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Sample records for abolishes cognitive deficits

  1. [Postoperative cognitive deficits].

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Ivan; Leposavić, Ljubica; Kocica, Mladen; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Vucetić, Cedomir; Paunović, Ivan; Slavković, Nemanja; Filimonović, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions are relatively common in postoperative and critically ill patients. This complication not only compromises recovery after surgery, but, if persistent, it minimizes and compromises surgery itself. Risk factors of postoperative cognitive disorders can be divided into age and comorbidity dependent, and those related to anesthesia and surgery. Cardiovascular, orthopedic and urologic surgery carries high risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. It can also occur in other types of surgical treatment, especially in elderly. Among risk factors of cognitive disorders, associated with comorbidity, underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders, substance abuse and conditions with elevation of intracranial pressure are in the first place in postoperative patients. Preoperative and perioperative predisposing conditions for cognitive dysfunction and their incidence were described in our paper. These are: geriatric patients, patients with substance abuse, preexisting psychiatric or cognitive disorders, neurologic disease with high intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insufficiency, epilepsia, preeclampsia, acute intermittent porphyria, operation type, brain hypoxia, changes in blood glucose level, electrolyte imbalance, anesthetic agents, adjuvant medication and intraoperative awareness. For each of these factors, evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies were suggested, with special regard on anesthetic technique.

  2. [Neurocognitive deficit and social cognition in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Rychkova, O V; Gurevich, G L

    2012-01-01

    To study the association between neurocognitive deficit and impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia, we assessed 30 patients and 30 healthy people (controls) using clinical, psychometric and psychological tests. Based on the results obtained in the study, authors could single out a specific block of impairment which was not associated with perceptive and gnostic deficits. The data confirmed the significant contribution of deficit neurodynamic and regulatory parameters in the impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia.

  3. Social-cognitive deficits in normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Joseph M.; Jolly, Eshin; Mitchell, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    A sizeable number of studies have implicated the default network (e.g., medial prefrontal and parietal cortices) in tasks that require participants to infer the mental states of others—that is, to mentalize. Parallel research has demonstrated that default network function declines over the lifespan, suggesting that older adults may show impairments in social-cognitive tasks that require mentalizing. Older and younger human adults were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing three different social-cognitive tasks. Across three mentalizing paradigms, younger and older adults viewed animated shapes in brief social vignettes, stories about a person's moral actions and false belief stories. Consistent with predictions, older adults responded less accurately to stories about others' false beliefs and made less use of actors' intentions to judge the moral permissibility of behavior. These impairments in performance during social-cognitive tasks were accompanied by age-related decreases across all three paradigms in the BOLD response of a single brain region—dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest specific, task-independent age-related deficits in mentalizing that are localizeable to changes in circumscribed subregions of the default network. PMID:22514317

  4. Do cognitive deficits predict negative emotionality and aggression in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anthony O; Richardson, Jenae; Buckner, Alex; Romanoff, Sabrina; Feder, Michelle; Oragunye, Njideka; Ilnicki, Andriana; Bhat, Ishrat; Hoptman, Matthew J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also explored the putative mediating role of negative emotionality on the impact of cognitive deficits on aggression. People with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (N = 78) were recruited from a state hospital. Participants were classified based on their history of violent offending. Participants completed measures of cognition, symptoms, and aggression. Deficits in working memory, reasoning/problem-solving, and verbal learning were the most prioritized for the prediction of violent offender status. Violent offenders demonstrated greater impairments in most cognitive domains especially working memory and verbal learning. Offenders also demonstrated greater negative emotionality, excitement/agitation, and incidents of verbal and physical aggression. Negative emotionality and excitement/agitation fully transmitted the effect of cognitive deficits on impulsive aggression in meditational models. Cognitive deficits increase the risk of impulsive aggression in schizophrenia via inefficient regulation of negative affective states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  6. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Mediate Cognitive Deficits and Structural Plasticity Changes During Nicotine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Rocio; Flores, África; Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de la Torre, Rafael; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Ozaita, Andrés; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco withdrawal is associated with deficits in cognitive function, including attention, working memory, and episodic memory. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in these effects is crucial because cognitive deficits during nicotine withdrawal may predict relapse in humans. We investigated in mice the role of CB 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB 1 Rs) in memory impairment and spine density changes induced by nicotine withdrawal precipitated by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. Drugs acting on the endocannabinoid system and genetically modified mice were used. Memory impairment during nicotine withdrawal was blocked by the CB 1 R antagonist rimonabant or the genetic deletion of CB 1 R in forebrain gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons (GABA-CB 1 R). An increase of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide, was observed during nicotine withdrawal. The selective inhibitor of 2-AG biosynthesis O7460 abolished cognitive deficits of nicotine abstinence, whereas the inhibitor of 2-AG enzymatic degradation JZL184 did not produce any effect in cognitive impairment. Moreover, memory impairment was prevented by the selective mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor temsirolimus and the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. Mature dendritic spines on CA1 pyramidal hippocampal neurons decreased 4 days after the precipitation of nicotine withdrawal, when the cognitive deficits were still present. Indeed, a correlation between memory performance and mature spine density was found. Interestingly, these structural plasticity alterations were normalized in GABA-CB 1 R conditional knockout mice and after subchronic treatment with rimonabant. These findings underline the interest of CB 1 R as a target to improve cognitive performance during early nicotine withdrawal. Cognitive deficits in early abstinence are associated with increased relapse risk. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive Control Deficits Associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zeier, Joshua D.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Newman, Joseph P.; Racer, Kristina Hiatt

    2011-01-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e. flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome. PMID:22452754

  8. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  9. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  10. Persistent cognitive and dopamine transporter deficits in abstinent methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    McCann, Una D; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Kumar, Anil; Palermo, Michael; Abbey, Rubyna; Brasic, James; Ye, Weiguo; Alexander, Mohab; Dannals, Robert F; Wong, Dean F; Ricaurte, George A

    2008-02-01

    Studies in abstinent methamphetamine (METH) users have demonstrated reductions in brain dopamine transporter (DAT) binding potential (BP), as well as cognitive and motor deficits, but it is not yet clear whether cognitive deficits and brain DAT reductions fully reverse with sustained abstinence, or whether behavioral deficits in METH users are related to dopamine (DA) deficits. This study was conducted to further investigate potential persistent psychomotor deficits secondary to METH abuse, and their relationship to brain DAT availability, as measured using quantitative PET methods with [(11)C]WIN 35428. Twenty-two abstinent METH users and 17 healthy non-METH using controls underwent psychometric testing to test the hypothesis that METH users would demonstrate selective deficits in neuropsychiatric domains known to involve DA neurons (e.g., working memory, executive function, motor function). A subset of subjects also underwent PET scanning with [(11)C]WIN 35428. METH users were found to have modest deficits in short-term memory, executive function, and manual dexterity. Exploratory correlational analyses revealed that deficits in memory, but not those in executive or motor function, were associated with decreases in striatal DAT BP. These results suggest a possible relationship between DAT BP and memory deficits in abstinent METH users, and lend support to the notion that METH produces lasting effects on central DA neurons in humans. As METH can also produce toxic effects on serotonin (5-HT) neurons, further study is needed to address the potential role of brain 5-HT depletion in cognitive deficits in abstinent METH users. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Cognitive deficits in recent-onset and chronic schizophrenia☆

    PubMed Central

    Sponheim, S.R.; Jung, R.E.; Seidman, L.J.; Mesholam-Gately, R.I.; Manoach, D.S.; O'Leary, D.S.; Ho, B.C.; Andreasen, N.C.; Lauriello, J.; Schulz, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although cognitive dysfunction is a primary characteristic of schizophrenia, only recently have investigations begun to pinpoint when the dysfunction develops in the individual afflicted by the disorder. Research to date provides evidence for significant cognitive impairments prior to disorder onset. Less is known about the course of cognitive dysfunction from onset to the chronic phase of schizophrenia. Although longitudinal studies are optimal for assessing stability of cognitive deficits, practice effects often confound assessments, and large and representative subject samples have not been followed over long periods of time. We report results of a cross-sectional study of cognitive deficits early and late in the course of schizophrenia carried out at four different geographic locations to increase sample size and generalizability of findings. We examined a broad set of cognitive functions in 41 recent-onset schizophrenia patients and 106 chronic schizophrenia patients. The study included separate groups of 43 matched controls for the recent-onset sample and 105 matched controls for the chronic schizophrenia sample in order to evaluate the effects of cohort (i.e., age) and diagnosis (i.e., schizophrenia) on cognitive functions. All measures of cognitive function showed effects of diagnosis; however, select time-based measures of problem solving and fine motor dexterity exhibited interactions of diagnosis and cohort indicating that these deficits may progress beyond what is expected with normal aging. Also, worse recall of material in episodic memory was associated with greater length of illness. Nevertheless, findings indicate that nearly all cognitive deficits are comparably impaired across recent-onset and chronic schizophrenia. PMID:19878956

  12. Cognitive deficits in recent-onset and chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sponheim, S R; Jung, R E; Seidman, L J; Mesholam-Gately, R I; Manoach, D S; O'Leary, D S; Ho, B C; Andreasen, N C; Lauriello, J; Schulz, S C

    2010-05-01

    Although cognitive dysfunction is a primary characteristic of schizophrenia, only recently have investigations begun to pinpoint when the dysfunction develops in the individual afflicted by the disorder. Research to date provides evidence for significant cognitive impairments prior to disorder onset. Less is known about the course of cognitive dysfunction from onset to the chronic phase of schizophrenia. Although longitudinal studies are optimal for assessing stability of cognitive deficits, practice effects often confound assessments, and large and representative subject samples have not been followed over long periods of time. We report results of a cross-sectional study of cognitive deficits early and late in the course of schizophrenia carried out at four different geographic locations to increase sample size and generalizability of findings. We examined a broad set of cognitive functions in 41 recent-onset schizophrenia patients and 106 chronic schizophrenia patients. The study included separate groups of 43 matched controls for the recent-onset sample and 105 matched controls for the chronic schizophrenia sample in order to evaluate the effects of cohort (i.e., age) and diagnosis (i.e., schizophrenia) on cognitive functions. All measures of cognitive function showed effects of diagnosis; however, select time-based measures of problem solving and fine motor dexterity exhibited interactions of diagnosis and cohort indicating that these deficits may progress beyond what is expected with normal aging. Also, worse recall of material in episodic memory was associated with greater length of illness. Nevertheless, findings indicate that nearly all cognitive deficits are comparably impaired across recent-onset and chronic schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Speech Deficits in Serious mental Illness: A Cognitive Resource Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; McGovern, Jessica E.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; Covington, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production (“alogia”), variability (“blunted vocal affect”) and content (“poverty of content of speech”). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  14. Speech deficits in serious mental illness: a cognitive resource issue?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; McGovern, Jessica E; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Covington, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production ("alogia"), variability ("blunted vocal affect") and content ("poverty of content of speech"). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive rehabilitation for memory deficits following stroke.

    PubMed

    Majid, M J; Lincoln, N B; Weyman, N

    2000-01-01

    Memory problems occur following stroke. Cognitive rehabilitation programmes are provided to retrain memory function or to teach patients strategies to cope despite memory impairment. To determine the effects of cognitive rehabilitation for memory problems following stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL and CLIN PSYCH databases and reference lists from relevant articles. Date of most recent searches: December 1998. Controlled trials of memory retraining in stroke. Studies with mixed aetiology groups were excluded unless they had more than 75% of stroke patients or separate data were available for the stroke patients. Two reviewers extracted trial data and assessed trial quality. Reviewers contacted investigators for further details of trials. One trial was identified with 12 participants. This showed memory strategy training had no significant effect on memory impairment or subjective memory complaints. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for memory problems after stroke.

  16. Cognitive deficits caused by prefrontal cortical and hippocampal neural disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Bast, Tobias; Pezze, Marie; McGarrity, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    We review recent evidence concerning the significance of inhibitory GABA transmission and of neural disinhibition, that is, deficient GABA transmission, within the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, for clinically relevant cognitive functions. Both regions support important cognitive functions, including attention and memory, and their dysfunction has been implicated in cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders. GABAergic inhibition shapes cortico-hippocampal neural activity, and, recently, prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition has emerged as a pathophysiological feature of major neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline. Regional neural disinhibition, disrupting spatio-temporal control of neural activity and causing aberrant drive of projections, may disrupt processing within the disinhibited region and efferent regions. Recent studies in rats showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition (by local GABA antagonist microinfusion) dysregulates burst firing, which has been associated with important aspects of neural information processing. Using translational tests of clinically relevant cognitive functions, these studies showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupts regional cognitive functions (including prefrontal attention and hippocampal memory function). Moreover, hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupted attentional performance, which does not require the hippocampus but requires prefrontal-striatal circuits modulated by the hippocampus. However, some prefrontal and hippocampal functions (including inhibitory response control) are spared by regional disinhibition. We consider conceptual implications of these findings, regarding the distinct relationships of distinct cognitive functions to prefrontal and hippocampal GABA tone and neural activity. Moreover, the findings support the proposition that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition

  17. Cognitive Behavioral Therapies in older adults with depression and cognitive deficits: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sharon Sanz; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Bottino, Cássio M C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) in improving depressive symptoms, disability, and cognition in older adults with depression and cognitive deficits. It was performed a systematic search for articles published between 1994 and February 2014 in the MEDLINE/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and SCIELO. The studies should have provided information about benefits after CBTs to older adults with depression and cognitive deficits. Cognitive behavioral therapy focused on problem solving is the main approach studied, having better effectiveness than supportive therapy in randomized clinical trials. Significant improvements in mood and disability were consistent, although evidence of changes in cognitive measures is controversial, less studied, and limited. Nevertheless, improvements in executive functions, processing speed, and changes in patients' perspectives of problem solving skills, such as generating alternatives and decision-making, were described. Also, it would be necessary that future studies more often evaluate cognitive status of depressed elders, as well as cognitive changes after psychotherapy. It should be emphasized that there is a lack of studies in this field, and more approaches in CBTs need to be investigated to this population. Older adults with depression and cognitive deficits can benefit from CBTs. Improvements in mood and disability are more consistent than changes in cognition, which are little studied after CBTs. It is necessary more studies in the field, as well as, to investigate more approaches in CBTs to older adults with depression and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Epigenetic research of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia: some methodological considerations].

    PubMed

    Lezheiko, T V; Alfimova, M V

    To highlights the problems of assessing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, relevant to the epigenetic, as well as a wide range of other approaches to the search for biological bases of cognition. The literature on the weaknesses in the evaluation of cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia are summarized and discussed. The analysis is illustrated by our experience in developing a cognitive battery and a sample to examine relationships between DNA methylation in blood cells and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. It has been shown that to assess cognitive deficits in patients and to reduce the influence of confounders in epigenetic analysis it is necessary (1) to use a battery with the existing co-normative data in the target population, which allows to evaluate representativeness of control and patients included in the study sample, (2) to verify the theoretically driven battery structure using normative population and a cohort of patients, (3) to balance groups of cases and controls on the number, age and sex, for which an individual matching of cases and controls is best suited, (4) to conduct an additional statistical analysis controlling for education and smoking.

  19. A multiple deficit model of reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: searching for shared cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Lauren M; Pennington, Bruce F; Shanahan, Michelle A; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E; Barnard, Holly D; Willcutt, Erik G; Defries, John C; Olson, Richard K

    2011-05-01

    This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique predictor of RD and response inhibition as a unique predictor of ADHD. Processing speed, naming speed, and verbal working memory were modeled as potential shared cognitive deficits. Model fit indices from the SEM indicated satisfactory fit. Closer inspection of the path weights revealed that processing speed was the only cognitive variable with significant unique relationships to RD and ADHD dimensions, particularly inattention. Moreover, the significant correlation between reading and inattention was reduced to non-significance when processing speed was included in the model, suggesting that processing speed primarily accounted for the phenotypic correlation (or comorbidity) between reading and inattention. This study illustrates the power of a multiple deficit approach to complex developmental disorders and psychopathologies, particularly for exploring comorbidities. The theoretical role of processing speed in the developmental pathways of RD and ADHD and directions for future research are discussed. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Management of Subtle Cognitive Communication Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sandra B.

    1988-01-01

    Traumatically head-injured individuals who reach the higher stages of recovery typically exhibit cognitive communication disorders. Patient management requires, among other considerations, a focus on functional communication competency, an ecologic-systematic perspective, and use of compensatory techniques. A case study applies this management…

  1. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  2. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Tobias; Lincoln, Nadina B

    2013-05-31

    Many survivors of stroke complain about attentional impairments, such as diminished concentration and mental slowness. However, the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for improving these impairments is uncertain. To determine whether (1) people receiving attentional treatment show better outcomes in their attentional functions than those given no treatment or treatment as usual, and (2) people receiving attentional treatment techniques have a better functional recovery, in terms of independence in activities of daily living, mood and quality of life, than those given no treatment or treatment as usual. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (October 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library October 2012), MEDLINE (1948 to October 2012), EMBASE (1947 to October 2012), CINAHL (1981 to October 2012), PsycINFO (1806 to October 2012), PsycBITE and REHABDATA (searched October 2012) and ongoing trials registers. We screened reference lists and tracked citations using Scopus. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive rehabilitation for impairments of attention for people with stroke. The primary outcome was measures of global attentional functions, and secondary outcomes were measures of attention domains, functional abilities, mood and quality of life. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included six RCTs with 223 participants. All six RCTs compared cognitive rehabilitation with a usual care control. Meta-analyses demonstrated no statistically significant effect of cognitive rehabilitation for persisting effects on global measures of attention (two studies, 99 participants; standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23 to 0.56; P value = 0.41), standardised attention assessments (two studies, 99 participants; P value ≥ 0.08) or functional outcomes (two studies, 99 participants; P value ≥ 0

  4. Executive functions deficit in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Traykov, Latchezar; Raoux, Nadine; Latour, Florence; Gallo, Livia; Hanon, Olivier; Baudic, Sophie; Bayle, Catherine; Wenisch, Emilie; Remy, Philippe; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2007-12-01

    To investigate whether patients diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have also impairment in attention/executive functions, and therefore to clarify whether all subcomponents of executive control are equally affected in MCI. MCI refers to the transitional state between normal aging and dementia. Amnestic MCI is characterized by impaired episodic memory, although subtle impairment of executive functions has been noted on neuropsychologic tests. We investigated 20 MCI patients and 20 normal controls using episodic memory, attention/executive functions, language, and praxis tests. MCI patients had significantly lower scores on all measures of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (P<0.05 to 0.01) than controls. Furthermore, MCI had a greater number of perseverations (P<0.01) on Modified Card Sorting Test and the lowest performance on the Stroop Test (P<0.02). Our findings showed impairment in episodic memory performance in MCI as compared with that of controls. In addition, MCI patients had problems with response inhibition, switching, and cognitive flexibility, which encompass various aspects of executive functions. This suggests that MCI may be identified by using a more detailed procedure for the assessment of cognitive decline than the evaluation of memory alone.

  5. Temperature control can abolish anesthesia-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and partly reverse anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment in old mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haibing; Run, Xiaoqin; Cao, Xu; Su, Ying; Sun, Zhou; Tian, Cheng; Sun, Shenggang; Liang, Zhihou

    2013-11-01

    Anesthesia is related to cognitive impairment and the risk for Alzheimer's disease. Hypothermia during anesthesia can lead to abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau, which has been speculated to be involved in anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maintenance of the tau phosphorylation level by body temperature control during anesthesia could reverse the cognitive dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice. Eighteen-month-old mice were repeatedly anesthetized during a 2-week period with or without maintenance of body temperature, control mice were treated with normal saline instead of anesthetics. Tau phosphorylation level in mice brain was detected on western blot, and cognitive performance was measured using the Morris water maze (MWM). After anesthesia-induced hypothermia in old mice, tau was hyperphosphorylated and the cognitive performance, measured on MWM, was impaired. When body temperature was controlled during anesthesia, however, the tau hyperphosphorylation was completely avoided, and there was partial recovery in cognitive impairment measured on the MWM. Hyperphosphorylation of tau in the brain after anesthesia is an important event, and it might be, although not solely, responsible for postoperative cognitive decline. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Deficits in Social Cognition: An Unveiled Signature of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chalah, Moussa A; Ayache, Samar S

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, representing the primary cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. Cognitive dysfunction can affect patients at any time during the disease process and might alter the six core functional domains. Social cognition is a multi-component construct that includes the theory of mind, empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues. Deficits in this cognitive faculty might have a drastic impact on interpersonal relationships and quality of life (QoL). Although exhaustive data exist for non-social cognitive functions in MS, only a little attention has been paid for social cognition. The objectives of the present work are to reappraise the definition and anatomy of social cognition and evaluate the integrity of this domain across MS studies. We will put special emphasis on neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies concerning social cognitive performance in MS. Studies were selected in conformity with PRISMA guidelines. We looked for computerized databases (PubMed, Medline, and Scopus) that index peer-reviewed journals to identify published reports in English and French languages that mention social cognition and multiple sclerosis, regardless of publication year. We combined keywords as follows: (facial emotion or facial expression or emotional facial expressions or theory of mind or social cognition or empathy or affective prosody) AND multiple sclerosis AND (MRI or functional MRI or positron emission tomography or functional imaging or structural imaging). We also scanned references from articles aiming to get additional relevant studies. In total, 26 studies matched the abovementioned criteria (26 neuropsychological studies including five neuroimaging studies). Available data support the presence of social cognitive deficits even at early stages of MS. The increase in disease burden along with the "multiple disconnection syndrome

  7. Psychosocial support and cognitive deficits in adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dalagdi, Aikaterini; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Papatriantafyllou, John; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Samakouri, Maria; Livaditis, Miltos

    2014-08-01

    In recent decades there has been an increasing interest in cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. However, only a few studies have examined the impact of psychosocial support on the prevention of cognitive deterioration in patients who suffer from schizophrenia. The aims of the present study are: (1) to confirm the presence of cognitive deficits among patients with schizophrenia; (2) to explore any correlations between such deficits and a range of clinical and/or demographic characteristics of the patients; and (3) to investigate any association between cognitive deficits and psychosocial support. A total of 118 patients with schizophrenia (the patient group) and 102 healthy volunteers (the control group) had a cognitive assessment using a battery of neuropsychological tests. The patients were allocated to one of the following groups: (1) patients under routine outpatient follow-up; or (2) patients receiving or having recently received intensive psychosocial support, in addition to follow-up. This included daily participation in vocational and recreational activities provided by dedicated mental health day centers. The findings of the neuropsychological testing of individuals in all groups were compared, after controlling for clinical or demographic factors. The scores in the neuropsychological tests were lower overall in the patients group compared to healthy volunteers. Within the patients group, those receiving/having received psychosocial support had higher scores compared to those on routine follow-up alone. There were no significant differences between patients currently receiving psychosocial support and those having received it in the past. Lower education, age and illness duration (but not severity of positive or negative symptoms) were factors associated with lower test scores. The study provides some evidence that psychosocial support may be beneficial for the cognitive functioning of patients with schizophrenia and this benefit may be a lasting one.

  8. Stimulation of 5-HT2C Receptors Improves Cognitive Deficits Induced by Human Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Loss of Function Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Del'Guidice, Thomas; Lemay, Francis; Lemasson, Morgane; Levasseur-Moreau, Jean; Manta, Stella; Etievant, Adeline; Escoffier, Guy; Doré, François Y; Roman, François S; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin synthesis enzyme Tph2 have been identified in mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder, major depression, autism, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Deficits in cognitive flexibility and perseverative behaviors are shared common symptoms in these disorders. However, little is known about the impact of Tph2 gene variants on cognition. Mice expressing a human TPH2 variant (Tph2-KI) were used to investigate cognitive consequences of TPH2 loss of function and pharmacological treatments. We applied a recently developed behavioral assay, the automated H-maze, to study cognitive functions in Tph2-KI mice. This assay involves the consecutive discovery of three different rules: a delayed alternation task, a non-alternation task, and a delayed reversal task. Possible contribution of locomotion, reward, and sensory perception were also investigated. The expression of loss-of-function mutant Tph2 in mice was associated with impairments in reversal learning and cognitive flexibility, accompanied by perseverative behaviors similar to those observed in human clinical studies. Pharmacological restoration of 5-HT synthesis with 5-hydroxytryptophan or treatment with the 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP809.101 reduced cognitive deficits in Tph2-KI mice and abolished perseveration. In contrast, treatment with the psychostimulant methylphenidate exacerbated cognitive deficits in mutant mice. Results from this study suggest a contribution of TPH2 in the regulation of cognition. Furthermore, identification of a role for a 5-HT2 receptor agonist as a cognition-enhancing agent in mutant mice suggests a potential avenue to explore for the personalized treatment of cognitive symptoms in humans with reduced 5-HT synthesis and TPH2 polymorphisms. PMID:24196946

  9. Evidence for distinct cognitive deficits after focal cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, B; Wilde, B; Mihajlovic, Z; Mehdorn, H M

    2004-11-01

    Anatomical evidence and lesion studies, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, indicate that the cerebellum contributes to higher cognitive functions. Cerebellar posterior lateral regions seem to be relevant for cognition, while vermal lesions seem to be associated with changes in affect. However, the results remain controversial. Deficits of patients are sometimes still attributed to motor impairment. We present data from a detailed neuropsychological examination of 21 patients with cerebellar lesions due to tumour or haematoma, and 21 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education. Patients showed deficits in executive function, and in attentional processes such as working memory and divided attention. Further analysis revealed that patients with right-sided lesions were in general more impaired than those with left-sided lesions. Those hypotheses that suggest that lesions of the right cerebellar hemisphere lead to verbal deficits, while those of the left lead to non-verbal deficits, have in part been confirmed. The generally greater impairment of those patients with a right-sided lesion has been interpreted as resulting from the connection of the right cerebellum to the left cerebral hemisphere, which is dominant for language functions and crucial for right hand movements. Motor impairment was correlated with less than half of the cognitive measures, with no stronger tendency for correlation with cognitive tests that require motor responses discernible. The results are discussed on the basis of an assumption that the cerebellum has a predicting and preparing function, indicating that cerebellar lesions lead to a "dysmetria of thought."

  10. Neurally dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Boukrina, Olga; Barrett, A M; Alexander, Edward J; Yao, Bing; Graves, William W

    2015-01-01

    According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling), phonological (sound), and semantic (meaning) information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here, we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (<=5 weeks post-stroke). Patients completed tasks assessing cognitive components of reading such as semantics (matching picture or word choices to a target based on meaning), phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming), and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible non-word). They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive

  11. Diet-induced obesity attenuates endotoxin-induced cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Setti, Sharay E; Littlefield, Alyssa M; Johnson, Samantha W; Kohman, Rachel A

    2015-03-15

    Activation of the immune system can impair cognitive function, particularly on hippocampus dependent tasks. Several factors such as normal aging and prenatal experiences can modify the severity of these cognitive deficits. One additional factor that may modulate the behavioral response to immune activation is obesity. Prior work has shown that obesity alters the activity of the immune system. Whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) influences the cognitive deficits associated with inflammation is currently unknown. The present study explored whether DIO alters the behavioral response to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for a total of five months. After consuming their respective diets for four months, mice received an LPS or saline injection and were assessed for alterations in spatial learning. One month later, mice received a second injection of LPS or saline and tissue samples were collected to assess the inflammatory response within the periphery and central nervous system. Results showed that LPS administration impaired spatial learning in the control diet mice, but had no effect in DIO mice. This lack of a cognitive deficit in the DIO female mice is likely due to a blunted inflammatory response within the brain. While cytokine production within the periphery (i.e., plasma, adipose, and spleen) was similar between the DIO and control mice, the DIO mice failed to show an increase in IL-6 and CD74 in the brain following LPS administration. Collectively, these data indicate that DIO can reduce aspects of the neuroinflammatory response as well as blunt the behavioral reaction to an immune challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Disrupted white matter structure underlies cognitive deficit in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ma, Chao; Sun, Xuan; Zhang, Junying; Chen, Yaojing; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is considered a risk factor of cognitive impairments and could result in white matter changes. Current studies on hypertension-related white matter (WM) changes focus only on regional changes, and the information about global changes in WM structure network is limited. We assessed the cognitive function in 39 hypertensive patients and 37 healthy controls with a battery of neuropsychological tests. The WM structural networks were constructed by utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. The direct and indirect correlations among cognitive impairments, brain WM network disruptions and hypertension were analyzed with structural equation modelling (SEM). Hypertensive patients showed deficits in executive function, memory and attention compared with controls. An aberrant connectivity of WM networks was found in the hypertensive patients (P Eglob = 0.005, P Lp = 0.005), especially in the frontal and parietal regions. Importantly, SEM analysis showed that the decline of executive function resulted from aberrant WM networks in hypertensive patients (p = 0.3788, CFI = 0.99). These results suggest that the cognitive decline in hypertensive patients was due to frontal and parietal WM disconnections. Our findings highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension patients. • Hypertension has a negative effect on the performance of the cognitive domains • Reduced efficiencies of white matter networks were shown in hypertension • Disrupted white matter networks are responsible for poor cognitive function in hypertension.

  13. Cognitive Deficits and Positively Biased Self-Perceptions in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Julia D.; Tomb, Meghan; Hoza, Betsy; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Vaughn, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between cognitive deficits and positive bias in a sample of 272 children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; 7-12 years old). Results indicated that children with ADHD with and without biased self-perceptions exhibit differences in specific cognitive deficits (executive processes,…

  14. Motivational deficits and cognitive test performance in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Motivational and cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, both closely linked with functional outcomes. Although poor effort and decreased motivation are known to affect performance on cognitive tests, the extent of this relationship is unclear in patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate the association between intrinsic motivation and cognitive test performance in patients with schizophrenia. Cross-sectional and 6-month prospective follow-up study performed at 57 sites in the United States, including academic and community medical treatment centers, participating in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The primary sample included 431 stable patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia currently receiving a stable medication regimen. Cognitive performance and intrinsic motivation were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and a derived measure from the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, respectively. Symptom severity and functional status were also assessed. The primary outcome variable was global neurocognition. Individual domains of cognition were also evaluated for their association with motivation. Level of intrinsic motivation was significantly and positively correlated with global cognitive test performance, a relationship that held for each domain of cognition evaluated (correlation range, 0.20-0.34; P < .001). This association was found to be reliable after statistically accounting for positive, negative, depressive, and overall symptom severity (P < .05) and after accounting for community functioning (P < .001). The relationship between motivation and cognitive performance also remained significant after controlling for antipsychotic dose (P < .05). Prospective increase in motivation during the 6-month follow-up was also found to be significantly related to improvement in global cognitive performance (P < .05). The present findings provide strong

  15. Cognitive Deficits as a Mediator of Poor Occupational Function in Remitted Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Rosenblat, Joshua D.; Kakar, Ron; Bahk, Won-Myong; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have been described in numerous studies. However, few reports have aimed to describe cognitive deficits in the remitted state of MDD and the mediational effect of cognitive deficits on occupational outcome. The aim of the current review is to synthesize the literature on the mediating and moderating effects of specific domains of cognition on occupational impairment among people with remitted MDD. In addition, predictors of cognitive deficits found to be vocationally important will be examined. Upon examination of the extant literature, attention, executive function and verbal memory are areas of consistent impairment in remitted MDD patients. Cognitive domains shown to have considerable impact on vocational functioning include deficits in memory, attention, learning and executive function. Factors that adversely affect cognitive function related to occupational accommodation include higher age, late age at onset, residual depressive symptoms, history of melancholic/psychotic depression, and physical/psychiatric comorbidity, whereas higher levels of education showed a protective effect against cognitive deficit. Cognitive deficits are a principal mediator of occupational impairment in remitted MDD patients. Therapeutic interventions specifically targeting cognitive deficits in MDD are needed, even in the remitted state, to improve functional recovery, especially in patients who have a higher risk of cognitive deficit. PMID:26792035

  16. Cognitive deficits in heart failure: Re-cognition of vulnerability as a strange new world.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Rebecca S; Pressler, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) have impairment in memory, psychomotor speed, and executive function. The aim of this study was to describe how individuals with HF and cognitive deficits manage self-care in their daily lives. Using an interpretive phenomenology method, HF patients completed unstructured face-to-face interviews about their ability to manage complex health regimens and maintain their health-related quality of life. Analysis of data was aided by use of Atlas.ti computer software. The sample consisted of 12 patients (10 men; aged 43-81 years) who had previously undergone neuropsychological testing and were found to have deficits in 3 or more cognitive domains. Patients confirmed that they followed the advice of healthcare providers by adherence to medication regimens, dietary sodium restrictions, and HF self-care. One overarching theme was identified: "Re-cognition of Vulnerability: A Strange New World." This theme was further differentiated into 3 components: (1) not recognizing cognitive deficits; (2) recognizing cognitive deficits, described as (a) never could remember anything, (b) just old age, (c) HF-related change, and (d) making normal accommodations; and (3) recognizing vulnerability, explained by perception of (a) cognitive, (b) physical, and (c) social vulnerabilities, as well as perception of (d) the nearness of death. Although the study was designed to focus on the cognitive changes in HF patients, it was difficult to separate cognitive, physical, and social challenges. These changes are most useful when taken as a constellation. Healthcare professionals can use the knowledge to identify problems and interventions for HF patients.

  17. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Working Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Stollstorff, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond…

  18. Converging on a core cognitive deficit: the impact of various neurodevelopmental insults on cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Kally C.; Kao, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Heekyung; Fenton, André A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial effort and immense need, the treatment options for major neuropsychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia are limited and largely ineffective at improving the most debilitating cognitive symptoms that are central to mental illness. These symptoms include cognitive control deficits, the inability to selectively use information that is currently relevant and ignore what is currently irrelevant. Contemporary attempts to accelerate progress are in part founded on an effort to reconceptualize neuropsychiatric illness as a disorder of neural development. This neuro-developmental framework emphasizes abnormal neural circuits on the one hand, and on the other, it suggests there are therapeutic opportunities to exploit the developmental processes of excitatory neuron pruning, inhibitory neuron proliferation, elaboration of myelination, and other circuit refinements that extend through adolescence and into early adulthood. We have crafted a preclinical research program aimed at cognition failures that may be relevant to mental illness. By working with a variety of neurodevelopmental rodent models, we strive to identify a common pathophysiology that underlies cognitive control failure as well as a common strategy for improving cognition in the face of neural circuit abnormalities. Here we review our work to characterize cognitive control deficits in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion and rats that were exposed to Methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) in utero. We review our findings as they pertain to early developmental processes, including neurogenesis, as well as the power of cognitive experience to refine neural circuit function within the mature and maturing brain's cognitive circuitry. PMID:24966811

  19. Novel Dopamine Therapeutics for Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T; Girgis, Ragy R; Gray, David L; Mailman, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by profound cognitive deficits that are not alleviated by currently available medications. Many of these cognitive deficits involve dysfunction of the newly evolved, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). The brains of patients with schizophrenia show evidence of dlPFC pyramidal cell dendritic atrophy, likely reductions in cortical dopamine, and possible changes in dopamine D 1 receptors (D 1 R). It has been appreciated for decades that optimal levels of dopamine are essential for dlPFC working memory function, with many beneficial actions arising from D 1 R stimulation. D 1 R are concentrated on dendritic spines in the primate dlPFC, where their stimulation produces an inverted-U dose response on dlPFC neuronal firing and cognitive performance during working memory tasks. Research in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry has led to the development of selective D 1 agonists, e.g., the first full D 1 agonist, dihydrexidine, which at low doses improved working memory in monkeys. Dihydrexidine has begun to be tested in patients with schizophrenia or schizotypal disorder. Initial results are encouraging, but studies are limited by the pharmacokinetics of the drug. These data, however, have spurred efforts toward the discovery and development of improved or novel new compounds, including D 1 agonists with better pharmacokinetics, functionally selective D 1 ligands, and D 1 R positive allosteric modulators. One or several of these approaches should allow optimization of the beneficial effects of D 1 R stimulation in the dlPFC that can be translated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive Deficits in Breast Cancer Survivors After Chemotherapy and Hormonal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jennifer Sandson; Vance, David E; Triebel, Kristen L; Meneses, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    Adjuvant treatments, specifically chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, have dramatically increased breast cancer survival, resulting in increased attention to the residual effects of treatment. Breast cancer survivors (BCS) frequently report that cognitive deficits are a particular source of distress, interfering with many aspects of quality of life. The literature on neuropsychological performance measures in BCS supports the reality of subtle cognitive deficits after both chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. This premise is supported by recent imaging studies, which reveal anatomical changes after chemotherapy as well as changes in patterns of neural activation while performing cognitive tasks. This review suggests that, even when performance on neuropsychological performance measures is within normal limits, BCS may be using increased cognitive resources in the face of reduced cognitive reserve. Potential interventions for cognitive deficits after adjuvant therapy include prescriptions for healthy living, pharmacotherapy, complementary therapy, and cognitive remediation therapy directed toward specific cognitive deficits or a combination of several strategies.

  1. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchu; Liu, Ming; Mo, Yanzhi; Peng, Huan; Gong, Jingbo; Li, Zhuang; Chen, Jiaxue; Xie, Jingtao

    2016-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD). In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d) for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6) were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT)-PCR and Western blot analysis. The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  2. Cognitive deficits in Korean women treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mi Sook; Cimprich, Bernadine

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported as detrimental side effects in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients and survivors. Korean women treated for breast cancer may experience unrecognized cognitive deficits related to their treatment. However, no research has examined cognitive test performance in chemotherapy-treated Korean breast cancer survivors. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: (1) to examine differences in occurrence and severity of cognitive deficits in Korean women treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer as compared with a control group of women without breast cancer and (2) to examine the relationship of selected demographic and cultural factors with cognitive test performance. Sixty-four Korean women, 32 women treated for localized breast cancer and 32 healthy controls, were enrolled. Breast cancer participants were assessed with established cognitive measures within 4 months after chemotherapy, and healthy controls, within 6 months after negative screening mammography. The breast cancer group showed a significantly higher occurrence and greater severity of cognitive deficits than controls did. Importantly, older age, less education, greater collectivist tendency, and greater childrearing burden were reliably associated with poorer attention and working memory test performance. Cognitive deficits were found in chemotherapy-treated Korean women with moderate to large effect sizes compared with controls. Cultural characteristics contributed to worse cognitive performance. Healthcare providers should recognize that Korean women may be highly vulnerable to cognitive deficits. Cultural factors also need to be considered when assessing cognitive function and designing therapeutic interventions to counteract negative cognitive outcomes.

  3. A specific cognitive deficit within semantic cognition across a multi-generational family

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Josie; Chilvers, Rebecca; Baldeweg, Torsten; Skuse, David

    2012-01-01

    We report a study of eight members of a single family (aged 8–72 years), who all show a specific deficit in linking semantic knowledge to language. All affected members of the family had high levels of overall intelligence; however, they had profound difficulties in prose and sentence recall, listening comprehension and naming. The behavioural deficit was remarkably consistent across affected family members. Structural neuroimaging data revealed grey matter abnormalities in the left infero-temporal cortex and fusiform gyri: brain areas that have been associated with integrative semantics. This family demonstrates, to our knowledge, the first example of a heritable, highly specific abnormality affecting the interface between language and cognition in humans and has important implications for our understanding of the genetic basis of cognition. PMID:22719041

  4. Cognitive and behavioral deficits in premature graduates of intensive care.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2002-12-01

    A substantial number of VLBW graduates of intensive care develop cognitive and behavioral problems, even in the absence of neuroimaging abnormalities. Although this article has highlighted the potential, important, contributing role of medical and stressful, neonatal, environmental conditions to the development of these deficits, it is not all-encompassing, and there are additional prenatal (ie, in utero stress, drug exposure) and neonatal (ie, infectious) contributing factors. The long-term, outcome data presented in this article are pertinent to the more mature, VLBW infant, and it remains unclear and critically important to delineate the long-term, neurobehavioral outcome of those extremely low birth-weight survivors born at the cutting limit of viability.

  5. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  6. Spinocerebellar ataxia: a critical review of cognitive and socio-cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Giocondo, Flora; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    The primary aim of this contribution is to provide a critical discussion on cognitive and sociocognitive implications of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) subtypes. The term SCA refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders that have been increasingly investigated in the last years, sharing the characteristic of progressive ataxia resulting from degeneration of cerebellum and its connections. In past decades only involvement of cerebellum in behaviour and timing has been investigated, bringing to the belief about its central role in timing of movement and sensation, particularly for short intervals of time. Only very recently the cerebellum has been considered as a potentially important centre for cognitive processing and related spheres of social cognition, so that several studies with SCA patients have been carried out on these topics: as a consequence a section of this review will be dedicated to this important aspect. After a brief discussion on most commonly used methods to assess cognitive and socio-cognitive abilities in SCAs, cognitive and socio-cognitive profiles of principal SCA subtypes have been thoroughly reviewed and critically discussed. Due to the very poor literature in this field the most common SCA variants have been fully included (i.e. SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7). A comparative summary of the main characteristics of cognitive and social cognition deficit in SCA subtypes has been proposed together with a research agenda for future investigation in this field principally aimed at using measures of cognition and/or social cognition as potential predictors of the extent and progression of disease.

  7. Cognitive Deficits and Positively Biased Self-Perceptions in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    McQuade, Julia D.; Tomb, Meghan; Hoza, Betsy; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Vaughn, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between cognitive deficits and positive bias in a sample of 272 children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; 7–12 years old). Results indicated that children with ADHD with and without biased self-perceptions exhibit differences in specific cognitive deficits (executive processes, working memory, broad attention, and cognitive fluency) compared to each other and to control children. Further, specific cognitive deficits emerged as partial mediators of the relation between ADHD diagnostic status and positive bias. Interestingly, some differences in results emerged based on the domain considered (academic, social, behavioral competence). Results lend initial support to the role of cognitive deficits in the positive bias of some children with ADHD. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:20820902

  8. Deletion of Selenoprotein M Leads to Obesity without Cognitive Deficits*

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Matthew W.; Reeves, Mariclair A.; Hashimoto, Ann C.; Ogawa, Ashley; Kremer, Penny; Seale, Lucia A.; Berry, Marla J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element that is co-translationally incorporated into selenoproteins in the form of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. This class of proteins largely functions in oxidation-reduction reactions and is critically involved in maintaining proper redox balance essential to health. Selenoprotein M (SelM) is a thioredoxin-like endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein that is highly expressed in the brain and possesses neuroprotective properties. In this study, we first assessed the regional pattern of SelM expression in the mouse brain to provide insights into the potential functional implications of this protein in physiology and behavior. Next, we generated transgenic mice with a targeted deletion of the SelM gene and subjected them to a battery of neurobehavioral tests to evaluate motor coordination, locomotion, and cognitive function in comparison with wild-type controls. Finally, these mice were tested for several measures of metabolic function and body composition. Our results show that SelM knock-out (KO) mice display no deficits in measures of motor coordination and cognitive function but exhibit increased weight gain, elevated white adipose tissue deposition, and diminished hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. These findings suggest that SelM plays an important role in the regulation of body weight and energy metabolism. PMID:23880772

  9. Selective cognitive empathy deficit in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Calderoni, Sara; Fantozzi, Pamela; Maestro, Sandra; Brunori, Elena; Narzisi, Antonio; Balboni, Giulia; Muratori, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing, but conflicting body of literature suggests altered empathic abilities in subjects with anorexia nervosa-restricting type (AN-R). This study aims to characterize the cognitive and affective empathic profiles of adolescents with purely AN-R. Methods As part of a standardized clinical and research protocol, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a valid and reliable self-reported instrument to measure empathy, was administered to 32 female adolescents with AN-R and in 41 healthy controls (HC) comparisons, matched for age and gender. Correlational analyses were performed to evaluate the links between empathy scores and psychopathological measures. Results Patients scored significantly lower than HC on cognitive empathy (CE), while they did not differ from controls on affective empathy (AE). The deficit in CE was not related to either disease severity nor was it related to associated psychopathology. Conclusion These results, albeit preliminary, suggest that a dysfunctional pattern of CE capacity may be a stable trait of AN-R that should be taken into account not only for the clinical management, but also in preventive and therapeutic intervention. PMID:24204149

  10. Self-Instructional Cognitive Training to Reduce Impulsive Cognitive Style in Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 and…

  11. Multimodal Intervention Trial for Cognitive Deficits in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Efficacy of Computerized Cognitive Training and Stimulant Medication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0508 TITLE: Multimodal Intervention Trial for Cognitive Deficits in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Efficacy of...Computerized Cognitive Training and Stimulant Medication PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Maria T. Acosta, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Children’s National Health...database. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Neurofibromatosis, cognition , pediatric, computerized training programs, working memory 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  12. Effects of caffeine on behavioural and cognitive deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Assis, Melissa S; Soares, Aluízio C; de Sousa, Dircilei N; Eudes-Filho, João; Faro, Lilian Rosana F; Carneiro, Fabiana P; da Silva, Mônica V; Motoyama, Andrea B; de Souza, Greice Maria R; Marchiori, Stéphanie; de Lima, Nadyelle T; Boëchat-Barros, Raphael; Ferreira, Vania M

    2018-05-07

    There are many studies that have sought to find drug therapies to prevent harm arising from sepsis. Such studies have represented a progress in the support to septic patients and also in the development of new pharmacological alternatives. Our interest was to investigate the caffeine effect on sepsis behavioural and memory impairments. Male rats were anaesthetized and the surgery was made to allow exposure of the cecum, which was then squeezed to extrude a small amount of faeces from the perforation site, which was later placed back into the peritoneal cavity. This procedure, which served to generate experimental sepsis, is herein referred to as ceccum ligation and perforation (CLP). The caffeine (10 mg/kg) was administered by gavage route, once daily, during 7 or 14 consecutive days to investigate the effects of acute or subchronic caffeine treatment on long-term behavioural and cognitive deficits induced by CLP. On the last day, one hour after caffeine administration, the animals were submitted to open-field, elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming, and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests. The results showed that caffeine increased the percentage of open arm entries and open arm time in the EPM test, and reduced the immobility time when compared to the sham-operated group. The caffeine also increased the latency in the inhibitory avoidance test platform. Our results demonstrated that the caffeine improved behavioural changes and improved the neurocognitive deficits of sepsis-surviving animals. It is possible that blockage of the adenosine receptors may be responsible for the results here observed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Subjective deficits of attention, cognition and depression in patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Zamarian, Laura; Högl, Birgit; Delazer, Margarete; Hingerl, Katharina; Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Patients with narcolepsy often complain about attention deficits in everyday situations. In comparison with these subjective complaints, deficits in objective testing are subtler. The present study assessed the relationships between subjective complaints, objectively measured cognitive performance, disease-related variables, and mood. A total of 51 patients with narcolepsy and 35 healthy controls responded to questionnaires regarding subjectively perceived attention deficits, sleepiness, anxiety and depression. Moreover, they performed an extensive neuropsychological assessment tapping into attention, executive functions, and memory. Patients rated their level of attention in everyday situations to be relatively poor. In an objective assessment of cognitive functioning, they showed only slight attention and executive function deficits. The subjective ratings of attention deficits significantly correlated with ratings of momentary sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, but not with objectively measured cognitive performance. Momentary sleepiness and depression predicted almost 39% of the variance in the ratings of subjectively perceived attention deficits. The present study showed that sleepiness and depression, more than objective cognitive deficits, might play a role in the subjectively perceived attention deficits of patients with narcolepsy. The results suggested that when counselling and treating patients with narcolepsy, clinicians should pay attention to potential depression because subjective cognitive complaints may not relate to objective cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia: Understanding the Biological Correlates and Remediation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Adarsh; Shukla, Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia that evolve during the course of schizophrenia, after being originated even before the onset of illness. Existing pharmacological and biological treatment modalities fall short to meet the needs to improve the cognitive symptoms; hence, various cognitive remediation strategies have been adopted to address these deficits. Research evidences suggest that cognitive remediation measures improve the functioning, limit disability bettering the quality of life. The functional outcomes of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia are resultant of neurobiological changes in specific brain areas. Recent years witnessed significant innovations in cognitive remediation strategies in schizophrenia. This comprehensive review highlights the biological correlates of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and the remedial measures with evidence base. PMID:29397662

  15. Perceived Cognitive Deficits in a Sample of Persons Living With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Henneghan, Ashley; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Becker, Heather; Kullberg, Vicki; Gloris, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the nature and diversity of perceived cognitive deficits using the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), to assess the reliability of the PDQ, and to explore self-reported predictors of PDQ scores in a large community-based sample of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Persons with MS enrolled in a randomized controlled trial provided demographic data and completed the PDQ along with measures of cognitive and memory strategies, cognitive abilities, self-efficacy, and depressive symptoms and neuropsychological tests. Most of the 183 participants were non-Hispanic white women, approximately 49 years old, and diagnosed with MS 12.5 years prior. The most frequent cognitive complaints regarded trouble remembering telephone numbers, mind drifting, and forgetting why one came into a room. The PDQ scores were significantly related to self-rated cognitive abilities, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and use of cognitive strategies, but not to scores on neuropsychological performance tests. When controlling for other variables, self-rated cognitive abilities was the strongest, significant predictor of perceived cognitive deficits. Persons with MS most frequently experience deficits related to short-term memory and attention. The PDQ total is a reliable measure of perceived cognitive deficits in persons with MS, is feasible for use by nurses in clinical settings-can be administered in approximately 5 minutes, and is easily scored.

  16. Cognitive Patterns and Learning Disabilities in Cleft Palate Children with Verbal Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.

    1980-01-01

    The study examined patterns of cognitive ability in 57 cleft lip and palate children (ages 7 to 9) with verbal deficit, but without general intellectual retardation to evaluate whether the verbal disability displayed by these children was related primarily to a specific verbal expression deficit or a more general symbolic mediation problem.…

  17. Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes with Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with…

  18. Effect of Treating Anxiety Disorders on Cognitive Deficits and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Denis, Isabelle; Guay, Marie-Claude; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; BenAmor, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-five percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder (AD). As per Quay and in light of Barkley's model, anxiety may have a protective effect on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treating AD on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in children with both disorders. Twenty-four children with ADHD and AD were divided into two groups: treatment for AD, and wait list. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up with the ADIS-C, the CBCL, and neuropsychological measures. The results revealed a significant improvement in automatic response inhibition and flexibility, and a decrease in inattention/hyperactivity behaviors following the treatment for AD. No significant differences were observed in motor response inhibition, working memory, or attention deficits. The results do not seem to support Quay's hypothesis: treating AD did not exacerbate cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in our sample.

  19. Cognitive deficits in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Stéphane; Pelletier, Julie; Grot, Stéphanie; Hébert, Catherine; Barr, Alasdair M; Lecomte, Tania

    2018-05-01

    Methamphetamine has long been considered as a neurotoxic substance causing cognitive deficits. Recently, however, the magnitude and the clinical significance of the cognitive effects associated with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) have been debated. To help clarify this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of the cognitive deficits associated with MUD. A literature search yielded 44 studies that assessed cognitive dysfunction in 1592 subjects with MUD and 1820 healthy controls. Effect size estimates were calculated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, for the following 12 cognitive domains: attention, executive functions, impulsivity/reward processing, social cognition, speed of processing, verbal fluency/language, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuo-spatial abilities and working memory. Findings revealed moderate impairment across most cognitive domains, including attention, executive functions, language/verbal fluency, verbal learning and memory, visual memory and working memory. Deficits in impulsivity/reward processing and social cognition were more prominent, whereas visual learning and visuo-spatial abilities were relatively spared cognitive domains. A publication bias was observed. These results show that MUD is associated with broad cognitive deficits that are in the same range as those associated with alcohol and cocaine use disorder, as recently shown by way of meta-analysis. The prominent effects of MUD on social cognition and impulsivity/reward processing are based on a small number of studies, and as such, these results will need to be replicated. The functional consequences (social and occupational) of the cognitive deficits of methamphetamine will also need to be determined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Face-Name Associative Recognition Deficits in Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Polcher, Alexandra; Frommann, Ingo; Koppara, Alexander; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Jessen, Frank; Wagner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for more sensitive neuropsychological tests to detect subtle cognitive deficits emerging in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associative memory is a cognitive function supported by the hippocampus and affected early in the process of AD. We developed a short computerized face-name associative recognition test (FNART) and tested whether it would detect memory impairment in memory clinic patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We recruited 61 elderly patients with either SCD (n = 32) or MCI (n = 29) and 28 healthy controls (HC) and compared performance on FNART, self-reported cognitive deterioration in different domains (ECog-39), and, in a reduced sample (n = 46), performance on the visual Paired Associates Learning of the CANTAB battery. A significant effect of group on FNART test performance in the total sample was found (p < 0.001). Planned contrasts indicated a significantly lower associative memory performance in the SCD (p = 0.001, d = 0.82) and MCI group (p < 0.001, d = 1.54), as compared to HCs, respectively. The CANTAB-PAL discriminated only between HC and MCI, possibly because of reduced statistical power. Adjusted for depression, performance on FNART was significantly related to ECog-39 Memory in SCD patients (p = 0.024) but not in MCI patients. Associative memory is substantially impaired in memory clinic patients with SCD and correlates specifically with memory complaints at this putative preclinical stage of AD. Further studies will need to examine the predictive validity of the FNART in SCD patients with regard to longitudinal (i.e., conversion to MCI/AD) and biomarker outcomes.

  1. High fat diet-induced diabetes in mice exacerbates cognitive deficit due to chronic hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Kristen L; Johnson, Lance A; Roese, Natalie E; Marzulla, Tessa; Zhang, Wenri; Nie, Xiao; Alkayed, Farah N; Hong, Christine; Grafe, Marjorie R; Pike, Martin M; Raber, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes causes endothelial dysfunction and increases the risk of vascular cognitive impairment. However, it is unknown whether diabetes causes cognitive impairment due to reductions in cerebral blood flow or through independent effects on neuronal function and cognition. We addressed this using right unilateral common carotid artery occlusion to model vascular cognitive impairment and long-term high-fat diet to model type 2 diabetes in mice. Cognition was assessed using novel object recognition task, Morris water maze, and contextual and cued fear conditioning. Cerebral blood flow was assessed using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Vascular cognitive impairment mice showed cognitive deficit in the novel object recognition task, decreased cerebral blood flow in the right hemisphere, and increased glial activation in white matter and hippocampus. Mice fed a high-fat diet displayed deficits in the novel object recognition task, Morris water maze and fear conditioning tasks and neuronal loss, but no impairments in cerebral blood flow. Compared to vascular cognitive impairment mice fed a low fat diet, vascular cognitive impairment mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited reduced cued fear memory, increased deficit in the Morris water maze, neuronal loss, glial activation, and global decrease in cerebral blood flow. We conclude that high-fat diet and chronic hypoperfusion impair cognitive function by different mechanisms, although they share commons features, and that high-fat diet exacerbates vascular cognitive impairment pathology. PMID:26661233

  2. Memory deficits with intact cognitive control in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model of neurodevelopmental insult.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kally C; Perica, Maria I; Fenton, André A

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairments are amongst the most debilitating deficits of schizophrenia and the best predictor of functional outcome. Schizophrenia is hypothesized to have a neurodevelopmental origin, making animal models of neurodevelopmental insult important for testing predictions that early insults will impair cognitive function. Rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 display morphological, physiological and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. Here we investigate the cognitive abilities of adult MAM rats. We examined brain activity in MAM rats by histochemically assessing cytochrome oxidase enzyme activity, a metabolic marker of neuronal activity. To assess cognition, we used a hippocampus-dependent two-frame active place avoidance paradigm to examine learning and spatial memory, as well as cognitive control and flexibility using the same environment and evaluating the same set of behaviors. We confirmed that adult MAM rats have altered hippocampal morphology and brain function, and that they are hyperactive in an open field. The latter likely indicates MAM rats have a sensorimotor gating deficit that is common to many animal models used for schizophrenia research. On first inspection, cognitive control seems impaired in MAM rats, indicated by more errors during the two-frame active place avoidance task. Because MAM rats are hyperactive throughout place avoidance training, we considered the possibility that the hyperlocomotion may account for the apparent cognitive deficits. These deficits were reduced on the basis of measures of cognitive performance that account for motor activity differences. However, though other aspects of memory are intact, the ability of MAM rats to express trial-to-trial memory is delayed compared to control rats. These findings suggest that spatial learning and cognitive abilities are largely intact, that the most prominent cognitive deficit is specific to acquiring memory in the MAM

  3. Cognitive-Linguistic Deficit and Speech Intelligibility in Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis is a disabling neurological disease with varied symptoms, including dysarthria and cognitive and linguistic impairments. Association between dysarthria and cognitive-linguistic deficit has not been explored in clinical multiple sclerosis studies. Aims: In patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis, the…

  4. Social Cognition Deficits: Current Position and Future Directions for Neuropsychological Interventions in Cerebrovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Njomboro, Progress

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits). In clinical settings, social cognition deficits are normally gleaned from collateral information from caregivers or from indirect inferences made from patients' performance on standard nonsocial cognitive tests. Information from these sources is however inadequate. I discuss key social cognition functions, focusing initially on deficits in emotion perception and theory of mind, two areas that have gained sizeable attention in neuroscientific research, and then extend the discussion into relatively new, less covered but crucial functions involving empathic behaviour, social awareness, social judgements, and social decision making. These functions are frequently impaired following neurological change. At present, a wide range of psychometrically robust social cognition tests is available, and this review also makes the case for their inclusion in neuropsychological assessments.

  5. Social Cognition Deficits: Current Position and Future Directions for Neuropsychological Interventions in Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits). In clinical settings, social cognition deficits are normally gleaned from collateral information from caregivers or from indirect inferences made from patients' performance on standard nonsocial cognitive tests. Information from these sources is however inadequate. I discuss key social cognition functions, focusing initially on deficits in emotion perception and theory of mind, two areas that have gained sizeable attention in neuroscientific research, and then extend the discussion into relatively new, less covered but crucial functions involving empathic behaviour, social awareness, social judgements, and social decision making. These functions are frequently impaired following neurological change. At present, a wide range of psychometrically robust social cognition tests is available, and this review also makes the case for their inclusion in neuropsychological assessments. PMID:28729755

  6. Disrupted reward circuits is associated with cognitive deficits and depression severity in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Yin, Yingying; He, Cancan; Ye, Qing; Bai, Feng; Yuan, Yonggui; Zhang, Haisan; Lv, Luxian; Zhang, Hongxing; Xie, Chunming; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show blunted activity responses to reward-related tasks. However, whether abnormal reward circuits affect cognition and depression in MDD patients remains unclear. Seventy-five drug-naive MDD patients and 42 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) were selected as seeds to construct reward circuits across all subjects. A multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to investigate the neural substrates of cognitive function and depression severity on the reward circuits in MDD patients. The common pathway underlying cognitive deficits and depression was identified with conjunction analysis. Compared with CN subjects, MDD patients showed decreased reward network connectivity that was primarily located in the prefrontal-striatal regions. Importantly, distinct and common neural pathways underlying cognition and depression were identified, implying the independent and synergistic effects of cognitive deficits and depression severity on reward circuits. This study demonstrated that disrupted topological organization within reward circuits was significantly associated with cognitive deficits and depression severity in MDD patients. These findings suggest that in addition to antidepressant treatment, normalized reward circuits should be a focus and a target for improving depression and cognitive deficits in MDD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GABA neuron alterations, cortical circuit dysfunction and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Fish, Kenneth N; Lewis, David A

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a brain disorder associated with cognitive deficits that severely affect the patients' capacity for daily functioning. Whereas our understanding of its pathophysiology is limited, postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with deficits of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission. A major role of GABA-mediated transmission may be producing synchronized network oscillations which are currently hypothesized to be essential for normal cognitive function. Therefore, cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may result from a GABA synapse dysfunction that disturbs neural synchrony. Here, we highlight recent studies further suggesting alterations of GABA transmission and network oscillations in schizophrenia. We also review current models for the mechanisms of GABA-mediated synchronization of neural activity, focusing on parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons, which are altered in schizophrenia and whose function has been strongly linked to the production of neural synchrony. Alterations of GABA signaling that impair gamma oscillations and, as a result, cognitive function suggest paths for novel therapeutic interventions.

  8. GABA Neuron Alterations, Cortical Circuit Dysfunction and Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Fish, Kenneth N.; Lewis, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a brain disorder associated with cognitive deficits that severely affect the patients' capacity for daily functioning. Whereas our understanding of its pathophysiology is limited, postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with deficits of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission. A major role of GABA-mediated transmission may be producing synchronized network oscillations which are currently hypothesized to be essential for normal cognitive function. Therefore, cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may result from a GABA synapse dysfunction that disturbs neural synchrony. Here, we highlight recent studies further suggesting alterations of GABA transmission and network oscillations in schizophrenia. We also review current models for the mechanisms of GABA-mediated synchronization of neural activity, focusing on parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons, which are altered in schizophrenia and whose function has been strongly linked to the production of neural synchrony. Alterations of GABA signaling that impair gamma oscillations and, as a result, cognitive function suggest paths for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:21904685

  9. Self-perceived cognitive deficits and occupational outcome in persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Verdoux, Hélène; Monello, Florence; Goumilloux, Régis; Cougnard, Audrey; Prouteau, Antoinette

    2010-07-30

    A two-year prospective follow-up study was used to explore whether self-perceived cognitive deficits (SPCD) predict occupational outcome in persons with schizophrenia. Cognitive complaints were assessed using the Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS) in persons with schizophrenia requesting disability status. A higher level of SPCD was associated with better occupational outcome, independently from other characteristics. Persons with better social functioning may have a higher level of metacognition allowing a greater awareness of their cognitive difficulties. Measures of cognitive complaints should be complemented by objective testing to assess potential for vocational rehabilitation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A cog in cognition: how the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is geared towards improving cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Steven C; Bowlby, Mark R; Comery, Thomas A; Dunlop, John

    2009-06-01

    Cognition, memory, and attention and arousal have been linked to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Thus it is not surprising that nAChRs have been strongly implicated as therapeutic targets for treating cognitive deficits in disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular the alpha7 (alpha7) nAChR has been closely linked with normalization of P50 auditory evoked potential (AEP) gating deficits, and to a lesser extent improvements in pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. These two brain phenomena can be considered as pre-attentive, occurring while sensory information is being processed, and are important endophenotypes in schizophrenia with deficits likely contributing to the cognitive fragmentation associated with the disease. In addition alpha7 nAChRs have been implicated in attention, in particular under high attentional demand, and in more demanding working memory tasks such as long delays in delayed matching tasks. Efficacy of alpha7 nAChR agonists across a range of cognitive processes ranging from pre-attentive to attentive states and working and recognition memory provides a solid basis for their pro-cognitive effects. This review will focus on the recent work highlighting the role of alpha7 in cognition and cognitive processes.

  11. Successful evaluation of cognitive function and the nature of cognitive deficits among people with schizophrenia in clinical rehabilitation settings.

    PubMed

    John, Alexander Panickacheril; Yeak, Kim; Ayres, Helen; Sevastos, Marie; Moore, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Despite possessing considerable relevance for planning and delivery of effective rehabilitation interventions, systematic evaluation of cognitive function is often ignored in clinical practice. This paper describes a successful method for measuring cognitive function and the nature of cognitive deficits (CD) in people with schizophrenia admitted to psychiatric rehabilitation services. Data on the cognitive functioning of consecutive patients with schizophrenia / schizoaffective disorder admitted during a 5-year period to a public in-patient rehabilitation facility was collated retrospectively and analysed. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) was used to evaluate cognitive function. It was possible to administer the BACS to 122 of 135 consecutive admissions. The mean composite score on the BACS was 1.8 standard deviations below the norm, and 43% had moderate or severe CD. The BACS sub-tests of list learning and symbol coding revealed more severe deficits. The study indicates that evaluation of cognitive function using brief instruments is feasible in psychiatric rehabilitation settings. Global and domain-specific CD were prevalent among people with schizophrenia. In view of the strong association of cognitive functioning with community functioning and rehabilitation outcomes, further studies exploring the feasibility and utility of routinely evaluating cognitive function are warranted. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Using upper limb kinematics to assess cognitive deficits in people living with both HIV and stroke.

    PubMed

    Bui, Kevin D; Rai, Roshan; Johnson, Michelle J

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we aim to explore ways to objectively assess cognitive deficits in the stroke and HIV/stroke populations, where cognitive and motor impairments can be hard to separate. Using an upper limb rehabilitation robot called the Haptic TheraDrive, we collect performance error scores and motor learning data on the impaired and unimpaired limb during a trajectory tracking task. We compare these data to clinical cognitive scores. The preliminary results suggest a possible relationship between unimpaired upper limb performance error and visuospatial/executive function cognitive domains, but more work needs to be done to further investigate this. The potential of using robot-assisted technologies to measure unimpaired limb kinematics as a tool to assess cognitive deficits would be useful to inform more effective rehabilitation strategies for HIV, stroke, and HIV/stroke populations.

  13. Hypoglycemia induced by insulin as a triggering factor of cognitive deficit in diabetic children.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Vilela, Vanessa; de Castro Ruiz Marques, Any; Schamber, Christiano Rodrigues; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of insulin-induced hypoglycemia as a triggering factor of cognitive deficit in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. For this purpose, databases from 1961 to 2013 were used with the objective of detecting the primary publications that address the impact of hypoglycemia on cognitive performance of diabetic children. The results obtained from experimental animals were excluded. The majority of studies demonstrated that the cognitive deficit in diabetic children involves multiple factors including duration, intensity, severity, and frequency of hypoglycemia episodes. Additionally, age at the onset of type 1 diabetes also influences the cognitive performance, considering that early inception of the disease is a predisposing factor for severe hypoglycemia. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is a strong correlation between brain damage caused by hypoglycemia and cognitive deterioration. Therefore, a more cautious follow-up and education are needed to impede and treat hypoglycemia in children with diabetes mellitus.

  14. Hypoglycemia Induced by Insulin as a Triggering Factor of Cognitive Deficit in Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Vilela, Vanessa; de Castro Ruiz Marques, Any; Schamber, Christiano Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of insulin-induced hypoglycemia as a triggering factor of cognitive deficit in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. For this purpose, databases from 1961 to 2013 were used with the objective of detecting the primary publications that address the impact of hypoglycemia on cognitive performance of diabetic children. The results obtained from experimental animals were excluded. The majority of studies demonstrated that the cognitive deficit in diabetic children involves multiple factors including duration, intensity, severity, and frequency of hypoglycemia episodes. Additionally, age at the onset of type 1 diabetes also influences the cognitive performance, considering that early inception of the disease is a predisposing factor for severe hypoglycemia. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is a strong correlation between brain damage caused by hypoglycemia and cognitive deterioration. Therefore, a more cautious follow-up and education are needed to impede and treat hypoglycemia in children with diabetes mellitus. PMID:24790575

  15. Review of recent studies on interventions for cognitive deficits in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Karin; Roukema, Jan Anne; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2012-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that patients with cancer experience cognitive deficits, often due to aggressive anticancer treatments. In this article, we critically review the interventional studies that have been conducted to investigate beneficial effects on cognitive function in cancer patients. Pharmacological agents that have been studied include psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and modafinil, erythropoietin, and hormonal (supplement) treatments for patients who receive hormonal suppression therapy. In addition, several cognitive rehabilitation programs have been evaluated in cancer patients. Recently, the approach of physical exercise to treat cognitive deficits has received great interest, and findings from novel studies are keenly anticipated. Although, in general, the studies reviewed were well designed, future studies may wish to include larger sample sizes and pay more attention to the accurate assessment of cognitive function.

  16. The Origins of Cognitive Deficits in Victimized Children: Implications for Neuroscientists and Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise; Bleiberg, Ben A; Dinardo, Perry B; Gandelman, Stephanie B; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Fisher, Helen L; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-04-01

    Individuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. The authors used data from two large cohort studies to address these research questions directly. The authors tested the association between prospectively collected measures of childhood violence victimization and cognitive functions in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood among 2,232 members of the U.K. E-Risk Study and 1,037 members of the New Zealand Dunedin Study who were followed up from birth until ages 18 and 38 years, respectively. Multiple measures of victimization and cognition were used, and comparisons were made of cognitive scores for twins discordant for victimization. Individuals exposed to childhood victimization had pervasive impairments in clinically relevant cognitive functions, including general intelligence, executive function, processing speed, memory, perceptual reasoning, and verbal comprehension in adolescence and adulthood. However, the observed cognitive deficits in victimized individuals were largely explained by cognitive deficits that predated childhood victimization and by confounding genetic and environmental risks. Findings from two population-representative birth cohorts totaling more than 3,000 individuals and born 20 years and 20,000 km apart suggest that the association between childhood violence victimization and later cognition is largely noncausal, in contrast to conventional interpretations. These findings support the adoption of a more circumspect approach to causal inference in the neuroscience of stress. Clinically, cognitive deficits should be conceptualized as individual risk factors for victimization as well as potential complicating features during treatment.

  17. THE ORIGINS OF COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN VICTIMIZED CHILDREN: IMPLICATIONS FOR NEUROSCIENTISTS AND CLINICIANS

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise; Bleiberg, Ben A; Dinardo, Perry B; Gandelman, Stephanie B; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Fisher, Helen; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. We directly tested these research gaps. METHOD We tested the association between prospectively-collected measures of childhood violence victimization and cognitive functions in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood among 2,232 members of the UK E-Risk Study and 1,037 members of the New Zealand Dunedin Study, who were followed-up from birth until ages 18 and 38 years, respectively. We used multiple measures of victimization and cognition, and included comparisons of cognitive scores for twins discordant for victimization. RESULTS We found that individuals exposed to childhood victimization had pervasive impairments in clinically-relevant cognitive functions including general intelligence, executive function, processing speed, memory, perceptual reasoning, and verbal comprehension in adolescence and adulthood. However, the observed cognitive deficits in victimized individuals were largely explained by cognitive deficits that predated childhood victimization and by confounding genetic and environmental risks. CONCLUSIONS Findings from two population-representative birth cohorts totaling more than 3,000 individuals and born 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart suggest that the association between childhood violence victimization and later cognition is largely non-causal, in contrast to conventional interpretations. These findings urge adopting a more circumspect approach to causal inference in the neuroscience of stress. Clinically, cognitive deficits should be conceptualized as individual risk factors for victimization as well as potential complicating features during treatment. PMID:27794691

  18. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, N.; Effendy, E.; Amin, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive impairment as the main part. BDNF regulates aspects of developmental plasticity in the brain and is involved in cognitive function. Cognitive functions include capabilities such as attention, executive functioning, assessing, monitoring and evaluating. The aim of the study was to know the BDNF levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits. The study was held in October 2016 - March 2017, and was the first in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatra. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the University of North Sumatera. The study is descriptive based on a retrospective method with cross-sectional approach. The subject is 40 male schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits were assessed by MoCA-Ina. BDNF serum levels were analyzed using the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The average MoCA-Ina score is 21.03±5.21. This suggests that there is a cognitive function deficit in schizophrenic patients. The mean serum BDNF level was 26629±6762. MoCA-Ina scores in schizophrenic patients <26 who experienced a deficit of 77.5% and serum BDNF levels with normal values ranging from 6.186 to 42.580pg/ml.

  19. Olanzapine Reverses MK-801-Induced Cognitive Deficits and Region-Specific Alterations of NMDA Receptor Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Jitao; Guo, Chunmei; Wang, Hongli; Sun, Yaxin; Wang, Han; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Keqing; Si, Tianmei

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction constitutes an essential component in schizophrenia for its early presence in the pathophysiology of the disease and close relatedness to life quality of patients. To develop effective treatment of cognitive deficits, it is important to understand their neurobiological causes and to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this study, adopting repeated MK-801 treatment as an animal model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether antipsychotic drugs, olanzapine and haloperidol, can reverse MK-801-induced cognitive deficits and how the reversal processes recruited proteins involved in glutamate neurotransmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. We found that low-dose chronic MK-801 treatment impaired object-in-context recognition memory and reversal learning in the Morris water maze, leaving reference memory relatively unaffected, and that these cognitive deficits can be partially reversed by olanzapine, not haloperidol, treatment. At the molecular level, chronic MK-801 treatment resulted in the reduction of multiple N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in rat mPFC and olanzapine, not haloperidol, treatment restored the levels of GluN1 and phosphorylated GluN2B in this region. Taken together, MK-801-induced cognitive deficits may be associated with region-specific changes in NMDA receptor subunits and the reversal of specific NMDA receptor subunits may underlie the cognition-enhancing effects of olanzapine. PMID:29375333

  20. Temporary microglia-depletion after cosmic radiation modifies phagocytic activity and prevents cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Karen; Feng, Xi; Paladini, Maria Serena; Chou, Austin; Sacramento, Kristen; Grue, Katherine; Riparip, Lara-Kirstie; Jones, Tamako; Campbell-Beachler, Mary; Nelson, Gregory; Rosi, Susanna

    2018-05-18

    Microglia are the main immune component in the brain that can regulate neuronal health and synapse function. Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause long-term cognitive impairments in rodent models thereby presenting potential obstacles for astronauts engaged in deep space travel. The mechanism/s for how cosmic radiation induces cognitive deficits are currently unknown. We find that temporary microglia depletion, one week after cosmic radiation, prevents the development of long-term memory deficits. Gene array profiling reveals that acute microglia depletion alters the late neuroinflammatory response to cosmic radiation. The repopulated microglia present a modified functional phenotype with reduced expression of scavenger receptors, lysosome membrane protein and complement receptor, all shown to be involved in microglia-synapses interaction. The lower phagocytic activity observed in the repopulated microglia is paralleled by improved synaptic protein expression. Our data provide mechanistic evidence for the role of microglia in the development of cognitive deficits after cosmic radiation exposure.

  1. Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; VanDerNagel, Joanne El; Korzilius, Hubert Plm; Engels, Rutger Cme

    2018-03-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers. Participants ( N = 474) were divided into four groups based on IQ and severity of alcohol use-related problems. IQ was estimated using (a short form of) the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale third edition. Severity of alcohol use-related problems was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Overall, there were no significant differences between light and problematic drinkers on estimated VIQ. Within the group without MBID, estimated PIQ was significantly lower. Estimated PIQ was not lower in problematic drinkers with MBID compared to light drinkers with MBID. The results are indicative of cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers without MBID. Screening for cognitive deficits with additional instruments is advised.

  2. Color discrimination deficits in Parkinson's disease are related to cognitive impairment and white-matter alterations.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Josie-Anne; Bedetti, Christophe; Postuma, Ronald B; Monchi, Oury; Génier Marchand, Daphné; Jubault, Thomas; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    Color discrimination deficit is a common nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the pathophysiology of this dysfunction remains poorly understood. Although retinal structure changes found in PD have been suggested to cause color discrimination deficits, the impact of cognitive impairment and cortical alterations remains to be determined. We investigated the contribution of cognitive impairment to color discrimination deficits in PD and correlated them with cortical anomalies. Sixty-six PD patients without dementia and 20 healthy controls performed the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test and underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for mild cognitive impairment diagnosis. In a subgroup of 26 PD patients, we also used high-definition neuroanatomical magnetic resonance imaging for cortical thickness and diffusion tensor analysis. PD patients with mild cognitive impairment performed poorly on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test compared with PD patients without mild cognitive impairment and controls. In PD patients, performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test was correlated with measures of visuospatial abilities and executive functions. Neuroimaging analysis revealed higher mean and radial diffusivity values in right posterior white-matter structures that correlated with poor performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. No cortical thickness correlation reached significance. This study showed that cognitive impairment makes a major contribution to the color discrimination deficits reported in PD. Thus, performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test may reflect cognitive impairment more than color discrimination deficits in PD. Poor performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test was also associated with white-matter alterations in right posterior brain regions. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Gray matter morphological anomalies in the cerebellar vermis in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjuan; Zhou, Li; Cui, Chunlei; Liu, Zhening; Lu, Jie

    2017-11-22

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early schizophrenia. However, the pathological foundations underlying cognitive deficits are still unknown. The present study examined the association between gray matter density and cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 34 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to working memory task performance. The three groups were well matched for age, gender, and education, and the two patient groups were also further matched for diagnosis, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed to estimate changes in gray matter density in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits. The relationships between gray matter density and clinical outcomes were explored. Patients with cognitive deficits were found to have reduced gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum compared with patients without cognitive deficits and healthy controls, decreased gray matter density in left supplementary motor area, bilateral precentral gyrus compared with patients without cognitive deficits. Classifier results showed GMD in cerebellar vermis tonsil cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from controls, left supplementary motor area cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from SZ-NCD. Gray matter density values of the cerebellar vermis cluster in patients groups were positively correlated with cognitive severity. Decreased gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum may underlie early psychosis and serve as a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia with cognitive deficits.

  4. Deficits in Domains of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Savla, Gauri N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Social cognition is strongly associated with functional outcome in schizophrenia, making it an important target for treatment. Our goal was to examine the average magnitude of differences between schizophrenia patients (SCs) and normal comparison (NCs) patients across multiple domains of social cognition recognized by the recent NIMH consensus statement: theory of mind (ToM), social perception, social knowledge, attributional bias, emotion perception, and emotion processing. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed studies of social cognition in schizophrenia, published between 1980 and November, 2011. Results: 112 studies reporting results from 3908 SCs and 3570 NCs met our inclusion criteria. SCs performed worse than NCs across all domains, with large effects for social perception (g = 1.04), ToM (g = 0.96), emotion perception (g = 0.89), and emotion processing (g = 0.88). Regression analyses showed that statistically significant heterogeneity in effects within domains was not explained by age, education, or gender. Greater deficits in social and emotion perception were associated with inpatient status, and greater deficits in emotion processing were associated with longer illness duration. Conclusions: Despite the limitations of existing studies, including lack of standardization or psychometric validation of measures, the evidence for deficits across multiple social cognitive domains in schizophrenia is clear. Future research should examine the role of neurobiological and psychosocial factors in models linking various aspects of deficit in schizophrenia, including social cognition, in order to identify targets for intervention. PMID:22949733

  5. Mangiferin regulates cognitive deficits and heme oxygenase-1 induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanyan; Liu, Hongzhi; Song, Chengjie; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Yi; Wu, Jian; Wen, Xiangru; Liang, Chen; Ma, Kai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Xunbao; Shao, Xiaoping; Sun, Yafeng; Du, Yang; Song, Yuanjian

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to cognitive deficits. Mangiferin, a natural glucoxilxanthone, is known to possess various biological activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of mangiferin on LPS-induced cognitive deficits and explore the underlying mechanisms. Brain injury was induced in mice via intraperitoneal LPS injection (1mg/kg) for five consecutive days. Mangiferin was orally pretreatmented (50mg/kg) for seven days and then treatmented (50mg/kg) for five days after LPS injection. The Morris water maze was used to detect changes in cognitive function. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting were respectively performed to measure the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the hippocampus. The results showed that mangiferin can ameliorate cognitive deficits. Moreover, mangiferin decreased LPS-induced IL-6 production and increase HO-1 in the hippocampus. Taken together, these results suggest that mangiferin attenuates LPS-induced cognitive deficits, which may be potentially linked to modulating HO-1 in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cognitive Deficits and Related Brain Lesions in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anna; Sell, Roxane; Homola, György A; Malsch, Carolin; Kraft, Peter; Gunreben, Ignaz; Morbach, Caroline; Alkonyi, Bálint; Schmid, Eric; Colonna, Isabella; Hofer, Edith; Müllges, Wolfgang; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter; Solymosi, László; Schmidt, Reinhold; Störk, Stefan; Stoll, Guido

    2018-05-31

    This study sought to determine the spectrum of brain lesions seen in heart failure (HF) patients and the extent to which lesion type contributes to cognitive impairment. Cognitive deficits have been reported in patients with HF. A total of 148 systolic and diastolic HF patients (mean age 64 ± 11 years; 16% female; mean left ventricular ejection fraction 43 ± 8%) were extensively evaluated within 2 days by cardiological, neurological, and neuropsychological testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 288 healthy, sex- and age-matched subjects sampled from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study served as MRI controls. Deficits in reaction times were apparent in 41% of patients and deficits in verbal memory in 46%. On brain MRI, patients showed more advanced medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (Scheltens score) compared to controls (2.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.0 ± 0.6; p < 0.001). The degree of MTA was strongly associated with the severity of cognitive impairment, whereas the extent of white matter hyperintensities was similar in patients and controls. Moreover, patients had a 2.7-fold increased risk for presence of clinically silent lacunes. HF patients exhibit cognitive deficits in the domains of attention and memory. MTA but not white matter lesion load seems to be related to cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural correlates of cognitive deficit and elevated gamma noise power in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Vanessa; Díez, Álvaro; Montes, Carlos; Molina, Vicente

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relation between cognition, gray matter (GM) volumes and gamma noise power (amount of background oscillatory activity in the gamma band) in schizophrenia. We explored the relation between cognitive performance and regional GM volumes using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), in order to discover if the association between gamma noise power (an electroencephalography measurement of background activity in the gamma band) and cognition is observed through structural deficits related to the disease. Noise power, magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive assessments were obtained in 17 drug-free paranoid patients with schizophrenia and 13 healthy controls. In comparison with controls, patients showed GM deficits at posterior cingulate (bilateral),left inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus) and left inferior dorsolateral prefrontal regions. Patients exhibited a direct association between performance in working memory and right temporal (superior and inferior gyri) GM densities. They also displayed a negative association between right anterior cerebellum volume and gamma noise power at the frontal midline (Fz) site. A structural deficit in the cerebellum may be involved in gamma activity disorganization in schizophrenia. Temporal structural deficits may relate to cognitive dysfunction in this illness. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Deficits in social cognition and response flexibility in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin B; Treland, Julia E; Snow, Joseph; Schmajuk, Mariana; Dickstein, Daniel P; Towbin, Kenneth E; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-09-01

    Little is known about neuropsychological and social-cognitive function in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder. Identification of specific deficits and strengths that characterize pediatric bipolar disorder would facilitate advances in diagnosis, treatment, and research on pathophysiology. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that youths with bipolar disorder would perform more poorly than matched healthy comparison subjects on measures of social cognition, motor inhibition, and response flexibility. Forty outpatients with pediatric bipolar disorder and 22 comparison subjects (no differences in age, gender, and IQ) completed measures of social cognition (the pragmatic judgment subtest of the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language, facial expression recognition subtests of the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy Scale, the oral expression subtest of the Test of Language Competence), inhibition and response flexibility (stop and stop-change tasks), and motor inhibition (continuous performance tasks). Pediatric bipolar disorder patients performed more poorly than comparison subjects on social-cognitive measures (pragmatic judgment of language, facial expression recognition) and on a task requiring response flexibility. These deficits were present in euthymic patients. Differences between patients and comparison subjects could not be attributed to comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Findings of impaired social cognition and response flexibility in youths with pediatric bipolar disorder suggest continuity between pediatric bipolar disorder and adult bipolar disorder. These findings provide a foundation for neurocognitive research designed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits.

  9. Depression and helplessness-induced cognitive deficits in the aged.

    PubMed

    Kennelly, K J; Hayslip, B; Richardson, S K

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-six community-residing elderly (mean age = 72.5) were categorized as depressed (mean = 11.3) or nondepressed (mean = 3.9) based on Beck Depression Inventory scores. After a pre-test battery measuring short-term memory and crystallized/fluid intelligence, the subjects responded to a word association task, disguised as a test of interpersonal empathy, under response dependent or response independent reinforcement conditions, or were assigned to a no treatment control. A post-test battery of alternate forms followed. Four of seven measures showed significant pre- to post-test declines in performance. For two of these four, response dependent reinforcement prevented otherwise significant declines. With pre-test differences statistically controlled, depression produced significant post-test deficits in three measures. Response dependent reinforcement eliminated this depression deficit in one measure. The results indicate that depression may exacerbate fatigue effects for the elderly and response dependent reinforcement may prevent fatigue-caused deficits in short-term memory.

  10. Profile of cognitive deficits and associations with depressive symptoms and intelligence in chronic early-onset schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Christensen, Anne Marie Raaberg; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in several domains have been demonstrated in early-onset schizophrenia patients but their profile and relation to depressive symptoms and intelligence need further characterization. The purpose was to characterize the profile of cognitive deficits in chronic, early-onset schizophrenia patients, assess the potential associations with depressive symptom severity, and examine whether cognitive deficits within several domains reflect intelligence impairments. This study compared attention, visual-construction, aspects of visual and verbal memory, and executive functions in chronic, early-onset schizophrenia patients (mean age = 20.7 years) (N = 18) and healthy controls (N = 38). Schizophrenia diagnoses were established at the time of the patients' first clinical presentation during childhood or adolescence and were confirmed five years later. In the chronic phase of early-onset schizophrenia, significant deficits were observed in all specific cognitive functions. The profile of cognitive deficits was jagged, and visual-construction, attention, and one aspect of verbal memory (verbal stories recall) were differentially impaired. Deficits of visual recall, visual recognition, and executive functions were accounted for by deficits in intelligence, while this was not the case for deficits of verbal recall of stories or attention. No significant associations were observed between the severity of cognitive deficits and that of depressive symptoms. Chronic, early-onset schizophrenia is characterized by a broad and jagged profile of cognitive deficits. Deficits of attention and verbal recall of stories appear not to be accounted for by deficits in intelligence, and the severity of cognitive deficits seems independent from that of depressive symptoms. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  11. Ursolic acid improves domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dong-mei; Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province; Lu, Jun, E-mail: lu-jun75@163.com

    Our previous findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is the mechanism underlying cognitive deficits induced by domoic acid (DA). Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, possesses many important biological functions. Evidence shows that UA can activate PI3K/Akt signaling and suppress Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) activity. FoxO1 is an important regulator of mitochondrial function. Here we investigate whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in DA-treated mice and whether UA inhibits DA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through regulating the PI3K/Akt and FoxO1 signaling pathways. Our results showed that FoxO1 knockdown reversed the mitochondrial abnormalities and cognitivemore » deficits induced by DA in mice through decreasing HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, FoxO1 activation was associated with oxidative stress-induced JNK activation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through promoting Akt phosphorylation and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in the hippocampus of DA-treated mice. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling, significantly decreased Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus of DA/UA mice, which weakened UA actions. These results suggest that UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic brain disorders. - Highlights: • Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally triterpenoid compound. • UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits. • Mechanistically, UA activates PI3K/Akt signaling and suppresses FoxO1 activity. • UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for anti-excitotoxic brain disorders.« less

  12. Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits: The Role of Fat and Sugar, Potential Mechanisms and Nutritional Interventions.

    PubMed

    Beilharz, Jessica E; Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-08-12

    It is of vital importance to understand how the foods which are making us fat also act to impair cognition. In this review, we compare the effects of acute and chronic exposure to high-energy diets on cognition and examine the relative contributions of fat (saturated and polyunsaturated) and sugar to these deficits. Hippocampal-dependent memory appears to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of high-energy diets and these deficits can occur rapidly and prior to weight gain. More chronic diet exposure seems necessary however to impair other sorts of memory. Many potential mechanisms have been proposed to underlie diet-induced cognitive decline and we will focus on inflammation and the neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, given supplementation of diets with omega-3 and curcumin has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function in healthy ageing humans and in disease states, we will discuss how these nutritional interventions may attenuate diet-induced cognitive decline. We hope this approach will provide important insights into the causes of diet-induced cognitive deficits, and inform the development of novel therapeutics to prevent or ameliorate such memory impairments.

  13. Battery for ECT Related Cognitive Deficits (B4ECT-ReCoDe): development and validation.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Biju; Harihara, Shashidhara N; Nahar, Abhinav; Phutane, Vivek Haridas; Taksal, Aarati; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-06-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treatment of psychiatric disorders is associated with adverse cognitive effects. There is a need to develop a short assessment tool of cognitive functions during the course of ECT. This study aimed at developing and validating a short, sensitive battery to assess cognitive deficits associated with ECT in India. Battery for ECT Related Cognitive Deficits (B4ECT-ReCoDe), a brief cognitive battery (20-30 min) to assess verbal, visual, working and autobiographic memory, sustained attention, psychomotor speed and subjective memory impairment, was administered to 30 in-patients receiving bilateral ECT, one day after the 1st, 3rd and 6th ECT. Data was analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation. Significant deficits were found in verbal, visual and autobiographic memory, psychomotor speed. Subjective experience of memory loss correlated positively with verbal memory impairment. B4ECT-ReCoDe, a brief, sensitive measure of cognitive impairments associated with ECT can be used in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modafinil Reverses Phencyclidine-Induced Deficits in Cognitive Flexibility, Cerebral Metabolism, and Functional Brain Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Neil; Thompson, Rhiannon J.; McVie, Allan; Thomson, David M.; Morris, Brian J.; Pratt, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we employ mathematical modeling (partial least squares regression, PLSR) to elucidate the functional connectivity signatures of discrete brain regions in order to identify the functional networks subserving PCP-induced disruption of distinct cognitive functions and their restoration by the procognitive drug modafinil. Methods: We examine the functional connectivity signatures of discrete brain regions that show overt alterations in metabolism, as measured by semiquantitative 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography, in an animal model (subchronic phencyclidine [PCP] treatment), which shows cognitive inflexibility with relevance to the cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. Results: We identify the specific components of functional connectivity that contribute to the rescue of this cognitive inflexibility and to the restoration of overt cerebral metabolism by modafinil. We demonstrate that modafinil reversed both the PCP-induced deficit in the ability to switch attentional set and the PCP-induced hypometabolism in the prefrontal (anterior prelimbic) and retrosplenial cortices. Furthermore, modafinil selectively enhanced metabolism in the medial prelimbic cortex. The functional connectivity signatures of these regions identified a unifying functional subsystem underlying the influence of modafinil on cerebral metabolism and cognitive flexibility that included the nucleus accumbens core and locus coeruleus. In addition, these functional connectivity signatures identified coupling events specific to each brain region, which relate to known anatomical connectivity. Conclusions: These data support clinical evidence that modafinil may alleviate cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and also demonstrate the benefit of applying PLSR modeling to characterize functional brain networks in translational models relevant to central nervous system dysfunction. PMID:20810469

  15. Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits: The Role of Fat and Sugar, Potential Mechanisms and Nutritional Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beilharz, Jessica E.; Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    It is of vital importance to understand how the foods which are making us fat also act to impair cognition. In this review, we compare the effects of acute and chronic exposure to high-energy diets on cognition and examine the relative contributions of fat (saturated and polyunsaturated) and sugar to these deficits. Hippocampal-dependent memory appears to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of high-energy diets and these deficits can occur rapidly and prior to weight gain. More chronic diet exposure seems necessary however to impair other sorts of memory. Many potential mechanisms have been proposed to underlie diet-induced cognitive decline and we will focus on inflammation and the neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, given supplementation of diets with omega-3 and curcumin has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function in healthy ageing humans and in disease states, we will discuss how these nutritional interventions may attenuate diet-induced cognitive decline. We hope this approach will provide important insights into the causes of diet-induced cognitive deficits, and inform the development of novel therapeutics to prevent or ameliorate such memory impairments. PMID:26274972

  16. Memory deficits for facial identity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    PubMed

    Savaskan, Egemen; Summermatter, Daniel; Schroeder, Clemens; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2018-01-01

    Faces are among the most relevant social stimuli revealing an encounter's identity and actual emotional state. Deficits in facial recognition may be an early sign of cognitive decline leading to social deficits. The main objective of the present study is to investigate if individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment show recognition deficits in facial identity. Thirty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, multiple-domain (15 female; age: 75±8 yrs.) and forty-one healthy volunteers (24 female; age 71±6 yrs.) participated. All participants completed a human portrait memory test presenting unfamiliar faces with happy and angry emotional expressions. Five and thirty minutes later, old and new neutral faces were presented, and discrimination sensitivity (d') and response bias (C) were assessed as signal detection parameters of cued facial identity recognition. Memory performance was lower in amnestic mild cognitive impairment as compared to control subjects, mainly because of an altered response bias towards an increased false alarm rate (favoring false OLD ascription of NEW items). In both groups, memory performance declined between the early and later testing session, and was always better for acquired happy than angry faces. Facial identity memory is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Liberalization of the response bias may reflect a socially motivated compensatory mechanism maintaining an almost identical recognition hit rate of OLD faces in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

  17. The Comprehension of Syntactic and Affective Prosody by Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Cognitive Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martzoukou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Despina; Kosmidis, Mary-Helen

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the comprehension of syntactic and affective prosody in adults with autism spectrum disorder without accompanying cognitive deficits (ASD w/o cognitive deficits) as well as age-, education- and gender-matched unimpaired adults, while processing orally presented sentences. Two experiments were conducted: (a) an…

  18. The Turner Syndrome: Cognitive Deficits, Affective Discrimination, and Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…

  19. Edaravone alleviates Alzheimer's disease-type pathologies and cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Fan; Lu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Chi; Shen, Lin-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Ye-Ran; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Parikh, Ankit; Chen, Jia; Liang, Chun-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Bu, Xian-Le; Deng, Juan; Li, Jing; Xu, Juan; Zeng, Yue-Qin; Xu, Xiang; Xu, Hai-Wei; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-04-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of most devastating diseases affecting elderly people. Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and the downstream pathological events such as oxidative stress play critical roles in pathogenesis of AD. Lessons from failures of current clinical trials suggest that targeting multiple key pathways of the AD pathogenesis is necessary to halt the disease progression. Here we show that Edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is marketed for acute ischemic stroke, has a potent capacity of inhibiting Aβ aggregation and attenuating Aβ-induced oxidation in vitro. When given before or after the onset of Aβ deposition via i.p. injection, Edaravone substantially reduces Aβ deposition, alleviates oxidative stress, attenuates the downstream pathologies including Tau hyperphosphorylation, glial activation, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, synaptic dysfunction, and rescues the behavioral deficits of APPswe/PS1 mice. Oral administration of Edaravone also ameliorates the AD-like pathologies and memory deficits of the mice. These findings suggest that Edaravone holds a promise as a therapeutic agent for AD by targeting multiple key pathways of the disease pathogenesis.

  20. Understanding Cognitive Deficits in Parkinson's Disease: Lessons from Preclinical Animal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Nicola; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Fisone, Gilberto; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has been, until recently, mainly defined by the presence of characteristic motor symptoms, such as rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia/akinesia, and postural instability. Accordingly, pharmacological and surgical treatments have so far addressed these motor disturbances, leaving nonmotor, cognitive deficits an unmet…

  1. Cognitive Deficits in Problematic Drinkers with and without Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; VanDerNagel, Joanne E. L.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2018-01-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers. Participants (N = 474) were divided into four groups based…

  2. Teacher Beliefs and Responses toward Student Misbehavior: Influence of Cognitive Skill Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Susan Crandall; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether having knowledge of student cognitive skill deficits changes teacher beliefs and responses in regard to classroom misbehavior. Teachers (N = 272) were randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Although teachers in both conditions read the same vignette describing a student's misbehavior, the…

  3. Correlation between insight dimensions and cognitive functions in patients with deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Dantas, Clarissa R; Banzato, Claudio E M; Fuentes, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown correlations between poor insight and neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Deficit schizophrenia has been associated with worse cognitive functioning and poorer insight. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between insight dimensions (measured by Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded Version and its factors) and specific neurocognitive functions (assessed through a battery of neuropsychological tests) considering separately patients with deficit (n=29) and nondeficit schizophrenia (n=44), categorized according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. We found that working memory correlated positively and significantly with awareness of mental illness in both groups. In nondeficit group, awareness of mental illness correlated additionally with verbal fluency and attention. If confirmed by further studies, these results may have important consequences, such as the need of tailoring differently cognitive rehabilitation for each group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of decompressive surgery on prognosis and cognitive deficits in herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Midi, Ipek; Tuncer, Nese; Midi, Ahmet; Mollahasanoglu, Aynur; Konya, Deniz; Sav, Aydin

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious viral infection with a high rate of mortality. The most commonly seen complications are behavioral changes, seizures and memory deficits. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with HSE in the right temporal lobe and a severe midline shift who was treated with acyclovir. The patient underwent anterior temporal lobe resection. Although HSE can cause permanent cognitive deficits, in this case, early surgical intervention minimized any deficit, as determined by detailed neuropsychological examination. Surgical decompression is indicated as early as possible in severe cases. This case report emphasizes the effect of surgical decompression for HSE on cognitive function, which has rarely been mentioned before.

  5. Effects of Decompressive Surgery on Prognosis and Cognitive Deficits in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Midi, Ipek; Tuncer, Nese; Midi, Ahmet; Mollahasanoglu, Aynur; Konya, Deniz; Sav, Aydın

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious viral infection with a high rate of mortality. The most commonly seen complications are behavioral changes, seizures and memory deficits. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with HSE in the right temporal lobe and a severe midline shift who was treated with acyclovir. The patient underwent anterior temporal lobe resection. Although HSE can cause permanent cognitive deficits, in this case, early surgical intervention minimized any deficit, as determined by detailed neuropsychological examination. Surgical decompression is indicated as early as possible in severe cases. This case report emphasizes the effect of surgical decompression for HSE on cognitive function, which has rarely been mentioned before. PMID:18430984

  6. The abolishment of anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment by timely protection of mitochondria in the developing rat brain: the importance of free oxygen radicals and mitochondrial integrity.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, A; Starr, J A; Sanchez, V; Lunardi, N; DiGruccio, M R; Ori, C; Erisir, A; Trimmer, P; Bennett, J; Jevtovic-Todorovic, V

    2012-03-01

    Early exposure to general anesthesia (GA) causes developmental neuroapoptosis in the mammalian brain and long-term cognitive impairment. Recent evidence suggests that GA also causes functional and morphological impairment of the immature neuronal mitochondria. Injured mitochondria could be a significant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, if not scavenged in timely fashion, may cause excessive lipid peroxidation and damage of cellular membranes. We examined whether early exposure to GA results in ROS upregulation and whether mitochondrial protection and ROS scavenging prevent GA-induced pathomorphological and behavioral impairments. We exposed 7-day-old rats to GA with or without either EUK-134, a synthetic ROS scavenger, or R(+) pramipexole (PPX), a synthetic aminobenzothiazol derivative that restores mitochondrial integrity. We found that GA causes extensive ROS upregulation and lipid peroxidation, as well as mitochondrial injury and neuronal loss in the subiculum. As compared to rats given only GA, those also given PPX or EUK-134 had significantly downregulated lipid peroxidation, preserved mitochondrial integrity, and significantly less neuronal loss. The subiculum is highly intertwined with the hippocampal CA1 region, anterior thalamic nuclei, and both entorhinal and cingulate cortices; hence, it is important in cognitive development. We found that PPX or EUK-134 co-treatment completely prevented GA-induced cognitive impairment. Because mitochondria are vulnerable to GA-induced developmental neurotoxicity, they could be an important therapeutic target for adjuvant therapy aimed at improving the safety of commonly used GAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Finger agnosia and cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew S; Trotter, Jeffrey S; Hertza, Jeremy; Bell, Christopher D; Dean, Raymond S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of finger agnosia in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine if level of finger agnosia was related to cognitive impairment. Finger agnosia is a sensitive measure of cerebral impairment and is associated with neurofunctional areas implicated in AD. Using a standardized and norm-referenced approach, results indicated that patients with AD evidenced significantly decreased performance on tests of bilateral finger agnosia compared with healthy age-matched controls. Finger agnosia was predictive of cognitive dysfunction on four of seven domains, including: Crystallized Language, Fluid Processing, Associative Learning, and Processing Speed. Results suggest that measures of finger agnosia, a short and simple test, may be useful in the early detection of AD.

  8. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  9. Cognitive deficits associated with combined HIV gp120 expression and chronic methamphetamine exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is common among individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Neurocognitive outcomes tend to be worse in methamphetamine users with HIV. However, it is unclear whether discrete cognitive domains are susceptible to impairment after combined HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse. The expression of HIV/gp120 protein induces neuropathology in mice similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine exposure and gp120 expression on cognitive function in transgenic (gp120-tg) and control mice. The mice underwent an escalating methamphetamine binge regimen and were tested in novel object/location recognition, object-in-place recognition, and Barnes maze tests. gp120 expression disrupted performance in the object-in-place test (i.e. similar time spent with all objects, regardless of location), indicating deficits in associative recognition memory. gp120 expression also altered reversal learning in the Barnes maze, suggesting impairments in executive function. Methamphetamine exposure impaired spatial strategy in the Barnes maze, indicating deficits in spatial learning. Methamphetamine-exposed gp120-tg mice had the lowest spatial strategy scores in the final acquisition trials in the Barnes maze, suggesting greater deficits in spatial learning than all of the other groups. Although HIV infection involves interactions between multiple proteins and processes, in addition to gp120, our findings in gp120-tg mice suggest that humans with the dual insult of HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse may exhibit a broader spectrum of cognitive deficits than those with either factor alone. Depending on the cognitive domain, the combination of both insults may exacerbate deficits in cognitive performance compared with each individual insult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive deficits associated with combined HIV gp120 expression and chronic methamphetamine exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kesby, James P.; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is common among individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Neurocognitive outcomes tend to be worse in methamphetamine users with HIV. However, it is unclear whether discrete cognitive domains are susceptible to impairment after combined HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse. The expression of HIV/gp120 protein induces neuropathology in mice similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine exposure and gp120 expression on cognitive function in transgenic (gp120-tg) and control mice. The mice underwent an escalating methamphetamine binge regimen and were tested in novel object/location recognition, object-in-place recognition, and Barnes maze tests. gp120 expression disrupted performance in the object-in-place test (i.e., similar time spent with all objects, regardless of location), indicating deficits in associative recognition memory. gp120 expression also altered reversal learning in the Barnes maze, suggesting impairments in executive function. Methamphetamine exposure impaired spatial strategy in the Barnes maze, indicating deficits in spatial learning. Methamphetamine-exposed gp120-tg mice had the lowest spatial strategy scores in the final acquisition trials in the Barnes maze, suggesting greater deficits in spatial learning than all of the other groups. Although HIV infection involves interactions between multiple proteins and processes, in addition to gp120, our findings in gp120-tg mice suggest that humans with the dual insult of HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse may exhibit a broader spectrum of cognitive deficits than those with either factor alone. Depending on the cognitive domain, the combination of both insults may exacerbate deficits in cognitive performance compared with each individual insult. PMID:25476577

  11. Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jie; Zhou, Qiong; Du, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Miao; Zhang, Zhuo; Xi, Ye; Li, Zhuyi; Miao, Jianting

    2014-08-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a critical causative factor for the development of cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, which involves many pathophysiological processes. Consequently, inhibition of several pathophysiological pathways is an attractive therapeutic strategy for this disorder. Rutin, a biologically active flavonoid, protects the brain against several insults through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cognitive deficits and brain damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of rutin on cognitive impairments and the potential mechanisms underlying its action in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. We used Sprague-Dawley rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a well-established model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. After rutin treatment for 12 weeks, the neuroprotective effect of rutin in rats was evaluated by behavioural tests, biochemical and histopathological analyses. BCCAO rats showed marked cognitive deficits, which were improved by rutin treatment. Moreover, BCCAO rats exhibited central cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammatory responses and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, compared with sham-operated rats. All these effects were significantly alleviated by treatment with rutin. Our results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of rutin and suggest that rutin has multi-targeted therapeutical potential on cognitive deficits associated with conditions with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion such as vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Mentalization deficit in bipolar patients during an acute depressive and manic episode: association with cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Anna; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2017-12-06

    A number of studies in bipolar patients have shown a deficit in mentalization (theory of mind), one of the main aspects of social cognition. The aim of current study was to assess both cognitive and affective mentalization in well-defined groups of depressed and manic bipolar patients, compared to healthy control subjects, using a battery of tests measuring mentalization processes. The second aim was to investigate a possible relationship between cognitive and affective mentalization and cognitive functions in bipolar patients during a depressive and manic episode. The study involved 25 bipolar disorder type I patients (10 male, 15 female) during a depressive episode (mean 24 ± 2 points in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and 25 patients (10 male, 15 female) during a manic episode (mean 27 ± 4 points in the Young Mania Rating Scale). The control group consisted of 25 healthy subjects (10 male, 15 female) without psychiatric disorders. To measure mentalization, a revised version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (R-MET), the Strange Stories (SS), the Faux Pas Recognition (FPR), and the Moving Shapes Paradigm (MSP) tests were used. Assessment of cognitive functioning was made using the Digit Span, Trail Making, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Tests. In bipolar patients significant deficits in both cognitive and affective mentalization were demonstrated during both acute depressive and manic episodes. The impairment in FPR in manic patients was more severe than that in the depressive ones. On the other hand, in MSP, manic patients showed significantly increased intentionality for non-mentalization animations, compared with depressive patients and for "cause and effect" animations compared with control subjects. A significant relationship was found between the decrease in cognitive and affective mentalization and deficits of cognitive functions during both the depressive and manic episodes. The results obtained confirm the deficits of mentalization in

  13. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response and cognitive deficits in experimental model of chronic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Patro, Ishan; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that glial cells play a critical role in inflammation in chronic epilepsy, contributing to perpetuation of seizures and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effect of curcumin, a polyphenol with pleiotropic properties, on cognitive deficits and inflammation in chronic epilepsy. Kindled model of epilepsy was induced by administering sub-convulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) at 40 mg/kg, i.p. every alternative day for 30 days to Wistar rats. The animals were assessed for cognitive deficits by Morris water maze and inflammatory response in terms of microglial and astrocyte activation. PTZ treated animals had increased escape latency suggesting impaired cognitive functions. Further, an increased expression of astrocyte (GFAP) and microglial (Iba-1) activation markers were observed in terms of mRNA and protein levels in the PTZ treated animals. Concomitantly, mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokine (MCP-1) were increased in hippocampus and cortex. Immunoreactivity to anti-GFAP and anti-Iba-1 antibodies was also enhanced in hippocampus and cortex suggesting gliosis in PTZ treated animals. However, curcumin administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg to PTZ animals prevented cognitive deficits. A significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine expression was observed in hippocampus and cortex of PTZ treated rats supplemented with curcumin. In addition, curcumin also attenuated increased expression of GFAP and Iba-1 in animals with PTZ induced chronic epilepsy. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis also showed significant reduction in number of activated glial cells on curcumin administration to PTZ treated animals. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumin is effective in attenuating glial activation and ameliorates cognitive deficits in chronic epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive deficits of men and women with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Henderson, V W; Buckwalter, J G

    1994-01-01

    We performed two studies of cognitive abilities among men and women who met clinical criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among 46 AD patients, performance of women on a composite neuropsychological battery was more impaired than that of men when the potentially confounding effects of demographic variables were controlled; the largest group differences were due to significantly worse performance by women with AD on a naming task. Based on these initial findings, we next analyzed an independent data set of 647 demented subjects enrolled in the multicenter Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease, hypothesizing that the naming performance of women with AD would be significantly worse than that of men with this illness. Analyses controlling for demographic variables, or separately controlling for dementia severity, confirmed that women with AD performed significantly less well on the naming task and on verbal fluency. Women also performed less well on delayed recall, but there were no significant differences on other tasks. Factor analysis confirmed significant differences on a language factor, implying that men retain verbal skills better than women do during the initial stages of AD. Elderly nondemented women performed as well as or better than nondemented men on all comparisons. We conclude that there are modest differences in how men and women with AD perform on cognitive tasks and that differences may be discrete rather than global in nature.

  15. Reading Comprehension in Children with ADHD: Cognitive Underpinnings of the Centrality Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined reading comprehension in children with ADHD by assessing their ability to build a coherent mental representation that allows them to recall central and peripheral information. We compared children with ADHD (mean age 9.78) to word reading-matched controls (mean age 9.89) on their ability to retell a passage. We found that even though children with ADHD recalled more central than peripheral information, they showed their greatest deficit, relative to controls, on central information – a centrality deficit (Miller & Keenan, 2009). We explored the cognitive underpinnings of this deficit using regressions to compare how well cognitive factors (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and IQ) predicted the ability to recall central information, after controlling for word reading ability, and whether these cognitive factors interacted with ADHD symptoms. Working memory accounted for the most unique variance. Although previous evidence for reading comprehension difficulties in children with ADHD have been mixed, this study suggests that even when word reading ability is controlled, children with ADHD have difficulty building a coherent mental representation, and this difficulty is likely related to deficits in working memory. PMID:23054132

  16. Cognitive deficit in methamphetamine users relative to childhood academic performance: link to cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andy C; Morales, Angelica M; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D

    2018-04-20

    Individuals with cognitive problems may be predisposed to develop substance use disorders; therefore, differences in cognitive function between methamphetamine users and control participants may be attributable to premorbid factors rather than methamphetamine use. The goal of this study was to clarify the extent to which this is the case. Childhood academic transcripts were obtained for 37 methamphetamine-dependent adults and 41 control participants of similar educational level and premorbid IQ. Each participant completed a comprehensive cognitive battery and received a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. Data from control participants and linear regression were used to develop a normative model to describe the relationship between childhood academic performance and scores on the cognitive battery. Using this model, cognitive performance of methamphetamine users was predicted from their premorbid academic scores. Results indicated that methamphetamine users' childhood grade point average was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.05). Further, methamphetamine users' overall cognitive performance was lower than was predicted from their grade point average prior to methamphetamine use (p = 0.001), with specific deficits in attention/concentration and memory (ps < 0.01). Memory deficits were associated with lower whole-brain cortical thickness (p < 0.05). Thus, in addition to having an apparent premorbid weakness in cognition, methamphetamine users exhibit subsequent cognitive function that is significantly lower than premorbid estimates would predict. The results support the view that chronic methamphetamine use causes a decline in cognition and/or a failure to develop normative cognitive abilities, although aside from methamphetamine use per se, other drug use and unidentified factors likely contribute to the observed effects.

  17. Social cognition deficits and the 'ultra high risk' for psychosis population: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew D; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Yung, Alison R

    2011-08-01

    A number of risk factors for developing a psychotic disorder have been investigated in the 'ultra high risk' (UHR) population, including neurocognitive abilities, social functioning and, more recently, social cognition. We aimed to review the literature on social cognition in the UHR population. Literature was restricted to English articles and identified using Pubmed, Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHLplus, as well as the reference lists of published studies and reviews. Search terms included social cognition, theory of mind, emotion recognition, attributional style, social knowledge, social perception, 'at risk mental state', psychosis prodrome 'clinical high risk' and 'ultra high risk'. Inclusion criteria were an outcome measure of a social cognition task and an UHR population defined by a structured validated instrument. Seven original research articles met the inclusion criteria, one of which was a conference abstract. One of the two studies that assessed theory of mind, two of the four studies that assessed emotion recognition and both the two studies that assessed social perception/knowledge found significant deficits in UHR patients. The single study that assessed attributional bias also reported differences in UHR patients compared with healthy controls. There is limited published literature on social cognitive performance in the UHR population. Despite this, deficits in certain social cognitive abilities do appear to be present, but further research with more reliable cross-cultural measures is needed. The characterization of social cognitive deficits in the UHR populations may aid in the identification of potential markers for development of a subsequent psychotic disorder, as well as targets for early intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. A cognitive psychometric model for the psychodiagnostic assessment of memory-related deficits.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory E; Satalich, Timothy A; Shankle, W Rodman; Batchelder, William H

    2016-03-01

    Clinical tests used for psychodiagnostic purposes, such as the well-known Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale: Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), include a free-recall task. The free-recall task taps into latent cognitive processes associated with learning and memory components of human cognition, any of which might be impaired with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A Hidden Markov model of free recall is developed to measure latent cognitive processes used during the free-recall task. In return, these cognitive measurements give us insight into the degree to which normal cognitive functions are differentially impaired by medical conditions, such as AD and related disorders. The model is used to analyze the free-recall data obtained from healthy elderly participants, participants diagnosed as having mild cognitive impairment, and participants diagnosed with early AD. The model is specified hierarchically to handle item differences because of the serial position curve in free recall, as well as within-group individual differences in participants' recall abilities. Bayesian hierarchical inference is used to estimate the model. The model analysis suggests that the impaired patients have the following: (1) long-term memory encoding deficits, (2) short-term memory (STM) retrieval deficits for all but very short time intervals, (3) poorer transfer into long-term memory for items successfully retrieved from STM, and (4) poorer retention of items encoded into long-term memory after longer delays. Yet, impaired patients appear to have no deficit in immediate recall of encoded words in long-term memory or for very short time intervals in STM. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. No lower cognitive functioning in older adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Semeijn, E J; Korten, N C M; Comijs, H C; Michielsen, M; Deeg, D J H; Beekman, A T F; Kooij, J J S

    2015-09-01

    Research illustrates cognitive deficits in children and younger adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Few studies have focused on the cognitive functioning in older adults. This study investigates the association between ADHD and cognitive functioning in older adults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional side study of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). A diagnostic interview to diagnose ADHD was administered among a subsample (N = 231, age 60-94). ADHD symptoms and diagnosis were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults (DIVA) 2.0. Cognitive functioning was assessed with tests in the domains of executive functioning, information processing speed, memory, and attention/working memory. Regression analyses indicate that ADHD diagnosis and ADHD severity were only negatively associated with cognitive functioning in the attention/working memory domain. When adjusting for depression, these associations were no longer significant. The study shows that ADHD in older adults is associated with lower cognitive functioning in the attention/working memory domain. However, this was partly explained by depressive symptoms.

  20. Pattern of social cognition deficits in individuals with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Anupama V; Bhola, Poornima; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan

    2018-03-01

    Social cognition deficits have been implicated in the affect regulation and interpersonal difficulties seen in borderline personality disorder (BPD). The study examined patterns of social cognition abilities, using self-report and task-based measures, among individuals diagnosed with BPD. The sample included a clinical group of 20 patients diagnosed with BPD and 20 age and gender-matched control group participants from the community with no psychiatric diagnosis. The measures included the Mentalization Questionnaire, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Social Cognition Rating Tool in Indian Setting. Results indicated that the clinical group had lower self-reported mentalizing ability. Facial emotion recognition ability was significantly lower for the clinical group, particularly for photographs of the eye region with positive and neutral valences. The clinical group had significantly higher personalizing bias, and greater difficulties in social perception. The two groups did not differ on first and second order theory of mind, recognition of faux pas and externalizing bias. The results point to the links between social cognition deficits and interpersonal difficulties among persons with BPD. Implications include the need for pre-therapy assessment of the magnitude and patterns of social cognition difficulties in BPD, the development of culturally and ecologically valid assessments and the evaluation of interventions for social cognition vulnerabilities among individuals with BPD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fronto-temporal connectivity predicts cognitive empathy deficits and experiential negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abram, Samantha V; Wisner, Krista M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Barch, Deanna M; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; MacDonald, Angus W; Smith, Matthew J

    2017-03-01

    Impaired cognitive empathy is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia associated with negative symptoms and social functioning. Cognitive empathy and negative symptoms have also been linked to medial prefrontal and temporal brain networks. While shared behavioral and neural underpinnings are suspected for cognitive empathy and negative symptoms, research is needed to test these hypotheses. In two studies, we evaluated whether resting-state functional connectivity between data-driven networks, or components (referred to as, inter-component connectivity), predicted cognitive empathy and experiential and expressive negative symptoms in schizophrenia subjects. Study 1: We examined associations between cognitive empathy and medial prefrontal and temporal inter-component connectivity at rest using a group-matched schizophrenia and control sample. We then assessed whether inter-component connectivity metrics associated with cognitive empathy were also related to negative symptoms. Study 2: We sought to replicate the connectivity-symptom associations observed in Study 1 using an independent schizophrenia sample. Study 1 results revealed that while the groups did not differ in average inter-component connectivity, a medial-fronto-temporal metric and an orbito-fronto-temporal metric were related to cognitive empathy. Moreover, the medial-fronto-temporal metric was associated with experiential negative symptoms in both schizophrenia samples. These findings support recent models that link social cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1111-1124, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cognitive deficits and predictors 3 years after diagnosis of a pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aarsen, Femke K; Paquier, Philippe F; Arts, Willem-Frans; Van Veelen, Marie-Lise; Michiels, Erna; Lequin, Maarten; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E

    2009-07-20

    PURPOSE To prospectively study cognitive deficits and predictors 3 years after diagnosis in a large series of pediatric patients treated for pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). PATIENTS AND METHODS Sixty-one of 67 children were grouped according to infratentorial, supratentorial midline, and supratentorial hemispheric site. Intelligence, memory, attention, language, visual-spatial, and executive functions were assessed. Included predictors were sex, age, relapse, diagnosis-assessment interval, hydrocephalus, kind of treatment, and tumor variables. Results All children with PA had problems with sustained attention and speed. In the infratentorial group, there also were deficits in verbal intelligence, visual-spatial memory, executive functioning, and naming. Verbal intelligence and verbal memory problems occurred in the brainstem tumor group. The supratentorial hemispheric tumor group had additional problems with selective attention and executive functioning, and the supratentorial midline tumor group displayed no extra impairments. More specifically, the dorsal supratentorial midline tumor group displayed problems with language and verbal memory. Predictors for lower cognitive functioning were hydrocephalus, radiotherapy, residual tumor size, and age; predictors for better functioning were chemotherapy or treatment of hydrocephalus. Almost 60% of children had problems with academic achievement, for which risk factors were relapse and younger age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION Despite normal intelligence at long-term follow-up, children treated for PA display invalidating cognitive impairments. Adequate treatment of hydrocephalus is important for a more favorable long-term cognitive outcome. Even children without initial severe deficits may develop cognitive impairments years after diagnosis, partly because of the phenomenon of growing into deficit, which has devastating implications for academic achievement and quality of life (QOL).

  3. In search of multimodal neuroimaging biomarkers of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Du, Yuhui; Yu, Qingbao; Jones, Thomas R; Chen, Jiayu; Jiang, Tianzi; Bustillo, Juan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-12-01

    The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are largely resistant to current treatments and thus are a lifelong illness burden. The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) provides a reliable and valid assessment of cognition across major cognitive domains; however, the multimodal brain alterations specifically associated with MCCB in schizophrenia have not been examined. The interrelationships between MCCB and the abnormalities seen in three types of neuroimaging-derived maps-fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gray matter (GM) density from structural MRI, and fractional anisotropy from diffusion MRI-were investigated by using multiset canonical correlation analysis in data from 47 schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotic medications and 50 age-matched healthy control subjects. One multimodal component (canonical variant 8) was identified as both group differentiating and significantly correlated with the MCCB composite. It demonstrated 1) increased cognitive performance associated with higher fALFF (intensity of regional spontaneous brain activity) and higher GM volumes in thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and the mid-occipital region, with co-occurring fractional anisotropy changes in superior longitudinal fascicules, anterior thalamic radiation, and forceps major; 2) higher fALFF but lower GM volume in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex related to worse cognition in schizophrenia; and 3) distinct domains of MCCB might exhibit dissociable multimodal signatures, e.g., increased fALFF in inferior parietal lobule particularly correlated with decreased social cognition. Medication dose did not relate to these findings in schizophrenia. Our results suggest linked functional and structural deficits in distributed cortico-striato-thalamic circuits may be closely related to MCCB-measured cognitive

  4. The Outcome of a Social Cognitive Training for Mainstream Adolescents with Social Communication Deficits in a Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Crooke, Pamela J.; Lui, Aster L. Y.; Kan, Peggy P. K.; Mark, Yuen-mai; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of cognitive-based strategies for improving social communication behaviours for individuals who have solid language and cognition is an important question. This study investigated the outcome of teaching Social Thinking®, a framework based in social-cognition, to Chinese adolescents with social communication deficits. Thirty-nine students…

  5. Counterfactual cognitive deficit in persons with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, P; Durso, R; Brown, A; Lynch, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Counterfactuals are mental representations of alternatives to past events. Recent research has shown them to be important for other cognitive processes, such as planning, causal reasoning, problem solving, and decision making—all processes independently linked to the frontal lobes. Objective: To test the hypothesis that counterfactual thinking is impaired in some patients with Parkinson's disease and is linked to frontal dysfunction in these patients. Methods. Measures of counterfactual processing and frontal lobe functioning were administered to 24 persons with Parkinson's disease and 15 age matched healthy controls. Results. Patients with Parkinson's disease spontaneously generated significantly fewer counterfactuals than controls despite showing no differences from controls on a semantic fluency test; they also performed at chance levels on a counterfactual inference test, while age matched controls performed above chance levels on this test. Performance on both the counterfactual generation and inference tests correlated significantly with performance on two tests traditionally linked to frontal lobe functioning (Stroop colour–word interference and Tower of London planning tasks) and one test of pragmatic social communication skills. Conclusions: Counterfactual thinking is impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may be related to frontal lobe dysfunction. PMID:12876235

  6. Cognitive rehabilitation training in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy and cognitive deficits: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maschio, Marta; Dinapoli, Loredana; Fabi, Alessandra; Giannarelli, Diana; Cantelmi, Tonino

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this pilot observational study was to evaluate effect of cognitive rehabilitation training (RehabTr) on cognitive performances in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) and cognitive disturbances. Medical inclusion criteria: patients (M/F) ≥ 18 years ≤ 75 with symptomatic seizures due to primary brain tumors or brain metastases in stable treatment with antiepileptic drugs; previous surgical resection or biopsy; >70 Karnofsky Performance Status; stable oncological disease. Eligible patients recruited from 100 consecutive patients with BTRE at first visit to our Center from 2011 to 2012. All recruited patients were administered battery of neuropsychological tests exploring various cognitive domains. Patients considered to have a neuropsychological deficit were those with at least one test score for a given domain indicative of impairment. Thirty patients out of 100 showed cognitive deficits, and were offered participation in RehabTr, of which 16 accepted (5 low grade glioma, 4 high grade glioma, 2 glioblastoma, 2 meningioma and 3 metastases) and 14 declined for various reasons. The RehabTr consisted of one weekly individual session of 1 h, for a total of 10 weeks, carried out by a trained psychologist. The functions trained were: memory, attention, visuo-spatial functions, language and reasoning by means of Training NeuroPsicologico (TNP(®)) software. To evaluate the effect of the RehabTr, the same battery of tests was administered directly after cognitive rehabilitation (T1), and at six-month follow-up (T2). Statistical analysis with Student T test for paired data showed that short-term verbal memory, episodic memory, fluency and long term visuo-spatial memory improved immediately after the T1 and remained stable at T2. At final follow-up all patients showed an improvement in at least one domain that had been lower than normal at baseline. Our results demonstrated a positive effect of rehabilitative training at different times, and, for

  7. Cognitive processes in spatial mapping: Evidence from a developmental spatial deficit.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Miles; Reilhac, Caroline; Cowley, Hannah; Chang, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Michael

    2017-07-01

    We report a case study of an adolescent girl (N.K.Y.) with a developmental deficit affecting spatial processing. In a simple spatial mapping task, N.K.Y. shows a striking dissociation: She succeeds in one variant of the experiment in which the stimuli are objects, but struggles in a structurally identical task with people as stimuli. We present evidence that this dissociation stems from a tendency to automatically adopt the spatial perspective of other people, but not objects-a phenomenon also observed in neurotypical individuals. When adopting another person's perspective, N.K.Y. imagines herself in the other's position, representing the other's left and right as if it were her own. N.K.Y.'s deficit in relating left-right information to her own body then disrupts her performance. Our results shed light on the nature of N.K.Y.'s deficit as well as the cognitive operations involved in spatial perspective taking.

  8. How culture shapes social cognition deficits in mental disorders: A review.

    PubMed

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Tanaka, Jiro; Kret, Mariska Esther

    2017-04-01

    Social cognitive skills are indispensable for successful communication with others. Substantial research has determined deficits in these abilities in patients with mental disorders. In neurobiological development and continuing into adulthood, cross-cultural differences in social cognition have been demonstrated. Moreover, symptomatic patterns in mental disorders may vary according to the cultural background of an individual. Cross-cultural studies can thus help in understanding underlying (biological) mechanisms and factors that influence behavior in health and disease. In addition, studies that apply novel paradigms assessing the impact of culture on cognition may benefit and advance neuroscience research. In this review, the authors give an overview of cross-cultural research in the field of social cognition in health and in mental disorders and provide an outlook on future research directions, taking a neuroscience perspective.

  9. Variability in Depressive Symptoms of Cognitive Deficit and Cognitive Bias During the First 2 Years After Diagnosis in Australian Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David R H

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and contribution to total depression of the depressive symptoms of cognitive deficit and cognitive bias in prostate cancer (PCa) patients were compared from cohorts sampled during the first 2 years after diagnosis. Survey data were collected from 394 patients with PCa, including background information, treatments, and disease status, plus total scores of depression and scores for subscales of the depressive symptoms of cognitive bias and cognitive deficit via the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The sample was divided into eight 3-monthly time-since-diagnosis cohorts and according to depression severity. Mean scores for the depressive symptoms of cognitive deficit were significantly higher than those for cognitive bias for the whole sample, but the contribution of cognitive bias to total depression was stronger than that for cognitive deficit. When divided according to overall depression severity, patients with clinically significant depression showed reversed patterns of association between the two subsets of cognitive symptoms of depression and total depression compared with those patients who reported less severe depression. Differences in the incidence and contribution of these two different aspects of the cognitive symptoms of depression for patients with more severe depression argue for consideration of them when assessing and diagnosing depression in patients with PCa. Treatment requirements are also different between the two types of cognitive symptoms of depression, and several suggestions for matching treatment to illness via a personalized medicine approach are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Resting fMRI measures are associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia assessed by the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Bustillo, Juan; Du, Yuhui; Yu, Qingbao; Jones, Thomas R.; Jiang, Tianzi; Calhoun, Vince D.; Sui, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are largely resistant to current treatment, and are thus a life-long burden to patients. The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) provides a reliable and valid assessment of cognition across a comprehensive set of cognitive domains for schizophrenia. In resting-state fMRI, functional connectivity associated with MCCB has not yet been examined. In this paper, the interrelationships between MCCB and the abnormalities seen in two types of functional measures from resting-state fMRI—fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and functional network connectivity (FNC) maps were investigated in data from 47 schizophrenia patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. First, the fALFF maps were generated and decomposed by independent component analysis (ICA), and then the component showing the highest correlation with MCCB composite scores was selected. Second, the whole brain was separated into functional networks by group ICA, and the FNC maps were calculated. The FNC strengths with most significant correlations with MCCB were displayed and spatially overlapped with the fALFF component of interest. It demonstrated increased cognitive performance associated with higher fALFF values (intensity of regional spontaneous brain activity) in prefrontal regions, inferior parietal lobe (IPL) but lower ALFF values in thalamus, striatum, and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Interestingly, the FNC showing significant correlations with MCCB were in well agreement with the activated regions with highest z-values in fALFF component. Our results support the view that functional deficits in distributed cortico-striato-thalamic circuits and inferior parietal lobe may account for several aspects of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  11. Effects of Mangifera indica fruit extract on cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sokindra; Maheshwari, Kamal Kishore; Singh, Vijender

    2009-07-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health-promoting activity. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the ethanolic extract of Mangifera indica L. fruit on cognitive performances. The models used to study the effect on cognitive performances are step down passive avoidance task and elevated plus maze task in mice. Chronic treatment (7 days) of extract and vitamin C significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the aging and scopolamine induced memory deficits in both paradigms. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of free sugars, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. The results suggestthe extract contained pharmacologically active principles that are memory-enhancing in nature.

  12. Rivastigmine reverses cognitive deficit and acetylcholinesterase activity induced by ketamine in an animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zugno, Alexandra I; Julião, Ricardo Filipe; Budni, Josiane; Volpato, Ana Maria; Fraga, Daiane B; Pacheco, Felipe D; Deroza, Pedro F; Luca, Renata D; de Oliveira, Mariana B; Heylmann, Alexandra S; Quevedo, João

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling mental disorders that affects up to 1 % of the population worldwide. Although the causes of this disorder remain unknown, it has been extensively characterized by a broad range of emotional, ideational and cognitive impairments. Studies indicate that schizophrenia affects neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamate and acetylcholine. Recent studies suggest that rivastigmine (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) is important to improve the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study evaluated the protective effect of rivastigmine against the ketamine-induced behavioral (hyperlocomotion and cognitive deficit) and biochemical (increase of acetylcholinesterase activity) changes which characterize an animal model of schizophrenia in rats. Our results indicated that rivastigmine was effective to improve the cognitive deficit in different task (immediate memory, long term memory and short term memory) induced by ketamine in rats. Moreover, we observed that rivastigmina reversed the increase of acetylcholinesterase activity induced by ketamine in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum. However, rivastigmine was not able to prevent the ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion. In conslusion, ours results indicate that cholinergic system might be an important therapeutic target in the physiopathology of schizophrenia, mainly in the cognition, but additional studies should be carried.

  13. Cognitive remediation of attention deficits following acquired brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohaib; Williams, Tracey; Brunsdon, Ruth; Suh, Flora; Morrow, Angie

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficits are common after acquired brain injury (ABI) and adversely impact academic, vocational and social outcomes. The role of cognitive interventions in post-ABI attention rehabilitation remains unclear. To evaluate effectiveness of cognitive interventions in treating attention deficits following ABI and to explore differences in treatment effect between ABI etiologies. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were selected by three reviewers. Study quality was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration tool for RCTs. Effect sizes (Hedge's g) for each attentional domain were meta-analyzed with subgroup analysis by ABI etiology. Twelve RCTs with 584 participants were included, representing individuals with stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and CNS-impacting malignancy. Cognitive rehabilitation improved divided attention in stroke survivors (g 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.98; p <  0.0001) but not other ABI populations. Sustained, selective and alternating attention, and inhibition were not significantly improved in any ABI population. Follow-up data showed no evidence of long-term benefit. Cognitive rehabilitation resulted in short-term improvements in divided attention following stroke, but not after TBI or CNS-impacting malignancy. Cognitive interventions did not significantly improve other attentional domains in participants with stroke, TBI or CNS-impacting malignancy.

  14. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia: Focus on Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lasalde-Dominicci, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present with deficits in specific areas of cognition. These are quantifiable by neuropsychological testing and can be clinically observable as negative signs. Concomitantly, they self-administer nicotine in the form of cigarette smoking. Nicotine dependence is more prevalent in this patient population when compared to other psychiatric conditions or to non-mentally ill people. The target for nicotine is the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). There is ample evidence that these receptors are involved in normal cognitive operations within the brain. This review describes neuronal nAChR structure and function, focusing on both cholinergic agonist-induced nAChR desensitization and nAChR up-regulation. The several mechanisms proposed for the nAChR up-regulation are examined in detail. Desensitization and up-regulation of nAChRs may be relevant to the physiopathology of schizophrenia. The participation of several subtypes of neuronal nAChRs in the cognitive processing of non-mentally ill persons and schizophrenic patients is reviewed. The role of smoking is then examined as a possible cognitive remediator in this psychiatric condition. Finally, pharmacological strategies focused on neuronal nAChRs are discussed as possible therapeutic avenues that may ameliorate the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. PMID:17554626

  15. Executive Functions, Memory, and Social Cognitive Deficits and Recovery in Chronic Alcoholism: A Critical Review to Inform Future Research.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision making success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Despite evidence for differences in recovery levels of selective cognitive processes, certain deficits can persist even with prolonged sobriety. Herein is presented a review of alcohol-related cognitive impairments affecting component processes of executive functioning, memory, and the recently investigated cognitive domains of metamemory, social cognition, and emotional processing; also considered are trajectories of cognitive recovery with abstinence. Finally, in the spirit of critical review, limitations of current knowledge are noted and avenues for new research efforts are proposed that focus on (i) the interaction among emotion-cognition processes and identification of vulnerability factors contributing to the development of emotional and social processing deficits and (ii) the time line of cognitive recovery by tracking alcoholism's dynamic course of sobriety and relapse. Knowledge about the heterochronicity of cognitive recovery in alcoholism has the potential of indicating at which points during recovery intervention may be most beneficial. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. The allusive cognitive deficit in paranoia: the case for mental time travel or cognitive self-projection.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, R

    2010-08-01

    Delusional beliefs are characteristic of psychosis and, of the delusions, the paranoid delusion is the single most common type associated with psychosis. The many years of research focused on neurocognition in schizophrenia, using standardized neurocognitive tests, have failed to find conclusive cognitive deficits in relation to positive symptoms. However, UK-based psychological research has identified sociocognitive anomalies in relation to paranoid thinking in the form of theory of mind (ToM), causal reasoning and threat-related processing anomalies. Drawing from recent neuroscientific research on the default mode network, this paper asserts that the common theme running through the psychological tests that are sensitive to the cognitive impairment of paranoia is the need to cognitively project the self through time, referred to as mental time travel. Such an understanding of the cognitive roots of paranoid ideation provides a synthesis between psychological and biological accounts of psychosis while also retaining the powerful argument that understanding abnormal thinking must start with models of normal cognition. This is the core theme running through the cognitive psychological literature of psychiatric disorders that enables research from this area to inform psychological therapy.

  17. Deficits in visual working-memory capacity and general cognition in African Americans with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Samuel R; Knowles, Emma E M; Barrett, Jennifer; Beetham, Tamara; Leach, Olivia; Buccheri, Sebastiano; Aberizk, Katrina; Blangero, John; Poldrack, Russell A; Glahn, David C

    2018-03-01

    On average, patients with psychosis perform worse than controls on visual change-detection tasks, implying that psychosis is associated with reduced capacity of visual working memory (WM). In the present study, 79 patients diagnosed with various psychotic disorders and 166 controls, all African Americans, completed a change-detection task and several other neurocognitive measures. The aims of the study were to (1) determine whether we could observe a between-group difference in performance on the change-detection task in this sample; (2) establish whether such a difference could be specifically attributed to reduced WM capacity (k); and (3) estimate k in the context of the general cognitive deficit in psychosis. Consistent with previous studies, patients performed worse than controls on the change-detection task, on average. Bayesian hierarchical cognitive modeling of the data suggested that this between-group difference was driven by reduced k in patients, rather than differences in other psychologically meaningful model parameters (guessing behavior and lapse rate). Using the same modeling framework, we estimated the effect of psychosis on k while controlling for general intellectual ability (g, obtained from the other neurocognitive measures). The results suggested that reduced k in patients was stronger than predicted by the between-group difference in g. Moreover, a mediation analysis suggested that the relationship between psychosis and g (i.e., the general cognitive deficit) was mediated by k. The results were consistent with the idea that reduced k is a specific deficit in psychosis, which contributes to the general cognitive deficit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Subacute ibuprofen treatment rescues the synaptic and cognitive deficits in advanced-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Justin T.; Liu, Chia-Chen; Zhao, Na; Wang, Jian; Putzke, Travis; Yang, Longyu; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Fryer, John D.; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun

    2017-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by increased neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits both in rodents and humans, yet the onset and progression of these deficits throughout the life span remain unknown. These aging-related deficits affect the quality of life and present challenges to our aging society. Here, we defined age-dependent and progressive impairments of synaptic and cognitive functions and showed that reducing astrocyte-related neuroinflammation through anti-inflammatory drug treatment in aged mice reverses these events. By comparing young (3 months), middle-aged (18 months), aged (24 months) and advanced-aged wild-type mice (30 months), we found that the levels of an astrocytic marker, GFAP, progressively increased after 18 months of age, which preceded the decreases of the synaptic marker PSD-95. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was also suppressed in an age-dependent manner, where significant deficits were observed after 24 months of age. Fear conditioning tests demonstrated that associative memory in the context and cued conditions was decreased starting at the ages of 18 and 30 months, respectively. When the mice were tested on hidden platform water maze, spatial learning memory was significantly impaired after 24 months of age. Importantly, subacute treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen suppressed astrocyte activation, and restored synaptic plasticity and memory function in advanced-aged mice. These results support the critical contribution of aging-related inflammatory responses to hippocampal-dependent cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, in particular during advanced aging. Our findings provide strong evidence that suppression of neuroinflammation could be a promising treatment strategy to preserve cognition during aging. PMID:28254590

  19. A neurocomputational account of cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hélie, Sébastien; Paul, Erick J.; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by the accelerated death of dopamine (DA) producing neurons. Numerous studies documenting cognitive deficits of PD patients have revealed impairments in a variety of tasks related to memory, learning, visuospatial skills, and attention. While there have been several studies documenting cognitive deficits of PD patients, very few computational models have been proposed. In this article, we use the COVIS model of category learning to simulate DA depletion and show that the model suffers from cognitive symptoms similar to those of human participants affected by PD. Specifically, DA depletion in COVIS produced deficits in rule-based categorization, non-linear information-integration categorization, probabilistic classification, rule maintenance, and rule switching. These were observed by simulating results from younger controls, older controls, PD patients, and severe PD patients in five well-known tasks. Differential performance among the different age groups and clinical populations was modeled simply by changing the amount of DA available in the model. This suggests that COVIS may not only be an adequate model of the simulated tasks and phenomena but also more generally of the role of DA in these tasks and phenomena. PMID:22683450

  20. Modeling cognitive deficits following neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries with deep convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lusch, Bethany; Weholt, Jake; Maia, Pedro D; Kutz, J Nathan

    2018-06-01

    The accurate diagnosis and assessment of neurodegenerative disease and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) remain open challenges. Both cause cognitive and functional deficits due to focal axonal swellings (FAS), but it is difficult to deliver a prognosis due to our limited ability to assess damaged neurons at a cellular level in vivo. We simulate the effects of neurodegenerative disease and TBI using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as our model of cognition. We utilize biophysically relevant statistical data on FAS to damage the connections in CNNs in a functionally relevant way. We incorporate energy constraints on the brain by pruning the CNNs to be less over-engineered. Qualitatively, we demonstrate that damage leads to human-like mistakes. Our experiments also provide quantitative assessments of how accuracy is affected by various types and levels of damage. The deficit resulting from a fixed amount of damage greatly depends on which connections are randomly injured, providing intuition for why it is difficult to predict impairments. There is a large degree of subjectivity when it comes to interpreting cognitive deficits from complex systems such as the human brain. However, we provide important insight and a quantitative framework for disorders in which FAS are implicated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: An online tool to detect visuo‐perceptual deficits

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzkopf, Dietrich S.; Bahrami, Bahador; Fleming, Stephen M.; Jackson, Ben M.; Goch, Tristam J. C.; Saygin, Ayse P.; Miller, Luke E.; Pappa, Katerina; Pavisic, Ivanna; Schade, Rachel N.; Noyce, Alastair J.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; O'Keeffe, Aidan G.; Schrag, Anette E.; Morris, Huw R.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) who develop visuo‐perceptual deficits are at higher risk of dementia, but we lack tests that detect subtle visuo‐perceptual deficits and can be performed by untrained personnel. Hallucinations are associated with cognitive impairment and typically involve perception of complex objects. Changes in object perception may therefore be a sensitive marker of visuo‐perceptual deficits in PD. Objective: We developed an online platform to test visuo‐perceptual function. We hypothesised that (1) visuo‐perceptual deficits in PD could be detected using online tests, (2) object perception would be preferentially affected, and (3) these deficits would be caused by changes in perception rather than response bias. Methods: We assessed 91 people with PD and 275 controls. Performance was compared using classical frequentist statistics. We then fitted a hierarchical Bayesian signal detection theory model to a subset of tasks. Results: People with PD were worse than controls at object recognition, showing no deficits in other visuo‐perceptual tests. Specifically, they were worse at identifying skewed images (P < .0001); at detecting hidden objects (P = .0039); at identifying objects in peripheral vision (P < .0001); and at detecting biological motion (P = .0065). In contrast, people with PD were not worse at mental rotation or subjective size perception. Using signal detection modelling, we found this effect was driven by change in perceptual sensitivity rather than response bias. Conclusions: Online tests can detect visuo‐perceptual deficits in people with PD, with object recognition particularly affected. Ultimately, visuo‐perceptual tests may be developed to identify at‐risk patients for clinical trials to slow PD dementia. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:29473691

  2. Association of Social Frailty With Both Cognitive and Physical Deficits Among Older People.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Makino, Keitaro; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association between social frailty and cognitive and physical function among older adults. This was a cross-sectional study. We examined community-dwelling adults in Japan. Participants comprised 4425 older Japanese people from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Study of Geriatric Syndromes. Social frailty was defined by using responses to 5 questions (going out less frequently, rarely visiting friends, feeling unhelpful to friends or family, living alone, and not talking with someone every day). Participants showing none of these components were considered nonfrail; those showing 1 component were considered prefrail; and those showing 2 or more components were considered frail. To screen for cognitive deficits, we assessed memory, attention, executive function, and processing speed. Having 2 or more tests with age-adjusted scores of at least 1.5 standard deviations below the reference threshold was sufficient to be characterized as cognitively deficient. To screen for physical function deficits, we assessed walking speed (<1.0 m/s cut-off) and grip strength (<26 kg for men; <18 kg for women cut-off). Scoring below the cut-off point on 1 or more tests was sufficient to be characterized as physically deficient. The prevalence of social frailty was the following: nonfrailty, 64.1% (N = 2835); social prefrailty, 24.8% (N = 1097); social frailty, 11.1% (N = 493; P for trend < .001). All cognitive function tests (word list memory, Trail Making Test parts A and B, and the symbol digit-substitution task) significantly varied between social frailty groups; physical function (gait speed and grip strength) also varied between social frailty groups (all Ps for trend <.001). Referred to social nonfrailty, social frailty was independently associated with each cognitive deficit (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.30) and deficits in physical function (odds ratio = 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1

  3. A Low Vision Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Mild Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Heather E.; Whitaker, Diane; Potter, Guy; McConnell, Eleanor; Tripp, Fay; Sanders, Linda L.; Muir, Kelly W.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Cousins, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To design and pilot test a low vision rehabilitation program for patients with macular disease and cognitive deficits. Methods The Memory or Reasoning Enhanced Low Vision Rehabilitation (MORE-LVR) program was created by a team representing optometry, occupational therapy, ophthalmology, neuropsychology, and geriatrics. Key components of MORE-LVR are: 1) repetitive training with a therapist twice weekly over a 6-week period, 2) simplified training experience addressing no more than three individualized goals in a minimally distracting environment, 3) involvement of an informal companion (friend or family member). Eligible patients were recruited from an LVR clinic; measures were compared before and after the 6 week program. Results Twelve non-demented patients (mean age 84.5 years, 75% female) who screened positive for cognitive deficits completed the MORE-LVR intervention. Participants demonstrated improved scores on the National Eye Institute’s Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) composite score (47.2±16.3 to 54.8±13.8, p=0.01) and near activities score (21.5±14.0 to 41.0±23.1, p=0.02), timed performance measures (writing a grocery list [p=0.03], filling in a crossword puzzle answer [p=0.003]), a score indicating satisfaction with independence (p=0.05), and logical memory (p=0.02). All patients and companions reported progress toward at least one individualized goal; >70% reported progress toward all three goals. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates feasibility of an LVR program for macular disease patients with mild cognitive deficits. Participants demonstrated improvements in vision-related function and cognitive measures and expressed high satisfaction. Future work is needed to determine if MORE-LVR is superior to usual outpatient LVR for persons with co-existing visual and cognitive impairments. PMID:23619914

  4. Tauopathy contributes to synaptic and cognitive deficits in a murine model for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Stancu, Ilie-Cosmin; Ris, Laurence; Vasconcelos, Bruno; Marinangeli, Claudia; Goeminne, Léonie; Laporte, Vincent; Haylani, Laetitia E; Couturier, Julien; Schakman, Olivier; Gailly, Philippe; Pierrot, Nathalie; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Octave, Jean-Noël; Dewachter, Ilse

    2014-06-01

    Tau alterations are now considered an executor of neuronal demise and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mouse models combining amyloidosis and tauopathy and their parental counterparts are important tools to further investigate the interplay of abnormal amyloid-β (Aβ) and Tau species in pathogenesis, synaptic and neuronal dysfunction, and cognitive decline. Here, we crossed APP/PS1 mice with 5 early-onset familial AD mutations (5xFAD) and TauP301S (PS19) transgenic mice, denoted F(+)/T(+) mice, and phenotypically compared them to their respective parental strains, denoted F(+)/T(-) and F(-)/T(+) respectively, as controls. We found dramatically aggravated tauopathy (~10-fold) in F(+)/T(+) mice compared to the parental F(-)/T(+) mice. In contrast, amyloidosis was unaltered compared to the parental F(+)/T(-) mice. Tauopathy was invariably and very robustly aggravated in hippocampal and cortical brain regions. Most important, F(+)/T(+) displayed aggravated cognitive deficits in a hippocampus-dependent spatial navigation task, compared to the parental F(+)/T(-) strain, while parental F(-)/T(+) mice did not display cognitive impairment. Basal synaptic transmission was impaired in F(+)/T(+) mice compared to nontransgenic mice and the parental strains (≥40%). Finally, F(+)/T(+) mice displayed a significant hippocampal atrophy (~20%) compared to nontransgenic mice, in contrast to the parental strains. Our data indicate for the first time that pathological Aβ species (or APP/PS1) induced changes in Tau contribute to cognitive deficits correlating with synaptic deficits and hippocampal atrophy in an AD model. Our data lend support to the amyloid cascade hypothesis with a role of pathological Aβ species as initiator and pathological Tau species as executor. © FASEB.

  5. Parsing cognitive and emotional empathy deficits for negative and positive stimuli in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Derek G V; Dziobek, Isabel; MacKinley, Julia; Coleman, Kristy; Rankin, Katherine P; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy primarily affecting social cognition and emotion, including loss of empathy. Many consider empathy to be a multidimensional construct, including cognitive empathy (the ability to adopt and understand another's perspective) and emotional empathy (the capacity to share another's emotional experience). Cognitive and emotional empathy deficits have been associated with bvFTD; however, little is known regarding the performance of patients with bvFTD on behavioural measures of emotional empathy, and whether empathic responses differ for negative versus positive stimuli. 24 patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls completed the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET; Dziobek et al., 2008), a performance-based task that taps both cognitive and emotional facets of empathy, and allows for the discrimination of responses to negative versus positive realistic images. MET scores were also compared with caregiver ratings of patient behaviour on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which assesses patients' everyday demonstrations of perspective taking and empathic concern. Patients with bvFTD were less accurate than controls at inferring mental states for negative and positive stimuli. They also demonstrated lower levels of shared emotional experience, more positive emotional reactions, and diminished arousal to negative social stimuli relative to controls. Patients showed reduced emotional reactions to negative non-social stimuli as well. Lastly, the MET and IRI measures of emotional empathy were found to be significantly correlated within the bvFTD group. The results suggest that patients with bvFTD show a global deficit in cognitive empathy, and deficient emotional empathy for negative, but not positive, experiences. Further, a generalized emotional processing impairment for negative stimuli was observed, which could contribute to the

  6. Cognitive deficits of executive functions and decision-making in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Winand H; Johansen, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The nature of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by contradictory findings in terms of specific neuropsychological deficits. Selective impairments have been suggested to involve visuospatial memory, set shifting, decision-making and response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive deficits in decision-making and executive functioning in OCD. It was hypothesized that the OCD patients would be less accurate in their responses compared to the healthy controls in rational decision-making on a version of the Cambridge gambling task (CGT) and on the color-word interference test and on a version of the Tower of Hanoi test (tower test) of executive functioning. Thirteen participants with OCD were compared to a group of healthy controls (n = 13) matched for age, gender, education and verbal IQ. Results revealed significant differences between the OCD group and the healthy control group on quality of decision-making on the CGT and for achievement score on the tower test. On these two tasks the OCD group performed worse than the healthy control group. The symptom-dimension analysis revealed performance differences where safety checking patients were impaired on the tower test compared to contamination patients. Results are discussed in the framework of cognition and emotion processing and findings implicate that OCD models should address, specifically, the interaction between cognition and emotion. Here the emotional disruption hypothesis is forwarded to account for the dysfunctional behaviors in OCD. Further implications regarding methodological and inhibitory factors affecting cognitive information processing are highlighted. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. Pharmacological and genetic reversal of age-dependent cognitive deficits attributable to decreased presenilin function.

    PubMed

    McBride, Sean M J; Choi, Catherine H; Schoenfeld, Brian P; Bell, Aaron J; Liebelt, David A; Ferreiro, David; Choi, Richard J; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Terlizzi, Allison M; Ferrick, Neal J; Koenigsberg, Eric; Rudominer, Rebecca L; Sumida, Ai; Chiorean, Stephanie; Siwicki, Kathleen K; Nguyen, Hanh T; Fortini, Mark E; McDonald, Thomas V; Jongens, Thomas A

    2010-07-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of cognitive loss and neurodegeneration in the developed world. Although its genetic and environmental causes are not generally known, familial forms of the disease (FAD) are attributable to mutations in a single copy of the Presenilin (PS) and amyloid precursor protein genes. The dominant inheritance pattern of FAD indicates that it may be attributable to gain or change of function mutations. Studies of FAD-linked forms of presenilin (psn) in model organisms, however, indicate that they are loss of function, leading to the possibility that a reduction in PS activity might contribute to FAD and that proper psn levels are important for maintaining normal cognition throughout life. To explore this issue further, we have tested the effect of reducing psn activity during aging in Drosophila melanogaster males. We have found that flies in which the dosage of psn function is reduced by 50% display age-onset impairments in learning and memory. Treatment with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists or lithium during the aging process prevented the onset of these deficits, and treatment of aged flies reversed the age-dependent deficits. Genetic reduction of Drosophila metabotropic glutamate receptor (DmGluRA), the inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP(3)R), or inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase also prevented these age-onset cognitive deficits. These findings suggest that reduced psn activity may contribute to the age-onset cognitive loss observed with FAD. They also indicate that enhanced mGluR signaling and calcium release regulated by InsP(3)R as underlying causes of the age-dependent cognitive phenotypes observed when psn activity is reduced.

  8. Combined uridine and choline administration improves cognitive deficits in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, N M W J; Kiliaan, A J; De Wilde, M C; Broersen, L M

    2003-07-01

    Rationale. Hypertension is considered a risk factor for the development of cognitive disorders, because of its negative effects on cerebral vasculature and blood flow. Genetically induced hypertension in rats has been associated with a range of cognitive impairments. Therefore, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) can potentially be used as a model for cognitive deficits in human subjects. Consecutively, it can be determined whether certain food components can improve cognition in these rats. Objective. The present study aimed to determine whether SHR display specific deficits in attention, learning, and memory function. Additionally, effects of chronic uridine and choline administration were studied. Methods. 5-7 months old SHR were compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. (a) The operant delayed non-matching-to-position (DNMTP) test was used to study short-term memory function. (b) The five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) task was used to assess selective visual attention processes. (c) Finally, the Morris water maze (MWM) acquisition was used as a measure for spatial learning and mnemonic capabilities. Results. (1) SHR exhibited significantly impaired performance in the 5-CSRT test in comparison with the two other rat strains. Both the SHR and WKY showed deficits in spatial learning when compared with the SD rats. (2) Uridine and choline supplementation normalized performance of SHR in the 5-CSRT test. (3) In addition, uridine and choline treatment improved MWM acquisition in both WKY and SHR rats. Conclusion. The present results show that the SHR have a deficiency in visual selective attention and spatial learning. Therefore, the SHR may provide an interesting model in the screening of substances with therapeutic potential for treatment of cognitive disorders. A combination of uridine and choline administration improved selective attention and spatial learning in SHR.

  9. Cognitive dysfunction in lower motor neuron disease: executive and memory deficits in progressive muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Raaphorst, Joost; de Visser, Marianne; van Tol, Marie-José; Linssen, Wim H J P; van der Kooi, Anneke J; de Haan, Rob J; van den Berg, Leonard H; Schmand, Ben

    2011-02-01

    In contrast with findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cognitive impairments have as yet not been shown in the lower motor neuron variant of motor neuron disease, progressive spinal muscular atrophy (PMA). The objective of this study was to investigate cognitive function in PMA and to compare the cognitive profile with that of ALS. In addition, visuospatial functions were assessed comprehensively; these tests are underrepresented in earlier neuropsychological investigations in ALS. 23 PMA and 30 ALS patients (vital capacity >70% of predicted value) underwent a neuropsychological assessment adapted to motor impairments: global cognitive and executive functioning, psychomotor speed, memory, language, attention and visuospatial skills. The results were compared with age, education and sex matched controls and with normative data. Compared with controls, PMA patients performed worse on attention/working memory (digit span backward), category fluency and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Compared with normative data, PMA patients most frequently showed impairment on three measures: letter-number sequencing, and immediate and delayed story recall. 17% of PMA patients showed cognitive impairment, defined as performance below 2 SDs from the mean of normative data on at least three neuropsychological tests. In ALS, similar but more extensive cognitive deficits were found. Visuospatial dysfunction was not found in PMA and ALS. 17% of PMA patients have executive and memory impairments. PMA with cognitive impairment adds a formerly unknown phenotype to the existing classification of motor neuron diseases.

  10. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Kurt P.; Bédard, Anne-Claude V.; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD. PMID:24918067

  11. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

  12. Diagnosing Contributions of Sensory and Cognitive Deficits to Hearing Dysfunction in Blast Exposed/TBI Service Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0490 TITLE: Diagnosing Contributions of Sensory and Cognitive Deficits to Hearing Dysfunction in Blast-Exposed/ TBI...3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2015 - 14 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Diagnosing Contributions of Sensory and Cognitive Deficits to...installed at WRNMMC, and is running finalized versions of both the auditory and visual selective attention tasks. Subject recruitment has started, and

  13. Therapies for Cognitive Deficits Associated With Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Objective Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Morean, Diane F; O'Dwyer, Linda; Cherney, Leora R

    2015-10-01

    To systematically review evidence of treatments for cognitive impairments experienced by at least 20% of all women who undergo chemotherapy for breast cancer. Searches of 5 databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, CINAHL), with no date or language restrictions, identified 1701 unique results. Search terms included breast cancer, chemotherapy, chemobrain, chemofog, and terms on cognition and language deficits. Included only peer-reviewed journal articles that described therapies for cognitive dysfunction in women undergoing (or who had undergone) chemotherapy for breast cancer and provided objective measurements of cognition or language. Data were extracted according to Cochrane recommendations, including characteristics of participants, interventions, outcomes, and studies. Quality assessment of all 12 eligible studies was performed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale and treatment fidelity criteria. Screening, data extraction, and quality assessment reliability were performed. Six articles described interventions for cognition that took place during cancer treatment; 6, afterward. Five interventions were medical (including a strength-training program), 2 were restorative, and 5 were cognitive. Medicinal treatments were ineffective; restorative and exercise treatments had mixed results; cognitive therapy had success in varying cognitive domains. The domains most tested and most successfully treated were verbal memory, attention, and processing speed. Cognitive therapy protocols delivered after chemotherapy and aimed at improving verbal memory, attention, and processing speed hold the most promise. Future research is needed to clarify whether computerized cognitive training can be effective in treating this population, and to identify objective assessment tools that are sensitive to this disorder. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Impairments of Children with Severe Arithmetic Difficulties: Cognitive Deficit or Developmental Lag?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Derek H.

    2008-01-01

    An age-matched/achievement-matched design was utilized to examine the cognitive functioning of children with severe arithmetic difficulties. A battery of cognitive tasks was administered to three groups of elementary aged children: 20 children with severe arithmetic difficulties (SAD), 20 children matched in age (CAM) to the children with SAD, and…

  15. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging.

    PubMed

    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.

  16. Involvement of Neuroinflammation during Brain Development in Social Cognitive Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yutaka; Chiba, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Development of social cognition, a unique and high-order function, depends on brain maturation from childhood to adulthood in humans. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia have similar social cognitive deficits, although age of onset in each disorder is different. Pathogenesis of these disorders is complex and contains several features, including genetic risk factors, environmental risk factors, and sites of abnormalities in the brain. Although several hypotheses have been postulated, they seem to be insufficient to explain how brain alterations associated with symptoms in these disorders develop at distinct developmental stages. Development of ASD appears to be related to cerebellar dysfunction and subsequent thalamic hyperactivation in early childhood. By contrast, schizophrenia seems to be triggered by thalamic hyperactivation in late adolescence, whereas hippocampal aberration has been possibly initiated in childhood. One of the possible culprits is metal homeostasis disturbances that can induce dysfunction of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Thalamic hyperactivation is thought to be induced by microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and abnormalities of intracerebral environment. Consequently, it is likely that the thalamic hyperactivation triggers dysregulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for lower brain regions related to social cognition. In this review, we summarize the brain aberration in ASD and schizophrenia and provide a possible mechanism underlying social cognitive deficits in these disorders based on their distinct ages of onset. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Air pollution, cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities: a pilot study with children and dogs.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C; Engle, Randall W

    2008-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n: 55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Seven healthy young dogs with similar exposure to Mexico City air pollution had brain MRI, measurement of mRNA abundance of two inflammatory genes cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin 1 beta in target brain areas, and histopathological evaluation of brain tissue. Children with no known risk factors for neurological or cognitive disorders residing in a polluted urban environment exhibited significant deficits in a combination of fluid and crystallized cognition tasks. Fifty-six percent of Mexico City children tested showed prefrontal white matter hyperintense lesions and similar lesions were observed in dogs (57%). Exposed dogs had frontal lesions with vascular subcortical pathology associated with neuroinflammation, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces, gliosis, and ultrafine particulate matter deposition. Based on the MRI findings, the prefrontal cortex was a target anatomical region in Mexico City children and its damage could have contributed to their cognitive dysfunction. The present work presents a groundbreaking, interdisciplinary methodology for addressing relationships between environmental pollution, structural brain alterations by MRI, and cognitive deficits/delays in healthy children.

  18. Enriched environment ameliorates depression-induced cognitive deficits and restores abnormal hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mahati, K; Bhagya, V; Christofer, T; Sneha, A; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2016-10-01

    Severe depression compromises structural and functional integrity of the brain and results in impaired learning and memory, maladaptive synaptic plasticity as well as degenerative changes in the hippocampus and amygdala. The precise mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunctions in depression remain largely unknown. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) offers beneficial effects on cognitive functions, synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. However, the effect of EE on endogenous depression associated cognitive dysfunction has not been explored. Accordingly, we have attempted to address this issue by investigating behavioural, structural and synaptic plasticity mechanisms in an animal model of endogenous depression after exposure to enriched environment. Our results demonstrate that depression is associated with impaired spatial learning and enhanced anxiety-like behaviour which is correlated with hypotrophy of the dentate gyrus and amygdalar hypertrophy. We also observed a gross reduction in the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). We report a complete behavioural recovery with reduced indices of anhedonia and behavioural despair, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and improved spatial learning along with a complete restoration of dentate gyrus and amygdalar volumes in depressive rats subjected to EE. Enrichment also facilitated CA3-Schaffer collateral LTP. Our study convincingly proves that depression-induces learning deficits and impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity. It also highlights the role of environmental stimuli in restoring depression-induced cognitive deficits which might prove vital in outlining more effective strategies to treat major depressive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Cognitive deficits in first episode psychosis patients and people at risk for psychosis: from diagnosis to treatment].

    PubMed

    Lecardeur, L; Meunier-Cussac, S; Dollfus, S

    2013-05-01

    Up to now, studies have not demonstrated significant efficacy of antipsychotics on cognitive impairments in patients with psychotic disorders. These cognitive deficits are of particular interest since they traditionally start early before the diagnosis of psychosis. They are observed during premorbid and prodromal stages, and during the first episode of psychosis. Moreover, cognitive impairments may be detected without any psychotic symptoms (such as positive symptoms) suggesting their development independently of the psychotic symptoms. Cognitive disturbances consist of impairments of episodic and working memories, intellectual functioning, executive functions (planning, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility), selective and sustained attentions and social cognition (emotion, recognition, theory of mind). The altered cognitive functions observed in schizophrenia are the same as in earlier stages but at a lower level of severity. Data suggest that cognitive deficits can be considered as vulnerability markers of psychosis since they have been described in healthy relatives of psychotic patients with high genetic risk. Cognitive deficits might also be considered as predictive of the occurrence of the disease after the first episode of psychosis. Indeed, retrospective studies suggest cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia during premorbid and prodromal phases but not in bipolar patients. Cognitive assessment might be of particular interest in people at risk for psychosis, in order to differentiate diagnostic outcomes. Cognitive functioning impairs until the diagnosis of first episode psychosis, even though cognitive profiles are quite heterogeneous in these patients. Once the diagnosis of schizophrenia is considered, cognitive deficits may be stable, although the literature is still controversial. Several factors such as symptoms and gender can contribute in diversifying the cognitive profiles. Moreover, age of onset might worsen the prognosis because of

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship of Physical Activity with Depression and Cognitive Deficit in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulo T, R S; Tribess, Sheilla; Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Meneguci, Joilson; Martins, Cristiane A; Freitas, Ismael F; Romo-Perez, Vicente; Virtuoso, Jair S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (< 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/ week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14-2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01-8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults.

  1. Overstimulation of newborn mice leads to behavioral differences and deficits in cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, D. A.; Ramirez, J. S. B.; Ramirez, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies in humans have found associations between overstimulation in infancy via excessive television viewing and subsequent deficits in cognition and attention. We developed and tested a mouse model of overstimulation whereby p10 mice were subjected to audio (70 db) and visual stimulation (flashing lights) for six hours per day for a total of 42 days. 10 days later cognition and behavior were tested using the following tests: Light Dark Latency, Elevated Plus Maze, Novel Object Recognition, and Barnes Maze. In all tests, overstimulated mice performed significantly worse compared to controls suggesting increased activity and risk taking, diminished short term memory, and decreased cognitive function. These findings suggest that excessive non-normative stimulation during critical periods of brain development can have demonstrable untoward effects on subsequent neurocognitive function. PMID:22855702

  2. Understanding the effects of stimulant medications on cognition in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a decade of progress.

    PubMed

    Swanson, James; Baler, Ruben D; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-01-01

    The use of stimulant drugs for the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most widespread pharmacological interventions in child psychiatry and behavioral pediatrics. This treatment is well grounded on controlled studies showing efficacy of low oral doses of methylphenidate and amphetamine in reducing the behavioral symptoms of the disorder as reported by parents and teachers, both for the cognitive (inattention and impulsivity) and non-cognitive (hyperactivity) domains. Our main aim is to review the objectively measured cognitive effects that accompany the subjectively assessed clinical responses to stimulant medications. Recently, methods from the cognitive neurosciences have been used to provide information about brain processes that underlie the cognitive deficits of ADHD and the cognitive effects of stimulant medications. We will review some key findings from the recent literature, and then offer interpretations of the progress that has been made over the past decade in understanding the cognitive effects of stimulant medication on individuals with ADHD.

  3. Thunbergia laurifolia extract ameliorates cognitive and emotional deficits in olfactorectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Tanaka, Ken; Mizuki, Daishu; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2015-08-01

    Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. (Acanthaceae) is a Thai medicinal plant used for the detoxification of poison which is likely to be beneficial for the treatment of cognitive deficits including Alzheimer's disease. To elucidate the effects of Thunbergia laurifolia leaf extract (TLL) on cognitive dysfunction and depression-like behavior in olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX). OBX mice were treated daily with TLL at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, tacrine, and imipramine, on the day after 10 d of OBX operation. The effects of TLL on cognitive and depression-like behavior of the animals were analyzed. After completing behavioral experiments, the expression levels of cholinergic marker genes encoding ChAT and muscarinic M1 receptor were quantitatively analyzed. TLL and tacrine reduced OBX-induced cognitive deficits in the object recognition test (ORT) with the time spent for the novel object two times longer than that of the familiar object. Moreover, TLL at the dose of 500 mg/kg and imipramine ameliorated depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test (TST) by reducing the duration of immobility from 25.18% to 3.16% and from 25.18% to 6.48%, respectively. TLL at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg reversed the OBX-induced down-regulation of ChAT mRNA expression in the hippocampus from 0.12 to 0.17 and 0.24, respectively, while the down-regulation of mRNA expression of muscarinic M1 receptor was also reversed by TLL from 0.23 to 0.38 and 0.48, respectively. TLL ameliorates non-spatial short-term memory deficits in OBX mice, and has the potential to exhibit an antidepressant-like action.

  4. Mapping the neuroanatomic substrates of cognition in familial attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Muster, Rachel; Choudhury, Saadia; Sharp, Wendy; Kasparek, Steven; Sudre, Gustavo; Shaw, Philip

    2018-05-24

    While the neuroanatomic substrates of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been investigated, less is known about the neuroanatomic correlates of cognitive abilities pertinent to the disorder, particularly in adults. Here we define the neuroanatomic correlates of key cognitive abilities and determine if there are associations with histories of psychostimulant medication. We acquired neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging data from 264 members of 60 families (mean age 29.5; s.d. 18.4, 116 with ADHD). Using linear mixed model regression, we tested for associations between cognitive abilities (working memory, information processing, intelligence, and attention), symptoms and both cortical and subcortical volumes. Symptom severity was associated with spatial working memory (t = -3.77, p = 0.0002), processing speed (t = -2.95, p = 0.004) and a measure of impulsive responding (t = 2.19, p = 0.03); these associations did not vary with age (all p > 0.1). Neuroanatomic associations of cognition varied by task but centered on prefrontal, lateral parietal and temporal cortical regions, the thalamus and putamen. The neuroanatomic correlates of ADHD symptoms overlapped significantly with those of working memory (Dice's overlap coefficient: spatial, p = 0.003; verbal, p = 0.001) and information processing (p = 0.02). Psychostimulant medication history was associated with neither cognitive skills nor with a brain-cognition relationships. Diagnostic differences in the cognitive profile of ADHD does not vary significantly with age; nor were cognitive differences associated with psychostimulant medication history. The neuroanatomic substrates of working memory and information overlapped with those for symptoms within these extended families, consistent with a pathophysiological role for these cognitive skills in familial ADHD.

  5. Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Mitigation Strategies of Cognitive Deficits in Aging with HIV: Implications for Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has given the chance to those living with HIV to keep on living, allowing them the opportunity to age and perhaps age successfully. Yet, there are severe challenges to successful aging with HIV, one of which is cognitive deficits. Nearly half of those with HIV experience cognitive deficits that can interfere with everyday functioning, medical decision making, and quality of life. Given that cognitive deficits develop with more frequency and intensity with increasing age, concerns mount that as people age with HIV, they may experience more severe cognitive deficits. These concerns become especially germane given that by 2015, 50% of those with HIV will be 50 and older, and this older cohort of adults is expected to grow. As such, this paper focuses on the etiologies of such cognitive deficits within the context of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. From this, evidence-based and hypothetical prevention (i.e., cognitive prescriptions), rehabilitation (i.e., speed of processing training), and mitigation (i.e., spaced retrieval method) strategies are reviewed. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:23431469

  6. Failures of cognitive control or attention? The case of stop-signal deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Dora; Hughes, Matthew; Badcock, Johanna C; Michie, Patricia; Heathcote, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    We used Bayesian cognitive modelling to identify the underlying causes of apparent inhibitory deficits in the stop-signal paradigm. The analysis was applied to stop-signal data reported by Badcock et al. (Psychological Medicine 32: 87-297, 2002) and Hughes et al. (Biological Psychology 89: 220-231, 2012), where schizophrenia patients and control participants made rapid choice responses, but on some trials were signalled to stop their ongoing response. Previous research has assumed an inhibitory deficit in schizophrenia, because estimates of the mean time taken to react to the stop signal are longer in patients than controls. We showed that these longer estimates are partly due to failing to react to the stop signal ("trigger failures") and partly due to a slower initiation of inhibition, implicating a failure of attention rather than a deficit in the inhibitory process itself. Correlations between the probability of trigger failures and event-related potentials reported by Hughes et al. are interpreted as supporting the attentional account of inhibitory deficits. Our results, and those of Matzke et al. (2016), who report that controls also display a substantial although lower trigger-failure rate, indicate that attentional factors need to be taken into account when interpreting results from the stop-signal paradigm.

  7. Experimental 'jet lag' inhibits adult neurogenesis and produces long-term cognitive deficits in female hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Erin M; Wang, Connie; Tjho, Stephanie; Khattar, Neera; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2010-12-01

    Circadian disruptions through frequent transmeridian travel, rotating shift work, and poor sleep hygiene are associated with an array of physical and mental health maladies, including marked deficits in human cognitive function. Despite anecdotal and correlational reports suggesting a negative impact of circadian disruptions on brain function, this possibility has not been experimentally examined. In the present study, we investigated whether experimental 'jet lag' (i.e., phase advances of the light:dark cycle) negatively impacts learning and memory and whether any deficits observed are associated with reductions in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Because insults to circadian timing alter circulating glucocorticoid and sex steroid concentrations, both of which influence neurogenesis and learning/memory, we assessed the contribution of these endocrine factors to any observed alterations. Circadian disruption resulted in pronounced deficits in learning and memory paralleled by marked reductions in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Significantly, deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory were not only seen during the period of the circadian disruption, but also persisted well after the cessation of jet lag, suggesting long-lasting negative consequences on brain function. Together, these findings support the view that circadian disruptions suppress hippocampal neurogenesis via a glucocorticoid-independent mechanism, imposing pronounced and persistent impairments on learning and memory.

  8. Deficit of entropy modulation of the EEG in schizophrenia associated to cognitive performance and symptoms. A replication study.

    PubMed

    Molina, Vicente; Bachiller, Alejandro; Gomez-Pilar, Javier; Lubeiro, Alba; Hornero, Roberto; Cea-Cañas, Benjamín; Valcárcel, César; Haidar, Mahmoun-Karim; Poza, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    Spectral entropy (SE) is a measurement from information theory field that provides an estimation of EEG regularity and may be useful as a summary of its spectral properties. Previous studies using small samples reported a deficit of EEG entropy modulation in schizophrenia during cognitive activity. The present study is aimed at replicating this finding in a larger sample, to explore its cognitive and clinical correlates and to discard antipsychotic treatment as the main source of that deficit. We included 64 schizophrenia patients (21 first episodes, FE) and 65 healthy controls. We computed SE during performance of an odd-ball paradigm, at the windows prior (-300 to 0ms) and following (150 to 450ms) stimulus presentation. Modulation of SE was defined as the difference between post- and pre-stimulus windows. In comparison to controls, patients showed a deficit of SE modulation over frontal and central regions, also shown by FE patients. Baseline SE did not differ between patients and controls. Modulation deficit was directly associated with cognitive deficits and negative symptoms, and inversely with positive symptoms. SE modulation was not related to antipsychotic doses. Patients also showed a smaller change of median frequency (i.e., smaller slowing of oscillatory activity) of the EEG from pre- to post-stimulus windows. These results support that a deficit of fast modulation contributes to cognitive deficits and symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Neuroscience-Based Cognitive Skill Training on Growth of Cognitive Deficits Associated with Learning Disabilities in Children Grades 2-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avtzon, Sarah Abitbol

    2012-01-01

    Working memory, executive functions, and cognitive processes associated with specific academic areas, are empirically identified as being the core underlying cognitive deficits in students with specific learning disabilities. Using Hebb's theory of neuroplasticity and the principle of automaticity as theoretical bases, this experimental study…

  10. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Its Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Rubia, Katya

    2018-01-01

    This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM). There is furthermore emerging evidence for abnormalities in orbital and ventromedial prefrontal and limbic areas that mediate motivation and emotion control. In addition, poor deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) suggests an abnormal interrelationship between hypo-engaged task-positive and poorly “switched off” hyper-engaged task-negative networks, both of which are related to impaired cognition. Translational cognitive neuroscience in ADHD is still in its infancy. Pattern recognition analyses have attempted to provide diagnostic classification of ADHD using fMRI data with respectable classification accuracies of over 80%. Necessary replication studies, however, are still outstanding. Brain stimulation has been tested in heterogeneously designed, small numbered proof of concept studies targeting key frontal functional impairments in ADHD. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) appears to be promising to improve ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions based on some studies, but larger clinical trials of repeated stimulation with and without cognitive training are needed to test clinical efficacy and potential costs on non-targeted functions. Only three studies have piloted NF of fMRI-based frontal dysfunctions in ADHD using fMRI or near

  11. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Its Clinical Translation.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya

    2018-01-01

    This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM). There is furthermore emerging evidence for abnormalities in orbital and ventromedial prefrontal and limbic areas that mediate motivation and emotion control. In addition, poor deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) suggests an abnormal interrelationship between hypo-engaged task-positive and poorly "switched off" hyper-engaged task-negative networks, both of which are related to impaired cognition. Translational cognitive neuroscience in ADHD is still in its infancy. Pattern recognition analyses have attempted to provide diagnostic classification of ADHD using fMRI data with respectable classification accuracies of over 80%. Necessary replication studies, however, are still outstanding. Brain stimulation has been tested in heterogeneously designed, small numbered proof of concept studies targeting key frontal functional impairments in ADHD. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) appears to be promising to improve ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions based on some studies, but larger clinical trials of repeated stimulation with and without cognitive training are needed to test clinical efficacy and potential costs on non-targeted functions. Only three studies have piloted NF of fMRI-based frontal dysfunctions in ADHD using fMRI or near

  12. The Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Children Who Suffer from Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Kuwait State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ali Mohammed Haidar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the level of cognitive skills and abilities of children who suffer from the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the differences in the level of cognitive skills and abilities according to the age group and the level of academic achievement. To achieve the objective of the study, a…

  13. Deep Sleep and Parietal Cortex Gene Expression Changes Are Related to Cognitive Deficits with Age

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Searcy, James L.; Porter, Nada M.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related cognitive deficits negatively affect quality of life and can presage serious neurodegenerative disorders. Despite sleep disruption's well-recognized negative influence on cognition, and its prevalence with age, surprisingly few studies have tested sleep's relationship to cognitive aging. Methodology We measured sleep stages in young adult and aged F344 rats during inactive (enhanced sleep) and active (enhanced wake) periods. Animals were behaviorally characterized on the Morris water maze and gene expression profiles of their parietal cortices were taken. Principal Findings Water maze performance was impaired, and inactive period deep sleep was decreased with age. However, increased deep sleep during the active period was most strongly correlated to maze performance. Transcriptional profiles were strongly associated with behavior and age, and were validated against prior studies. Bioinformatic analysis revealed increased translation and decreased myelin/neuronal pathways. Conclusions The F344 rat appears to serve as a reasonable model for some common sleep architecture and cognitive changes seen with age in humans, including the cognitively disrupting influence of active period deep sleep. Microarray analysis suggests that the processes engaged by this sleep are consistent with its function. Thus, active period deep sleep appears temporally misaligned but mechanistically intact, leading to the following: first, aged brain tissue appears capable of generating the slow waves necessary for deep sleep, albeit at a weaker intensity than in young. Second, this activity, presented during the active period, seems disruptive rather than beneficial to cognition. Third, this active period deep sleep may be a cognitively pathologic attempt to recover age-related loss of inactive period deep sleep. Finally, therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing active period deep sleep (e.g., by promoting active period wakefulness and/or inactive period deep sleep) may

  14. University Students With Poor Reading Comprehension: The Hidden Cognitive Processing Deficit.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Das, J P

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-matched controls with no comprehension difficulties participated in the study. The participants were assessed on three verbal working memory tasks that varied in terms of their processing demands and on the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, which was used to operationalize intelligence. The results indicated first that the differences between poor and skilled comprehenders on working memory were amplified as the processing demands of the tasks increased. In addition, although poor comprehenders as a group had average intelligence, they experienced significant difficulties in simultaneous and successive processing. Considering that working memory and general cognitive ability are highly correlated processes, these findings suggest that the observed differences between poor and skilled comprehenders are likely a result of a deficient information processing system. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  15. Cognitive Deficits Underlying Error Behavior on a Naturalistic Task after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Kathryn; Ownsworth, Tamara; Beadle, Elizabeth; Chevignard, Mathilde P.; Fleming, Jennifer; Griffin, Janelle; Shum, David H. K.

    2016-01-01

    People with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) often make errors on everyday tasks that compromise their safety and independence. Such errors potentially arise from the breakdown or failure of multiple cognitive processes. This study aimed to investigate cognitive deficits underlying error behavior on a home-based version of the Cooking Task (HBCT) following TBI. Participants included 45 adults (9 females, 36 males) with severe TBI aged 18–64 years (M = 37.91, SD = 13.43). Participants were administered the HBCT in their home kitchens, with audiovisual recordings taken to enable scoring of total errors and error subtypes (Omissions, Additions, Estimations, Substitutions, Commentary/Questions, Dangerous Behavior, Goal Achievement). Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Trail Making Test, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Digit Span, Zoo Map test, Modified Stroop Test, and Hayling Sentence Completion Test. After controlling for cooking experience, greater Omissions and Estimation errors, lack of goal achievement, and longer completion time were significantly associated with poorer attention, memory, and executive functioning. These findings indicate that errors on naturalistic tasks arise from deficits in multiple cognitive domains. Assessment of error behavior in a real life setting provides insight into individuals' functional abilities which can guide rehabilitation planning and lifestyle support. PMID:27790099

  16. Emotion recognition and cognitive empathy deficits in adolescent offenders revealed by context-sensitive tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Herrera, Eduar; Parra, Mario; Gomez Mendez, Pedro; Baez, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Emotion recognition and empathy abilities require the integration of contextual information in real-life scenarios. Previous reports have explored these domains in adolescent offenders (AOs) but have not used tasks that replicate everyday situations. In this study we included ecological measures with different levels of contextual dependence to evaluate emotion recognition and empathy in AOs relative to non-offenders, controlling for the effect of demographic variables. We also explored the influence of fluid intelligence (FI) and executive functions (EFs) in the prediction of relevant deficits in these domains. Our results showed that AOs exhibit deficits in context-sensitive measures of emotion recognition and cognitive empathy. Difficulties in these tasks were neither explained by demographic variables nor predicted by FI or EFs. However, performance on measures that included simpler stimuli or could be solved by explicit knowledge was either only partially affected by demographic variables or preserved in AOs. These findings indicate that AOs show contextual social-cognition impairments which are relatively independent of basic cognitive functioning and demographic variables. PMID:25374529

  17. Methylthioninium chloride reverses cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine: comparison with rivastigmine.

    PubMed

    Deiana, Serena; Harrington, Charles R; Wischik, Claude M; Riedel, Gernot

    2009-01-01

    The cholinergic system is involved in cognition as well as in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD). Cholinergic enhancers ameliorate AD symptoms and represent the main current therapy for AD. MTC (Methylthioninium chloride), an antioxidant with metabolism-enhancing properties may be a novel candidate with pro-cognitive capacities. This study was performed: (1) to assess the pro-cognitive efficacy of MTC and establish its dose-response; (2) to compare the efficacy of MTC with rivastigmine and (3) to determine the potential for combination therapy by co-administration of MTC and rivastigmine. Spatial cognition of female NMRI mice was tested in a reference memory water maze task. Subjects received intra-peritoneal injections of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) followed by vehicle, and/or MTC and/or rivastigmine (0.15-4 mg/kg MTC; 0.1-0.5 mg/kg rivastigmine) in mono or combination treatment. Scopolamine treatment prevented spatial learning in NMRI female mice and the deficit was reversed by both rivastigmine and MTC in a dose-dependent manner. Mono-therapy with high doses of rivastigmine (>0.5 mg/kg) caused severe side effects but MTC was safe up to 4 mg/kg. Co-administration of sub-effective doses of both drugs acted synergistically in reversing learning deficits and scopolamine-induced memory impairments. In our model, MTC reversed the spatial learning impairment. When combined with the ChEI rivastigmine, the effect of MTC appeared to be amplified indicating that combination therapy could potentially improve not only symptoms but also contribute beneficially to neuronal metabolism by minimising side effects at lower doses.

  18. Blocking leukotriene synthesis attenuates the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury and associated cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Corser-Jensen, Chelsea E.; Goodell, Dayton J.; Freund, Ronald K.; Serbedzija, Predrag; Murphy, Robert C.; Farias, Santiago E.; Dell'Acqua, Mark L.; Frey, Lauren C.; Serkova, Natalie; Heidenreich, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a component of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) that can persist beyond the acute phase. Leukotrienes are potent, pro-inflammatory lipid mediators generated from membrane phospholipids. In the absence of injury, leukotrienes are undetectable in brain, but after trauma they are rapidly synthesized by a transcellular event involving infiltrating neutrophils and endogenous brain cells. Here, we investigate the efficacy of MK-886, an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), in blocking leukotriene synthesis, secondary brain damage, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive impairments after TBI. Male Sprague Dawley rats (9-11 weeks) received either MK-886 or vehicle after they were subjected to unilateral moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI) to assess the potential clinical use of FLAP inhibitors for TBI. MK-886 was also administered before FPI to determine the preventative potential of FLAP inhibitors. MK-886 given before or after injury significantly blocked the production of leukotrienes, measured by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (RP LC-MS/MS), and brain edema, measured by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MK-886 significantly attenuated blood-brain barrier disruption in the CA1 hippocampal region and deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA1 hippocampal synapses. The prevention of FPI-induced synaptic dysfunction by MK-886 was accompanied by fewer deficits in post-injury spatial learning and memory performance in the radial arms water maze (RAWM). These results indicate that leukotrienes contribute significantly to secondary brain injury and subsequent cognitive deficits. FLAP inhibitors represent a novel anti-inflammatory approach for treating human TBI that is feasible for both intervention and prevention of brain injury and neurologic deficits. PMID:24681156

  19. Longitudinal deficits to attention, executive, and working memory in subtypes of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Nichole L J; Summers, Mathew J

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has emerged as a classification for a prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent research suggests that attention, executive, and working memory deficits may appear much earlier in the progression of AD than traditionally conceptualized, and may be more consistently associated with the later development of AD than memory processing deficits. The present study longitudinally tracked attention, executive and working memory functions in subtypes of MCI. In a longitudinal study, 52 amnestic MCI (a-MCI), 29 nonamnestic MCI (na-MCI), and 25 age- and education-matched controls undertook neuropsychological assessment of visual and verbal memory, attentional processing, executive functioning, working memory capacity, and semantic language at 10 month intervals. Analysis by repeated measures ANOVA indicate that the a-MCI and na-MCI groups displayed a decline in simple sustained attention (ηp² = .054) with a significant decline on a task of divided attention (ηp² = .053) being evident in the a-MCI group. Stable deficits were found on other measures of attention, working memory and executive function in the a-MCI and na-MCI groups. The a-MCI group displayed stable impairments to visual and verbal memory. The results indicate that a-MCI and na-MCI display a stable pattern of deficits to attention, working memory, and executive function. The decline in simple sustained attention in a-MCI and n-MCI groups and to divided attention in a-MCI may be early indicators of possible transition to dementia from MCI. However, further research is required to determine this. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Manganese exposure and cognitive deficits: a growing concern for manganese neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Roels, H A; Bowler, R M; Kim, Y; Claus Henn, B; Mergler, D; Hoet, P; Gocheva, V V; Bellinger, D C; Wright, R O; Harris, M G; Chang, Y; Bouchard, M F; Riojas-Rodriguez, H; Menezes-Filho, J A; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2012-08-01

    This symposium comprised five oral presentations dealing with recent findings on Mn-related cognitive and motor changes from epidemiological studies across the life span. The first contribution highlighted the usefulness of functional neuroimaging of the central nervous system (CNS) to evaluate cognitive as well as motor deficits in Mn-exposed welders. The second dealt with results of two prospective studies in Mn-exposed workers or welders showing that after decrease of Mn exposure the outcome of reversibility in adverse CNS effects may differ for motor and cognitive function and, in addition the issue of plasma Mn as a reliable biomarker for Mn exposure in welders has been addressed. The third presentation showed a brief overview of the results of an ongoing study assessing the relationship between environmental airborne Mn exposure and neurological or neuropsychological effects in adult Ohio residents living near a Mn point source. The fourth paper focused on the association between blood Mn and neurodevelopment in early childhood which seems to be sensitive to both low and high Mn concentrations. The fifth contribution gave an overview of six studies indicating a negative impact of excess environmental Mn exposure from air and drinking water on children's cognitive performance, with special attention to hair Mn as a potential biomarker of exposure. These studies highlight a series of questions about Mn neurotoxicity with respect to cognitive processes, forms and routes of exposure, adequate biomarkers of exposure, gender differences, susceptibility and exposure limits with regard to age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 improves methimazole-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Husain; Yabuki, Yasushi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2017-09-01

    Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 potentially improves cognitive impairment seen following MMI-induced hypothyroidism. Twenty-four hours after MMI (75 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment, we administered SAK3 (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.) to mice daily for 7 days. MMI treatment alone disrupted olfactory bulb (OB) glomerular structure, as assessed by staining with the olfactory marker protein (OMP), reduced the number of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive neurons in medial septum (MS), and significantly impaired cognition. SAK3 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.) administration significantly restored the number of cholinergic MS neurons in MMI-treated mice, and SAK3 treatment at a higher dose significantly improved cognitive deficits seen in MMI-treated control mice. Overall, our study suggests that SAK3 treatment could antagonize such impairment in patients with hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smaller than expected cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients from the population-representative ABC catchment cohort.

    PubMed

    Lennertz, Leonhard; An der Heiden, Wolfram; Kronacher, Regina; Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Maier, Wolfgang; Häfner, Heinz; Wagner, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Most neuropsychological studies on schizophrenia suffer from sample selection bias, with male and chronic patients being overrepresented. This probably leads to an overestimation of cognitive impairments. The present study aimed to provide a less biased estimate of cognitive functions in schizophrenia using a population-representative catchment area sample. Schizophrenia patients (N = 89) from the prospective Mannheim ABC cohort were assessed 14 years after disease onset and first diagnosis, using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A healthy control group (N = 90) was carefully matched according to age, gender, and geographic region (city, rural surrounds). The present sample was representative for the initial ABC cohort. In the comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, the schizophrenia patients were only moderately impaired as compared to the healthy control group (d = 0.56 for a general cognitive index, d = 0.42 for verbal memory, d = 0.61 for executive functions, d = 0.69 for attention). Only 33 % of the schizophrenia patients scored one standard deviation unit below the healthy control group in the general cognitive index. Neuropsychological performance did not correlate with measures of the clinical course including age at onset, number of hospital admissions, and time in paid work. Thus, in this population-representative sample of schizophrenia patients, neuropsychological deficits were less pronounced than expected from meta-analyses. In agreement with other epidemiological studies, this suggests a less devastating picture of cognition in schizophrenia.

  3. Cognitive deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evaluated by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Hideaki; Hirata, Koichi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the cognitive profiles in non-demented, relatively less handicapped patients with early-stage sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by using neuropsychological tests, event-related potentials (ERPs) and clinical scale. We recruited 19 patients with sporadic ALS (eight with limb-onset, 11 with bulbar-onset) and 19 controls. In addition to the mini-mental state examination and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised, we assessed the frontal lobe function with Wisconsin card sorting test, Stroop test and trail making test. We used auditory 'oddball' counting paradigm for the ERPs under 20-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. Global field power (GFP) was computed, and its peak amplitudes and latencies of N1/N2/P3 were determined. The results of ERP and neuropsychological tests were correlated with respiratory function and clinical scale. No global cognitive impairment except for subtle frontal dysfunction was detected, although N1/N2/P3 GFP latencies were significantly prolonged in ALS patients than in the controls. Vital capacity correlated with P3 GFP amplitude, and the relative bulbar functional rating scale correlated with P3 GFP latency. Our findings indicated the presence of sub-clinical cognitive deficits in non-demented, sporadic ALS patients. In addition, clinical sub-types and respiratory function dependently influenced cognitive function in patients with sporadic ALS. ERP confirmed cognitive impairment in patients with sporadic ALS.

  4. The nature of social cognitive deficits in children and adults with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY).

    PubMed

    van Rijn, S; de Sonneville, L; Swaab, H

    2018-02-06

    About 1 in 650 boys are born with an extra X chromosome (47,XXY or Klinefelter syndrome). 47,XXY is associated with vulnerabilities in socio-emotional development. This study was designed to assess types of cognitive deficits in individuals with 47,XXY that may contribute to social-emotional dysfunction, and to evaluate the nature of such deficits at various levels: ranging from basic visuospatial processing deficits, impairments in face recognition (FR), to emotion expression impairments. A total of 70 boys and men with 47,XXY, aged 8 to 60 years old, participated in the study. The subtests feature identification, FR and identification of facial emotions of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks were used. Level of intellectual functioning was assessed with the child and adult versions of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Reaction time data showed that in the 47,XXY group, 17% had difficulties in visuospatial processing (no social load), 26% had difficulties with FR (medium social load) and an even higher number of 33% had difficulties with facial expressions of emotions (high-social load). Information processing impairments increased as a function of "social load" of the stimuli, independent of intellectual functioning. Taken together, our data suggest that on average individuals with XXY may have more difficulties in information processing when "social load" increases, suggesting a specific difficulty in the higher-order labeling and interpretation of social cues, which cannot be explained by more basic visuospatial perceptual skills. Considering the increased risk for social cognitive impairments, routine assessment of social cognitive functioning as part of neuropsychological screening is warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Uncaria rhynchophylla ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by D-galactose in mice.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Zhao, Ming; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Che, Chun-Tao

    2011-12-01

    The stem with hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla is a component herb of many traditional formulae for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, scientific evidence of the efficacy of Uncaria rhynchophylla in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in animal models is lacking. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether the 70 % aqueous ethanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla (EUR) could protect against D-galactose (D-gal)-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Mice were given a subcutaneous injection of D-gal (50 mg/kg) and orally administered EUR (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) daily for 8 weeks. The effect of EUR on D-gal-induced cognitive deficits was evaluated by measuring behavioral and neurochemical parameters of AD and the antioxidant status of brain tissue. The results showed that EUR (200 or 400 mg/kg) significantly increased exploratory behavior (assessed by an open-field test) and improved spatial learning and memory function (assessed by the Morris water maze test) in D-gal-treated mice. In addition, EUR (200 or 400 mg/kg) significantly increased the levels of acetylcholine and glutathione and decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase and the level of malondialdehyde in the brains of D-gal-treated mice. These results indicate that EUR ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by D-gal in mice, and that this action may be mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and the enhancement of the antioxidant status of brain tissue. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Emotional Intelligence deficits in schizophrenia: The impact of non-social cognition.

    PubMed

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Hofer, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) revealed significant performance deficits across all areas of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, none of these studies has investigated a potential influence of non-social cognition on these findings. 56 schizophrenia outpatients and 84 control subjects were investigated using the MSCEIT and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score and education. To investigate this issue in more detail, a mediation analysis was conducted. Patients showed significantly lower EI and non-social cognition levels compared to healthy controls. After adjustment for BACS composite score and education, only the group difference in the "managing emotions" branch and thus in the "strategic" EI part of the MSCEIT remained statistically significant, whereas for all other MSCEIT branches (perceiving, using, understanding emotions) statistical significance was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that the difference between schizophrenia patients and controls regarding the MSCEIT total score was almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in schizophrenia patients EI is largely influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. Only the "managing emotions" branch was found to be independent of non-social cognition. Consequently, non-social cognitive performance was mainly responsible for the observed differences in EI between schizophrenia patients and controls. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting Neural Synchrony Deficits is Sufficient to Improve Cognition in a Schizophrenia-Related Neurodevelopmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heekyung; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive symptoms are core features of mental disorders but procognitive treatments are limited. We have proposed a “discoordination” hypothesis that cognitive impairment results from aberrant coordination of neural activity. We reported that neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL) rats, an established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, have abnormal neural synchrony and cognitive deficits in the active place avoidance task. During stillness, we observed that cortical local field potentials sometimes resembled epileptiform spike-wave discharges with higher prevalence in NVHL rats, indicating abnormal neural synchrony due perhaps to imbalanced excitation–inhibition coupling. Here, within the context of the hypothesis, we investigated whether attenuating abnormal neural synchrony will improve cognition in NVHL rats. We report that: (1) inter-hippocampal synchrony in the theta and beta bands is correlated with active place avoidance performance; (2) the anticonvulsant ethosuximide attenuated the abnormal spike-wave activity, improved cognitive control, and reduced hyperlocomotion; (3) ethosuximide not only normalized the task-associated theta and beta synchrony between the two hippocampi but also increased synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus above control levels; (4) the antipsychotic olanzapine was less effective at improving cognitive control and normalizing place avoidance-related inter-hippocampal neural synchrony, although it reduced hyperactivity; and (5) olanzapine caused an abnormal pattern of frequency-independent increases in neural synchrony, in both NVHL and control rats. These data suggest that normalizing aberrant neural synchrony can be beneficial and that drugs targeting the pathophysiology of abnormally coordinated neural activities may be a promising theoretical framework and strategy for developing treatments that improve cognition in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:24592242

  8. A metacognitive perspective on the cognitive deficits experienced in intellectually threatening environments.

    PubMed

    Schmader, Toni; Forbes, Chad E; Zhang, Shen; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2009-05-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis that negative metacognitive interpretations of anxious arousal under stereotype threat create cognitive deficits in intellectually threatening environments. Study 1 showed that among minority and White undergraduates, anxiety about an intelligence test predicted lower working memory when participants were primed with doubt as compared to confidence. Study 2 replicated this pattern with women and showed it to be unique to intellectually threatening environments. Study 3 used emotional reappraisal as an individual difference measure of the tendency to metacognitively reinterpret negative emotions and found that when sympathetic activation was high (indexed by salivary alpha-amylase), women who tended to reappraise negative feelings performed better in math and felt less self-doubt than those low in reappraisal. Overall, findings highlight how metacognitive interpretations of affect can undermine cognitive efficiency under stereotype threat and offer implications for the situational and individual difference variables that buffer people from these effects.

  9. Blue-yellow colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in occasional and dependent stimulant users.

    PubMed

    Hulka, Lea M; Wagner, Michael; Preller, Katrin H; Jenni, Daniela; Quednow, Boris B

    2013-04-01

    Specific blue-yellow colour vision impairment has been reported in dependent cocaine users and it was postulated that drug-induced changes in retinal dopamine neurotransmission are responsible. However, it is unclear whether these changes are confined to chronic cocaine users, whether they are specific for dopaminergic stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine and whether they are related to cognitive functions such as working memory, encoding and consolidation. In 47 occasional and 29 dependent cocaine users, 23 MDMA (commonly known as 'ecstasy') users and 47 stimulant-naive controls, colour vision discrimination was measured with the Lanthony Desaturated Panel D-15 Test and memory performance with the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Both occasional and dependent cocaine users showed higher colour confusion indices than controls. Users of the serotonergic stimulant MDMA (26%), occasional (30%) and dependent cocaine users (34%) exhibited more frequent blue-yellow colour vision disorders compared to controls (9%). Inferior performance of MDMA users was caused by a subgroup with high amphetamine co-use (55%), while MDMA use alone was not associated with decreased blue-yellow discrimination (0%). Cognitive performance was worse in cocaine users with colour vision disorder compared to users and controls with intact colour vision and both colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits were related to cocaine use. Occasional cocaine and amphetamine use might induce blue-yellow colour vision impairment, whereas the serotonergic stimulant MDMA does not impair colour vision. The association between colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in cocaine users may reflect that retinal and cerebral dopamine alterations are linked to a certain degree.

  10. Amyloid-β Homeostasis Bridges Inflammation, Synaptic Plasticity Deficits and Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Garofalo, Sara; Marfia, Girolama A.; Gilio, Luana; Simonelli, Ilaria; Finardi, Annamaria; Furlan, Roberto; Sancesario, Giulia M.; Di Giandomenico, Jonny; Storto, Marianna; Mori, Francesco; Centonze, Diego; Iezzi, Ennio

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines. Although mechanisms of inflammation-induced hippocampal pathology in MS are not completely understood, alteration of Amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism is emerging as a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration in different neurological diseases. We explored the correlation between concentrations of Aβ1–42 and the levels of some proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL1-ra, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ)) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 103 remitting MS patients. CSF levels of Aβ1–42 were negatively correlated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and positively correlated with the anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Other correlations, although noticeable, were either borderline or not significant. Our data show that an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to altered Aβ homeostasis, representing a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and cognitive dysfunction in MS. This could be relevant to identify novel therapeutic approaches to hinder the progression of cognitive dysfunction in MS. PMID:29209169

  11. Amyloid-β Homeostasis Bridges Inflammation, Synaptic Plasticity Deficits and Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Garofalo, Sara; Marfia, Girolama A; Gilio, Luana; Simonelli, Ilaria; Finardi, Annamaria; Furlan, Roberto; Sancesario, Giulia M; Di Giandomenico, Jonny; Storto, Marianna; Mori, Francesco; Centonze, Diego; Iezzi, Ennio

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines. Although mechanisms of inflammation-induced hippocampal pathology in MS are not completely understood, alteration of Amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism is emerging as a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration in different neurological diseases. We explored the correlation between concentrations of Aβ 1-42 and the levels of some proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL1-ra, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ)) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 103 remitting MS patients. CSF levels of Aβ 1-42 were negatively correlated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and positively correlated with the anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Other correlations, although noticeable, were either borderline or not significant. Our data show that an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to altered Aβ homeostasis, representing a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and cognitive dysfunction in MS. This could be relevant to identify novel therapeutic approaches to hinder the progression of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  12. Microstructural white matter alterations and hippocampal volumes are associated with cognitive deficits in craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Fjalldal, S; Follin, C; Svärd, D; Rylander, L; Gabery, S; Petersén, Å; van Westen, D; Sundgren, P C; Björkman-Burtscher, I M; Lätt, J; Ekman, B; Johanson, A; Erfurth, E M

    2018-06-01

    Patients with craniopharyngioma (CP) and hypothalamic lesions (HL) have cognitive deficits. Which neural pathways are affected is unknown. To determine whether there is a relationship between microstructural white matter (WM) alterations detected with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognition in adults with childhood-onset CP. A cross-sectional study with a median follow-up time of 22 (6-49) years after operation. The South Medical Region of Sweden (2.5 million inhabitants). Included were 41 patients (24 women, ≥17 years) surgically treated for childhood-onset CP between 1958-2010 and 32 controls with similar age and gender distributions. HL was found in 23 patients. Subjects performed cognitive tests and magnetic resonance imaging, and images were analyzed using DTI of uncinate fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, hippocampus and hypothalamus as well as hippocampal volumetry. Right uncinate fasciculus was significantly altered ( P  ≤ 0.01). Microstructural WM alterations in left ventral cingulum were significantly associated with worse performance in visual episodic memory, explaining approximately 50% of the variation. Alterations in dorsal cingulum were associated with worse performance in immediate, delayed recall and recognition, explaining 26-38% of the variation, and with visuospatial ability and executive function, explaining 19-29%. Patients who had smaller hippocampal volume had worse general knowledge ( P  = 0.028), and microstructural WM alterations in hippocampus were associated with a decline in general knowledge and episodic visual memory. A structure to function relationship is suggested between microstructural WM alterations in cingulum and in hippocampus with cognitive deficits in CP. © 2018 The authors.

  13. Cognitive deficit and poverty in the first 5 years of childhood in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hamadani, Jena D; Tofail, Fahmida; Huda, Syed N; Alam, Dewan S; Ridout, Deborah A; Attanasio, Orazio; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine the timing and size of the cognitive deficit associated with poverty in the first 5 years of life and to examine the role of parental characteristics, pre- and postnatal growth, and stimulation in the home in Bangladeshi children. We hypothesized that the effect of poverty on cognition begins in infancy and is mainly mediated by these factors. We enrolled 2853 singletons, a subsample from a pregnancy supplementation trial in a poor rural area. We assessed mental development at 7, 18, and 64 months; anthropometry at birth, 12, 24, and 64 months; home stimulation at 18 and 64 months; and family's socioeconomic background. In multiple regression analyses, we examined the effect of poverty at birth on IQ at 64 months and the extent that other factors mediated the effect. A mean cognitive deficit of 0.2 (95% confidence interval -0.4 to -0.02) z scores between the first and fifth wealth quintiles was apparent at 7 months and increased to 1.2 (95% confidence interval -1.3 to -1.0) z scores of IQ by 64 months. Parental education, pre- and postnatal growth in length, and home stimulation mediated 86% of the effects of poverty on IQ and had independent effects. Growth in the first 2 years had larger effects than later growth. Home stimulation had effects throughout the period. Effects of poverty on children's cognition are mostly mediated through parental education, birth size, growth in the first 24 months, and home stimulation in the first 5 years. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. The association between cognitive deficits and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during performance of working memory task in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Itakura, Masashi; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia-associated cognitive deficits are resistant to treatment and thus pose a lifelong burden. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) provides reliable and valid assessments across cognitive domains. However, because the prefrontal functional abnormalities specifically associated with the level of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have not been examined, we explored this relationship. Patients with schizophrenia (N=87) and matched healthy controls (N=50) participated in the study. Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured the hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical surface areas during a working memory task. Correlation analyses revealed a relationship between the hemodynamics and the BACS composite and domain scores. Hemodynamic responses of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontopolar cortex (FPC) in the higher-level-of-cognitive-function schizophrenia group were weaker than the responses of the controls but similar to those of the lower-level-of-cognitive-function schizophrenia group. However, hemodynamic responses in the right DLPFC, bilateral ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), and right temporal regions decreased with increasing cognitive deficits. In addition, the hemodynamic response correlated positively with the level of cognitive function (BACS composite scores) in the right DLPFC, bilateral VLPFC, right FPC, and bilateral temporal regions in schizophrenia. The correlation was driven by all BACS domains. Our results suggest that the linked functional deficits in the right DLPFC, bilateral VLPFC, right FPC, and bilateral temporal regions may be related to BACS-measured cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and show that linking the neurocognitive deficits and brain abnormalities can increase our understanding of schizophrenia pathophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Animal model of dementia induced by entorhinal synaptic damage and partial restoration of cognitive deficits by BDNF and carnitine.

    PubMed

    Ando, Susumu; Kobayashi, Satoru; Waki, Hatsue; Kon, Kazuo; Fukui, Fumiko; Tadenuma, Tomoko; Iwamoto, Machiko; Takeda, Yasuo; Izumiyama, Naotaka; Watanabe, Kazutada; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2002-11-01

    A rat dementia model with cognitive deficits was generated by synapse-specific lesions using botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTx) type B in the entorhinal cortex. To detect cognitive deficits, different tasks were needed depending upon the age of the model animals. Impaired learning and memory with lesions were observed in adult rats using the Hebb-Williams maze, AKON-1 maze and a continuous alternation task in T-maze. Cognitive deficits in lesioned aged rats were detected by a continuous alternation and delayed non-matching-to-sample tasks in T-maze. Adenovirus-mediated BDNF gene expression enhanced neuronal plasticity, as revealed by behavioral tests and LTP formation. Chronic administration of carnitine over time pre- and post-lesions seemed to partially ameliorate the cognitive deficits caused by the synaptic lesion. The carnitine-accelerated recovery from synaptic damage was observed by electron microscopy. These results demonstrate that the BoNTx-lesioned rat can be used as a model for dementia and that cognitive deficits can be alleviated in part by BDNF gene transfer or carnitine administration. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes With Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits.

    PubMed

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with arithmetic fact dyscalculia (AFD) and a group with general dyscalculia (GD). Several different aspects of number magnitude processing were assessed in these two groups and compared with age-matched typically achieving children. The GD group displayed weaknesses with both symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing, whereas the AFD group displayed problems only with symbolic number processing. These findings provide evidence that the origins of DD in children with different profiles of mathematical problems diverge. Children with GD have impairment in the innate approximate number system, whereas children with AFD suffer from an access deficit. These findings have implications for researchers' selection procedures when studying dyscalculia, and also for practitioners in the educational setting. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  17. The Neural Substrates of Cognitive Control Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marjorie; Ozonoff, Sally; Ursu, Stefan; Ravizza, Susan; Cummings, Neil; Ly, Stanford; Carter, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    Executive functions deficits are among the most frequently reported symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), however, there have been few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that investigate the neural substrates of executive functions deficits in ASDs, and only one in adolescents. The current study examined cognitive control –the ability to maintain task context online to support adaptive functioning in the face of response competition—in 22 adolescents aged 12–18 with autism spectrum disorders and 23 age, gender, and IQ matched typically developing subjects. During the cue phase of the task, where subjects must maintain information online to overcome a prepotent response tendency, typically developing subjects recruited significantly more anterior frontal (BA 10), parietal (BA 7, 40), and occipital regions (BA 18) for high control trials (25% of trials) versus low control trials (75% of trials). Both groups showed similar activation for low control cues, however the ASD group exhibited significantly less activation for high control cues. Functional connectivity analysis using time series correlation, factor analysis, and beta series correlation methods provided convergent evidence that the ASD group exhibited lower levels of functional connectivity and less network integration between frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. In the typically developing group, fronto-parietal connectivity was related to lower error rates on high control trials. In the autism group, reduced fronto-parietal connectivity was related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. PMID:19410583

  18. Canonical correlation analysis of synchronous neural interactions and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Lewis, Scott M.; Riley McCarten, J.; Leuthold, Arthur C.; Hemmy, Laura S.; McPherson, Susan E.; Rottunda, Susan J.; Rubins, David M.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2012-10-01

    In previous work (Georgopoulos et al 2007 J. Neural Eng. 4 349-55) we reported on the use of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) synchronous neural interactions (SNI) as a functional biomarker in Alzheimer's dementia (AD) diagnosis. Here we report on the application of canonical correlation analysis to investigate the relations between SNI and cognitive neuropsychological (NP) domains in AD patients. First, we performed individual correlations between each SNI and each NP, which provided an initial link between SNI and specific cognitive tests. Next, we performed factor analysis on each set, followed by a canonical correlation analysis between the derived SNI and NP factors. This last analysis optimally associated the entire MEG signal with cognitive function. The results revealed that SNI as a whole were mostly associated with memory and language, and, slightly less, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities, thus differentiating functions subserved by the frontoparietal and the temporal cortices. These findings provide a direct interpretation of the information carried by the SNI and set the basis for identifying specific neural disease phenotypes according to cognitive deficits.

  19. The Causes of Errors in Clinical Reasoning: Cognitive Biases, Knowledge Deficits, and Dual Process Thinking.

    PubMed

    Norman, Geoffrey R; Monteiro, Sandra D; Sherbino, Jonathan; Ilgen, Jonathan S; Schmidt, Henk G; Mamede, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary theories of clinical reasoning espouse a dual processing model, which consists of a rapid, intuitive component (Type 1) and a slower, logical and analytical component (Type 2). Although the general consensus is that this dual processing model is a valid representation of clinical reasoning, the causes of diagnostic errors remain unclear. Cognitive theories about human memory propose that such errors may arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Errors in Type 1 reasoning may be a consequence of the associative nature of memory, which can lead to cognitive biases. However, the literature indicates that, with increasing expertise (and knowledge), the likelihood of errors decreases. Errors in Type 2 reasoning may result from the limited capacity of working memory, which constrains computational processes. In this article, the authors review the medical literature to answer two substantial questions that arise from this work: (1) To what extent do diagnostic errors originate in Type 1 (intuitive) processes versus in Type 2 (analytical) processes? (2) To what extent are errors a consequence of cognitive biases versus a consequence of knowledge deficits?The literature suggests that both Type 1 and Type 2 processes contribute to errors. Although it is possible to experimentally induce cognitive biases, particularly availability bias, the extent to which these biases actually contribute to diagnostic errors is not well established. Educational strategies directed at the recognition of biases are ineffective in reducing errors; conversely, strategies focused on the reorganization of knowledge to reduce errors have small but consistent benefits.

  20. Early Developmental Disturbances of Cortical Inhibitory Neurons: Contribution to Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Volk, David W.; Lewis, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a disabling and core feature of schizophrenia. Cognitive impairments have been linked to disturbances in inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Cognitive deficits are present well before the onset of psychotic symptoms and have been detected in early childhood with developmental delays reported during the first year of life. These data suggest that the pathogenetic process that produces dysfunction of prefrontal GABA neurons in schizophrenia may be related to altered prenatal development. Interestingly, adult postmortem schizophrenia brain tissue studies have provided evidence consistent with a disease process that affects different stages of prenatal development of specific subpopulations of prefrontal GABA neurons. Prenatal ontogeny (ie, birth, proliferation, migration, and phenotypic specification) of distinct subpopulations of cortical GABA neurons is differentially regulated by a host of transcription factors, chemokine receptors, and other molecular markers. In this review article, we propose a strategy to investigate how alterations in the expression of these developmental regulators of subpopulations of cortical GABA neurons may contribute to the pathogenesis of cortical GABA neuron dysfunction and consequently cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25053651

  1. Diabetes and Cognitive Deficits in Chronic Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Meihong; Kosten, Thomas R.; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in both schizophrenia and diabetes. There is currently limited understanding whether schizophrenia with diabetes has more serious cognitive deficits than schizophrenia without diabetes or diabetes only. This study assessed cognitive performance in 190 healthy controls, 106 diabetes only, 127 schizophrenia without diabetes and 55 schizophrenia with diabetes. This study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2010. Compared to healthy controls, all patient groups had significantly decreased total and five index RBANS scores (all p<0.01–p<0.001), except for the visuospatial/constructional index. Schizophrenia with diabetes performed worse than schizophrenia without diabetes in immediate memory (p<0.01) and total RBANS scores (<0.05), and showed a trend for decreased attention (p = 0.052) and visuospatial/constructional capacity (p = 0.063). Schizophrenia with diabetes performed worse than diabetes only in immediate memory (p<0.001) and attention (p<0.05), and showed a trend for decreased total RBANS scores (p = 0.069). Regression analysis showed that the RBANS had modest correlations with schizophrenia’ PANSS scores, their duration of current antipsychotic treatment, and diagnosis of diabetes. Schizophrenia with co-morbid diabetes showed more cognitive impairment than schizophrenia without diabetes and diabetes only, especially in immediate memory and attention. PMID:23840437

  2. Aβ mediates F-actin disassembly in dendritic spines leading to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kommaddi, Reddy Peera; Das, Debajyoti; Karunakaran, Smitha; Nanguneri, Siddharth; Bapat, Deepti; Ray, Ajit; Shaw, Eisha; Bennett, David A; Nair, Deepak; Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi

    2018-01-31

    Dendritic spine loss is recognized as an early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic spine structure is defined by filamentous actin (F-actin) and we observed depolymerization of synaptosomal F-actin accompanied by increased globular-actin (G-actin) at as early as 1 month of age in a mouse model of AD (APPswe/PS1ΔE9, male mice). This led to recall deficit after contextual fear conditioning (cFC) at 2 months of age in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 male mice, which could be reversed by the actin-polymerizing agent jasplakinolide. Further, the F-actin-depolymerizing agent latrunculin induced recall deficit after cFC in WT mice, indicating the importance of maintaining F-/G-actin equilibrium for optimal behavioral response. Using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), we show that F-actin depolymerization in spines leads to a breakdown of the nano-organization of outwardly radiating F-actin rods in cortical neurons from APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice. Our results demonstrate that synaptic dysfunction seen as F-actin disassembly occurs very early, before onset of pathological hallmarks in AD mice, and contributes to behavioral dysfunction, indicating that depolymerization of F-actin is causal and not consequent to decreased spine density. Further, we observed decreased synaptosomal F-actin levels in postmortem brain from mild cognitive impairment and AD patients compared with subjects with normal cognition. F-actin decrease correlated inversely with increasing AD pathology (Braak score, Aβ load, and tangle density) and directly with performance in episodic and working memory tasks, suggesting its role in human disease pathogenesis and progression. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Synaptic dysfunction underlies cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cytoskeletal protein actin plays a critical role in maintaining structure and function of synapses. Using cultured neurons and an AD mouse model, we show for the

  3. Chronic Desipramine Treatment Rescues Depression-Related, Social and Cognitive Deficits in Engrailed-2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brielmaier, Jennifer; Senerth, Julia M.; Silverman, Jill L.; Matteson, Paul G.; Millonig, James H.; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2014-01-01

    Engrailed-2 (En2) is a homeobox transcription factor that regulates neurodevelopmental processes including neuronal connectivity and elaboration of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral hindbrain. We previously reported abnormalities in brain noradrenergic concentrations in En2 null mutant mice that were accompanied by increased immobility in the forced swim test, relevant to depression. An EN2 genetic polymorphism has been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and mice with a deletion in En2 display social abnormalities and cognitive deficits that may be relevant to multiple neuropsychiatric conditions. The present study evaluated the ability of chronic treatment with desipramine (DMI), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and classical antidepressant, to reverse behavioral abnormalities in En2 −/− mice. DMI treatment significantly reduced immobility in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, restored sociability in the three-chambered social approach task, and reversed impairments in contextual fear conditioning in En2 −/− mice. Our findings indicate that modulation of brain noradrenergic systems rescues the depression-related phenotype in En2 −/− mice and suggest new roles for norepinephrine in the pathophysiology of the social and cognitive deficits seen in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism or schizophrenia. PMID:24730055

  4. White matter lesions and the cholinergic deficit in aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Richter, Nils; Michel, Anne; Onur, Oezguer A; Kracht, Lutz; Dietlein, Markus; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Neumaier, Bernd; Fink, Gereon R; Kukolja, Juraj

    2017-05-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), white matter lesions (WMLs) are associated with an increased risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia, while memory deficits have, at least in part, been linked to a cholinergic deficit. We investigated the relationship between WML load assessed with the Scheltens scale, cerebral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity measured with [ 11 C]N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate PET, and neuropsychological performance in 17 patients with MCI due to AD and 18 cognitively normal older participants. Only periventricular, not nonperiventricular, WML load negatively correlated with AChE activity in both groups. Memory performance depended on periventricular and total WML load across groups. Crucially, AChE activity predicted memory function better than WML load, gray matter atrophy, or age. The effects of WML load on memory were fully mediated by AChE activity. Data suggest that the contribution of WML to the dysfunction of the cholinergic system in MCI due to AD depends on WML distribution. Pharmacologic studies are warranted to explore whether this influences the response to cholinergic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel technology for treating individuals with aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; Halper, Anita S

    2008-01-01

    This article describes three individuals with aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits who used state-of-theart computer software for training conversational scripts. Participants were assessed before and after 9 weeks of a computer script training program. For each participant, three individualized scripts were developed, recorded on the software, and practiced sequentially at home. Weekly meetings with the speech-language pathologist occurred to monitor practice and assess progress. Baseline and posttreatment scripts were audiotaped, transcribed, and compared to the target scripts for content, grammatical productivity, and rate of production of script-related words. Interviews were conducted at the conclusion of treatment. There was great variability in improvements across scripts, with two participants improving on two of their three scripts in measures of content, grammatical productivity, and rate of production of scriptrelated words. One participant gained more than 5 points on the Aphasia Quotient of the Western Aphasia Battery. Five positive themes were consistently identified from exit interviews: increased verbal communication, improvements in other modalities and situations, communication changes noticed by others, increased confidence, and satisfaction with the software. Computer-based script training potentially may be an effective intervention for persons with chronic aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits.

  6. Novel Technology for Treating Individuals with Aphasia and Concomitant Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article describes three individuals with aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits who used state-of-the-art computer software for training conversational scripts. Method Participants were assessed before and after 9 weeks of a computer script training program. For each participant, three individualized scripts were developed, recorded on the software, and practiced sequentially at home. Weekly meetings with the speech-language pathologist occurred to monitor practice and assess progress. Baseline and posttreatment scripts were audiotaped, transcribed, and compared to the target scripts for content, grammatical productivity, and rate of production of script-related words. Interviews were conducted at the conclusion of treatment. Results There was great variability in improvements across scripts, with two participants improving on two of their three scripts in measures of content, grammatical productivity, and rate of production of script-related words. One participant gained more than 5 points on the Aphasia Quotient of the Western Aphasia Battery. Five positive themes were consistently identified from exit interviews: increased verbal communication, improvements in other modalities and situations, communication changes noticed by others, increased confidence, and satisfaction with the software. Conclusion Computer-based script training potentially may be an effective intervention for persons with chronic aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits. PMID:19158062

  7. Stable cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Rausch, Franziska; Englisch, Susanne; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zink, Mathias

    2013-11-01

    Amongst schizophrenia patients, a large subgroup of up to 25% also suffers from comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs). The association between comorbid OCSs in these patients and neuropsychological impairment remains unclear and somewhat contradictory. Longitudinal approaches investigating the stability of OCS-associated cognitive deficits are missing. Thirty-seven patients with schizophrenia and comorbid OCSs and 43 schizophrenia patients without OCS were assessed with a comprehensive cognitive test battery and compared at baseline and, again, 12 months later. Schizophrenia patients with comorbid OCSs showed significant pronounced deficits, with increasing effect sizes over the 12-month assessment period in specific cognitive areas such as visuospatial perception and visual memory (WAIS-R block design, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test), executive functioning (perseveration in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test), and cognitive flexibility (Trail Making test B). These cognitive domains are correlated with OCS severity and are known to be candidate cognitive domains in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCSs in schizophrenia is associated with specific and longitudinally stable cognitive deficits, strongly arguing for at least partially overlapping neurobiological mechanisms with OCD. Prospective studies involving patients with at-risk mental states for psychosis are necessary to decipher the interaction of cognitive impairment and the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia and OCSs. This might facilitate the definition of patients at high risk for OCSs, an early detection of subclinical levels, therapeutic interventions, and clinical monitoring.

  8. Effects of APOE ε4, age, and HIV on glial metabolites and cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Chang, Linda; Jiang, Caroline; Cunningham, Eric; Buchthal, Steven; Douet, Vanessa; Andres, Marilou; Ernst, Thomas

    2014-06-17

    We aimed to evaluate the combined effects of HIV and APOE ε4 allele(s) on glial metabolite levels, and on known cognitive deficits associated with either condition, across the ages. One hundred seventy-seven participants, primarily of white and mixed race (97 seronegative subjects: aged 44.7 ± 1.3 years, 85 [87.6%] men, 28 [28.9%] APOE ε4+; 80 HIV+ subjects: aged 47.3 ± 1.1 years, 73 [91.3%] men, 23 [28.8%] APOE ε4+), were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolite concentrations using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 4 brain regions and for neuropsychological performance. Frontal white matter myo-inositol was elevated in subjects with HIV across the age span but showed age-dependent increase in seronegative subjects, especially in APOE ε4+ carriers. In contrast, only seronegative APOE ε4+ subjects showed elevated myo-inositol in parietal cortex. All APOE ε4+ subjects had lower total creatine in basal ganglia. While all HIV subjects showed greater cognitive deficits, HIV+ APOE ε4+ subjects had the poorest executive function, fluency memory, and attention/working memory. Higher myo-inositol levels were associated with poorer fine motor function across all subjects, slower speed of information processing in APOE ε4+ subjects, and worse fluency in HIV+ APOE ε4+ subjects. In frontal white matter of subjects with HIV, the persistent elevation and lack of normal age-dependent increase in myo-inositol suggest that persistent glial activation attenuated the typical antagonistic pleiotropic effects of APOE ε4 on neuroinflammation. APOE ε4 negatively affects energy metabolism in brain regions rich in dopaminergic synapses. The combined effects of HIV infection and APOE ε4 may lead to greater cognitive deficits, especially in those with greater neuroinflammation. APOE ε4 allele(s) may be a useful genetic marker to identify white and mixed-race HIV subjects at risk for cognitive decline. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Is a picture worth a thousand (forgotten) words?: neuroimaging evidence for the cognitive deficits in 'chemo-fog'/'chemo-brain'.

    PubMed

    Raffa, R B

    2010-02-01

    The diminution in cognitive function reported to occur in patients treated with adjuvant cancer chemotherapy (a phenomenon known as 'chemo-fog, 'chemo-brain' or similar designation) is supported with varying degrees of evidence by prospective and retrospective clinical studies. However, the cognitive deficits are often subtle and the methodologies used to measure them not consistent. Additionally, patients might be able to compensate for the deficits, thereby leading to underestimates of the problem by this type of assessment. For these reasons, direct neuroimaging techniques might provide additional insight. The relatively few such studies, and fewer electrophysiological studies, offer an alternative way to evaluate changes that might be related to cognitive deficits in patients treated with cancer chemotherapeutic regimens.

  10. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments.

  11. Chronic Tobacco-Smoking on Psychopathological Symptoms, Impulsivity and Cognitive Deficits in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Linda; Lim, Ahnate; Lau, Eric; Alicata, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    HIV-infected individuals (HIV+) has 2-3 times the rate of tobacco smoking than the general population, and whether smoking may lead to greater psychiatric symptoms or cognitive deficits remains unclear. We evaluated the independent and combined effects of being HIV+ and chronic tobacco-smoking on impulsivity, psychopathological symptoms and cognition. 104 participants [27 seronegative (SN)-non-Smokers, 26 SN-Smokers, 29 HIV+ non-Smokers, 22 HIV+ Smokers] were assessed for psychopathology symptoms (Symptom Checklist-90, SCL-90), depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, CES-D), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS), decision-making (The Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST), and cognition (seven neurocognitive domains). Both HIV+ and Smoker groups had higher SCL-90 and CES-D scores, with highest scores in HIV+ Smokers. On BIS, both HIV+ and Smokers had higher Total Impulsiveness scores, with higher behavioral impulsivity in Smokers, highest in HIV+ Smokers. Furthermore, across the four groups, HIV+ Smokers lost most money and made fewest advantageous choices on the IGT, and had highest percent errors on WCST. Lastly, HIV+ had lower z-scores on all cognitive domains, with the lowest scores in HIV+ Smokers. These findings suggest that HIV-infection and chronic tobacco smoking may lead to additive deleterious effects on impulsivity, psychopathological (especially depressive) symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Although greater impulsivity may be premorbid in HIV+ and Smokers, the lack of benefits of nicotine in chronic Smokers on attention and psychopathology, especially those with HIV-infection, may be due to the negative effects of chronic smoking on dopaminergic and cardio-neurovascular systems. Tobacco smoking may contribute to psychopathology and neurocognitive disorders in HIV+ individuals.

  12. Acute cocaine induced deficits in cognitive performance in rhesus macaque monkeys treated with baclofen

    PubMed Central

    Porrino, Linda J.; Hampson, Robert E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Acute and/or chronic exposure to cocaine can affect cognitive performance, which may influence rate of recovery during treatment. Objective Effects of the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen were assessed for potency to reverse the negative influence of acute, pre-session, intravenous (IV) injection of cocaine on cognitive performance in Macaca mulatta nonhuman primates. Methods Animals were trained to perform a modified delayed match to sample (DMS) task incorporating two types of trials with varying degrees of cognitive load that had different decision requirements in order to correctly utilize information retained over the delay interval. The effects of cocaine (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg, IV) alone and in combination with baclofen (0.29 and 0.40 mg/kg, IV) were examined with respect to sustained performance levels. Brain metabolic activity during performance of the task was assessed using PET imaged uptake of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose. Results Acute cocaine injections produced a dose-dependent decline in DMS performance selective for trials of high cognitive load. The GABA-receptor agonist baclofen, co-administered with cocaine, reversed task performance back to nondrug (saline IV) control levels. Simultaneous assessment of PET-imaged brain metabolic activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed alterations by cocaine compared to PFC metabolic activation in nondrug (saline, IV) control DMS sessions, but like performance, PFC activation was returned to control levels by baclofen (0.40 mg/kg, IV) injected with cocaine. Conclusions The results show that baclofen, administered at a relatively high dose, reversed the cognitive deficits produced by acute cocaine intoxication that may have implications for use in chronic drug exposure. PMID:22836369

  13. High frequency of silent brain infarcts associated with cognitive deficits in an economically disadvantaged population.

    PubMed

    Squarzoni, Paula; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline H; Duran, Fabio L S; Leite, Claudia C; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Paulo R; Lotufo, Paulo A; Alves, Tania C T F; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2017-08-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to assess the presence of silent brain vascular lesions in a sample of apparently healthy elderly individuals who were recruited from an economically disadvantaged urban region (São Paulo, Brazil). We also wished to investigate whether the findings were associated with worse cognitive performance. A sample of 250 elderly subjects (66-75 years) without dementia or neuropsychiatric disorders were recruited from predefined census sectors of an economically disadvantaged area of Sao Paulo and received structural magnetic resonance imaging scans and cognitive testing. A high proportion of individuals had very low levels of education (4 years or less, n=185; 21 with no formal education). The prevalence of at least one silent vascular-related cortical or subcortical lesion was 22.8% (95% confidence interval, 17.7-28.5), and the basal ganglia was the most frequently affected site (63.14% of cases). The subgroup with brain infarcts presented significantly lower levels of education than the subgroup with no brain lesions as well as significantly worse current performance in cognitive test domains, including memory and attention (p<0.002). Silent brain infarcts were present at a substantially high frequency in our elderly sample from an economically disadvantaged urban region and were significantly more prevalent in subjects with lower levels of education. Covert cerebrovascular disease significantly contributes to cognitive deficits, and in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging data, this cognitive impairment may be considered simply related to ageing. Emphatic attention should be paid to potentially deleterious effects of vascular brain lesions in poorly educated elderly individuals from economically disadvantaged environments.

  14. Deficits of long-term memory in ecstasy users are related to cognitive complexity of the task.

    PubMed

    Brown, John; McKone, Elinor; Ward, Jeff

    2010-03-01

    Despite animal evidence that methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) causes lasting damage in brain regions related to long-term memory, results regarding human memory performance have been variable. This variability may reflect the cognitive complexity of the memory tasks. However, previous studies have tested only a limited range of cognitive complexity. Furthermore, comparisons across different studies are made difficult by regional variations in ecstasy composition and patterns of use. The objective of this study is to evaluate ecstasy-related deficits in human verbal memory over a wide range of cognitive complexity using subjects drawn from a single geographical population. Ecstasy users were compared to non-drug using controls on verbal tasks with low cognitive complexity (stem completion), moderate cognitive complexity (stem-cued recall and word list learning) and high cognitive complexity (California Verbal Learning Test, Verbal Paired Associates and a novel Verbal Triplet Associates test). Where significant differences were found, both groups were also compared to cannabis users. More cognitively complex memory tasks were associated with clearer ecstasy-related deficits than low complexity tasks. In the most cognitively demanding task, ecstasy-related deficits remained even after multiple learning opportunities, whereas the performance of cannabis users approached that of non-drug using controls. Ecstasy users also had weaker deliberate strategy use than both non-drug and cannabis controls. Results were consistent with the proposal that ecstasy-related memory deficits are more reliable on tasks with greater cognitive complexity. This could arise either because such tasks require a greater contribution from the frontal lobe or because they require greater interaction between multiple brain regions.

  15. Polygenic risk score, genome-wide association, and gene set analyses of cognitive domain deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Soichiro; Medland, Sarah; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D; Lim, Kelvin O; Mueller, Bryon A; Bustillo, Juan R; O'Leary, Daniel S; Vaidya, Jatin G; McEwen, Sarah; Voyvodic, James; Belger, Aysenil; Mathalon, Daniel H; Ford, Judith M; Guffanti, Guia; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G; van Erp, Theo G M

    2018-06-12

    This study assessed genetic contributions to six cognitive domains, identified by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery as relevant for schizophrenia, cognition-enhancing, clinical trials. Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores showed significant negative correlations with each cognitive domain. Genome-wide association analyses identified loci associated with attention/vigilance (rs830786 within HNF4G), verbal memory (rs67017972 near NDUFS4), and reasoning/problem solving (rs76872642 within HDAC9). Gene set analysis identified unique and shared genes across cognitive domains. These findings suggest involvement of common and unique mechanisms across cognitive domains and may contribute to the discovery of new therapeutic targets to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive deficits are associated with unemployment in adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Maureen; Jordan, Lori; Pruthi, Sumit; Day, Matthew; Covert, Brittany; Merriweather, Brenda; Rodeghier, Mark; DeBaun, Michael; Kassim, Adetola

    2016-08-01

    An estimated 25-60% of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) are unemployed. Factors contributing to the high unemployment rate in this population are not well studied. With the known risk of cognitive deficits associated with SCD, we tested the hypothesis that unemployment is related to decrements in intellectual functioning. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 50 adults with sickle cell anemia who completed cognitive testing, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, as part of standard care. Employment status was recorded at the time of testing. Medical variables examined as possible risk factors for unemployment included disease phenotype, cerebral infarction, and pain frequency. The mean age of the sample was 30.7 years (range = 19-59); 56% were women. Almost half of the cohort (44%) were unemployed. In a multivariate logistic regression model, lower IQ scores (odds ratio = 0.88; p = .002, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.82, 0.96]) and lower educational attainment (odds ratio = 0.13; p = .012, 95% CI [0.03, 0.65]) were associated with increasing odds of unemployment. The results suggest that cognitive impairment in adults with sickle cell anemia may contribute to the risk of unemployment. Helping these individuals access vocational rehabilitation services may be an important component of multidisciplinary care.

  17. A glucose-caffeine 'energy drink' ameliorates subjective and performance deficits during prolonged cognitive demand.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2004-06-01

    Effects of a combination of caffeine and glucose were assessed in two double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies during extended performance of cognitively demanding tasks. In the first study, 30 participants received two drinks containing carbohydrate and caffeine (68 g/38 mg; 68 g/46 mg, respectively) and a placebo drink, in counter-balanced order, on separate days. In the second study 26 participants received a drink containing 60 g of carbohydrate and 33 mg of caffeine and a placebo drink. In both studies, participants completed a 10-min battery of tasks comprising 2-min versions of Serial 3s and Serial 7s subtraction tasks and a 5-min version of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP), plus a rating of 'mental fatigue', once before the drink and six times in succession commencing 10 min after its consumption. In comparison to placebo, all three active drinks improved the accuracy of RVIP performance and both the drink with the higher level of caffeine in first study and the active drink in the second study resulted in lower ratings of mental fatigue. These results indicate that a combination of caffeine and glucose can ameliorate deficits in cognitive performance and subjective fatigue during extended periods of cognitive demand.

  18. Electroencephalogram complexity analysis in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during a visual cognitive task.

    PubMed

    Zarafshan, Hadi; Khaleghi, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moeini, Mahdi; Malmir, Nastaran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics using complexity analysis in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with healthy control children when performing a cognitive task. Thirty 7-12-year-old children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for ADHD and 30 healthy control children underwent an EEG evaluation during a cognitive task, and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) values were computed. There were no significant differences between ADHD and control groups on age and gender. The mean LZC of the ADHD children was significantly larger than healthy children over the right anterior and right posterior regions during the cognitive performance. In the ADHD group, complexity of the right hemisphere was higher than that of the left hemisphere, but the complexity of the left hemisphere was higher than that of the right hemisphere in the normal group. Although fronto-striatal dysfunction is considered conclusive evidence for the pathophysiology of ADHD, our arithmetic mental task has provided evidence of structural and functional changes in the posterior regions and probably cerebellum in ADHD.

  19. Magical ideation associated social cognition in adolescents: signs of a negative facial affect recognition deficit.

    PubMed

    Canli, Derya; Ozdemir, Hatice; Kocak, Orhan Murat

    2015-08-01

    Studies provide evidence for impaired social cognition in schizotypy and its association with negative symptoms. Cognitive features related to magical ideation - a component of the positive dimension of schizotypy - have been less investigated. We aimed to assess social cognitive functioning among adolescents with high magical ideation scores, mainly focusing on face and emotion recognition. 22 subjects with magical ideation scale scores above the cut off level and 22 controls with lowest scores from among 250 students screened with this scale were included in the study. A face and emotion recognition n-back test, the empathy quotient, theory of mind tests and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were applied to both magical ideation and control groups. The magical ideation group performed significantly worse than controls on both face and emotion recognition tests. Emotion recognition performance was found to be affected by memory load, with sadness, among emotions, revealing a difference between the two groups. Empathy and theory of mind tests did not distinguish the magical ideation group from controls. Our findings provide evidence for a deficit in negative emotion recognition affected by memory load associated with magical ideation in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive and Language Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis: Comparison of Relapsing Remitting and Secondary Progressive Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ntoskou, Katerina; Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Martzoukou, Maria; Makris, Giorgos; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and severity of cognitive and language impairment in Greek patients with Relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS), relative to control participants. Method: A prospective study was conducted in 27 patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), (N= 15) with RRMS, (N= 12) with SPMS, and (N= 12) healthy controls. All participants were assessed with a flexible comprehensive neuropsychological – language battery of tests that have been standardized in Greece and validated in Greek MS patients. They were also assessed on measures of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory - fast screen; BDI-FS). Results: Our results revealed that groups were well matched on baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. The two clinical groups (RRMS; SPMS) did not differ on overall global cognitive impairment but differed in the initial encoding of verbal material, mental processing speed, response inhibition and set-shifting. RRMS patients differed from controls in the initial encoding of verbal material, learning curve, delayed recall of verbal information, processing speed, and response inhibition. SPMS patients differed in all utilized measures compared to controls. Moreover, we noted increased impairment frequency on individualized measures in the progressive SPMS group. Conclusion: We conclude that MS patients, irrespective of clinical subtype, have cognitive deficits compared to healthy participants, which become increasingly worse when they convert from RRMS to SPMS.On the contrary,the pattern of impairment remains relatively stable. PMID:29576812

  1. Awake craniotomy in a developmentally delayed blind man with cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Burbridge, Mark; Raazi, Mateen

    2013-04-01

    To describe the complex perioperative considerations and anesthetic management of a cognitively delayed blind adult male who underwent awake craniotomy to remove a left anterior temporal lobe epileptic focus. A 28-yr-old left-handed blind cognitively delayed man was scheduled for awake craniotomy to resect a left anterior temporal lobe epileptic focus due to intractable epilepsy despite multiple medications. His medical history was also significant for retinopathy of prematurity that rendered him legally blind in both eyes and an intracerebral hemorrhage shortly after birth that resulted in a chronic brain injury and developmental delay. His cognitive capacity was comparable with that of an eight year old. Since patient cooperation was the primary concern during the awake electrocorticography phase of surgery, careful assessment of the patient's ability to tolerate the procedure was undertaken. There was extensive planning between surgeons and anesthesiologists, and a patient-specific pharmacological strategy was devised to facilitate surgery. The operation proceeded without complication, the patient has remained seizure-free since the procedure, and his quality of life has improved dramatically. This case shows that careful patient assessment, effective interdisciplinary communication, and a carefully tailored anesthetic strategy can facilitate an awake craniotomy in a potentially uncooperative adult patient with diminished mental capacity and sensory deficits.

  2. Sustained attention abnormalities in breast cancer survivors with cognitive deficits post chemotherapy: An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kam, J W Y; Brenner, C A; Handy, T C; Boyd, L A; Liu-Ambrose, T; Lim, H J; Hayden, S; Campbell, K L

    2016-01-01

    Many breast cancer survivors (BCS) report cognitive problems following chemotherapy, yet controversy remains concerning which cognitive domains are affected. This study investigated a domain crucial to daily function: the ability to maintain attention over time. We examined whether BCS who self-reported cognitive problems up to 3 years following cancer treatment (n=19) performed differently from healthy controls (HC, n=12) in a task that required sustained attention. Participants performed a target detection task while periodically being asked to report their attentional state. Electroencephalogram was recorded during this task and at rest. BCS were less likely to maintain sustained attention during the task compared to HC. Further, the P3 event-related potential component elicited by visual targets during the task was smaller in BCS relative to HC. BCS also displayed greater neural activity at rest. BCS demonstrated an abnormal pattern of sustained attention and resource allocation compared to HC, suggesting that attentional deficits can be objectively observed in breast cancer survivors who self-report concentration problems. These data underscore the value of EEG combined with a less traditional measure of sustained attention, or attentional states, as objective laboratory tools that are sensitive to subjective complaints of chemotherapy-related attentional impairments. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of sigma (σ1) receptor-selective ligands on muscarinic receptor antagonist-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Sumien, Nathalie; Su, Chang; Singh, Meharvan; Chen, Zhenglan; Huang, Ren-Qi; Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury and stroke often involve alterations in cholinergic signalling. Currently available therapeutic drugs provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed to retard and/or arrest the progressive loss of memory. Experimental Approach Scopolamine-induced memory impairment provides a rapid and reversible phenotypic screening paradigm for cognition enhancement drug discovery. Male C57BL/6J mice given scopolamine (1 mg·kg−1) were used to evaluate the ability of LS-1–137, a novel sigma (σ1) receptor-selective agonist, to improve the cognitive deficits associated with muscarinic antagonist administration. Key Results LS-1–137 is a high-affinity (Ki = 3.2 nM) σ1 receptor agonist that is 80-fold selective for σ1, compared with σ2 receptors. LS-1–137 binds with low affinity at D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) dopamine and muscarinic receptors. LS-1–137 was found to partially reverse the learning deficits associated with scopolamine administration using a water maze test and an active avoidance task. LS-1–137 treatment was also found to trigger the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications The σ1 receptor-selective compound LS-1–137 may represent a novel candidate cognitive enhancer for the treatment of muscarinic receptor-dependent cognitive deficits. PMID:25573298

  4. 16p11.2 Deletion mice display cognitive deficits in touchscreen learning and novelty recognition tasks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Lewis, Freeman C; Sarvi, Michael S; Foley, Gillian M; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2015-12-01

    Chromosomal 16p11.2 deletion syndrome frequently presents with intellectual disabilities, speech delays, and autism. Here we investigated the Dolmetsch line of 16p11.2 heterozygous (+/-) mice on a range of cognitive tasks with different neuroanatomical substrates. Robust novel object recognition deficits were replicated in two cohorts of 16p11.2+/- mice, confirming previous findings. A similarly robust deficit in object location memory was discovered in +/-, indicating impaired spatial novelty recognition. Generalizability of novelty recognition deficits in +/- mice extended to preference for social novelty. Robust learning deficits and cognitive inflexibility were detected using Bussey-Saksida touchscreen operant chambers. During acquisition of pairwise visual discrimination, +/- mice required significantly more training trials to reach criterion than wild-type littermates (+/+), and made more errors and correction errors than +/+. In the reversal phase, all +/+ reached criterion, whereas most +/- failed to reach criterion by the 30-d cutoff. Contextual and cued fear conditioning were normal in +/-. These cognitive phenotypes may be relevant to some aspects of cognitive impairments in humans with 16p11.2 deletion, and support the use of 16p11.2+/- mice as a model system for discovering treatments for cognitive impairments in 16p11.2 deletion syndrome. © 2015 Yang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Meta-analysis of social cognition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): comparison with healthy controls and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bora, E; Pantelis, C

    2016-03-01

    Impairment in social cognition is an established finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Emerging evidence suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might be also associated with deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. However, there are inconsistent findings, and it has been debatable whether such deficits persist beyond childhood and how similar social cognitive deficits are in ADHD v. ASD. We conducted a meta-analysis of social cognition, including emotion recognition and ToM, studies in ADHD compared with healthy controls and ASD. The current meta-analysis involved 44 studies comparing ADHD (n = 1999) with healthy controls (n = 1725) and 17 studies comparing ADHD (n = 772) with ASD (n = 710). Facial and vocal emotion recognition (d = 0.40-0.44) and ToM (d = 0.43) abilities were significantly impaired in ADHD. The most robust facial emotion recognition deficits were evident in anger and fear. Social cognitive deficits were either very subtle (emotion recognition) or non-significant (ToM) in adults with ADHD. Deficits in social cognition, especially ToM, were significantly more pronounced in ASD compared with ADHD. General cognitive impairment has contributed to social cognitive deficits in ADHD. Performance of individuals with ADHD on social cognition lies intermediate between ASD and healthy controls. However, developmental trajectories of social cognition probably differ between ADHD and ASD as social cognitive deficits in ADHD might be improving with age in most individuals. There is a need for studies investigating a potential subtype of ADHD with persistent social cognitive deficits and exploring longitudinal changes in social cognition during development.

  6. Donepezil attenuates hippocampal neuronal damage and cognitive deficits after global cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Min, Dongyu; Mao, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Kuncan; Cao, Yonggang; Guo, Feng; Zhu, Shu; Xie, Ni; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris; Cai, Jiqun

    2012-02-21

    Decreased cerebral blood flow causes cognitive impairments and neuronal injury in vascular dementia. In the present study, we reported that donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, improved transient global cerebral ischemia-induced spatial memory impairment in gerbils. Treatment with 5mg/kg of donepezil for 21 consecutive days following a 10-min period of ischemia significantly inhibited delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. In Morris water maze test, memory impairment was significantly improved by donepezil treatment. Western blot analysis showed that donepezil treatment prevented reductions in p-CaMKII and p-CREB protein levels in the hippocampus. These results suggest that donepezil attenuates the memory deficit induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and this neuroprotection may be associated with the phosphorylation of CaMKII and CERB in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Negative attention bias and processing deficits during the cognitive reappraisal of unpleasant emotions in HIV+ women.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Roger C; Tartar, Jaime L; Widmayer, Susan; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional processing may be attributed to HIV disease or comorbid psychiatric disorders. Electrocortical markers of emotional attention, i.e., amplitude of the P2 and late positive potential (LPP), were compared between 26 HIV+ women and 25 healthy controls during an emotional regulation paradigm. HIV+ women showed early attention bias to negative stimuli indexed by greater P2 amplitude. In contrast, compared with the passive viewing of unpleasant images, HIV+ women demonstrated attenuation of the early and late LPP during positive reappraisal. This interaction remained significant after adjusting for individual differences in apathy, anxiety, and depression. Post hoc analyses implicated time since HIV diagnosis with LPP attenuation during positive reappraisal. Advancing HIV disease may disrupt neural generators associated with the cognitive reappraisal of emotions independent of psychiatric function.

  8. On-road driving impairments and associated cognitive deficits after stroke.

    PubMed

    Devos, Hannes; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the critical on-road driving skills that get affected after a stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the key on-road driving impairments and their associated cognitive deficits after a stroke. A second aim was to investigate if lateralization of stroke impacts results of the cognitive and on-road driving tests. In this cross-sectional study, 99 participants with a first-ever stroke who were actively driving prior to stroke underwent a cognitive battery and a standardized road test that evaluated 13 specific on-road driving skills. These on-road driving skills were mapped onto an existing, theoretical framework that categorized the on-road items into hierarchic clusters of operational, tactical, visuo-integrative, and mixed driving skills. The total score on the road test and the on-road decision, made by a certified fitness-to-drive expert, decided the main outcome. The critical on-road driving skills predicting the on-road decision were identified using logistic regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was employed to determine the cognitive impairments leading to poor total on-road scores. Analyses were repeated for right- and left-sided strokes. In all, 37 persons scored poorly on the road test. These participants performed worse in all hierarchic clusters of on-road driving. Performances on the operational cluster and the visuo-integrative cluster best predicted on-road decisions (R(2) = 0.60). 'Lane changing' and 'understanding, insight, and quality of traffic participation' were the critical skill deficits leading to poor performance on the road test (R(2) = 0.65). Divided attention was the main determinant of on-road scores in the total group (R(2) = 0.06). Participants with right-sided stroke performed worse on visual field, visual neglect, visual scanning, visuo-constructive skills, and divided attention compared with those with left-sided stroke. Divided attention was the main determinant of total on-road scores

  9. Levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation prevents oxidative stress and cognitive deficit in experimental hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianrong; Zhong, Mingkui; Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhu, Defa

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism has a variety of adverse effects on cognitive function. The treatment of levothyroxine alone cannot restore cognitive defects of hypothyroid patients. Antioxidant vitamin E supplementation could be useful in disturbances which are associated with oxidative stress and could effectively slow the progression of Alzheimer disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress status of the serum and hippocampus in hypothyroidism and to examine the effects of levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation on cognitive deficit. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, PTU group, PTU + Vit E group, PTU + L-T4 group, and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group. Serum and hippocampus malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances method. Serum and hippocampus superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined by measuring its ability to inhibit the photoreduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. In the present study, we found that the rats of PTU + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 2, 3, 4, and 5 than the PTU group. Moreover, the rats of PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 4 and 5 than the PTU + L-T4 group. The time spent in the target quadrants was measured in the probe test and no difference was observed in all groups. Oxidative damage has been observed in the serum and hippocampus of hypothyroidism rat. SOD levels of serum and hippocampus tissue were significantly increased and MDA levels were significantly decreased in the PTU + Vit E and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E groups than the PTU and PTU + L-T4 groups. Therefore, these findings indicate that levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation may ameliorate cognitive deficit in PTU-induced hypothyroidism through the decrease of oxidative stress status.

  10. Separation of cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into 2 familial factors.

    PubMed

    Kuntsi, Jonna; Wood, Alexis C; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Johnson, Katherine A; Andreou, Penelope; Albrecht, Björn; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Sergeant, Joseph A; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J; Uebel, Henrik; van der Meere, Jaap J; Banaschewski, Tobias; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with widespread cognitive impairments, but it is not known whether the apparent multiple impairments share etiological roots or separate etiological pathways exist. A better understanding of the etiological pathways is important for the development of targeted interventions and for identification of suitable intermediate phenotypes for molecular genetic investigations. To determine, by using a multivariate familial factor analysis approach, whether 1 or more familial factors underlie the slow and variable reaction times, impaired response inhibition, and choice impulsivity associated with ADHD. An ADHD and control sibling-pair design. Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. A total of 1265 participants, aged 6 to 18 years: 464 probands with ADHD and 456 of their siblings (524 with combined-subtype ADHD), and 345 control participants. Performance on a 4-choice reaction time task, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a choice-delay task. The final model consisted of 2 familial factors. The larger factor, reflecting 85% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 98% to 100% of the familial influences on mean reaction time and reaction time variability. The second, smaller factor, reflecting 13% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 62% to 82% of the familial influences on commission and omission errors on the go/no-go task. Choice impulsivity was excluded in the final model because of poor fit. The findings suggest the existence of 2 familial pathways to cognitive impairments in ADHD and indicate promising cognitive targets for future molecular genetic investigations. The familial distinction between the 2 cognitive impairments is consistent with recent theoretical models--a developmental model and an arousal-attention model--of 2 separable underlying processes in ADHD. Future research that tests the familial model within a developmental framework may inform

  11. Inhibitor of the Tyrosine Phosphatase STEP Reverses Cognitive Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Chatterjee, Manavi; Baguley, Tyler D.; Brouillette, Jonathan; Kurup, Pradeep; Ghosh, Debolina; Kanyo, Jean; Zhang, Yang; Seyb, Kathleen; Ononenyi, Chimezie; Foscue, Ethan; Anderson, George M.; Gresack, Jodi; Cuny, Gregory D.; Glicksman, Marcie A.; Greengard, Paul; Lam, TuKiet T.; Tautz, Lutz; Nairn, Angus C.; Ellman, Jonathan A.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) is a neuron-specific phosphatase that regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking, as well as ERK1/2, p38, Fyn, and Pyk2 activity. STEP is overactive in several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The increase in STEP activity likely disrupts synaptic function and contributes to the cognitive deficits in AD. AD mice lacking STEP have restored levels of glutamate receptors on synaptosomal membranes and improved cognitive function, results that suggest STEP as a novel therapeutic target for AD. Here we describe the first large-scale effort to identify and characterize small-molecule STEP inhibitors. We identified the benzopentathiepin 8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepin-6-amine hydrochloride (known as TC-2153) as an inhibitor of STEP with an IC50 of 24.6 nM. TC-2153 represents a novel class of PTP inhibitors based upon a cyclic polysulfide pharmacophore that forms a reversible covalent bond with the catalytic cysteine in STEP. In cell-based secondary assays, TC-2153 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STEP substrates ERK1/2, Pyk2, and GluN2B, and exhibited no toxicity in cortical cultures. Validation and specificity experiments performed in wild-type (WT) and STEP knockout (KO) cortical cells and in vivo in WT and STEP KO mice suggest specificity of inhibitors towards STEP compared to highly homologous tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, TC-2153 improved cognitive function in several cognitive tasks in 6- and 12-mo-old triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice, with no change in beta amyloid and phospho-tau levels. PMID:25093460

  12. Inhibition of inflammation by astaxanthin alleviates cognition deficits in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fang; Hu, Xiaotong; Chen, Jing; Wen, Xiangru; Sun, Ying; Liu, Yonghai; Tang, Renxian; Zheng, Kuiyang; Song, Yuanjian

    2015-11-01

    Neurons in the hippocampal and cortical functional regions are more susceptible to damage induced by hyperglycemia, which can result in severe spatial learning and memory impairment. Neuroprotection ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by hyperglycemia in diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Astaxanthin has been widely studied in diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications due to its hypoglycemic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. However, whether astaxanthin can alleviate cognition deficits induced by DE and its precise mechanisms remain undetermined. In this study, DE was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 150 mg/kg) in ICR mice. We observed the effect of astaxanthin on cognition and investigated its potential mechanisms in DE mice. Results showed that astaxanthin treatment significantly decreased the latency and enhanced the distance and time spent in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, neuronal survival was significantly increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the frontal cortex following treatment with astaxanthin. Meanwhile, immunoblotting was used to observe the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The results indicated that astaxanthin could inhibit NF-κB nuclear translocation and downregulate TNF-α expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall, the present study implied that astaxanthin could improve cognition by protecting neurons against inflammation injury potentially through inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and down-regulating TNF-α. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    PubMed Central

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  14. Piracetam improves cognitive deficits caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Liao, Yun; Zheng, Min; Zeng, Fan-Dian; Guo, Lian-Jun

    2008-06-01

    Piracetam is the derivate of gamma-aminobutyric acid, which improves the cognition,memory,consciousness, and is widely applied in the clinical treatment of brain dysfunction. In the present experiments, we study the effects of piracetam on chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats and observe its influence on amino acids, synaptic plasticity in the Perforant path-CA3 pathway and apoptosis in vivo. Cerebral hypoperfusion for 30 days by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries induced marked amnesic effects along with neuron damage, including: (1) spatial learning and memory deficits shown by longer escape latency and shorter time spent in the target quadrant; (2) significant neuronal loss and nuclei condensation in the cortex and hippocampus especially in CA1 region; (3) lower induction rate of long term potentiation, overexpression of BAX and P53 protein, and lower content of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in hippocampus. Oral administration of piracetam (600 mg/kg, once per day for 30 days) markedly improved the memory impairment, increased the amino acid content in hippocampus, and attenuated neuronal damage. The ability of piracetam to attenuate memory deficits and neuronal damage after hypoperfusion may be beneficial in cerebrovascular type dementia.

  15. Impulsive behavior in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: characterization of attentional, motor and cognitive impulsiveness.

    PubMed

    Malloy-Diniz, L; Fuentes, D; Leite, W Borges; Correa, H; Bechara, A

    2007-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Impulsivity persists in adults with ADHD and might be the basis of much of the impairment observed in the daily lives of such individuals. The objective of this study was to address the presence, and more importantly, the three dimensions of impulsivity: attentional, non-planning and motor, in how they may relate to neuropsychological mechanisms of impulse control. We studied a sample of 50 adults with ADHD and 51 healthy comparison controls using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Version 11 (BIS), and neuropsychological tasks, namely the Continuous Performance Task (CPT-II) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The ADHD group showed more signs of impulsivity on the three dimensions of BIS, committed more errors of omission and commission on the CPT-II, and made more disadvantageous choices on the IGT. These results support the existence of deficits related to three components of impulsivity: motor, cognitive, and attentional among adults with ADHD. Most importantly, this study also highlights the complementary nature of self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological tasks in the assessment of impulsivity in ADHD adults.

  16. Detecting navigational deficits in cognitive aging and Alzheimer disease using virtual reality

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, Laura A.; Stein, Karen; Duffy, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Older adults get lost, in many cases because of recognized or incipient Alzheimer disease (AD). In either case, getting lost can be a threat to individual and public safety, as well as to personal autonomy and quality of life. Here we compare our previously described real-world navigation test with a virtual reality (VR) version simulating the same navigational environment. Methods: Quantifying real-world navigational performance is difficult and time-consuming. VR testing is a promising alternative, but it has not been compared with closely corresponding real-world testing in aging and AD. We have studied navigation using both real-world and virtual environments in the same subjects: young normal controls (YNCs, n = 35), older normal controls (ONCs, n = 26), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 12), and patients with early AD (EAD, n = 14). Results: We found close correlations between real-world and virtual navigational deficits that increased across groups from YNC to ONC, to MCI, and to EAD. Analyses of subtest performance showed similar profiles of impairment in real-world and virtual testing in all four subject groups. The ONC, MCI, and EAD subjects all showed greatest difficulty in self-orientation and scene localization tests. MCI and EAD patients also showed impaired verbal recall about both test environments. Conclusions: Virtual environment testing provides a valid assessment of navigational skills. Aging and Alzheimer disease (AD) share the same patterns of difficulty in associating visual scenes and locations, which is complicated in AD by the accompanying loss of verbally mediated navigational capacities. We conclude that virtual navigation testing reveals deficits in aging and AD that are associated with potentially grave risks to our patients and the community. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; EAD = early Alzheimer disease; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; ONC = older normal control; std

  17. Autism-Relevant Social Abnormalities and Cognitive Deficits in Engrailed-2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brielmaier, Jennifer; Matteson, Paul G.; Silverman, Jill L.; Senerth, Julia M.; Kelly, Samantha; Genestine, Matthieu; Millonig, James H.

    2012-01-01

    ENGRAILED 2 (En2), a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22829897

  18. Cognitive and fine motor deficits in a pediatric sickle cell disease cohort of mixed ethnic origin.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Luise; Lobitz, Stephan; Koustenis, Elisabeth; Rueckriegel, Stefan Mark; Hernáiz Driever, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is an important feature of pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) and may lead to cognitive and motor impairment. Our cross-sectional study examined the incidence and severity of these impairments in a pediatric cohort without clinical cerebrovascular events from Berlin of mixed ethnic origin. Thirty-two SCD patients (mean age 11.14 years, range 7.0-17.25 years; males 14) were evaluated for full-scale intelligence (IQ) (German version WISC-III), fine motor function (digital writing tablet), and executive function (planning, attention, working memory, and visual-spatial abilities) with the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) program and the Tower of London (ToL). Data on clinical risk factors were retrieved from medical records. Full-scale IQ of patients was preserved, whereas performance IQ was significantly reduced (91.19 (SD 12.17) d = 0.7, p = 0.007). SCD patients scored significantly lower than healthy peers when tested for executive and fine motor functions, e.g., planning time in the ToL (6.73 s (SD 3.21) vs. 5.9 s in healthy peers (SD 2.33), d = 0.5, p = <0.001) and frequency on the writing tablet (mean z score -0.79, d = 0.7, p < 0.001). No clinical risk factors were significantly associated with incidence and severity of cognitive and motor deficits. Despite the preservation of full-scale IQ, our SCD cohort of mixed origin exhibited inferior executive abilities and reduced fine motor skills. Our study is limited by the small size of our cohort as well as the lack for control of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors modulating higher functions but highlights the need for early screening, prevention, and specific interventions for these deficits.

  19. An Integrative, Cognitive-Behavioral, Systemic Approach to Working with Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, Margaret Ann; Lambie, Glenn W.; Walter, Sara Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent diagnostic disorder for many students, which correlates with negative academic, social, and personal consequences. This article presents an integrative, cognitive-behavioral, systemic approach that offers behaviorally based interventions for professional school counselors to support…

  20. Visual cognition in amnesic H.M.: selective deficits on the What's-Wrong-Here and Hidden-Figure tasks.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; James, Lori E

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments compared the visual cognition performance of amnesic H.M. and memory-normal controls matched for age, background, intelligence, and education. In Experiment 1 H.M. exhibited deficits relative to the controls in detecting "erroneous objects" in complex visual scenes--for example, a bird flying inside a fishbowl. In Experiment 2 H.M. exhibited deficits relative to the controls in standard Hidden-Figure tasks when detecting unfamiliar targets but not when detecting familiar targets--for example, circles, squares, and right-angle triangles. H.M.'s visual cognition deficits were not due to his well-known problems in explicit learning and recall, inability to comprehend or remember the instructions, general slowness, motoric difficulties, low motivation, low IQ relative to the controls, or working-memory limitations. Parallels between H.M.'s selective deficits in visual cognition, language, and memory are discussed. These parallels contradict the standard "systems theory" account of H.M.'s condition but comport with the hypothesis that H.M. has difficulty representing unfamiliar but not familiar information in visual cognition, language, and memory. Implications of our results are discussed for binding theory and the ongoing debate over what counts as "memory" versus "not-memory."

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo throughout Childhood: Temporal Invariance and Stability from Preschool through Ninth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Daniel R.; Christopher, Micaela E.; Burns, G. Leonard; Becker, Stephen P.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although multiple cross-sectional studies have shown symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be statistically distinct, studies have yet to examine the temporal stability and measurement invariance of SCT in a longitudinal sample. To date, only six studies have assessed SCT…

  2. An Investigation of an Evaluation Method and Retraining Procedures for Emotionally Handicapped Children with Cognitive-Motor Deficits. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Eli Z.; And Others

    To assess the effects of specialized retraining of cognitive, perceptual, and motor (CPM) deficits, a battery of tests was prepared and used with 200 behaviorally maladjusted and 200 problem-free children. The composite score indicated that 40% of the maladjusted group manifested major dysfunction whereas none of the problem-free group…

  3. Shedding light on the association between repetitive negative thinking and deficits in cognitive control - A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Bürkner, Paul-Christian; Schulze, Lars

    2018-06-11

    Individuals who experience recurrent negative thoughts are at elevated risk for mood and anxiety disorders. It is thus essential to understand why some individuals get stuck in recurrent negative thinking (RNT), whereas others are able to disengage eventually. Theoretical models propose that individuals high in recurrent negative thinking suffer from deficits in controlling the contents of working memory. Empirical findings, however, are inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 94 studies to examine the proposed association between RNT and deficits in cognitive control. We included numerous effect sizes not reported in the primary publications. Moderator analyses tested the influence of variables, such as stimuli valence, cognitive control function (e.g., shifting, discarding), or type of RNT (i.e., rumination or worry). Results demonstrated an association between repetitive negative thinking and deficits in only one specific cognitive control function, namely difficulty discarding no longer relevant material from working memory (r = -0.20). This association remained significant after controlling for level of psychopathology. There was no substantial association between RNT and deficits in any other cognitive control function. All other moderators were not significant. We discuss limitations (e.g., primary sample sizes, reliability of paradigms) and highlight implications for future research and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Case Study of the Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits of Temporal Lobe Damage in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Margaret K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This case study illustrates the highly significant language difficulties, marked memory deficits, and propensity for physical aggression following temporal lobe damage brought about by herpes encephalitis, and presents the usefulness of a new diagnostic measure in delineating such a variable cognitive pattern. (Author)

  5. High Suicide Risk after the Development of Cognitive and Working Memory Deficits Caused by Cannabis, Cocaine and Ecstasy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of attempted suicide by a 30-year-old man who had significant cognitive deficits that developed after at least three years of polysubstance use with cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") and cocaine. The patient reported increasing difficulties in his professional and interpersonal life which may have been…

  6. Berry fruit can improve age-associated neuronal and cognitive deficits: from the laboratory to the clinic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research has demonstrated, in both human and animals, that cognitive functioning decreases with age, to include deficits in processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. The cause of these functional declines is not entirely understood; however, neuronal losses and the associat...

  7. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  8. Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group…

  9. 16p11.2 Deletion Mice Display Cognitive Deficits in Touchscreen Learning and Novelty Recognition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Mu; Lewis, Freeman C.; Sarvi, Michael S.; Foley, Gillian M.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal 16p11.2 deletion syndrome frequently presents with intellectual disabilities, speech delays, and autism. Here we investigated the Dolmetsch line of 16p11.2 heterozygous (+/-) mice on a range of cognitive tasks with different neuroanatomical substrates. Robust novel object recognition deficits were replicated in two cohorts of 16p11.2…

  10. Abnormal frontal theta oscillations underlie the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Michael K; Han, Yvonne M Y; Sze, Sophia L; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-03-01

    Deficits in cognitive flexibility have been suggested to underlie the repetitive and stereotyped behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because cognitive flexibility is primarily mediated by the frontal lobe, where structural and functional abnormalities have been extensively found in these individuals, it is conceivable that their deficits in cognitive flexibility are related to abnormal activations of the frontal lobe. The present study investigates cognitive flexibility and its underlying neurophysiological activities as indicated by theta oscillations in children with ASD. Twenty-five children with high-functioning ASD and 25 IQ- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children were subjected to neuropsychological assessments on cognitive flexibility and electroencephalography recordings. The children with ASD performed significantly worse than the TD children across the tasks of cognitive flexibility, including the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). These children also demonstrated a reduced increase of the theta power localized in multiple brain regions, including various sectors of the frontal lobe at the late stage (i.e., 600 ms-900 ms poststimulus interval) but not the early stage (i.e., 250 ms-550 ms poststimulus interval) of the performance of the modified WCST. The suppressed late frontal theta activities were further shown to be significantly correlated with a poorer performance on the cognitive flexibility measures. Our findings suggest that abnormal activations of multiple cortical regions, especially the frontal lobe, form the neural basis of the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with ASD. In addition, we found an EEG marker of cognitive flexibility which could be used to monitor treatment outcomes objectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Cognitive and behavior deficits in sickle cell mice are associated with profound neuropathologic changes in hippocampus and cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Almeida, Luis E.F.; de Souza Batista, Celia M.; Khaibullina, Alfia; Xu, Nuo; Albani, Sarah; Guth, Kira A.; Seo, Ji Sung; Quezado, Martha; Quezado, Zenaide M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Strokes are perhaps the most serious complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and by the fifth decade occur in approximately 25% of patients. While most patients do not develop strokes, mounting evidence indicates that even without brain abnormalities on imaging studies, SCD patients can present profound neurocognitive dysfunction. We sought to evaluate the neurocognitive behavior profile of humanized SCD mice (Townes, BERK) and to identify hematologic and neuropathologic abnormalities associated with the behavioral alterations observed in these mice. Heterozygous and homozygous Townes mice displayed severe cognitive deficits shown by significant delays in spatial learning compared to controls. Homozygous Townes also had increased depression- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as reduced performance on voluntary wheel running compared to controls. Behavior deficits observed in Townes were also seen in BERKs. Interestingly, most deficits in homozygotes were observed in older mice and were associated with worsening anemia. Further, neuropathologic abnormalities including the presence of large bands of dark/pyknotic (shrunken) neurons in CA1 and CA3 fields of hippocampus and evidence of neuronal dropout in cerebellum were present in homozygotes but not control Townes. These observations suggest that cognitive and behavioral deficits in SCD mice mirror those described in SCD patients and that aging, anemia, and profound neuropathologic changes in hippocampus and cerebellum are possible biologic correlates of those deficits. These findings support using SCD mice for studies of cognitive deficits in SCD and point to vulnerable brain areas with susceptibility to neuronal injury in SCD and to mechanisms that potentially underlie those deficits. PMID:26462816

  12. Cognitive Deficits in Calsyntenin-2-deficient Mice Associated with Reduced GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lipina, Tatiana V; Prasad, Tuhina; Yokomaku, Daisaku; Luo, Lin; Connor, Steven A; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Wang, Yu Tian; Brose, Nils; Roder, John C; Craig, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    Calsyntenin-2 has an evolutionarily conserved role in cognition. In a human genome-wide screen, the CLSTN2 locus was associated with verbal episodic memory, and expression of human calsyntenin-2 rescues the associative learning defect in orthologous Caenorhabditis elegans mutants. Other calsyntenins promote synapse development, calsyntenin-1 selectively of excitatory synapses and calsyntenin-3 of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. We found that targeted deletion of calsyntenin-2 in mice results in a selective reduction in functional inhibitory synapses. Reduced inhibitory transmission was associated with a selective reduction of parvalbumin interneurons in hippocampus and cortex. Clstn2−/− mice showed normal behavior in elevated plus maze, forced swim test, and novel object recognition assays. However, Clstn2−/− mice were hyperactive in the open field and showed deficits in spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and Barnes maze. These results confirm a function for calsyntenin-2 in cognitive performance and indicate an underlying mechanism that involves parvalbumin interneurons and aberrant inhibitory transmission. PMID:26171716

  13. Effects of Concord grape juice on cognitive and motor deficits in aging.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carey, Amanda; Simon, Laura; Mark, David A; Joseph, James A

    2006-03-01

    Animals and humans show increased motor and cognitive declines with aging that are thought to be due to increased susceptibility to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous findings have suggested that reversals in these age-related declines might be accomplished by increasing the dietary intake of polyphenolics found in fruits and vegetables, especially those identified as being high in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the beneficial effects of two concentrations of Concord grape juice (10% and 50%) compared with a calorically matched placebo for their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and neuronal functions in aged Fischer 344 rats. Rats that drank the 10% grape juice from age 19 to 21 mo had improvements in oxotremorine enhancement of K+-evoked release of dopamine from striatal slices and in cognitive performance on the Morris water maze, and the 50% grape juice produced improvements in motor function. These findings suggest that, in addition to their known beneficial effects on cancer and heart disease, polyphenolics in foods may be beneficial in reversing the course of neuronal and behavioral aging, possibly through a multiplicity of direct and indirect effects that can affect a variety of neuronal parameters.

  14. [Cognitive, linguistic, motoric, and social deficits in schoolstarters with behavioral disorders].

    PubMed

    Korsch, Franziska; Petermann, Ulrike; Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that ADHD, conduct disorders, and anxiety disorders are clinical disorders mostly diagnosed in schoolstarters. The preschool medical examination in Bremen was therefore extended by behavioral screenings. Based on their screening results from the SEU (health examination for school entry) 2011 in Bremen, 67 preschoolers were tested for behavioral disorders. Subsequently, children with behavioral or emotional symptoms (N = 56) were compared to symptomfree controls (N = 52) for their cognitive, motoric, linguistic, and social-emotional development. Psychosocial health was obtained through external assessment by the parents and kindergarten teachers. Results of the WPPSI-III, M-ABC-2, and ET 6-6 were included in the analysis. 32 children met the criteria for behavioral disorders. Children with behavioral or emotional symptoms showed significant lower scores on tests measuring cognitive, motoric, linguistic and emotional development compared to controls. Results suggest that there is necessity to screen all preschoolers for behavioral disorders before entering school. Because children with clinical or subclinical behavioral disorders showed major developmental deficits compared to children without behavioral symptoms, it is essential to conduct a multiple assessment on children with suspected behavioral disorders to ensure early developmental support and adequate interventional programs.

  15. The genesis of cognitive and behavioral deficits in premature graduates of intensive care.

    PubMed

    Perlman, J M

    2003-04-01

    Increased survival of very low birth weight infants including those born at the cutting edge of viability is associated with substantial cognitive and behavioral deficits at follow-up that has extended into school age and adolescence. These problems have occurred as common in the presence or absence of neurosonographic abnormalities. Factors/events that may predispose to these problems include medical complications of prematurity i.e. chronic lung disease, recurrent episodes of apnea and bradycardia, transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity, hyperbilirubinemia, nutritional deficiencies, medications used to treat such conditions i.e. glucorticoids, theophylline etc. and stress associated with prolonged hospitalization. With regard to the latter, attachment to multiple devices that limits infant provider interactions, high noise levels and constant light levels are considered to be of particular importance. Experimental evidence is presented that demonstrates the value of positive interactions between the subject and provider with regard to neurobehavioral outcome. Some suggested interventions include reducing noise levels and displacing it with music, modulating light exposure and enhancing infant parent interactions such as kangaroo care. Finally the important postnatal role of social influences on cognitive and behavioral outcomes is discussed.

  16. Effectiveness of nootropic drugs with cholinergic activity in treatment of cognitive deficit: a review

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Luisa; Bosco, Massimiliano; Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Rea, Raffaele; Amenta, Francesco; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria

    2012-01-01

    Nootropics represent probably the first “smart drugs” used for the treatment of cognitive deficits. The aim of this paper is to verify, by a systematic analysis of the literature, the effectiveness of nootropics in this indication. The analysis was limited to nootropics with cholinergic activity, in view of the role played by acetylcholine in learning and memory. Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter identified in the history of neuroscience and is the main neurotransmitter of the peripheral, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for the 5-year period 2006–2011. From the data reported in the literature, it emerges that nootropics may be an effective alternative for strengthening and enhancing cognitive performance in patients with a range of pathologies. Although nootropics, and specifically the cholinergic precursors, already have a long history behind them, according to recent renewal of interest, they still seem to have a significant therapeutic role. Drugs with regulatory indications for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, often have transient effects in dementia disorders. Nootropics with a cholinergic profile and documented clinical effectiveness in combination with cognate drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors or alone in patients who are not suitable for these inhibitors should be taken into account and evaluated further. PMID:27186129

  17. Cognitive deficits in the Snord116 deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Anna; Copping, Nycole A; Onaga, Beth; Pride, Michael C; Coulson, Rochelle L; Yang, Mu; Yasui, Dag H; LaSalle, Janine M; Silverman, Jill L

    2018-05-23

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an imprinted neurodevelopmental disease caused by a loss of paternal genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. It is characterized by cognitive impairments, developmental delay, sleep abnormalities, and hyperphagia often leading to obesity. Clinical research has shown that a lack of expression of SNORD116, a paternally expressed imprinted gene cluster that encodes multiple copies of a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) in both humans and mice, is most likely responsible for many PWS symptoms seen in humans. The majority of previous research using PWS preclinical models focused on characterization of the hyperphagic and metabolic phenotypes. However, a crucial understudied clinical phenotype is cognitive impairments and thus we investigated the learning and memory abilities using a model of PWS, with a heterozygous deletion in Snord116. We utilized the novel object recognition task, which doesn't require external motivation, or exhaustive swim training. Automated findings were further confirmed with manual scoring by a highly trained blinded investigator. We discovered deficits in Snord116+/- mutant mice in the novel object recognition, location memory and tone cue fear conditioning assays when compared to age-, sex- matched, littermate control Snord116+/+ mice. Further, we confirmed that despite physical neo-natal developmental delays, Snord116+/- mice had normal exploratory and motor abilities. These results show that the Snord116+/- deletion murine model is a valuable preclinical model for investigating learning and memory impairments in individuals with PWS without common confounding phenotypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the interplay among negative emotionality, cognitive functioning, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dione M; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Cognition and emotion, traditionally thought of as largely distinct, have recently begun to be conceptualized as dynamically linked processes that interact to influence functioning. This study investigated the moderating effects of cognitive functioning on the relationship between negative emotionality and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity. A total of 216 (140 hyperactive/inattentive; 76 typically developing) preschoolers aged 3-4 years were administered a neuropsychological test battery (i.e., NEPSY). To avoid method bias, child negative emotionality was rated by teachers (Temperament Assessment Battery for Children-Revised), and parents rated symptom severity on the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS-IV). Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that both negative emotionality and Perceptual-Motor & Executive Functions accounted for significant unique variance in ADHD symptom severity. Significant interactions indicated that when negative emotionality is low, but not high, neuropsychological functioning accounts for significant variability in ADHD symptoms, with lower functioning predicting more symptoms. Emotional and neuropsychological functioning, both individually and in combination, play a significant role in the expression of ADHD symptom severity.

  19. Cognitive Training and Work Therapy for the Treatment of Verbal Learning and Memory Deficits in Veterans With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bell, Morris D; Vissicchio, Nicholas A; Weinstein, Andrea J

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the efficacy of cognitive training for verbal learning and memory deficits in a population of older veterans with alcohol use disorders. Veterans with alcohol use disorders, who were in outpatient treatment at VA facilities and in early-phase recovery (N = 31), were randomized to receive a three-month trial of daily cognitive training plus work therapy (n = 15) or work therapy alone (n = 16), along with treatment as usual. Participants completed assessments at baseline and at three- and six-month follow-ups; the Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) was the primary outcome measure. Participants were primarily male (97%) and in their mid-50s (M = 55.16, SD = 5.16) and had been sober for 1.64 (SD = 2.81) months. Study retention was excellent (91% at three-month follow-up) and adherence to treatment in both conditions was very good. On average, participants in the cognitive training condition had more than 41 hours of cognitive training, and both conditions had more than 230 hours of productive activity. HVLT results at three-month follow-up revealed significant condition effects favoring cognitive training for verbal learning (HVLT Trial-3 T-score, p < .005, Cohen's d = 1.3) and verbal memory (HVLT Total T-score, p < .01, Cohen's d = 1.1). Condition effects were sustained at six-month follow-up. At baseline, 55.9% of participants showed a significant deficit in verbal memory and 58.8% showed a deficit in verbal learning compared with a premorbid estimate of verbal IQ. At three-month follow-up there was a significant reduction in the number of participants in the cognitive training condition with clinically significant verbal memory deficits (p < .01, number needed to treat = 3.0) compared with the work therapy alone condition and a trend toward significance for verbal learning deficits, which was not sustained at six-month follow-up. This National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded pilot study demonstrates that cognitive training within the context

  20. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer A.; Creighton, Sarah E.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive…

  1. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cognitive skills of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Thomaidis, L; Choleva, A; Janikian, M; Bertou, G; Tsitsika, A; Giannakopoulos, G; Anagnostopoulos, D C

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes a neurobehavioral disorder which may potentially adversely affect children's wellbeing and academic achievement. The onset of symptoms is present prior to 12 years of age, and often the symptoms are evident in the preschool years. In fact, it has been suggested that screening for ADHD symptoms may be initiated as early as four years of age. Preschool children with ADHD have been shown to present with poor pre-academic skills and might be at increased risk for numerous school-related problems, including functional impairment during elementary school years and persistent poor academic performance thereafter. Although preschool years are characterized by rapid cognitive growth, preschoolers with ADHD may present with poorer cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. Due to the early onset of ADHD symptoms, exploring the cognitive correlates of this condition among preschool children is thought to be of notable importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate any association between ADHD symptoms and cognitive skills among preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a nationwide random sample of 4,480 preschool children. ADHD symptoms were assessed though interviews with parents and teachers based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Cognitive skills were assessed through a standardized school readiness test (A' TEST). Among participants, the occurrence of ADHD symptoms was 4.6% (boys/girls: 3.4/1). The presence of ADHD symptoms among children was inversely associated with non-verbal and verbal cognitive skills; specifically, with abstract thinking (aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.30-3.00), language (2.36, 1.55-3.59), critical reasoning (2.58, 1.84-3.62), visual perception (2.42, 1.38- 4.24), and visual motor skills (2.61, 1.91-3.55). Children with ADHD symptoms were five times as likely to have compromised organizational skills (4.92, 3.04-7.97). Abstract thinking was the least affected domain

  2. Impact of statins on cognitive deficits in adult male rodents after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Lexing; Xiong, Xin-gui; Liang, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of statin treatment on cognitive decline is controversial, and the effect of statins on cognitive deficits in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has yet to be investigated. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the effect of statins on cognitive deficits in adult male rodents after TBI. After identifying eligible studies by searching four electronic databases on February 28, 2014, we assessed study quality, evaluated the efficacy of statin treatment, and performed stratified metaregression and metaregression to assess the influence of study design on statin efficacy. Eleven studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria from a total of 183 publications. The overall methodological quality of these studies was poor. Meta-analysis showed that statins exert statistically significant positive effects on cognitive performance after TBI. Stratified analysis showed that atorvastatin has the greatest effect on acquisition memory, simvastatin has the greatest effect on retention memory, and statin effects on acquisition memory are higher in closed head injury models. Metaregression analysis further showed that that animal species, study quality, and anesthetic agent impact statin effects on retention memory. We conclude that statins might reduce cognitive deficits after TBI. However, additional well-designed and well-reported animal studies are needed to inform further clinical study.

  3. Apigenin Ameliorates Post-Stroke Cognitive Deficits in Rats Through Histone Acetylation-Mediated Neurochemical Alterations.

    PubMed

    Tu, Fengxia; Pang, Qiongyi; Huang, Tingting; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Meixia; Chen, Xiang

    2017-08-19

    BACKGROUND To identify the effect of apigenin on cognitive deficits of rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury, and to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS The rats were given sodium butyrate (NaB) or apigenin (20 or 40 mg/kg) for 28 days. Cognition was investigated by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. On day 28, the rats were euthanized and their hippocampal brain regions were used to identify biochemical and neurochemical alterations. The content of histone deacetylase (HDAC) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot analysis was performed to determine the levels of BDNF, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), acetylated H3, and acetylated H4. The mRNA expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synapsin-I (Syn-I) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS The rats with chronic administration of apigenin (20 and 40 mg/kg) showed better performance in the MWM task than the model rats; there was no significant difference between the apigenin-treated and NaB-treated rats. At the higher apigenin dose of 40 mg/kg, the HDAC content was decreased, the BDNF level was markedly increased, and acetylated H3 and acetylated H4 expressions and Syn-I expressions in the hippocampus was upregulated compared with the model group. Apigenin at 20 mg/kg did not show reversal of the neurochemical alterations. CONCLUSIONS The improvement effect of apigenin on cognitive impairments after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury may involve multiple mechanisms, such as the inhibition of HDAC, induction of BDNF and Syn-I expression, and regulation of histone acetylation.

  4. Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit in neurofibromatosis type 1: effects on cognition.

    PubMed

    Lidzba, Karen; Granstroem, Sofia; Leark, Robert A; Kraegeloh-Mann, Inge; Mautner, Victor-Felix

    2014-08-01

     Attention deficit with or without hyperactivity (AD[H]D) is a common comorbidity of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1). We tested the hypothesis that permanent medication with methylphenidate can improve cognitive functioning in children with NF 1 and comorbid AD(H)D.  We retrospectively analyzed data of a clinical sample of patients with NF 1 with or without AD(H)D, who underwent standardized neuropsychological diagnostics twice (age range: T1, 6-14 years; T2, 7-16 years; mean interval, 49.09 months). A total of 16 children without AD(H)D (nine females) were compared with 14 unmedicated children with AD(H)D (eight females) and to 13 medicated children with AD(H)D (two females). Effects of medication and attention on cognitive outcome (IQ) were tested by repeated measures analysis of covariance (rmANCOVA).  Medicated children with NF 1 improved significantly in full-scale IQ from T1 to T2 (IQ[T1] = 80.38, IQ[T2] = 98.38, confidence interval [diff]: -25.59 to -10.40, p < 0.0001), this effect was not evident for the other groups. With attention measures as covariates, the effect remained marginally significant.  Children and adolescents with NF 1 and comorbid AD(H)D may profit from MPH medication regarding general cognition. This effect could be specific for the group of patients with NF 1, and cannot be explained solely by improvements in attention. Controlled, prospective studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Decreased theta power at encoding and cognitive mapping deficits in elderly individuals during a spatial memory task.

    PubMed

    Lithfous, Ségolène; Tromp, Delphine; Dufour, André; Pebayle, Thierry; Goutagny, Romain; Després, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of theta activity in cognitive mapping, and to determine whether age-associated decreased theta power may account for navigational difficulties in elderly individuals. Cerebral activity was recorded using electroencephalograph in young and older individuals performing a spatial memory task that required the creation of cognitive maps. Power spectra were computed in the frontal and parietal regions and correlated with recognition performance. We found that accuracy of cognitive mapping was positively correlated with left frontal theta activity during encoding in young adults but not in older individuals. Compared with young adults, older participants were impaired in the creation of cognitive maps and showed reduced theta and alpha activity at encoding. These results suggest that encoding processes are impaired in older individual, which may explain age-related cognitive mapping deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ABT-089, but not ABT-107, ameliorates nicotine withdrawal-induced cognitive deficits in C57BL6/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Emre; Connor, David A.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine withdrawal produces cognitive deficits that can predict relapse. Amelioration of these cognitive deficits emerges as a target in current smoking cessation therapies. In rodents, withdrawal from chronic nicotine disrupts contextual fear conditioning (CFC), whereas acute nicotine enhances this hippocampus-specific learning and memory. These modifications are mediated by β2-subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus. We aimed to test ABT-089, a partial agonist of α4β2*, and ABT-107, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, for amelioration of cognitive deficits induced by withdrawal from chronic nicotine in mice. Mice underwent chronic nicotine administration (12.6 mg/kg/day or saline for 12 days), followed by 24 h of withdrawal. At the end of withdrawal, mice received 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg ABT-089 or 0.3 mg/kg ABT-107 (doses were determined through initial dose–response experiments and prior studies) and were trained and tested for CFC. Nicotine withdrawal produced deficits in CFC that were reversed by acute ABT-089, but not ABT-107. Cued conditioning was not affected. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of hippocampal learning and memory using ABT-089 may be an effective component of novel therapeutic strategies for nicotine addiction. PMID:25426579

  7. Effects of Ketamine on Context-Processing Performance in Monkeys: A New Animal Model of Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Rachael K; MacDonald, Angus W; Chafee, Matthew V

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are at the crux of why many schizophrenia patients have poor functional outcomes. One of the cognitive symptoms experienced by schizophrenia patients is a deficit in context processing, the ability to use contextual information stored in working memory to adaptively respond to subsequent stimuli. As such, context processing can be thought of as the intersection between working memory and executive control. Although deficits in context processing have been extensively characterized by neuropsychological testing in schizophrenia patients, they have never been effectively translated to an animal model of the disease. To bridge that gap, we trained monkeys to perform the same dot pattern expectancy (DPX) task, which has been used to measure context-processing deficits in human patients with schizophrenia. In the DPX task, the first stimulus in each trial provides the contextual information that subjects must remember in order to appropriately respond to the second stimulus in the trial. We found that administration of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, in monkeys caused a dose-dependent failure in context processing, replicating in monkeys the same specific pattern of errors committed by patients with schizophrenia when performing the same task. Therefore, our results provide the first evidence that context-processing dysfunction can be modeled in animals. Replicating a schizophrenia-like behavioral performance pattern in monkeys performing the same task used in humans provides a strong bridge to better understand the biological basis for this psychiatric disease and its cognitive manifestations using animal models. PMID:23660706

  8. Detecting navigational deficits in cognitive aging and Alzheimer disease using virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Laura A; Stein, Karen; Duffy, Charles J

    2008-09-16

    Older adults get lost, in many cases because of recognized or incipient Alzheimer disease (AD). In either case, getting lost can be a threat to individual and public safety, as well as to personal autonomy and quality of life. Here we compare our previously described real-world navigation test with a virtual reality (VR) version simulating the same navigational environment. Quantifying real-world navigational performance is difficult and time-consuming. VR testing is a promising alternative, but it has not been compared with closely corresponding real-world testing in aging and AD. We have studied navigation using both real-world and virtual environments in the same subjects: young normal controls (YNCs, n = 35), older normal controls (ONCs, n = 26), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 12), and patients with early AD (EAD, n = 14). We found close correlations between real-world and virtual navigational deficits that increased across groups from YNC to ONC, to MCI, and to EAD. Analyses of subtest performance showed similar profiles of impairment in real-world and virtual testing in all four subject groups. The ONC, MCI, and EAD subjects all showed greatest difficulty in self-orientation and scene localization tests. MCI and EAD patients also showed impaired verbal recall about both test environments. Virtual environment testing provides a valid assessment of navigational skills. Aging and Alzheimer disease (AD) share the same patterns of difficulty in associating visual scenes and locations, which is complicated in AD by the accompanying loss of verbally mediated navigational capacities. We conclude that virtual navigation testing reveals deficits in aging and AD that are associated with potentially grave risks to our patients and the community.

  9. Cognition and the compassion deficit: the social psychology of helping behaviour in nursing.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses compassion failure and compassion deficits in health care, using two major reports by Robert Francis in the UK as a point of reference. Francis enquired into events at the Mid Staffordshire Hospital between 2005 and 2009, events that unequivocally warrant the description 'appalling care'. These events prompted an intense national debate, along with proposals for significant changes in the regulation of nursing and nurse education. The circumstances are specific to the UK, but the issues are international. I suggest that social psychology provides numerous hints about the mechanisms that might have been involved at Mid Staffs and about the reasons why outsiders are blind to these mechanisms. However, there have been few references to social psychology in the post-Francis debate (the Francis Report itself makes no reference to it at all). It is an enormously valuable resource, and it has been overlooked. Drawing on the social psychology literature, I express scepticism about the idea that there was a compassion deficit among the Mid Staff nurses - the assumption that the appalling care had something to do with the character, attitudes, and values of nurses - and argue that the Francis Report's emphasis on a 'culture of compassion and caring in nurse recruitment, training and education' is misconceived. It was not a 'failure of compassion' that led to the events in Mid Staffs but an interlocking set of contextual factors that are known to affect social cognition. These factors cannot be corrected or compensated for by teaching ethics, empathy, and compassion to student nurses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Selective cognitive deficits in adult rats after prenatal exposure to inhaled ethanol.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, W M; Beasley, T E; McDaniel, K L; Taylor, M M; Evansky, P; Moser, V C; Gilbert, M E; Bushnell, P J

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of ethanol blends in gasoline suggests a need to assess the potential public health risks of exposure to these fuels. Ethanol consumed during pregnancy is a teratogen. However, little is known about the potential developmental neurotoxicity of ethanol delivered by inhalation, the most likely route of exposure from gasoline-ethanol fuel blends. We evaluated the potential cognitive consequences of ethanol inhalation by exposing pregnant Long Evans rats to clean air or ethanol vapor from gestational days 9-20, a critical period of neuronal development. Concentrations of inhaled ethanol (5000, 10,000, or 21,000 ppm for 6.5h/day) produced modeled peak blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in exposed dams of 2.3, 6.8, and 192 mg/dL, respectively. In offspring, no dose-related impairments were observed on spatial learning or working memory in the Morris water maze or in operant delayed match-to-position tests. Two measures showed significant effects in female offspring at all ethanol doses: 1) impaired cue learning after trace fear conditioning, and 2) an absence of bias for the correct quadrant after place training during a reference memory probe in the Morris water maze. In choice reaction time tests, male offspring (females were not tested) from the 5000 and 10,000 ppm groups showed a transient increase in decision times. Also, male offspring from the 21,000 ppm group made more anticipatory responses during a preparatory hold period, suggesting a deficit in response inhibition. The increase in anticipatory responding during the choice reaction time test shows that inhaled ethanol yielding a peak BEC of ~200mg/dL can produce lasting effects in the offspring. The lack of a dose-related decrement in the effects observed in females on cue learning and a reference memory probe may reflect confounding influences in the exposed offspring possibly related to maternal care or altered anxiety levels in females. The surprising lack of more pervasive cognitive deficits

  11. Cognitive Effects of Stimulant, Guanfacine, and Combined Treatment in Child and Adolescent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Robert M; Loo, Sandra K; McGough, James J; Whelan, Fiona; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine; Del'Homme, Melissa; Sturm, Alexandra; Cowen, Jennifer; Hanada, Grant; McCracken, James T

    2016-08-01

    Psychostimulants are partially effective in reducing cognitive dysfunction associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive effects of guanfacine, an alternative treatment, are poorly understood. Given its distinct action on α2A receptors, guanfacine may have different or complementary effects relative to stimulants. This study tested stimulant and guanfacine monotherapies relative to combined treatment on cognitive functions important in ADHD. Children with ADHD (n = 182; aged 7-14 years) completed an 8-week, double blind, randomized, controlled trial with 3 arms: d-methylphenidate (DMPH), guanfacine (GUAN), or combination treatment with DMPH and GUAN (COMB). A nonclinical comparison group (n = 93) had baseline testing, and a subset was retested 8 weeks later (n = 38). Analyses examined treatment effects in 4 cognitive domains (working memory, response inhibition, reaction time, and reaction time variability) constructed from 20 variables. The ADHD group showed impaired working memory relative to the nonclinical comparison group (effect size = -0.53 SD unit). The treatments differed in effects on working memory but not other cognitive domains. Combination treatment improved working memory more than GUAN but was not significantly better than DMPH alone. Treatment did not fully normalize the initial deficit in ADHD relative to the comparison group. Combined treatment with DMPH and GUAN yielded greater improvements in working memory than placebo or GUAN alone, but the combined treatment was not superior to DMPH alone and did not extend to other cognitive domains. Although GUAN may be a useful add-on treatment to psychostimulants, additional strategies appear to be necessary to achieve normalization of cognitive function in ADHD. Single Versus Combination Medication Treatment for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00429273. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent

  12. Cognitive Effects of Stimulant, Guanfacine, and Combined Treatment in Child and Adolescent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, Robert M.; Loo, Sandra; McGough, James J.; Whelan, Fiona; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine; Del’Homme, Melissa; Sturm, Alexandra; Cowen, Jennifer; Hanada, Grant; McCracken, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Psychostimulants are partially effective in reducing cognitive dysfunction associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive effects of guanfacine, an alternative treatment, are poorly understood. Given its distinct action on α2A receptors, guanfacine may have different or complementary effects relative to stimulants. This study tested stimulant and guanfacine monotherapies relative to combined treatment on cognitive functions important in ADHD. Method Children with ADHD (n = 182; age 7–14 years) completed an eight-week double blind randomized controlled trial with three arms: d-methylphenidate (DMPH), guanfacine (GUAN), or combination treatment with DMPH and GUAN (COMB). A non-clinical comparison group (n = 93) had baseline testing, and a subset was re-tested 8 weeks later (n = 38). Analyses examined treatment effects in four cognitive domains (working memory, response inhibition, reaction time, and reaction time variability) constructed from 20 variables. Results The ADHD group showed impaired working memory relative to the non-clinical comparison group (effect size = −0.53 SD units). The treatments differed in effects on working memory but not other cognitive domains. Combination treatment improved working memory more than GUAN, but was not significantly better than DMPH alone. Treatment did not fully normalize the initial deficit in ADHD relative to the comparison group. Conclusion Combined treatment with DMPH and GUAN yielded greater improvements in working memory than placebo or GUAN alone, but the combined treatment was not superior to DMPH alone, and did not extend to other cognitive domains. Although GUAN may be a useful add-on treatment to psychostimulants, additional strategies appear necessary to achieve normalization of cognitive function in ADHD. Clinical trial registration information Single Versus Combination Medication Treatment for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; http

  13. A continuum of executive function deficits in early subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: "vascular mild cognitive impairment" OR "vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" OR "vascular mild neurocognitive disorder" AND "dysexecutive" OR "executive function". Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control.

  14. A continuum of executive function deficits in early subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Background. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. Objective: This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Methods: Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: “vascular mild cognitive impairment” OR “vascular cognitive impairment no dementia” OR “vascular mild neurocognitive disorder” AND “dysexecutive” OR “executive function”. Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Results: Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. Conclusion: A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control. PMID:29354217

  15. Lack of association between mutation size and cognitive/behavior deficits in fragile X males: A brief report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, G.S.; Carpenter, N.; Simensen, R.

    1996-08-09

    Previously, researchers reported molecular-neurobehavioral or molecular-cognitive associations in individuals with fra(X) (fragile X) mutation. However, not all investigators have noted molecular-behavioral relationships. Consequently, we examined prospectively 30 fra(X) males age 3-15 years from four testing sites to determine whether there was a relationship between mutation size and degree of either cognitive or adaptive behavior deficit. To measure cognitive abilities, all individuals were administered the Stanford-Binet (4th edition) IQ test. To evaluate adaptive behavior (DQ) skills, all individuals were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. To determine fra(X) status, genomic DNA from all individuals was extracted and digested with EcoRImore » and EagI restriction enzymes. Southern blots were prepared and hybridized with the pE5.1 probe. The Pearson correlation coefficient between full mutation size and composite IQ score revealed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P > .76). The Pearson coefficient between mutation size and DQ also showed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P >.73). We conclude that while fra(X) mutation produces cognitive and behavior deficits in males who inherit the defective gene, there is no relationship between mutation size and degree of deficit. 14 refs., 2 figs.« less

  16. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors reverse deficits in long-term potentiation and cognition in Fragile X mice

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Aimee V.; King, Margaret K.; Palomo, Valle; Martinez, Ana; McMahon, Lori L.; Jope, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying feasible therapeutic interventions is crucial for ameliorating the intellectual disability and other afflictions of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism. Hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is hyperactive in the mouse model of FXS (FX mice), and hyperactive GSK3 promotes locomotor hyperactivity and audiogenic seizure susceptibility in FX mice, raising the possibility that specific GSK3 inhibitors may improve cognitive processes. Methods We tested if specific GSK3 inhibitors improve deficits in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long term potentiation (LTP) at medial perforant path synapses onto dentate granule cells (MPP-DGC) and dentate gyrus-dependent cognitive behavioral tasks. Results GSK3 inhibitors completely rescued deficits in LTP at MPP-DGC synapses in FX mice. Furthermore, synaptosomes from the dentate gyrus of FX mice displayed decreased inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of GSK3β compared with wild-type littermates. The potential therapeutic utility of GSK3 inhibitors was further tested on dentate gyrus-dependent congnitive behaviors. In vivo administration of GSK3 inhibitors completely reversed impairments in several cognitive tasks in FX mice, including novel object detection, coordinate and categorical spatial processing, and temporal ordering for visual objects. Conclusions These findings establish that synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficits in FX mice can be improved by intervention with inhibitors of GSK3, which may prove therapeutically beneficial in FXS. PMID:24041505

  17. Social Cognition Deficits: The Key to Discriminate Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia from Alzheimer's Disease Regardless of Amnesia?

    PubMed

    Bertoux, Maxime; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; O'Callaghan, Claire; Greve, Andrea; Sarazin, Marie; Dubois, Bruno; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Relative sparing of episodic memory is a diagnostic criterion of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, increasing evidence suggests that bvFTD patients can show episodic memory deficits at a similar level as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Social cognition tasks have been proposed to distinguish bvFTD, but no study to date has explored the utility of such tasks for the diagnosis of amnestic bvFTD. Here, we contrasted social cognition performance of amnestic and non-amnestic bvFTD from AD, with a subgroup having confirmed in vivo pathology markers. Ninety-six participants (38 bvFTD and 28 AD patients as well as 30 controls) performed the short Social-cognition and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA). BvFTD patients were divided into amnestic versus non-amnestic presentation using the validated Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) assessing episodic memory. As expected, the accuracy of the FCSRT to distinguish the overall bvFTD group from AD was low (69.7% ) with ∼50% of bvFTD patients being amnestic. By contrast, the diagnostic accuracy of the mini-SEA was high (87.9% ). When bvFTD patients were split on the level of amnesia, mini-SEA diagnostic accuracy remained high (85.1% ) for amnestic bvFTD versus AD and increased to very high (93.9% ) for non-amnestic bvFTD versus AD. Social cognition deficits can distinguish bvFTD and AD regardless of amnesia to a high degree and provide a simple way to distinguish both diseases at presentation. These findings have clear implications for the diagnostic criteria of bvFTD. They suggest that the emphasis should be on social cognition deficits with episodic memory deficits not being a helpful diagnostic criterion in bvFTD.

  18. Postnatal choline levels mediate cognitive deficits in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Jennifer A; Glenn, Melissa J

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the essential nutrient choline may protect against schizophrenic-like cognitive deficits in a rat model. Theories regarding the etiology of schizophrenia suggest that early life events render an individual more vulnerable to adult challenges, and the combination may precipitate disease onset. To model this, the adult male offspring of dams who either experienced stress during late gestation or did not were given a 5 mg/kg dose of the NMDA antagonist,MK-801. The presence of both the prenatal challenge of stress and the adult challenge of MK-801 was expected to impair memory in these offspring. Memory was not expected to be impaired in rats that did not experience prenatal stress, but did receive MK-801 as adults. To study whether choline levels altered outcomes in these groups, rats were fed a choline-supplemented, -deficient, or standard diet during the period between the two challenges: beginning at weaning and continuing for 25 days. All rats consumed regular rat chow thereafter. The efficacy of the model was confirmed in the standard fed rats in that only those that were prenatally stressed and received MK-801 as adults displayed impaired memory on a novelty preference test of object recognition. Contrary to this finding and consistent with our hypothesis, choline-supplemented rats that were also both prenatally stressed and given MK-801 as adults showed intact memory. Choline deficiency impaired memory in rats that were just prenatally stressed, just given MK-801 as adults, and subjected to both. Thus, a choline deficient diet may render rats vulnerable to either challenge. Taken together, we offer evidence that developmental choline levels modulate the effects of prenatal stress and/or MK-801 and thereby alter the cognitive outcome in a rat model of schizophrenia.

  19. Cognitive Deficits in Executive Functions and Decision-Making Impairments Cluster Gambling Disorder Sub-types.

    PubMed

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tolosa-Sola, Iris; Fernández-Aranda, Fernándo; Granero, Roser; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Lozano-Madrid, María; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Aymamí, Neus; Borrás-González, Indira; Sánchez-González, Jessica; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2018-03-01

    To identify Gambling Disorder (GD) subtypes, in a population of men seeking treatment for GD, according to specific executive function domains (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition and working memory as well as decision making) which are usually impaired in addictive behaviors. A total of 145 males ranging from 18 to 65 years diagnosed with GD were included in this study. All participants completed: (a) a set of questionnaires to assess psychopathological symptoms, personality and impulsivity traits, and (b) a battery of neuropsychological measures to test different executive functioning domains. Two clusters were identified based on the individual performance on the neuropsychological assessment. Cluster 1 [n = 106; labeled as Low Impaired Executive Function (LIEF)] was composed by patients with poor results in the neuropsychological assessment; cluster 2 patients [n = 46; labeled as High Impaired Executive Function (HIEF)] presented significantly higher deficits on the assessed domains and performed worse than the ones of LIEF cluster. Regarding the characterization of these two clusters, patients in cluster 2 were significantly older, unemployed and registered higher mean age of GD onset than patients in cluster 1. Additionally, patients in cluster 2 also obtained higher psychopathological symptoms, impulsivity (in both positive and negative urgency as well as sensation seeking) and some specific personality traits (higher harm avoidance as well as lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) than patients in cluster 1. The results of this study describe two different GD subtypes based on different cognitive domains (i.e., executive function performance). These two GD subtypes display different impulsivity and personality traits as well as clinical symptoms. The results provide new insight into the etiology and characterization of GD and have the potential to help improving current treatments.

  20. BDNF overexpression prevents cognitive deficit elicited by adolescent cannabis exposure and host susceptibility interaction.

    PubMed

    Segal-Gavish, Hadar; Gazit, Neta; Barhum, Yael; Ben-Zur, Tali; Taler, Michal; Hornfeld, Shay Henry; Gil-Ad, Irit; Weizman, Abraham; Slutsky, Inna; Niwa, Minae; Kamiya, Atsushi; Sawa, Akira; Offen, Daniel; Barzilay, Ran

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis abuse in adolescence is associated with increased risk of psychotic disorders. Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) protein is a driver for major mental illness by influencing neurodevelopmental processes. Here, utilizing a unique mouse model based on host (DISC1) X environment (THC administration) interaction, we aimed at studying the pathobiological basis through which THC exposure elicits psychiatric manifestations. Wild-Type and dominant-negative-DISC1 (DN-DISC1) mice were injected with THC (10 mg/kg) or vehicle for 10 days during mid-adolescence-equivalent period. Behavioral tests were conducted to assess exploratory activity (open field test, light-dark box test) and cognitive function (novel object recognition test). Electrophysiological effect of THC was evaluated using acute hippocampal slices, and hippocampal cannabinoid receptor type 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels were measured. Our results indicate that THC exposure elicits deficits in exploratory activity and recognition memory, together with reduced short-term synaptic facilitation and loss of BDNF surge in the hippocampus of DN-DISC mice, but not in wild-type mice. Over-expression of BDNF in the hippocampus of THC-treated DN-DISC1 mice prevented the impairment in recognition memory. The results of this study imply that induction of BDNF following adolescence THC exposure may serve as a homeostatic response geared to maintain proper cognitive function against exogenous insult. The BDNF surge in response to THC is perturbed in the presence of mutant DISC1, suggesting DISC1 may be a useful probe to identify biological cascades involved in the neurochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral effects of cannabis related psychiatric manifestations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Sensation-to-Cognition Cortical Streams in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, Elseline; Castellanos, Francisco X.; García-García, David; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Dijk, Koene R.A.Van; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J.; Martínez, Kenia; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine whether functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits are atypical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We applied a graph-theory method to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 120 children with ADHD and 120 age-matched typically developing children (TDC). Starting in unimodal primary cortex—visual, auditory, and somatosensory—we used stepwise functional connectivity to calculate functional connectivity paths at discrete numbers of relay stations (or link-step distances). First, we characterized the functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits in TDC and found that systems do not reach the level of integration achieved by adults. Second, we searched for stepwise functional connectivity differences between children with ADHD and TDC. We found that, at the initial steps of sensory functional connectivity streams, patients display significant enhancements of connectivity degree within neighboring areas of primary cortex, while connectivity to attention-regulatory areas is reduced. Third, at subsequent link-step distances from primary sensory cortex, children with ADHD show decreased connectivity to executive processing areas and increased degree of connections to default mode regions. Fourth, in examining medication histories in children with ADHD, we found that children medicated with psychostimulants present functional connectivity streams with higher degree of connectivity to regions subserving attentional and executive processes compared to medication-naïve children. We conclude that predominance of local sensory processing and lesser influx of information to attentional and executive regions may reduce the ability to organize and control the balance between external and internal sources of information in ADHD. PMID:25821110

  2. Postnatal choline levels mediate cognitive deficits in a rat model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Corriveau, Jennifer A.; Glenn, Melissa J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the essential nutrient choline may protect against schizophrenic-like cognitive deficits in a rat model. Theories regarding the etiology of schizophrenia suggest that early life events render an individual more vulnerable to adult challenges, and the combination may precipitate disease onset. To model this, the adult male offspring of dams who either experienced stress during late gestation or did not were given a 5 mg/kg dose of the NMDA antagonist, MK-801. The presence of both the prenatal challenge of stress and the adult challenge of MK-801 was expected to impair memory in these offspring. Memory was not expected to be impaired in rats that did not experience prenatal stress, but did receive MK-801 as adults. To study whether choline levels altered outcomes in these groups, rats were fed a choline-supplemented, -deficient, or standard diet during the period between the two challenges: beginning at weaning and continuing for 25 days. All rats consumed regular rat chow thereafter. The efficacy of the model was confirmed in the standard fed rats in that only those that were prenatally stressed and received MK-801 as adults displayed impaired memory on a novelty preference test of object recognition. Contrary to this finding and consistent with our hypothesis, choline-supplemented rats that were also both prenatally stressed and given MK-801 as adults showed intact memory. Choline deficiency impaired memory in rats that were just prenatally stressed, just given MK-801 as adults, and subjected to both. Thus, a choline deficient diet may render rats vulnerable to either challenge. Taken together, we offer evidence that developmental choline levels modulate the effects of prenatal stress and/or MK-801 and thereby alter the cognitive outcome in a rat model of schizophrenia. PMID:22917834

  3. Sensation-to-cognition cortical streams in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, Elseline; Castellanos, Francisco X; García-García, David; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    We sought to determine whether functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits are atypical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We applied a graph-theory method to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 120 children with ADHD and 120 age-matched typically developing children (TDC). Starting in unimodal primary cortex-visual, auditory, and somatosensory-we used stepwise functional connectivity to calculate functional connectivity paths at discrete numbers of relay stations (or link-step distances). First, we characterized the functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits in TDC and found that systems do not reach the level of integration achieved by adults. Second, we searched for stepwise functional connectivity differences between children with ADHD and TDC. We found that, at the initial steps of sensory functional connectivity streams, patients display significant enhancements of connectivity degree within neighboring areas of primary cortex, while connectivity to attention-regulatory areas is reduced. Third, at subsequent link-step distances from primary sensory cortex, children with ADHD show decreased connectivity to executive processing areas and increased degree of connections to default mode regions. Fourth, in examining medication histories in children with ADHD, we found that children medicated with psychostimulants present functional connectivity streams with higher degree of connectivity to regions subserving attentional and executive processes compared to medication-naïve children. We conclude that predominance of local sensory processing and lesser influx of information to attentional and executive regions may reduce the ability to organize and control the balance between external and internal sources of information in ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mitochondrial modulators in experimental Huntington's disease: reversal of mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Arpit; Kanwal, Abhinav; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a chronic neurodegenerative condition involving impaired mitochondrial functions. The present study evaluates the therapeutic potential of combined administration of mitochondrial modulators: alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-l-carnitine on mitochondrial dysfunctions in 3-NP-induced HD. Our results reveal 3-NP administration resulted in compromise of mitochondrial functions in terms of: (1) impaired activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, altered cytochrome levels, reduced histochemical staining of complex-II and IV, reduced in-gel activity of complex-I to V, and reduced mRNA expression of respiratory chain complexes; (2) enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress indicated by increased malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, reactive oxygen species and nitrite levels, along with decreased Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase activity; (3) mitochondrial structural changes measured by mitochondrial swelling, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ultra-structure changes; (4) increased cytosolic cytochrome c levels, caspase-3 and -9 activity along with altered expression of apoptotic proteins (AIF, Bim, Bad, and Bax); and (5) impaired cognitive functions assessed using Morris water maze and Y-maze. Combination of mitochondrial modulators (alpha-lipoic acid + acetyl-l-carnitine) on the other hand ameliorated 3-NP-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress, histologic alterations, and behavioral deficits, suggesting their therapeutic efficacy in the management of HD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Smart Soup, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, Ameliorates Amyloid Pathology and Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Ding, Jianqing; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Xianglu; Ling, Yun; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Huang, Chenggang; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS), a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease. PMID:25386946

  6. Deficits in inhibitory control and conflict resolution on cognitive and motor tasks in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Casabona, Enrique; Bringas, Maria Luisa; Álvarez, Mario; Álvarez, Lázaro; Pavón, Nancy; Rodríguez-Oroz, Maria-Cruz; Macías, Raúl; Obeso, Jose A; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2011-07-01

    Recent imaging studies in healthy controls with a conditional stop signal reaction time (RT) task have implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in response inhibition and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in conflict resolution. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by striatal dopamine deficiency and overactivity of the STN and underactivation of the pre-SMA during movement. We used the conditional stop signal RT task to investigate whether PD produced similar or dissociable effects on response initiation, response inhibition and response initiation under conflict. In addition, we also examined inhibition of prepotent responses on three cognitive tasks: the Stroop, random number generation and Hayling sentence completion. PD patients were impaired on the conditional stop signal reaction time task, with response initiation both in situations with or without conflict and response inhibition all being significantly delayed, and had significantly greater difficulty in suppressing prepotent or habitual responses on the Stroop, Hayling and random number generation tasks relative to controls. These results demonstrate the existence of a generalized inhibitory deficit in PD, which suggest that PD is a disorder of inhibition as well as activation and that in situations of conflict, executive control over responses is compromised.

  7. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy versus treatment as usual in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Janssen, Lotte; Kan, Cornelis C; Carpentier, Pieter J; Sizoo, Bram; Hepark, Sevket; Grutters, Janneke; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-09-15

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with a lifelong pattern of core symptoms that is associated with impairments of functioning in daily life. This has a substantial personal and economic impact. In clinical practice there is a high need for additional or alternative interventions for existing treatments, usually consisting of pharmacotherapy and/or psycho-education. Although previous studies show preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning, these studies have methodological limitations. This study will take account of these limitations and will examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in further detail. A multi-centre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial will be conducted in N = 120 adults with ADHD. Patients will be randomised to MBCT in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Assessments will take place at baseline and at three, six and nine months after baseline. Primary outcome measure will be severity of ADHD symptoms rated by a blinded clinician. Secondary outcome measures will be self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, positive mental health and general functioning. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. This trial will offer valuable information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBCT in addition to TAU compared to TAU alone in adults swith ADHD. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02463396. Registered 8 June 2015.

  8. Insulin signaling misregulation underlies circadian and cognitive deficits in a Drosophila fragile X model.

    PubMed

    Monyak, R E; Emerson, D; Schoenfeld, B P; Zheng, X; Chambers, D B; Rosenfelt, C; Langer, S; Hinchey, P; Choi, C H; McDonald, T V; Bolduc, F V; Sehgal, A; McBride, S M J; Jongens, T A

    2017-08-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an undertreated neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by low intelligence quotent and a wide range of other symptoms including disordered sleep and autism. Although FXS is the most prevalent inherited cause of intellectual disability, its mechanistic underpinnings are not well understood. Using Drosophila as a model of FXS, we showed that select expression of dfmr1 in the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) of the brain was sufficient to restore normal circadian behavior and to rescue the memory deficits in the fragile X mutant fly. Examination of the insulin signaling (IS) pathway revealed elevated levels of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2) in the IPCs and elevated IS in the dfmr1 mutant brain. Consistent with a causal role for elevated IS in dfmr1 mutant phenotypes, the expression of dfmr1 specifically in the IPCs reduced IS, and genetic reduction of the insulin pathway also led to amelioration of circadian and memory defects. Furthermore, we showed that treatment with the FDA-approved drug metformin also rescued memory. Finally, we showed that reduction of IS is required at different time points to rescue circadian behavior and memory. Our results indicate that insulin misregulation underlies the circadian and cognitive phenotypes displayed by the Drosophila fragile X model, and thus reveal a metabolic pathway that can be targeted by new and already approved drugs to treat fragile X patients.

  9. Swertisin ameliorates pre-pulse inhibition deficits and cognitive impairment induced by MK-801 in mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee Kyong; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Eunji; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Ha Neul; Jung, Won Yong; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Swertisin, a plant-derived C-glucosylflavone, is known to have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated in mice the effects of swertisin on glutamatergic dysfunction induced by dizocilpine (MK-801), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. In the Acoustic Startle Response test, their MK-801-induced (given 0.2 mg/kg i.p.) pre-pulse inhibition deficit was significantly attenuated by the administration of swertisin (30 mg/kg p.o.). In the Novel Object Recognition Test, the recognition memory impairments that were induced by MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg, given i.p.) were also reversed by administration of swertisin (30 mg/kg p.o.). In addition, swertisin normalized the MK-801-induced elevation of phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK-3β signaling molecules in the prefrontal cortex. These results indicated that swertisin may be useful in managing the symptoms of schizophrenia, including sensorimotor gating disruption and cognitive impairment, and that these behavioral outcomes may be related to Akt-GSK-3β signaling in the prefrontal cortex.

  10. Lidocaine dose-response effect on postoperative cognitive deficit: meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Valiollah; Habibi, Ali; Soleimani, Aria

    2018-04-01

    The true influence of the perioperative intravenous lidocaine on the development of postoperative cognitive deficit (POCD) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains controversial. The principal aim is to undertake a meta-regression to determine whether moderator variables mediate the relationship between lidocaine and POCD. Areas covered: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed database, Scopus and the Cochrane Library database (up to June 2017) and systematically reviewed a list of retrieved articles. Our final review includes only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared infusion of lidocaine and placebo during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (MH RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to report the overall effect and meta-regression analysis. A total of 688 patients in five RCTs were included. POCD occurred in 34% of all cases. Perioperative lidocaine reduces POCD (MH RR 0.702 (95% CI: 0.541-0.909). Younger age, male gender, longer CPB and higher concentration of lidocaine significantly mediate the relationship between lidocaine and POCD in favour of the neuroprotective effect of lidocaine. Expert commentary: The neuroprotective effect of lidocaine on POCD is consistent in spite of longer CPB time. A higher concentration of lidocaine strengthened the neuroprotective effect of lidocaine.

  11. Cognitive-motivational deficits in ADHD: development of a classification system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Kar, Bhoomika R; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    The classification systems developed so far to detect attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not have high sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a classification system based on several neuropsychological tests that measure cognitive-motivational functions that are specifically impaired in ADHD children. A total of 240 (120 ADHD children and 120 healthy controls) children in the age range of 6-9 years and 32 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) children (aged 9 years) participated in the study. Stop-Signal, Task-Switching, Attentional Network, and Choice Delay tests were administered to all the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that percentage choice of long-delay reward best classified the ADHD children from healthy controls. Single parameters were not helpful in making a differential classification of ADHD with ODD. Multinominal logistic regression (MLR) was performed with multiple parameters (data fusion) that produced improved overall classification accuracy. A combination of stop-signal reaction time, posterror-slowing, mean delay, switch cost, and percentage choice of long-delay reward produced an overall classification accuracy of 97.8%; with internal validation, the overall accuracy was 92.2%. Combining parameters from different tests of control functions not only enabled us to accurately classify ADHD children from healthy controls but also in making a differential classification with ODD. These results have implications for the theories of ADHD.

  12. Unrealistic representations of "the self": A cognitive neuroscience assessment of anosognosia for memory deficit.

    PubMed

    Berlingeri, Manuela; Ravasio, Alessandra; Cranna, Silvia; Basilico, Stefania; Sberna, Maurizio; Bottini, Gabriella; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2015-12-01

    Three cognitive components may play a crucial role in both memory awareness and in anosognosia for memory deficit (AMD): (1) a personal data base (PDB), i.e., a memory store that contains "semantic" representations about the self, (2) monitoring processes (MPs) and (3) an explicit evaluation system (EES), or comparator, that assesses and binds the representations stored in the PDB with information obtained from the environment. We compared both the behavior and the functional connectivity (as assessed by resting-state fMRI) of AMD patients with aware patients and healthy controls. We found that AMD is associated with an impoverished PDB, while MPs are necessary to successfully update the PDB. AMD was associated with reduced functional connectivity within both the default-mode network and in a network that includes the left lateral temporal cortex, the hippocampus and the insula. The reduced connectivity between the hippocampus and the insular cortex was correlated with AMD severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive deficits and educational loss in children with schistosome infection—A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Nkwata, Allan K.; Martinez, Leonardo; Pabalan, Noel; Boivin, Michael J.; King, Charles H.

    2018-01-01

    Background By means of meta-analysis of information from all relevant epidemiologic studies, we examined the hypothesis that Schistosoma infection in school-aged children (SAC) is associated with educational loss and cognitive deficits. Methodology/Principal findings This review was prospectively registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42016040052). Medline, Biosis, and Web of Science were searched for studies published before August 2016 that evaluated associations between Schistosoma infection and cognitive or educational outcomes. Cognitive function was defined in four domains—learning, memory, reaction time, and innate intelligence. Educational outcome measures were defined as attendance and scholastic achievement. Risk of bias (ROB) was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare cognitive and educational measures for Schistosoma infected /not dewormed vs. uninfected/dewormed children. Sensitivity analyses by study design, ROB, and sequential exclusion of individual studies were implemented. Thirty studies from 14 countries, including 38,992 SAC between 5–19 years old, were identified. Compared to uninfected children and children dewormed with praziquantel, the presence of Schistosoma infection and/or non-dewormed status was associated with deficits in school attendance (SMD = -0.36, 95%CI: -0.60, -0.12), scholastic achievement (SMD = -0.58, 95%CI: -0.96, -0.20), learning (SMD = -0.39, 95%CI: -0.70, -0.09) and memory (SMD = -0.28, 95%CI: -0.52, -0.04) tests. By contrast, Schistosoma-infected/non-dewormed and uninfected/dewormed children were similar with respect to performance in tests of reaction time (SMD = -0.06, 95%CI: -0.42, 0.30) and intelligence (SMD = -0.25, 95%CI: -0.57, 0.06). Schistosoma infection-associated deficits in educational measures were robust among observational studies, but not among interventional studies. The

  14. Cognitive deficits and educational loss in children with schistosome infection-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Nkwata, Allan K; Martinez, Leonardo; Pabalan, Noel; Boivin, Michael J; King, Charles H

    2018-01-01

    By means of meta-analysis of information from all relevant epidemiologic studies, we examined the hypothesis that Schistosoma infection in school-aged children (SAC) is associated with educational loss and cognitive deficits. This review was prospectively registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42016040052). Medline, Biosis, and Web of Science were searched for studies published before August 2016 that evaluated associations between Schistosoma infection and cognitive or educational outcomes. Cognitive function was defined in four domains-learning, memory, reaction time, and innate intelligence. Educational outcome measures were defined as attendance and scholastic achievement. Risk of bias (ROB) was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare cognitive and educational measures for Schistosoma infected /not dewormed vs. uninfected/dewormed children. Sensitivity analyses by study design, ROB, and sequential exclusion of individual studies were implemented. Thirty studies from 14 countries, including 38,992 SAC between 5-19 years old, were identified. Compared to uninfected children and children dewormed with praziquantel, the presence of Schistosoma infection and/or non-dewormed status was associated with deficits in school attendance (SMD = -0.36, 95%CI: -0.60, -0.12), scholastic achievement (SMD = -0.58, 95%CI: -0.96, -0.20), learning (SMD = -0.39, 95%CI: -0.70, -0.09) and memory (SMD = -0.28, 95%CI: -0.52, -0.04) tests. By contrast, Schistosoma-infected/non-dewormed and uninfected/dewormed children were similar with respect to performance in tests of reaction time (SMD = -0.06, 95%CI: -0.42, 0.30) and intelligence (SMD = -0.25, 95%CI: -0.57, 0.06). Schistosoma infection-associated deficits in educational measures were robust among observational studies, but not among interventional studies. The significance of infection-associated deficits in

  15. Fingolimod protects against neonatal white matter damage and long-term cognitive deficits caused by hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; Kempe, Karina; Lumpe, Katharina; Reinboth, Barbara S; Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Hou, Xinlin; Herrmann, Ralf; Hadamitzky, Martin; Heumann, Rolf; Hansen, Wiebke; Sifringer, Marco; van de Looij, Yohan; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Bendix, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral white matter injury is a leading cause of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in prematurely born infants involving cognitive deficits in later life. Despite increasing knowledge about the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury, therapeutic options are limited. In the adult demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulating substance fingolimod (FTY720) has beneficial effects. Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of FTY720 in a neonatal model of oxygen-toxicity, which is associated with hypomyelination and impaired neuro-cognitive outcome. A single dose of FTY720 (1mg/kg) at the onset of neonatal hyperoxia (24h 80% oxygen on postnatal day 6) resulted in improvement of neuro-cognitive development persisting into adulthood. This was associated with reduced microstructural white matter abnormalities 4 months after the insult. In search of the underlying mechanisms potential non-classical (i.e. lymphocyte-independent) pathways were analysed shortly after the insult, comprising modulation of oxidative stress and local inflammatory responses as well as myelination, oligodendrocyte degeneration and maturation. Treatment with FTY720 reduced hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress, microglia activation and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In vivo and in vitro analyses further revealed that oxygen-induced hypomyelination is restored to control levels, which was accompanied by reduced oligodendrocyte degeneration and enhanced maturation. Furthermore, hyperoxia-induced elevation of S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) protein expression on in vitro cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells was reduced by activated FTY720 and protection from degeneration is abrogated after selective S1P1 blockade. Finally, FTY720s' classical mode of action (i.e. retention of immune cells within peripheral lymphoid organs) was analysed demonstrating that FTY720 diminished circulating lymphocyte counts independent from hyperoxia

  16. Interval Timing Deficits Assessed by Time Reproduction Dual Tasks as Cognitive Endophenotypes for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hwang-Gu, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-01-01

    The literature has suggested timing processing as a potential endophenotype for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, whether the subjective internal clock speed presented by verbal estimation and limited attention capacity presented by time reproduction could be endophenotypes for ADHD is still unknown. We assessed 223 youths with DSM-IV ADHD (age range: 10-17 years), 105 unaffected siblings, and 84 typically developing (TD) youths using psychiatric interviews, intelligence tests, verbal estimation and time reproduction tasks (single task and simple and difficult dual tasks) at 5-second, 12-second, and 17-second intervals. We found that youths with ADHD tended to overestimate time in verbal estimation more than their unaffected siblings and TD youths, implying that fast subjective internal clock speed might be a characteristic of ADHD, rather than an endophenotype for ADHD. Youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings were less precise in time reproduction dual tasks than TD youths. The magnitude of estimated errors in time reproduction was greater in youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings than in TD youths, with an increased time interval at the 17-second interval and with increased task demands on both simple and difficult dual tasks versus the single task. Increased impaired time reproduction in dual tasks with increased intervals and task demands were shown in youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings, suggesting that time reproduction deficits explained by limited attention capacity might be a useful endophenotype of ADHD. PMID:25992899

  17. Evaluating the Specificity of Cognitive Control Deficits in Schizophrenia Using Antisaccades, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Healthy Individuals With Poor Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Amanda L; Schaeffer, David J; Pierce, Jordan E; Clementz, Brett A; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive control impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) can be evaluated using antisaccade tasks and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Studies, however, often compare people with SZ to high performing healthy people, making it unclear if antisaccade-related disruptions are specific to the disease or due to generalized deficits in cognitive control. We included two healthy comparison groups in addition to people with SZ: healthy people with high cognitive control (HCC), who represent a more typical comparison group, and healthy people with low cognitive control (LCC), who perform similarly on antisaccade measures as people with SZ. Using two healthy comparison groups may help determine which antisaccade-related deficits are specific to SZ (distinguish SZ from LCC and HCC groups) and which are due to poor cognitive control (distinguish the LCC and SZ groups from the HCC group). People with SZ and healthy people with HCC or LCC performed an antisaccade task during fMRI acquisition. LCC and SZ groups showed under-activation of saccade circuitry. SZ-specific disruptions were observed in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula during error trials (suppression of activation in the SZ group compared to the LCC and HCC group). Differences related to antisaccade errors may distinguish people with SZ from healthy people with LCC.

  18. Concussive Brain Trauma in the Mouse Results in Acute Cognitive Deficits and Sustained Impairment of Axonal Function

    PubMed Central

    Creed, Jennifer A.; DiLeonardi, Ann Mae; Fox, Douglas P.; Tessler, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Concussive brain injury (CBI) accounts for approximately 75% of all brain-injured people in the United States each year and is particularly prevalent in contact sports. Concussion is the mildest form of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) and results in transient cognitive dysfunction, the neuropathologic basis for which is traumatic axonal injury (TAI). To evaluate the structural and functional changes associated with concussion-induced cognitive deficits, adult mice were subjected to an impact on the intact skull over the midline suture that resulted in a brief apneic period and loss of the righting reflex. Closed head injury also resulted in an increase in the wet weight:dry weight ratio in the cortex suggestive of edema in the first 24 h, and the appearance of Fluoro-Jade-B-labeled degenerating neurons in the cortex and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus within the first 3 days post-injury. Compared to sham-injured mice, brain-injured mice exhibited significant deficits in spatial acquisition and working memory as measured using the Morris water maze over the first 3 days (p<0.001), but not after the fourth day post-injury. At 1 and 3 days post-injury, intra-axonal accumulation of amyloid precursor protein in the corpus callosum and cingulum was accompanied by neurofilament dephosphorylation, impaired transport of Fluoro-Gold and synaptophysin, and deficits in axonal conductance. Importantly, deficits in retrograde transport and in action potential of myelinated axons continued to be observed until 14 days post-injury, at which time axonal degeneration was apparent. These data suggest that despite recovery from acute cognitive deficits, concussive brain trauma leads to axonal degeneration and a sustained perturbation of axonal function. PMID:21299360

  19. Enriched endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate cognitive and behavioral deficits in a mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kefeng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Baoyan; Chen, Shiyu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Zhidong; Gan, Yuhong; Cui, Liao; Kang, Jing Xuan; Li, Wende; Huang, Ren

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accompanied by memory deficits and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have seemly therapeutic potential in AD, but the benefit of n-3 PUFAs is still in debates. Here, we employed a transgenic mice carry fat-1 gene to encode n-3 desaturase from Caenorhabditis elegans, which increase endogenous n-3 PUFAs by converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs crossed with amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg mice to evaluate the protective effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on cognitive and behavioral deficits of APP Tg mice. We fed APP, APP/fat-1 and fat-1 mice with n-6 PUFAs rich diet. Brain tissues were collected at 3, 9 and 12 months for fatty acid and gene expression analysis, histology and protein assays. Morris Water Maze Test, open field test and elevated plus maze test were performed to measure the behavior capability. From the results, the expression of fat-1 transgene increased cortical n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and n-3 PUFAs concentrations, and sensorimotor dysfunction and cognitive deficits in AD were significantly less severe in APP/fat-1 mice with endogenous n-3 PUFAs than in APP mice controls. The protection against disturbance of spontaneous motor activity and cognitive deficits in AD was strongly correlated with increased n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and endogenous n-3 PUFAs, reduced APP generation, inhibited amyloid β peptide aggregation, suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B and astroglia activation, and reduced death of neurons in the cortex of APP/fat-1 mice compared with APP mice controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that an available medication with the maintenance of enriched n-3 PUFAs in the brain could slow down cognitive decline and prevent neuropsychological disorder in AD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. D-Serine and a glycine transporter inhibitor improve MK-801-induced cognitive deficits in a novel object recognition test in rats.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Jun-Ichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2008-01-10

    Compounds enhancing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function have been reported to improve cognitive deficits. Since cognitive deficits are considered to be the core symptom of schizophrenia, enhancing NMDA receptor function represents a promising approach to treating schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated whether d-serine or a glycine transporter inhibitor N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS), both of which enhance NMDA receptor function, could improve MK-801-induced cognitive deficits in rats, and compared their effects with those of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol. To assess cognitive function, we used a novel object recognition test in rats that measured spontaneous exploratory activity of a novel object when paired with a familiar object. We then evaluated the effects of the compounds on cognitive deficits induced by treatment with MK-801, the NMDA receptor antagonist. Pretreatment with clozapine (1, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) but not haloperidol (0.03, 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved MK-801-induced cognitive deficits. Pretreatment with D-serine at 800 mg/kg (i.p.) or NFPS (0.3, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved MK-801-induced cognitive deficits under this test paradigm. These findings suggest that impaired preference for novel objects induced by MK-801 in the novel object recognition test could be a useful animal model for evaluating the efficacy of compounds targeting the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenic patients. The results also suggest that enhancing NMDA receptor function is an effective way for treating the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.

  1. Inducing Autophagy by Rapamycin Before, but Not After, the Formation of Plaques and Tangles Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Smita; Richardson, Arlan; Strong, Randy; Oddo, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that inducing autophagy ameliorates early cognitive deficits associated with the build-up of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the effects of inducing autophagy on plaques and tangles are yet to be determined. While soluble Aβ and tau represent toxic species in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, there is well documented evidence that plaques and tangles also are detrimental to normal brain function. Thus, it is critical to assess the effects of inducing autophagy in an animal model with established plaques and tangles. Here we show that rapamycin, when given prophylactically to 2-month-old 3xTg-AD mice throughout their life, induces autophagy and significantly reduces plaques, tangles and cognitive deficits. In contrast, inducing autophagy in 15-month-old 3xTg-AD mice, which have established plaques and tangles, has no effects on AD-like pathology and cognitive deficits. In conclusion, we show that autophagy induction via rapamycin may represent a valid therapeutic strategy in AD when administered early in the disease progression. PMID:21980451

  2. The effect of erythropoietin on cognition in affective disorders - Associations with baseline deficits and change in subjective cognitive complaints.

    PubMed

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2016-08-01

    This is a secondary data analysis from our erythropoietin (EPO) trials. We examine (I) whether EPO improves speed of complex cognitive processing across bipolar and unipolar disorder, (II) if objective and subjective baseline cognitive impairment increases patients׳ chances of treatment-efficacy and (III) if cognitive improvement correlates with better subjective cognitive function, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. Patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder were randomized to eight weekly EPO (N=40) or saline (N=39) infusions. Cognition, mood, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity were assessed at baseline (week 1), after treatment completion (week 9) and at follow-up (week 14). We used repeated measures analysis of covariance to investigate the effect of EPO on speed of complex cognitive processing. With logistic regression, we examined whether baseline cognitive impairment predicted treatment-efficacy. Pearson correlations were used to assess associations between objective and subjective cognition, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. EPO improved speed of complex cognitive processing across affective disorders at weeks 9 and 14 (p≤0.05). In EPO-treated patients, baseline cognitive impairment increased the odds of treatment-efficacy on cognition at weeks 9 and 14 by a factor 9.7 (95% CI:1.2-81.1) and 9.9 (95% CI:1.1-88.4), respectively (p≤0.04). Subjective cognitive complaints did not affect chances of treatment-efficacy (p≥0.45). EPO-associated cognitive improvement correlated with reduced cognitive complaints but not with quality of life or socio-occupational function. As the analyses were performed post-hoc, findings are only hypothesis-generating. In conclusion, pro-cognitive effects of EPO occurred across affective disorders. Neuropsychological screening for cognitive dysfunction may be warranted in future cognition trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive deficits in obese persons with and without binge eating disorder. Investigation using a mental flexibility task.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Olivia; Iglesias, Katia; Golay, Alain; Van der Linden, Martial

    2011-08-01

    Studies suggest that cognitive deficits and attentional biases play a role in the development and maintenance of obesity and eating disorders. In this study, we simultaneously examine attentional biases, as well as inhibitory control and mental flexibility, which are keys to controlling unwanted behaviors and thoughts in obese patients with and without binge eating disorder. 16 obese patients with binge eating disorder and 16 patients without binge eating disorder were compared with 16 normal-weight controls on a "food/body-mental flexibility task", which allows the investigation of inhibitory control, mental flexibility and attention for stimuli related to the body and food. All obese patients made significantly more errors (i.e., pressing a key when a distracter displayed) and more omissions (i.e., not pressing a key when a target displayed) than controls in both food and body sections of the task. Obese participants with binge eating disorder made significantly more errors and omissions than those without binge eating disorder. No difference between groups was found concerning mental flexibility and cognitive biases for food- and body-related targets. These results suggest that obese patients have a general inhibition problem and difficulty focusing attention, which do not depend on the types of stimuli processed. The results also suggest that these cognitive deficits are more severe in obese patients with binge eating disorder, which indicates that there is a continuum of increasing inhibition and cognitive problems with increasingly disordered eating. These cognitive deficits may contribute to problematic eating behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships among cognitive deficits and component skills of reading in younger and older students with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J

    2013-09-01

    Processing speed deficits along with phonological awareness deficits have been identified as risk factors for dyslexia. This study was designed to examine the behavioral profiles of two groups, a younger (6-8 years) and an older (10-15 years) group of dyslexic children for the purposes of (1) evaluating the degree to which phonological awareness and processing speed deficits occur in the two developmental cohorts; (2) determining the strength of relationships between the groups' respective mean scores on cognitive tasks of phonological awareness and processing speed and their scores on component skills of reading; and (3) evaluating the degree to which phonological awareness and processing speed serve as concurrent predictors of component reading skills for each group. The mean scaled scores for both groups were similar on all but one processing speed task. The older group was significantly more depressed on a visual matching test of attention, scanning, and speed. Correlations between reading skills and the cognitive constructs were very similar for both age-groups. Neither of the two phonological awareness tasks correlated with either of the two processing speed tasks or with any of the three measures of reading. One of the two processing speed measures served as a concurrent predictor of word- and text-level reading in the younger, however, only the rapid naming measure functioned as a concurrent predictor of word reading in the older group. Conversely, phonological processing measures did not serve as concurrent predictors for word-level or text-level reading in either of the groups. Descriptive analyses of individual subjects' deficits in the domains of phonological awareness and processing speed revealed that (1) both linguistic and nonlinguistic processing speed deficits in the younger dyslexic children occurred at higher rates than deficits in phonological awareness and (2) cognitive deficits within and across these two domains were greater in the older

  5. A miRNA Signature for Cognitive Deficits and Alcohol Use Disorder in Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wyczechowska, Dorota; Lin, Hui-Yi; LaPlante, Andrea; Jeansonne, Duane; Lassak, Adam; Parsons, Christopher H.; Molina, Patricia E.; Peruzzi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affects more than half of persons living with HIV-1/AIDS (PLWHA). Identification of biomarkers representing the cognitive status of PLWHA is a critical step for implementation of successful cognitive, behavioral and pharmacological strategies to prevent onset and progression of HAND. However, the presence of co-morbidity factors in PLWHA, the most common being substance abuse, can prevent the identification of such biomarkers. We have optimized a protocol to profile plasma miRNAs using quantitative RT-qPCR and found a miRNA signature with very good discriminatory ability to distinguish PLWHA with cognitive impairment from those without cognitive impairment. Here, we have evaluated this miRNA signature in PLWHA with alcohol use disorder (AUD) at LSU Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC). The results show that AUD is a potential confounding factor for the miRNAs associated with cognitive impairment in PLWHA. Furthermore, we have investigated the miRNA signature associated with cognitive impairment in an independent cohort of PLWHA using plasma samples from the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) program. Despite differences between the two cohorts in socioeconomic status, AUD, and likely misuse of illicit or prescription drugs, we validated a miRNA signature for cognitive deficits found at LSUHSC in the CHARTER samples. PMID:29187813

  6. Comparison of the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the tested functions was observed in both groups. However, in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits the degree of recovery of most language functions and some cognitive functions was higher. A significantly greater correlation was revealed within language and cognitive functions, as well as between language functions and other aspects of cognition in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits than in patients with aphasia following a stroke. Our results show that patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits have a different recovery pattern and a different pattern of correlation between language and cognitive functions compared to patients with aphasia following a stroke. (1) Better understanding of the differences in recovery of language and cognitive functions in patients who have suffered strokes and those who have experienced traumatic brain injury. (2) Better understanding of the relationship between language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. (3) Better understanding of the factors influencing recovery.

  7. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, W M; Beasley, T E; McDaniel, K L; Evansky, P A; Martin, S A; Moser, V C; Gilbert, M E; Bushnell, P J

    2015-01-01

    any choice reaction time measure. Finally, no response inhibition deficit was observed in a differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) response schedule in males or females in the E15 or E85 experiments. In summary, prenatal exposure to these fuel blends produced few deficits in adult offspring on these cognitive tests. Significant effects found during a water maze probe trial and choice reaction time tests were observed at vapor concentrations of 6000 ppm or higher, a concentration that is 4-6 orders of magnitude higher than those associated with normal automotive fueling operations and garages. Similar effects were not consistently observed in a previous study of inhaled ethanol, and thus these effects cannot be attributed to the concentration of ethanol in the mixture. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Adjunctive huperzine A for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Ying-Qiang; Li, Xian-Bin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Sun, Feng; D'Arcy, Carl; Meng, Xiangfei; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of huperzine A (HupA), an isolate of Huperzine serrata, in the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, WanFang, Chinese Biomedical, and China Journal Net databases were searched from inception to 15 July 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English or Chinese of HupA augmentation of antipsychotic drug therapy versus placebo or ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Twelve RCTs (n = 1117) lasting 11.7 ± 6.0 weeks met inclusion criteria. All had been conducted in China. HupA outperformed comparators on the following outcome measures: the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised including memory quotient (weighted mean difference (WMD: 10.59; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.65, 15.53; p < 0.0001); Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised including verbal intelligence quotient (IQ), performance IQ, and full IQ (WMD: 3.97 to 5.66; 95%CI: 0.20, 8.58; p = 0.01 to 0.00001); Wisconsin Card Sorting Test including response administer and non-perseverative errors (WMD: -12.79 to -12.29; 95%CI: -23.70, -0.88; p = 0.03 to 0.003). In studies using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (n = 7)/Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (n = 1), the differences in total score were significant (standard mean difference: -0.77; 95%CI: -1.27, -0.27; p = 0.002). All-cause discontinuation (risk ratio: 0.67; 95%CI: 0.36, 1.24; p = 0.20) and adverse events were similar between groups. This review suggests that adjunctive HupA is an effective choice for improving cognitive function for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. More well-designed RCTs are needed to further confirm HupA's efficacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Naomi J; Frenette, Elizabeth C; Rene, Kirsten M; Brennan, Robert T; Perrin, Ellen C

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 2 computer attention training systems administered in school for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children in second and fourth grade with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 104) were randomly assigned to neurofeedback (NF) (n = 34), cognitive training (CT) (n = 34), or control (n = 36) conditions. A 2-point growth model assessed change from pre-post intervention on parent reports (Conners 3-Parent [Conners 3-P]; Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF] rating scale), teacher reports (Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham scale [SKAMP]; Conners 3-Teacher [Conners 3-T]), and systematic classroom observations (Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools [BOSS]). Paired t tests and an analysis of covariance assessed change in medication. Children who received NF showed significant improvement compared with those in the control condition on the Conners 3-P Attention, Executive Functioning and Global Index, on all BRIEF summary indices, and on BOSS motor/verbal off-task behavior. Children who received CT showed no improvement compared to the control condition. Children in the NF condition showed significant improvements compared to those in the CT condition on Conners 3-P Executive Functioning, all BRIEF summary indices, SKAMP Attention, and Conners 3-T Inattention subscales. Stimulant medication dosage in methylphenidate equivalencies significantly increased for children in the CT (8.54 mg) and control (7.05 mg) conditions but not for those in the NF condition (0.29 mg). Neurofeedback made greater improvements in ADHD symptoms compared to both the control and CT conditions. Thus, NF is a promising attention training treatment intervention for children with ADHD.

  10. Brain perfusion correlates of visuoperceptual deficits in Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, Montserrat; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Boada, Mercè; Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Cuberas, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Roca, Isabel; Hernández, Isabel; Valero, Sergi; Rosende-Roca, Maitée; Mauleón, Ana; Becker, James T.; Tárraga, Lluís

    2012-01-01

    Background Visuoperceptual processing is impaired early in the clinical course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The 15-Objects Test (15-OT) detects such subtle performance deficits in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild AD. Reduced brain perfusion in the temporal, parietal and prefrontal regions have been found in early AD and MCI patients. Objectives To confirm the role of the 15-OT in the diagnosis of MCI and AD, and to investigate the brain perfusion correlates of visuoperceptual dysfunction (15-OT) in subjects with MCI, AD and normal aging. Methods Forty-two AD, 42 MCI and 42 healthy elderly control (EC) subjects underwent a brain Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and separately completed the 15-OT. An analysis of variance compared 15-OT scores between groups. SPM5 was used to analyse the SPECT data. Results 15-OT performace was impaired in the MCI and AD patients. In terms of the SPECT scans, AD patients showed reduced perfusion in temporal-parietal regions, while the MCI subjects had decreased perfusion in the middle and posterior cingulate. When MCI and AD groups were compared, a significant brain perfusion reduction was found in temporo-parietal regions. In the whole sample, 15-OT performance was significantly correlated with the clinical dementia rating scores, and with the perfusion in the bilateral posterior cingulate and the right temporal pole, with no significant correlation in each separate group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the 15-OT performance provides a useful gradation of impairment from normal aging to AD, and it seems to be related to perfusion in the bilateral posterior cingulate and the right temporal pole. PMID:20555146

  11. Forebrain CRHR1 deficiency attenuates chronic stress-induced cognitive deficits and dendritic remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Yuncai; Wolf, Miriam; Wagner, Klaus V.; Liebl, Claudia; Scharf, Sebastian H.; Harbich, Daniela; Mayer, Bianca; Wurst, Wolfgang; Holsboer, Florian; Deussing, Jan M.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Müller, Marianne B.; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress evokes profound structural and molecular changes in the hippocampus, which may underlie spatial memory deficits. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) mediate some of the rapid effects of stress on dendritic spine morphology and modulate learning and memory, thus providing a potential molecular basis for impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial memory by repeated stress exposure. Using adult male mice with CRHR1 conditionally inactivated in the forebrain regions, we investigated the role of CRH-CRHR1 signaling in the effects of chronic social defeat stress on spatial memory, the dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons, and the hippocampal expression of nectin-3, a synaptic cell adhesion molecule important in synaptic remodeling. In chronically stressed wild-type mice, spatial memory was disrupted, and the complexity of apical dendrites of CA3 neurons reduced. In contrast, stressed mice with forebrain CRHR1 deficiency exhibited normal dendritic morphology of CA3 neurons and mild impairments in spatial memory. Additionally, we showed that the expression of nectin-3 in the CA3 area was regulated by chronic stress in a CRHR1-dependent fashion and associated with spatial memory and dendritic complexity. Moreover, forebrain CRHR1 deficiency prevented the down-regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression by chronic stress but induced increased body weight gain during persistent stress exposure. These findings underscore the important role of forebrain CRH-CRHR1 signaling in modulating chronic stress-induced cognitive, structural and molecular adaptations, with implications for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:21296667

  12. Developmental manganese neurotoxicity in rats: Cognitive deficits in allocentric and egocentric learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Davenport, Laurie L; Atanasova, Nina; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Skelton, Matthew R; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element but neurotoxic at higher exposure levels. The effects of Mn overexposure (MnOE) on hippocampal and striatal-dependent learning and memory in rats were tested in combination with iron deficiency (FeD) and developmental stress that often co-occur with MnOE. Moderate FeD affects up to 15% of U.S. children and developmental stress is common in lower socio-economic areas where MnOE occurs. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and their litters were housed in cages with or without (barren cage (BAR)) standard bedding from embryonic day (E)7 to postnatal day (P)28. Dams were fed a 90% FeD or iron sufficient (FeS) diet from E15-P28. Within each litter, separate offspring were treated with 100mg/kg Mn (MnOE) or vehicle (VEH) by gavage on alternate days from P4-28. Offspring were tested as adults in the Morris and Cincinnati water mazes. FeD and developmental stress interactively impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Developmental stress and MnOE impaired learning and memory in both mazes. MnOE resulted in reduced CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and increased levels of α-synuclein. Preweaning MnOE resulted in cognitive deficits on multiple domains of learning and memory accompanied by impaired LTP and α-synuclein changes, effects worsened by developmental stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive-motor integration deficits in young adult athletes following concussion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey A; Dalecki, Marc; Hughes, Cindy; Macpherson, Alison K; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform visually-guided motor tasks requires the transformation of visual information into programmed motor outputs. When the guiding visual information does not align spatially with the motor output, the brain processes rules to integrate the information for an appropriate motor response. Here, we look at how performance on such tasks is affected in young adult athletes with concussion history. Participants displaced a cursor from a central to peripheral targets on a vertical display by sliding their finger along a touch sensitive screen in one of two spatial planes. The addition of a memory component, along with variations in cursor feedback increased task complexity across conditions. Significant main effects between participants with concussion history and healthy controls without concussion history were observed in timing and accuracy measures. Importantly, the deficits were distinctly more pronounced for participants with concussion history compared to healthy controls, especially when the brain had to control movements having two levels of decoupling between vision and action. A discriminant analysis correctly classified athletes with a history of concussion based on task performance with an accuracy of 94 %, despite the majority of these athletes being rated asymptomatic by current standards. These findings correspond to our previous work with adults at risk of developing dementia, and support the use of cognitive motor integration as an enhanced assessment tool for those who may have mild brain dysfunction. Such a task may provide a more sensitive metric of performance relevant to daily function than what is currently in use, to assist in return to play/work/learn decisions.

  14. Do complaints of everyday cognitive failures in high schizotypy relate to emotional working memory deficits in the lab?

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Nicole; Barkus, Emma; Ong, Adriel; Wei, Maryann

    2017-10-01

    Individuals high on schizotypy complain of increased cognitive failures in everyday life. However, the neuropsychological performance of this group does not consistently indicate underlying ability deficits. It is possible that current neuropsychological tests lack ecological validity. Given the increased affective reactivity of high schizotypes, they may be more sensitive to emotional content interfering with cognitive ability. This study sought to explore whether an affective n-back working memory task would elicit impaired performance in schizotypy, echoing complaints concerning real world cognition. 127 healthy participants completed self-report measures of schizotypy and cognitive failures and an affective n-back working memory task. This task was varied across three levels of load (1- to 3-back) and four types of stimulus emotion (neutral, fearful, happy, sad). Differences between high (n=39) and low (n=48) schizotypy groups on performance outcomes of hits and false alarms were examined, with emotion and load as within-groups variables. As expected, high schizotypes reported heightened vulnerability to cognitive failures. They also demonstrated a relative working memory impairment for emotional versus neutral stimuli, whereas low schizotypes did not. High schizotypes performed most poorly in response to fearful stimuli. For false alarms, there was an interaction between schizotypy, load, and emotion, such that high schizotypy was associated with deficits in response to fearful stimuli only at higher levels of task difficulty. Inclusion of self-reported cognitive failures did not account for this. These findings suggest that the "gap" between subjective and objective cognition in schizotypy may reflect the heightened emotional demands associated with cognitive functioning in the real world, although other factors also seem to play a role. There is a need to improve the ecological validity of objective assessments, whilst also recognizing that self

  15. Mori Folium and Mori Fructus Mixture Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Uk; Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hocheol; Lim, Yunsook; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global health problem, contributing to various diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and dementia. Increasing evidence suggests that obesity can also cause neuronal damage, long-term memory loss, and cognitive impairment. The leaves and the fruits of Morus alba L., containing active phytochemicals, have been shown to possess antiobesity and hypolipidemic properties. Thus, in the present study, we assessed their effects on cognitive functioning in mice fed a high-fat diet by performing immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against c-Fos, synaptophysin, and postsynaptic density protein 95 and a behavioral test. C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 21 weeks exhibited increased body weight, but mice coadministered an optimized Mori Folium and Mori Fructus extract mixture (2 : 1; MFE) for the final 12 weeks exhibited significant body weight loss. Additionally, obese mice exhibited not only reduced neural activity, but also decreased presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, while MFE-treated mice exhibited recovery of these activities. Finally, cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet were recovered by cotreatment with MFE in the novel object recognition test. Our findings suggest that the antiobesity effects of MFE resulted in recovery of the cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet by regulation of neural and synaptic activities. PMID:25945108

  16. Mori folium and mori fructus mixture attenuates high-fat diet-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hocheol; Lim, Yunsook; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global health problem, contributing to various diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and dementia. Increasing evidence suggests that obesity can also cause neuronal damage, long-term memory loss, and cognitive impairment. The leaves and the fruits of Morus alba L., containing active phytochemicals, have been shown to possess antiobesity and hypolipidemic properties. Thus, in the present study, we assessed their effects on cognitive functioning in mice fed a high-fat diet by performing immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against c-Fos, synaptophysin, and postsynaptic density protein 95 and a behavioral test. C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 21 weeks exhibited increased body weight, but mice coadministered an optimized Mori Folium and Mori Fructus extract mixture (2 : 1; MFE) for the final 12 weeks exhibited significant body weight loss. Additionally, obese mice exhibited not only reduced neural activity, but also decreased presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, while MFE-treated mice exhibited recovery of these activities. Finally, cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet were recovered by cotreatment with MFE in the novel object recognition test. Our findings suggest that the antiobesity effects of MFE resulted in recovery of the cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet by regulation of neural and synaptic activities.

  17. Effects of cariprazine, a novel antipsychotic, on cognitive deficit and negative symptoms in a rodent model of schizophrenia symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Neill, Jo C; Grayson, Ben; Kiss, Béla; Gyertyán, István; Ferguson, Paul; Adham, Nika

    2016-01-01

    Negative symptoms and cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia are strongly associated with poor functional outcome and reduced quality of life and remain an unmet clinical need. Cariprazine is a dopamine D3/D2 receptor partial agonist with preferential binding to D3 receptors, recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of cariprazine in an animal model of cognitive deficit and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Following sub-chronic PCP administration (2mg/kg, IP for 7 days followed by 7 days drug-free), female Lister Hooded rats were administered cariprazine (0.05, 0.1, or 0.25mg/kg, PO) or risperidone (0.16 or 0.1mg/kg, IP) before testing in novel object recognition (NOR), reversal learning (RL), and social interaction (SI) paradigms. As we have consistently demonstrated, sub-chronic PCP significantly impaired behavior in these tests. Deficits were significantly improved by cariprazine, in a dose dependent manner in the operant RL test with efficacy at lower doses in the NOR and SI tests. Locomotor activity was reduced at the highest doses of 0.1mg/kg and 0.25mg/kg in NOR and SI. Risperidone also reversed the PCP-induced deficit in all tests. In conclusion, cariprazine was effective to overcome PCP-induced deficits in cognition and social behavior in a thoroughly validated rat model in tests representing specific symptom domains in schizophrenia patients. These findings support very recent results showing efficacy of cariprazine in the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. The alteration of autophagy and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with natural aging-dependent cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Feng, Linjing; Li, Junnan; Lan, Xiaoxin; A, Lixiang; Lv, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Li

    2017-09-15

    The present study was aim to explore aging-dependent changes in hippocampal autophagy and apoptosis in a natural aging rat model from adult to old stages and to discover a suitable age for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Wistar rats at 5, 18 and 24months of age were used to mimic the adulthood, initial old, and old phases, respectively. The learning and cognitive ability of the rats was detected by the Morris water maze test. Morphological changes in the hippocampus were observed. Expressions of apoptosis and autophagy-related proteins were examined by Western blot. The adult group (5months) exhibited high levels of autophagy related p-ULK p-ULK-1/ULK-1 ratio, Beclin-1, LC3II and cell survival, maintaining normal learning and cognitive function and integrated hippocampal morphology. The initial old group (18 months) presented a reduced number of neurons and cognitive deficits, and exhibited high levels of apoptosis related Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Caspase-3 activation and autophagy related p-ULK p-ULK-1/ULK-1 ratio, Beclin-1, LC3II compared to the adult group. The old group (24 months) exhibited a high level of apoptosis related Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Caspase-3 activation and a low level of autophagy related p-ULK p-ULK-1/ULK-1 ratio, Beclin-1, LC3II compared to its younger group, as well as significant neuronal death and cognitive deficits. The degree of autophagy was generally consistent with its negative regulator, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis, in all groups. Our data suggest that cognitive deficits are first observed in the initial old stage. The levels of autophagy and apoptosis tend to be opposite in the adult and old phases. High levels of autophagy and apoptosis coexist in the initial old stage. Our study indicates that up-regulation of autophagy in the initial old phase to anti-cognitive deficits must be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cognitive Deficits Responsible for Developmental Dyslexia: Review of Evidence for a Selective Visual Attentional Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdois, Sylviane; Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe

    2004-01-01

    There is strong converging evidence suggesting that developmental dyslexia stems from a phonological processing deficit. However, this hypothesis has been challenged by the widely admitted heterogeneity of the dyslexic population, and by several reports of dyslexic individuals with no apparent phonological deficit. In this paper, we discuss the…

  20. The Neural Substrates of Cognitive Control Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Marjorie; Ozonoff, Sally J.; Ursu, Stefan; Ravizza, Susan; Cummings, Neil; Ly, Stanford; Carter, Cameron S.

    2009-01-01

    Executive function deficits are among the most frequently reported symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), however, there have been few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that investigate the neural substrates of executive function deficits in ASDs, and only one in adolescents. The current study examined cognitive…

  1. Measuring disorganized speech in schizophrenia: automated analysis explains variance in cognitive deficits beyond clinician-rated scales.

    PubMed

    Minor, K S; Willits, J A; Marggraf, M P; Jones, M N; Lysaker, P H

    2018-04-25

    Conveying information cohesively is an essential element of communication that is disrupted in schizophrenia. These disruptions are typically expressed through disorganized symptoms, which have been linked to neurocognitive, social cognitive, and metacognitive deficits. Automated analysis can objectively assess disorganization within sentences, between sentences, and across paragraphs by comparing explicit communication to a large text corpus. Little work in schizophrenia has tested: (1) links between disorganized symptoms measured via automated analysis and neurocognition, social cognition, or metacognition; and (2) if automated analysis explains incremental variance in cognitive processes beyond clinician-rated scales. Disorganization was measured in schizophrenia (n = 81) with Coh-Metrix 3.0, an automated program that calculates basic and complex language indices. Trained staff also assessed neurocognition, social cognition, metacognition, and clinician-rated disorganization. Findings showed that all three cognitive processes were significantly associated with at least one automated index of disorganization. When automated analysis was compared with a clinician-rated scale, it accounted for significant variance in neurocognition and metacognition beyond the clinician-rated measure. When combined, these two methods explained 28-31% of the variance in neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition. This study illustrated how automated analysis can highlight the specific role of disorganization in neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition. Generally, those with poor cognition also displayed more disorganization in their speech-making it difficult for listeners to process essential information needed to tie the speaker's ideas together. Our findings showcase how implementing a mixed-methods approach in schizophrenia can explain substantial variance in cognitive processes.

  2. Detecting social-cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury: An ALE meta-analysis of fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui; Jacobsen, Andre; Chen, Ziqian; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in significant social dysfunction, which is represented by impairment to social-cognitive abilities (i.e. social cognition, social attention/executive function and communication). This study is aimed to explore brain networks mediating the social dysfunction after TBI and its underlying mechanisms. We performed a quantitative meta-analysis using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of social-cognitive abilities following TBI. Sixteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria resulting in a total of 190 patients with TBI and 206 controls enrolled in the ALE meta-analysis. The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were the specific regions that social cognition predominantly engaged. The cingulate gyrus, frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule were the main regions related to social attention/executive functions. Communication dysfunction, especially related to language deficits, was found to show greater activation of the temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus in TBI. The current ALE meta-analytic findings provide evidence that patients have significant social-cognitive disabilities following TBI. The relatively limited pool of literature and the varied fMRI results from published studies indicate that social-cognitive abilities following TBI is an area that would greatly benefit from further investigation.

  3. Efficacy of stimulants for cognitive enhancement in non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder youth: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bagot, Kara Simone; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing prescription stimulant abuse among youth without diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of concern. The most frequently cited motive for abuse is improved academic achievement via neurocognitive enhancement. Our aim in reviewing the literature was to identify neurocognitive effects of prescription stimulants in non-ADHD youth. Methods A systematic review was conducted for youth aged 12–25 years using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fourteen papers were included. Results Modafinil appears to improve reaction time (P ≤ 0.04), logical reasoning (P ≤ 0.05) and problem-solving. Methylphenidate appears to improve performance in novel tasks and attention-based tasks (P ≤ 0.05), and reduces planning latency in more complex tasks (P ≤ 0.05). Amphetamine has been shown to improve consolidation of information (0.02 ≥ P ≤ 0.05), leading to improved recall. Across all three types of prescription stimulants, research shows improved attention with lack of consensus on whether these improvements are limited to simple versus complex tasks in varying youth populations. Conclusions The heterogeneity of the non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder youth population, the variation in cognitive task characteristics and lack of replication of studies makes assessing the potential global neurocognitive benefits of stimulants among non-attention deficit hyper-activity disorder youth difficult; however, some youth may derive benefit in specific cognitive domains. PMID:24749160

  4. Cognitive-behavioural interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Pablo Luis; Torrente, Fernando Manuel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Lischinsky, Alicia Graciela; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Romano, Marina; Manes, Facundo F

    2018-03-23

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, along with deficits in executive function, emotional regulation and motivation. The persistence of ADHD in adulthood is a serious clinical problem.ADHD significantly affects social interactions, study and employment performance.Previous studies suggest that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) could be effective in treating adults with ADHD, especially when combined with pharmacological treatment. CBT aims to change the thoughts and behaviours that reinforce harmful effects of the disorder by teaching people techniques to control the core symptoms. CBT also aims to help people cope with emotions, such as anxiety and depression, and to improve self-esteem. To assess the effects of cognitive-behavioural-based therapy for ADHD in adults. In June 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, seven other databases and three trials registries. We also checked reference lists, handsearched congress abstracts, and contacted experts and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of CBT for adults with ADHD, either as a monotherapy or in conjunction with another treatment, versus one of the following: unspecific control conditions (comprising supportive psychotherapies, no treatment or waiting list) or other specific interventions. We used the standard methodological procedures suggested by Cochrane. We included 14 RCTs (700 participants), 13 of which were conducted in the northern hemisphere and 1 in Australia.Primary outcomes: ADHD symptomsCBT versus unspecific control conditions (supportive psychotherapies, waiting list or no treatment)- CBT versus supportive psychotherapies: CBT was more effective than supportive therapy for improving clinician-reported ADHD symptoms (1 study, 81 participants; low-quality evidence) but not for self-reported ADHD symptoms (SMD -0.16, 95% CI -0.52 to 0

  5. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  6. Differential profiles in auditory social cognition deficits between adults with autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Russell H; Corcoran, Cheryl M; Breland, Melissa; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Klim, Casimir; Colcombe, Stanley J; Leventhal, Bennett L; Javitt, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in social cognition, including emotion recognition, has been extensively studied in both Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). However, the relative patterns of deficit between disorders have been studied to a lesser degree. Here, we applied a social cognition battery incorporating both auditory (AER) and visual (VER) emotion recognition measures to a group of 19 high-functioning individuals with ASD relative to 92 individuals with SZ, and 73 healthy control adult participants. We examined group differences and correlates of basic auditory processing and processing speed. Individuals with SZ were impaired in both AER and VER while ASD individuals were impaired in VER only. In contrast to SZ participants, those with ASD showed intact basic auditory function. Our finding of a dissociation between AER and VER deficits in ASD relative to Sz support modality-specific theories of emotion recognition dysfunction. Future studies should focus on visual system-specific contributions to social cognitive impairment in ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acupuncture attenuates cognitive deficits and increases pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area of vascular dementia rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Yi; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-04-28

    Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity. Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension. Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells. We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease the number of astrocytes (P = 0.063). However, there was no significant change in the synaptic bouton number of hippocampal CA1 area in any of the groups (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.

  8. A 12-week randomized controlled trial of twice-daily intranasal oxytocin for social cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jarskog, L Fredrik; Pedersen, Cort A; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Hamer, Robert M; Rau, Shane W; Elliott, Tonya; Penn, David L

    2017-07-01

    Social cognition is impaired in people with schizophrenia and these deficits are strongly correlated with social functioning. Oxytocin is a hypothalamic peptide that contributes to maternal infant bonding and has diverse pro-social effects in adults. This study tested the hypothesis that 12weeks of intranasal oxytocin will improve social cognitive function in outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Sixty-eight eligible participants were randomized to oxytocin (24IU twice daily) or placebo. Social cognitive function was assessed using the Emotion Recognition-40, Brüne Theory of Mind, Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, Trustworthiness task and Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire at baseline, 6weeks and 12weeks. In addition, social function was assessed using the Specific Levels of Functioning Scale and a role-play test, and psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Fifty-five participants completed the 12-week trial. The study found no evidence for a differential advantage of oxytocin over placebo on social cognition. Among secondary outcomes, there was a modest advantage for oxytocin over placebo on a component of social functioning, although there was also evidence that the placebo group outperformed the oxytocin group on the role-play task. No between-group differences emerged on measures of psychopathology in pre-specified comparisons, but oxytocin showed significant within-group reduction in PANSS negative symptoms and significant between-group improvement in negative symptoms in the schizophrenia subgroup. Further testing is needed to clarify whether oxytocin has therapeutic potential for social cognitive deficits and/or negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mice heterozygous for an inactivated allele of the schizophrenia associated Brd1 gene display selective cognitive deficits with translational relevance to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Qvist, Per; Rajkumar, Anto P; Redrobe, John P; Nyegaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane H; Mors, Ole; Wegener, Gregers; Didriksen, Michael; Børglum, Anders D

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating brain disorder characterized by disturbances of emotion, perception and cognition. Cognitive impairments predict functional outcome in schizophrenia and are detectable even in the prodromal stage of the disorder. However, our understanding of the underlying neurobiology is limited and procognitive treatments remain elusive. We recently demonstrated that mice heterozygous for an inactivated allele of the schizophrenia-associated Brd1 gene (Brd1 +/ - mice) display behaviors reminiscent of schizophrenia, including impaired social cognition and long-term memory. Here, we further characterize performance of these mice by following the preclinical guidelines recommended by the 'Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS)' and 'Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS)' initiatives to maximize translational value. Brd1 +/- mice exhibit relational encoding deficits, compromised working and long term memory, as well as impaired executive cognitive functioning with cognitive behaviors relying on medial prefrontal cortex being particularly affected. Akin to patients with schizophrenia, the cognitive deficits displayed by Brd1 +/ - mice are not global, but selective. Our results underline the value of Brd1 +/ - mice as a promising tool for studying the neurobiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic balance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with cognitive functions and cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Michal; Schwabova, Jaroslava Paulasova; Hlavka, Zdenek; Ptacek, Radek; Surman, Craig BH

    2017-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to the presence of motor deficiencies, including balance deficits. The cerebellum serves as an integrative structure for balance control and is also involved in cognition, including timing and anticipatory regulation. Cerebellar development may be delayed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and inconsistent reaction time is commonly seen in ADHD. We hypothesized that dynamic balance deficits would be present in children with ADHD and they would correlate with attention and cerebellar functions. Methods Sixty-two children with ADHD and no other neurological conditions and 62 typically developing (TD) children were examined with five trials of the Phyaction Balance Board, an electronic balancing platform. Cerebellar clinical symptoms were evaluated using an international ataxia rating scale. Conners’ Continuous Performance Test was used to evaluate patterns of reaction. Results Children with ADHD had poorer performance on balancing tasks, compared to TD children (P<0.001). They exhibited significantly greater sway amplitudes than TD children (P<0.001) in all of the five balancing trials. The effect size of the difference between the groups increased continuously from the first to the last trial. Balance score in both groups was related to the variation in the reaction time, including reaction time standard error (r =0.25; P=0.0409, respectively, r =0.31; P=0.0131) and Variability of Standard Error (r =0.28; P=0.0252, respectively, r =0.41; P<0.001). The burden of cerebellar symptoms was strongly related to balance performance in both groups (r =0.50, P<0.001; r =0.49, P=0.001). Conclusion This study showed that ADHD may be associated with poor dynamic balance control. Furthermore, we showed that maintaining balance correlates with neuropsychological measures of consistency of reaction time. Balance deficits and impaired cognitive functioning could reflect a common cerebellar dysfunction in ADHD

  11. Dynamic balance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with cognitive functions and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Michal; Schwabova, Jaroslava Paulasova; Hlavka, Zdenek; Ptacek, Radek; Surman, Craig Bh

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to the presence of motor deficiencies, including balance deficits. The cerebellum serves as an integrative structure for balance control and is also involved in cognition, including timing and anticipatory regulation. Cerebellar development may be delayed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and inconsistent reaction time is commonly seen in ADHD. We hypothesized that dynamic balance deficits would be present in children with ADHD and they would correlate with attention and cerebellar functions. Sixty-two children with ADHD and no other neurological conditions and 62 typically developing (TD) children were examined with five trials of the Phyaction Balance Board, an electronic balancing platform. Cerebellar clinical symptoms were evaluated using an international ataxia rating scale. Conners' Continuous Performance Test was used to evaluate patterns of reaction. Children with ADHD had poorer performance on balancing tasks, compared to TD children ( P <0.001). They exhibited significantly greater sway amplitudes than TD children ( P <0.001) in all of the five balancing trials. The effect size of the difference between the groups increased continuously from the first to the last trial. Balance score in both groups was related to the variation in the reaction time, including reaction time standard error ( r =0.25; P =0.0409, respectively, r =0.31; P =0.0131) and Variability of Standard Error ( r =0.28; P =0.0252, respectively, r =0.41; P <0.001). The burden of cerebellar symptoms was strongly related to balance performance in both groups ( r =0.50, P <0.001; r =0.49, P =0.001). This study showed that ADHD may be associated with poor dynamic balance control. Furthermore, we showed that maintaining balance correlates with neuropsychological measures of consistency of reaction time. Balance deficits and impaired cognitive functioning could reflect a common cerebellar dysfunction in ADHD children.

  12. mTOR drives cerebral blood flow and memory deficits in LDLR-/- mice modeling atherosclerosis and vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Jahrling, Jordan B; Lin, Ai-Ling; DeRosa, Nicholas; Hussong, Stacy A; Van Skike, Candice E; Girotti, Milena; Javors, Martin; Zhao, Qingwei; Maslin, Leigh Ann; Asmis, Reto; Galvan, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    We recently showed that mTOR attenuation blocks progression and abrogates established cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. These outcomes were associated with the restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density (BVD) resulting from relief of mTOR inhibition of NO release. Recent reports suggested a role of mTOR in atherosclerosis. Because mTOR drives aging and vascular dysfunction is a universal feature of aging, we hypothesized that mTOR may contribute to brain vascular and cognitive dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis. We measured CBF, BVD, cognitive function, markers of inflammation, and parameters of cardiovascular disease in LDLR -/- mice fed maintenance or high-fat diet ± rapamycin. Cardiovascular pathologies were proportional to severity of brain vascular dysfunction. Aortic atheromas were reduced, CBF and BVD were restored, and cognitive dysfunction was attenuated potentially through reduction in systemic and brain inflammation following chronic mTOR attenuation. Our studies suggest that mTOR regulates vascular integrity and function and that mTOR attenuation may restore neurovascular function and cardiovascular health. Together with our previous studies in AD models, our data suggest mTOR-driven vascular damage may be a mechanism shared by age-associated neurological diseases. Therefore, mTOR attenuation may have promise for treatment of cognitive impairment in atherosclerosis.

  13. The persistence of cognitive deficits in remitted and unremitted ADHD: a case for the state-independence of response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Tara; Crosbie, Jennifer; Charach, Alice; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Background Response inhibition, working memory, and response variability are possible endophenotypes of ADHD based on their association with the disorder and evidence of heritability. One of the critical although rarely studied criteria for a valid endophenotype is that it persists despite waxing and waning of the overt manifestations of the disorder, a criterion known as state-independence. This study examined whether these aspects of cognition exhibit state-independence in ADHD. Methods One hundred and seventy-nine children diagnosed with ADHD in a rigorous baseline assessment were contacted for follow-up assessment in adolescence. Of this sample, 130 (73%) were reascertained. At follow-up, children previously diagnosed with ADHD were identified as remittent (n = 24), persistent (n = 64), or in partial remission (n = 42) based on symptoms and impairment of the disorder. Response inhibition, working memory, and response variability were assessed both in childhood (baseline) and adolescence (follow-up) and were compared with age-matched controls (40 children and 28 adolescents) seen at either time point. Results Relative to controls, ADHD children showed baseline deficits in response inhibition, working memory, and response variability. Only the group difference in response inhibition remained significant in adolescence. In general, cognitive performance among ADHD participants improved with age and did so regardless of changes in ADHD symptoms and impairment. Within the ADHD group, however, cognitive performance in childhood and in adolescence did not differ amongst those with persistent, remittent, and partially remittent forms of the disorder. Conclusions Results demonstrate that response inhibition not only distinguishes ADHD children from their unaffected peers but is also state-independent, such that deficits remain present irrespective of changes in the disease phenotype. In other words, inhibitory deficits measured in childhood persist into

  14. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) signaling modulates intermittent hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and cognitive deficits in mouse.

    PubMed

    Nair, Deepti; Ramesh, Vijay; Li, Richard C; Schally, Andrew V; Gozal, David

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, such as occurs in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), leads to degenerative changes in the hippocampus, and is associated with spatial learning deficits in adult mice. In both patients and murine models of OSA, the disease is associated with suppression of growth hormone (GH) secretion, which is actively involved in the growth, development, and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent work showed that exogenous GH therapy attenuated neurocognitive deficits elicited by IH during sleep in rats. Here, we show that administration of the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) agonist JI-34 attenuates IH-induced neurocognitive deficits, anxiety, and depression in mice along with reduction in oxidative stress markers such as MDA and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and increases in hypoxia inducible factor-1α DNA binding and up-regulation of insulin growth factor-1 and erythropoietin expression. In contrast, treatment with a GHRH antagonist (MIA-602) during intermittent hypoxia did not affect any of the IH-induced deleterious effects in mice. Thus, exogenous GHRH administered as the formulation of a GHRH agonist may provide a viable therapeutic intervention to protect IH-vulnerable brain regions from OSA-associated neurocognitive dysfunction. Sleep apnea, characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with substantial cognitive and behavioral deficits. Here, we show that administration of a GHRH agonist (JI-34) reduces oxidative stress, increases both HIF-1α nuclear binding and downstream expression of IGF1 and erythropoietin (EPO) in hippocampus and cortex, and markedly attenuates water maze performance deficits in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia during sleep. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Cognitive predictors of sequential motor impairments in children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Krynski, Marie-Ève; Bélanger, Anne-Marie; Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Leonard, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined cognitive predictors of sequential motor skills in 215 children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual working memory and math fluency abilities contributed significantly to performance of sequential motor abilities in children with dyslexia (N = 67), ADHD (N = 66) and those with a comorbid diagnosis (N = 82), generally without differentiation between groups. In addition, primary diagnostic features of each disorder, such as reading and inattention, did not contribute to the variance in motor skill performance of these children. The results support a unifying framework of motor impairment in children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as dyslexia and ADHD.

  16. Small molecule LX2343 ameliorates cognitive deficits in AD model mice by targeting both amyloid β production and clearance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Dan; Sun, Guang-Long; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Hu, Li-Hong; Shen, Xu

    2016-09-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is widely used to induce oxidative damage and to impair glucose metabolism, apoptosis, and tau/Aβ pathology, eventually leading to cognitive deficits in both in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we constructed a cell-based platform using STZ to induce stress conditions mimicking the complicated pathologies of AD in vitro, and evaluated the anti-amyloid effects of a small molecule, N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-[5-chloro-2-methoxy(phenylsulfonyl)anilino]acetamide (LX2343) in the amelioration of cognitive deficits in AD model mice. Cell-based assays for screening anti-amyloid compounds were established by assessing Aβ accumulation in HEK293-APP sw and CHO-APP cells, and Aβ clearance in primary astrocytes and SH-SY5Y cells after the cells were treated with STZ in the presence of the test compounds. Autophagic flux was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were administered LX2343 (10 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , ip) for 100 d. After LX2343 administration, cognitive ability of the mice was evaluated using Morris water maze test, and senile plaques in the brains were detected using Thioflavine S staining. ELISA assay was used to evaluate Aβ and sAPPβ levels, while Western blot analysis was used to measure the signaling proteins in both cell and animal brains. LX2343 (5-20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased Aβ accumulation in HEK293-APP sw and CHO-APP cells, and promoted Aβ clearance in SH-SY5Y cells and primary astrocytes. The anti-amyloid effects of LX2343 were attributed to suppressing JNK-mediated APP Thr668 phosphorylation, thus inhibiting APP cleavage on one hand, and inhibiting BACE1 enzymatic activity with an IC 50 value of 11.43±0.36 μmol/L, on the other hand. Furthermore, LX2343 acted as a non-ATP competitive PI3K inhibitor to negatively regulate AKT/mTOR signaling, thus promoting autophagy, and increasing Aβ clearance. Administration of LX2343 in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

  17. Neuroprotective role of Ginkgo biloba against cognitive deficits associated with Bisphenol A exposure: An animal model study.

    PubMed

    El Tabaa, Manar Mohammed; Sokkar, Samia Salem; Ramadan, Ehab Sayed; Abd El Salam, Inas Zakria; Zaid, Anis

    2017-09-01

    Our study aimed to elucidate to what extent Ginkgo biloba (Gb) can protect rats from cognitive deficits induced by exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) at high dose. Therefore, sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 15 animals in each group: Vehicle group, Gb-control group, BPA-exposed group and Gb pre-treated group. All administrations were given daily by an oral gavage once a day for eight weeks. Cognitive function was assessed using Morris water maze; Y-maze and Novel object recognition tasks. Additionally, hippocampal levels of DA, NE and 5-HT were measured. BPA-induced oxidative stress was evaluated by determining SOD activity, NO and MDA levels in rat hippocampus as well as level of circulating adiponectin. Moreover, histopathological changes in CA3 region of rat hippocampus and immunohistochemical expression of NF-κB and Caspase-3 were investigated. We found that Gb pretreatment significantly improved cognitive performance; may be via increasing hippocampal levels of estrogen-dependent biogenic amines. At the same time, Gb could strictly control BPA-induced oxidative stress by improving SOD activity and adiponectin level with decrease in NO and MDA levels. Lastly, Gb alleviated the histopathological injuries induced by BPA and inhibited NF-κB and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, our results suggested that Gb has potential to ameliorate BPA-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and subsequent cognitive deficits through mechanisms involving its ability to enhance the release of biogenic amines as well as its antioxidant and adiponectin pro-secretory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. BDNF pathway is involved in the protective effects of SS-31 on isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Mingqiang; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoru; Hao, Shuangying; Ji, Muhuo; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Kuanyu

    2016-05-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the earliest pathogenesis of isoflurane-induced cognitive impairments in developing or aging mammalian brain. However, its molecular mechanism is poorly understood and a pharmacologic treatment to rapidly reverse mitochondrial dysfunction is lacking. Fifteen-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to isoflurane for two hours following intraperitoneal administration of mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31 or vehicle with 30min interval. The hippocampus was immediately removed for biochemical assays and mitochondria isolation after inhalation. Behavioral tests were evaluated by the open field test and fear conditioning test 24h after the experiment. We showed that cognitive deficits induced by exposure of the aging mice to isoflurane were accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction in hippocampus due to loss of the enzymatic activity of complex I. This loss resulted in the increase of reactive oxygen species production, decrease of ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential, and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Further, we provided evidence that the BDNF signaling pathway was involved in this process to regulate synaptic plasticity-related proteins, for instance, downregulation of synapsin 1, PSD-95 and p-CREB, and upregulation of NR2A, NR2B, CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ. Of note, the isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits were rescued by SS-31 through reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction, which facilitated the regulation of BDNF signaling including the expression reversal of aforementioned important synaptic-signaling proteins in aging mice. Our data demonstrate that reversing mitochondrial dysfunction by SS-31 enhances BDNF signaling pathway and synaptic plasticity, and provides protective effects on cognitive function, thereby support the notion that SS-31 may have therapeutic benefits for elderly humans undertaking anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Nature and Consequences of Cognitive Deficits among Tobacco Smokers with HIV: A Comparison to Tobacco Smokers without HIV

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joseph D.; Dochney, Jessica A.; Blazekovic, Sonja; Leone, Frank; Metzger, David; Frank, Ian; Gross, Robert; Hole, Anita; Mounzer, Karam; Siegel, Steven; Schnoll, Robert A.; Ashare, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-infected smokers lose more years of life to tobacco-related disease than HIV. Since neurocognitive deficits are common among those with HIV and are associated with smoking persistence, these deficits may be a unique barrier to smoking cessation among HIV-infected smokers. Documenting unique differences in and correlates of cognition among HIV-infected smokers is a critical step towards developing a population-specific tobacco cessation treatment. We compared neurocognitive function between HIV-infected (n=103) and HIV-uninfected smokers (n=70), accounting for demographic and smoking-related variables. We also evaluated whether HIV-related health outcomes (e.g., CD4 count, viral load, depression ratings, quality of life [QoL]) and HAART adherence were associated with cognition. Participants completed neurocognitive tasks (N-back and Continuous Performance Task [CPT]) measuring working memory, attention, and processing speed, and intra-individual variability. Stepwise regression models were conducted and validated with resampling techniques. HIV-infected smokers performed worse than HIV-uninfected smokers on working memory, processing speed, and intra-individual variability (all p<0.01). ROC analysis for the model including cognitive measures demonstrated 85% area under the curve, which indicates “good prediction” for distinguishing between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected smokers. This was a significant improvement over the model including demographic and smoking-related variables only (p=0.0003). Among HIV-infected smokers, neurocognitive performance was negatively associated with QoL and depression ratings. Smoking cessation interventions for HIV-infected smokers should consider cognitive neurorehabilitation as a potential strategy to decrease the likelihood of nicotine relapse and decrease tobacco-related morbidity in this population. PMID:28429289

  20. Episodic memory deficits slow down the dynamics of cognitive procedural learning in normal ageing

    PubMed Central

    Beaunieux, Hélène; Hubert, Valérie; Pitel, Anne Lise; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive procedural learning is characterized by three phases, each involving distinct processes. Considering the implication of the episodic memory in the first cognitive stage, the impairment of this memory system might be responsible for a slowing down of the cognitive procedural learning dynamics in the course of aging. Performances of massed cognitive procedural learning were evaluated in older and younger participants using the Tower of Toronto task. Nonverbal intelligence and psychomotor abilities were used to analyze procedural dynamics, while episodic memory and working memory were assessed to measure their respective contributions to learning strategies. This experiment showed that older participants did not spontaneously invoke episodic memory and presented a slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning associated with a late involvement of working memory. These findings suggest that the slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning may be linked with the implementation of different learning strategies less involving episodic memory in older subjects. PMID:18654928

  1. Comprehensive treatments for social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: A critical review and effect-size analysis of controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Gagen, Emily; Rocha, Nuno B F; Machado, Sergio; Penn, David L

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia have targeted social cognitive deficits. A critical literature review and effect-size (ES) analysis was conducted to investigate the efficacy of comprehensive programs of social cognitive training in schizophrenia. Results revealed 16 controlled studies consisting of seven models of comprehensive treatment with only three of these treatment models investigated in more than one study. The effects of social cognitive training were reported in 11/15 studies that included facial affect recognition skills (ES=.84) and 10/13 studies that included theory-of-mind (ES=.70) as outcomes. Less than half (4/9) of studies that measured attributional style as an outcome reported effects of treatment, but effect sizes across studies were significant (ESs=.30-.52). The effect sizes for symptoms were modest, but, with the exception of positive symptoms, significant (ESs=.32-.40). The majority of trials were randomized (13/16), selected active control conditions (11/16) and included at least 30 participants (12/16). Concerns for this area of research include the absence of blinded outcome raters in more than 50% of trials and low rates of utilization of procedures for maintaining treatment fidelity. These findings provide preliminary support for the broader use of comprehensive social cognitive training procedures as a psychosocial intervention for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Virtual reality training to enhance behavior and cognitive function among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brief report.

    PubMed

    Shema-Shiratzky, Shirley; Brozgol, Marina; Cornejo-Thumm, Pablo; Geva-Dayan, Karen; Rotstein, Michael; Leitner, Yael; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat

    2018-05-17

    To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Fourteen non-medicated school-aged children with ADHD, received 18 training sessions during 6 weeks. Training included walking on a treadmill while negotiating virtual obstacles. Behavioral symptoms, cognition and gait were tested before and after the training and at 6-weeks follow-up. Based on parental report, there was a significant improvement in children's social problems and psychosomatic behavior after the training. Executive function and memory were improved post-training while attention was unchanged. Gait regularity significantly increased during dual-task walking. Long-term training effects were maintained in memory and executive function. Treadmill-training augmented with virtual-reality is feasible and may be an effective treatment to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with ADHD.

  3. Cognitive Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Clinical and Neuropsychological Outcomes From Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Samuele; Ferrin, Maite; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan; Daley, David; Dittmann, Ralf W.; Holtmann, Martin; Santosh, Paramala; Stevenson, Jim; Stringaris, Argyris; Zuddas, Alessandro; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The authors performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials to examine the effects of cognitive training on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, and academic skills in children/adolescents with ADHD. Method The authors searched Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, ERIC, and CINAHAL databases through May 18, 2014. Data were aggregated using random-effects models. Studies were evaluated with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Sixteen of 695 nonduplicate records were analyzed (759 children with ADHD). When all types of training were considered together, there were significant effects on total ADHD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.09–0.66) and inattentive symptoms (SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.14–0.80) for reports by raters most proximal to the treatment setting (i.e., typically unblinded). These figures decreased substantially when the outcomes were provided by probably blinded raters (ADHD total: SMD = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01–0.40; inattention: SMD = 0.32, 95% CI = −0.01 to 0.66). Effects on hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were not significant. There were significant effects on laboratory tests of working memory (verbal: SMD = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.24–0.80; visual: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23–0.70) and parent ratings of executive function (SMD = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.08–0.61). Effects on academic performance were not statistically significant. There were no effects of working memory training, specifically on ADHD symptoms. Interventions targeting multiple neuropsychological deficits had large effects on ADHD symptoms rated by most proximal assessors (SMD = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.46–1.12). Conclusion Despite improving working memory performance, cognitive training had limited effects on ADHD symptoms according to assessments based on blinded measures. Approaches targeting multiple neuropsychological processes may optimize the transfer of effects from cognitive deficits to

  4. Cognitive training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of clinical and neuropsychological outcomes from randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Ferrin, Maite; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan; Daley, David; Dittmann, Ralf W; Holtmann, Martin; Santosh, Paramala; Stevenson, Jim; Stringaris, Argyris; Zuddas, Alessandro; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2015-03-01

    The authors performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials to examine the effects of cognitive training on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, and academic skills in children/adolescents with ADHD. The authors searched Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, ERIC, and CINAHAL databases through May 18, 2014. Data were aggregated using random-effects models. Studies were evaluated with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Sixteen of 695 nonduplicate records were analyzed (759 children with ADHD). When all types of training were considered together, there were significant effects on total ADHD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.09-0.66) and inattentive symptoms (SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.14-0.80) for reports by raters most proximal to the treatment setting (i.e., typically unblinded). These figures decreased substantially when the outcomes were provided by probably blinded raters (ADHD total: SMD = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01-0.40; inattention: SMD = 0.32, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.66). Effects on hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were not significant. There were significant effects on laboratory tests of working memory (verbal: SMD = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.24-0.80; visual: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23-0.70) and parent ratings of executive function (SMD = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.08-0.61). Effects on academic performance were not statistically significant. There were no effects of working memory training, specifically on ADHD symptoms. Interventions targeting multiple neuropsychological deficits had large effects on ADHD symptoms rated by most proximal assessors (SMD = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.46-1.12). Despite improving working memory performance, cognitive training had limited effects on ADHD symptoms according to assessments based on blinded measures. Approaches targeting multiple neuropsychological processes may optimize the transfer of effects from cognitive deficits to clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 American Academy

  5. Brain and spinal cord interaction: a dietary curcumin derivative counteracts locomotor and cognitive deficits after brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Schubert, David; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2011-05-01

    In addition to cognitive dysfunction, locomotor deficits are prevalent in traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients; however, it is unclear how a concussive injury can affect spinal cord centers. Moreover, there are no current efficient treatments that can counteract the broad pathology associated with TBI. The authors have investigated potential molecular basis for the disruptive effects of TBI on spinal cord and hippocampus and the neuroprotection of a curcumin derivative to reduce the effects of experimental TBI. The authors performed fluid percussion injury (FPI) and then rats were exposed to dietary supplementation of the curcumin derivative (CNB-001; 500 ppm). The curry spice curcumin has protective capacity in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, and the curcumin derivative has enhanced brain absorption and biological activity. The results show that FPI in rats, in addition to reducing learning ability, reduced locomotor performance. Behavioral deficits were accompanied by reductions in molecular systems important for synaptic plasticity underlying behavioral plasticity in the brain and spinal cord. The post-TBI dietary supplementation of the curcumin derivative normalized levels of BDNF, and its downstream effectors on synaptic plasticity (CREB, synapsin I) and neuronal signaling (CaMKII), as well as levels of oxidative stress-related molecules (SOD, Sir2). These studies define a mechanism by which TBI can compromise centers related to cognitive processing and locomotion. The findings also show the influence of the curcumin derivative on synaptic plasticity events in the brain and spinal cord and emphasize the therapeutic potential of this noninvasive dietary intervention for TBI.

  6. Changes in language white matter tract microarchitecture associated with cognitive deficits in patients with presumed low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Incekara, Fatih; Satoer, Djaina; Visch-Brink, Evy; Vincent, Arnaud; Smits, Marion

    2018-06-08

    OBJECTIVE The authors conducted a study to determine whether cognitive functioning of patients with presumed low-grade glioma is associated with white matter (WM) tract changes. METHODS The authors included 77 patients with presumed low-grade glioma who underwent awake surgery between 2005 and 2013. Diffusion tensor imaging with deterministic tractography was performed preoperatively to identify the arcuate, inferior frontooccipital, and uncinate fasciculi and to obtain the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity per tract. All patients were evaluated preoperatively using an extensive neuropsychological protocol that included assessments of the language, memory, and attention/executive function domains. Linear regression models were used to analyze each cognitive domain and each diffusion tensor imaging metric of the 3 WM tracts. RESULTS Significant correlations (corrected for multiple testing) were found between FA of the arcuate fasciculus and results of the repetition test for the language domain (β = 0.59, p < 0.0001) and between FA of the inferior frontooccipital fasciculus and results of the imprinting test for the memory domain (β = -0.55, p = 0.002) and the attention test for the attention and executive function domain (β = -0.62, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS In patients with glioma, language deficits in repetition of speech, imprinting, and attention deficits are associated with changes in the microarchitecture of the arcuate and inferior frontooccipital fasciculi.

  7. Designing websites for persons with cognitive deficits: Design and usability of a psychoeducational intervention for persons with severe mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Rotondi, Armando J.; Sinkule, Jennifer; Haas, Gretchen L.; Spring, Michael B.; Litschge, Christine M.; Newhill, Christina E.; Ganguli, Rohan; Anderson, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the design elements that influence the ability of persons with severe mental illness (SMI) and cognitive deficits to use a website, and to use this knowledge to design a web-based telehealth application to deliver a psychoeducation program to persons with schizophrenia and their families. Usability testing was conducted with 98 persons with SMI. First, individual website design elements were tested. Based on these results, theoretical website design models were used to create several alternative websites. These designs were tested for their ability to facilitate use by persons with SMI. The final website design is presented. The results indicate that commonly prescribed design models and guidelines produce websites that are poorly suited and confusing to persons with SMI. Our findings suggest an alternative model that should be considered when designing websites and other telehealth interventions for this population. Implications for future studies addressing the characteristics of accessible designs for persons with SMI and cognitive deficits are discussed. PMID:26321884

  8. Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral and spatial cognitive deficits in morphine-dependent and -withdrawn rats.

    PubMed

    Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Arezoo; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependence and withdrawal on morphine-induced behavioral and spatial cognitive disorders in morphine-withdrawn rats. Adult male Wistar rats (190 ± 20 g) were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. Rats were reared in SE or EE during the development of dependence on morphine and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze), spontaneous withdrawal signs, and grooming behavior. We found that the EE blocked chronic morphine-induced partial impairments of spatial memory retention. Moreover, the EE diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs as mild and the self-grooming behavior. Our findings showed that EE ameliorates chronic morphine-induced partial deficits of spatial cognition, obsessive-like behavior, and the overall severity of the morphine withdrawal. Thus, environmental enrichment may be a potential therapeutic strategy for spatial memory and behavioral deficits in morphine-dependent individuals.

  9. Scientific biography, cognitive deficits, and laboratory practice. James McKeen Cattell and early American experimental psychology, 1880-1904.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.

  10. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel CT; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects. PMID:24596461

  11. Cognition and impulsivity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without cocaine and/or crack dependence.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Carmen S; Martins, Paula A; Moleda, Nathalya; Klein, Margarete; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany; Gobbo, Maria A; Alves, Tania M; Silva, Maria A; Louzã, Mario R

    2016-03-01

    Substance use disorder (SUD) is a common comorbidity in adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However,there have been few studies on cognitive profiles of these patients. Impulsivity is also commonly increased in both disorders. The central aim of this study was to compare cognition and impulsivity in subjects who had ADHD and cocaine dependence (ADHD+COC group) to those with ADHD only (ADHD-noSUD group). We hypothesized that the ADHD+COC group would show more marked cognitive dysfunction and greater impulsivity than their counterparts with ADHD only. A total of 70 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD according to (DSM-IV-TR) criteria were enrolled; 36 with ADHD+COC and 34 with ADHD-noSUD. All study participants were evaluated with a sociodemographic questionnaire; the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale; the Addiction Severity Index; the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; and a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Compared to individuals with ADHD-noSUD, ADHD+COC individuals had significantly lower mean IQ and higher motor impulsivity. On average, the ADHD+COC group also performed more poorly on tasks assessing verbal skills, vigilance, implicit learning during decision making, and ADHD-noSUD performed more poorly on selective attention, information processing, and visual search. Our results support the integrative theory of ADHD based on the cognitive and affective neuroscience model, and suggests that ADHD-noSUD patients have impairments in cognitive regulation, while ADHD+COC patients have impairments in both cognitive and affective regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Abolishing the Word-Length Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Charles; Suprenant, Aime M.; Bireta, Tamra J.; Stuart, George; Neath, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The authors report 2 experiments that compare the recall of long and short words in pure and mixed lists. In pure lists, long words were much more poorly remembered than short words. In mixed lists, this word-length effect was abolished and both the long and short words were recalled as well as short words in pure lists. These findings contradict…

  13. Why Grants.gov Should Be Abolished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmertern, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why Grants.gov, a web site for US Federal Government grants, should be abolished. Her recent attempt to submit a grant proposal to the National Institutes of Health is a case in point. She recounts how frustrating her experience was to the grant-submission process of Grants.gov. She points out that Grants.gov…

  14. Cortical deficits of emotional face processing in adults with ADHD: its relation to social cognition and executive function.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustin; Petroni, Agustin; Urquina, Hugo; Torrente, Fernando; Torralva, Teresa; Hurtado, Esteban; Guex, Raphael; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Beltrachini, Leandro; Muravchik, Carlos; Baez, Sandra; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Sigman, Mariano; Lischinsky, Alicia; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been shown that adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired social cognition, no previous study has reported the brain correlates of face valence processing. This study looked for behavioral, neuropsychological, and electrophysiological markers of emotion processing for faces (N170) in adult ADHD compared to controls matched by age, gender, educational level, and handedness. We designed an event-related potential (ERP) study based on a dual valence task (DVT), in which faces and words were presented to test the effects of stimulus type (faces, words, or face-word stimuli) and valence (positive versus negative). Individual signatures of cognitive functioning in participants with ADHD and controls were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including executive functioning (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). Compared to controls, the adult ADHD group showed deficits in N170 emotion modulation for facial stimuli. These N170 impairments were observed in the absence of any deficit in facial structural processing, suggesting a specific ADHD impairment in early facial emotion modulation. The cortical current density mapping of N170 yielded a main neural source of N170 at posterior section of fusiform gyrus (maximum at left hemisphere for words and right hemisphere for faces and simultaneous stimuli). Neural generators of N170 (fusiform gyrus) were reduced in ADHD. In those patients, N170 emotion processing was associated with performance on an emotional inference ToM task, and N170 from simultaneous stimuli was associated with EF, especially working memory. This is the first report to reveal an adult ADHD-specific impairment in the cortical modulation of emotion for faces and an association between N170 cortical measures and ToM and EF.

  15. Dopamine dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex relates to cognitive deficits in the sub-chronic PCP-model for schizophrenia: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McLean, Samantha L; Harte, Michael K; Neill, Joanna C; Young, Andrew Mj

    2017-06-01

    Dopamine dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Sub-chronic phencyclidine (scPCP) treatment produces cognitive impairments in rodents and is a thoroughly validated animal model for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of PFC dopamine in scPCP-induced deficits in a cognitive task of relevance to the disorder, novel object recognition (NOR). Twelve adult female Lister Hooded rats received scPCP (2 mg/kg) or vehicle via the intraperitoneal route twice daily for 7 days, followed by 7 days washout. In vivo microdialysis was carried out prior to, during and following the NOR task. Vehicle rats successfully discriminated between novel and familiar objects and this was accompanied by a significant increase in dopamine in the PFC during the retention trial ( p < 0.01). scPCP produced a significant deficit in NOR ( p < 0.05 vs. control) and no PFC dopamine increase was observed. These data demonstrate an increase in dopamine during the retention trial in vehicle rats that was not observed in scPCP-treated rats accompanied by cognitive disruption in the scPCP group. This novel finding suggests a mechanism by which cognitive deficits are produced in this animal model and support its use for investigating disorders in which PFC dopamine is central to the pathophysiology.

  16. Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Chimpanzees Associated with Early Impoverished Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Richard K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    According to transfer index testing, chimpanzees who had been reared in restricted laboratory environments for the first two years of life were inferior in cognitive skills to wild born control subjects. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of early experience in cognitive development. (DP)

  17. Do Social and Cognitive Deficits Curtail Musical Understanding? Evidence from Autism and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela; Allen, Rory; Williams, Kerry; Cummins, Omar; Happe, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism experience difficulties in understanding social affective cues, and it has been suggested that such deficits will generalize to music. In order to investigate this proposal, typically developing individuals and children with autism and Down syndrome were compared on tasks measuring perception of affective and movement states…

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Treatment for Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis, Andrea M.; Gamble, Stephanie A.; Roberts, John E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    An adaptation of the Coping With Depression Course (CWDC) was evaluated in mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a population at risk for depression. Mothers were randomly assigned to receive the CWDC either immediately following an intensive summer treatment program targeting their child's behavior or after a…

  19. Amyloid β-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Uematsu, Chihiro; Minamino, Tatsuya; Adlard, Paul A; Bush, Ashley I; Tamano, Haruna

    2014-01-01

    We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-β (Aβ) concentration. A single injection of Aβ (25 pmol) into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Aβ-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in Aβ action. When Aβ was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that Aβ induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When Aβ was added to hippocampal slices, Aβ did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that Aβ-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits.

  20. Combined mnemonic strategy training and high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation for memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Hampstead, Benjamin M; Sathian, Krishnankutty; Bikson, Marom; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2017-09-01

    Memory deficits characterize Alzheimer's dementia and the clinical precursor stage known as mild cognitive impairment. Nonpharmacologic interventions hold promise for enhancing functioning in these patients, potentially delaying functional impairment that denotes transition to dementia. Previous findings revealed that mnemonic strategy training (MST) enhances long-term retention of trained stimuli and is accompanied by increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the lateral frontal and parietal cortices as well as in the hippocampus. The present study was designed to enhance MST generalization, and the range of patients who benefit, via concurrent delivery of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This protocol describes a prospective, randomized controlled, four-arm, double-blind study targeting memory deficits in those with mild cognitive impairment. Once randomized, participants complete five consecutive daily sessions in which they receive either active or sham high definition tDCS over the left lateral prefrontal cortex, a region known to be important for successful memory encoding and that has been engaged by MST. High definition tDCS (active or sham) will be combined with either MST or autobiographical memory recall (comparable to reminiscence therapy). Participants undergo memory testing using ecologically relevant measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after these treatment sessions as well as at a 3-month follow-up. Primary outcome measures include face-name and object-location association tasks. Secondary outcome measures include self-report of memory abilities as well as a spatial navigation task (near transfer) and prose memory (medication instructions; far transfer). Changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging will be evaluated during both task performance and the resting-state using activation and connectivity analyses. The results will provide important information about the efficacy of cognitive and

  1. Amyloid β-Mediated Zn2+ Influx into Dentate Granule Cells Transiently Induces a Short-Term Cognitive Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Uematsu, Chihiro; Minamino, Tatsuya; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Tamano, Haruna

    2014-01-01

    We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-β (Aβ) concentration. A single injection of Aβ (25 pmol) into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Aβ-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in Aβ action. When Aβ was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that Aβ induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When Aβ was added to hippocampal slices, Aβ did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that Aβ-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits. PMID:25536033

  2. Selenomethionine ameliorates cognitive decline, reduces tau hyperphosphorylation, and reverses synaptic deficit in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Song, Guoli; Zhang, Zhonghao; Wen, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shi, Qingxue; Zhang, Yu; Ni, Jiazuan; Liu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the intracellular balance between free radicals and the antioxidant system is a prominent and early feature in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selenium, a vital trace element with known antioxidant potential, has been reported to provide neuroprotection through resisting oxidative damage but its therapeutic effect on AD remains to be investigated. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential of selenomethionine (Se-Met), an organic form of selenium, in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and neuropathology of triple transgenic AD (3 × Tg-AD) mice. 3 × Tg-AD mice, which were four months old, were treated with Se-Met for 3 months and demonstrated significant improvements in cognitive deficit along with an increased selenium level compared with the untreated control mice. Se-Met treatment significantly reduced the level of total tau and phosphorylated tau, mitigated the decrease of synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampus and cortex of the 3 × Tg-AD mice. Meanwhile, glial activation in AD mice was inhibited and the level of reduced glutathione was increased in the treated mice compared with control mice. Additionally, the expression and activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and protein phosphatase 2A, two important enzymes involved in tau phosphorylation, were markedly decreased and increased respectively by Se-Met treatment. Thus Se-Met improves cognitive deficit in a murine model of AD, which is associated with reduction in tau expression and hyperphosphorylation, amelioration of inflammation, and restoration of synaptic proteins and antioxidants. This study provides a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of AD.

  3. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Motor Preparation Deficits in a Visual Cued Spatial Attention Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80% of subjects with autism display “motor dyspraxia” or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N=30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more

  4. Cognitive and functional deficits in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as a function of the presence and history of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Christopher R; Best, Michael W; Depp, Colin; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Pulver, Ann E; Harvey, Philip D

    2018-05-18

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder overlap considerably. Schizophrenia is a primary psychotic disorder, whereas approximately half of people with bipolar disorder will experience psychosis. In this study, we examined the extent to which cognitive and functional impairments are related to the presence and history of psychosis across the two disorders. A total of 633 participants with bipolar disorder I, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder were recruited for a study on the genetics of cognition and functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Participants were classified into five groups: bipolar disorder with current psychosis (N = 30), bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis (N = 162), bipolar disorder with no history of psychosis (N = 92), schizophrenia with current psychosis (N = 245), and schizophrenia with past psychosis (N = 104). Cognitive profiles of all groups were similar in pattern; however, both current psychosis (P < .02) and a diagnosis of schizophrenia (P < .03) were associated with greater impairment. Schizophrenia with current psychosis was also associated with a superimposed severe impairment in processing speed. Both psychosis (P < .03) and schizophrenia diagnosis (P < .01) were associated with poorer functional competence. Individuals with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia experienced similar impairments in real-world functioning if they were experiencing current psychosis (P = .32). The presence of active psychosis is an important cross-diagnostic factor in cognition and functioning in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Characterization and treatment of cognition and functional deficits in bipolar disorder should consider the effects of both current and history of psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cognitively and physically demanding exergaming to improve executive functions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Benzing, Valentin; Schmidt, Mirko

    2017-01-10

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders observed in childhood and adolescence. Its key symptoms - reduced attention, poor control of impulses as well as increased motor activity - are associated with decreased executive functions performance, finally affecting academic achievement. Although drug treatments usually show some effect, alternative treatments are continually being sought, due to lack of commitment and possible side effects. Cognitive trainings are frequently used with the objectives of increasing executive function performance. However, since transfer effects are limited and novelty and diversity are frequently ignored, interventions combining physical and cognitive demands targeting a broader range of cognitive processes are demanded. The aim of the study is to examine the effects of a cognitively and physically demanding exergame on executive functions of children with ADHD. In a randomised clinical trial, 66 girls and boys diagnosed with ADHD (age 8-12) will be assigned either to an 8-week exergame intervention group (three training sessions per week à 30 min) or a waiting-list control group. Before and afterwards, the executive function performance (computer-based tests), the sport motor performance and ADHD symptoms will be assessed. The current study will offer insights into the effectiveness of a combination of cognitive and physical training using exergaming. Positive effects on the executive functions, sport motor performance and ADHD symptoms are hypothesized. Beneficial effects would mean a large degree of scalability (simple and cost-effective) and high utility for patients with ADHD. KEK BE 393/15 (March 8, 2016); DRKS00010171 (March 14, 2016).

  6. Subthreshold social cognitive deficits may be a key to distinguish 22q11.2DS from schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peyroux, Elodie; Rigard, Caroline; Saucourt, Guillaume; Poisson, Alice; Plasse, Julien; Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2018-03-25

    Social cognitive impairments are core features in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Indeed, adults with 22q.11.2 DS often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of social cognitive skills (emotion recognition and theory of mind, ToM) compared with typically developing people. However, studies comparing specific social cognitive components in 22q11.2DS and SCZ have not yet been widely conducted. In this study we compared performances of 22q11.2DS and SCZ on both facial emotion recognition and ToM. Patients with 22q11.2DS (n = 18) and matched SCZ patients were recruited. After neuropsychological testing, the facial emotion recognition test assessed the patients' ability to recognize six basic, universal emotions (joy, anger, sadness, fear, disgust, and contempt). The Versailles-situational intentional reading evaluated ToM with six scenes from movies showing characters in complex interactions (involving hints, lies, and indirect speech). We show that 22q11.2DS exhibited significantly lower performance in emotion recognition than SCZ patients did, especially for disgust, contempt, and fear. This impairment seems to be a core cognitive phenotype in 22q11.2DS, regardless of the presence of SCZ symptoms. Concerning ToM, our results may highlight the same impairment level in 22q11.2DS and SCZ but require to be replicated in a larger cohort. Our results document the existence of threshold social cognitive deficits distinguishing 22q11.2DS from SCZ. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Down syndrome ameliorated by GABAB receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Kleschevnikov, A.M.; Belichenko, P.V.; Faizi, M.; Jacobs, L.F.; Htun, K.; Shamloo, M.; Mobley, W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABAB receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABAB receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABAB receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABAB receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABAB receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS. PMID:22764230

  8. Sleeping, TV, Cognitively Stimulating Activities, Physical Activity, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Incidence in Children: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Gabriela P; Forns, Joan; García de la Hera, Manuela; González, Llúcia; Guxens, Mònica; López-Vicente, Mónica; Sunyer, Jordi; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2018-04-01

    To analyze associations between time spent sleeping, watching TV, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and engaging in physical activity, all at 4 years, and (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and (2) behavior problems, both assessed at 7 years, in ADHD-free children at baseline. In total, 817 participants of the Infancia y Medio Ambiente birth cohort, without ADHD at baseline, were included. At the 4-year follow-up, parents reported the time that their children spent sleeping, watching TV, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and engaging in physical activity. At the 7-year follow-up, parents completed the Conners' Parent Rating Scales and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which measure ADHD symptoms and behavior problems, respectively. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess associations between the activities at 4 years and ADHD symptoms and behavior problems at 7 years. Children (48% girls) spent a median (p25-p75) of 10 (10-11) hours per day sleeping, 1.5 (0.9-2) hours per day watching TV, 1.4 (0.9-1.9) hours per day engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and 1.5 (0.4-2.3) hours per day engaging in physical activity. Longer sleep duration (>10 hours per day) was associated with a lower ADHD symptom score (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.00). Longer time spent in cognitively stimulating activities (>1 hours per day) was associated with lower scores of both ADHD symptoms (0.96, 0.94-0.98) and behavior problems (0.89, 0.83-0.97). Time spent watching TV and engaging in physical activity were not associated with either outcomes. A shorter sleep duration and less time spent in cognitively stimulating activities were associated with an increased risk of developing ADHD symptoms and behavior problems.

  9. Cognitive biases toward Internet game-related pictures and executive deficits in individuals with an Internet game addiction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Yuan, Guozhen; Yao, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The cue-related go/no-go switching task provides an experimental approach to study individual's flexibility in changing situations. Because Internet addiction disorder (IAD) belongs to the compulsive-impulsive spectrum of disorders, it should present cognitive bias and executive functioning deficit characteristics of some of these types of disorders. Until now, no studies have been reported on cognitive bias and executive function involving mental flexibility and response inhibition in IAD. A total of 46 subjects who met the criteria of the modified Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet addiction (YDQ) were recruited as an Internet game addiction (IGA) group, along with 46 healthy control individuals. All participants performed the Internet game-shifting task. Using hit rate, RT, d' and C as the dependent measures, a three-way ANOVA (group × target × condition) was performed. For hit rate, a significant effect of group, type of target and condition were found. The group-target interaction effect was significant. For RT, significant effects were revealed for group and type of target. The group-target interaction effect was significant. Comparisons of the means revealed that the slowing down of IGA relative to NIA was more pronounced when the target stimuli were neutral as opposed to Internet game-related pictures. In addition, the group-condition interaction effect was significant. For d', significant effects of group, type of target and condition were found. The group-target interaction effect was significant. For C, the type of target produced a significant effect. There was a positive correlation between the length of the addiction (number of years) and the severity of the cognitive bias. IGA present cognitive biases towards information related to Internet gaming. These biases, as well as poor executive functioning skills (lower mental flexibility and response inhibition), might be responsible for Internet game addiction. The assessment of cognitive

  10. Cognitive deficits associated with impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tor I; Olsen, Sandra E; Haferstrom, Elise C D; Sand, Trond; Frier, Brian M; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørgaas, Marit R

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare cognitive function in adults with type 1 diabetes who have impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia with those who have normal awareness of hypoglycaemia. A putative association was sought between cognitive test scores and a history of severe hypoglycaemia. A total of 68 adults with type 1 diabetes were included: 33 had impaired and 35 had normal awareness of hypoglycaemia, as confirmed by formal testing. The groups were matched for age, sex and diabetes duration. Cognitive tests of verbal memory, object-location memory, pattern separation, executive function, working memory and processing speed were administered. Participants with impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia scored significantly lower on the verbal and object-location memory tests and on the pattern separation test (Cohen's d -0.86 to -0.55 [95% CI -1.39, -0.05]). Participants with impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia had reduced planning ability task scores, although the difference was not statistically significant (Cohen's d 0.57 [95% CI 0, 1.14]). Frequency of exposure to severe hypoglycaemia correlated with the number of cognitive tests that had not been performed according to instructions. Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia was associated with diminished learning, memory and pattern separation. These cognitive tasks all depend on the hippocampus, which is vulnerable to neuroglycopenia. The findings suggest that hypoglycaemia contributes to the observed correlation between impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia and impaired cognition.

  11. Cortical and subcortical gray matter bases of cognitive deficits in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Rahayel, Shady; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Génier Marchand, Daphné; Escudier, Frédérique; Gaubert, Malo; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Carrier, Julie; Monchi, Oury; Joubert, Sven; Blanc, Frédéric; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2018-05-15

    To investigate cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities underlying cognitive impairment in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with or without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fifty-two patients with RBD, including 17 patients with MCI, were recruited and compared to 41 controls. All participants underwent extensive clinical assessments, neuropsychological examination, and 3-tesla MRI acquisition of T1 anatomical images. Vertex-based cortical analyses of volume, thickness, and surface area were performed to investigate cortical abnormalities between groups, whereas vertex-based shape analysis was performed to investigate subcortical structure surfaces. Correlations were performed to investigate associations between cortical and subcortical metrics, cognitive domains, and other markers of neurodegeneration (color discrimination, olfaction, and autonomic measures). Patients with MCI had cortical thinning in the frontal, cingulate, temporal, and occipital cortices, and abnormal surface contraction in the lenticular nucleus and thalamus. Patients without MCI had cortical thinning restricted to the frontal cortex. Lower patient performance in cognitive domains was associated with cortical and subcortical abnormalities. Moreover, impaired performance on olfaction, color discrimination, and autonomic measures was associated with thinning in the occipital lobe. Cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities are associated with cognitive status in patients with RBD, with more extensive patterns in patients with MCI. Our results highlight the importance of distinguishing between subgroups of patients with RBD according to cognitive status in order to better understand the neurodegenerative process in this population. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Late-Life Depressive Symptoms and Lifetime History of Major Depression: Cognitive Deficits are Largely Due to Incipient Dementia rather than Depression.

    PubMed

    Heser, Kathrin; Bleckwenn, Markus; Wiese, Birgitt; Mamone, Silke; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Stein, Janine; Lühmann, Dagmar; Posselt, Tina; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Weeg, Dagmar; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Wagner, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Late-life depression is frequently accompanied by cognitive impairments. Whether these impairments indicate a prodromal state of dementia, or are a symptomatic expression of depression per se is not well-studied. In a cohort of very old initially non-demented primary care patients (n = 2,709, mean age = 81.1 y), cognitive performance was compared between groups of participants with or without elevated depressive symptoms and with or without subsequent dementia using ANCOVA (adjusted for age, sex, and education). Logistic regression analyses were computed to predict subsequent dementia over up to six years of follow-up. The same analytical approach was performed for lifetime major depression. Participants with elevated depressive symptoms without subsequent dementia showed only small to medium cognitive deficits. In contrast, participants with depressive symptoms with subsequent dementia showed medium to very large cognitive deficits. In adjusted logistic regression models, learning and memory deficits predicted the risk for subsequent dementia in participants with depressive symptoms. Participants with a lifetime history of major depression without subsequent dementia showed no cognitive deficits. However, in adjusted logistic regression models, learning and orientation deficits predicted the risk for subsequent dementia also in participants with lifetime major depression. Marked cognitive impairments in old age depression should not be dismissed as "depressive pseudodementia", but require clinical attention as a possible sign of incipient dementia. Non-depressed elderly with a lifetime history of major depression, who remained free of dementia during follow-up, had largely normal cognitive performance.

  13. The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  14. A benzothiazole/piperazine derivative with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity: Improvement in streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Demir Özkay, Ümide; Can, Özgür Devrim; Sağlık, Begüm Nurpelin; Turan, Nazlı

    2017-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are frequently prescribed to mitigate the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, we investigated the possible efficacy of the AChE inhibitor 2-[(6-Nitro-2-benzothiazolyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl] piperazine-1 carbodithioate (BPCT) in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Alzheimer's disease model (SADM). First, we analyzed the molecular interaction of BPCT with AChE via a docking study. Then, the cognitive effects of BPCT (10 and 20mg/kg) were evaluated in intracerebroventricular STZ- and vehicle-administered rats with the elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM), and active avoidance (AA) tests. Locomotor activity was also assessed. Docking analysis indicated significant binding of BPCT to the AChE active site. In behavioral tests, STZ administration impaired cognitive performance in SADM rats versus control rats. Treatment with donepezil or BPCT significantly decreased the prolonged 2nd retention transfer latency and 2nd retention latency time values of the SADM group in the EPM and MWM tests, respectively. Further, prolonged latency times were decreased and reduced frequency of avoidance events were increased in the AA test. Locomotor activity between groups was not different. BPCT appears to function as a central AChE inhibitor, and its improvement of deficits in SADM rats suggests that it has therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive deficits are a matter of emotional context: inflexible strategy use mediates context-specific learning impairments in OCD.

    PubMed

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Westermann, Stefan; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the interplay between cognitive deficits and emotional context in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP). Specifically, this study examines whether the inflexible use of efficient learning strategies in an emotional context underlies impairments in probabilistic classification learning (PCL) in OCD, and whether PCL impairments are specific to OCD. Twenty-three participants with OCD, 30 participants with SP and 30 healthy controls completed a neutral and an OCD-specific PCL task. OCD participants failed to adopt efficient learning strategies and showed fewer beneficial strategy switches than controls only in an OCD-specific context, but not in a neutral context. Additionally, OCD participants did not show any explicit memory impairments. Number of beneficial strategy switches in the OCD-specific task mediated the difference in PCL performance between OCD and control participants. Individuals with SP were impaired in both PCL tasks. In contrast to neuropsychological models postulating general cognitive impairments in OCD, the present findings suggest that it is the interaction between cognition and emotion that is impaired in OCD. Specifically, activated disorder-specific fears may impair the flexible adoption of efficient learning strategies and compromise otherwise unimpaired PCL. Impairments in PCL are not specific to OCD.

  16. Testing neuropsychological hypotheses for cognitive deficits in psychopathic criminals: a study of global-local processing.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Miller, Sarah K; Byrnes, Katherine A; Leveroni, Catherine L

    2007-03-01

    Competing hypotheses about neuropsychological mechanisms underlying psychopathy are seldom examined in the same study. We tested the left hemisphere activation hypothesis and the response modulation hypothesis of psychopathy in 172 inmates completing a global-local processing task under local bias, global bias, and neutral conditions. Consistent with the left hemisphere activation hypothesis, planned comparisons showed that psychopathic inmates classified local targets more slowly than nonpsychopathic inmates in a local bias condition and exhibited a trend toward similar deficits for global targets in this condition. However, contrary to the response modulation hypothesis, psychopaths were no slower to respond to local targets in a global bias condition. Because psychopathic inmates were not generally slower to respond to local targets, results are also not consistent with a general left hemisphere dysfunction account. Correlational analyses also indicated deficits specific to conditions presenting most targets at the local level initially. Implications for neuropsychological conceptualizations of psychopathy are considered.

  17. Motor-cognitive dual-task deficits in individuals with early-mid stage Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Nora E; Hamana, Katy; Kelson, Mark; Rosser, Anne; Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori

    2016-09-01

    Huntington disease (HD) results in a range of cognitive and motor impairments that progress throughout the disease stages; however, little research has evaluated specific dual-task abilities in this population, and the degree to which they may be related to functional ability. The purpose of this study was to a) examine simple and complex motor-cognitive dual-task performance in individuals with HD, b) determine relationships between dual-task walking ability and disease-specific measures of motor, cognitive and functional ability, and c) examine the relationship of dual-task measures to falls in individuals with HD. Thirty-two individuals with HD were evaluated for simple and complex dual-task ability using the Walking While Talking Test. Demographics and disease-specific measures of motor, cognitive and functional ability were also obtained. Individuals with HD had impairments in simple and complex dual-task ability. Simple dual-task walking was correlated to disease-specific motor scores as well as cognitive performance, but complex dual-task walking was correlated with total functional capacity, as well as a range of cognitive measures. Number of prospective falls was moderately-strongly correlated to dual-task measures. Our results suggest that individuals with HD have impairments in cognitive-motor dual-task ability that are related to disease progression and specifically functional ability. Dual-task measures appear to evaluate a unique construct in individuals with early to mid-stage HD, and may have value in improving the prediction of falls risk in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing treatments for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: The challenge of translation

    PubMed Central

    Young, J.W.; Geyer, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a life-long debilitating mental disorder affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. The serendipitous discovery of antipsychotics focused pharmaceutical research on developing a better antipsychotic. Our understanding of the disorder has advanced however, with the knowledge that cognitive enhancers are required for patients in order to improve their everyday lives. Whilst antipsychotics treat psychosis, they do not enhance cognition and hence are not antischizophrenics. Developing pro-cognitive therapeutics has been extremely difficult however, especially when no approved treatment exists. In lieu of stumbling on an efficacious treatment, developing targeted compounds can be facilitated by understanding the neural mechanisms underlying altered cognitive functioning in patients. Equally importantly, these cognitive domains will need to be measured similarly in animals and humans so that novel targets can be tested prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. To date, the limited similarity of testing across species has resulted in a translational bottleneck. In this review, we emphasize that schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by abnormal cognitive behavior. Quantifying these abnormalities using tasks having cross-species validity would enable the quantification of comparable processes in rodents. This approach would increase the likelihood that the neural substrates underlying relevant behaviors will be conserved across species. Hence, we detail cross-species tasks which can be used to test the effects of manipulations relevant to schizophrenia and putative therapeutics. Such tasks offer the hope of providing a bridge between non-clinical and clinical testing that will eventually lead to treatments developed specifically for patients with deficient cognition. PMID:25516372

  19. Assessing Specific Cognitive Deficits Associated with Dementia in Older Adults with Down Syndrome: Use and Validity of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB)

    PubMed Central

    Sinai, Amanda; Hassiotis, Angela; Rantell, Khadija; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Background Down syndrome is associated with specific cognitive deficits. Alongside this, older adults with Down syndrome are a high risk group for dementia. The Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB), a cognitive assessment battery specifically developed for use with individuals with Down syndrome, has been proposed for use as outcome measures for clinical trials in this population. It has not been validated in older adults with Down syndrome. This study aims to assess the use and validity of the ACTB in older adults with Down syndrome. Methods Participants with Down syndrome aged 45 and over were assessed using the ACTB, standard tabletop tests and informant ratings. Results Assessment outcomes of 49 participants were analysed. Of these, 19 (39%) had a diagnosis of dementia or possible dementia. Most participants were able to attempt most of the tasks, although some tasks had high floor effects (including CANTAB Intra-Extra Dimensional shift stages completed and Modified Dots Task). Of the ACTB tasks, statistically significant differences were observed between the dementia and no dementia groups on CANTAB Simple Reaction Time median latency, NEPSY Visuomotor Precision—Car and Motorbike and CANTAB Paired Associates Learning stages completed. No significant differences were observed for CANTAB Intra-Extra Dimensional Shift, Modified Dots Task, Finger Sequencing, NEPSY Visuomotor precision—Train and Car and CANTAB Paired Associates Learning first trial memory score. Several of the tasks in the ACTB can be used in older adults with Down syndrome and have mild to moderate concurrent validity when compared to tabletop tests and informant ratings, although this varies on a test by test basis. Conclusions Overall, scores for a number of tests in the ACTB were similar when comparing dementia and no dementia groups of older adults with Down syndrome, suggesting that it would not be an appropriate outcome measure of cognitive function for clinical trials of dementia

  20. Assessing Specific Cognitive Deficits Associated with Dementia in Older Adults with Down Syndrome: Use and Validity of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB).

    PubMed

    Sinai, Amanda; Hassiotis, Angela; Rantell, Khadija; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome is associated with specific cognitive deficits. Alongside this, older adults with Down syndrome are a high risk group for dementia. The Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB), a cognitive assessment battery specifically developed for use with individuals with Down syndrome, has been proposed for use as outcome measures for clinical trials in this population. It has not been validated in older adults with Down syndrome. This study aims to assess the use and validity of the ACTB in older adults with Down syndrome. Participants with Down syndrome aged 45 and over were assessed using the ACTB, standard tabletop tests and informant ratings. Assessment outcomes of 49 participants were analysed. Of these, 19 (39%) had a diagnosis of dementia or possible dementia. Most participants were able to attempt most of the tasks, although some tasks had high floor effects (including CANTAB Intra-Extra Dimensional shift stages completed and Modified Dots Task). Of the ACTB tasks, statistically significant differences were observed between the dementia and no dementia groups on CANTAB Simple Reaction Time median latency, NEPSY Visuomotor Precision-Car and Motorbike and CANTAB Paired Associates Learning stages completed. No significant differences were observed for CANTAB Intra-Extra Dimensional Shift, Modified Dots Task, Finger Sequencing, NEPSY Visuomotor precision-Train and Car and CANTAB Paired Associates Learning first trial memory score. Several of the tasks in the ACTB can be used in older adults with Down syndrome and have mild to moderate concurrent validity when compared to tabletop tests and informant ratings, although this varies on a test by test basis. Overall, scores for a number of tests in the ACTB were similar when comparing dementia and no dementia groups of older adults with Down syndrome, suggesting that it would not be an appropriate outcome measure of cognitive function for clinical trials of dementia treatments without further modification and

  1. Does Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Fit within a Bi-factor Model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Annie A.; Peugh, James; Becker, Stephen P.; Kingery, Kathleen M.; Tamm, Leanne; Vaughn, Aaron J.; Ciesielski, Heather; Simon, John O.; Loren, Richard E. A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies demonstrate sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms to be distinct from inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive dimensions of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). No study has examined SCT within a bi-factor model of ADHD whereby SCT may form a specific factor distinct from inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity while still fitting within a general ADHD factor, which was the purpose of the current study. Method 168 children were recruited from an ADHD clinic. Most (92%) met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Parents and teachers completed measures of ADHD and SCT. Results Although SCT symptoms were strongly associated with inattention they loaded onto a factor independent of ADHD ‘g’. Results were consistent across parent and teacher ratings. Conclusions SCT is structurally distinct from inattention as well as from the general ADHD latent symptom structure. Findings support a growing body of research suggesting SCT to be distinct and separate from ADHD. PMID:25005039

  2. The origins of repetitive thought in rumination: separating cognitive style from deficits in inhibitory control over memory.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jonathan M; Benoit, Roland G; Gagnepain, Pierre; Salman, Amna; Bartholdy, Savani; Bradley, Caroline; Chan, Daniel K Y; Roche, Ayesha; Brewin, Chris R; Anderson, Michael C

    2015-06-01

    Rumination is a major contributor to the maintenance of affective disorders and has been linked to memory control deficits. However, ruminators often report intentionally engaging in repetitive thought due to its perceived benefits. Deliberate re-processing may lead to the appearance of a memory control deficit that is better explained as a difference in cognitive style. Ninety-six undergraduate students volunteered to take part in a direct-suppression variant of the Think/No-Think paradigm after which they completed self-report measures of rumination and the degree to which they deliberately re-processed the to-be-suppressed items. We demonstrate a relation between rumination and impaired suppression-induced forgetting. This relation is robust even when controlling for deliberate re-processing of the to-be-suppressed items, a behavior itself related to both rumination and suppression. Therefore, whereas conscious fixation on to-be-suppressed items reduced memory suppression, it did not fully account for the relation between rumination and memory suppression. The current experiment employed a retrospective measure of deliberate re-processing in the context of an unscreened university sample; future research might therefore generalize our findings using an online measure of deliberate re-processing or within a clinical population. We provide evidence that deliberate re-processing accounts for some--but not all--of the relation between rumination and suppression-induced forgetting. The present findings, observed in a paradigm known to engage top-down inhibitory modulation of mnemonic processing, provide the most theoretically focused evidence to date for the existence of a memory control deficit in rumination. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effect on phenytoin-induced cognition deficit in pentylenetetrazol kindled mice: A repertoire of Glycyrrhiza glabra flavonoid antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Paramdeep; Singh, Damanpreet; Goel, Rajesh K

    2016-07-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Febaceae) has been widely used in traditional medicine and scientifically explored for its anticonvulsant and memory improving potential. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of flavonoid rich fraction of G. glabra root extract against phenytoin-induced cognition deficit in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindled mice. The ethyl acetate fraction was initially screened in different in vitro free radical scavenging assays. For in vivo studies, the kindled mice in different groups were given 15 d post-treatment with phenytoin (25 mg/kg; p.o.) per se or in combination with varying doses of the fraction (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg; p.o.). Seizure severity score and cognitive functions were accessed using Racine's scale and passive shock avoidance paradigm, respectively on every 5th d after a PTZ challenge dose (35 mg/kg; i.p.). At the end of study, the animals were scarified for cerebral biochemistry. The fraction showed marked antioxidant activity indicated by low IC50 values in DPPH (20.9 µg/mL), nitric oxide radical scavenging (195.2 µg/mL), and capacity of hydrogen peroxide scavenging (3.4 µg/mL) assays. Treatment with phenytoin per se and along with the flavonoid rich fraction showed significant reduction in seizure severity score as compared to vehicle control. The combined-treated groups also showed improved cognitive functions indicated by reduced number of mistakes and increased step-down latency in passive shock avoidance paradigm. From the results, it can be concluded that the flavonoid rich fraction in combination with phenytoin reduces seizure severity and improve cognitive functions in PTZ-kindled mice.

  4. Cognitive performance deficits in a simulated climb of Mount Everest - Operation Everest II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Banderet, L. E.; Smith, M. G.; Houston, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Cognitive function at simulated altitude was investigated in a repeated-measures within-subject study of performance by seven volunteers in a hypobaric chamber, in which atmospheric pressure was systematically lowered over a period of 40 d to finally reach a pressure equivalent to 8845 m, the approximate height of Mount Everest. The automated performance test system employed compact computer design; automated test administrations, data storage, and retrieval; psychometric properties of stability and reliability; and factorial richness. Significant impairments of cognitive function were seen for three of the five tests in the battery; on two tests, grammatical reasoning and pattern comparison, every subject showed a substantial decrement.

  5. Uncovering a clinical portrait of sluggish cognitive tempo within an evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A case study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Ciesielski, Heather A; Rood, Jennifer E; Froehlich, Tanya E; Garner, Annie A; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning scientific literature examining the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct, very little is known about the clinical presentation of SCT. In clinical cases where SCT is suspected, it is critical to carefully assess not only for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but also for other comorbidities that may account for the SCT-related behaviors, especially internalizing symptoms and sleep problems. The current case study provides a clinical description of SCT in a 7-year-old girl, offering a real-life portrait of SCT while also providing an opportunity to qualitatively differentiate between SCT and ADHD, other psychopathologies (e.g. depression, anxiety), and potentially related domains of functioning (e.g. sleep, executive functioning [EF]). "Jessica" was described by herself, parents, and teacher as being much slower than her peers in completing schoolwork, despite standardized testing showing Jessica to have above average intelligence and academic achievement. Jessica's parents completed rating scales indicating high levels of SCT symptoms and daytime sleepiness, as well as mildly elevated EF deficits. More research is needed to determine how to best conceptualize, assess, and treat SCT, and Jessica's case underscores the importance of further work in this area. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits via oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and the PPARγ signaling pathway in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhonghua; Xu, Yinghui; Liang, Zhanhua; Li, Sheng; Wang, Jie; Wei, Yi; Dong, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Naringenin is a flavonoid polyphenolic compound, which facilitates the removal of free radicals, oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study aimed to obtain a better understanding of the effects of curcumin on the regulation of diabetes‑associated cognitive decline, and its underlying mechanisms. An experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) rat model was induced by streptozoticin (50 mg/kg). Following treatment with naringin (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 16 weeks, the body weight and blood glucose levels of the DM rats were measured. A morris water maze test was used to analyze the effects of naringin on the cognitive deficit of the DM rats. The levels of oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors, caspase‑3 and caspase‑9, and the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were quantified in the DM rats using a commercially‑available kit and western blot assay, respectively. In addition, a GW9662 PPARγ inhibitor (0.3 mg/kg) was administered to the DM rats to determine whether PPARγ affected the effects of naringin on the cognitive deficit of the DM rats. The results demonstrated that naringin increased the body weight, blood glucose levels, and cognitive deficits of the DM rats. The levels of oxidative stress and proinflammatory factors in the naringin‑treated rats were significantly lower, compared with those of the DM rats. In addition, naringin activated the protein expression of PPARγ, and administration of the PPARγ inhibitor decreased the protein expression of PPARγ, and attenuated the effects of naringin on cognitive deficit. The results also demonstrated that naringin decreased the expression levels of caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 in the DM rats. These results suggested that naringin ameliorated cognitive deficits via oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and the PPARγ signaling pathway in the type 2 diabetic rat model. Furthermore, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and PPARγ signaling may be

  7. Baicalein alters PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway in rats with diabetes-associated cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhonghua; Xu, Yinghui; Liang, Zhanhua; Li, Sheng; Wang, Jie; Wei, Yi; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Our present investigation focused on assessing the neuroprotective potential of baicalein (BAC) against diabetes-associated cognitive deficit (DACD) using a diabetic model and further figure out the potential molecular mechanisms. Diabetic rat model was established by streptozotocin (STZ). Vehicle or BAC by the doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected once a day for seven consecutive weeks. Memory function was evaluated by Morris water maze test and avoidance passive test. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetylase (ChAT), caspase-9 and caspase-3 in STZ-induced diabetic rats’ hippocampus were detected via responsive commercial kits. Western blot assay were used to determine the protein levels of phospho-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-PI3K), phospho-Akt (p-Akt), and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK3β). Our results showed that BAC remarkably increased body weight and ChAT activity, decreased blood glucose level and AChE activity as well as improved cognitive deficits in diabetic rats. Additionally, it was also found that treatment with BAC to diabetes obviously stimulated the p-PI3K and p-Akt and inhibited the level of p-GSK3β. Furthermore, the neuronal apoptosis was also prevented after BAC treatment by decreasing caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in diabetic rats’ hippocampus. It is concluded that BAC exerted beneficial effects against DACD in rats and its neuroprotection might be linked with activating PI3K and Akt phosphorylation accompanied with suppressing the phosphorylated level of GSK3β. These results hint that BAC is likely to be served as an adjuvant therapy to conventional anti-hyperglycemic regimens as well as DACD. PMID:25932128

  8. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Ameliorates Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Cognitive and Sensorimotor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu-Wen; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chen, Kai-Yun; Wu, John Chung-Che; Hoffer, Barry J; Greig, Nigel H; Li, Yazhou; Lai, Jing-Huei; Chang, Cheng-Fu; Lin, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Yang, Liang-Yo; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2016-11-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a major public health issue, representing 75-90% of all cases of TBI. In clinical settings, mTBI, which is defined as a Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15, can lead to various physical, cognitive, emotional, and psychological-related symptoms. To date, there are no pharmaceutical-based therapies to manage the development of the pathological deficits associated with mTBI. In this study, the neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), an incretin similar to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), was investigated after its steady-state subcutaneous administration, focusing on behavior after mTBI in an in vivo animal model. The mTBI rat model was generated by a mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) and used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of GIP. We used the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests, which are tasks for spatial and recognition memory, respectively, to identify the putative therapeutic effects of GIP on cognitive function. Further, beam walking and the adhesive removal tests were used to evaluate locomotor activity and somatosensory functions in rats with and without GIP administration after mCCI lesion. Lastly, we used immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot analyses to evaluate the inflammatory markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), and bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X (BMX) in animals with mTBI. GIP was well tolerated and ameliorated mTBI-induced memory impairments, poor balance, and sensorimotor deficits after initiation in the post-injury period. In addition, GIP mitigated mTBI-induced neuroinflammatory changes on GFAP, APP, and BMX protein levels. These findings suggest GIP has significant benefits in managing mTBI-related symptoms and represents a novel strategy for mTBI treatment.

  9. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Ameliorates Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Cognitive and Sensorimotor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu-Wen; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chen, Kai-Yun; Wu, John Chung-Che; Hoffer, Barry J.; Greig, Nigel H.; Li, Yazhou; Lai, Jing-Huei; Chang, Cheng-Fu; Lin, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a major public health issue, representing 75–90% of all cases of TBI. In clinical settings, mTBI, which is defined as a Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13–15, can lead to various physical, cognitive, emotional, and psychological-related symptoms. To date, there are no pharmaceutical-based therapies to manage the development of the pathological deficits associated with mTBI. In this study, the neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), an incretin similar to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), was investigated after its steady-state subcutaneous administration, focusing on behavior after mTBI in an in vivo animal model. The mTBI rat model was generated by a mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) and used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of GIP. We used the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests, which are tasks for spatial and recognition memory, respectively, to identify the putative therapeutic effects of GIP on cognitive function. Further, beam walking and the adhesive removal tests were used to evaluate locomotor activity and somatosensory functions in rats with and without GIP administration after mCCI lesion. Lastly, we used immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot analyses to evaluate the inflammatory markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), and bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X (BMX) in animals with mTBI. GIP was well tolerated and ameliorated mTBI-induced memory impairments, poor balance, and sensorimotor deficits after initiation in the post-injury period. In addition, GIP mitigated mTBI-induced neuroinflammatory changes on GFAP, APP, and BMX protein levels. These findings suggest GIP has significant benefits in managing mTBI-related symptoms and represents a novel strategy for mTBI treatment. PMID:26972789

  10. Frontal Metabolite Concentration Deficits in Opiate Dependence Relate to Substance Use, Cognition, and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Donna E; Durazzo, Timothy C; Schmidt, Thomas P; Abé, Christoph; Guydish, Joseph; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. Methods Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy. Results were compared to 28 controls (CON) and 35 alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC), commonly investigated treatment-seekers providing context for OD evaluation. Metabolite concentrations were measured from ACC, DLPFC, OFC and parieto-occipital cortical (POC) regions. Results Compared to CON, OD had lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), creatine +phosphocreatine (Cr) and myo-Inositol (mI) in the DLPFC and lower NAA, Cr, and mI in the ACC. OD, ALC, and CON were equivalent on metabolite levels in the POC and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration did not differ between groups in any region. In OD, prefrontal metabolite deficits in ACC Glu as well as DLPFC NAA and choline containing metabolites (Cho) correlated with poorer working memory, executive and visuospatial functioning; metabolite deficits in DLPFC Glu and ACC GABA and Cr correlated with substance use measures. In the OFC of OD, Glu and choline-containing metabolites were elevated and lower Cr concentration related to higher nonplanning impulsivity. Compared to 3 week abstinent ALC, OD had significant DLPFC metabolite deficits. Conclusion The anterior frontal metabolite profile of OD differed significantly from that of CON and ALC. The frontal lobe metabolite abnormalities in OD and their neuropsychological correlates may play a role in treatment outcome and could be explored as specific targets for improved OD treatment. PMID:27695638

  11. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

  12. Prefrontal Cortex Cognitive Deficits in Children Treated Early and Continuously for PKU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Adele; Prevor, Meredith B.; Druin, Donald P.; Callender, Glenda

    1997-01-01

    Hypothesized that elevated ratio of phenylalanine to tyrosine in blood of children with phenylketonuria uniquely affects cognitive functions dependent on prefrontal cortex because of the special sensitivity of prefrontally projecting dopamine neurons to small decreases in tyrosine. Found that children whose phenylalanine levels were three to five…

  13. Cognitive deficit in patients with paranoid schizophrenia: Its clinical and laboratory correlates.

    PubMed

    Dorofeikova, Mariia; Neznanov, Nikolay; Petrova, Nataliia

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to search for correlates of cognitive impairment in patients with paranoid schizophrenia among clinical, demographic, anamnestic and biochemical markers (NSE, S100B protein, BDNF, hs-CRP). Patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n=125) were examined using the Brief Assessment of Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure task, and a number of clinical scales including the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The majority of patients demonstrated cognitive impairment. The type of impairment was highly heterogeneous and individual. Relationships were found between the degree of executive functioning and family history of mental illness; working memory and age of onset of schizophrenia; and visual memory and psychopathological symptomatology. Negative and affective symptoms were not significantly associated with cognitive functioning. Treatment with first generation antipsychotics was associated with a more frequent impairment of motor skills, and concomitant anticholinergic drugs, with reduced accuracy. Use of second-generation antipsychotics only was associated with better accuracy, working memory and speech fluency. Among the patients, 21.4% had signs of a systemic inflammatory response, indicating a possible role of inflammatory response in the development of schizophrenia. CRP, S100B and NSE levels reflected features of the course of illness and therapeutic response. Patients with lower concentrations of BDNF were characterized by lower processing speeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Achievement Deficits in Children with Mathematical Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Nugent, Lara; Numtee, Chattavee

    2007-01-01

    Using strict and lenient mathematics achievement cutoff scores to define a learning disability, respective groups of children who are math disabled (MLD, n = 15) and low achieving (LA, n = 44) were identified. These groups and a group of typically achieving (TA, n = 46) children were administered a battery of mathematical cognition, working…

  15. A Multimodal Assessment of Behavioral and Cognitive Deficits in Abused and Neglected Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman-Plotkin, Debbie; Twentyman, Craig T.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple measures of social and cognitive functioning were obtained to investigate whether abused and neglected children demonstrate serious psychological disturbances following instances of child maltreatment. Participants were 42 preschool children who had a previous history of physical abuse, serious neglect, or no maltreatment. (Author/RH)

  16. Neural Correlates for Intrinsic Motivational Deficits of Schizophrenia; Implications for Therapeutics of Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Matsumoto, Madoka; Murayama, Kou; Ikezawa, Satoru; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2018-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the treatment of schizophrenia is recovery, a notion related to improvement of cognitive and social functioning. Cognitive remediation therapies (CRT), one of the most effective cognition enhancing methods, have been shown to moderately improve social functioning. For this purpose, intrinsic motivation, related to internal values such as interest and enjoyment, has been shown to play a key role. Although the impairment of intrinsic motivation is one of the characteristics of schizophrenia, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. This is related to the lack of feasible measures of intrinsic motivation, and its response to treatment. According to the self-determination theory (SDT), not only intrinsic motivation, but extrinsic motivation has been reported to enhance learning and memory in healthy subjects to some extent. This finding suggests the contribution of different types of motivation to potentiate the ability of the CRT to treat cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. In this paper, we provide a review of psychological characteristics, assessment methods, and neural correlates of intrinsic motivation in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Particularly, we focus on neuroimaging studies of intrinsic motivation, including our own. These considerations are relevant to enhancement of functional outcomes of schizophrenia. PMID:29922185

  17. Neural Correlates for Intrinsic Motivational Deficits of Schizophrenia; Implications for Therapeutics of Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Matsumoto, Madoka; Murayama, Kou; Ikezawa, Satoru; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2018-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the treatment of schizophrenia is recovery, a notion related to improvement of cognitive and social functioning. Cognitive remediation therapies (CRT), one of the most effective cognition enhancing methods, have been shown to moderately improve social functioning. For this purpose, intrinsic motivation, related to internal values such as interest and enjoyment, has been shown to play a key role. Although the impairment of intrinsic motivation is one of the characteristics of schizophrenia, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. This is related to the lack of feasible measures of intrinsic motivation, and its response to treatment. According to the self-determination theory (SDT), not only intrinsic motivation, but extrinsic motivation has been reported to enhance learning and memory in healthy subjects to some extent. This finding suggests the contribution of different types of motivation to potentiate the ability of the CRT to treat cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. In this paper, we provide a review of psychological characteristics, assessment methods, and neural correlates of intrinsic motivation in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Particularly, we focus on neuroimaging studies of intrinsic motivation, including our own. These considerations are relevant to enhancement of functional outcomes of schizophrenia.

  18. Dimensions and Correlates of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Annie A.; Marceaux, Janice; Mrug, Sylvie; Patterson, Cryshelle; Hodgens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) in relation to ADHD symptoms, clinical diagnosis, and multiple aspects of adjustment in a clinical sample. Parent and teacher reports were gathered for 322 children and adolescents evaluated for behavioral, emotional, and/or learning problems at a university clinic. Confirmatory factor…

  19. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  20. Investigating Metacognition, Cognition, and Behavioral Deficits of College Students with Acute Traumatic Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sarah; Davalos, Deana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in college students who have had an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated. The cognitive, behavioral, and metacognitive effects on college students who endorsed experiencing a brain injury were specifically explored. Participants: Participants were 121 college students who endorsed a mild TBI, and 121…

  1. Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer's Disease-Like Models.

    PubMed

    Huh, Eugene; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Min Seo; Lee, Bongyong; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 μg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD.

  2. Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Models

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Eugene; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Min Seo; Lee, Bongyong; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 μg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD. PMID:25009697

  3. Cognitive mediational deficits and the role of coping styles in pedophile and ephebophile Roman Catholic clergy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Beyond Stimulus Deprivation: Iron Deficiency and Cognitive Deficits in Postinstitutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Frenn, Kristin; Fuglestad, Anita J.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Children adopted from institutions have been studied as models of the impact of stimulus deprivation on cognitive development (Nelson, Bos, Gunnar, & Sonuga-Barke, 2011), but these children may also suffer from micronutrient deficiencies (Fuglestad et al., 2008). The contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation on…

  5. The brain structural and cognitive basis of odor identification deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to explore the relationship between olfactory impairment, cognitive measures, and brain structure volumes in healthy elderly individuals, compared to patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The primary aim was to elucidate possible differences in cognitive scores and brain structure volumes between aMCI/AD patients with relatively intact odor identification (OI) ability and those with reduced ability. Methods Twelve patients with aMCI, six with early AD, and 30 control subjects were included. OI abilities were assessed with the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) and Sniffin Sticks Identification Test (SSIT). Neuropsychological tests of executive functions and memory were performed. Brain structural volumes were obtained from T1 weighted 3D MRI at 3 Tesla. Statistical comparisons between the patients with aMCI and AD indicated no significant differences in performance on most tests. Since the groups were small and AD patients were in an early phase of disease, all patients were subsequently considered together as a single group for studying OI. Patients were subdivided into relatively intact (scores >50%) and reduced OI (≤ 50% score) on the olfactory tests. Results The aMCI/AD group with reduced OI ability, as measured by both B-SIT and SSIT, had significantly smaller hippocampal volume as compared to the patient group with OI scores > 50%. There was a significant association between OI scores and hippocampal volume in the patient (not the control) group. Similar changes with tests of executive function and memory were not found. Low OI scores on B-SIT were associated with conversion from aMCI to AD in patients. The reduced OI patient group was significantly faster on Rey complex figure copying than the fairly intact OI group. Conclusion The results from this pilot study suggest that the reduction in the size of hippocampus in connection with early AD is

  6. Cognitive deficits are associated with poorer simulated driving in older adults with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is prevalent in older adults with heart failure (HF) and associated with reduced functional independence. HF patients appear at risk for reduced driving ability, as past work in other medical samples has shown cognitive dysfunction to be an important contributor to driving performance. The current study examined whether cognitive dysfunction was independently associated with reduced driving simulation performance in a sample of HF patients. Methods 18 persons with HF (67.72; SD = 8.56 year) completed echocardiogram and a brief neuropsychological test battery assessing global cognitive function, attention/executive function, memory and motor function. All participants then completed the Kent Multidimensional Assessment Driving Simulation (K-MADS), a driving simulator scenario with good psychometric properties. Results The sample exhibited an average Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 27.83 (SD = 2.09). Independent sample t-tests showed that HF patients performed worse than healthy adults on the driving simulation scenario. Finally, partial correlations showed worse attention/executive and motor function were independently associated with poorer driving simulation performance across several indices reflective of driving ability (i.e., centerline crossings, number of collisions, % of time over the speed limit, among others). Conclusion The current findings showed that reduced cognitive function was associated with poor simulated driving performance in older adults with HF. If replicated using behind-the-wheel testing, HF patients may be at elevated risk for unsafe driving and routine driving evaluations in this population may be warranted. PMID:24499466

  7. Edaravone alleviates Alzheimer’s disease-type pathologies and cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Fan; Lu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Chi; Shen, Lin-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Ye-Ran; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Parikh, Ankit; Chen, Jia; Liang, Chun-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Bu, Xian-Le; Deng, Juan; Li, Jing; Xu, Juan; Zeng, Yue-Qin; Xu, Xiang; Xu, Hai-Wei; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of most devastating diseases affecting elderly people. Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and the downstream pathological events such as oxidative stress play critical roles in pathogenesis of AD. Lessons from failures of current clinical trials suggest that targeting multiple key pathways of the AD pathogenesis is necessary to halt the disease progression. Here we show that Edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is marketed for acute ischemic stroke, has a potent capacity of inhibiting Aβ aggregation and attenuating Aβ-induced oxidation in vitro. When given before or after the onset of Aβ deposition via i.p. injection, Edaravone substantially reduces Aβ deposition, alleviates oxidative stress, attenuates the downstream pathologies including Tau hyperphosphorylation, glial activation, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, synaptic dysfunction, and rescues the behavioral deficits of APPswe/PS1 mice. Oral administration of Edaravone also ameliorates the AD-like pathologies and memory deficits of the mice. These findings suggest that Edaravone holds a promise as a therapeutic agent for AD by targeting multiple key pathways of the disease pathogenesis. PMID:25847999

  8. Topography of activation deficits in schizophrenia during P300 task related to cognition and structural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Molina, Vicente; Bachiller, Alejandro; de Luis, Rodrigo; Lubeiro, Alba; Poza, Jesús; Hornero, Roberto; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Marqués, Patricia; Romero, Sergio

    2018-02-02

    The study of cerebral underpinnings of schizophrenia may benefit from the high temporal resolution of electromagnetic techniques, but its spatial resolution is low. However, source imaging approaches such as low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) allow for an acceptable compromise between spatial and temporal resolutions. We combined LORETA with 32 channels and 3-Tesla diffusion magnetic resonance (Dmr) to study cerebral dysfunction in 38 schizophrenia patients (17 first episodes, FE), compared to 53 healthy controls. The EEG was acquired with subjects performing an odd-ball task. Analyses included an adaptive window of interest to take into account the interindividual variability of P300 latency. We compared source activation patters to distractor (P3a) and target (P3b) tones within- and between-groups. Patients showed a reduced activation in anterior cingulate and lateral and medial prefrontal cortices, as well as inferior/orbital frontal regions. This was also found in the FE patients alone. The activation was directly related to IQ in the patients and controls and to working memory performance in controls. Symptoms were unrelated to source activation. Fractional anisotropy in the tracts connecting lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions predicted source activation in these regions in the patients. These results replicate the source activation deficit found in a previous study with smaller sample size and a lower number of sensors and suggest an association between structural connectivity deficits and functional alterations.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…

  10. Learning to Read Against All Odds: Using Precision Reading to Enhance Literacy in Students with Cognitive Impairments, Extreme Academic Deficits, and Severe Social, Emotional, and Psychiatric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeze, Rick; Cook, Paula

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and practicality of precision reading, a constructive reading intervention, with students with cognitive impairments, extreme academic deficits in reading, and severe social, emotional, and psychiatric problems. As precision reading had shown promise with students with low achievement, learning…

  11. Cognitive Performance Is Highly Sensitive to Prior Experience in Mice with a Learning and Memory Deficit: Failure Leads to More Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebda-Bauer, Elaine K.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2005-01-01

    The impact of a previously successful or unsuccessful experience on the subsequent acquisition of a related task is not well understood. The nature of past experience may have even greater impact in individuals with learning deficits, as their cognitive processes can be easily disrupted. Mice with a targeted disruption of the [alpha] and [delta]…

  12. Neuroprotective potential of sesamol and its loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in ICV-STZ-induced cognitive deficits: behavioral and biochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Anand Kamal; Misra, Shubham; Pal Kaur, Indu; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2015-01-15

    Neuroinflammation is a prominent feature of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induced-cognitive impairment has been widely used as an experimental paradigm of Alzheimer׳s disease. Sesamol is a potent inhibitor of cytokine production as well as an antioxidant. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of sesamol in ICV-STZ-induced cognitive deficits in rats by incorporating it into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). ICV-STZ administration produced significant cognitive deficits as assessed by both Morris water maze and elevated plus maze task which is accompanied by significantly enhanced nitrodative stress, altered acetylcholinesterase in rat brain along with significantly increased serum TNF-α levels. Chronic treatment with sesamol and sesamol loaded SLNs dose dependently restored cognitive deficits in ICV-STZ rats along with mitigation of nitrodative stress and cytokine release. Effectiveness of SLNs to deliver sesamol to the brain was shown by a significantly better alleviation of the oxidative stress parameters. Our findings demonstrate that loading of sesamol in SLNs is an effective strategy to mitigate ICV-STZ-induced neuronal dysfunction and memory deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive Flexibility and Its Relationship to Academic Achievement and Career Choice of College Students with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Frank, Colleen C.; Fromm, Erik D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive flexibility, academic skills, educational trajectories, and career goals of college students with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, objective and subjective measures of cognitive…

  14. "SLC2A3" Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism and Duplication Influence Cognitive Processing and Population-Specific Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merker, Sören; Reif, Andreas; Ziegler, Georg C.; Weber, Heike; Mayer, Ute; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Conzelmann, Annette; Johansson, Stefan; Müller-Reible, Clemens; Nanda, Indrajit; Haaf, Thomas; Ullmann, Reinhard; Romanos, Marcel; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Pauli, Paul; Strekalova, Tatyana; Jansch, Charline; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Haavik, Jan; Ribasés, Marta; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of…

  15. Ketamine anesthesia during the first week of life can cause long-lasting cognitive deficits in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Paule, M G; Li, M; Allen, R R; Liu, F; Zou, X; Hotchkiss, C; Hanig, J P; Patterson, T A; Slikker, W; Wang, C

    2011-01-01

    Previously our laboratory has shown that ketamine exposure (24h of clinically relevant anesthesia) causes significant increases in neuronal cell death in perinatal rhesus monkeys. Sensitivity to this ketamine-induced neurotoxicity was observed on gestational days 120-123 (in utero exposure via maternal anesthesia) and on postnatal days (PNDs) 5-6, but not on PNDs 35-37. In the present study, six monkeys were exposed on PND 5 or 6 to intravenous ketamine anesthesia to maintain a light surgical plane for 24h and six control animals were unexposed. At 7 months of age all animals were weaned and began training to perform a series of cognitive function tasks as part of the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) Operant Test Battery (OTB). The OTB tasks used here included those for assessing aspects of learning, motivation, color discrimination, and short-term memory. Subjects responded for banana-flavored food pellets by pressing response levers and press-plates during daily (M-F) test sessions (50 min) and were assigned training scores based upon their individual performance. As reported earlier (Paule et al., 2009) beginning around 10 months of age, control animals significantly outperformed (had higher training scores than) ketamine-exposed animals for approximately the next 10 months. For animals now over 3 and one-half years of age, the cognitive impairments continue to manifest in the ketamine-exposed group as poorer performance in the OTB learning and color and position discrimination tasks, as deficits in accuracy of task performance, but also in response speed. There are also apparent differences in the motivation of these animals which may be impacting OTB performance. These observations demonstrate that a single 24-h episode of ketamine anesthesia, occurring during a sensitive period of brain development, results in very long-lasting deficits in brain function in primates and provide proof-of-concept that general anesthesia during critical periods

  16. Activation of PPARγ Ameliorates Spatial Cognitive Deficits through Restoring Expression of AMPA Receptors in Seipin Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Libin; Chen, Tingting; Li, Guoxi; Wu, Chaoming; Wang, Conghui; Li, Lin; Sha, Sha; Chen, Lei; Liu, George; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-27

    A characteristic phenotype of congenital generalized lipodystrophy 2 (CGL2) that is caused by loss-of-function of seipin gene is mental retardation. Here, we show that seipin deficiency in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells caused the reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Twelve-week-old systemic seipin knock-out mice and neuronal seipin knock-out (seipin-nKO) mice, but not adipose seipin knock-out mice, exhibited spatial cognitive deficits as assessed by the Morris water maze and Y-maze, which were ameliorated by the treatment with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (rosi). In addition, seipin-nKO mice showed the synaptic dysfunction and the impairment of NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in hippocampal CA1 regions. The density of AMPA-induced current (IAMPA) in CA1 pyramidal cells and GluR1/GluR2 expression were significantly reduced in seipin-nKO mice, whereas the NMDA-induced current (INMDA) and NR1/NR2 expression were not altered. Rosi treatment in seipin-nKO mice could correct the decrease in expression and activity of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) and was accompanied by recovered synaptic function and LTP induction. Furthermore, hippocampal ERK2 and CREB phosphorylation in seipin-nKO mice were reduced and this could be rescued by rosi treatment. Rosi treatment in seipin-nKO mice elevated BDNF concentration. The MEK inhibitor U0126 blocked rosi-restored AMPAR expression and LTP induction in seipin-nKO mice, but the Trk family inhibitor K252a did not. These findings indicate that the neuronal seipin deficiency selectively suppresses AMPAR expression through reducing ERK-CREB activities, leading to the impairment of LTP and spatial memory, which can be rescued by PPARγ activation. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy 2 (CGL2), caused by loss-of-function mutation of seipin gene, is characterized by mental retardation. By the generation of systemic or neuronal seipin knock-out mice, the present study provides in vivo evidence that neuronal seipin

  17. Piperine, the main alkaloid of Thai black pepper, protects against neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in animal model of cognitive deficit like condition of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2010-03-01

    Recently, numerous medicinal plants possessing profound central nervous system effects and antioxidant activity have received much attention as food supplement to improve cognitive function against cognitive deficit condition including in Alzheimer's disease condition. Based on this information, the effect of piperine, a main active alkaloid in fruit of Piper nigrum, on memory performance and neurodegeneration in animal model of Alzheimer's disease have been investigated. Adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were orally given piperine at various doses ranging from 5, 10 and 20mg/kg BW at a period of 2 weeks before and 1 week after the intracerebroventricular administration of ethylcholine aziridinium ion (AF64A) bilaterally. The results showed that piperine at all dosage range used in this study significantly improved memory impairment and neurodegeneration in hippocampus. The possible underlying mechanisms might be partly associated with the decrease lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Moreover, piperine also demonstrated the neurotrophic effect in hippocampus. However, further researches about the precise underlying mechanism are still required. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychophysiological correlates of cognitive deficits in family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, M S; Vedovelli, K; Giacobbo, B L; de Souza, C E B; Ferrari, P; de Lima Argimon, I I; Walz, J C; Kapczinski, F; Bromberg, E

    2015-02-12

    The progressive loss of memory and autonomy of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients, together with their characteristic behavioral and psychological symptoms, subjects their family caregivers to chronic stress. Several studies indicate that these caregivers are predisposed to cognitive impairments, but the physiological correlates of these alterations remain to be elucidated. Analyze the effects of chronic stress of family caregivers of AD patients on cognition, cortisol/DHEA ratios and BDNF levels and investigate the relation between these variables. Seventeen family caregivers (64.83 ± 3.64 years) of patients with AD and eighteen non-caregivers (58.29 ± 3.16 years) completed stress, depression and anxiety inventories. Exclusion criteria were current neurological disorders, major unstable medical illnesses, use of medications that could interfere with cognitive or HPA axis function and dementia. Attention, working memory and executive function were assessed with Digit Span and Trail Making tests, and declarative memory was analyzed with the Logical Memory test. Saliva was collected at 8 AM and 10 PM and its cortisol and DHEA levels determined by radioimmunoassay. Serum BDNF levels were measured by sandwich-ELISA. Results were analyzed with independent samples t test, covariance analysis and linear regressions. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05 and all p values were adjusted with Holm's Method. Caregivers showed more stress, depression and anxiety symptoms than non-caregivers, as well as significantly worse performances on attention, working memory and executive function tests. Caregivers also had higher cortisol/DHEA ratios and lower BDNF levels than non-caregivers. Cortisol/DHEA ratios, especially at 10 PM, were negatively related with all cognitive tasks in which caregivers showed impaired performance. On the other hand, the only cognitive task that related with the BDNF level was digit span. This study showed that caregivers' cognitive impairment is

  19. Acteoside and Isoacteoside Protect Amyloid β Peptide Induced Cytotoxicity, Cognitive Deficit and Neurochemical Disturbances In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shiao, Young-Ji; Su, Muh-Hwan; Lin, Hang-Ching; Wu, Chi-Rei

    2017-01-01

    Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade and central neuronal function in these effects. Acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated cognitive deficits, decreased amyloid deposition, and reversed central cholinergic dysfunction that were caused by Aβ 1-42 in rats. Acteoside and isoacteoside further decreased extracellular Aβ 1-40 production and restored the cell viability that was decreased by Aβ 1-42 in SH-SY5Y cells. Acteoside and isoacteoside also promoted Aβ 1-40 degradation and inhibited Aβ 1-42 oligomerization in vitro. However, the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of isoacteoside exceeded those of acteoside. Isoacteoside promoted exploratory behavior and restored cortical and hippocampal dopamine levels, but acteoside did not. We suggest that acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction that was caused by Aβ 1-42 by blocking amyloid deposition via preventing amyloid oligomerization, and reversing central neuronal function via counteracting amyloid cytotoxicity. PMID:28441758

  20. Characterizing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and comorbid borderline personality disorder: ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, G K; McHugh, L; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize adults with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with regard to ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors. A between-group design compared a group of individuals diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) with a group diagnosed with BPD and who also met the criteria for ADHD (ADHD+BPD) (n=20). Significant differences were observed for both childhood and current impulsivity symptoms, whereby ADHD+BPD exhibited increased impulsivity; no differences on self-report and cognitive measures of impulsivity were reported. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety and numerous other axis I and II conditions. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly lower on most measures of intellectual functioning and attention, however largely not on those relating to response inhibition. Furthermore, group differences were observed for psychosocial factors, including education, substance use and criminal record. Comorbid ADHD and BPD is characterized by more symptoms of impulsivity, additional psychopathology, comparatively lower intellectual and attentional functioning and increased psychosocial difficulties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Numerical and arithmetical cognition: a longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability.

    PubMed

    Geary, D C; Hamson, C O; Hoard, M K

    2000-11-01

    Based on the stability and level of performance on standard achievement tests in first and second grade (mean age in first grade = 82 months), children with IQ scores in the low-average to high-average range were classified as learning disabled (LD) in mathematics (MD), reading (RD), or both (MD/RD). These children (n = 42), a group of children who showed variable achievement test performance across grades (n = 16), and a control group of academically normal peers (n = 35) were administered a series of experimental and psychometric tasks. The tasks assessed number comprehension and production skills, counting knowledge, arithmetic skills, working memory, the ease of activation of phonetic representations of words and numbers, and spatial abilities. The children with variable achievement test performance did not differ from the academically normal children in any cognitive domain, whereas the children in the LD groups showed specific patterns of cognitive deficit, above and beyond the influence of IQ. Discussion focuses on the similarities and differences across the groups of LD children. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Ablating ErbB4 in PV neurons attenuates synaptic and cognitive deficits in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Dongming; He, Xiao; Wang, Dongpi; Pan, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Mei, Yufei; Qian, Qi; Zheng, Tingting; Jones, Frank E; Sun, Binggui

    2017-10-01

    Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) induces neuronal, synaptic, and cognitive deficits in patients and animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that Aβ interacted with ErbB4, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and mainly expressed in GABAergic interneurons. Deleting ErbB4 in parvalbumin-expressing neurons (PV neurons) significantly attenuated oligomeric Aβ-induced suppression of long term potentiation (LTP). Furthermore, specific ablation of ErbB4 in PV neurons via Cre/loxP system greatly improved spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of hAPP-J20 mice. The deposition of Aβ detected by 3D6 and Thioflavin S staining and the proteolytic processing of hAPP analyzed by western blotting were not affected in the hippocampus of hAPP-J20 mice by deleting ErbB4 in PV neurons. Our data suggested that ErbB4 in PV neurons mediated Aβ-induced synaptic and cognitive dysfunctions without affecting Aβ levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pretreatment with Resveratrol Prevents Neuronal Injury and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, Miren; Urigüen, Leyre; Álvarez, Antonia; Montalvo, Haizea; Hilario, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is still a serious clinical problem, which is responsible for many cases of perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with important anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is present in grapevines, peanuts and pomegranates. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of resveratrol when administered before or immediately after a hypoxic-ischemic brain event in neonatal rats by analyzing brain damage, the mitochondrial status and long-term cognitive impairment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with resveratrol protects against brain damage, reducing infarct volume, preserving myelination and minimizing the astroglial reactive response. Moreover its neuroprotective effect was found to be long lasting, as behavioral outcomes were significantly improved at adulthood. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this neuroprotection may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and potential, and to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Curiously, none of these protective features was observed when resveratrol was administered immediately after hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26544861

  4. Cognitive and behavioural deficits associated with the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sandra L; Charleston, Alison J; Tippett, Lynette J

    2010-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a progressive disease affecting motor neurons, may variably affect cognition and behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that functions associated with orbitomedial prefrontal cortex are affected by evaluating the behavioural and cognitive performance of 18 participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis without dementia and 18 healthy, matched controls. We measured Theory of Mind (Faux Pas Task), emotional prosody recognition (Aprosodia Battery), reversal of behaviour in response to changes in reward (Probabilistic Reversal Learning Task), decision making without risk (Holiday Apartment Task) and aberrant behaviour (Neuropsychiatric Inventory). We also assessed dorsolateral prefrontal function, using verbal and written fluency and planning (One-touch Stockings of Cambridge), to determine whether impairments in tasks sensitive to these two prefrontal regions co-occur. The patient group was significantly impaired at identifying social faux pas, recognizing emotions and decision-making, indicating mild, but consistent impairment on most measures sensitive to orbitomedial prefrontal cortex. Significant levels of aberrant behaviour were present in 50% of patients. Patients were also impaired on verbal fluency and planning. Individual subject analyses involved computing classical dissociations between tasks sensitive to different prefrontal regions. These revealed heterogeneous patterns of impaired and spared cognitive abilities: 33% of participants had classical dissociations involving orbitomedial prefrontal tasks, 17% had classical dissociations involving dorsolateral prefrontal tasks, 22% had classical dissociations between tasks of both regions, and 28% had no classical dissociations. These data indicate subtle changes in behaviour, emotional processing, decision-making and altered social awareness, associated with orbitomedial prefrontal cortex, may be present in a significant proportion of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  5. Do Multiple Concussions Lead to Cumulative Cognitive Deficits? A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Yumul, Joy Noelle; McKinlay, Audrey

    2016-11-01

    A concussion is an important health concern for children and adolescents, particularly in the context of sporting injuries. Some research suggests a cumulative effect from multiple concussions (also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury), which creates a dilemma when considering how to manage children and young persons who may experience multiple concussive events within a sporting season. However, there is very little research regarding the outcomes of multiple concussions and their optimal management. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the cognitive outcomes of multiple concussions. After assessing the eligibility of the articles from the literature search, 7 studies were identified and included in the review. In most of the available literature, the cognitive outcomes related to multiple concussions are measured during the same developmental age as when the injuries happened. Moreover, most studies that investigated multiple concussions are focused on sports-related injuries, and only some are conducted in children and adolescents in the general population. The current evidence is inconclusive; whereas some studies reported adverse outcomes, others reported null findings. The studies that reported adverse or cumulative effects based their findings on worse cognitive outcomes, more subjective symptoms, and prolonged recovery postinjury. II. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of abnormalities in the corpus callosum in social cognition deficits after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A; Dalton, Katie I; Allen, Samantha K; Parks, Nicklas

    2018-08-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is vulnerable to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Social cognition requires integration of non-verbal and verbal information in order to understand social behaviour and may be compromised if the CC is damaged. 17 adults with severe, chronic TBI and 17 control participants underwent structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. A region of interest analysis examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) across regions of the CC. Performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): part 1 (emotion recognition) and parts 2 and 3 (social inference), was examined in relation to FA and MD. Across participants, higher genu FA values were related to higher TASIT part 3 scores. Increased splenium FA was associated with better performance for TASIT parts 1-3. There was no association between DTI values and TASIT in the controls alone. In the TBI group, FA of the genu and splenium was correlated with TASIT part 3. The pattern of performance was similar when controlling for non-social cognitive ability. In conclusion, social information is complex and multi-modal requiring inter-hemispheric connection. People with TBI, regardless of focal grey matter injury, may lose social cognitive ability due to trauma related changes to the corpus callosum.

  7. Huperzine A attenuates cognitive deficits and hippocampal neuronal damage after transient global ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Zhang, H Y; Tang, X C

    2001-11-09

    The protective effects of huperzine A on transient global ischemia in gerbils were investigated. Five min of global ischemia in gerbils results in working memory impairments shown by increased escape latency in a water maze and reduced time spent in the target quadrant. These signs of dysfunction are accompanied by delayed degeneration of pyramidal hippocampal CA1 neurons and by decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus. Subchronic oral administration of huperzine A (0.1 mg/kg, twice per day for 14 days) after ischemia significantly reduced the memory impairment, reduced neuronal degeneration in the CA1 region, and partially restored hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity. The ability of huperzine A to attenuate memory deficits and neuronal damage after ischemia might be beneficial in cerebrovascular type dementia.

  8. [Immune dysfunction and cognitive deficit in stress and physiological aging. Part II: New approaches to cognitive disorder prevention and treatment ].

    PubMed

    Pukhal'skiĭ, A L; Shmarina, G V; Aleshkin, V A

    2014-01-01

    Long-term stress as well as physiological aging result in similar immunological and hormonal disturbances including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis depletion, aberrant immune response (regulatory T-cells, Tregs, and T(h17)-lymphocyte accumulation) and decreased dehydroepian-drosterone synthesis both in the brain and in the adrenal glands. Since the main mechanisms of inflammation control, "prompt" (stress hormones) and "delayed" (Tregs), are broken, serum cytokine levels increase and become sufficient for blood-brain-barrier disruption. As a result peripheral cytokines penetrate into the brain where they begin to perform new functions. Structural and functional alterations of blood-brain-barrier as well as stress- (or age-) induced neuroinflammation promote influx of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and lymphocyte effectors into the brain parenchyma. Thereafter, mass intrusion ofpro-inflammatory mediators and immune cells having a lot of specific targets alters the brain work that we can observe both in humans and in animal experiments. The concept of stressful cognitive dysfunction, which is under consideration in this review, allows picking out several therapeutic targets: 1) reduction of excessive Treg accumulation; 2) supporting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammatory reaction attenuation; 3) recovery of dehydroepiandrosterone level; 4) improvement of blood-brain-barrier function.

  9. Is motor activity during cognitive assessment an indicator for feigned attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults?

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Send, Tabea S; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2018-04-25

    Several approaches, ranging from self-ratings of symptoms and impairments to objective neuropsychological testing, have been utilized during clinical evaluation in order to assess symptom and performance validity of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Motor activity has not been considered yet in this context, which is surprising given that hyperactivity is a prominent characteristic of ADHD. Hence, the goal of the present study was to explore the incremental value of motor activity when assessing the credibility of individuals with adult ADHD at clinical evaluation. Forty-six patients diagnosed with ADHD took part in the study. A simulation design was performed, in which 152 healthy individuals were allocated to either a control condition (n = 36) or one of three simulation conditions (n = 116), the latter requesting participants to feign ADHD. All participants completed a self-rating scale of cognitive functioning and performed a computerized test for vigilance. Body movements were recorded during vigilance testing via a motion tracker attached to the back of the participant's chair. Patients with ADHD reported significantly more pronounced cognitive co