine, and disease on a Dublin day a century ago.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M

    2006-01-01

    Over time, contemporary writing becomes part of the historical record. In medicine, it is an important learning tool, particularly for understanding the experience and context of disease and illness. Although a century has elapsed since the fictional events on a single day described in James Joyce's Ulysses, the work is still fresh with references and allusions to doctors, illnesses, and the human experience. Ulysses provides perspective on medical and social history and offers a biting commentary of continuing relevance to the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:16702710

  14. Inflow direction of interstellar neutrals deduced from pickup ion measurements at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Christian; Berger, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Bochsler, Peter; Galvin, Antoinette B.; Klecker, Berndt; Möbius, Eberhard

    2012-09-01

    Observations of interstellar pickup ions inside the heliosphere provide an indirect method to access information on the surrounding interstellar medium. The so-called pickup ion focusing cone and pickup ion crescent, which show an imprint of the related longitudinal distribution of interstellar neutrals in form of two overabundances on the down- and upwind side of the sun, are both believed to be aligned along the inflow vector of the interstellar medium. By finding their longitudinal positions, we can give an accurate value for the inflow direction λISM of interstellar matter. For that we performed an epoch analysis of interstellar pickup ions measured by the PLAsma and SupraThermal Ion Composition instrument (PLASTIC) on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission (STEREO) and were able to reveal in situ the longitudinal distribution of interstellar He+, O+, and Ne+ pickup ions in the ecliptic plane at 1 AU. The previously accepted values for the inflow direction of interstellar matter in ecliptic longitude, as obtained with Ulysses/GAS (λ = 75.4° ± 0.5°), Prognoz 6 (λ = 74.5° ± 1°), and ACE/SWICS (λ = 74.43° ± 0.33°), are currently debated, especially in view of recent results from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission that show an inflow direction of interstellar neutral helium of λ = 79° + 3.0°(-3.5°). Four years of data collected with PLASTIC aboard STEREO A provided statistics sufficient not only to obtain values for the inflow direction of interstellar helium (λCone = 77.4° ± 1.9° and λCrescent = 80.4° ± 5.4°, deduced from an analysis of the He+ focusing cone and crescent, respectively) but also to derive values for the inflow direction of interstellar neon (λCone = 77.4° ± 5.0° and λCrescent = 79.7° ± 2.6°) and oxygen (λCrescent = 78.9° ± 3.1°). Although our values for He+, O+, and Ne+ are consistent with results from ACE, Ulysses, and Prognoz 6, considering the statistical and systematic

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Mars Observer, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laros, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Hurley, K.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1992 October 4 and 1993 August 1, concurrent coverage by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), Mars Observer (MO), and Ulysses spacecraft was obtained for 78 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the MO and Ulysses thresholds, nine were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to approximately 2 deg accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). We computed arrival-time error boxes with larger dimensions ranging from a few arcminutes to the diameters of the BATSE-only boxes and with smaller dimensions in the arcminute range. Three events are of particular interest: GB 930704 (BATSE 2428) has been described as a possible repeater. The arrival-time information is consistent with that hypothesis, but only just so. The GB 930706 (2431) box, at approximately 1 min x 4 min, is the only one this small obtained since Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) entered the Venusian atmosphere in 1992 October. Sensitive radio and optical observations of this location were made within 8 and 9 days of the burst, but no counterpart candidates were identified. GB 930801 (2477) is the first GRB that had its localization improved by taking into account BATSE Earth occultation.

  16. The northern edge of the band of solar wind variability: Ulysses at {approximately}4.5AU

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; McComas, D.J.; Riley, P.; Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M.

    1997-02-01

    Ulysses observations reveal that the northern edge of the low-latitude band of solar wind variability at {approximately}4.5AU was located at N30{degree} in the latter part of 1996 when solar activity was at a minimum. This edge latitude is intermediate between edge latitudes found during previous encounters with the band edge along different portions of Ulysses{close_quote} polar orbit about the Sun. Corotating interaction regions, CIRs, near the northern edge of the band were tilted in such a manner that the forward and reverse shocks bounding the CIRs were propagating equatorward and poleward, respectively, providing definite confirmation that CIRs have opposed tilts in the opposite solar hemispheres. No shocks or coronal mass ejections, CMEs, were detected during the {approximately}1.5y traverse of the northern, high-latitude northern hemisphere; however, at the northern edge of the band of variability an expanding CME was observed that was driving a shock into the high-speed wind.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  17. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  18. Noise and exposure of personnel aboard vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Erlend; Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Moen, Bente E; Gjestland, Truls; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-03-01

    Despite awareness of noise aboard vessels at sea, few studies have reported measured noise levels aboard ships. This study aimed to describe the noise levels aboard vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN), and to assess the noise exposure of personnel aboard RNoN vessels. In 2012/2013 noise measurements were conducted aboard 14 RNoN vessels from four different vessel classes (frigates, coastal corvettes, mine vessels, and coast guard vessels) which were included in this study. Mean and median A-weighted noise levels (L p,A) in decibel (dB(A)) were calculated for different locations in each vessel class. The noise exposure of RNoN personnel was assessed by dosimeter measurements, and with a task-based (TB) strategy. The TB strategy used means of area measured noise levels in locations and the personnel's mean reported time spent in the respective locations to estimate the exposure. Area measurements of noise during sailing with typical operating modes, showed that for all vessel classes the noise levels were high in engine rooms with median L p,A ranging from 86.4 to 105.3 dB(A). In all the other locations the vessel class with the highest noise levels (coastal corvettes) had a median L p,A ranging from 71.7 to 95.0 dB(A), while the vessel class with the lowest noise levels (coast guard vessels) had a median L p,A ranging from 41.5 to 57.8 dB(A). For all vessel classes the engineers and electricians had amongst the highest 24-hour noise exposure (L p,A,24h), both before and after adjusting for estimated use of hearing protective devices (L p,A,24h > 67.3 dB(A)). The vessel class with the highest personnel exposure levels (coastal corvettes) had L p,A,24h ranging from 76.6 to 79.3 dB(A). The vessel class with the lowest personnel exposure levels (coast guard vessels) had an L p,A,24h ranging from 47.4 to 67.3 dB(A). In general, the dosimeter measurements gave higher exposure levels than those estimated with the TB strategy. All vessel classes, except the coast

  19. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  20. Microstructure Analysis of Directionally Solidified Aluminum Alloy Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angart, Samuel Gilbert

    This thesis entails a detailed microstructure analysis of directionally solidified (DS) Al-7Si alloys processed in microgravity aboard the International Space Station and similar duplicate ground based experiments at Cleveland State University. In recent years, the European Space Agency (ESA) has conducted experiments on alloy solidification in microgravity. NASA and ESA have collaborated for three DS experiments with Al- 7 wt. % Si alloy, aboard the International Space Station (ISS) denoted as MICAST6, MICAST7 and MICAST12. The first two experiments were processed on the ISS in 2009 and 2010. MICAST12 was processed aboard the ISS in the spring of 2014; the resulting experimental results of MICAST12 are not discussed in this thesis. The primary goal of the thesis was to understand the effect of convection in primary dendrite arm spacings (PDAS) and radial macrosegregation within DS aluminum alloys. The MICAST experiments were processed with various solidification speeds and thermal gradients to produce alloy with differences in microstructure features. PDAS and radial macrosegregation were measured in the solidified ingot that developed during the transition from one solidification speed to another. To represent PDAS in DS alloy in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion-controlled growth. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of solidified samples, PDAS was measured and calculated. The ground-based (1-g) experiments done at Cleveland State University CSU were also analyzed for comparison to the ISS experiments (0-g). During steady state in the microgravity environment, there was a reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated PDAS. In ground-based experiments, transverse sections exhibited obvious radial macrosegregation caused by thermosolutal convection resulting in a non-agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Using a combination of image processing techniques and Electron Microprobe Analysis

  1. 76 FR 60853 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft. This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft. OMB Number: 1651-0058. Form Number: None. Abstract:...

  2. A prototype gas exchange monitor for exercise stress testing aboard NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Joseph A.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Bauer, Anne

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an easy-to-use monitor developed to track the weightlessness deconditioning aboard the NASA Space Station, together with the results of testing of a prototype instrument. The monitor measures the O2 uptake and CO2 production, and calculates the maximum O2 uptake and anaerobic threshold during an exercise stress test. The system uses two flowmeters in series to achieve a completely automatic calibration, and uses breath-by-breath compensation for sample line-transport delay. The monitor was evaluated using two laboratory methods and was shown to be accurate. The system's block diagram and the bench test setup diagram are included.

  3. Camera aboard 'Friendship 7' photographs John Glenn during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A camera aboard the 'Friendship 7' Mercury spacecraft photographs Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during the Mercury-Atlas 6 spaceflight (00302-3); Photographs Glenn as he uses a photometer to view the sun during sunsent on the MA-6 space flight (00304).

  4. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  5. Description of the TC 125 aboard the Mercury simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two distinct phases of the TC.125 aboard the Mercury Simulator were described to pilots at a meeting in 1979. A three hour "hand on" phase, during which the pilot learns to use the system, and second; a two hour evaluation phase, during which the pilot analyzes the TC.125 and pratices making typical approaches are presented.

  6. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. 1240.90 Section 1240.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use...

  7. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren

    1990-11-02

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.

  8. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Marvin; Hoover, Mark D.; Nelson, Robert C.; Templeton, William; Bollinger, Lance; Anspaugh, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later time after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  9. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. ); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  10. Study of the precision of the gamma-ray burst source locations obtained with the Ulysses/PVO/CGRO network

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, T.L. ); Hurley, K.C. ); Sommer, M. ); Boer, M.; Niel, M. ); Fishman, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B. ); Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W. )

    1994-07-01

    The interplanetary gamma-ray burst network of the [ital Ulysses], [ital Compton]-[ital GRO], and [ital Pioneer]-[ital Venus] [ital Orbiter] missions has made source localizations with fractional-arc-minute precision for a number of events, and with auxiliary data, will provide useful annular-segment loci for many more. These studies have, thus far, yielded one possible counterpart, a [ital Rosat] x-ray association with the 92 May 1 burst. Similar to the historic 1978 November 19 burst/[ital Einstein] association, this possibility gives hope that network studies will provide a fundamental source clue for classical' bursts, just as a second supernova remnant in a network-defined source field has done for sgr events.

  11. Joyce and Ulysses: integrated and user-friendly tools for the parameterization of intramolecular force fields from quantum mechanical data.

    PubMed

    Barone, Vincenzo; Cacelli, Ivo; De Mitri, Nicola; Licari, Daniele; Monti, Susanna; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2013-03-21

    The Joyce program is augmented with several new features, including the user friendly Ulysses GUI, the possibility of complete excited state parameterization and a more flexible treatment of the force field electrostatic terms. A first validation is achieved by successfully comparing results obtained with Joyce2.0 to literature ones, obtained for the same set of benchmark molecules. The parameterization protocol is also applied to two other larger molecules, namely nicotine and a coumarin based dye. In the former case, the parameterized force field is employed in molecular dynamics simulations of solvated nicotine, and the solute conformational distribution at room temperature is discussed. Force fields parameterized with Joyce2.0, for both the dye's ground and first excited electronic states, are validated through the calculation of absorption and emission vertical energies with molecular mechanics optimized structures. Finally, the newly implemented procedure to handle polarizable force fields is discussed and applied to the pyrimidine molecule as a test case. PMID:23389748

  12. Flow properties of the solar wind obtained from white light data, Ulysses observations and a two-fluid model

    SciTech Connect

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard

    1996-07-20

    We derive the flow properties of the solar wind using a two-fluid model constrained by the density gradients inferred from white light observations of a south polar coronal hole on 11 April 1993 during the SPARTAN 201-1 flight, and interplanetary observations, e.g. from Ulysses' south polar passage. We present the results of model computations for which we get the best fit to these data. One of the main results of this study is that, for the same energy input to electrons and protons, the proton temperature can be significantly higher than the electron temperature in the inner corona. In addition, we show that different functional forms of the energy addition with the same total energy input can yield different solar wind parameters at 1AU.

  13. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M.; Nelson, R. C.; Bollinger, L.; Hoover, M. D.

    1990-11-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  14. Multi-spacecraft Study of Three Large NR Electron Events Observed by ACE and Ulysses: Injection Histories 70 Degrees Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agueda, N.; Lario, D.; Dalla, S.; Sanahuja, B.; Vainio, R. O.

    2012-12-01

    We present a sample of three large near-relativistic (NR; >50 keV) electron events observed in 2001 by both the ACE and the Ulysses spacecraft, when Ulysses was at high-northern latitudes and close to 2 AU. All three events are associated with large solar flares, strong decametric type II radio bursts and accompanied by wide (> 212 deg) and fast (> 1400 km/s) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use advanced interplanetary transport simulations and make use of the directional intensities observed in-situ by the spacecraft, to infer the electron injection profiles close to the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions. For the three selected events, we find similar interplanetary transport conditions at low and at high latitudes, with values of the mean free path ranging from 0.05 AU to 0.27 AU. Despite the similar solar origin signatures, we find differences in the injection profiles inferred for each spacecraft. The injection timescales seem to be ordered by the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) sector boundaries; that is, extended injection profiles (associated with coronal shocks) are found if the footpoint of the spacecraft laid in the flare magnetic sector, while intermittent spare injection episodes appear when the spacecraft footpoint is in the opposite sector or a wrap in the HCS bounded the CME structure. Our results suggest that the large-scale coronal magnetic field might play a role in the expansion of coronal shocks and support an scenario in which reconnection processes during restructuring of coronal magnetic fields contribute to solar energetic particle release.

  15. Stability of Formulations Contained in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf life are essential for successful space medical operations in support of space exploration missions. Physical and environmental factors unique to space missions such as vibration, G forces and ionizing radiation may adversely affect stability of pharmaceuticals intended for standard care of astronauts aboard space missions. Stable pharmaceuticals, therefore, are of paramount importance for assuring health and wellness of astronauts in space. Preliminary examination of stability of formulations from Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) medical kits revealed that some of these medications showed physical and chemical degradation after flight raising concern of reduced therapeutic effectiveness with these medications in space. A research payload experiment was conducted with a select set of formulations stowed aboard a shuttle flight and on ISS. The payload consisted of four identical pharmaceutical kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms that were transported to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the Space Shuttle, STS 121. One of the four kits was stored on the shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at six months intervals on a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit; the shuttle kit was returned to Earth on the same flight. Standard stability indicating physical and chemical parameters were measured for all pharmaceuticals returned from the shuttle and from the first ISS increment payload along with ground-based matching controls. Results were compared between shuttle, ISS and ground controls. Evaluation of data from the three paradigms indicates that some of the formulations exhibited significant degradation in space compared to respective ground controls; a few formulations were unstable both on the ground and in space. An increase in the number of pharmaceuticals from ISS failing USP standards was noticed compared to those from the shuttle

  16. The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laster, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to

  17. Low-energy solar electrons and ions observed at Ulysses February-April, 1991 - The inner heliosphere as a particle reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Gold, R. E.; Simnett, G. M.; Tappin, S. J.; Armstrong, T. P.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Ulysses observations at 2.5 AU of 38-315 keV electrons and 61-4752 keV ions during February-April 1991 suggest in several ways that, during periods of sustained high solar activity, the inner heliosphere serves as a 'reservoir' for low-energy solar particles. Particle increases were not associated one-to-one with large X-ray flares because of their poor magnetic connection, yet intensities in March-April remained well above their February levels. The rise phase of the particle event associated with the great flare of 2245UT March 22 lasted most of two days, while throughout the one-week decay phase, the lowest-energy ion fluxes were nearly equal at Ulysses and earth (IMP-8).

  18. Crewmen of the Gemini 7 spacecraft arrive aboard aircraft carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., (left), pilot, and Frank Borman, command pilot, are shown just after they arrived aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Greeting the astronauts are Donald Stullken (at Lovell's right), Recovery Operations Branch, Landing and Recovery Division; Dr. Howard Minners (standing beside Borman), Flight Medicine Branch, Cneter Medical Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, and Bennett James (standing behind Borman), a NASA Public Affairs Officer.

  19. Predicting Airborne Particle Levels Aboard Washington State School Buses

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Sara D.; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R.; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Liu, L.-J. Sally

    2008-01-01

    School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM2.5) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission-reducing retrofits. To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM2.5 data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least square regression models for PM2.5 onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM2.5 levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics. Concentrations aboard school buses (21 μg/m3) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM2.5 levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 μg/m3 originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM2.5, bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust. These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics. PMID:18985175

  20. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  1. Study of balloon and thermal control material degradation aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letton, Alan; Rock, Neil I.; Williams, Kevin D.; Strganac, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The initial results of analysis performed on a number of polymeric materials which were exposed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are discussed. These materials include two typical high altitude balloon films (a polyester and a polyethylene) and silver-backed Teflon from thermal control blanket samples. The techniques used for characterizing changes in mechanical properties, chemical structure and surface morphology include Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  2. Microgravity Science Glovebox Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is seen working at the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). He is working with the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions. The PROMISS is one of the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments). The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  3. An analytic-geometric model of the effect of spherically distributed injection errors for Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft - The multi-stage problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, James M.; Mcronald, Angus D.

    1988-01-01

    In previous work the problem of injecting the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft from low earth orbit into their respective interplanetary trajectories has been discussed for the single stage (Centaur) vehicle. The central issue, in the event of spherically distributed injection errors, is what happens to the vehicle? The difficulties addressed in this paper involve the multi-stage problem since both Galileo and Ulysses will be utilizing the two-stage IUS system. Ulysses will also include a third stage: the PAM-S. The solution is expressed in terms of probabilities for total percentage of escape, orbit decay and reentry trajectories. Analytic solutions are found for Hill's Equations of Relative Motion (more recently called Clohessy-Wiltshire Equations) for multi-stage injections. These solutions are interpreted geometrically on the injection sphere. The analytic-geometric models compare well with numerical solutions, provide insight into the behavior of trajectories mapped on the injection sphere and simplify the numerical two-dimensional search for trajectory families.

  4. NASDA President Communicates With Japanese Crew Member Aboard the STS-47 Spacelab-J Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. From the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC), NASDA President, Mr. Yamano, speaks to Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, a Japanese crew member aboard the STS-47 Spacelab J mission.

  5. GROUP-C and LITES Experiments for Ionospheric Remote Sensing aboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric irregularities, also known as ionospheric bubbles, are transient features of the low and middle latitude ionosphere with important implications for operational systems. Understanding irregularity formation, development, and evolution is vital for efforts within NASA and DoD to forecast scintillation. Irregularity structures have been studied primarily using ground-based systems, though some spaced-based remote and in-situ sensing has been performed. An ionospheric observatory aboard the International Space Station (ISS) would provide new capability to study low- and mid-latitude ionospheric structures on a global scale. The GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry Colocated (GROUPC) and the Limb-imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) experiments are being considered for flight aboard the Space Test Program Houston 5 (STP-H5) experiment pallet. By combining for the first time high-sensitivity in-track photometry with vertical ionospheric airglow spectrographic imagery, we demonstrate that high-fidelity optical tomographic reconstruction of bubbles can be performed from the ISS. Ground-based imagery can supplement the tomography by providing all-sky images of ionospheric structures (e.g. bubbles and TIDs) and of signatures of lower atmospheric dynamics, such as gravity waves, that may play a role in irregularity formation. The optical instrumentation can be augmented with additional sensors to provide measurements of scintillation and in situ plasma density, composition, and drifts.

  6. Space science experiments aboard ATS-F.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, R.; King, W.

    1972-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Experiment (EME) package is mounted on the ATS-F spacecraft to a structure that is located on top of the 30-foot parabolic reflector hub. The eight experiments of the EME package are designed to study the environment in space at synchronous altitude and to obtain information on electromagnetic-ionospheric interactions. Six of these experiments will obtain data on charged particles of several different types. A seventh experiment is to provide magnetic field data. The eighth experiment is concerned with solar cell degradation studies.

  7. Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter aboard IKAROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, T.; Yonetoku, D.; Sakashita, T.; Morihara, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Gunji, S.; Tokairin, N.; Mihara, T.

    2010-10-01

    A GRB polarimeter was launched by H-IIA on 21 May in 2010 at JAXA Tanegashima Space Center. A GRB polarization is the best key to understand mechanism of GRB prompt emissions and also to understand the geometry of magnetic fields. The standard GRB fireball models predict the synchrotron radiation of them, thus a high degree of polarization is expected, if the magnetic field-lines are coaligned. Previously, a few of the GRB polarization detections were reported. Although they used the Compton scattering method, but their measurements were non-coincidence mode. This made their reports were somewhat unclear. This time, our detector works fully in the coincidence mode to avoid the confusion. On 21 June, GAP is switched on and the first GRB was detected on 7 July but not yet well calibrated.

  8. Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter aboard IKAROS

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, T.; Yonetoku, D.; Sakashita, T.; Morihara, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Gunji, S.; Tokairin, N.; Mihara, T.

    2010-10-15

    A GRB polarimeter was launched by H-IIA on 21 May in 2010 at JAXA Tanegashima Space Center. A GRB polarization is the best key to understand mechanism of GRB prompt emissions and also to understand the geometry of magnetic fields. The standard GRB fireball models predict the synchrotron radiation of them, thus a high degree of polarization is expected, if the magnetic field-lines are coaligned. Previously, a few of the GRB polarization detections were reported. Although they used the Compton scattering method, but their measurements were non-coincidence mode. This made their reports were somewhat unclear. This time, our detector works fully in the coincidence mode to avoid the confusion. On 21 June, GAP is switched on and the first GRB was detected on 7 July but not yet well calibrated.

  9. Hardware development for the surface tension driven convection experiment aboard the USML-1 spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, A. D.; Jacobson, T. P.; Wanhainen, J. S.; Petrarca, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for March 1992. Hardware is under development to establish the experimental conditions and perform the specified measurements, for both ground based research and the flight experiment in a Spacelab single rack. Major development areas include an infrared thermal imaging system for surface temperature measurement, a CO2 laser and control system for surface heating, and for flow visualization, a He-Ne laser and optical system in conjunction with an intensified video camera. For ground based work the components of each system were purchased or designed, and tested individually. The three systems will be interfaced with the balance of the experimental hardware and will constitute a working engineering model. A description of the three systems and examples of the component performance is given along with the plans for the development of flight hardware.

  10. Hardware development for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, A. D.; Jacobson, T. P.; Wanhainen, J. S.; Petrarca, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for March 1992. Hardware is under development to establish the experimental conditions and perform the specified measurements, for both ground based research and the flight experiment in a Spacelab single rack. Major development areas include an infrared thermal imaging system for surface temperature measurement, a CO2 laser and control system for surface heating, and for flow visualization, a He-Ne laser and optical system in conjunction with an intensified video camera. For ground based work the components of each system were purchased or designed, and tested individually. The three systems will be interfaced with the balance of the experimental hardware and will constitute a working engineering model. A description of the three systems and examples of the component performance is given along with the plans for the development of flight hardware.

  11. A biological and physical oceanographic remote sensing study aboard the Calypso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlan, J. C.; Hill, J. M.; El-Reheim, H. A.; Bohn, C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses an oceanographic remote sensing program conducted aboard the R/V Calypso in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea to provide information for correlating ocean measurements with remotely sensed observations. Remote sensors on satellites and aircraft are used as operations and experiment planning tools as well as for scientific data acquisition. Emphasis is on providing surface-truth measurements for OCS flights and on investigating the area of the Gulf affected by the outflow of the Mississippi River. The discussion covers the shipboard instrumentation, ocean color scanner data acquisition and results, NOAA/VHRR data analysis approach, and Landsat and APT/ATS as planning tools. The research effort has demonstrated the feasibility of using satellite data as a supportive method to aid an oceanographic research vessel on a near real-time basis.

  12. Post-encapsulation plutonia reduction for Galileo and Ulysses GPHS modules: The Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W. )

    1991-01-01

    In heat source systems of the type C/Ir/PuO{sub 2}, ingrowth of CO and CO{sub 2} is evident. This is due to a cyclical reaction between the C and PuO{sub 2} constituents. Gas tap results show that repeated exchanges using a pure inert gas backfill reduces the CO/CO{sub 2} ingrowth rate. Also, the temperature experienced during Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) processing reduces further the effect such that normal RTG storage temperatures do not result in this deleterious effect. A 36-station vacuum/inert gas manifold has been developed at Mound Facility to serve as a Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF) for up to 68 GPHS-type heat source modules. This method of storage effectively prevented atmospheric contamination of modules while reducing the CO/CO{sub 2} ingrowth rate. This paper describes in detail the theoretical, practical, facility, and quality/reliability aspects of this processing facility that has supported the Galileo and Ulysses RTG programs. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Post-encapsulation plutonia reduction for Galileo and Ulysses GPHS modules: The module reduction and monitoring facility (MRMF)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W. )

    1991-01-10

    In heat source systems of the type C/Ir/PuO{sub 2}, ingrowth of CO and CO{sub 2} is evident. This is due to a cyclical reaction between the C and PuO{sub 2} constituents. Gas tap results show that repeated exchanges using a pure inert gas backfill reduces the CO/CO{sub 2} ingrowth rate. Also, the temperatures experienced during Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) processing reduces further the effect such that normal RTG storage temperatures do not result in this deleterious effect. A 36-station vacuum/inert gas manifold has been developed at Mound Facility to serve as a Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF) for up to 68 GPHS-type heat source modules. This method of storage effectively prevented atmospheric contamination of modules while reducing the CO/CO{sub 2} ingrowth rate. This paper describes in detail the theoretical, practical, facility, and quality/reliability aspects of this processing facility that has supported the Galileo and Ulysses RTG programs.

  14. HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRIES IN THE POLAR SOLAR WIND OBSERVED BY ULYSSES NEAR THE MINIMA OF SOLAR CYCLES 22 AND 23

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, R. W.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2013-05-10

    We examined solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observations from Ulysses' first and third orbits to study hemispheric differences in the properties of the solar wind and IMF originating from the Sun's large polar coronal holes (PCHs) during the declining and minimum phase of solar cycles 22 and 23. We identified hemispheric asymmetries in several parameters, most notably {approx}15%-30% south-to-north differences in averages for the solar wind density, mass flux, dynamic pressure, and energy flux and the radial and total IMF magnitudes. These differences were driven by relatively larger, more variable solar wind density and radial IMF between {approx}36 Degree-Sign S-60 Degree-Sign S during the declining phase of solar cycles 22 and 23. These observations indicate either a hemispheric asymmetry in the PCH output during the declining and minimum phase of solar cycles 22 and 23 with the southern hemisphere being more active than its northern counterpart, or a solar cycle effect where the PCH output in both hemispheres is enhanced during periods of higher solar activity. We also report a strong linear correlation between these solar wind and IMF parameters, including the periods of enhanced PCH output, that highlight the connection between the solar wind mass and energy output and the Sun's magnetic field. That these enhancements were not matched by similar sized variations in solar wind speed points to the mass and energy responsible for these increases being added to the solar wind while its flow was subsonic.

  15. Ulysses observations of magnetic waves due to newborn interstellar pickup ions. I. New observations and linear analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Bradford E.; Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Murphy, Neil; Nuno, Raquel G. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu E-mail: raquel.nuno@asu.edu

    2014-04-01

    We have examined Ulysses magnetic field data using dynamic spectrogram techniques that compute wave amplitude, polarization, and direction of propagation over a broad range of frequencies and time. Events were identified that showed a strong polarization signature and an enhancement of power above the local proton gyrofrequency. We perform a statistical study of 502 wave events in an effort to determine when, where, and why they are observed. Most notably, we find that waves arising from newborn interstellar pickup ions are relatively rare and difficult to find. The quantities normally employed in theories of wave growth are neutral atom density and quantities related to their ionization and the subsequent dynamics such as wind speed, solar wind flux, and magnetic field orientation. We find the observations of waves to be largely uncorrelated to these quantities except for mean field direction where quasi-radial magnetic fields are favored and solar wind proton flux where wave observations appear to be favored by low flux conditions which runs contrary to theoretical expectations of wave generation. It would appear that an explanation based on source physics and instability growth rates alone is not adequate to account for the times when these waves are seen.

  16. Counterstreaming suprathermal electron events upstream of corotating shocks in the solar wind beyond [approximately]2 AU: Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Mcomas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L. ); Goldstein, B.E. )

    1993-11-05

    Enhanced fluxes of suprathermal electrons are commonly observed upstream of corotating forward and reverse shocks in the solar wind at heliocentric distances beyond [approximately]2 AU by the Los Alamos plasma experiment on Ulysses. The average duration of these events, which are most intense immediately upstream from the shocks and which fade with increasing distance from them, is [approximately]2.4 days near 5 AU. These events are caused by the leakage of shock-heated electrons into the upstream region. The upstream regions of these shocks face back toward the SUN along the interplanetary magnetic field, so these leaked electrons commonly counterstream relative to the normal solar wind electron heat flux. The observations suggest that conservation of magnetic moment and scattering typically limit the sunward propagation of these electrons as beams to field-aligned distances of [approximately]15 AU. Although it seems unlikely that these shock-associated events are an important source of counterstreaming events near 1 AU, remnants of the backstreaming beams may contribute importantly to the diffuse solar wind halo electron population there. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Comparison of interplanetary type 2 radio burst observations by ISEE-3, Ulysses, and WIND with applications to space weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Klimas, A. J.; Lengyel-Frey, D.; Stone, R. G.; Thejappa, G.

    1997-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) type 2 radio bursts are produced by IP shocks driven by solar ejecta, presumably involving shock acceleration of electrons that leads to radio emission. These radio bursts, which can be detected remotely by a sensitive spacecraft radio receiver, provide a method of tracking the leading edge of solar ejecta moving outward from the sun. Consequently, observations of these bursts sometimes provide advance warning of one or more days prior to the onset of geomagnetic activity induced by the solar ejecta. A robust lower limit on the fraction of intense geomagnetic storms, that are preceded by IP type 2 bursts, is provided. It is shown that 41 percent of the geomagnetic storms occurring during the interval September 1978 to February 1983 were preceded by type 2 events in this catalog, and reasons why the fraction is not larger are addressed. Differences in the observing capabilities of the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3, Ulysses, and WIND, to explain why each of these similar spacecraft radio investigations provides a different perspective of IP type 2 emissions are reviewed.

  18. Counterstreaming suprathermal electron events upstream of corotating shocks in the solar wind beyond approximately 2 AU: Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1993-01-01

    Enhanced fluxes of suprathermal electrons are commonly observed upstream of corotating forward and reverse shocks in the solar wind at heliocentric distances beyond approximately 2 AU by the Los Alamos plasma experiment on Ulysses. The average duration of these events, which are most intense immediately upstream from the shocks and which fade with increasing distance from them, is approximately 2.4 days near 5 AU. These events are caused by the leakage of shock-heated electrons into the upstream region. The upstream regions of these shocks face back toward the Sun along the interplanetary magnetic field, so these leaked electrons commonly counterstream relative to the normal solar wind electron heat flux. The observations suggest that conservation of magnetic moment and scattering typically limit the sunward propagation of these electrons as beams to field-aligned distances of approximately 15 AU. Although it seems unlikely that these shock-associated events are an important source of counterstreaming events near 1 AU, remnants of the backstreaming beams may contribute importantly to the diffuse solar wind halo electron population there.

  19. Application of SSNTDs in radiobiological investigations aboard recoverable satellites.

    PubMed

    Huang, R Q; Gu, R Q; Li, Q

    1997-01-01

    In recent years some Biostack experiments including a wide spectrum of biological objects have been devoted to study of the radiobiological effects on dry seeds aboard recoverable satellites. Some impressive phenomena have been observed. Clearly, the large amount of energy deposited by the highly ionizing heavy nuclei of cosmic rays is the principal reason for the induced aberrations of the chromosomes of wheat root tip cells. A methodical description of the experimental arrangement and procedure of handling and evaluation of given. The preliminary physical and biological results from the experimental "wheat seeds" are presented. PMID:11541794

  20. Protein Crystal Growth Samples Placed Aboard Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Tom Akers places a liquid nitrogen Dewar containing frozen protein solutions aboard Russia's space Station Mir during a visit by the Space Shuttle (STS-79). The protein samples were flash-frozen on Earth and will be allowed to thaw and crystallize in the microgravity environment on Mir Space Station. A later crew will return the Dewar to Earth for sample analysis. Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California at Riverside is the principal investigator. Photo credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center.

  1. Protein Crystal Growth Samples Placed Aboard Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Michael Clifford places a liquid nitrogen Dewar containing frozen protein solutions aboard Russia's space station Mir during a visit by the Space Shuttle (STS-76). The protein samples were flash-frozen on Earth and will be allowed to thaw and crystallize in the microgravity environment on Mir Space Station. A later crew will return the Dewar to Earth for sample analysis. Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California at Riverside is the principal investigator. Photo credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center.

  2. Ovarian Tumor Cells Studied Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In August 2001, principal investigator Jeanne Becker sent human ovarian tumor cells to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the STS-105 mission. The tumor cells were cultured in microgravity for a 14 day growth period and were analyzed for changes in the rate of cell growth and synthesis of associated proteins. In addition, they were evaluated for the expression of several proteins that are the products of oncogenes, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. This photo, which was taken by astronaut Frank Culbertson who conducted the experiment for Dr. Becker, shows two cell culture bags containing LN1 ovarian carcinoma cell cultures.

  3. High temperature heat pipe experiments aboard the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. ); Secary, C.J. )

    1993-01-10

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most space nuclear power systems, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation. Three SST/potassium heat pipes are being designed, fabricated, and ground tested. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will fly aboard the space shuttle in 1995. Three wick structures will be tested: homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap. Ground tests are described that simulate the space shuttle environment in every way except gravity field.

  4. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days. PMID:21033402

  5. Properties and Radial Trends of Coronal Mass Ejecta and Their Associated Shocks Observed by Ulysses in the Ecliptic Plane. Appendix 2; Repr. from Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 105, 2000 p 12,617-12,626

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D. J.; Forsyth, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, magnetic and plasma measurements are used to analyze 17 interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs) identified by Ulysses during its in-ecliptic passage to Jupiter. We focus on the expansion characteristics of these CMEs (as inferred from the time rate of change of the velocity profiles through the CMEs) and the properties of 14 forward shocks unambiguously associated with these CMEs. We highlight radial trends from 1 to 5.4 AU. Our results indicate that the CMEs are generally expanding at all heliocentric distances. With regard to the shocks preceding these ejecta, we note the following: (1) There is a clear tendency for the shock speed (in the upstream frame of reference) to decrease with increasing heliocentric distance as the CMEs transfer momentum to the ambient solar wind and slow down; (2) 86% of the shock fronts are oriented in the ecliptic plane such that their normals point westward (i.e., in the direction of planetary motion about the Sun), (3) 86% of the shocks are propagating toward the heliographic equator; and (4) no clear trend was found in the strength of the shocks versus heliocentric distance. These results are interpreted using simple dynamical arguments and are supported by fluid and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations.

  6. Alterations in erythrocyte survival parameters in rats after 19.5 days aboard Cosmos 782

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Cummins, J.; Landaw, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were subjected to 19.5 days of weightless space flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite, Cosmos 782. Based on the output of CO-14, survival parameters of a cohort of erythrocytes labeled 15.5 days preflight were evaluated upon return from orbit. These were compared to vivarium control rats injected at the same time. Statistical evaluation indicates that all survival factors were altered by the space flight. The mean potential lifespan, which was 63.0 days in the control rats, was decreased to 59.0 days in the flight rats, and random hemolysis was increased three-fold in the flight rats. The measured size of the cohort was decreased, lending further support to the idea that hemolysis was accelerated during some portion of the flight. A number of factors that might be contributory to these changes are discussed, including forces associated with launch and reentry, atmospheric and environmental parameters, dietary factors, radiation, and weightlessness.

  7. On the evening time exosphere of Mars: Result from MENCA aboard Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Thampi, Smitha V.; Das, Tirtha Pratim; Dhanya, M. B.; Naik, Neha; Vajja, Dinakar Prasad; Pradeepkumar, P.; Sreelatha, P.; Supriya, G.; Abhishek J., K.; Mohankumar, S. V.; Thampi, R. Satheesh; Yadav, Vipin K.; Sundar, B.; Nandi, Amarnath; Padmanabhan, G. Padma; Aliyas, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a quadrupole mass spectrometer which provides in situ measurement of the composition of the low-latitude Martian neutral exosphere. The altitude profiles of the three major constituents, i.e., amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (N2 + CO), and amu 16 (O) in the Martian exosphere during evening (close to sunset terminator) hours are reported using MENCA observations from four orbits of MOM during late December 2014, when MOM's periapsis altitude was the lowest. The altitude range of the observation encompasses the diffusively separated region much above the well-mixed atmosphere. The transition from CO2 to O-dominated region is observed near 270 km. The mean exospheric temperature derived using these three mass numbers is 271 ± 5 K. These first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  8. Degradation of electro-optic components aboard LDEF. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Re-measurement of the properties of a set of electro-optic components exposed to the low earth orbital environment aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) indicates that most components survived quite well. Typical components showed some effects related to the space environment unless well protected. The effects were often small but significant. Results for semiconductor infrared detectors, lasers, LED's, filter, mirrors, and black paints will be presented. Semiconductor detectors and emitters were scarred but reproduced their original characteristics. Spectral characteristics of multi-layer dielectric filters and mirrors were found to be altered and degraded. Increased absorption in black paints indicates an increase in absorption sites, giving rise to enhanced performance as coatings for baffles and sunscreens. We find plastics and multi-layer dielectric coatings to be potentially unstable. Semiconductor devices, metal, and glass are more likely to be stable.

  9. An apparatus for preparing benthic samples aboard ship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, Phillip N.; Girard, Thomas L.; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a safe and effective apparatus for washing and reducing the volume of benthic samples collected by grab samplers aboard ship. The sample is transferred directly from the dredge to the apparatus and then washed with water pumped through pipes in the apparatus and from onboard hoses. Wastewater and materials smaller than 0.541 mm in diameter are washed overboard. Larger materials, including benthic organisms, collect on an upper 0.64-cm screen and on a lower 30-mm-mesh stainless steel bolt cloth. A collection jar is screwed into the bottom of the apparatus. Therefore, transfer of sample material from the apparatus to the jar is quick and easy. This apparatus has several advantages for use aboard ship over others described in the literature, especially in rough seas, in cold weather, and at night. The apparatus provides a safe and convenient platform for washing and reducing samples, and samples can be prepared while the vessel is traveling at full speed.

  10. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Aboard Command Module Yankee Clipper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is a view of astronaut Richard F. Gordon attaching a high resolution telephoto lens to a camera aboard the Apollo 12 Command Module (CM) Yankee Clipper. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms. Their lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  11. Soyuz 25 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 25. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 76, 108 and 88%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned aboard Soyuz 25.

  12. 76 FR 76430 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 60853) on September 30, 2011, allowing for a 60-day... Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Documents Required Aboard...

  13. Gemini 8 spacecraft hoisted aboard the U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 8 spacecraft, with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and David R. Scott still aboard, is hoisted aboard the destroyer U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason. Trouble with the Gemini 8 Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) forced an early termination of the mission.

  14. Crew of Gemini 10 arrive aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Crew of Gemini 10 space flight, Astronauts John W. Young (left) and Michael Collins (right), arrive aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal. Greeting them are Ben James, Senior NASA Public Affairs Officer aboard ship and John C. Stonesifer, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Landing and Recovery Division.

  15. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees serving as âwatchmenâ aboard vessels in port. 783... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with... aid in the operation of the vessel as a means of transportation. See Desper v. Starved Rock Ferry...

  16. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees serving as âwatchmenâ aboard vessels in port. 783... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with... aid in the operation of the vessel as a means of transportation. See Desper v. Starved Rock Ferry...

  17. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees serving as âwatchmenâ aboard vessels in port. 783... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with... aid in the operation of the vessel as a means of transportation. See Desper v. Starved Rock Ferry...

  18. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees serving as âwatchmenâ aboard vessels in port. 783... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with... aid in the operation of the vessel as a means of transportation. See Desper v. Starved Rock Ferry...

  19. First results from the GPS atmospheric remote sensing experiment TOR aboard TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, G.; Grunwaldt, L.; Heise, S.; Köhler, W.; Schmidt, T.; Choi, K.-R.; Michalak, G.; König, R.; Rothacher, M.; Wickert, J.

    2009-04-01

    The TerraSAR-X satellite was launched on 15 June 2007 into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of about 514 km and about 98 ° orbit inclination. In addition to synthetic aperture radar and laser communication payloads, TerraSAR-X accommodates the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) experiment. TOR's hardware consists of the Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) and a laser retro-reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). IGOR, a dual frequency, geodetic-grade GPS receiver instrument, provides signal-to-noise ratios, pseudorange and carrier phase observations of an occulting and a reference satellite at sampling rates of up to 50 Hz for remote sensing of atmospheric refractivity using the radio occultation (RO) technique. For precise orbit determination pseudorange and carrier phase data from all satellites in view are sampled at 0.1 Hz. Three brief RO tests were conducted with TOR in 2007; a 32-day campaign was performed in January/February 2008 and from 25 July to 17 November 2008 occultation events were recorded continuously for 117 days. We describe first results from an analysis of about 19.000 setting radio occultation events observed during that last campaign. Atmospheric refractivity profiles derived from TOR data are intercompared with ECMWF analyses; ECMWF analysis data are interpolated to the time and location of the RO measurement. At altitudes of about 2-25 km the mean fractional refractivity bias with respect to ECMWF is less than ±0.5%, its standard deviation varies between 0.5% and 1% in the altitude range 5-20 km increasing to about 2% at altitudes below 5 km and above 20 km. Unlike the RO receivers aboard the CHAMP and GRACE satellites the IGOR aboard TerraSAR-X employs an open-loop tracking technique to improve L1 carrier phase tracking at altitudes below 5 to 6 km. Consistent with earlier findings from the COSMIC constellation, open-loop tracking significantly reduces the 50%-altitude, the tangent point altitude which is

  20. Unique application of plastics and composite materials in the design of the magnetometer instruments for the Ulysses and Cassini spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, E.W.

    1996-12-31

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) vector helium magnetometer (VHM) design for the Ulysses solar polar mission is the first to explore the structure and characteristics of the magnetic field out of the ecliptic plane. A dual technique combination vector/scalar design that is a modified second generation sensor is currently being manufactured for the Cassini mission. Five major considerations were incorporated into the design: (1) greater use of lightweight composites and plastics, (2) interchangeability of the sensor components, (3) self-alignment of internal optical components, (4) long, projected, stable life of the materials in the deep space environment, and (5) elimination of mechanical fasteners, wherever possible. The nonmagnetic characteristics of plastics and their lightweight-to-strength properties worked together to meet the 900-gram weight limit for the boom-mounted sensor. During the selection process, a wide range of nonmetallic materials were candidates for use in the magnetometer components. The primary materials requirements, beyond environmental and structural, were stringent criteria that all materials and processes for parts be nonmagnetic and free from the thermocouple effect that results when there is the slightest thermal electric noise from the interaction of dissimilar materials. To accomplish this, the manufacturing and assembly had to be free of contamination from particle inclusion in the materials manufacturing, forming, processing, and finishing operations. There was a further requirement that no part of the sensor could have permeable properties in the plastics or adhesives. The dimensional stability of the instruments` optical axis was a critical consideration in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) properties of the materials selected.

  1. Solar cycle dependence of the solar wind dynamics: Pioneer, Voyager, and Ulysses from 1 to 5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Esparza, J. Américo; Smith, Edward J.

    1996-11-01

    Significant differences between Pioneer and Voyager observations were found in solar wind structure between 1 and 6 AU. These disagreements were attributed to temporal effects related to the solar cycle, but no unifying study of Pioneer-Voyager observations was performed. On the basis of maps of large-scale features we unify previous reports of Pioneers 10 and 11, Voyagers 1 and 2, and Ulysses observations from 1 to 5 AU. The five spacecraft traveled from Earth to Jupiter at different phases of the solar sunspot cycle. We compare the observations of solar wind streams, interplanetary shock waves, interaction regions, and magnetic sectors. We find that solar wind dynamics has a very irregular behavior throughout the solar cycle. There are continual transitions between periods of a few solar rotations dominated by slow solar wind, transient events, and irregular patterns of magnetic sectors; and periods of a few solar rotations dominated by interaction regions and well-defined magnetic sectors. These transitions occur at temporal scales of the order of 2-4 solar rotations. It is suggested that these transitions are associated with changes in coronal holes and might be related to the yearly modulation of solar wind speeds. The five spacecraft observed, on average, about 3 to 4 interplanetary shocks per solar rotation period. The 90 percent of the total number of shocks detected by Pioneer 11 were caused by interaction regions. However, between 40 to 55 percent of the total number of shocks detected by the other spacecraft were transient forward shocks. The expansion rate of the CIRs between 1 to 5 AU is about 94 km/s, however, there is a significant diversity in the characteristics of the interaction regions.

  2. Investigating Pickup Ions with New Horizons, Ulysses and Voyager and Their Diagnostics By Fluxes of Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Florinski, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    Pickup ions (PUIs) play a major role in the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local inter-stellar medium (LISM). An understanding of the transport of PUIs in the heliosphere is important.Here, we solve the transport equation to examine the detailed spatial evolution of the PUI distri-bution in supersonic solar wind. The effects of second-order Fermi process, i.e. velocity diffusion,convection with the solar wind, adiabatic cooling and continual injection of newly born PUIs areall included. We analyze the transition of PUIs at the heliospheric termination shock (TS) anddescribe the heliosheath PUI distribution taking into account ongoing velocity diffusion. A three-dimensional, MHD-kinetic model for flows of a thermal plasma, neutral atoms and PUIs has beendeveloped. The flow of the plasma is modeled using solutions to MHD equations. The PUI transportmodule analyzes the spatial variation of the PUI distribution function as a separate component, ona kinetic level. We perform a comparison of our numerical results with observations made by NewHorizons, Ulysses and Voyager. Fluxes of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) with energies of about0.2-6 keV originating through charge exchange of H atoms with the compressed solar wind andwith PUIs behind the TS and arriving at 1 AU are calculated. Our results are directly comparablewith the actual IBEX distributed ENA sky maps. A comparison of our numerical results withmeasurements performed by IBEX will allow us to answer the challenging question: how the PUIdistribution affects the ENA fluxes from the heliosheath?

  3. 77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard...., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice Tentatively Approving and Authorizing Transaction. SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI), Celerity AHI...

  4. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  5. [Noise-related occupational risk aboard fishing vessels: considerations on prevention and the protection of exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Bolognini, S; Fenga, C

    2004-01-01

    Recent legislation regarding the safety of workers aboard fishing vessels requires the appointment by ship owners of a Reference Physician in charge of health surveillance, preventive inspections and related tasks. As maritime workers, especially fishermen, have always been excluded from legal protection of occupational health, there are no exhaustive data on the incidence of their occupational disease. Several epidemiological studies of fishermen have evidenced a high prevalence and incidence of occupational conditions, among which noise-related hypoacousia. We report data of a phonometric survey conducted aboard six fishing vessels carrying a crew of less than six fishing in the mid-Adriatic. Measurements were performed during fishing and navigation aboard five vessels fitted with a fixed-pitch propeller and during fishing only aboard one vessel fitted with an controllable pitch propeller. Measurements were conducted: 1) in the engine rooms; 2) in the work area on deck; 3) at the winch; 4) in the wheelhouse; 5) in the mess-room and kitchen; 6) in the sleeping quarters. Results show that the equivalent sound pressure level in the engine rooms consistently exceeded 90 dBA on all vessels. The speed of the vessels fitted with the fixed-pitch propeller is 3-4 knots in the fishing phase and around 10 knots during navigation to and from the fishing grounds; noise emission is lower with the former regimen because of the smaller number of engine revolutions per minute. Our survey demonstrated considerably different noise levels in the various areas of vessels. One key element in workers' exposure, the tasks assigned and the environmental working conditions is of course the type of fishing in which the vessel is engaged. Further phonometric studies are required to assess the daily level of exposure per crew member, which represents the reference for the noise-related risk of each subject. Knowledge of the sound pressure levels in the work environment and the length of

  6. Degradation of electro-optic components aboard LDEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1993-04-01

    Remeasurement of the properties of a set of electro-optic components exposed to the low-earth environment aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) indicates that most components survived quite well. Typical components showed some effects related to the space environment unless well protected. The effects were often small but significant. Results for semiconductor infrared detectors, lasers, and LED's, as well as filters, mirrors, and black paints are described. Semiconductor detectors and emitters were scarred but reproduced their original characteristics. Spectral characteristics of multi-layer dielectric filters and mirrors were found to be altered and degraded. Increased absorption in black paints indicates an increase in absorption sites, giving rise to enhanced performance as coatings for baffles and sunscreens.

  7. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

    1997-01-10

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

  8. Prospects for a Wide Field CCD Camera Aboard NGST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golimowski, D. A.; Ford, H. C.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Burrows, C. J.; Krist, J. E.; White, R. L.; Clampin, M.; Rafal, M.; Hartig, G.

    1998-05-01

    The importance of a Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for studying the infrared universe has often overshadowed NGST's potential benefit to optical astronomy. As currently envisioned, NGST could also provide views of the visible universe with resolution and sensitivity that are unmatched by any existing ground- or space-based observatory. We discuss the scientific advantages and technical feasibility of placing a wide-field CCD camera aboard NGST. Using simulated data, we compare the imaging performance of such a camera with that achieved or expected with the Keck Telescope and the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys. Finally, we discuss the technical challenges of temperature regulation and radiation shielding for a CCD camera in the NGST environment.

  9. Degradation of electro-optic components aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    Remeasurement of the properties of a set of electro-optic components exposed to the low-earth environment aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) indicates that most components survived quite well. Typical components showed some effects related to the space environment unless well protected. The effects were often small but significant. Results for semiconductor infrared detectors, lasers, and LED's, as well as filters, mirrors, and black paints are described. Semiconductor detectors and emitters were scarred but reproduced their original characteristics. Spectral characteristics of multi-layer dielectric filters and mirrors were found to be altered and degraded. Increased absorption in black paints indicates an increase in absorption sites, giving rise to enhanced performance as coatings for baffles and sunscreens.

  10. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

  11. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrath, M.; Canfield, P. J.; Bronowicki, P. M.; Dreyer, M. E.; Weislogel, M. M.; Grah, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  12. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  13. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Conrath, M; Canfield, P J; Bronowicki, P M; Dreyer, M E; Weislogel, M M; Grah, A

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired. PMID:24483559

  14. Accomplishments in Bioastronautics Research Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 16 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space flight on the crew members and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes, muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; and changes in immune function. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS . Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program.

  15. New mud gas monitoring system aboard D/V Chikyu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Yusuke; Inagaki, Fumio; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Igarashi, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Mud gas logging has been commonly used in oil industry and continental scientific drilling to detect mainly hydrocarbon gases from the reservoir formation. Quick analysis of the gas provides almost real-time information which is critical to evaluate the formation and, in particular, safety of drilling operation. Furthermore, mud gas monitoring complements the lack of core or fluid samples particularly in a deep hole, and strengthen interpretations of geophysical logs. In scientific ocean drilling, on the other hand, mud gas monitoring was unavailable in riserless drilling through the history of DSDP and ODP, until riser drilling was first carried out in 2009 by D/V Chikyu. In IODP Exp 319, GFZ installed the same system with that used in continental drilling aboard Chikyu. High methane concentrations are clearly correlated with increased wood content in the cuttings. The system installation was, however, temporary and gas separator was moved during the expedition for a technical reason. In 2011, new mud gas monitoring system was installed aboard Chikyu and was used for the first time in Exp 337. The gas separator was placed on a newly branched bypass mud flow line, and the gas sample was sent to analysis unit equipped with methane carbon isotope analyzer in addition to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph. The data from the analytical instruments is converted to depth profiles by calculating the lag effects due to mud circulation. Exp 337 was carried out from July 26 to Sep 30, 2011, at offshore Shimokita peninsula, northeast Japan, targeting deep sub-seafloor biosphere in and around coal bed. Data from the hole C0020A, which was drilled to 2466 mbsf with riser drilling, provided insights into bio-geochemical process through the depth of the hole. In this presentation, we show the design of Chikyu's new mud gas monitoring system, with preliminary data from Exp 337.

  16. Accomplishments in bioastronautics research aboard International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Uri, John J; Haven, Cynthia P

    2005-01-01

    The tenth long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 18 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration spaceflight on the crewmembers and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study: the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes; muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; changes in immune function, and evaluation of imaging techniques. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS. Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program. PMID:15835037

  17. Accomplishments in bioastronautics research aboard International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uri, John J.; Haven, Cynthia P.

    2005-05-01

    The tenth long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 18 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space flight on the crewmembers and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study: the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes; muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; changes in immune function, and evaluation of imaging techniques. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS. Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program.

  18. A forward-reverse shock pair in the solar wind driven by over-expansion of a coronal mass ejection: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Scime, E.E. ); Pizzo, V.J. ); Goldstein, B.E. ); Balogh, A. )

    1994-02-01

    A previously unidentified type of solar wind forward-reverse shock pair has been observed by Ulysses at 4.64 AU and S32.5[degrees]. In contrast to most solar wind forward-reverse shock pairs, which are driven by the speed difference between fast solar wind plasma and slower plasma ahead, this particular shock pair was driven purely by the over-expansion of a coronal mass ejection, CME, in transit from the Sun. A simple numerical simulation indicates that the over-expansion was a result of a high initial internal plasma and magnetic field pressure within the CME. The CME observed at 4.64 AU had the internal field structure of a magnetic flux rope. This event was associated with a solar disturbance in which new magnetic loops formed in the corona almost directly beneath Ulysses [approximately]11 days earlier. This association suggests that the flux rope was created as a result of reconnection between the the legs' of neighboring magnetic loops within the rising CME.

  19. The southern high-speed stream: results from the SWICS instrument on Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Geiss, J; Gloeckler, G; von Steiger, R; Balsiger, H; Fisk, L A; Galvin, A B; Ipavich, F M; Livi, S; McKenzie, J F; Ogilvie, K W

    1995-05-19

    The high-speed solar wind streaming from the southern coronal hole was remarkably uniform and steady and was confined by a sharp boundary that extended to the corona and chromosphere. Charge state measurements indicate that the electron temperature in this coronal hole reached a maximum of about 1.5 million kelvin within 3 solar radii of the sun. This result, combined with the observed lack of depletion of heavy elements, suggests that an additional source of momentum is required to accelerate the polar wind. PMID:7754380

  20. In-situ observation of Martian neutral exosphere: Results from MENCA aboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pratim Das, Tirtha; Dhanya, M. B.; Thampi, Smitha V.

    2016-07-01

    Till very recently, the only in situ measurements of the Martian upper atmospheric composition was from the mass spectrometer experiments aboard the two Viking landers, which covered the altitude region from 120 to 200 km. Hence, the exploration by the Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft of ISRO and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) experiment aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile ENvironment (MAVEN) mission of NASA are significant steps to further understand the Martian neutral exosphere and its variability. MENCA is a quadrupole based neutral mass spectrometer which observes the radial distribution of the Martian neutral exosphere. The analysis of the data from MENCA has revealed unambiguous detection of the three major constituents, which are amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (contributions from CO and N2) and amu 16 (atomic O), as well as a few minor species. Since MOM is in a highly elliptical orbit, the MENCA observations pertain to different local times, in the low-latitude region. Examples of such observations would be presented, and compared with NGIMS results. Emphasis would be given to the observations pertaining to high solar zenith angles and close to perihelion period. During the evening hours, the transition from CO2 to O dominated region is observed near 270 km, which is significantly different from the previous observations corresponding to sub-solar point and SZA of ~45°. The mean evening time exospheric temperature derived using these observations is 271±5 K. These are the first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours, which would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  1. Gemini 12 crew receive Official welcome aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, receive Official welcome as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after their splashdown at the end of the Gemini 12 mission.

  2. ISS Update: Launching Aboard the Soyuz to Live on the Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Mike Fossum, astronaut and Commander of Expedition 29, about his Soyuz launch experience and his insight into life aboard the station. Question...

  3. Advanced Ionospheric Sensing using GROUP-C and LITES aboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Chakrabarti, S.; Finn, S. C.; Cook, T.; Powell, S. P.; O'Hanlon, B.; Bishop, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometer Co-located (GROUP-C) and Limb-imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) experiments are manifested for flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016 as part of the Space Test Program Houston #5 payload. The two experiments provide technical development and risk-reduction for future DoD space weather sensors suitable for ionospheric specification, space situational awareness, and data products for global ionosphere assimilative models. In addition, the combined instrument complement of these two experiments offers a unique opportunity to study structures of the nighttime ionosphere. GROUP-C includes an advanced GPS receiver providing ionospheric electron density profiles and scintillation measurements and a high-sensitivity far-ultraviolet photometer measuring horizontal ionospheric gradients. LITES is an imaging spectrograph that spans 60-140 nm and will obtain high-cadence limb profiles of the ionosphere and thermosphere from 150-350 km altitude. In the nighttime ionosphere, recombination of O+ and electrons produces optically thin emissions at 91.1 and 135.6 nm that can be used to tomographically reconstruct the two-dimensional plasma distribution in the orbital plane below ISS altitudes. Ionospheric irregularities, such as plasma bubbles and blobs, are transient features of the low and middle latitude ionosphere with important implications for operational systems. Irregularity structures have been studied primarily using ground-based systems, though some spaced-based remote and in-situ sensing has been performed. An ionospheric observatory aboard the ISS would provide new capability to study low- and mid-latitude ionospheric structures on a global scale. By combining for the first time high-sensitivity in-track photometry, vertical ionospheric airglow spectrographic imagery, and recent advancements in UV tomography, high-fidelity tomographic reconstruction of

  4. The point spread function of the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Acton, Loren W.; Lemen, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The point spread function of the SXT telescope aboard Yohkoh has been measured in flight configuration in three different X-ray lines at White Sands Missile Range. We have fitted these data with an elliptical generalization of the Moffat function. Our fitting method consists of chi squared minimization in Fourier space, especially designed for matching of sharply peaked functions. We find excellent fits with a reduced chi squared of order unity or less for single exposure point spread functions over most of the CCD. Near the edges of the CCD the fits are less accurate due to vignetting. From fitting results with summation of multiple exposures we find a systematic error in the fitting function of the order of 3% near the peak of the point spread function, which is close to the photon noise for typical SXT images in orbit. We find that the full width to half maximum and fitting parameters vary significantly with CCD location. However, we also find that point spread functions measured at the same location are consistent to one another within the limit determined by photon noise. A 'best' analytical fit to the PSF as function of position on the CCD is derived for use in SXT image enhancemnent routines. As an aside result we have found that SXT can determine the location of point sources to about a quarter of a 2.54 arc sec pixel.

  5. Dwarf Wheat grown aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dwarf wheat were photographed aboard the International Space Station in April 2002. Lessons from on-orbit research on plants will have applications to terrestrial agriculture as well as for long-term space missions. Alternative agricultural systems that can efficiently produce greater quantities of high-quality crops in a small area are important for future space expeditions. Also regenerative life-support systems that include plants will be an important component of long-term space missions. Data from the Biomass Production System (BPS) and the Photosynthesis Experiment and System Testing and Operations (PESTO) will advance controlled-environment agricultural systems and will help farmers produce better, healthier crops in a small area. This same knowledge is critical to closed-loop life support systems for spacecraft. The BPS comprises a miniature environmental control system for four plant growth chambers, all in the volume of two space shuttle lockers. The experience with the BPS on orbit is providing valuable design and operational lessons that will be incorporated into the Plant Growth Units. The objective of PESTO was to flight verify the BPS hardware and to determine how the microgravity environment affects the photosynthesis and metabolic function of Super Dwarf wheat and Brassica rapa (a member of the mustard family).

  6. Mechanistic studies of polymeric samples exposed aboard STS 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava; Chung, Shirley Y.; Oda, Keri L.

    1987-01-01

    The early Shuttle flights and the attendant opportunity to deploy material samples to the near-Earth space environment, along well-defined trajectories and accompanied by detailed characterization of these samples prior to and following the flight exposure, have brought to light several novel phenomena associated with interaction of these materials with the space environment. JPL, in coordination with other NASA Centers, has carried out a research program to study the degradation and oxidation processes caused by interaction of these materials with atomic oxygen at an energy of 5 eV. In addition, energetic atomic oxygen is believed to be responsible for the shuttle glow first observed during the flight of STS-3. The shuttle glow phenomenon has been extensively studied and modeled because of its long-range potential impact on optical communication schemes and its more immediate impact on the Space Telescope. This report summarizes the results of certian material degradation and erosion experiments carried out aboard STS-8 between August 30, 1983 and September 5, 1983. Based on these data, a generic degradation model has been developed for common structural polymers.

  7. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosko, R.J.; Loughin, S.

    1997-01-01

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. New Mobile Lidar Systems Aboard Ultra-Light Aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Shang, Xiaoxia; Totems, Julien; Marnas, Fabien; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Two lidar systems embedded on ultra light aircraft (ULA) flew over the Rhone valley, south-east of France, to characterize the vertical extend of pollution aerosols in this area influenced by large industrial sites. The main industrial source is the Etang de Berre (43°28' N, 5°01' E), close to Marseille city. The emissions are mainly due to metallurgy and petrochemical factories. Traffic related to Marseille's area contribute to pollution with its ~1500000 inhabitants. Note that the maritime traffic close to Marseille may play an important role due to its position as the leading French harbor . For the previous scientific purpose and for the first time on ULA, we flew a mini-N2 Raman lidar system to help the assessment of the aerosol optical properties. Another Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard a second ULA. The lidars are compact and eye safe instruments. They operate at the wavelength of 355 nm with a sampling along the line-of-sight of 0.75 m. Different flights plans were tested to use the two lidars in synergy. We will present the different approaches and discuss both their advantages and limitations. Acknowledgements: the lidar systems have been developed by CEA. They have been deployed with the support of FERRING France. We acknowledge the ULA pilots Franck Toussaint, François Bernard and José Coutet, and the Air Creation ULA Company for logistical help during the ULA campaign.

  9. Global map based on the FIMS observations aboard STSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyoung Wook

    2016-07-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS), a dual-channel instrument with 900 - 1150 A and 1350 - 1750 A passbands, was launched aboard the Korean microsatellite STSAT-1 on 2003 September 27. FIMS, with moderate spectral and angular resolutions while maintaining large fields of view, was optimized for observations of diffuse emissions such as those from hot gases in our Galaxy. About 70 percent of the sky was covered after 18 months of survey with sufficient exposure time for the long wavelength band. The dataset has been used to study the interaction between the hot gas and the cold component as well as the molecular hydrogen fluorescence emission for a variety of targets. Furthermore, it was successfully used to determine the optical properties of dust scattering and thereby the distances for several prominent clouds from the continuum observations. In the present paper, the global distribution of ion and molecular hydrogen lines will be presented although the coverage of the sky is somewhat limited. For example, topics such as the ion lines distribution in the Galactic halo regions and correlation of molecular hydrogen with dust or CO will be discussed.

  10. A new small Stirling engine prototype for auxiliary employments aboard

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a small size Stirling engine as low power system for auxiliary employments aboard sailing boats or caravan still appears interesting. In previous papers the author presented the design, the prototype construction and the experimental tests of a monocylinder P-type configuration with the regenerator and part of the heat exchangers set on the displacer; the heat was irradiated by the head and it was removed by the water circulating through the rod of the displacer and around the cylinder. Considerable reductions in dead volume and global dimensions were obtained. At the same time, however, the weight of the heat exchanger regenerator displacer, mainly due to the cooler, kept the speed of revolution from increasing, with consequent limitation of specific power value; furthermore thermal insulation between hot and cold ends and displacer rod seals proved to be critical features as far as reliability is concerned. A new prototype has been developed adopting {gamma}-type configuration with stationary heat exchangers and with the displacer connecting rod linked to the crankshaft by means of an epicyclic train able to make its movement linear thus eliminating rod seal side loadings. The paper deals with the criteria followed with the design and the prototype construction; the adopted technical solutions are shown and discussed.

  11. Update to the safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators for the Galileo and Ulysses missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Bradshaw, C. T.; Englehart, Richard W.; Bartram, Bart W.; Cull, Theresa A.; Zocher, Roy W.; Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera; Brenza, Peter T.; Chan, Chris C.

    1992-01-01

    With the rescheduling of the Galileo and Ulysses launches and the use of new upper stages following the Challenger accident, the aerospace nuclear safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) was extended to accommodate the new mission scenarios. As in the original safety program, the objectives were to determine the response of the GPHS-RTG to the various postulated accident environments and to determine the risk (if any) associated with these postulated accidents. The extended GPHS-RTG safety program was successfully completed in sufficient time to prepare an updated Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) with revisions for the October 1989 launch of the Galileo spacecraft.

  12. Effect of Current Sheets on the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Power Spectrum from the Ulysses Observation: From Kraichnan to Kolmogorov Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.; Miao, B.; Hu, Q.; Qin, G.

    2011-03-25

    The MHD turbulence theory developed by Iroshnikov and Kraichnan predicts a k{sup -1.5} power spectrum. Solar wind observations, however, often show a k{sup -5/3} Kolmogorov scaling. Based on 3 years worth of Ulysses magnetic field data where over 28 000 current sheets are identified, we propose that the current sheet is the cause of the Kolmogorov scaling. We show that for 5 longest current-sheet-free periods the magnetic field power spectra are all described by the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan scaling. In comparison, for 5 periods that have the most number of current sheets, the power spectra all exhibit Kolmogorov scaling. The implication of our results is discussed.

  13. Effect of current sheets on the solar wind magnetic field power spectrum from the Ulysses observation: from Kraichnan to Kolmogorov scaling.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Miao, B; Hu, Q; Qin, G

    2011-03-25

    The MHD turbulence theory developed by Iroshnikov and Kraichnan predicts a k(-1.5) power spectrum. Solar wind observations, however, often show a k(-5/3) Kolmogorov scaling. Based on 3 years worth of Ulysses magnetic field data where over 28,000 current sheets are identified, we propose that the current sheet is the cause of the Kolmogorov scaling. We show that for 5 longest current-sheet-free periods the magnetic field power spectra are all described by the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan scaling. In comparison, for 5 periods that have the most number of current sheets, the power spectra all exhibit Kolmogorov scaling. The implication of our results is discussed. PMID:21517318

  14. Cinderella Meets Ulysses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Presents a study of boys' and girls' conversations about traditional folktales. Focuses on storytelling as a teaching method and explores how students learn from folktales, myths, and legends. Investigates how characters and gender roles in folktales and other traditional stories act as educational and developmental models, especially among…

  15. Ulysses Fossae in Tharsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Extensional forces in the volcanic province of Tharsis have produced a fractured terrain that resembles wrinkled skin.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Observations of Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles from the Ulysses COSPIN High Energy Telescope Following Completion of the Solar Maximum Solar Polar Passes.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.; Posner, A.

    2003-04-01

    At the end of 2002, following its second pass over the Sun's north polar region, Ulysses had reached a radial distance of about 4.5 AU at a heliographic latitude of 24°N. While solar activity remained high, the modulated intensity of cosmic rays observed by Ulysses’ COSPIN High Energy Telescope had increased significantly from the levels observed early in 2001, which most likely represented the maximum modulation for this solar cycle. Despite continuing solar activity, the new qA<0 magnetic polarity of the Sun's dipole field was fully established for both poles since the change in the North Pole polarity in 2000. Although the current sheet tilt was still large (>40° as reported by the Wilcox Solar Observatory) and the solar wind was still frequently disturbed by solar activity, it is worthwhile to examine the recent increase in the quiet-time cosmic ray fluxes for evidence of the change in latitudinal gradients expected upon change of magnetic polarity. A difficulty is the lack of a well-matched 1 AU base-line to help distinguish spatial from temporal variations following the termination of IMP-8 operations in late 2001. We will summarize Ulysses observations of energetic (>~30 MeV/n) protons and helium through the most recent available data, and will discuss available options for determining baseline fluxes at 1 AU for studies of the radial and latitudinal gradients. **This work was supported in part by NASA/JPL Contract 955432, by NASA Grant NASA 5-28516 and by NSF grant ATM 99-12341.

  17. AASE-2 In-Situ Tracer Correlations of Methane Nitrous Oxide and Ozone as Observed Aboard the DC-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. E., Jr.; Sachse, G. W.; Anderson, B. E.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Walgea, J. G.; Ridley, B. A.

    1993-01-01

    We report in situ stratospheric measurements of CH4, N2O, and O3 obtained aboard the NASA DC-8 during the January-March 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II field campaign. These data demonstrate a strong linear correlation between N2O and CH4 in the lower stratosphere thus indicating that both species are effective tracers of stratospheric air motion. Measurements of both species on constant geometric height surfaces indicate that significant subsidence of the arctic stratospheric air mass occurred at DC-8 altitudes over the course of the AASE-II expedition. In addition, a widespread reduction in O3 mixing ratios (up to 20%) relative to these conserved tracers was also observed in the lower stratosphere in March a compared to January and February results.

  18. Intensified array camera imaging of solid surface combustion aboard the NASA Learjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    1992-01-01

    An intensified array camera was used to image weakly luminous flames spreading over thermally thin paper samples in a low gravity environment aboard the NASA-Lewis Learjet. The aircraft offers 10 to 20 sec of reduced gravity during execution of a Keplerian trajectory and allows the use of instrumentation that is delicate or requires higher electrical power than is available in drop towers. The intensified array camera is a charge intensified device type that responds to light between 400 and 900 nm and has a minimum sensitivity of 10(exp 6) footcandles. The paper sample, either ashless filter paper or a lab wiper, burns inside a sealed chamber which is filled with 21, 18, or 15 pct. oxygen in nitrogen at one atmosphere. The camera views the edge of the paper and its output is recorded on videotape. Flame positions are measured every 0.1 sec to calculate flame spread rates. Comparisons with drop tower data indicate that the flame shapes and spread rates are affected by the residual g level in the aircraft.

  19. LEO Flight Testing of GaAs on Si Solar Cells Aboard MISSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Clark, Eric B.; Ringel, Steven A.; Andre, Carrie L.; Smith, Mark A.; Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Maurer, William F.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Walters, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research efforts have demonstrated small area (0.04 cm) GaAs on Si (GaAs/Si) solar cells with AM0 efficiencies in excess of 17%. These results were achieved on Si substrates coated with a step graded buffer of Si(x),Ge(1-x) alloys graded to 100% Ge. Recently, a 100-fold increase in device area was accomplished for these devices in preparation for on-orbit testing of this technology aboard Materials International Space Station Experiment number 5 (MISSE5). The GaAs/Si MISSE5 experiment contains five (5) GaAs/Si test devices with areas of lcm(exp 2) and 4cm(exp 4) as well as two (2) GaAs on GaAs control devices. Electrical performance data, measured on-orbit for three (3) of the test devices and one (1) of the control devices, will be telemetered to ground stations daily. After approximately one year on orbit, the MISSE5 payload will be returned to Earth for post flight evaluation. This paper will discuss the development of the GaAs/Si devices for the MISSE5 flight experiment and will present recent ground and on-orbit performance data.

  20. X-ray polarimetry. [aboard Ariel 5 and OSO 8 for observation of galactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, K. S.; Chanan, G. A.; Helfand, D. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Novick, R.

    1979-01-01

    The method by which the Bragg-crystal X-ray polarimeters aboard Ariel 5 and OSO 8 operate is briefly described, and some results obtained with these instruments for six Galactic X-ray sources are summarized. A precision measurement of the linear polarization in the Crab Nebula at energies of 2.6 and 5.2 keV is presented. Evidence is given for polarization in Sco X-1, Cyg X-2, Cen X-3, and the X-ray transient A0620-00. The determined or estimated polarizations are approximately 19.2% at 2.6 keV and 19.5% at 5.2 keV for the Crab Nebula, 1.1% at 2.6 keV and 2.4% at 5.2 keV for Sco X-1, 2.5% at 2.6 keV and 9.8% at 5.2 keV for Cyg X-1, an upper limit of 13.5% for A0620-00, an upper limit of 13.5% to the time-averaged polarization of Cen X-3, and an apparent value of about 5% for Cyg X-2.

  1. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  2. LEO degradation of graphite and carbon-based composites aboard Space Shuttle Flight STS-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Blaine R.; Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Devries, M. J.; Woollam, John A.; Moore, Arthur W.; Lake, Max

    1995-01-01

    Six different types of carbon and carbon-boron nitride composites were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-46. The samples received a nominal atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm in 42 hours of exposure. Pyrolytic graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite showed significant degradation, and the measured erosion yield was within a factor of two of published values. The erosion yield of pyrolytic boron nitride was found to be 2.6 x 10(exp 26) cu cm/atom in plasma asher exposure, over 42 times lower than that of pyrolytic graphite. This low erosion yield makes graphite plus boron nitride mixtures quite resistant to low Earth orbit exposure. Evidence suggests that the graphitic component was preferentially etched, leaving the surface boron nitride rich. Degradation resistance increases with boron nitride composition. Carbon fiber/carbon composites degraded in low Earth orbit, and the carbon pitch binder was found to etch more easily than the graphite fibers which have much higher degradation resistance.

  3. Characterization of the Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus for Microgravity Aboard the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Roeber, D.; Achari, A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted experiments to determine the equilibration rates of some major precipitants used in protein crystallography aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The solutions were placed in the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM) which mimic Cryschem sitting drop trays. The trays were placed in cylinders. These cylinders were placed inside a Single locker Thermal Enclosure System (STES), and were activated for different durations during the flight. Bumpers pressed against elastomers seal drops in a deactivated state during pre-flight and prior to transfer to the ISS. Activation occurs while in flight on the ISS by releasing the bumpers allowing the drops to be exposed to the reservoir. PCAM was flown to the ISS on STS 100, Flight 6A, on April 19, 2001. Six series of equilibration experiments were tested for each precipitant with a small amount of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Cylinder 10 was never activated, 7 was activated for 40 days, 8 was activated for 20 days, 9 was activated for 10 days, 11 was activated for 4 days and 12 was activated for 2 days. Upon the return to Earth by STS 104 on July 24,2001 the samples were transferred to Marshall Space Flight Center. The samples were then brought to the lab and the volumes of each sample were measured.

  4. Performance of novel polymer shields aboard the ESA Biopan-5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Radiation exposure of astronaut crew has been identified as a key issue in human spaceflight The reduction of dose by appropriate shielding measures is thus donated an essential role for the future development of space exploration particularly with regard to long-term interplanetary missions Optimization of shielding strategies and design may involve polymeric materials with enhanced hydrogen content specifically developed to attenuate high charge-and-energy HZE particles such as those encountered in galactic cosmic rays GCR The projectile energy loss is proportional to rho cdot Z A and reaches a maximum for hydrogen targets Light elements are also expected to minimize target fragmentation particularly the production of secondary neutrons The LETVAR experiment flow aboard the European Space Agency ESA Biopan-5 mission as part of a 27 kg payload attached to the external surface of the Foton-M2 descent capsule was dedicated to studying the shielding performance of three different polymers in reference to aluminium when exposed to the unshielded space environment in low-earth orbit LEO The mission was launched successfully on May 31 2005 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome Kazakhstan and spent 15 6 days at an orbital altitude between 262 and 304 km inclined by 63 r to the equatorial plane After recovery absorbed dose and average linear energy transfer LET were determined in front and behind the material slabs To support data interpretation material samples equivalent to those flown in space were exposed---to the extent possible

  5. Comparison of Directionally Solidified Samples Solidified Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, S.; Lauer, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Grugel, R. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). Terrestrial DS-experiments have been carried out at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. As of this writing, two dendritic metrics was measured: primary dendrite arm spacings and primary dendrite trunk diameters. We have observed that these dendrite-metrics of two samples grown in the microgravity environment show good agreements with models based on diffusion controlled growth and diffusion controlled ripening, respectively. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosegregation. Dendrite trunk diameters also show differences between the earth- and space-grown samples. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, the dendritic seed crystals were partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS was carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described and have modeled.

  6. Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GAP) aboard the Small Solar Power Sail Demonstrator IKAROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Gunji, Shuichi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sakashita, Tomonori; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Toukairin, Noriyuki; Kodama, Yoshiki; Kubo, Shin; Ikaros Demonstration Team

    2011-06-01

    The small solar-power sail demonstrator ``IKAROS'' is a Japanese engineering verification spacecraft launched by the H-IIA rocket on 2010 May 21 at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tanegashima Space Center. IKAROS has a 20 m diameter sail, which is made of a thin polyimide membrane. The sail converts the solar radiation-pressure into the propulsion force of IKAROS, and accelerates the spacecraft. The Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GAP) aboard IKAROS is the first polarimeter specifically designed to measure the polarization of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) from space, and will do so in the cruising phase of the IKAROS mission. GAP is a modest detector of 3.8 kg in weight and 17 cm in size with an energy range of between 50-300 keV. The GAP detector is now a member of the interplanetary network (IPN) for determining the GRB direction. The detection principle of gamma-ray polarization is the anisotropy of the Compton scattering. Coincidence between the central plastic Compton scattering medium and discrete CsI detectors distributed around the sides of the plastic defines the Compton-scattering angle, which is expected to show an angular dependence if polarization is present in a given GRB. In this paper, we present the GAP detector and its ground-based and onboard calibrations.

  7. Interpopulation study of medical attendance aboard a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek

    2008-01-01

    The study carried out aboard a cruise ship in the years 1993-1998 involved ship passengers of various nationalities including 3872 Germans aged 23-94 years and 1281 Americans aged 25-94 years. Both nationality groups were divided into two age subgroups: till 64, and 65-94 years. The German younger age subgroup (mean age 53.2 years) consisted of 59% of the passengers, whereas the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 72 years) was made up of 41% of the ships passengers. On the other hand, 73% of the Americans belonged to the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 73,4 years), whereas 27% to the younger one (mean age 52.8 years). The number of onboard consultations and their causes were determined. The occurrence of chronic illnesses in both 65-94 years subgroups was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher frequency of consultations was found in the Germans (24.38%) than in the Americans (14.05%) (p=0.001). The difference was particularly striking in the people over 65 years of age (30.87% of the Germans as compared with 14.22% of the Americans, p=0.001). The Germans were nearly 4-times more frequently seen than the Americans for cardio-vascular diseases and almost 3-times more often because of gastrointestinal disorders. The discrepancies in the consultation rates were mainly caused by the different insurance systems of both nations. Chronic illnesses as estimated by means of the questionnaire prevailed in the German passengers. The statistically significant differences (13.3% versus 20%, p=0.01 and 0.001) regarded the locomotor system, urinary tract diseases and a group of illnesses including neurological, ophthalmological, ear, skin, malignant diseases and diabetes. PMID:19227739

  8. Forced Forward Smoldering Experiments Aboard The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Bar-Ilan, A.; Rein, G.; Urban, D. L.; Torero, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Smoldering is a basic combustion problem that presents a fire risk because it is initiated at low temperatures and because the reaction can propagate slowly in the material interior and go undetected for long periods of time. It yields a higher conversion of fuel to toxic compounds than does flaming, and may undergo a transition to flaming. To date there have been a few minor incidents of overheated and charred cables and electrical components reported on Space Shuttle flights. With the establishment of the International Space Station, and the planning of a potential manned mission to Mars, there has been an increased interest in the study of smoldering in microgravity. The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a spacecraft environment. The aim of the experiment is to provide a better fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering combustion under normal- and microgravity conditions. This in turn will aid in the prevention and control of smolder originated fires, both on earth and in spacecrafts. The microgravity smoldering experiments have to be conducted in a space-based facility because smoldering is a very slow process and consequently its study in a microgravity environment requires extended periods of time. The microgravity experiments reported here were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle. The most recent tests were conducted during the STS-105 and STS-108 missions. The results of the forward smolder experiments from these flights are reported here. In forward smolder, the reaction front propagates in the same direction as the oxidizer flow. The heat released by the heterogeneous oxidation reaction is transferred ahead of the reaction heating the unreacted fuel. The resulting increase of the virgin fuel temperature leads to the onset of the smolder reaction, and propagates through the fuel. The MSC data are compared with normal gravity

  9. Hemopoietic tissue in newts flown aboard Foton M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaratskaya, Elena I.; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Poplinskaya, Valentina A.; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike

    The effect of 12-day spaceflight aboard the Foton-M3 biosatellite on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts was studied. These animals used at the same time in regeneration experiments after lens and tail tip amputation. In flight and synchronous groups there were performed video recording, temperature and radiation monitoring and continuous contact (via skin) with thymidine analog BrdU. We took differential blood counts and assessed histologically the liver in the flight (F), basal (BC) and synchronous (SC)control groups of animals. In the peripheral blood, we identified neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Lymphocytes (L) and neutrophils (N) prevailed, accounting for about 60 and 20% of white blood cells, respectively. The spaceflight had no apparent effect on the differential blood count in the F group: neither the L and N contents nor the maturing to mature N - ratio differed from those in the control groups. No significant differences between F, SC and BC groups were observed with respect to the structure of hematopoietic areas and the liver morphology. As in Foton-M2, BrdU labeled cells revealed in blood as well as in the hemopoietic areas of the liver. However, in previous experiments performed at satellites Bion-10 and Foton-M2 the changes in peripheral blood contents were registered in operated F newts, and we supposed it could be the result of additive effects of spaceflight factors and stimulation of reparative potency and stress due to surgical operation. Possibly, the temperature conditions also may provide some influence on blood cell content of newts that belong to poikilothermic animals. Thus, in present experiment F and SC groups were reared in the same temperature regims, whereas it was nearly 3o C differences between SC and F groups exposed on Foton-M2. At the same time as it was found in experiments on Bion-11 and Foton-M2 spaceflight factors did not affect on differential blood counts of intact non

  10. Electrochemical deposition of silver crystals aboard Skylab 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Facemire, B. R.; Johnston, M. H.; Gates, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Silver crystals were grown aboard Skylab 4 by an electro-chemical reaction and subsequently returned to earth for comparison with crystals grown at 1- and 5-g. Both the Skylab and earth-grown crystals show a variety of structures. Certain tendencies in structure dependency on gravity level, however, can be discerned. In addition, downward growing dendrite streamers; upward growing chunky crystal streamers; growth along an air/liquid interface; and ribbon, film, and fiber crystal habits were observed in experiments conducted on the ground with solutions of varying concentrations. It was also observed that the crystal structures of space and ground electro-deposited silver crystals were very similar to the structures of germanium selenide and germanium telluride crystals grown in space and on the ground by a vapor transport technique. Consideration of the data leads to the conclusions that: (1) the rate of electrochemical displacement of silver ions from a 5 percent aqueous solution by copper is predominantly diffussion controlled in space and kinetically controlled in 1- and higher-g because of augmentation of mass transport by convection; (2) downward and upward crystal streamers are the result of gravity-driven convection, the flow patterns of which can be delineated. Lateral growths along an air/liquid interface are the result of surface-tension-driven convection, the pattern of which also can be delineated; (3) electrolysis in space or low-g environments can produce either dendritic crystals with more perfect microcrystalline structures or massive, single crystals with fewer defects than those grown on ground or at higher g-levels. Ribbons or films of space-grown silicon crystals would find a ready market for electronic substrate and photocell applications. Space-grown dendritic, metal crystals present the possibility of unique catalysts. Large perfect crystals of various materials are desired for a number of electronic and optical applications; and (4) vapor

  11. Cassini magnetometer measurements in the Jovian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.

    2001-05-01

    M. K. Dougherty, and the Cassini magnetometer team The recent Cassini flyby of Jupiter had the spacecraft flying along the dusk flank of the magnetosphere, a region which has only been visited very briefly before during the Ulysses outbound pass. The unique Cassini flyby resulted in the spacecraft making numerous entries into the magnetosheath region as well as into the magnetosphere itself. Initial results from the magnetometer instrument will be described including information concerning the solar wind IMF, the large amount of mirror mode activity measured within the magnetosheath and incursions into the magnetosphere proper.

  12. Evaluation of the MICAST #2-12 AI-7wt%Si Sample Directionally Solidified Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, Surendra N.; Ghods, Masoud; Angart, Samuel G.; Lauer, Mark; Grugel, Richard N.; Poirier, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The US team of the European led "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions" (MICAST) program recently received a third Aluminum - 7wt% silicon alloy that was processed in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station. The sample, designated MICAST#2-12, was directionally solidified in the Solidification with Quench Furnace (SQF) at a constant rate of 40micometers/s through an imposed temperature gradient of 31K/cm. Procedures taken to evaluate the state of the sample prior to sectioning for metallographic analysis are reviewed and rational for measuring the microstructural constituents, in particular the primary dendrite arm spacing (Lambda (sub1)), is given. The data are presented, put in context with the earlier samples, and evaluated in view of a relevant theoretical model.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Removal Troubleshooting aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Space Shuttle (STS) Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.; Cover, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a largely closed-system habitable volume which requires active control of atmospheric constituents, including removal of exhaled Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The ISS provides a unique opportunity to observe system requirements for (CO2) removal. CO2 removal is managed by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) aboard the US segment of ISS and by Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) aboard the Space Shuttle (STS). While the ISS and STS are docked, various methods are used to balance the CO2 levels between the two vehicles, including mechanical air handling and management of general crew locations. Over the course of ISS operation, several unexpected anomalies have occurred which have required troubleshooting, including possible compromised performance of the CDRA and LiOH systems, and possible imbalance in CO2 levels between the ISS and STS while docked. This paper will cover efforts to troubleshoot the CO2 removal systems aboard the ISS and docked STS.

  14. The Influence of Pickup Protons, from Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen, on the Propagation of Interplanetary Shocks from the Halloween 2003 Solar Events to ACE and Ulysses: A 3-D MHD Modeling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe our 3-D, time ]dependent, MHD solar wind model that we recently modified to include the physics of pickup protons from interstellar neutral hydrogen. The model has a time-dependent lower boundary condition, at 0.1 AU, that is driven by source surface map files through an empirical interface module. We describe the empirical interface and its parameter tuning to maximize model agreement with background (quiet) solar wind observations at ACE. We then give results of a simulation study of the famous Halloween 2003 series of solar events. We began with shock inputs from the Fearless Forecast real ]time shock arrival prediction study, and then we iteratively adjusted input shock speeds to obtain agreement between observed and simulated shock arrival times at ACE. We then extended the model grid to 5.5 AU and compared those simulation results with Ulysses observations at 5.2 AU. Next we undertook the more difficult tuning of shock speeds and locations to get matching shock arrival times at both ACE and Ulysses. Then we ran this last case again with neutral hydrogen density set to zero, to identify the effect of pickup ions. We show that the speed of interplanetary shocks propagating from the Sun to Ulysses is reduced by the effects of pickup protons. We plan to make further improvements to the model as we continue our benchmarking process to 10 AU, comparing our results with Cassini observations, and eventually on to 100 AU, comparing our results with Voyager 1 and 2 observations.

  15. A map of D/H on Mars in the thermal infrared using EXES aboard SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; DeWitt, C.; Richter, M. J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fouchet, T.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Forget, F.; Bézard, B.; Atreya, S. K.; Case, M.; Ryde, N.

    2016-02-01

    On a planetary scale, the D/H ratio on Mars is a key diagnostic for understanding the past history of water on the planet; locally, it can help to constrain the sources and sinks of water vapor through the monitoring of condensation and sublimation processes. To obtain simultaneous measurements of H2O and HDO lines, we have used the Echelle Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) instrument aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility to map the abundances of these two species over the Martian disk. High-resolution spectra (R = 6 × 104) were recorded in the 1383-1390 cm-1 range (7.2 μm) on April 08, 2014. Mars was very close to opposition and near northern summer solstice (Ls = 113°). Maps of the H2O and HDO mixing ratios were retrieved from the line depth ratios of weak H2O and HDO transitions divided by a weak CO2 line. As expected for this season, the H2O and HDO maps show a distinct enhancement toward polar regions, and their mixing ratios are consistent with previous measurements and with predictions by the global climate models, except at the north pole where the EXES values are weaker. We derive a disk-integrated D/H ratio of 6.8 (+1.6, -1.0) × 10-4. It is higher than the value in Earth's oceans by a factor 4.4 (+1.0, -0.6). The D/H map also shows an enhancement from southern to northern latitudes, with values ranging from about 3.5 times to 6.0 times the VSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) value. The D/H distribution shows a depletion over the Tharsis mountains and is consistent with observed latitudinal variations. The variations in D/H with latitude and altitude agree with the models and with the isotope fractionation expected from condensation and sublimation processes.

  16. Protein crystallization aboard the Space Shuttle and the Mir space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delbaere, Louis T. J.; Vandonselaar, Margaret; Prasad, Lata; Quail, J. W.; Birnbaum, George I.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Moore, Karen; Bugg, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Two different protein crystallizations, namely ,the free Fab fragment of the Je142 monoclonal antibody and the complex of Fab fragment/HPr with antigen, were performed aboard the Discovery Space Shuttle flights and the Mir space station, respectively. Medium sized crystals of the Je142 Fab fragment were obtained. The Je142 Fab fragment/Hpr complex produced two medium-sized crystals after two months aboard the Mir space station. Microgravity was found to eliminate the tendency of these crystals to form clusters.

  17. Analog FM/FM versus digital color TV transmission aboard space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Langley Research Center is developing an integrated fault tolerant network to support data, voice, and video communications aboard Space Station. The question of transmitting the video data via dedicated analog channels or converting it to the digital domain for consistancy with the test of the data is addressed. The recommendations in this paper are based on a comparison in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the type of video processing required aboard Space Station, the applicability to Space Station, and how they integrate into the network.

  18. Putrid gums and 'dead men's cloaths': James Lind aboard the Salisbury.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Graham

    2003-12-01

    18th century sailors often suffered from scurvy. In 1747 James Lind conducted his classic experiments aboard the Salisbury, in which he cured scurvy with oranges and lemons. The Royal Navy did not introduce citrus rations until 1795. The original ship's papers allow the circumstances of the experiment to be reconstructed. The relevant patrol began in March 1747, and Lind's experiment began after 8 weeks at sea. The muster roll records almost no sickness aboard until the ship returned to Plymouth in June. This is at odds with Lind's account and suggests an antisickness official culture, which may have contributed to the neglect of his work. PMID:14645616

  19. Observations and physical interpretations of the solar wind flow properties as obtained from white light coronagraph aboard SPARTAN 201-01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard; Ofman, Leon

    1995-01-01

    The solar corona was observed with an externally occulted White Light Coronagraph (WLC) carried on the SPARTAN 201-1 spacecraft on 11-12 Apr. 1993. With observations from WLC and the ground based Mauna Loa White Light Coronagraph, a large number of polar plumes both in the north and south polar holes were traced from 1.16 to 5.5 Rs. Flow properties of the solar wind in coronal holes have been determined (Habbal et al., 1995) by using a two fluid model constrained by density profiles and scale height temperatures from the white light observations, and interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux from Ulysses' south polar passage. Provisions for acceleration by Alfven waves, as well as electron and proton heating, are included in the momentum and the energy equations respectively. The model computations fit remarkably well the empirical constraints of the two different density structures (plumes and coronal holes) for a range of input parameters. In this study we investigate the physical nature of the heating function used in the two-fluid model. Alfven waves have been suggested as the possible source of heating that accelerates the solar wind (Ofman and Davila, 1995). We utilize the density contrast observed in WLC data in the plume and ambient coronal hole region to estimate the Alfven wave frequencies responsible for heating these structures. The source heating function utilized in the two fluid model of the solar wind acceleration will be compared with the resonant Alfven wave heating function.

  20. 78 FR 22363 - Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-Orlando Passenger Rail Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    .... 4321 et seq.) (NEPA) and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545, May 26... Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-- Orlando... service proposed by the private company, All Aboard Florida--Operations LLC (AAF), between Miami...