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Sample records for abolishes transepithelial leukocyte

  1. Bidirectional transepithelial water transport: measurement and governing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J E; Wong, L B; Yeates, D B

    1999-02-01

    In the search for the mechanisms whereby water is transported across biological membranes, we hypothesized that in the airways, the hydration of the periciliary fluid layer is regulated by luminal-to-basolateral water transport coupled to active transepithelial sodium transport. The luminal-to-basolateral (JWL-->B) and the basolateral-to-luminal (JWB-->L) transepithelial water fluxes across ovine tracheal epithelia were measured simultaneously. The JWL-->B (6.1 microliter/min/cm2) was larger than JWB-->L (4.5 microliter/min/cm2, p < 0.05, n = 30). The corresponding water diffusional permeabilities were PdL-->B = 1.0 x 10(-4) cm/s and PdB-->L = 7.5 x 10(-5) cm/s. The activation energy (Ea) of JWL-->B (11.6 kcal/mol) was larger than the Ea of JWB-->L (6.5 kcal/mol, p < 0.05, n = 5). Acetylstrophanthidin (100 microM basolateral) reduced JWL-->B from 6.1 to 4.4 microliter/min/cm2 (p < 0. 05, n = 5) and abolished the PD. Amiloride (10 microM luminal) reduced JWL-->B from 5.7 to 3.7 microliter/min/cm2 (p < 0.05, n = 5) and reduced PD by 44%. Neither of these agents significantly changed JWB-->L. These data indicate that in tracheal epithelia under homeostatic conditions, JWB-->L was dominated by diffusion (Ea = 4.6 kcal/mol), whereas approximately 30% of JWL-->B was coupled to the active Na+,K+-ATPase pump (Ea = 27 kcal/mol).

  2. Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy with crosslinking for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Achyut N; Selimis, Vasilis; Aslanides, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    To analyse visual, refractive and topographic outcomes of combining transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) with simultaneous corneal crosslinking for the visual rehabilitation of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. Patients with topographically significant keratoconus, limited corrected vision and intolerant of contact lenses were prospectively recruited, subject to ethical approval and consent. All patients underwent single step aspheric tPRK and sequential crosslinking. Preoperative vision, refraction, corneal topography and wavefront were assessed, with postoperative assessment at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. 22 eyes of 14 patients were included in the pilot study. Mean age was 32 years (SD 6.8, range 24 to 43). Mean preoperative unaided vision was 1.39 LogMAR (SD 0.5) best corrected 0.31 LogMAR (SD 0.2). Mean preoperative spherical equivalent was -2.74 Diopters (D) (SD 4.1 range -12.25 to +7.75), and mean cylinder -2.9 D (SD 1.2, range 0 to -5.5). Mean central corneal thickness was 461um (SD 29, range 411 to 516). Vision improved postoperatively; unaided 0.32 LogMAR (SD 0.4), best corrected 0.11 (SD 0.13) (P=<0.005). Mean postoperative cylinder was -1.4D (SD1.2), significantly reduced (p<0.005). Maximum keratometry (Kmax) was stable throughout postoperative follow up. (p<0.05). Non topographic transepithelial PRK with simultaneous crosslinking improves vision, and may offer an alternative to keratoplasty in contact lens intolerant keratoconus. Further comparative studies to topographic PRK techniques are indicated.

  3. Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy with Crosslinking for Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Achyut N; Selimis, Vasilis; Aslanides, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To analyse visual, refractive and topographic outcomes of combining transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) with simultaneous corneal crosslinking for the visual rehabilitation of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. Methods: Patients with topographically significant keratoconus, limited corrected vision and intolerant of contact lenses were prospectively recruited, subject to ethical approval and consent. All patients underwent single step aspheric tPRK and sequential crosslinking. Preoperative vision, refraction, corneal topography and wavefront were assessed, with postoperative assessment at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: 22 eyes of 14 patients were included in the pilot study. Mean age was 32 years (SD 6.8, range 24 to 43). Mean preoperative unaided vision was 1.39 LogMAR (SD 0.5) best corrected 0.31 LogMAR (SD 0.2). Mean preoperative spherical equivalent was -2.74 Diopters (D) (SD 4.1 range -12.25 to +7.75), and mean cylinder -2.9 D (SD 1.2, range 0 to -5.5). Mean central corneal thickness was 461um (SD 29, range 411 to 516). Vision improved postoperatively; unaided 0.32 LogMAR (SD 0.4), best corrected 0.11 (SD 0.13) (P=<0.005). Mean postoperative cylinder was -1.4D (SD1.2), significantly reduced (p<0.005). Maximum keratometry (Kmax) was stable throughout postoperative follow up. (p<0.05). Conclusions: Non topographic transepithelial PRK with simultaneous crosslinking improves vision, and may offer an alternative to keratoplasty in contact lens intolerant keratoconus. Further comparative studies to topographic PRK techniques are indicated. PMID:24222809

  4. Transepithelial Bicarbonate Secretion: Lessons from the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-01-01

    Many cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-expressing epithelia secrete bicarbonate (HCO3−)-containing fluids. Recent evidence suggests that defects in epithelial bicarbonate secretion are directly involved in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis, in particular by building up hyperviscous mucus in the ductal structures of the lung and pancreas. Pancreatic juice is one of the representative fluids that contain a very high concentration of bicarbonate among bodily fluids that are secreted from CFTR-expressing epithelia. We introduce up-to-date knowledge on the basic principles of transepithelial bicarbonate transport by showing the mechanisms involved in pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. The model of pancreatic bicarbonate secretion described herein may also apply to other exocrine epithelia. As a central regulator of bicarbonate transport at the apical membrane, CFTR plays an essential role in both direct and indirect bicarbonate secretion. The major role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion would be variable depending on the tissue and cell type. For example, in epithelial cells that produce a low concentration of bicarbonate-containing fluid (up to 80 mm), either CFTR-dependent Cl−/HCO3− exchange or CFTR anion channel with low bicarbonate permeability would be sufficient to generate such fluid. However, in cells that secrete high-bicarbonate-containing fluids, a highly selective CFTR bicarbonate channel activity is required. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism of transepithelial bicarbonate transport and the role of CFTR in each specific epithelium will provide therapeutic strategies to recover from epithelial defects induced by hyposecretion of bicarbonate in cystic fibrosis. PMID:23028131

  5. Correlation of leukocyte adhesiveness, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte-induced contraction following balloon angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Simon; McPhaden, Allan R; Wadsworth, Roger M; Wainwright, Cherry L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the changes in leukocyte adhesion and leukocyte-induced contraction in balloon-injured rabbit subclavian artery and to correlate these changes with vessel morphology and expression of adhesion molecules on the injured arteries.Rabbits were anaesthetized and their left subclavian arteries were injured by balloon inflation and withdrawal followed by sacrifice at 2, 24, 48 h or 8 days after injury. The left and right subclavian arteries were removed and leukocytes were isolated from autologous rabbit blood. Leukocyte-induced contraction was measured in 5-HT precontracted artery rings and leukocyte adhesion was measured using 51Cr-labelled leukocytes. Immunocytochemistry using paraffin-embedded tissue was employed to detect changes in the expression of adhesion molecules on injured arteries.Autologous leukocytes caused a contraction of rabbit subclavian artery rings, which was prevented by L-NAME (10−3 M). Balloon-induced injury abolished the contractile response to leukocytes, which correlated with loss of carbachol-induced relaxationBalloon injury markedly enhanced the adhesiveness of the subclavian artery for leukocytes, most notably at 24 and 48 h after injury (1.7 and 1.8 fold respectively). Increased leukocyte adhesion at these two time points correlated with an upregulation of E-selectin, P-selectin and VCAM-1 expression on the remaining endothelium of the injured artery.Vessel morphology revealed that balloon inflation had induced an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the vessel wall, the greatest increase being seen at 24 h after injury.It is concluded that an increase in the expression of E-selectin, P-selectin and VCAM-1 following balloon-induced injury leads to enhanced leukocyte adhesion and migration into the injured vessel. PMID:10781003

  6. Transepithelial elimination of cutaneous vulval granuloma inguinale.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, P K; Kharsany, A B; Reddy, R; Chetty, R

    2000-11-01

    Transepithelial elimination (TEE), a distinct and well-known entity, is a process during which the skin eradicates undesirable or irritative dermal substances through intact epidermis or follicular epithelium by passive or active means. Although TEE is being described in an increasing number and range of pathological processes, to date, TEE of granuloma inguinale (GI) remains unrecorded in the English-language literature. The aims of this study were: 1) To appraise the light microscopic and ultrastructural morphological epidermal changes that are associated with TEE of cutaneous vulval GI; and 2) To determine the role of intra-epidermal leucocytes and histiocytes in the pathogenesis of TEE of vulval GI. This is a retrospective 9-year histopathological review of all cases diagnosed and coded as vulval granuloma inguinale in the Department of Anatomical Pathology, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa. Ultrastructural evaluation was performed on selected cases using a Jeol transmission electron microscope. Of 53 skin biopsies from 47 patients with vulval GI, 43 were suitable for the study. The age range of patients was 15-40 years (mean age=22 years). There were eleven papular, twelve nodular, seven verrucous and thirteen ulcerative lesions. Donovan bodies within macrophages, free-lying Donovan bodies and dense aggregates of neutrophils and plasma cells were seen in the dermis of all biopsies. There was consistent overlying pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The dermal inflammatory infiltrate hugged the dermo-epidermal junction and appeared entrapped between elongated and acanthotic epidermal rete ridges and pegs. Transepidermal neutrophil microabscesses, histiocytes containing Donovan bodies and neutrophilic and histiocytic fragmentation were present. A variable number of free-lying and intra-histiocytic Donovan bodies and neutrophils were present on the surface of the epidermis. On ultrastructural investigation epidermal

  7. Repair of Irregularly Irregular Astigmatism by Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Stefano; Kirton, Amy; Reinstein, Dan Z; Carp, Glenn I; Archer, Timothy J

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the outcome of transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in the management of irregularly irregular astigmatism. This was a case series of two patients who underwent transepithelial PTK for irregularly irregular astigmatism. In the first case, the patient complained of diplopia due to corneal scarring caused by a metallic foreign body injury. The topography demonstrated irregularly irregular astigmatism with significant asymmetry in the inferotemporal to superonasal axis. In the second case, the patient complained of blurred vision and ghosting caused by significant central epithelial ingrowth through a buttonhole LASIK flap, which was causing a localized irregularity on topography. Due to the localized nature of the irregularities, a transepithelial PTK treatment was preferred to custom ablation given the degree of epithelial masking present. Transepithelial PTK was performed in both cases using the Schwind Amaris 500E excimer laser (Schwind eye-tech-solutions, Kleinostheim, Germany) and an 8-mm optical zone. The ablation depth was planned to reach the depth of the epithelium using a stepwise protocol, reviewing the pattern of the remaining epithelium and regularity of the stromal surface between each ablation. A marked improvement in the regularity of the topography was achieved in both cases, with only regular astigmatism remaining. Both patients reported a subjective improvement in quality of vision and the corrected distance visual acuity improved by one and two lines, respectively. Transepithelial PTK was effective in treating these cases of localized irregularly irregular astigmatism, achieving both objective and subjective improvement in vision. Compensatory epithelial remodeling over the irregularities enabled the transepithelial PTK approach to target the stromal surface irregularities. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(10):714-719.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. cAMP Stimulates Transepithelial Short-Circuit Current and Fluid Transport Across Porcine Ciliary Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Angela King-Wah; Civan, Mortimer M; To, Chi-Ho; Do, Chi-Wai

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of cAMP on transepithelial electrical parameters and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium. Transepithelial electrical parameters were determined by mounting freshly isolated porcine ciliary epithelium in a modified Ussing chamber. Similarly, fluid movement across intact ciliary body was measured with a custom-made fluid flow chamber. Addition of 1, 10, and 100 μM 8-Br-cAMP (cAMP) to the aqueous side (nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, NPE) induced a sustained increase in short-circuit current (Isc). Addition of niflumic acid (NFA) to the aqueous surface effectively blocked the cAMP-induced Isc stimulation. The administration of cAMP to the stromal side (pigmented ciliary epithelium, PE) triggered a significant stimulation of Isc only at 100 μM. No additive effect was observed with bilateral application of cAMP. Likewise, forskolin caused a significant stimulation of Isc when applied to the aqueous side. Concomitantly, cAMP and forskolin increased fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium, and this stimulation was effectively inhibited by aqueous NFA. Depleting Cl- in the bathing solution abolished the baseline Isc and inhibited the subsequent stimulation by cAMP. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) blockers (H89/KT5720) significantly inhibited the cAMP- and forskolin-induced Isc responses. Our results suggest that cAMP triggers a sustained stimulation of Cl- and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium; Cl- channels in the NPE cells are potentially a cellular site for this PKA-sensitive cAMP-mediated response.

  9. Na+/H+ exchanger 3 inhibitor diminishes the amino-acid-enhanced transepithelial calcium transport across the rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Thammayon, Nithipak; Wongdee, Kannikar; Lertsuwan, Kornkamon; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Thongbunchoo, Jirawan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2017-04-01

    Na + /H + exchanger (NHE)-3 is important for intestinal absorption of nutrients and minerals, including calcium. The previous investigations have shown that the intestinal calcium absorption is also dependent on luminal nutrients, but whether aliphatic amino acids and glucose, which are abundant in the luminal fluid during a meal, similarly enhance calcium transport remains elusive. Herein, we used the in vitro Ussing chamber technique to determine epithelial electrical parameters, i.e., potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), and transepithelial resistance, as well as 45 Ca flux in the rat duodenum directly exposed on the mucosal side to glucose or various amino acids. We found that mucosal glucose exposure led to the enhanced calcium transport, PD, and Isc, all of which were insensitive to NHE3 inhibitor (100 nM tenapanor). In the absence of mucosal glucose, several amino acids (12 mM in the mucosal side), i.e., alanine, isoleucine, leucine, proline, and hydroxyproline, markedly increased the duodenal calcium transport. An inhibitor for NHE3 exposure on the mucosal side completely abolished proline- and leucine-enhanced calcium transport, but not transepithelial transport of both amino acids themselves. In conclusion, glucose and certain amino acids in the mucosal side were potent stimulators of the duodenal calcium absorption, but only amino-acid-enhanced calcium transport was NHE3-dependent.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU augments neutrophil transepithelial migration.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Michael A; Lanter, Bernard B; Yonker, Lael M; Eaton, Alex D; Pirzai, Waheed; Gronert, Karsten; Bonventre, Joseph V; Hurley, Bryan P

    2017-08-01

    Excessive neutrophil infiltration of the lungs is a common contributor to immune-related pathology in many pulmonary disease states. In response to pathogenic infection, airway epithelial cells produce hepoxilin A3 (HXA3), initiating neutrophil transepithelial migration. Migrated neutrophils amplify this recruitment by producing a secondary gradient of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We sought to determine whether this two-step eicosanoid chemoattractant mechanism could be exploited by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoU, a P. aeruginosa cytotoxin, exhibits phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in eukaryotic hosts, an enzyme critical for generation of certain eicosanoids. Using in vitro and in vivo models of neutrophil transepithelial migration, we evaluated the impact of ExoU expression on eicosanoid generation and function. We conclude that ExoU, by virtue of its PLA2 activity, augments and compensates for endogenous host neutrophil cPLA2α function, leading to enhanced transepithelial migration. This suggests that ExoU expression in P. aeruginosa can circumvent immune regulation at key signaling checkpoints in the neutrophil, resulting in exacerbated neutrophil recruitment.

  11. Abolishing the Word-Length Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Charles; Suprenant, Aime M.; Bireta, Tamra J.; Stuart, George; Neath, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The authors report 2 experiments that compare the recall of long and short words in pure and mixed lists. In pure lists, long words were much more poorly remembered than short words. In mixed lists, this word-length effect was abolished and both the long and short words were recalled as well as short words in pure lists. These findings contradict…

  12. Why Grants.gov Should Be Abolished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmertern, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why Grants.gov, a web site for US Federal Government grants, should be abolished. Her recent attempt to submit a grant proposal to the National Institutes of Health is a case in point. She recounts how frustrating her experience was to the grant-submission process of Grants.gov. She points out that Grants.gov…

  13. Transepithelial nasal potential difference (NPD) measurements in cystic fibrosis (CF).

    PubMed

    Sands, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The main underlying physiologic abnormality in cystic fibrosis (CF) is dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which results in abnormal transport of sodium and chloride across epithelial surfaces. CFTR function could be tested in vivo using measurements of nasal transepithelial potential difference (PD). Nasal measurements show characteristic features of CF epithelia, including hyperpolarized baseline readings (basal PD), excessive depolarization in response to sodium channel inhibitors, such as amiloride (ΔAmiloride), and little or no chloride (Cl-) secretion in response to isoproterenol in a chloride-free solution (ΔCl- free-isoproterenol). PD test is applied for CF diagnosis and monitoring of new therapeutic modulations and corrections.

  14. Transepithelial and endothelial transport of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, Kelly M; El-Sayed, Mohamed E H; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2005-12-14

    This article summarizes our efforts to evaluate the potential of poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as carriers for oral drug delivery. Specifically, the permeability of a series of cationic PAMAM-NH2 (G0-G4) dendrimers across Caco-2 cell monolayers was evaluated as a function of dendrimer generation, concentration, and incubation time. The influence of dendrimer surface charge on the integrity, paracellular permeability, and viability of Caco-2 cell monolayers was monitored by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), 14C-mannitol permeability, and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme, respectively. Microvascular extravasation of PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers in relation to their size, molecular weight, and molecular geometry is also discussed. Results of these studies show that transepithelial transport and microvascular extravasation of PAMAM dendrimers are dependent on their structural features including molecular size, molecular geometry, and surface chemistry. These results suggest that by optimizing the size and surface charge of PAMAM dendrimers, it is possible to develop oral delivery systems based on these carriers for targeted drug delivery.

  15. Biomechanics of leukocyte rolling

    PubMed Central

    Sundd, Prithu; Pospieszalska, Maria K.; Cheung, Luthur Siu-Lun; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Ley, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte rolling on endothelial cells and other P-selectin substrates is mediated by P-selectin binding to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 expressed on the tips of leukocyte microvilli. Leukocyte rolling is a result of rapid, yet balanced formation and dissociation of selectin-ligand bonds in the presence of hydrodynamic shear forces. The hydrodynamic forces acting on the bonds may either increase (catch bonds) or decrease (slip-bonds) their lifetimes. The force-dependent ‘catch-slip’ bond kinetics are explained using the ‘two pathway model’ for bond dissociation. Both the ‘sliding-rebinding’ and the ‘allosteric’ mechanisms attribute ‘catch-slip’ bond behavior to the force-induced conformational changes in the lectin-EGF domain hinge of selectins. Below a threshold shear stress, selectins cannot mediate rolling. This ‘shear-threshold’ phenomenon is a consequence of shear-enhanced tethering and catch-bond enhanced rolling. Quantitative dynamic footprinting microscopy has revealed that leukocytes rolling at venular shear stresses (> 0.6 Pa) undergo cellular deformation (large footprint) and form long tethers. The hydrodynamic shear force and torque acting on the rolling cell are thought to be synergistically balanced by the forces acting on tethers and stressed microvilli, however, their relative contribution remains to be determined. Thus, improvement beyond the current understanding requires in silico models that can predict both cellular and microvillus deformation and experiments that allow measurement of forces acting on individual microvilli and tethers. PMID:21515934

  16. Theoretical analyses of the refractive implications of transepithelial PRK ablations.

    PubMed

    Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Awwad, Shady T

    2013-07-01

    To analyse the refractive implications of single-step, transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) ablations. A simulation for quantifying the refractive implications of TransPRK ablations has been developed. The simulation includes a simple modelling of corneal epithelial profiles, epithelial ablation profiles as well as refractive ablation profiles, and allows the analytical quantification of the refractive implications of TransPRK in terms of wasted tissue, achieved optical zone (OZ) and induced refractive error. Wasted tissue occurs whenever the actual corneal epithelial profile is thinner than the applied epithelial ablation profile, achieved OZ is reduced whenever the actual corneal epithelial profile is thicker than the applied epithelial ablation profile and additional refractive errors are induced whenever the actual difference centre-to-periphery in the corneal epithelial profile deviates from the difference in the applied epithelial ablation profile. The refractive implications of TransPRK ablations can be quantified using simple theoretical simulations. These implications can be wasted tissue (∼14 µm, if the corneal epithelial profile is thinner than the ablated one), reduced OZ (if the corneal epithelial profile is thicker than ablated one, very severe for low corrections) and additional refractive errors (∼0.66 D, if the centre-to-periphery progression of the corneal epithelial profile deviates from the progression of the ablated one). When TransPRK profiles are applied to normal, not previously treated, non-pathologic corneas, no specific refractive implications associated to the transepithelial profile can be anticipated; TransPRK would provide refractive outcomes equal to those of standard PRK. Adjustments for the planned OZ and, in the event of retreatments, for the target sphere can be easily derived.

  17. Transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Leccisotti, Antonio; Islam, Tahmina

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of transepithelial corneal cross-linking (CXL) on keratoconic eyes pre-treated with substances enhancing epithelial permeability. Prospective, consecutive, single-masked, paired-eye study on 51 patients. The eye with more severe keratoconus was treated; the fellow eye served as the control. Gentamicin, benzalkonium chloride, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were instilled for 3 hours, then oxybuprocaine for 30 minutes. Riboflavin 0.1% in 20% dextran T500 and oxybuprocaine were instilled for 30 minutes. Finally, ultraviolet A irradiation to the central 7.5 mm of the cornea was applied for 30 minutes, while riboflavin was instilled every 5 minutes. Mean corrected distance visual acuity improved by 0.036 logMAR after CXL and worsened by 0.039 logMAR in the control eyes (P<.05). Safety index was 1.05 after CXL and 0.96 in the control group. Mean spherical equivalent refraction decreased by 0.35 D (less myopic) after CXL and increased by 0.83 diopters (D) in the control eyes (P<.05). Mean apex curvature on tangential videokeratography increased by 0.51 D after CXL and by 1.61 D in the control eyes (P=.16). Mean average simulated keratometry decreased by 0.10 D after CXL and increased by 0.88 D in the control eyes (P<.05). Mean index of surface variance increased (worsened) by 0.9 after CXL and 5.3 in the control eyes (P<.05). Mean endothelial cell density was unchanged. A limited but favorable effect of transepithelial CXL was noted on keratoconic eyes, without complications. The effect appears to be less pronounced than described in the literature after CXL with de-epithelialization. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. A Clinical and Confocal Microscopic Comparison of Transepithelial PRK and LASEK for Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Safak; Bilgihan, Kamil; Sul, Sabahattin; Hondur, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the clinical and confocal microscopic results of transepithelial PRK versus LASEK for correction of myopia. Materials and Methods. Twelve patients with myopia received transepithelial PRK in one eye and LASEK in the other. In transepithelial PRK-treated eyes, the corneal epithelium was removed with 40 microns of excimer laser ablation and in LASEK-treated eyes with 25-second application of 18% ethanol. Time to epithelial healing, ocular discomfort, uncorrected and best corrected visual acuities, manifest refraction, haze, greyscale value, and keratocyte apoptosis in confocal microscopy were recorded. Results. The mean time to epithelial healing was significantly longer after LASEK (4.00 ± 0.43 versus 3.17 ± 0.6 days). On day 1, ocular discomfort was significantly higher after transepithelial PRK. The grade of haze, keratocyte apoptosis, and greyscale value in confocal microscopy were significantly higher in transepithelial PRK-treated eyes at 1 month. All transepithelial PRK- and LASEK-treated eyes achieved 20/25 or better UCVA and were within ±1.00 D of emmetropia at final visits. Conclusions. Both transepithelial PRK and LASEK offer effective correction of myopia at 1 year. However, LASEK appeared to induce less discomfort and less intense wound healing in the early postoperative period. PMID:25120924

  19. A Clinical and Confocal Microscopic Comparison of Transepithelial PRK and LASEK for Myopia.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Safak; Bilgihan, Kamil; Sul, Sabahattin; Hondur, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the clinical and confocal microscopic results of transepithelial PRK versus LASEK for correction of myopia. Materials and Methods. Twelve patients with myopia received transepithelial PRK in one eye and LASEK in the other. In transepithelial PRK-treated eyes, the corneal epithelium was removed with 40 microns of excimer laser ablation and in LASEK-treated eyes with 25-second application of 18% ethanol. Time to epithelial healing, ocular discomfort, uncorrected and best corrected visual acuities, manifest refraction, haze, greyscale value, and keratocyte apoptosis in confocal microscopy were recorded. Results. The mean time to epithelial healing was significantly longer after LASEK (4.00 ± 0.43 versus 3.17 ± 0.6 days). On day 1, ocular discomfort was significantly higher after transepithelial PRK. The grade of haze, keratocyte apoptosis, and greyscale value in confocal microscopy were significantly higher in transepithelial PRK-treated eyes at 1 month. All transepithelial PRK- and LASEK-treated eyes achieved 20/25 or better UCVA and were within ±1.00 D of emmetropia at final visits. Conclusions. Both transepithelial PRK and LASEK offer effective correction of myopia at 1 year. However, LASEK appeared to induce less discomfort and less intense wound healing in the early postoperative period.

  20. Effects of conventional and new peritoneal dialysis fluids on leukocyte recruitment in the rat peritoneal membrane.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Siska; De Vriese, An S; McLoughlin, Rachel M; Topley, Nicholas; Schaub, Thomas P; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Lameire, Norbert H

    2003-05-01

    Peritonitis remains an important cause of morbidity and technique failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Conventional peritoneal dialysate fluids (PDF) inhibit peritoneal leukocyte function in vitro and may thus adversely affect the immune response to peritonitis. New PDF have been designed with neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP) contents, and bicarbonate as buffer. The present intravital microscopy study examined the effects of conventional and new PDF on leukocyte behavior in the peritoneal microcirculation of Wistar rats. The visceral peritoneum was superfused by a control solution (EBSS), a conventional (CAPD), or a new bicarbonate-buffered PDF with neutral pH and low GDP content (CAPD BicaVera). In addition, spent conventional and new PDF were tested. The number of rolling, adhering, and extravasated leukocytes and leukocyte rolling velocity were assessed at different time intervals after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cell-free supernatants of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS-CFS). Exposure to LPS or CNS-CFS dissolved in EBSS dramatically increased the number of rolling, adhering and extravasated leukocytes and decreased leukocyte rolling velocity. Superfusion by CAPD abolished the LPS- or CNS-CFS-induced leukocyte recruitment, whereas CAPD BicaVera had significantly fewer depressant effect. Spent PDF affected the leukocyte response in a similar way as fresh PDF. High lactate concentrations, GDP, and hypertonicity appeared to be mainly responsible for the inhibition of leukocyte recruitment. In conclusion, conventional PDF abolish in vivo leukocyte recruitment in response to potent inflammatory stimuli. Bicarbonate-buffered pH-neutral PDF with low GDP contents have fewer depressant effects and may therefore contribute to a better preservation of peritoneal host defense.

  1. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic electrochemical transistor array for recording transepithelial ion transport of human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chunlei; Xie, Changyan; Lin, Peng; Yan, Feng; Huang, Pingbo; Hsing, I-Ming

    2013-12-03

    An organic electrochemical transistor array is integrated with human airway epithelial cells. This integration provides a novel method to couple transepithelial ion transport with electrical current. Activation and inhibition of transepithelial ion transport are readily detected with excellent time resolution. The organic electrochemical transistor array serves as a promising platform for physiological studies and drug testing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Human Intestinal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Dallin; Enda, Michael; Bond, Tanner; Moghaddam, Seyyed Pouya Hadipour; Conarton, Josh; Scaife, Courtney; Volckmann, Eric; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-11-02

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown transepithelial transport across intestinal epithelial barrier in rats and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 models innately lack mucous barriers, and rat isolated intestinal tissue has been shown to overestimate human permeability. This study is the first report of transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated human intestinal epithelium. It was observed that FITC labeled G4-NH2 and G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimers at 1 mM concentration do not have a statistically higher permeability compared to free FITC controls in isolated human jejunum and colonic tissues. Mannitol permeability was increased at 10 mM concentrations of G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 dendrimers. Significant histological changes in human colonic and jejunal tissues were observed at G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 concentrations of 10 mM implying that dose limiting toxicity may occur at similar concentrations in vivo. The permeability through human isolated intestinal tissue in this study was compared to previous rat and Caco-2 permeability data. This study implicates that PAMAM dendrimer oral drug delivery may be feasible, but it may be limited to highly potent drugs.

  4. Enamel: Molecular identity of its transepithelial ion transport system.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2017-07-01

    Enamel is the most calcified tissue in vertebrates. It differs from bone in a number of characteristics including its origin from ectodermal epithelium, lack of remodeling capacity by the enamel forming cells, and absence of collagen. The enamel-forming cells known as ameloblasts, choreograph first the synthesis of a unique protein-rich matrix, followed by the mineralization of this matrix into a tissue that is ∼95% mineral. To do this, ameloblasts arrange the coordinated movement of ions across a cell barrier while removing matrix proteins and monitoring extracellular pH using a variety of buffering systems to enable the growth of carbonated apatite crystals. Although our knowledge of these processes and the molecular identity of the proteins involved in transepithelial ion transport has increased in the last decade, it remains limited compared to other cells. Here we present an overview of the evolution and development of enamel, its differences with bone, and describe the ion transport systems associated with ameloblasts. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 81909 - Abolishment of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of abolishment of records systems. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) is abolishing an existing Forest Service Privacy Act system of records. A review of USDA/FS-35 Congressional Correspondence has...

  6. 76 FR 81910 - Abolishment of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of abolishment of records systems. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) is abolishing an existing Forest Service Privacy Act system of records. A review of USDA/FS-9 Employee Assistance Program CONCERN...

  7. Transepithelial transport of flavanone in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Shoko; Konishi, Yutaka

    2008-03-28

    Our recent study [S. Kobayashi, S. Tanabe, M. Sugiyama, Y. Konishi, Transepithelial transport of hesperetin and hesperidin in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1778 (2008) 33-41] shows that the mechanism of absorption of hesperetin involves both proton-coupled active transport and transcellular passive diffusion. Here, as well as analyzing the cell permeability of hesperetin, we also study the transport of other flavanones, naringenin and eriodictyol, using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Similar to hesperetin mentioned, naringenin and eriodictyol showed proton-coupled polarized transport in apical-to-basolateral direction in non-saturable manner, constant permeation in the apical-to-basolateral direction (J{sub ap{yields}}{sub bl}) irrespective of the transepithelialmore » electrical resistance (TER), and preferable distribution into the basolateral side after apical loading in the presence of a proton gradient. Furthermore, the proton-coupled J{sub ap{yields}}{sub bl} of hesperetin, naringenin and eriodictyol, were inhibited by substrates of the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT), such as benzoic acid, but not by ferulic acid. In contrast, both benzoic and ferulic acids have no stimulatory effect on J{sub ap{yields}}{sub bl} of each flavanone by trans-stimulation analysis. These results indicates that proton-driven active transport is commonly participated in the absorption of flavanone in general, and that its transport is presumed to be unique other than MCT-mediated transport for absorption of phenolic acids (PAs), sodium-dependent MCT (SMCT) nor anion exchanger-mediated transport.« less

  8. Beyond Ussing's chambers: contemporary thoughts on integration of transepithelial transport

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    In the mid-20th century, Hans Ussing developed a chamber that allowed for the simultaneous measurement of current and labeled probe flux across epithelia. Using frog skin as a model, Ussing used his results to propose mechanisms of transcellular Na+ and K+ transport across apical (exterior/luminal) and basolateral (interior) membranes that is essentially unchanged today. Others took advantage of Ussing's chambers to study mucosal tissues, including bladder and intestines. It quickly became clear that, in some tissues, passive paracellular flux, i.e., across the tight junction, was an important component of overall transepithelial transport. Subsequent work demonstrated that activation of the apical Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 regulated paracellular permeability such that intestinal paracellular transport could coordinate with and amplify transcellular transport. Intermediates in this process include activation of p38 MAPK, the apical Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Investigators then focused on these processes in disease. They found that TNF induces barrier dysfunction via MLCK activation and downstream caveolin-1-dependent endocytosis of the tight junction protein occludin. TNF also inhibited NHE3, and both barrier loss and PKCα-dependent NHE3 inhibition were required for TNF-induced acute diarrhea, emphasizing the interplay between transcellular and paracellular transport. Finally, studies using immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease models showed that mice lacking epithelial MLCK were initially protected, but became ill as epithelial damage progressed and provided a tight junction-independent means of barrier loss. None of these advances would have been possible without the insights provided by Ussing and others using Ussing's ingenious, and still useful, chambers. PMID:26702131

  9. Beyond Ussing's chambers: contemporary thoughts on integration of transepithelial transport.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Jeremy R; Turner, Jerrold R

    2016-03-15

    In the mid-20th century, Hans Ussing developed a chamber that allowed for the simultaneous measurement of current and labeled probe flux across epithelia. Using frog skin as a model, Ussing used his results to propose mechanisms of transcellular Na(+) and K(+) transport across apical (exterior/luminal) and basolateral (interior) membranes that is essentially unchanged today. Others took advantage of Ussing's chambers to study mucosal tissues, including bladder and intestines. It quickly became clear that, in some tissues, passive paracellular flux, i.e., across the tight junction, was an important component of overall transepithelial transport. Subsequent work demonstrated that activation of the apical Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 regulated paracellular permeability such that intestinal paracellular transport could coordinate with and amplify transcellular transport. Intermediates in this process include activation of p38 MAPK, the apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Investigators then focused on these processes in disease. They found that TNF induces barrier dysfunction via MLCK activation and downstream caveolin-1-dependent endocytosis of the tight junction protein occludin. TNF also inhibited NHE3, and both barrier loss and PKCα-dependent NHE3 inhibition were required for TNF-induced acute diarrhea, emphasizing the interplay between transcellular and paracellular transport. Finally, studies using immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease models showed that mice lacking epithelial MLCK were initially protected, but became ill as epithelial damage progressed and provided a tight junction-independent means of barrier loss. None of these advances would have been possible without the insights provided by Ussing and others using Ussing's ingenious, and still useful, chambers. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N.; Ferre, April L.; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M. Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A. R.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. Methods and Findings To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10–15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Conclusions Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes. PMID:27232996

  11. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  12. Corneal confocal microscopy following conventional, transepithelial, and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking procedures for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Touboul, David; Efron, Nathan; Smadja, David; Praud, Delphine; Malet, Florence; Colin, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    To compare early corneal healing following conventional, transepithelial, and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) protocols. Twenty-four patients with progressive keratoconus were divided into three groups to receive conventional, transepithelial, or accelerated CXL. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy was performed on each patient preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Closure of the epithelial wound was complete 3 days following conventional and accelerated CXL. The subbasal nerve plexus was essentially obliterated immediately following conventional and accelerated CXL, and virtually no nerve fibers had regenerated by 6 months. The anterior stroma showed significant changes 1 month following conventional CXL; these changes were similar but more pronounced following accelerated CXL. Observed stromal changes included complete obliteration of keratocytes, increased tissue reflectivity, a honeycomb-like appearance, and circular lacunae. Some recovery of keratocyte density was noted after 6 months. These changes were less pronounced in the mid-stroma, and there were no apparent changes to the posterior stroma or endothelium. The cornea appeared to be unaltered following transepithelial CXL. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy analysis of the postoperative impact of CXL on the cornea revealed clear differences among conventional, accelerated, and transepithelial CXL protocols. Accelerated CXL had a greater impact than conventional CXL on the anterior cornea, whereas transepithelial CXL did not appear to alter corneal morphology. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Transepithelial Ion Transport is Suppressed in Hypoxic Sinonasal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Angela; Zhang, Shaoyan; Chestnut, Michael; Hixon, Brian; Skinner, Daniel; Sorscher, Eric J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Sinonasal respiratory epithelial mucociliary clearance (MCC) is dependent on the transepithelial transport of ions such as Cl−. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the role of oxygen restriction in 1) Cl− transport across primary sinonasal epithelial monolayers, 2) expression of the apical Cl− channels CFTR and TMEM16A, and 3) the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Study Design In vitro investigation. Methods Murine nasal septal epithelial (MNSE, wild type) and human sinonasal epithelial (HSNE) cultures were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2, 5% CO2). Cultures were mounted in Ussing chambers for ion transport measurements. CFTR and TMEM16A expression were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Results The change in short-circuit current (ΔISC (µA/cm2) attributable to CFTR (forskolin-stimulated) was significantly decreased due to a 12 hour hypoxia exposure in both MNSE (13.55+/− 0.46 vs. 19.23+/−0.18) and HSNE (19.55+/−0.56 vs. 25.49+/−1.48 (control); p<0.05. TMEM16A (UTP-stimulated transport) was inhibited by 48 hours of hypoxic exposure in MNSE (15.92+/−2.87 vs. 51.44+/−3.71(control) p<0.05] and by 12 hours of hypoxic exposure in HSNE (16.75+/−0.68 vs. 24.15+/−1.35 (control). Quantitative RT-PCR (reported as relative mRNA levels+/−S.D.) demonstrated significant reductions in both CFTR and TMEM16A mRNA expression in MNSE and HSNE due to airway epithelial hypoxia. Conclusions Sinonasal epithelial CFTR and TMEM16A-mediated Cl− transport and mRNA expression were robustly decreased in an oxygen restricted environment. The findings in the present study indicate persistent hypoxia may lead to acquired defects in sinonasal Cl− transport in a fashion likely to confer mucociliary dysfunction in CRS. Level of Evidence 1b PMID:22024847

  14. The transepithelial transport mechanism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human intestine determined using a Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Zhong, Yufang; An, Jing; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu

    2017-04-01

    Oral ingestion plays an important role in human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The uptake of PBDEs primarily occurs in the small intestine. The aim of the present study is to investigate the transepithelial transport characteristics and mechanisms of PBDEs in the small intestine using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The apparent permeability coefficients of PBDEs indicated that tri- to hepta-BDEs were poorly absorbed compounds. A linear increase in transepithelial transport was observed with various concentrations of PBDEs, which suggested that passive diffusion dominated their transport at the concentration range tested. In addition, the pseudo-first-order kinetics equation can be applied to the transepithelial transport of PBDEs. The rate-determining step in transepithelial transport of PBDEs was trans-cell transport including the trans-pore process. The significantly lower transepithelial transport rates at low temperature for bidirectional transepithelial transport suggested that an energy-dependent transport mechanism was involved. The efflux transporters (P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein) and influx transporters (organic cation transporters) participated in the transepithelial transport of PBDEs. In addition, the transepithelial transport of PBDEs was pH sensitive; however, more information is required to understand the influence of pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammation, leukocytes and menstruation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jemma; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2012-12-01

    Menstruation has many of the features of an inflammatory process. The complexity and sequence of inflammatory-type events leading to the final tissue breakdown and bleeding are slowly being unravelled. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory properties, and its rapidly declining levels (along with those of estrogen) in the late secretory phase of each non-conception cycle, initiates a sequence of interdependent events of an inflammatory nature involving local inter-cellular interactions within the endometrium. Intracellular responses to loss of progesterone (in decidualized stromal, vascular and epithelial cells) lead to decreased prostaglandin metabolism and loss of protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS results in release of NFκB from suppression with activation of target gene transcription and increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The resultant leukocyte recruitment, with changing phenotypes and activation, provide further degradative enzymes and MMP activators, which together with a hypoxic environment induced by prostaglandin actions, lead to the tissue breakdown and bleeding characteristic of menstruation. In parallel, at sites where shedding is complete, microenvironmentally-induced changes in phenotypes of neutrophils and macrophages from pro- to anti-inflammatory, in addition to induction of growth factors, contribute to the very rapid re-epithelialization and restoration of tissue integrity.

  16. SPECIES SPECIFICITY OF LEUKOCYTIC PYROGENS

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Donald L.; Woods, James W.

    1969-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes of the dog, cat, and goat release leukocytic pyrogen under the same conditions as the heterophile polymorphonuclear leukocytes of the rabbit. The characteristics of the febrile response to an intravenous injection of homologous leukocytic pyrogen in all four species are very similar: a brisk monophasic fever reaching a peak between 30 and 50 min with smooth defervescence to the baseline by 3 hr. Shivering, which is not obvious in the rabbit, is noted in the dog, cat, and goat during the first 30 min. Quantitative differences in response reveal the cat to be the most sensitive of of these species to homologous leukocytic pyrogen, followed by the rabbit, dog, and goat. The response to heterologous pyrogen is in most cases markedly diminished compared to that after equal doses of homologous protein, suggesting the operation of species specificity, although canine and feline pyrogen behaved very similarly in all tests. Species specificity of leukocytic pyrogen is probably related to amino acid substitutions in different species of a common mammalian protein effector molecule. PMID:5343431

  17. Comparison of Three Epithelial Removal Techniques in PRK: Mechanical, Alcohol-assisted, and Transepithelial Laser.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Yinon; Mimouni, Michael; Levartovsky, Shmuel; Varssano, David; Sela, Tzahi; Munzer, Gur; Kaiserman, Igor

    2015-11-01

    To compare the visual and refractive results obtained after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in patients who underwent one of three different epithelial removal techniques. The authors reviewed the medical files of consecutive eyes with myopia and myopic astigmatism that were treated during a 10-year period by mechanical PRK, alcohol-assisted PRK, or transepithelial PRK (in the phototherapeutic keratectomy mode), and observed for more than 1 year. A total of 3,417 patients (3,417 eyes) were included in this study. At 3 and 6 months postoperatively, the outcome of alcohol-assisted PRK was superior both in efficacy (P < .01) and safety (P < .001) to those of both mechanical PRK and transepithelial PRK, which were similar. At more than 1 year postoperatively, the mean efficacy index was still high for alcohol-assisted PRK, but low for the transepithelial PRK, corresponding to a mean uncorrected visual acuity of more than one Snellen line lower than those of the other two techniques (P < .0001). All three techniques showed a regression toward myopia more than 1 year postoperatively, with significant undercorrection obtained in eyes treated with transepithelial PRK (P < .0001). Significant differences were detected in both the visual outcomes and the refractive results of the three epithelial removal techniques. The long-term outcomes were best for alcohol-assisted PRK. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. TNFα promotes CAR-dependent migration of leukocytes across epithelial monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Penny E.; Hicks, Alexander; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Raghavan, Swetavalli; Pike, Rosemary; Noble, Alistair; Woodfin, Abigail; Jenkins, Gisli; Rayner, Emma; Santis, George; Parsons, Maddy

    2016-01-01

    Trans-epithelial migration (TEpM) of leukocytes during inflammation requires engagement with receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of the epithelium. One such receptor is Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) that binds to Junctional Adhesion Molecule-like (JAM-L) expressed on leukocytes. Here we provide the first evidence that efficient TEpM of monocyte-derived THP-1 cells requires and is controlled by phosphorylation of CAR. We show that TNFα acts in a paracrine manner on epithelial cells via a TNFR1-PI3K-PKCδ pathway leading to CAR phosphorylation and subsequent transmigration across cell junctions. Moreover, we show that CAR is hyper-phosphorylated in vivo in acute and chronic lung inflammation models and this response is required to facilitate immune cell recruitment. This represents a novel mechanism of feedback between leukocytes and epithelial cells during TEpM and may be important in controlling responses to pro-inflammatory cytokines in pathological settings. PMID:27193388

  19. A separate role for ICAM-1 and fluid shear in regulating leukocyte interactions with straight regions of venular wall and venular convergences

    PubMed Central

    Sumagin, Ronen; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen A.; Sarelius, Ingrid H

    2011-01-01

    Objective Variation in expression of adhesion molecules plays a key role in regulating leukocyte behavior, but the contribution of fluid shear to these interactions cannot be ignored. Here we dissected the effects of each of these factors on leukocyte behavior in different venular regions. Methods Leukocyte behavior was quantified in blood perfused microvascular networks in anesthetized mouse cremaster muscle using intravital confocal microscopy. ICAM-1 expression and fluid shear rate were quantified using ICAM-1 fluorescent labeling, fluorescent particle tracking, and computational fluid dynamics. Results TNFα-induced an increase in ICAM-1 expression, and abolished the differences observed among control venules of different sizes. Consequently, leukocyte adhesion was increased to a similar level across all vessel sizes (5.1±0.46 leukocytes/100μm vs. 2.1±0.47 [control]), but remained significantly higher in venular convergences (7.8±0.4). Leukocyte transmigration occurred primarily in the smallest venules and venular convergences (23.9±5.1 and 31.9±2.7 leukocytes/10,000μm2 tissue, respectively). In venular convergences the two inlet vessels are predicted to create a region of low velocity, increasing leukocyte adhesion probability. Conclusions In straight regions of different sized venules the variability in ICAM-1 expression accounts for the differences in leukocyte behavior; in converging regions, fluid shear potentially has a greater effect on leukocyte-EC interactions. PMID:19468960

  20. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  1. Calcium glycerophosphate preserves transepithelial integrity in the Caco-2 model of intestinal transport.

    PubMed

    Datta, Palika; Weis, Margaret T

    2015-08-14

    To assess the direct effects of ischemia on intestinal epithelial integrity. Furthermore, clinical efforts at mitigating the effect of hypoperfusion on gut permeability have focused on restoring gut vascular function. We report that, in the Caco-2 cell model of transepithelial transport, calcium glycerophosphate (CGP), an inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase F3, has a significant effect to preserve transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and to attenuate increases in mannitol flux rates during hypoxia or cytokine stimulation. The effect was observable even at concentrations as low as 1 μmol/L. As celiac disease is also marked by a loss of gut epithelial integrity, the effect of CGP to attenuate the effect of the α-gliadin peptide 31-55 was also examined. In this instance, CGP exerted little effect of preservation of TEER, but significantly attenuated peptide induced increase in mannitol flux. It appears that CGP treatment might synergize with other therapies to preserve gut epithelial integrity.

  2. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers across Isolated Rat Jejunal Mucosae in Ussing Chambers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery remains a challenge for poorly permeable hydrophilic macromolecules. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown potential for their possible oral delivery. Transepithelial transport of carboxyl-terminated G3.5 and amine-terminated G4 PAMAM dendrimers was assessed using isolated rat jejunal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. The 1 mM FITC-labeled dendrimers were added to the apical side of mucosae. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) from the apical to the basolateral side were significantly increased for FITC when conjugated to G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer compared to FITC alone. Minimal signs of toxicity were observed when mucosae were exposed to both dendrimers with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance changes, carbachol-induced short circuit current stimulation, and histological changes. [14C]-mannitol fluxes were not altered in the presence of 1 mM dendrimers, suggesting that the paracellular pathway was not affected at this concentration in this model. These results give insight into the mechanism of PAMAM dendrimer transepithelial rat jejunal transport, as well as toxicological considerations important for oral drug delivery. PMID:24992090

  3. Transepithelial transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated rat jejunal mucosae in ussing chambers.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Dallin; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Brayden, David J

    2014-08-11

    Oral delivery remains a challenge for poorly permeable hydrophilic macromolecules. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown potential for their possible oral delivery. Transepithelial transport of carboxyl-terminated G3.5 and amine-terminated G4 PAMAM dendrimers was assessed using isolated rat jejunal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. The 1 mM FITC-labeled dendrimers were added to the apical side of mucosae. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) from the apical to the basolateral side were significantly increased for FITC when conjugated to G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer compared to FITC alone. Minimal signs of toxicity were observed when mucosae were exposed to both dendrimers with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance changes, carbachol-induced short circuit current stimulation, and histological changes. [(14)C]-mannitol fluxes were not altered in the presence of 1 mM dendrimers, suggesting that the paracellular pathway was not affected at this concentration in this model. These results give insight into the mechanism of PAMAM dendrimer transepithelial rat jejunal transport, as well as toxicological considerations important for oral drug delivery.

  4. Transepithelial transport of rosuvastatin and effect of ursolic acid on its transport in Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wen Jin; Fang, Hu Jin; Hua, Wei Xiao

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine transepithelial transport characteristics of rosuvastatin and effect of ursolic acid (P-gp potential inhibitor) and ko143 (ABC transporters selective inhibitor) on its transport in Caco-2 monolayers. A reliable Caco-2 cell monolayers model was established. The TEER value was used to inspect integrity of cell model. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp(BL-AP) and Papp(AP-BL)) were used to analyze transepithelial transport of rosuvastatin. Uptake of rosuvastatin was time- and concentration-dependent in Caco-2 cell. The ko143 but not ursolic acid had effect on the uptake of rosuvastatin in Caco-2 cell monolayer model and affected apparent permeability coefficient and apparent permeability of rosuvastatin. Active transport and passive diffusion absorption existed in transepithelial transport of rosuvastatin in Caco-2 cell model. Ursolic acid had no effect on transport of rosuvastatin in Caco-2 cell monolayer. The result indicated that ursolic acid may not cause effect on intestinal absorption of rosuvastatin.

  5. Illuminating dynamic neutrophil trans-epithelial migration with micro-optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kengyeh K.; Kusek, Mark E.; Liu, Linbo; Som, Avira; Yonker, Lael M.; Leung, Huimin; Cui, Dongyao; Ryu, Jinhyeob; Eaton, Alexander D.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Hurley, Bryan P.

    2017-04-01

    A model of neutrophil migration across epithelia is desirable to interrogate the underlying mechanisms of neutrophilic breach of mucosal barriers. A co-culture system consisting of a polarized mucosal epithelium and human neutrophils can provide a versatile model of trans-epithelial migration in vitro, but observations are typically limited to quantification of migrated neutrophils by myeloperoxidase correlation, a destructive assay that precludes direct longitudinal study. Our laboratory has recently developed a new isotropic 1-μm resolution optical imaging technique termed micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) that enables 4D (x,y,z,t) visualization of neutrophils in the co-culture environment. By applying μOCT to the trans-epithelial migration model, we can robustly monitor the spatial distribution as well as the quantity of neutrophils chemotactically crossing the epithelial boundary over time. Here, we demonstrate the imaging and quantitative migration results of our system as applied to neutrophils migrating across intestinal epithelia in response to a chemoattractant. We also demonstrate that perturbation of a key molecular event known to be critical for effective neutrophil trans-epithelial migration (CD18 engagement) substantially impacts this process both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  6. Illuminating dynamic neutrophil trans-epithelial migration with micro-optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kengyeh K.; Kusek, Mark E.; Liu, Linbo; Som, Avira; Yonker, Lael M.; Leung, Huimin; Cui, Dongyao; Ryu, Jinhyeob; Eaton, Alexander D.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Hurley, Bryan P.

    2017-01-01

    A model of neutrophil migration across epithelia is desirable to interrogate the underlying mechanisms of neutrophilic breach of mucosal barriers. A co-culture system consisting of a polarized mucosal epithelium and human neutrophils can provide a versatile model of trans-epithelial migration in vitro, but observations are typically limited to quantification of migrated neutrophils by myeloperoxidase correlation, a destructive assay that precludes direct longitudinal study. Our laboratory has recently developed a new isotropic 1-μm resolution optical imaging technique termed micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) that enables 4D (x,y,z,t) visualization of neutrophils in the co-culture environment. By applying μOCT to the trans-epithelial migration model, we can robustly monitor the spatial distribution as well as the quantity of neutrophils chemotactically crossing the epithelial boundary over time. Here, we demonstrate the imaging and quantitative migration results of our system as applied to neutrophils migrating across intestinal epithelia in response to a chemoattractant. We also demonstrate that perturbation of a key molecular event known to be critical for effective neutrophil trans-epithelial migration (CD18 engagement) substantially impacts this process both qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:28368012

  7. Abolish the Office of the Secretary of Defense?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    should he go, the debate should have been whether we even need the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). It is perhaps time to admit that the great...source is the office itself. Simply put, the Secretary of Defense and his supporting staff are too powerful. The wisdom of the creation and relevance of...the original organization are what need to be reconsidered. The following recommendations are offered for consideration. First, abolish the Office of

  8. Chemotaxis of nurse shark leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Obenauf, S D; Smith, S H

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the ability of leukocytes from the nurse shark to migrate in an in vitro micropore filter chemotaxis assay and to determine optimal assay conditions and suitable attractants for such an assay. A migratory response was seen with several attractants: activated rat serum, activated shark plasma, and a pool of shark complement components. Only the response to activated rat serum was chemotactic, as determined by the checkerboard assay.

  9. Role of leukocytes and platelets in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia initiates an inflammatory-like response in which invading neutrophils exacerbate the degree of injury. The effects of nafazatrom, a new antithrombotic agent, on leukocyte function in vitro and in vivo were related to its ability to salvage ischemic myocardium in an occulsion-reperfusion model of myocardial injury in the anesthetized dogs. Measurements of the neutrophil-specific myeloperoxidase enzyme in ischemic myocardium indicate that the smaller infarct size in dogs treated with nafazatrom is accompanied by a diminished leukocyte infiltration. The results obtained with nafazatrom emphasize the important role of the neutrophil in ischemia-induced myocardial damage. The possibility that myocardial ischemia-induced plateletmore » deposition was secondary to a neutrophil-mediated event was assessed by the injection of PGI{sub 2}-washed autologous {sup 111}indium-labeled platelets and measuring the amount of radioactivity in different regions of the heart following a 90 min. occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion for periods up to 5 hrs. Neutropenia, induced with specific sheep anti-dog neutrophil antiserum, significantly reduced platelet accumulation in the ischemic myocardium following 5 hrs. reperfusion and abolished the transmural platelet distribution. These results suggest that myocardial platelet deposition is secondary to a neutrophil-mediated event in this occlusion-reperfusion model of myocardial injury.« less

  10. Clinical Outcomes of SMILE With a Triple Centration Technique and Corneal Wavefront-Guided Transepithelial PRK in High Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ikhyun; Kang, David Sung Yong; Reinstein, Dan Z; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Archer, Timothy J; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im

    2018-03-01

    To comparatively investigate the clinical outcomes, vector parameters, and corneal aberrations of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) with a triple centration technique and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of high astigmatism. This retrospective, comparative case series study included 89 eyes (89 patients) that received treatment for myopia with high astigmatism (≥ 2.50 diopters) using SMILE with a triple centration technique (SMILE group; 45 eyes) and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial PRK (transepithelial PRK group; 44 eyes). Visual acuity measurement, manifest refraction, slit-lamp examination, autokeratometry, corneal topography, and evaluation of corneal wavefront aberration were performed preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The safety, efficacy, vector parameters, and corneal aberrations at 6 months after surgery were compared between the two groups. At 6 months after surgery, the transepithelial PRK and SMILE groups exhibited comparable mean uncorrected distance visual acuities (-0.06 ± 0.07 and -0.05 ± 0.07 logMAR, respectively), safety, efficacy, and predictability of refractive and visual outcomes. There was a slight but statistically significant difference in the correction index between the transepithelial PRK and SMILE groups (0.96 ± 0.11 and 0.91 ± 0.10, respectively). Whereas the transepithelial PRK group exhibited increased corneal spherical aberration and significantly reduced corneal coma and trefoil, no changes in aberrometric values were noted in the SMILE group. Both SMILE with a triple centration technique and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial PRK are effective and provide predictable outcomes for the correction of high myopic astigmatism, although slight undercorrection was observed in the SMILE group. The triple centration technique was helpful in astigmatism correction by SMILE. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(3):156-163.]. Copyright 2018

  11. Taxifolin and Fucoidin Abolish the Irradiation-Induced Increase in the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Arutyunyan, T V; Korystova, A F; Kublik, L N; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Korystov, Yu N

    2016-03-01

    We studied changes in ROS content in the aorta of Wistar rats at early terms after irradiation in doses equal to single fraction used in tumor radiotherapy and the effects of taxifolin and fucoidin, blockers of leukocyte adhesion to endothelium, on ROS content. Male rats were exposed to X-rays (200 kW) in doses of 1-7.5 Gy. ROS production in aorta segments was measured in 1-48 h after irradiation by dichlorodihydrofluorescein oxidation. The content of ROS in the aorta of rats exposed to radiation in doses of 1-2.5 Gy increased in 1-24 h after irradiation, the peak ROS content was found in 2 h after irradiation. Taxifolin (100 μg/kg dihydroquercetin once a day with drinking water) and fucoidin (10 mg/kg, i.v.) abolished ROS accumulation. The content of ROS in rat aorta increased in 1-24 h after irradiation in doses used for tumor radiotherapy and this increase can be determined by leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium.

  12. Cobalt chloride compromises transepithelial barrier properties of CaCo-2 BBe human gastrointestinal epithelial cell layers.

    PubMed

    DiGuilio, K M; Valenzano, M C; Rybakovsky, E; Mullin, J M

    2018-01-05

    Elevation of the transcription factor HIF-1 is a prominent mediator of not only processes that accompany hypoxia, but also the tumor microenvironment and tissue regeneration. This study uses mediators of "chemical hypoxia" to ask the question whether HIF-1α elevation in a healthy epithelial cell layer leads to leakiness in its tight junctional seals. Transepithelial electrical resistance and transepithelial diffusion of 14 C-D-mannitol and other radiolabeled probes are used as indicators of transepithelial barrier function of CaCo-2 BBe human gastrointestinal epithelial cell layers cultured on permeable supports. Western immunoblot analyses of integral tight junctional proteins (occludin and claudins) are used as further indicators of barrier function change. Cobalt, an inhibitor of the prolyl hydroxylase enzymes governing HIF-1α breakdown in the cell, induces transepithelial leakiness in CaCo-2 BBe cell layers in a time and concentration-dependent manner. This increased leakiness is accompanied by significant changes in certain specific integral tight junctional (TJ) proteins such as a decreased level of occludin and increased level of claudin-5. Similar results regarding barrier function compromise also occur with other chemical inhibitors of HIF-1α breakdown, namely ciclopiroxolamine (CPX) and dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). The increased leak is manifested by both decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (R t ) and increased paracellular diffusion of D-mannitol (J m ). The induced transepithelial leak shows significant size selectivity, consistent with induced effects on TJ permeability. Less-differentiated cell layers were significantly more affected than well-differentiated cell layers regarding induced transepithelial leak. A genetically modified CaCo-2 variant with reduced levels of HIF-1β, showed reduced transepithelial leak in response to cobalt exposure, further indicating that elevation of HIF-1α levels induced by agents of "chemical hypoxia

  13. Guiding flying-spot laser transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy with optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Tang, Maolong; Chamberlain, Winston; Zhang, Xinbo; Huang, David

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To analyze transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) results using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and develop a model to guide the laser dioptric and depth settings. SETTING Casey Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA. DESIGN Prospective nonrandomized case series. METHODS Patients with superficial corneal opacities and irregularities had transepithelial PTK with a flying-spot excimer laser by combining wide-zone myopic and hyperopic astigmatic ablations. Optical coherence tomography was used to calculate corneal epithelial lenticular masking effects, guide refractive laser settings, and measure opacity removal. The laser ablation efficiency and the refractive outcome were investigated using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS Twenty-six eyes of 20 patients received PTK to remove opacities and irregular astigmatism due to scar, dystrophy, radial keratotomy, or previous corneal surgeries. The uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were significantly improved (P < .01) by 3.7 Snellen lines and 2.0 Snellen lines, respectively, to a mean of 20/41.2 and 20/22.0, respectively. Achieved laser ablation depths were 31.3% (myopic ablation) and 63.0% (hyperopic ablation) deeper than the manufacturer’s nomogram. The spherical equivalent of the corneal epithelial lenticular masking effect was 0.73 diopter ± 0.61 (SD). The refractive outcome highly correlated to the laser settings and epithelial lenticular masking effect (Pearson R = 0.96, P < .01). The ablation rate of granular dystrophy opacities appeared to be slower. Smoothing ablation under masking fluid was needed to prevent focal steep islands in these cases. CONCLUSIONS The OCT-measured ablation depth efficiency could guide opacity removal. The corneal epithelial lenticular masking effect could refine the spherical refractive nomogram to achieve a better refractive outcome after transepithelial ablation. PMID:28532939

  14. Guiding flying-spot laser transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy with optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Tang, Maolong; Chamberlain, Winston; Zhang, Xinbo; Huang, David

    2017-04-01

    To analyze transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) results using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and develop a model to guide the laser dioptric and depth settings. Casey Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA. Prospective nonrandomized case series. Patients with superficial corneal opacities and irregularities had transepithelial PTK with a flying-spot excimer laser by combining wide-zone myopic and hyperopic astigmatic ablations. Optical coherence tomography was used to calculate corneal epithelial lenticular masking effects, guide refractive laser settings, and measure opacity removal. The laser ablation efficiency and the refractive outcome were investigated using multivariate linear regression models. Twenty-six eyes of 20 patients received PTK to remove opacities and irregular astigmatism due to scar, dystrophy, radial keratotomy, or previous corneal surgeries. The uncorrected distance visual acuity and corrected distance visual acuity were significantly improved (P < .01) by 3.7 Snellen lines and 2.0 Snellen lines, respectively, to a mean of 20/41.2 and 20/22.0, respectively. Achieved laser ablation depths were 31.3% (myopic ablation) and 63.0% (hyperopic ablation) deeper than the manufacturer's nomogram. The spherical equivalent of the corneal epithelial lenticular masking effect was 0.73 diopter ± 0.61 (SD). The refractive outcome highly correlated to the laser settings and epithelial lenticular masking effect (Pearson R = 0.96, P < .01). The ablation rate of granular dystrophy opacities appeared to be slower. Smoothing ablation under masking fluid was needed to prevent focal steep islands in these cases. The OCT-measured ablation depth efficiency could guide opacity removal. The corneal epithelial lenticular masking effect could refine the spherical refractive nomogram to achieve a better refractive outcome after transepithelial ablation. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Topography-Guided Transepithelial Surface Ablation in the Treatment of Moderate to High Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangjun; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Simonsen, David; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Yanhua; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the outcomes of treatment of astigmatism of 2.00 diopters (D) or greater with topography-guided transepithelial surface ablation. Retrospective analysis of a series of 206 eyes divided into two groups: myopic astigmatism (153 eyes) and mixed astigmatism (53 eyes). All cases were treated with topography-guided transepithelial surface ablation. Efficacy, safety, and predictability were evaluated, and vector analysis of cylindrical correction was performed. The median preoperative spherical equivalent was -2.63 and -0.63 D for the myopic and mixed astigmatism groups, respectively, with median cylinder of -2.50 D. Postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 92% and 83% of eyes in the myopic and mixed astigmatism groups, respectively; the corresponding efficacy indices were 1.00 and 0.96 and residual astigmatism of 0.50 D or less was present in 82.4% and 56.7% of eyes in the myopic and mixed astigmatism groups, respectively. The arithmetic mean magnitude of the difference vector was 0.38 (myopic) and 0.65 (mixed) D. Difference vector magnitude was positively correlated with the magnitude of target induced astigmatism in both groups. The geometric mean coefficient of adjustment index was 1.04 and 1.19, representing undercorrection of 4% and 19% in the myopic and mixed astigmatism groups, respectively. Topography-guided transepithelial ablation is a safe, effective, and predictable treatment for moderate to high astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(6):418-425.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy in myopia and astigmatism: 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Adib-Moghaddam, Soheil; Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Salmanian, Bahram; Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Adili-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Noorizadeh, Farsad; Eslani, Medi

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the long-term quantitative and qualitative optical outcomes of 1-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to correct myopia and astigmatism. Bina Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Prospective interventional case series. Eyes with myopia with or without astigmatism were evaluated. One-step transepithelial PRK was performed with an aberration-free aspheric optimized profile and the Amaris 500 laser. Eighteen-month follow-up results for refraction, visual acuities, vector analysis, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, postoperative pain, and haze grade were assessed. The study enrolled 146 eyes (74 patients). At the end of follow-up, 93.84% of eyes had an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better and 97.94% of eyes were within ±0.5 diopter of the targeted spherical refraction. On vector analysis, the mean correction index value was close to 1 and the mean index of success and magnitude of error values were close to 0. The achieved correction vector was on an axis counterclockwise to the axis of the intended correction. Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivities and ocular and corneal spherical, cylindrical, and corneal coma aberrations significantly improved (all P < .001). A slight amount of trefoil aberration was induced (P < .001, ocular aberration; P < .01, corneal aberration). No eye lost more than 1 line of corrected distance visual acuity. No eye had a haze grade of 2+ degrees or higher throughout the follow-up. Eighteen-month results indicate the efficacy and safety of transepithelial PRK to correct myopia and astigmatism. It improved refraction and quality of vision. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of a cold patch for relieving pain after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yuan; Li, Yi; Gao, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A return toward toward photorefractive keratectomy has occurred due to better corneal stability and fewer corneal flap complications; however, pain remains a major drawback of the procedure. Currently, clinical pain control measures focus on the administration of pain medications, which may delay corneal epithelial healing and has, occasionally, led to serious corneal toxicity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the safety and efficacy of a cold patch on postoperative pain and other relevant consequences of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy. METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted. Forty patients (80 eyes) scheduled to undergo transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy for myopia or myopic astigmatism were randomly and equally assigned to be treated with ice-cold balanced salt solution during surgery (wash group) or to wear a postoperative cold patch on the eye for 24 h. The main outcomes were pain score on a visual analogue scale, postoperative eyelid edema, conjunctival hyperemia, epithelial healing time, haze and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity. RESULTS: All patients completed the final tests. Demographic characteristics and pain scores during surgery were similar between the two groups. The mean postoperative pain scores of patients in the cold patch group at 8 h, 16 h and 24 h were significantly lower than those of patients in the wash group. Scores for postoperative eyelid edema and conjunctival hyperemia in the cold patch group were also lower than in the wash group. Patients in the cold patch group used fewer painkillers. Epithelial healing time, haze and early recovery of visual acuity were similar between the two groups. No eyelid frostbite was observed. CONCLUSION: Wearing a cold patch on the eye after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy effectively relieved pain and inflammation, and reduced the use of painkillers without any side effects. PMID:25992866

  18. In vitro agglutinin production by earthworm leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Stein, E A; Cooper, E L

    1988-01-01

    Leukocytes of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, secrete agglutinins in vitro, as shown by measuring agglutinin titers of the culture medium and by observing secretory rosette formation by leukocytes with erythrocytes. Leukocytes form the highest percentages of secretory rosettes with rabbit erythrocytes (RBC) and with other RBC species in the order: rat, guinea pig, mouse, calf, sheep, horse, goat. Leukocytes displayed allotypic specificity by forming rosettes selectively with erythrocytes from different individual rabbits. Eight sugars inhibited rosette formation, along with the polysaccharide mannan and the glycoproteins thyroglobulin and bovine submaxillary mucin. Cyclohexamide did not affect rosette formation, suggesting that agglutinins may be preformed and stored in leukocytes prior to secretion. Leukocytes also formed E-type rosettes with erythrocytes, but apparently utilized different receptors from those of secretory rosettes since they were not inhibited by the same sugars.

  19. [Mechanisms of leukocyte formation of endogenous pyrogen].

    PubMed

    Rybakina, E G; Sorokin, A V

    1982-06-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of endogenous pyrogen production by rabbit blood and exudate leukocytes and possible role played by the products of activated leukocytes in autoregulation of the process. It was established that accumulation of endogenous pyrogen in the cell precedes its release by stimulated cells. Then the processes of active pyrogen formation and release gel interdependent: pyrogen formed releases from the cell; the lowering of pyrogen concentration in the cell is accompanied by the decrease of its content in the medium. No stimulating effect of the products activated during leukocyte inflammation on pyrogen formation by blood leukocytes was discovered.

  20. Transepithelial D-glucose and D-fructose transport across the American lobster, Homarus americanus, intestine.

    PubMed

    Obi, Ijeoma E; Sterling, Kenneth M; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2011-07-15

    Transepithelial transport of dietary D-glucose and d-fructose was examined in the lobster Homarus americanus intestine using D-[(3)H]glucose and D-[(3)H]fructose. Lobster intestines were mounted in a perfusion chamber to determine transepithelial mucosal to serosal (MS) and serosal to mucosal (SM) transport mechanisms of glucose and fructose. Both MS glucose and fructose transport, as functions of luminal sugar concentration, increased in a hyperbolic manner, suggesting the presence of mucosal transport proteins. Phloridizin inhibited the MS flux of glucose, but not that of fructose, suggesting the presence of a sodium-dependent (SGLT1)-like glucose co-transporter. Immunohistochemical analysis, using a goat anti-rabbit GLUT5 polyclonal antibody, revealed the localization of a brush border GLUT5-like fructose transport protein. MS fructose transport was decreased in the presence of mucosal phloretin in warm spring/summer animals, but the same effect was not observed in cold autumn/winter animals, suggesting a seasonal regulation of sugar transporters. Mucosal phloretin had no effect on MS glucose transport. Both SM glucose and SM fructose transport were decreased in the presence of increasing concentrations of serosal phloretin, providing evidence for the presence of a shared serosal GLUT2 transport protein for the two sugars. The transport of d-glucose and d-fructose across lobster intestine is similar to sugar uptake in mammalian intestine, suggesting evolutionarily conserved absorption processes for these solutes.

  1. Tre1 GPCR initiates germ cell transepithelial migration by regulating Drosophila melanogaster E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Sano, Hiroko; Renault, Andrew D.; Barbosa, Vitor; Fuse, Naoyuki; Lehmann, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant progress in identifying the guidance pathways that control cell migration, how a cell starts to move within an intact organism, acquires motility, and loses contact with its neighbors is poorly understood. We show that activation of the G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1) directs the redistribution of the G protein Gβ as well as adherens junction proteins and Rho guanosine triphosphatase from the cell periphery to the lagging tail of germ cells at the onset of Drosophila melanogaster germ cell migration. Subsequently, Tre1 activity triggers germ cell dispersal and orients them toward the midgut for directed transepithelial migration. A transition toward invasive migration is also a prerequisite for metastasis formation, which often correlates with down-regulation of adhesion proteins. We show that uniform down-regulation of E-cadherin causes germ cell dispersal but is not sufficient for transepithelial migration in the absence of Tre1. Our findings therefore suggest a new mechanism for GPCR function that links cell polarity, modulation of cell adhesion, and invasion. PMID:18824569

  2. Transepithelial SCFA fluxes link intracellular and extracellular pH regulation of mouse colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Chu, S; Montrose, M H

    1997-10-01

    We have studied pH regulation in both intracellular and extracellular compartments of mouse colonic crypts, using distal colonic mucosa with intact epithelial architecture. In this work, we question how transepithelial SCFA gradients affect intracellular pH (pHi) and examine interactions between extracellular pH (pHo) and pHi regulation in crypts of distal colonic epithelium from mouse. We studied pH regulation in three adjacent compartments of distal colonic epithelium (crypt lumen, crypt epithelial cell cytosol, and lamina propria) with SNARF-1 (a pH sensitive fluorescent dye), digital imaging microscopy (for pHi), and confocal microscopy (for pHo). Combining results from the three compartments allows us to find how pHi and pHo are regulated and related under the influence of physiological transepithelial SCFA gradients, and develop a better understanding of pH regulation mechanisms in colonic crypts. Results suggest a complex interdependency between SCFA fluxes and pHo values, which can directly affect how strongly SCFAs acidify colonocytes.

  3. Oestrogen-related receptor α is required for transepithelial H+ secretion in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Guh, Ying-Jey; Yang, Chao-Yew; Liu, Sian-Tai; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Oestrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) is an orphan nuclear receptor which is important for adaptive metabolic responses under conditions of increased energy demand, such as cold, exercise and fasting. Importantly, metabolism under these conditions is usually accompanied by elevated production of organic acids, which may threaten the body acid–base status. Although ERRα is known to help regulate ion transport by the renal epithelia, its role in the transport of acid–base equivalents remains unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ERRα is involved in acid–base regulation mechanisms by using zebrafish as the model to examine the effects of ERRα on transepithelial H+ secretion. ERRα is abundantly expressed in H+-pump-rich cells (HR cells), a group of ionocytes responsible for H+ secretion in the skin of developing embryos, and its expression is stimulated by acidic (pH 4) environments. Knockdown of ERRα impairs both basal and low pH-induced H+ secretion in the yolk-sac skin, which is accompanied by decreased expression of H+-secreting-related transporters. The effect of ERRα on H+ secretion is achieved through regulating both the total number of HR cells and the function of individual HR cells. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that ERRα is required for transepithelial H+ secretion for systemic acid–base homeostasis. PMID:26911965

  4. Transepithelial transport and toxicity of PAMAM dendrimers: implications for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sadekar, S; Ghandehari, H

    2012-05-01

    This article summarizes efforts to evaluate poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as carriers for oral drug delivery. Specifically, the effect of PAMAM generation, surface charge and surface modification on toxicity, cellular uptake and transepithelial transport is discussed. Studies on Caco-2 monolayers, as models of intestinal epithelial barrier, show that by engineering surface chemistry of PAMAM dendrimers, it is possible to minimize toxicity while maximizing transepithelial transport. It has been demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimers are transported by a combination of paracellular and transcellular routes. Depending on surface chemistry, PAMAM dendrimers can open the tight junctions of epithelial barriers. This tight junction opening is in part mediated by internalization of the dendrimers. Transcellular transport of PAMAM dendrimers is mediated by a variety of endocytic mechanisms. Attachment or complexation of cytotoxic agents to PAMAM dendrimers enhances the transport of such drugs across epithelial barriers. A remaining challenge is the design and development of linker chemistries that are stable in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the blood stream, but amenable to cleavage at the target site of action. Recent efforts have focused on the use of PAMAM dendrimers as penetration enhancers. Detailed in vivo oral bioavailability of PAMAM dendrimer-drug conjugates, as a function of physicochemical properties will further need to be assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transepithelial transport of PEGylated anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: implications for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Deborah M; Kolhatkar, Rohit B; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2009-08-19

    The purpose of this work was to assess the impact of PEGylation on transepithelial transport of anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. Cytotoxicity, uptake and transport across Caco-2 cells of PEGylated G3.5 and G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers were studied. Methoxy polyethylene glycol (750 Da) was conjugated to carboxylic acid-terminated PAMAM dendrimers at feed ratios of 1, 2 and 4 PEG per dendrimer. Compared to the control, PEGylation of anionic dendrimers did not significantly alter cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 0.1 mM. PEGylation of G3.5 dendrimers significantly decreased cellular uptake and transepithelial transport while PEGylation of G4.5 dendrimers led to a significant increase in uptake, but also a significant decrease in transport. Dendrimer PEGylation reduced the opening of tight junctions as evidenced by confocal microscopy techniques. Modulation of the tight junctional complex correlated well with changes in PEGylated dendrimer transport and suggests that anionic dendrimers are transported primarily through the paracellular route. PEGylated dendrimers show promise in oral delivery applications where increased functionality for drug conjugation and release is desired.

  6. Transepithelial Transport of PEGylated Anionic Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers: Implications for Oral Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Deborah M.; Kolhatkar, Rohit B.; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the impact of PEGylation on transepithelial transport of anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. Cytotoxicity, uptake and transport across Caco-2 cells of PEGylated G3.5 and G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers were studied. Methoxy polyethylene glycol (750 Da) was conjugated to carboxylic acid-terminated PAMAM dendrimers at feed ratios of 1, 2 and 4 PEG per dendrimer. Compared to the control, PEGylation of anionic dendrimers did not significantly alter cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 0.1 mM. PEGylation of G3.5 dendrimers significantly decreased cellular uptake and transepithelial transport while PEGylation of G4.5 dendrimers led to a significant increase in uptake, but also a significant decrease in transport. Dendrimer PEGylation reduced the opening of tight junctions as evidenced by confocal microscopy techniques. Modulation of the tight junctional complex correlated well with changes in PEGylated dendrimer transport and suggests that anionic dendrimers are transported primarily through the paracellular route. PEGylated dendrimers show promise in oral delivery applications where increased functionality for drug conjugation and release is desired. PMID:19393702

  7. [Measurement of nasal transepithelial potential difference: a diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Charfi, M R; Matran, R; Regnard, J; Lockhart, A

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of nasal transepithelial potential difference allows the exploration of transepithelial ionic transports in vivo. Cystic fibrosis is an interesting indication of this test. Indeed, this disease is characterized by a chloride and water secretion deficit across respiratory epithelium. We have measured nasal potential in 8 healthy volunteers. Measurements were repeated 3 times a day, during 3 days for each subject. The reproducibility of the data was analysed with factorial variance model. The mean nasal potential in the healthy volunteers group and in 10 patients with cystic fibrosis was compared. In the cystic fibrosis group, the nasal potential was measured 3 times with a 2 mn-interval between the measurements. No significant variation of the nasal potential values was found from day to day or in the same day from one measurement to another. Mean value was -19 +/- 3.5 mv in normal subjects and -42.6 +/- 5.1 mv in cystic fibrosis patients. We conclude that nasal potential measurement is an easy and reproducible test that might be a complementary tool routinely used along with the classical tests in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  8. TRANSEPITHELIAL TRANSPORT AND TOXICITY OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ORAL DRUG DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Sadekar, S.; Ghandehari, H.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes efforts to evaluate poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as carriers for oral drug delivery. Specifically, the effect of PAMAM generation, surface charge and surface modification on toxicity, cellular uptake and transepithelial transport is discussed. Studies on Caco-2 monolayers, as models of intestinal epithelial barrier, show that by engineering surface chemistry of PAMAM dendrimers, it is possible to minimize toxicity while maximizing transepithelial transport. It has been demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimers are transported by a combination of paracellular and transcellular routes. Depending on surface chemistry, PAMAM dendrimers can open the tight junctions of epithelial barriers. This tight junction opening is in part mediated by internalization of the dendrimers. Transcellular transport of PAMAM dendrimers is mediated by a variety of endocytic mechanisms. Attachment or complexation of cytotoxic agents to PAMAM dendrimers enhances the transport of such drugs across epithelial barriers. A remaining challenge is the design and development of linker chemistries that are stable in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the blood stream, but amenable to cleavage at the target site of action. Recent efforts have focused on the use of PAMAM dendrimers as penetration enhancers. Detailed in vivo oral bioavailability of PAMAM dendrimer – drug conjugates, as a function of physicochemical properties will further need to be assessed. PMID:21983078

  9. Calcium glycerophosphate preserves transepithelial integrity in the Caco-2 model of intestinal transport

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Palika; Weis, Margaret T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the direct effects of ischemia on intestinal epithelial integrity. Furthermore, clinical efforts at mitigating the effect of hypoperfusion on gut permeability have focused on restoring gut vascular function. METHODS: We report that, in the Caco-2 cell model of transepithelial transport, calcium glycerophosphate (CGP), an inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase F3, has a significant effect to preserve transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and to attenuate increases in mannitol flux rates during hypoxia or cytokine stimulation. RESULTS: The effect was observable even at concentrations as low as 1 μmol/L. As celiac disease is also marked by a loss of gut epithelial integrity, the effect of CGP to attenuate the effect of the α-gliadin peptide 31-55 was also examined. In this instance, CGP exerted little effect of preservation of TEER, but significantly attenuated peptide induced increase in mannitol flux. CONCLUSION: It appears that CGP treatment might synergize with other therapies to preserve gut epithelial integrity. PMID:26290632

  10. Effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin Administered to Abolish Acquired Nystagmus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, R. John; Tomsak, Robert L.; Grant, Michael P.; Remler, Bernd F.; Yaniglos, Stacy S.; Lystad, Lisa; Dell'Osso, Louis F.

    1992-01-01

    We injected botulinum toxin into the horizontal rectus muscles of the right eyes of two patients who had acquired pendular nystagmus with horizontal, vertical, and torsional components. This treatment successfully abolished the horizontal component of the nystagmus in the injected eye in both patients for approximately 2 months. Both patients showed a small but measurable improvement of vision in the injected eye that may have been limited by coexistent disease of the visual pathways. The vertical and torsional components of the nystagmus persisted in both patients. In one patient, the horizontal component of nystagmus in the noninjected eye increased; we ascribe this finding to plastic-adaptive changes in response to paresis caused by the botulinum toxin. Such plastic-adaptive changes and direct side effects of the injections - such as diplopia and ptosis - may limit the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of acquired nystagmus. Neither patient elected to repeat the botulinum treatment.

  11. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. PLACENTAL GROWTH FACTOR ADMINISTRATION ABOLISHES PLACENTAL ISCHEMIA-INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Spradley, Frank T.; Tan, Adelene Y.; Joo, Woo S.; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Granger, Joey P.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia as placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and VEGF are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, VEGF also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to four groups: normal pregnant (NP) or RUPP ± infusion of rhPlGF (180 μg/kg/day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than NP rats. Infusion of rhPlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that rhPlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  13. Medial PFC Damage Abolishes the Self-reference Effect

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Duff, Melissa C.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel; Rudrauf, David

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the medial PFC (mPFC) is a key component of a large-scale neural system supporting a variety of self-related processes. However, it remains unknown whether the mPFC is critical for such processes. In this study, we used a human lesion approach to examine this question. We administered a standard trait judgment paradigm [Kelley, W. M., Macrae, C. N., Wyland, C. L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., & Heatherton, T. F. Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 785–794, 2002] to patients with focal brain damage to the mPFC. The self-reference effect (SRE), a memory advantage conferred by self-related processing, served as a measure of intact self-processing ability. We found that damage to the mPFC abolished the SRE. The results demonstrate that the mPFC is necessary for the SRE and suggest that this structure is important for self-referential processing and the neural representation of self. PMID:21942762

  14. Intracellular Chloride and Scaffold Protein Mo25 Cooperatively Regulate Transepithelial Ion Transport through WNK Signaling in the Malpighian Tubule.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qifei; Wu, Yipin; Jonusaite, Sima; Pleinis, John M; Humphreys, John M; He, Haixia; Schellinger, Jeffrey N; Akella, Radha; Stenesen, Drew; Krämer, Helmut; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J; Rodan, Aylin R

    2018-05-01

    Background With No Lysine kinase (WNK) signaling regulates mammalian renal epithelial ion transport to maintain electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Our previous studies showed a conserved role for WNK in the regulation of transepithelial ion transport in the Drosophila Malpighian tubule. Methods Using in vitro assays and transgenic Drosophila lines, we examined two potential WNK regulators, chloride ion and the scaffold protein mouse protein 25 (Mo25), in the stimulation of transepithelial ion flux. Results In vitro , autophosphorylation of purified Drosophila WNK decreased as chloride concentration increased. In conditions in which tubule intracellular chloride concentration decreased from 30 to 15 mM as measured using a transgenic sensor, Drosophila WNK activity acutely increased. Drosophila WNK activity in tubules also increased or decreased when bath potassium concentration decreased or increased, respectively. However, a mutation that reduces chloride sensitivity of Drosophila WNK failed to alter transepithelial ion transport in 30 mM chloride. We, therefore, examined a role for Mo25. In in vitro kinase assays, Drosophila Mo25 enhanced the activity of the Drosophila WNK downstream kinase Fray, the fly homolog of mammalian Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK), and oxidative stress-responsive 1 protein (OSR1). Knockdown of Drosophila Mo25 in the Malpighian tubule decreased transepithelial ion flux under stimulated but not basal conditions. Finally, whereas overexpression of wild-type Drosophila WNK , with or without Drosophila Mo25 , did not affect transepithelial ion transport, Drosophila Mo25 overexpressed with chloride-insensitive Drosophila WNK increased ion flux. Conclusions Cooperative interactions between chloride and Mo25 regulate WNK signaling in a transporting renal epithelium. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Biomechanical Strengthening of the Human Cornea Induced by Nanoplatform-Based Transepithelial Riboflavin/UV-A Corneal Cross-Linking.

    PubMed

    Labate, Cristina; Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe; De Santo, Maria Penelope

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical stiffening effect induced by nanoplatform-based transepithelial riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking protocol using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Twelve eye bank donor human sclerocorneal tissues were investigated using a commercial atomic force microscope operated in force spectroscopy mode. Four specimens underwent transepithelial corneal cross-linking using a hypotonic solution of 0.1% riboflavin with biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin plus enhancers (trometamol and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and UV-A irradiation with a 10 mW/cm2 device for 9 minutes. After treatment, the corneal epithelium was removed using the Amoils brush, and the Young's modulus of the most anterior stroma was quantified as a function of scan rate by AFM. The results were compared with those collected from four specimens that underwent conventional riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking and four untreated specimens. The average Young's modulus of the most anterior stroma after the nanoplatform-based transepithelial and conventional riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking treatments was 2.5 times (P < 0.001) and 1.7 times (P < 0.001) greater than untreated controls respectively. The anterior stromal stiffness was significantly different between the two corneal cross-linking procedures (P < 0.001). The indentation depth decreased after corneal cross-linking treatments, ranging from an average of 2.4 ± 0.3 μm in untreated samples to an average of 1.2 ± 0.1 μm and 1.8 ± 0.1 μm after nanoplatform-based transepithelial and conventional cross-linking, respectively. The present nanotechnology-based transepithelial riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking was effective to improve the biomechanical strength of the most anterior stroma of the human cornea.

  16. Nanostructured materials for ocular delivery: nanodesign for enhanced bioadhesion, transepithelial permeability and sustained delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jean; Schlesinger, Erica B; Desai, Tejal A

    2015-01-01

    Effective drug delivery to the eye is an ongoing challenge due to poor patient compliance coupled with numerous physiological barriers. Eye drops for the front of the eye and ocular injections for the back of the eye are the most prevalent delivery methods, both of which require relatively frequent administration and are burdensome to the patient. Novel drug delivery techniques stand to drastically improve safety, efficacy and patient compliance for ocular therapeutics. Remarkable advances in nanofabrication technologies make the application of nanostructured materials to ocular drug delivery possible. This article focuses on the use of nanostructured materials with nanoporosity or nanotopography for ocular delivery. Specifically, we discuss nanotopography for enhanced bioadhesion and permeation and nanoporous materials for controlled release drug delivery. As examples, application of polymeric nanostructures for greater transepithelial permeability, nanostructured microparticles for enhanced preocular retention time and nanoporous membranes for tuning drug release profile are covered. PMID:26652282

  17. Epithelial adhesion molecules and the regulation of intestinal homeostasis during neutrophil transepithelial migration

    PubMed Central

    Sumagin, Ronen; Parkos, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial adhesion molecules play essential roles in regulating cellular function and maintaining mucosal tissue homeostasis. Some form epithelial junctional complexes to provide structural support for epithelial monolayers and act as a selectively permeable barrier separating luminal contents from the surrounding tissue. Others serve as docking structures for invading viruses and bacteria, while also regulating the immune response. They can either obstruct or serve as footholds for the immune cells recruited to mucosal surfaces. Currently, it is well appreciated that adhesion molecules collectively serve as environmental cue sensors and trigger signaling events to regulate epithelial function through their association with the cell cytoskeleton and various intracellular adapter proteins. Immune cells, particularly neutrophils (PMN) during transepithelial migration (TEM), can modulate adhesion molecule expression, conformation, and distribution, significantly impacting epithelial function and tissue homeostasis. This review discusses the roles of key intestinal epithelial adhesion molecules in regulating PMN trafficking and outlines the potential consequences on epithelial function. PMID:25838976

  18. Comparative evaluation of Comfilcon A and Senofilcon A bandage contact lenses after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Achyut; Ioannides, Antonis; Aslanides, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare Comfilcon A and Senofilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses used as a therapeutic bandage following transepithelial excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Methods Patients undergoing transepithelial PRK for myopia were prospectively recruited. Included patients had a Comfilcon A silicone hydrogel lens inserted in one eye, with a Senofilcon A lens in the contralateral eye. Postoperative assessment of subjective pain, epithelial healing and visual recovery was at day 1, 3 and 7. Contact lens factors including centration, movement and deposits were assessed. Results 48 eyes of 24 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 31 years (SD 11) and mean refractive error −4.5 D (SD 1.8). Mean pain score at day 1 was significantly higher in the Comfilcon group at 4.6 (SD 2.7) vs. 1.5 (SD2.5) in the Senofilcon group (P < 0.005). Mean time to healing was 3.17 days (SD 0.37) in the Comfilcon group, and 3.21 days (SD 0.4) in the Senofilcon group, with no difference in defect size. There was a pronounced central raphe in 1 eye in the Comfilcon group vs. 5 eyes in the Senofilcon group (P = 0.19). Significantly more eyes demonstrated no lens movement in the Senofilcon group (18 vs. 4, P = 0.0001). Conclusion The variation in material characteristics and lens geometry of different silicone hydrogel lenses affects their clinical characteristics in therapeutic roles. Other factors than oxygen permeability may affect pain and epithelial healing, with superior pain relief from the less permeable Senofilcon lens in this study. PMID:25649638

  19. Clinical outcomes of Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy to treat low to moderate myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lei; Zhang, Chen; He, Yanling

    2018-05-09

    To evaluate the refractive and visual outcomes of Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) in the treatment of low to moderate myopic astigmatism. This retrospective study enrolled a total of 47 eyes that had undergone Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy. Preoperative cylinder diopters ranged from - 0.75D to - 2.25D (mean - 1.11 ± 0.40D), and the sphere was between - 1.50D to - 5.75D. Visual outcomes and vector analysis of astigmatism that included error ratio (ER), correction ratio (CR), error of magnitude (EM) and error of angle (EA) were evaluated. At 6 months after TransPRK, all eyes had an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better, no eyes lost ≥2 lines of corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA), and 93.6% had residual refractive cylinder within ±0.50D of intended correction. On vector analysis, the mean correction ratio for refractive cylinder was 1.03 ± 0.30. The mean error magnitude was - 0.04 ± 0.36. The mean error of angle was 0.44° ± 7.42°and 80.9% of eyes had axis shift within ±10°. The absolute astigmatic error of magnitude was statistically significantly correlated with the intended cylinder correction (r = 0.48, P < 0.01). TransPRK showed safe, effective and predictable results in the correction of low to moderate astigmatism and myopia.

  20. Comparative evaluation of Comfilcon A and Senofilcon A bandage contact lenses after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Achyut; Ioannides, Antonis; Aslanides, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare Comfilcon A and Senofilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses used as a therapeutic bandage following transepithelial excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Patients undergoing transepithelial PRK for myopia were prospectively recruited. Included patients had a Comfilcon A silicone hydrogel lens inserted in one eye, with a Senofilcon A lens in the contralateral eye. Postoperative assessment of subjective pain, epithelial healing and visual recovery was at day 1, 3 and 7. Contact lens factors including centration, movement and deposits were assessed. 48 eyes of 24 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 31 years (SD 11) and mean refractive error -4.5 D (SD 1.8). Mean pain score at day 1 was significantly higher in the Comfilcon group at 4.6 (SD 2.7) vs. 1.5 (SD2.5) in the Senofilcon group (P<0.005). Mean time to healing was 3.17 days (SD 0.37) in the Comfilcon group, and 3.21 days (SD 0.4) in the Senofilcon group, with no difference in defect size. There was a pronounced central raphe in 1 eye in the Comfilcon group vs. 5 eyes in the Senofilcon group (P=0.19). Significantly more eyes demonstrated no lens movement in the Senofilcon group (18 vs. 4, P=0.0001). The variation in material characteristics and lens geometry of different silicone hydrogel lenses affects their clinical characteristics in therapeutic roles. Other factors than oxygen permeability may affect pain and epithelial healing, with superior pain relief from the less permeable Senofilcon lens in this study. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional role of gap junctions in cytokine-induced leukocyte adhesion to endothelium in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Véliz, Loreto P.; González, Francisco G.; Duling, Brian R.; Sáez, Juan C.; Boric, Mauricio P.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the hypothesis that gap junctions (GJs) participate on leukocyte-endothelium interactions in the inflammatory response, we compared leukocyte adhesion and transmigration elicited by cytokine stimulation in the presence or absence of GJ blockers in the hamster cheek pouch and also in the cremaster muscle of wild-type (WT) and endothelium-specific connexin 43 (Cx43) null mice (Cx43e−/−). In the cheek pouch, topical tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 150 ng/ml, 15 min) caused a sustained increment in the number of leukocytes adhered to venular endothelium (LAV) and located at perivenular regions (LPV). Superfusion with the GJ blockers 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid (AGA; 75 μM) or 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid (50 μM) abolished the TNF-α-induced increase in LAV and LPV; carbenoxolone (75 μM) or oleamide (100 μM) reduced LAV by 50 and 75%, respectively, and LPV to a lesser extent. None of these GJ blockers modified venular diameter, blood flow, or leukocyte rolling. In contrast, glycyrrhizin (75 μM), a non-GJ blocker analog of AGA, was devoid of effect. Interestingly, when AGA was removed 90 min after TNF-α stimulation, LAV started to rise at a similar rate as in control. Conversely, application of AGA 90 min after TNF-α reduced the number of previously adhered cells. In WT mice, intrascrotal injection of TNF-α (0.5 μg/0.3 ml) increased LAV (fourfold) and LPV (threefold) compared with saline-injected controls. In contrast to the observations in WT animals, TNF-α stimulation did not increase LAV or LPV in Cx43e−/− mice. These results demonstrate an important role for GJ communication in leukocyte adhesion and transmigration during acute inflammation in vivo and further suggest that endothelial Cx43 is key in these processes. PMID:18599597

  2. Genetic abolishment of hepatocyte proliferation activates hepatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yoko; Zhang, Mingjun; Yamaji, Sachie; Cang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Quiescent hepatic stem cells (HSCs) can be activated when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised. Chemical injury rodent models have been widely used to study the localization, biomarkers, and signaling pathways in HSCs, but these models usually exhibit severe promiscuous toxicity and fail to distinguish damaged and non-damaged cells. Our goal is to establish new animal models to overcome these limitations, thereby providing new insights into HSC biology and application. We generated mutant mice with constitutive or inducible deletion of Damaged DNA Binding protein 1 (DDB1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in hepatocytes. We characterized the molecular mechanism underlying the compensatory activation and the properties of oval cells (OCs) by methods of mouse genetics, immuno-staining, cell transplantation and gene expression profiling. We show that deletion of DDB1 abolishes self-renewal capacity of mouse hepatocytes in vivo, leading to compensatory activation and proliferation of DDB1-expressing OCs. Partially restoring proliferation of DDB1-deficient hepatocytes by ablation of p21, a substrate of DDB1 E3 ligase, alleviates OC proliferation. Purified OCs express both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers, form colonies in vitro, and differentiate to hepatocytes after transplantation. Importantly, the DDB1 mutant mice exhibit very minor liver damage, compared to a chemical injury model. Microarray analysis reveals several previously unrecognized markers, including Reelin, enriched in oval cells. Here we report a genetic model in which irreversible inhibition of hepatocyte duplication results in HSC-driven liver regeneration. The DDB1 mutant mice can be broadly applied to studies of HSC differentiation, HSC niche and HSCs as origin of liver cancer.

  3. Genetic Abolishment of Hepatocyte Proliferation Activates Hepatic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Yoko; Zhang, Mingjun; Yamaji, Sachie; Cang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Quiescent hepatic stem cells (HSCs) can be activated when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised. Chemical injury rodent models have been widely used to study the localization, biomarkers, and signaling pathways in HSCs, but these models usually exhibit severe promiscuous toxicity and fail to distinguish damaged and non-damaged cells. Our goal is to establish new animal models to overcome these limitations, thereby providing new insights into HSC biology and application. We generated mutant mice with constitutive or inducible deletion of Damaged DNA Binding protein 1 (DDB1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in hepatocytes. We characterized the molecular mechanism underlying the compensatory activation and the properties of oval cells (OCs) by methods of mouse genetics, immuno-staining, cell transplantation and gene expression profiling. We show that deletion of DDB1 abolishes self-renewal capacity of mouse hepatocytes in vivo, leading to compensatory activation and proliferation of DDB1-expressing OCs. Partially restoring proliferation of DDB1-deficient hepatocytes by ablation of p21, a substrate of DDB1 E3 ligase, alleviates OC proliferation. Purified OCs express both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers, form colonies in vitro, and differentiate to hepatocytes after transplantation. Importantly, the DDB1 mutant mice exhibit very minor liver damage, compared to a chemical injury model. Microarray analysis reveals several previously unrecognized markers, including Reelin, enriched in oval cells. Here we report a genetic model in which irreversible inhibition of hepatocyte duplication results in HSC-driven liver regeneration. The DDB1 mutant mice can be broadly applied to studies of HSC differentiation, HSC niche and HSCs as origin of liver cancer. PMID:22384083

  4. Deep brain stimulation abolishes slowing of reactions to unlikely stimuli.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Bogacz, Rafal; Kennard, Christopher; FitzGerald, James J; Aziz, Tipu; Green, Alexander L

    2014-08-13

    The cortico-basal-ganglia circuit plays a critical role in decision making on the basis of probabilistic information. Computational models have suggested how this circuit could compute the probabilities of actions being appropriate according to Bayes' theorem. These models predict that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) provides feedback that normalizes the neural representation of probabilities, such that if the probability of one action increases, the probabilities of all other available actions decrease. Here we report the results of an experiment testing a prediction of this theory that disrupting information processing in the STN with deep brain stimulation should abolish the normalization of the neural representation of probabilities. In our experiment, we asked patients with Parkinson's disease to saccade to a target that could appear in one of two locations, and the probability of the target appearing in each location was periodically changed. When the stimulator was switched off, the target probability affected the reaction times (RT) of patients in a similar way to healthy participants. Specifically, the RTs were shorter for more probable targets and, importantly, they were longer for the unlikely targets. When the stimulator was switched on, the patients were still faster for more probable targets, but critically they did not increase RTs as the target was becoming less likely. This pattern of results is consistent with the prediction of the model that the patients on DBS no longer normalized their neural representation of prior probabilities. We discuss alternative explanations for the data in the context of other published results. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410844-09$15.00/0.

  5. Synthesis of endogenous pyrogen by rabbit leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Moore, D M; Murphy, P A; Chesney, P J; Wood, W B

    1973-05-01

    Rabbit ieukocytes from peritoneal exudates and from blood were stimulated to form leukocyte pyrogen in the presence of radiolabeled amino acids. The stimuli used were endotoxin, phagocytosis, and tuberculin. The crude leukocyte pyrogen samples were purified; pyrogen from exudate cells was rendered homogeneous; pyrogen from blood cells was still contaminated with other proteins. All the purified pyrogens were radioactive; and for all it was shown that radioactivity and pyrogenic activity coincided on electrophoresis at pH 3.5 and pH 9 in acrylamide and on isoelectric focusing in acrylamide. Furthermore, pyrogens obtained from exudate cells stimulated in different ways, or from blood cells and exudate cells stimulated with endotoxin, appeared to be identical. These results suggest that leukocyte pyrogen was synthesized de novo from amino acid precursors and that leukocytes made the same pyrogen whatever the stimulus used to activate them.

  6. SYNTHESIS OF ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN BY RABBIT LEUKOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Douglas M.; Murphy, Patrick A.; Chesney, P. Joan; Wood, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    Rabbit ieukocytes from peritoneal exudates and from blood were stimulated to form leukocyte pyrogen in the presence of radiolabeled amino acids. The stimuli used were endotoxin, phagocytosis, and tuberculin. The crude leukocyte pyrogen samples were purified; pyrogen from exudate cells was rendered homogeneous; pyrogen from blood cells was still contaminated with other proteins. All the purified pyrogens were radioactive; and for all it was shown that radioactivity and pyrogenic activity coincided on electrophoresis at pH 3.5 and pH 9 in acrylamide and on isoelectric focusing in acrylamide. Furthermore, pyrogens obtained from exudate cells stimulated in different ways, or from blood cells and exudate cells stimulated with endotoxin, appeared to be identical. These results suggest that leukocyte pyrogen was synthesized de novo from amino acid precursors and that leukocytes made the same pyrogen whatever the stimulus used to activate them. PMID:4573840

  7. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  8. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular...

  11. Constitutive and regulated secretion of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor by human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Si-Tahar, M; Merlin, D; Sitaraman, S; Madara, J L

    2000-06-01

    Epithelial cells participate in immune regulation and mucosal integrity by generating a range of biologically active mediators. In the intestine, little is known about the potential endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is a major serine proteinase inhibitor, a potent antibiotic, and thus a potential anti-inflammatory molecule, although it is not known if it is secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. We show, by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the presence of SLPI messenger RNA in human model intestinal epithelial cell lines (Caco2-BBE, T84, and HT29-Cl.19A) and human jejunum and colon biopsy specimens. The polymerase chain reaction product was cloned and sequenced and is identical to that of SLPI isolated previously from the human parotid gland. As analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the constitutive secretion of SLPI occurs in a markedly polarized manner toward the apical surface and is enhanced by inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta (approximately 3.5-fold increase over control value). SLPI release is also stimulated by activation of protein kinase C isoenzymes, but not by activation of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate- or Ca(2+)-regulated signaling molecules. SLPI protein is detectable in intestinal lavage fluids collected from normal adult humans. Recombinant SLPI attenuates digestive enzyme (trypsin)- or leukocyte proteinase (elastase)-induced permeability alteration of a model epithelia in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SLPI exhibits an antibacterial activity against at least one major intestinal pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium. In contrast, SLPI does not influence epithelial barrier integrity as assessed by transepithelial conductance measurements or electrogenic ion transport. These results establish that human intestinal epithelium expresses and apically secretes SLPI, a molecule that may significantly contribute to the

  12. The regulation of ATP release from the urothelium by adenosine and transepithelial potential.

    PubMed

    Dunning-Davies, Bryony M; Fry, Christopher H; Mansour, Dina; Ferguson, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Stretch of the urothelium, as occurs during bladder filling, is associated with a release of ATP that is postulated to act as a sensory neurotransmitter. The regulation of ATP release is poorly understood and in particular if there is a feedback mechanism provided by ATP itself. Adenosine, a breakdown product of ATP, is a potent inhibitor of stretch-induced ATP release, acting through and A1 receptor; endogenous levels are about 0.6μM. Data are consistent with ATP release relying on the rise of intracellular Ca2+. Transepithelial potential also controls ATP release, also acting via an A1 receptor-dependent pathway. To test the hypothesis that distension-induced ATP release from the bladder urothelium is regulated by adenosine as well as changes to transurothelial potential (TEP). To examine the role of changes to intracellular [Ca(2+) ] in ATP release. Rabbit urothelium/suburothelium membranes were used in an Ussing chamber system. Distension was induced by fluid removal from the chamber bathing the serosal (basolateral) membrane face. The TEP and short-circuit current were measured. ATP was measured in samples aspirated from the serosal chamber by a luciferin-luciferase assay. Intracellular [Ca(2+) ] was measured in isolated urothelial cells using the fluorochrome Fura-2. All experiments were performed at 37°C. Distension-induced ATP release was decreased by adenosine (1-10 μm) and enhanced by adenosine deaminase and A1- (but not A2-) receptor antagonists. Distension-induced ATP release was reduced by 2-APB, nifedipine and capsazepine; capsaicin induced ATP release in the absence of distension. ATP and capsaicin, but not adenosine, generated intracellular Ca(2+) transients; adenosine did not affect the ATP-generated Ca(2+) transient. ATP release was dependent on a finite transepithelial potential. Changes to TEP, in the absence of distension, generated ATP release that was in turn reduced by adenosine

  13. Shape Effect in the Design of Nanowire Coated Microparticles as Transepithelial Drug Delivery Devices

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk; Lee, Kunwoo; Lee, Phin Peng; Fischer, Kathleen E.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2012-01-01

    While the oral drug delivery route has traditionally been the most popular among patients, it is estimated that 90 % of therapeutic compounds possess oral bioavailability limitations. Thus, the development of novel drug carriers for more effective oral delivery of therapeutics is an important goal. Composite particles made by growing nanoscopic silicon wires from the surface of narrowly dispersed, microsized silica beads were previously shown to be able to: (a) adhere well onto the epithelium by interdigitating their nanowires with the apical microvilli; and (b) increase the permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers with respect to small organic molecules in direct proportion to their concentration. A comparison between the effects of spherical and planar particle morphologies on the permeability of the epithelial cell layer in vitro and in vivo presented the subject of this study. Owing to their larger surface area, the planar particles exhibited a higher drug loading efficiency than their spherical counterparts, while simultaneously increasing the transepithelial permeation of a moderately sized model drug, insulin. The insulin elution profile for planar nanowire-coated particles displayed a continual increase in the cumulative amount of the released drug, approaching a constant release rate for 1 – 4 h period of the elution time. An immunohistochemical study confirmed the ability of planar silica particles coated with nanowires to loosen the tight junction of the epithelial cells to a greater extent than the spherical particles did, thus enabling a more facile transport of the drug across the epithelium. Transepithelial permeability tests conducted for model drugs ranging in size from 0.4 to 150 kDa yielded three categories of molecules depending on their permeation propensities. Insulin belonged to the category of molecules deliverable across the epithelium only with the assistance of nanowire-coated particles. Other groups of drugs, smaller and bigger

  14. Listeria monocytogenes uses Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) to promote bacterial transepithelial translocation and induces expression of LAP receptor Hsp60.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Kristin M; Bhunia, Arun K

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes interaction with the intestinal epithelium is a key step in the infection process. We demonstrated that Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) promotes adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and facilitates extraintestinal dissemination in vivo. The LAP receptor is a stress response protein, Hsp60, but the precise role for the LAP-Hsp60 interaction during Listeria infection is unknown. Here we investigated the influence of physiological stressors and Listeria infection on host Hsp60 expression and LAP-mediated bacterial adhesion, invasion, and transepithelial translocation in an enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell model. Stressors such as heat (41°C), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (100 U), and L. monocytogenes infection (10(4) to 10(6) CFU/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased plasma membrane and intracellular Hsp60 levels in Caco-2 cells and consequently enhanced LAP-mediated L. monocytogenes adhesion but not invasion of Caco-2 cells. In transepithelial translocation experiments, the wild type (WT) exhibited 2.7-fold more translocation through Caco-2 monolayers than a lap mutant, suggesting that LAP is involved in transepithelial translocation, potentially via a paracellular route. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) suppression of Hsp60 in Caco-2 cells reduced WT adhesion and translocation 4.5- and 3-fold, respectively, while adhesion remained unchanged for the lap mutant. Conversely, overexpression of Hsp60 in Caco-2 cells enhanced WT adhesion and transepithelial translocation, but not those of the lap mutant. Furthermore, initial infection with a low dosage (10(6) CFU/ml) of L. monocytogenes increased plasma membrane and intracellular expression of Hsp60 significantly, which rendered Caco-2 cells more susceptible to subsequent LAP-mediated adhesion and translocation. These data provide insight into the role of LAP as a virulence factor during intestinal epithelial infection and pose new questions regarding the dynamics between the host stress response

  15. Dragon enhances BMP signaling and increases transepithelial resistance in kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Babitt, Jodie L; Bouley, Richard; Zhang, Ying; Da Silva, Nicolas; Chen, Shanzhuo; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Samad, Tarek A; Brenner, Gary J; Anderson, Jennifer L; Hong, Charles C; Schneyer, Alan L; Brown, Dennis; Lin, Herbert Y

    2010-04-01

    The neuronal adhesion protein Dragon acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor that enhances BMP signaling. Given the importance of BMP signaling in nephrogenesis and its putative role in the response to injury in the adult kidney, we studied the localization and function of Dragon in the kidney. We observed that Dragon localized predominantly to the apical surfaces of tubular epithelial cells in the thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts of mice. Dragon expression was weak in the proximal tubules and glomeruli. In mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells, Dragon generated BMP signals in a ligand-dependent manner, and BMP4 is the predominant endogenous ligand for the Dragon coreceptor. In mIMCD3 cells, BMP4 normally signaled through BMPRII, but Dragon enhanced its signaling through the BMP type II receptor ActRIIA. Dragon and BMP4 increased transepithelial resistance (TER) through the Smad1/5/8 pathway. In epithelial cells isolated from the proximal tubule and intercalated cells of collecting ducts, we observed coexpression of ActRIIA, Dragon, and BMP4 but not BMPRII. Taken together, these results suggest that Dragon may enhance BMP signaling in renal tubular epithelial cells and maintain normal renal physiology.

  16. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Promotes Transepithelial Migration of Neutrophils Through a Conserved 12-Lipoxygenase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Boll, Erik J.; Struve, Carsten; Sander, Anja; Demma, Zachary; Krogfelt, Karen A.; McCormick, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) induces release of pro-inflammatory markers and disruption of intestinal epithelial barriers in vitro suggesting an inflammatory aspect to EAEC infection. However, the mechanisms underlying EAEC-induced mucosal inflammatory responses and the extent to which these events contribute to pathogenesis is not well characterized. Employing an established in vitro model we demonstrated that EAEC prototype strain 042 induces migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) across polarized T84 cell monolayers. This event was mediated through a conserved host cell signaling cascade involving the 12/15-LOX pathway and led to apical secretion of an arachidonic acid-derived lipid PMN chemoattractant, guiding PMNs across the epithelia to the site of infection. Moreover, supporting the hypothesis that inflammatory responses may contribute to EAEC pathogenesis, we found that PMN transepithelial migration promoted enhanced attachment of EAEC 042 to T84 cells. These findings suggest that EAEC-induced PMN infiltration may favor colonization and thus pathogenesis of EAEC. PMID:21951973

  17. Effect of amiloride and bumetanide on transepithelial ion transport in isolated rabbit cecal and colonic wall.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Młodzik-Danielewicz, Natalia; Banach, Bolesław; Tyrakowski, Tomasz

    2005-06-03

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of amiloride and bumetanide on the baseline transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) and changes in PD during mechanical stimulation (dPD) in isolated cecal and colonic wall of rabbits. The experiments were performed with a modified Ussing chamber system. Isolated tissue specimens were incubated in Ringer's solution, in amiloride and/or bumetanide, or in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Under control conditions, i.e. when all the experimental fluids were Ringer's solution, the PD and R values of the rabbit cecum and colon were similar, while during mechanical stimulation, dPD of the colon was twice as high as that of the cecum. Addition of amiloride and/or bumetanide to all experimental fluids diminished the electrophysiological parameters of both tissues. DMSO added to all experimental fluids significantly diminished the values of the electrophysiological parameters of the cecum. Addition of amiloride to the stimulation fluid only diminished the PD and dPD values in the colon, whereas addition of bumetanide to the stimulation fluid only diminished the PD and dPD values in the cecum. It was found that the PD and dPD values of the rabbit cecum depend primarily on chloride ion transport, while those of the colon depend on sodium ion transport.

  18. HK2 Recruitment to Phospho-BAD Prevents Its Degradation, Promoting Warburg Glycolysis by Theileria-Transformed Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Malak; Lombès, Anne; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Kennedy, Eileen J; Langsley, Gordon

    2017-03-10

    Theileria annulata infects bovine leukocytes, transforming them into invasive, cancer-like cells that cause the widespread disease called tropical theileriosis. We report that in Theileria-transformed leukocytes hexokinase-2 (HK2) binds to B cell lymphoma-2-associated death promoter (BAD) only when serine (S) 155 in BAD is phosphorylated. We show that HK2 recruitment to BAD is abolished by a cell-penetrating peptide that acts as a nonphosphorylatable BAD substrate that inhibits endogenous S155 phosphorylation, leading to complex dissociation and ubiquitination and degradation of HK2 by the proteasome. As HK2 is a critical enzyme involved in Warburg glycolysis, its loss forces Theileria-transformed macrophages to switch back to HK1-dependent oxidative glycolysis that down-regulates macrophage proliferation only when they are growing on glucose. When growing on galactose, degradation of HK2 has no effect on Theileria-infected leukocyte proliferation, because metabolism of this sugar is independent of hexokinases. Thus, targeted disruption of the phosphorylation-dependent HK2/BAD complex may represent a novel approach to control Theileria-transformed leukocyte proliferation.

  19. Effects of ε-viniferin, a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, on transepithelial active ion transport and ion permeability in the rat small and large intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Karaki, Shin-Ichiro; Ishikawa, Junji; Tomizawa, Yuka; Kuwahara, Atsukazu

    2016-05-01

    ε-Viniferin is a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, a polyphenol synthesized in many plants, including grapevine. The present study investigated the effects of ε-viniferin and resveratrol on epithelial secretory and barrier functions in isolated rat small and large intestinal mucosa. Mucosa-submucosa tissue preparations of various segments of the rat large and small intestines were mounted on Ussing chambers, and short-circuit current (Isc) and tissue conductance (Gt) were continuously measured. The mucosal addition of ε-viniferin (>10(-5) mol/L) and resveratrol (>10(-4) mol/L) to the cecal mucosa, which was the most sensitive region, induced an increase in Isc and a rapid phase decrease (P-1) followed by rapid (P-2) and broad (P-3) peak increases in Gt in concentration-dependent manners. Mucosal ε-viniferin (10(-4) mol/L), but not resveratrol (10(-4) mol/L), increased the permeability of FITC-conjugated dextran (4 kDa). The mucosal ε-viniferin-evoked changes in Isc (Cl(-) secretion), but not in Gt, were attenuated by a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor and a selective EP4 prostaglandin receptor. The mucosal ε-viniferin-evoked increase in Isc was partially attenuated, and P-2, but not P-1 or P-3, change in Gt was abolished by a transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) inhibitor. Moreover, the mucosal ε-viniferin concentration-dependently attenuated the mucosal propionate (1 mmol/L)-evoked increases in Isc and Gt Immunohistochemical studies revealed COX-1-immunoreactive epithelial cells in the cecal crypt. The present study showed that mucosal ε-viniferin modulated transepithelial ion transport and permeability, possibly by activating sensory epithelial cells expressing COX-1 and TRPA1. Moreover, mucosal ε-viniferin decreased mucosal sensitivity to other luminal molecules such as short-chain fatty acids. In conclusion, these results suggest that ε-viniferin modifies intestinal mucosal transport and barrier

  20. Genetics Home Reference: leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... adhesion deficiency type 1 Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 is a ...

  1. Transepithelial Transport of Curcumin in Caco-2 Cells Is significantly Enhanced by Micellar Solubilisation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jan; Schiborr, Christina; Kocher, Alexa; Meins, Jürgen; Behnam, Dariush; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin, the active constituent of Curcuma longa L. (family Zingiberaceae), has gained increasing interest because of its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-rheumatic properties associated with good tolerability and safety up to very high doses of 12 g. Nanoscaled micellar formulations on the base of Tween 80 represent a promising strategy to overcome its low oral bioavailability. We therefore aimed to investigate the uptake and transepithelial transport of native curcumin (CUR) vs. a nanoscaled micellar formulation (Sol-CUR) in a Caco-2 cell model. Sol-CUR afforded a higher flux than CUR (39.23 vs. 4.98 μg min -1  cm -2 , respectively). This resulted in a higher P app value of 2.11 × 10 -6  cm/s for Sol-CUR compared to a P app value of 0.56 × 10 -6  cm/s for CUR. Accordingly a nearly 9.5 fold higher amount of curcumin was detected on the basolateral side at the end of the transport experiments after 180 min with Sol-CUR compared to CUR. The determined 3.8-fold improvement in the permeability of curcumin is in agreement with an up to 185-fold increase in the AUC of curcumin observed in humans following the oral administration of the nanoscaled micellar formulation compared to native curcumin. The present study demonstrates that the enhanced oral bioavailability of micellar curcumin formulations is likely a result of enhanced absorption into and increased transport through small intestinal epithelial cells.

  2. Interleukin-6 Modulates Colonic Transepithelial Ion Transport in the Stress-Sensitive Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Dervla; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Immunological challenge stimulates secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6, resulting in variety of biological responses. In the gastrointestinal tract, IL-6 modulates the excitability of submucosal neurons and stimulates secretion into the colonic lumen. When considered in the context of the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where plasma levels of IL-6 are elevated, this may reflect an important molecular mechanism contributing to symptom flares, particularly in the diarrhea-predominant phenotype. In these studies, colonic ion transport, an indicator of absorption and secretion, was assessed in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat model of IBS. Mucosa-submucosal colonic preparations from WKY and control Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were mounted in Ussing chambers and the basal short circuit current (ISC) was electrophysiologically recorded and compared between the strains. Exposure to IL-6 (1 nM) stimulated a secretory current of greater amplitude in WKY as compared to SD samples. Furthermore, the observed IL-6-mediated potentiation of secretory currents evoked by veratridine and capsaicin in SD rats was blunted in WKY rats. Exposure to IL-6 also stimulated an increase in transepithelial resistance in both SD and WKY colonic tissue. These studies demonstrate that the neuroexcitatory effects of IL-6 on submucosal plexi have functional consequences with alterations in both colonic secretory activity and permeability. The IL-6-induced increase in colonic secretory activity appears to neurally mediated. Thus, local increases in IL-6 levels and subsequent activation of enteric neurons may underlie alterations in absorpto-secretory function in the WKY model of IBS. PMID:23162465

  3. G3.5 PAMAM dendrimers enhance transepithelial transport of SN38 while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Deborah S; Vijayalakshmi, Nirmalkumar; Swaan, Peter W; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-03-30

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown promise in oral drug delivery. Conjugation of SN38 to PAMAM dendrimers has the potential to improve its oral absorption while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity. In this work we evaluated G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer-SN38 conjugates with ester-linked glycine and β-alanine spacers for their suitability in oral therapy of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was mostly stable while G3.5-Glycine-SN38 showed 10%, 20%, and 56% SN38 release in simulated gastric, intestinal and liver environments for up to 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with G3.5-SN38 conjugates did not reduce cell viability, while comparable concentrations of SN38 caused significant cytotoxicity. G3.5-Glycine-SN38 and G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 showed IC₅₀ values of 0.60 and 3.59 μM, respectively, in HT-29 cells treated for 48 h, indicating the efficacy of the drug delivery system in colorectal cancer cells with longer incubation time. Both conjugates increased SN38 transepithelial transport compared to the free drug. Transport of G3.5-Glycine-SN38 was highly concentration-dependent whereas transport of G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was concentration-independent, highlighting the influence of drug loading and spacer chemistry on transport mechanism. Together these results show that PAMAM dendrimers have the potential to improve the oral bioavailability of potent anti-cancer drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Engineering of dendrimer surfaces to enhance transepithelial transport and reduce cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jevprasesphant, Rachaneekorn; Penny, Jeffrey; Attwood, David; McKeown, Neil B; D'Emanuele, Antony

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity, permeation, and transport mechanisms of PAMAM dendrimers and surface-modified cationic PAMAM dendrimers using monolayers of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT assay. The effect of dendrimers on monolayer integrity was determined from measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and [14C]mannitol apparent permeability coefficient (Papp). The Papp of dendrimers through monolayers was measured in both the apical (A)-to-basolateral (B) and B --> A directions at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C and also in the presence and absence of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and colchicine. The cytotoxicity and permeation of dendrimers increased with both concentration and generation. The cytotoxicity of cationic dendrimers (G2, G3, G4) was greater than that of anionic dendrimers (G2.5, G3.5) but was reduced by conjugation with lauroyl chloride: the least cytotoxic conjugates were those with six attached lauroyl chains. At 37 degrees C the Papp of cationic dendrimers was higher than that of anionic dendrimers and, in general, increased with the number of attached lipid chains. Cationic dendrimers decreased TEER and significantly increased the Papp of mannitol. Modified dendrimers also reduced TEER and caused a more marked increase in the Papp of mannitol. The Papp values of dendrimers and modified dendrimers were higher in the presence of EDTA, lower in the presence of colchicine, and lower at 4 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The properties of dendrimers may be significantly modified by surface engineering. Conjugation of cationic PAMAM dendrimers with lauroyl chloride decreased their cytotoxicity and increased their permeation through Caco-2 cell monolayers. Both PAMAM dendrimers and lauroyl-PAMAM dendrimer conjugates can cross epithelial monolayers by paracellular and transcellular pathways.

  5. Predicting Trans-epithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy Outcomes Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Catherine; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Gendy, Nehal Samy El; Huang, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To use Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) to predict trans-epithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (TE-PTK) outcomes. Methods Prospective case series. Subjects with anterior stromal corneal opacities underwent excimer laser PTK combined with PRK using the VISX S4 excimer laser (AMO, Inc., Santa Ana, CA). Pre- and postoperative FD-OCT images were used to develop a simulation algorithm to predict treatment outcomes. Main Outcome Measures Pre- and postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). Postoperative corneal thickness and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) were analyzed using multivariate linear regression. Results Nine eyes of 8 patients were treated. Nominal ablation depth was 75 – 177 μm centrally and 62 –185 μm peripherally. Measured PTK ablation depths were 20% higher centrally and 26% higher peripherally, compared to laser settings. Postoperatively, mean UDVA was 20/41 (range 20/25 – 20/80) compared to 20/103 (range 20/60 – 20/400) preoperatively. Mean CDVA was 20/29 (range 20/15 – 20/60) compared to 20/45 (range 20/30 – 20/80) preoperatively. MRSE was +1.38±2.37 D compared to −2.59±2.83D (mean±SD). Mean astigmatism magnitude was 1.14±0.83D compared to 1.40±1.18D preoperatively. Postoperative MRSE correlated strongly with ablation settings, central and peripheral epithelial thickness (r=0.99, p<0.00001 ). Central island remained difficult to predict and limited visual outcomes in some cases. Conclusion OCT measurements of opacity depth and 3D ablation simulation provide valuable guidance PTK planning. Post-PTK refraction may be predicted with a regression formula which uses OCT epithelial thickness measurements. Laser ablation rates described in this study only apply to the VisX laser. PMID:24452208

  6. G3.5 PAMAM Dendrimers Enhance Transepithelial Transport of SN38 while minimizing Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Deborah S.; Vijayalakshmi, Nirmalkumar; Swaan, Peter W.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown promise in oral drug delivery. Conjugation of SN38 to PAMAM dendrimers has the potential to improve its oral absorption while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity. In this work we evaluated G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer-SN38 conjugates with ester-linked glycine and β-alanine spacers for their suitability in oral therapy of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was mostly stable while G3.5-Glycine-SN38 showed 10%, 20%, and 56% SN38 release in simulated gastric, intestinal and liver environments for up to 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with G3.5-SN38 conjugates did not reduce cell viability, while comparable concentrations of SN38 caused significant cytotoxicity. G3.5-Glycine-SN38 and G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 showed IC50 values of 0.60 and 3.59 μM, respectively, in HT-29 cells treated for 48 hours, indicating the efficacy of the drug delivery system in colorectal cancer cells with longer incubation time. Both conjugates increased SN38 transepithelial transport compared to the free drug. Transport of G3.5-Glycine-SN38 was highly concentration-dependent whereas transport of G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was concentration-independent, highlighting the influence of drug loading and spacer chemistry on transport mechanism. Together these results show that PAMAM dendrimers have the potential to improve the oral bioavailability of potent anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21115079

  7. Effect of human rhinovirus infection on airway epithelium tight junction protein disassembly and transepithelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Looi, Kevin; Troy, Niamh M; Garratt, Luke W; Iosifidis, Thomas; Bosco, Anthony; Buckley, Alysia G; Ling, Kak-Ming; Martinovich, Kelly M; Kicic-Starcevich, Elizabeth; Shaw, Nicole C; Sutanto, Erika N; Zosky, Graeme R; Rigby, Paul J; Larcombe, Alexander N; Knight, Darryl A; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M

    2016-10-11

    No studies have assessed the effects of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection on epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and resultant barrier function. To correlate viral infection with TJ disassembly, epithelial barrier integrity, and function. Human airway epithelial cells were infected with HRV minor serotype 1B (HRV-1B) at various 50% tissue culture infectivity doses (TCID 50 ) over 72 hours. HRV replication was assessed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) while cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by proliferation and apoptotic assays, respectively. Protein expression of claudin-1, occludin, and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) was assessed using In-Cell™ Western assays. Transepithelial permeability assays were performed to assess effects on barrier functionality. RT 2 Profiler focused qPCR arrays and pathway analysis evaluating associations between human TJ and antiviral response were performed to identify potential interactions and pathways between genes of interests. HRV-1B infection affected viability that was both time and TCID 50 dependent. Significant increases in apoptosis and viral replication post-infection correlated with viral titer. Viral infection significantly decreased claudin-1 protein expression at the lower TCID 50 , while a significant decrease in all three TJ protein expressions occurred at higher TCID 50 . Decrease in protein expression was concomitant with significant increases in epithelial permeability of fluorescein isothiocynate labeled-dextran 4 and 20 kDa. Analysis of focused qPCR arrays demonstrated a significant decrease in ZO-1 gene expression. Furthermore, network analysis between human TJ and antiviral response genes revealed possible interactions and regulation of TJ genes via interleukin (IL)-15 in response to HRV-1B infection. HRV-1B infection directly alters human airway epithelial TJ expression leading to increased epithelial permeability potentially via an antiviral response of IL-15.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of mechanical responses and transepithelial potential difference and resistance, in guinea-pig isolated, perfused trachea using a novel apparatus: pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yi; Dowdy, Janet A; Van Scott, Michael R; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2008-11-19

    The isolated, perfused trachea preparation has been used to compare reactivity of the intact airway in response to differential exposure of the mucosal (intraluminal) and serosal (extraluminal) surfaces to contractile and relaxant agonists and other agents, and to gain insight into the modulatory role of the epithelium and the pathways involved. The apparatus has also been configured for simultaneous measurement of transepithelial potential difference and changes in tracheal diameter, thereby providing parallel observations of epithelial and smooth muscle function and reactivity to drugs. The transepithelial potential difference is a product of transepithelial resistance and short circuit current, and the present study describes a novel isolated, perfused tracheal apparatus which allows simultaneous measurement of transepithelial potential difference, transepithelial resistance and mechanical responses of the smooth muscle. The apparatus was validated using well-known ion transport inhibitors [intraluminal amiloride and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid (NPPB), extraluminal ouabain and bumetanide], bronchoactive agonists (extraluminal methacholine, histamine and terbutaline), and osmolytes (intraluminal d-mannitol and NaCl) to induce epithelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated relaxations. This apparatus will facilitate investigation of interactions between the epithelium and smooth muscle in airways that retain their in situ structure, and signaling mechanisms potentially involved in the regulation of airway smooth muscle tone.

  9. Non-invasive ventilation abolishes the IL-6 response to exercise in muscle-wasted COPD patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hannink, J D C; van Hees, H W H; Dekhuijzen, P N R; van Helvoort, H A C; Heijdra, Y F

    2014-02-01

    Systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been related to the development of comorbidities. The level of systemic inflammatory mediators is aggravated as a response to exercise in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether unloading of the respiratory muscles attenuates the inflammatory response to exercise in COPD patients. In a cross-over design, eight muscle-wasted stable COPD patients performed 40 W constant work-rate cycle exercise with and without non-invasive ventilation support (NIV vs control). Patients exercised until symptom limitation for maximally 20 min. Blood samples were taken at rest and at isotime or immediately after exercise. Duration of control and NIV-supported exercise was similar, both 12.9 ± 2.8 min. Interleukin- 6 (IL-6) plasma levels increased significantly by 25 ± 9% in response to control exercise, but not in response to NIV-supported exercise. Leukocyte concentrations increased similarly after control and NIV-supported exercise by ∼15%. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, carbonylated proteins, and production of reactive oxygen species by blood cells were not affected by both exercise modes. This study demonstrates that NIV abolishes the IL-6 response to exercise in muscle-wasted patients with COPD. These data suggest that the respiratory muscles contribute to exercise-induced IL-6 release in these patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A pharmacological modification of pain and epithelial healing in contemporary transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA).

    PubMed

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Selimis, Vasilis D; Bessis, Nikolaos V; Georgoudis, Panagiotis N

    2015-01-01

    We report our experience with the use of the matrix regenerating agent (RGTA) Cacicol(®) after reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA)-SCHWIND to assess the safety, efficacy, pain, and epithelial healing. Forty eyes of 20 myopic patients were prospectively recruited to a randomized fellow eye study. Patients underwent transepithelial ASLA in both eyes, with one of the eyes randomly assigned to the use of the RGTA Cacicol. Postoperative pain and vision were subjectively assessed with the use of a questionnaire on the operative day, at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Epithelial defect area size was measured at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were assessed at 1 month. Mean UDVA at 1 month was LogMAR 0.028. The epithelial defect area was 10.91 mm(2) and 13.28 mm(2) at 24 hours and 1.39 mm(2) and 1.24 mm(2) at 48 hours for treated and nontreated eyes, respectively. Overall, 50% and 65% of treated and nontreated eyes healed by 48 hours. There was no statistically significant difference in the subjective vision between the groups, although vision of patients in the RGTA group was reported to be better. Pain scores were better at 24 hours and 48 hours in the RGTA group but with no statistically significant difference. The use of RGTA Cacicol shows faster epithelial recovery after transepithelial ASLA for myopia. Subjectively reported scores of pain and subjective vision were better in the RGTA group, although the difference was not statistically significant. There seems to be a consensual acceleration of epithelial healing even in eyes that did not receive treatment. There were no adverse events and no incidents of inflammation, delayed healing, or haze.

  11. A pharmacological modification of pain and epithelial healing in contemporary transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA)

    PubMed Central

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Selimis, Vasilis D; Bessis, Nikolaos V; Georgoudis, Panagiotis N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We report our experience with the use of the matrix regenerating agent (RGTA) Cacicol® after reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA)-SCHWIND to assess the safety, efficacy, pain, and epithelial healing. Methods Forty eyes of 20 myopic patients were prospectively recruited to a randomized fellow eye study. Patients underwent transepithelial ASLA in both eyes, with one of the eyes randomly assigned to the use of the RGTA Cacicol. Postoperative pain and vision were subjectively assessed with the use of a questionnaire on the operative day, at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Epithelial defect area size was measured at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were assessed at 1 month. Results Mean UDVA at 1 month was LogMAR 0.028. The epithelial defect area was 10.91 mm2 and 13.28 mm2 at 24 hours and 1.39 mm2 and 1.24 mm2 at 48 hours for treated and nontreated eyes, respectively. Overall, 50% and 65% of treated and nontreated eyes healed by 48 hours. There was no statistically significant difference in the subjective vision between the groups, although vision of patients in the RGTA group was reported to be better. Pain scores were better at 24 hours and 48 hours in the RGTA group but with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion The use of RGTA Cacicol shows faster epithelial recovery after transepithelial ASLA for myopia. Subjectively reported scores of pain and subjective vision were better in the RGTA group, although the difference was not statistically significant. There seems to be a consensual acceleration of epithelial healing even in eyes that did not receive treatment. There were no adverse events and no incidents of inflammation, delayed healing, or haze. PMID:25931809

  12. Spectral OCT with speckle contrast reduction for evaluation of the healing process after PRK and transepithelial PRK

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J.; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Bukowska, Danuta M.; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate Spectral OCT (SOCT) with a speckle contrast reduction technique using resonant scanner for assessment of corneal surface changes after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and we compare healing process between conventional PRK and transepithelial PRK. The measurements were performed before and after the surgery. Obtained results show that SOCT with a resonant scanner speckle contrast reduction is capable of providing information regarding the healing process after PRK. The main difference between the healing processes of PRK and TransPRK, assessed by SOCT, was the time to cover the stroma with epithelium, which was shorter in the TransPRK group. PMID:24761291

  13. Spectral OCT with speckle contrast reduction for evaluation of the healing process after PRK and transepithelial PRK.

    PubMed

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Bukowska, Danuta M; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2014-04-01

    We evaluate Spectral OCT (SOCT) with a speckle contrast reduction technique using resonant scanner for assessment of corneal surface changes after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and we compare healing process between conventional PRK and transepithelial PRK. The measurements were performed before and after the surgery. Obtained results show that SOCT with a resonant scanner speckle contrast reduction is capable of providing information regarding the healing process after PRK. The main difference between the healing processes of PRK and TransPRK, assessed by SOCT, was the time to cover the stroma with epithelium, which was shorter in the TransPRK group.

  14. Endothelial cell regulation of leukocyte infiltration in inflammatory tissues

    PubMed Central

    Mantovani, A.; Introna, M.; Dejana, E.

    1995-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important, active role in the onset and regulation of inflammatory and immune reactions. Through the production of chemokines they attract leukocytes and activate their adhesive receptors. This leads to the anchorage of leukocytes to the adhesive molecules expressed on the endothelial surface. Leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is frequently followed by their extravasation. The mechanisms which regulate the passage of leukocytes through endothelial clefts remain to be clarified. Many indirect data suggest that leukocytes might transfer signals to endothelial cells both through the release of active agents and adhesion to the endothelial cell surface. Adhesive molecules (such as PECAM) on the endothelial cell surface might also ‘direct’ leukocytes through the intercellular junction by haptotaxis. The information available on the molecular structure and functional properties of endothelial chemokines, adhesive molecules or junction organization is still fragmentary. Further work is needed to clarify how they interplay in regulating leukocyte infiltration into tissues. PMID:18475659

  15. Effect of Changes in Transepithelial Transport on the Uptake of Sodium across the Outer Surface of the Frog Skin

    PubMed Central

    Biber, Thomas U. L.

    1971-01-01

    The unidirectional sodium, uptake at the outer surface of the frog skin was measured by the method described by Biber and Curran (8). With bathing solutions containing 6 mM NaCl there is a good correlation between sodium uptake and short-circuit current (SCC) measured simultaneously except that the average uptake is about 40% higher than the average SCC. The discrepancy between uptake and SCC increases approximately in proportion to an increase in sodium concentration of the bathing solutions. Amiloride inhibits the unidirectional sodium uptake by 21 and 69% at a sodium concentration of 115 and 6 mM, respectively. This indicates that amiloride acts on the entry step of sodium but additional effects cannot be excluded. The sodium, uptake is not affected by 10-4 M ouabain at a sodium concentration of 115 mM but is inhibited by 40% at a sodium concentration of 6 mM. Replacement of air by nitrogen leads to a 40% decrease of sodium uptake at a sodium concentration of 6 mM. The results support the view proposed previously (8) that the sodium uptake is made up of two components, a linear component which is, essentially, not involved in transepithelial movement of sodium and a saturating component which reflects changes in transepithelial transport. Amiloride, seems largely to affect the saturating component. PMID:5559619

  16. Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.

    Technetium-99m-HM-PAO (({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc scan could replace the 24-hr {sup 111}In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr {sup 99}Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positivemore » in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated.« less

  17. Abolishing Harrassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Although society is more aware of sexual harassment than it was in the past, the problem is not disappearing. Many school children are afraid to talk about it for fear of reprisal and humiliation. The articles in this issue focus on harassment and the schools in the following papers: (1) "Harassment Revisited" (Percy Bates); (2) "Sexual…

  18. Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living in extreme alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Bergman, Harold L; Bianchini, Adalto; Laurent, Pierre; Maina, John; Johannsson, Ora E; Bianchini, Lucas F; Chevalier, Claudine; Kavembe, Geraldine D; Papah, Michael B; Ojoo, Rodi O

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L(-1), i.e. HCO(3) (-) and CO(3) (2-)) rather than Cl(-) (112 mmol L(-1)) represents the major anion matching Na(+) = 356 mmol L(-1), with very low concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (<1 mmol L(-1)). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was +4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at +7 mV at 10-30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to +9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to -13 and -28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca(2+)]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28°C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L(-1) solutions of NaHCO(3), NaCl, NaNO(3), or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3) solution sustained the TEP unchanged at +7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3), the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaCl-i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO(3) solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na(+) diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na(+) inwards (+9.9 mV) and Cl(-) outwards (+3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient driving HCO(3) (-) inwards (-82.7 m

  19. G5 PAMAM dendrimer versus liposome: a comparison study on the in vitro transepithelial transport and in vivo oral absorption of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Qi, Rong; Zhang, Heran; Xu, Lu; Shen, Wenwen; Chen, Cong; Wang, Chao; Cao, Yini; Wang, Yunan; van Dongen, Mallory A; He, Bing; Wang, Siling; Liu, George; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    This study compared formulation effects of a dendrimer and a liposome preparation on the water solubility, transepithelial transport, and oral bioavailability of simvastatin (SMV). Amine-terminated G5 PAMAM dendrimer (G5-NH2) was chosen to form SMV/G5-NH2 molecular complexes, and SMV-liposomes were prepared by using a thin film dispersion method. The effects of these preparations on the transepithelial transport were investigated in vitro using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Results indicated that the solubility and transepithelial transport of SMV were significantly improved by both formulations. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats also revealed that both the SMV/G5-NH2 molecular complexes and the SMV-liposomes significantly improved the oral bioavailability of SMV with the liposomes being more effective than the G5-NH2. The overall better oral absorption of SMV-liposomes as compared to SMV/G5-NH2 molecular complexes appeared to arise from better liposomal solubilization and encapsulation of SMV and more efficient intracellular SMV delivery. Various carrier systems have been designed to enhance drug delivery via the oral route. In this study, the authors compared G5 PAMAM dendrimers to liposome preparations in terms of solubility, transepithelial transport, and oral bioavailability of this poorly water-soluble drug. This understanding has improved our knowledge in the further development of drug carrier systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lidocaine reduces neutrophil recruitment by abolishing chemokine-induced arrest and transendothelial migration in septic patients.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Rossaint, Jan; Van Aken, Hugo; Westphal, Martin; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Zarbock, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The inappropriate activation, positioning, and recruitment of leukocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure in sepsis. Although the local anesthetic lidocaine modulates inflammatory processes, the effects of lidocaine in sepsis are still unknown. This double-blinded, prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effect of lidocaine on leukocyte recruitment in septic patients. Fourteen septic patients were randomized to receive either a placebo (n = 7) or a lidocaine (n = 7) bolus (1.5 mg/kg), followed by continuous infusion (100 mg/h for patients >70 kg or 70 mg/h for patients <70 kg) over a period of 48 h. Selectin-mediated slow rolling, chemokine-induced arrest, and transmigration were investigated by using flow chamber and transmigration assays. Lidocaine treatment abrogated chemokine-induced neutrophil arrest and significantly impaired neutrophil transmigration through endothelial cells by inhibition of the protein kinase C-θ while not affecting the selectin-mediated slow leukocyte rolling. The observed results were not attributable to changes in surface expression of adhesion molecules or selectin-mediated capturing capacity, indicating a direct effect of lidocaine on signal transduction in neutrophils. These data suggest that lidocaine selectively inhibits chemokine-induced arrest and transmigration of neutrophils by inhibition of protein kinase C-θ while not affecting selectin-mediated slow rolling. These findings may implicate a possible therapeutic role for lidocaine in decreasing the inappropriate activation, positioning, and recruitment of leukocytes during sepsis.

  1. The Effects of an Abolishing Operation Intervention Component on Play Skills, Challenging Behavior, and Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Aguilar, Jeannie; Fragale, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce stereotypy and challenging behavior during play skills instruction by adding an abolishing operation component (AOC) to the intervention strategy. An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which participants were allowed to engage in stereotypy freely before beginning the play skills…

  2. 76 FR 70321 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Cumberland, ME, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... abolish the Cumberland, Maine, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine... closure of the Naval Air Station Brunswick left the Cumberland wage area without an activity having the... Cumberland, Maine, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine Cumberland...

  3. 77 FR 63205 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Montgomery, Pennsylvania, as a Nonappropriated Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Montgomery, Pennsylvania, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S. Office of... final rule to abolish the Montgomery, Pennsylvania, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine Chester, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties, PA, to the Burlington, NJ, NAF...

  4. 77 FR 11383 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Monmouth, NJ, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... abolish the Monmouth, New Jersey, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and... closure of Fort Monmouth left the Monmouth wage area without an activity having the capability to conduct...

  5. Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Padroni, Sara; Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Ioannides, Antonis; Mukherjee, Achyut

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate postoperative pain, corneal epithelial healing, development of corneal haze, refractive outcomes, and corneal aberrations in a novel one-step, modified transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), termed All-surface laser ablation (ASLA), compared to conventional, alcohol-assisted PRK. Sixty eyes of 30 myopic patients were prospectively recruited to a randomized fellow eye study. Patients underwent conventional alcohol-assisted PRK in one eye (control group) and ASLA-modified transepithelial PRK in the other (30 eyes in each treatment arm). Primary endpoints were postoperative pain and haze scores at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary endpoints included visual acuity at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, corneal aberrations at 3, 6, and 12 months, and early and late onset haze. Refractive predictability, safety, and efficacy of the two methods were considered. The average age of the cohort was 29 years (standard deviation [SD]: 9; range: 18-46), and the average spherical equivalent refractive error was -4.18 diopters (SD: 1.9). At 3 days after surgery, the average pain score was 64% lower in the ASLA group (P < 0.0005). At this point, 96% of ASLA eyes had no epithelial defect, whereas 43% in the alcohol-assisted group did not achieve complete epithelial healing, and required replacement of bandage contact lens. The haze level was consistently lower in the ASLA group at all time points from 1 to 6 months. This study shows that the ASLA technique may have a future role in refractive surgery, due to the fact that it offers faster epithelial healing, lower pain scores, and significantly less haze formation.

  6. Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Padroni, Sara; Mosquera, Samuel Arba; Ioannides, Antonis; Mukherjee, Achyut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain, corneal epithelial healing, development of corneal haze, refractive outcomes, and corneal aberrations in a novel one-step, modified transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), termed All-surface laser ablation (ASLA), compared to conventional, alcohol-assisted PRK. Materials and methods Sixty eyes of 30 myopic patients were prospectively recruited to a randomized fellow eye study. Patients underwent conventional alcohol-assisted PRK in one eye (control group) and ASLA-modified transepithelial PRK in the other (30 eyes in each treatment arm). Primary endpoints were postoperative pain and haze scores at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary endpoints included visual acuity at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, corneal aberrations at 3, 6, and 12 months, and early and late onset haze. Refractive predictability, safety, and efficacy of the two methods were considered. Results The average age of the cohort was 29 years (standard deviation [SD]: 9; range: 18–46), and the average spherical equivalent refractive error was −4.18 diopters (SD: 1.9). At 3 days after surgery, the average pain score was 64% lower in the ASLA group (P < 0.0005). At this point, 96% of ASLA eyes had no epithelial defect, whereas 43% in the alcohol-assisted group did not achieve complete epithelial healing, and required replacement of bandage contact lens. The haze level was consistently lower in the ASLA group at all time points from 1 to 6 months. Conclusion This study shows that the ASLA technique may have a future role in refractive surgery, due to the fact that it offers faster epithelial healing, lower pain scores, and significantly less haze formation. PMID:22815640

  7. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (P<0.0001). The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  8. Effects of Sex Steroids on Fish Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cabas, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    In vertebrates, in addition to their classically reproductive functions, steroids regulate the immune system. This action is possible mainly due to the presence of steroid receptors in the different immune cell types. Much evidence suggests that the immune system of fish is vulnerable to xenosteroids, which are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. In vivo and in vitro assays have amply demonstrated that oestrogens interfere with both the innate and the adaptive immune system of fish by regulating the main leukocyte activities and transcriptional genes. They activate nuclear oestrogen receptors and/or G-protein coupled oestrogen receptor. Less understood is the role of androgens in the immune system, mainly due to the complexity of the transcriptional regulation of androgen receptors in fish. The aim of this manuscript is to review our present knowledge concerning the effect of sex steroid hormones and the presence of their receptors on fish leukocytes, taking into consideration that the studies performed vary as regard the fish species, doses, exposure protocols and hormones used. Moreover, we also include evidence of the probable role of progestins in the regulation of the immune system of fish. PMID:29315244

  9. Enhancing the effectiveness of a play intervention by abolishing the reinforcing value of stereotypy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; White, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which a child with autism was allowed to engage in stereotypy freely prior to the intervention (abolishing operation component) to a second condition without the free-access period. Levels of stereotypy and problem behavior were lower and levels of functional play were higher in the condition with the abolishing operation component. These data provide preliminary support for the use of abolishing operations in interventions to increase the play skills of children with autism.

  10. Computerized detection of leukocytes in microscopic leukorrhea images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Ya; Wang, Xiangzhou; Ni, Guangming; Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Detection of leukocytes is critical for the routine leukorrhea exam, which is widely used in gynecological examinations. An elevated vaginal leukocyte count in women with bacterial vaginosis is a strong predictor of vaginal or cervical infections. In the routine leukorrhea exam, the counting of leukocytes is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the viewing and counting of leukocytes from multiple high-power viewing fields on a glass slide under a microscope leads to subjectivity, low efficiency, and low accuracy. To date, many biological cells in stool, blood, and breast cancer have been studied to realize computerized detection; however, the detection of leukocytes in microscopic leukorrhea images has not been studied. Thus, there is an increasing need for computerized detection of leukocytes. There are two key processes in the computerized detection of leukocytes in digital image processing. One is segmentation; the other is intelligent classification. In this paper, we propose a combined ensemble to detect leukocytes in the microscopic leukorrhea image. After image segmentation and selecting likely leukocyte subimages, we obtain the leukocyte candidates. Then, for intelligent classification, we adopt two methods: feature extraction and classification by a support vector machine (SVM); applying a modified convolutional neural network (CNN) to the larger subimages. If different methods classify a candidate in the same category, the process is finished. If not, the outputs of the methods are provided to a classifier to further classify the candidate. After acquiring leukocyte candidates, we attempted three methods to perform classification. The first approach using features and SVM achieved 88% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and 92.5% accuracy. The second method using CNN achieved 95% sensitivity, 84% specificity, and 89.5% accuracy. Then, in the combination approach, we achieved 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and 93.5% accuracy. Finally, the images

  11. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441), and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P < 0.05, n = 12) in mice intratracheally administrated verapamil. KCa3.1 (1-EBIO) and KATP (minoxidil) channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc) in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na), K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO), and KATP (minoxidil) channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal. PMID:20507598

  12. A Human-Specific α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Gene in Human Leukocytes: Identification, Regulation and the Consequences of CHRFAM7A Expression

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Todd W; Dang, Xitong; Yurchyshyna, Maryana V; Coimbra, Raul; Eliceiri, Brian P; Baird, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains a variant form of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) gene that is uniquely human. This CHRFAM7A gene arose during human speciation and recent data suggests that its expression alters ligand tropism of the normally homopentameric human α7-AChR ligand-gated cell surface ion channel that is found on the surface of many different cell types. To understand its possible significance in regulating inflammation in humans, we investigated its expression in normal human leukocytes and leukocyte cell lines, compared CHRFAM7A expression to that of the CHRNA7 gene, mapped its promoter and characterized the effects of stable CHRFAM7A overexpression. We report here that CHRFAM7A is highly expressed in human leukocytes but that the levels of both CHRFAM7A and CHRNA7 mRNAs were independent and varied widely. To this end, mapping of the CHRFAM7A promoter in its 5′-untranslated region (UTR) identified a unique 1-kb sequence that independently regulates CHRFAM7A gene expression. Because overexpression of CHRFAM7A in THP1 cells altered the cell phenotype and modified the expression of genes associated with focal adhesion (for example, FAK, P13K, Akt, rho, GEF, Elk1, CycD), leukocyte transepithelial migration (Nox, ITG, MMPs, PKC) and cancer (kit, kitL, ras, cFos cyclinD1, Frizzled and GPCR), we conclude that CHRFAM7A is biologically active. Most surprisingly however, stable CHRFAM7A overexpression in THP1 cells upregulated CHRNA7, which, in turn, led to increased binding of the specific α7nAChR ligand, bungarotoxin, on the THP1 cell surface. Taken together, these data confirm the close association between CHRFAM7A and CHRNA7 expression, establish a biological consequence to CHRFAM7A expression in human leukocytes and support the possibility that this human-specific gene might contribute to, and/or gauge, a human-specific response to inflammation. PMID:25860877

  13. Leukocyte adhesion: High-speed cells with ABS.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, P A

    1999-06-03

    In order to decide where to exit blood vessels and enter tissues, leukocytes roll along endothelial surfaces. Recent studies suggest that an 'automatic braking system' (ABS), involving selectin cell-adhesion molecules, enables leukocytes to roll at a fairly constant velocity despite large variations in blood flow rate.

  14. The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

  15. Advances in RNAi therapeutic delivery to leukocytes using lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ramishetti, Srinivas; Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Peer, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) therapeutics has advanced into clinical trials for liver diseases and solid tumors, but remain a challenge for manipulating leukocytes fate due to lack of specificity and safety issues. Leukocytes ingest pathogens and defend the body through a complex network. They are also involved in the pathogeneses of inflammation, viral infection, autoimmunity and cancers. Modulating gene expression in leukocytes using siRNAs holds great promise to treat leukocyte-mediated diseases. Leukocytes are notoriously hard to transduce with siRNAs and are spread throughout the body often located deep in tissues, therefore developing an efficient systemic delivery strategy is still a challenge. Here, we discuss recent advances in siRNA delivery to leukocyte subsets such as macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells and lymphocytes. We focus mainly on lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) comprised of new generation of ionizable lipids and their ability to deliver siRNA to primary or malignant leukocytes in a targeted manner. Special emphasis is made on LNPs targeted to subsets of leukocytes and we detail a novel microfluidic mixing technology that could aid in changing the landscape of process development of LNPs from a lab tool to a potential novel therapeutic modality.

  16. Relationship of Stress, Leukocyte Functions and Acute Ulcerative Gingivitis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-22

    IONAL 1jjl (I Y AN[)AAU> I,)(, 4 •. . . . .i -AD (Report Number 3 , Lf) RELATIONSHIP OF STRESS, LEUKOCYTE FUNCTION AND ACUTE ULCERATIVE GINGIVITIS...AIk £It. KEY WORDS (C~mntm. a reers old. A *1acoa and Identit by block number) Acute Necrotic Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG)), Stress 4 Leukocyte

  17. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  18. Leukocyte diversity in resolving and nonresolving mechanisms of cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tourki, Bochra; Halade, Ganesh

    2017-10-01

    In response to myocardial infarction (MI), time-dependent leukocyte infiltration is critical to program the acute inflammatory response. Post-MI leukocyte density, residence time in the infarcted area, and exit from the infarcted injury predict resolving or nonresolving inflammation. Overactive or unresolved inflammation is the primary determinant in heart failure pathology post-MI. Here, our review describes supporting evidence that the acute inflammatory response also guides the generation of healing and regenerative mediators after cardiac damage. Time-dependent leukocyte density and diversity and the magnitude of myocardial injury is responsible for the resolving and nonresolving pathway in myocardial healing. Post MI, the diversity of leukocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, has been explored that regulate the clearance of deceased cardiomyocytes by using the classic and reparative pathways. Among the innovative factors and intermediates that have been recognized as essential in acute the self-healing and clearance mechanism, we highlight specialized proresolving mediators as the emerging factor for post-MI reparative mechanisms-translational leukocyte modifiers, such as aging, the source of leukocytes, and the milieu around the leukocytes. In the clinical setting, it is possible that leukocyte diversity is more prominent as a result of risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Pharmacologic agents are critical modifiers of leukocyte diversity in healing mechanisms that may impair or stimulate the clearance mechanism. Future research is needed, with a focused approach to understand the molecular targets, cellular effectors, and receptors. A clear understanding of resolving and nonresolving inflammation in myocardial healing will help to develop novel targets with major emphasis on the resolution of inflammation in heart failure pathology.-Tourki, B., Halade, G. Leukocyte diversity in resolving and nonresolving mechanisms

  19. rTMS of the occipital cortex abolishes Braille reading and repetition priming in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Kupers, R; Pappens, M; de Noordhout, A Maertens; Schoenen, J; Ptito, M; Fumal, A

    2007-02-27

    To study the functional involvement of the visual cortex in Braille reading, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over midoccipital (MOC) and primary somatosensory (SI) cortex in blind subjects. After rTMS of MOC, but not SI, subjects made significantly more errors and showed an abolishment of the improvement in reading speed following repetitive presentation of the same word list, suggesting a role of the visual cortex in repetition priming in the blind.

  20. Were Increased Closed Seclusions the Result of a Reinforcer-Abolishing Effect?

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the motivating operation (MO) concept and the terms associated with it, including "reinforcer-abolishing effect" (Laraway, Snycerski, Michael, & Poling, 2003), have been widely used in the behavior-analytic literature (Laraway, Snycerski, Olson, Becker, & Poling, in press) and elsewhere (Lotfizadeh, Edwards, & Poling, 2013). MOs are changes in the environment that alter the reinforcing effectiveness of designated classes of stimuli, such as food or water.

  1. Were Increased Closed Seclusions the Result of a Reinforcer-Abolishing Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the motivating operation (MO) concept and the terms associated with it, including “reinforcer-abolishing effect” (Laraway, Snycerski, Michael, & Poling, 2003), have been widely used in the behavior-analytic literature (Laraway, Snycerski, Olson, Becker, & Poling, in press) and elsewhere (Lotfizadeh, Edwards, & Poling, 2013). MOs are changes in the environment that alter the reinforcing effectiveness of designated classes of stimuli, such as food or water. PMID:27999634

  2. Abolishing and establishing operation analyses of social attention as positive reinforcement for problem behavior.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-03-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishing operation conditions decreased problem behavior during tests.

  3. [Exceptional production of leukocyte-free erythrocyte concentrates using filtration with the BPF 4 BBS leukocyte filter].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, B; Hillringhaus, I; Diekamp, U

    1994-01-01

    Leukocyte depletion prevents some undesirable effects of red cell transfusions. We evaluated the blood filter system BPF 4 BBS (PALL) by filtering 26 units of buffy coat-free red cell concentrates, prepared from 500 ml of whole blood and suspended in SAG-M-additive solution, over 8 min within 48 h after donation at room temperature. Filtration reduced the leukocyte content by more than 99.99% in 25 of the 26 units examined. In 20 instances, no leukocyte was found in the Nageotte counting chamber (2 x 50 microliters) corresponding to a total leukocyte count below 2.38 x 10(4). In 5 instances a single leukocyte was seen, corresponding to a total leukocyte count of (2.35 +/- 0.01) x 10(4). One unit contained 2.93 x 10(5) leukocytes after filtration, corresponding to a 99.98% leukocyte reduction. Red cell recovery was 92.5 +/- 3.8%. This system is well suited for routine use.

  4. Consequences of organizational commitment in abolished company sports team - a case study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuki; Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show that how the abolishment of company sports team influenced the organizational commitment in employees. In this study, Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1997) was tested with 16 employees (10 males, 6 females) of T Company in NAGANO prefecture. The average age of the participants was 44, 50 years (SD=±0.85). And from 16 employees, 3 male employees were measured on organizational commitment with interview test. According to the analysis, the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team was not positive significant correlation. Furthermore, results of interview test did not show the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team. However, results of interview test showed the relation with organizational commitment of players in T Company sports team. Consequently, the goal to possess a sports team in T Company was not to boost organizational commitment in employees. In addition, it is necessary to reconsider the correlation among employees engaged in T Company in the future.

  5. Taurine protects against methotrexate-induced toxicity and inhibits leukocyte death

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa; Sener, Goeksel; Sehirli, A. Ozer

    2005-11-15

    The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Regarding the mechanisms of these side effects, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress is noticeable. The present study was undertaken to determine whether taurine, a potent free radical scavenger, could ameliorate MTX-induced oxidative injury and modulate immune response. Following a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg/kg), either saline or taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered for 5 days. After decapitation of the rats, trunk blood was obtained and the ileum, liver, and kidney were removed tomore » measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and collagen content, as well as histological examination. Our results showed that MTX administration increased the MDA, MPO activity, and collagen contents and decreased GSH levels in all tissues (P < 0.001), while these alterations were reversed in taurine-treated group (P < 0.05-0.01). Elevated (P < 0.001) TNF-{alpha} level observed following MTX treatment was depressed with taurine (P < 0.01). Oxidative burst of neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate was reduced in saline-treated MTX group (P < 0.001), while taurine abolished this effect. Similarly, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in MTX-treated animals, while taurine reversed these effects (P < 0.05). Reduced cellularity in bone marrow samples of MTX-treated group (P < 0.01) was reversed back to control levels in taurine-treated rats. Severe degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, liver parenchyma, glomerular, and tubular epithelium observed in saline-treated group was improved by taurine treatment. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against methotrexate-induced oxidant organ injury and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating

  6. Sex differences in leukocyte invasion in injured murine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    St Pierre Schneider, B; Correia, L A; Cannon, J G

    1999-06-01

    The three aims of this study were to describe the time course of leukocyte invasion in injured soleus muscles of male and female mice, to determine if differential subsets of leukocytes accumulate in intramyofiber and interstitial sites, and to determine if significant sex differences exist in invading leukocyte concentrations. Fifty sexually mature C57BL/6J mice (aged 11-12 weeks) underwent unilateral hindlimb muscle injury induced by lengthening contractions. This procedure models the muscle injury that can occur through strenuous exercise or overuse in humans. After 1, 3, 5, or 7 days of recovery, the injured and contralateral, uninjured solei were dissected and prepared for morphologic analysis. We found that leukocytes had invaded injured myofibers at 1-day postinjury for both sexes. Different subsets of leukocytes accumulated within damaged myofibers and the interstitium. Significantly fewer myofibers were invaded by acid phosphatase-positive leukocytes in females. Interstitial ER-BMDM1 leukocyte concentrations peaked in females at 7 days postinjury in comparison to 5 days postinjury in males. These findings expand nursing's knowledge base regarding the potential effect of gender on recovery from acute muscle injury.

  7. Single-Step Transepithelial PRK vs Alcohol-Assisted PRK in Myopia and Compound Myopic Astigmatism Correction.

    PubMed

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J; Cieslinska, Iwona; Mosquera, Samuel A; Verma, Shwetabh

    2016-02-01

    Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK), where both the epithelium and stroma are removed in a single-step, is a relatively new procedure of laser refractive error correction. This study compares the 3-month results of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism correction by tPRK or conventional alcohol-assisted PRK (aaPRK).This prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study recruited 148 consecutive patients; 93 underwent tPRK (173 eyes) and 55 aaPRK (103 eyes). Refractive results, predictability, safety, and efficacy were evaluated during the 3-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE).Mean preoperative MRSE was -4.30 ± 1.72 D and -4.33 ± 1.96 D, respectively (P = 0.87). The 3-month follow-up rate was 82.1% in the tPRK group (n = 145) and 86.4% in aaPRK group (n = 90), P = 0.81. Postoperative UDVA was 20/20 or better in 97% and 94% of eyes, respectively (P = 0.45). In the tPRK and aaPRK groups, respectively, 13% and 21% of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, and 30% and 31% gained 1 or 2 lines (P = 0.48). Mean postoperative MRSE was -0.14 ± 0.26 D in the tPRK group and -0.12 ± 0.20 D in the aaPRK group (P = 0.9). The correlation between attempted versus achieved MRSE was equally high in both groups.Single-step transepithelial PRK and conventional PRK provide very similar results 3 months postoperatively. These procedures are predictable, effective, and safe for correction of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism.

  8. Increased circulating leukocyte-derived microparticles in ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    He, Zhangping; Tang, Yanyan; Qin, Chao

    2017-06-01

    Circulating leukocyte-derived microparticles act as proinflammatory mediators that reflect vascular inflammation. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the quantity of leukocyte-derived microparticles is increased in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, and investigated utility of various phenotypes of leukocyte-derived microparticles as specific biomarkers of vascular inflammation injury. Additionally we focused on identifying leukocyte-derived microparticles that may be correlated with stroke severity in acute ischemic stroke patients. The plasma concentration of leukocyte-derived microparticles obtained by a series of centrifugations of 76 consecutive patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and 70 age-, sex-, and race-matched healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. Significantly elevated numbers of leukocyte (CD45+), monocyte (CD14+), lymphocyte (CD4+), granulocyte (CD15+) derived microparticles were found in the plasma samples of patients ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). Furthermore, the plasma levels of CD14+ microparticles were significantly correlated with stroke severity (r=0.355, p=0.019), cerebral vascular stenosis severity (r=0.255, p=0.025) and stroke subtype (r=0.242, p=0.036). No association with stroke was observed for other leukocyte-derived phenotypes. These results demonstrate that circulating leukocyte-derived microparticles amounts are increased in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, compared with healthy controls. As proinflammatory mediators, leukocyte-derived microparticles may contribute to vascular inflammatory and the inflammatory process in acute ischemic stroke. Levels of CD14+ microparticles may be a promising biomarker of ischemic severity and outcome of stroke in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Topography-guided transepithelial PRK after intracorneal ring segments implantation and corneal collagen CXL in a three-step procedure for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Coskunseven, Efekan; Jankov, Mirko R; Grentzelos, Michael A; Plaka, Argyro D; Limnopoulou, Aliki N; Kymionis, George D

    2013-01-01

    To present the results of topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) after intracorneal ring segments implantation followed by corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus. In this prospective case series, 10 patients (16 eyes) with progressive keratoconus were included. All patients underwent topography-guided transepithelial PRK after Keraring intracorneal ring segments (Mediphacos Ltda) implantation, followed by CXL treatment. The follow-up period was 6 months after the last procedure for all patients. Time interval between both intracorneal ring segments implantation and CXL and between CXL and topography-guided transepithelial PRK was 6 months. LogMAR mean uncorrected distance visual acuity and mean corrected distance visual acuity were significantly improved (P<.05) from 1.14±0.36 and 0.75±0.24 preoperatively to 0.25±0.13 and 0.13±0.06 after the completion of the three-step procedure, respectively. Mean spherical equivalent refraction was significantly reduced (P<.05) from -5.66±5.63 diopters (D) preoperatively to -0.98±2.21 D after the three-step procedure. Mean steep and flat keratometry values were significantly reduced (P<.05) from 54.65±5.80 D and 47.80±3.97 D preoperatively to 45.99±3.12 D and 44.69±3.19 D after the three-step procedure, respectively. Combined topography-guided transepithelial PRK with intracorneal ring segments implantation and CXL in a three-step procedure seems to be an effective, promising treatment sequence offering patients a functional visual acuity and ceasing progression of the ectatic disorder. A longer follow-up and larger case series are necessary to thoroughly evaluate safety, stability, and efficacy of this innovative procedure. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Leukocyte Trafficking in Cardiovascular Disease: Insights from Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chemokine-induced leukocyte migration into the vessel wall is an early pathological event in the progression of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of myocardial infarction. The immune-inflammatory response, mediated by both the innate and adaptive immune cells, is involved in the initiation, recruitment, and resolution phases of cardiovascular disease progression. Activation of leukocytes via inflammatory mediators such as chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules is instrumental in these processes. In this review, we highlight leukocyte activation with the main focus being on the mechanisms of chemokine-mediated recruitment in atherosclerosis and the response postmyocardial infarction with key examples from experimental models of cardiovascular inflammation. PMID:28465628

  11. Leukocyte Trafficking in Cardiovascular Disease: Insights from Experimental Models.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel P; True, Harry D; Patel, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Chemokine-induced leukocyte migration into the vessel wall is an early pathological event in the progression of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of myocardial infarction. The immune-inflammatory response, mediated by both the innate and adaptive immune cells, is involved in the initiation, recruitment, and resolution phases of cardiovascular disease progression. Activation of leukocytes via inflammatory mediators such as chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules is instrumental in these processes. In this review, we highlight leukocyte activation with the main focus being on the mechanisms of chemokine-mediated recruitment in atherosclerosis and the response postmyocardial infarction with key examples from experimental models of cardiovascular inflammation.

  12. Distinct cellular sources of hepoxilin A3 and leukotriene B4 are used to coordinate bacterial-induced neutrophil transepithelial migration.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Michael A; Pirzai, Waheed; Yonker, Lael M; Morisseau, Christophe; Gronert, Karsten; Hurley, Bryan P

    2015-02-01

    Neutrophilic infiltration is a leading contributor to pathology in a number of pulmonary disease states, including cystic fibrosis. Hepoxilin A3 (HXA3) is a chemotactic eicosanoid shown to mediate the transepithelial passage of neutrophils in response to infection in several model systems and at multiple mucosal surfaces. Another well-known eicosanoid mediating general neutrophil chemotaxis is leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We sought to distinguish the roles of each eicosanoid in the context of infection of lung epithelial monolayers by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using human and mouse in vitro transwell model systems, we used a combination of biosynthetic inhibitors, receptor antagonists, as well as mutant sources of neutrophils to assess the contribution of each chemoattractant in driving neutrophil transepithelial migration. We found that following chemotaxis to epithelial-derived HXA3 signals, neutrophil-derived LTB4 is required to amplify the magnitude of neutrophil migration. LTB4 signaling is not required for migration to HXA3 signals, but LTB4 generation by migrated neutrophils plays a significant role in augmenting the initial HXA3-mediated migration. We conclude that HXA3 and LTB4 serve independent roles to collectively coordinate an effective neutrophilic transepithelial migratory response. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Importance of the Direct Contact of Amorphous Solid Particles with the Surface of Monolayers for the Transepithelial Permeation of Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Kasatani, Sachiha; Tanaka, Megumi; Araki, Kaeko; Enomura, Masakazu; Moriyama, Kei; Inoue, Daisuke; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Akiko; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-02-01

    The amorphization has been generally known to improve the absorption and permeation of poorly water-soluble drugs through the enhancement of the solubility. The present study focused on the direct contact of amorphous solid particles with the surface of the membrane using curcumin as a model for water-insoluble drugs. Amorphous nanoparticles of curcumin (ANC) were prepared with antisolvent crystallization method using a microreactor. The solubility of curcumin from ANC was two orders of magnitude higher than that of crystalline curcumin (CC). However, the permeation of curcumin from the saturated solution of ANC was negligible. The transepithelial permeation of curcumin from ANC suspension was significantly increased as compared to CC suspension, while the permeation was unlikely correlated with the solubility, and the increase in the permeation was dependent on the total concentration of curcumin in ANC suspension. The absorptive transport of curcumin (from apical to basal, A to B) from ANC suspension was much higher than the secretory transport (from basal to apical, B to A). In vitro transport of curcumin through air-interface monolayers is large from ANC but negligible from CC particles. These findings suggest that the direct contact of ANC with the absorptive membrane can play an important role in the transport of curcumin from ANC suspension. The results of the study suggest that amorphous particles may be directly involved in the transepithlial permeation of curcumin.

  14. In vivo study of transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) in proximal convoluted tubules of rat kidney by synchronization modulation electric field.

    PubMed

    Clausell, Mathis; Fang, Zhihui; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Synchronization modulation (SM) electric field has been shown to effectively activate function of Na(+)/K(+) pumps in various cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocyte, monolayer of cultured cell line, and peripheral blood vessels. We are now reporting the in vivo studies in application of the SM electric field to kidney of living rats. The field-induced changes in the transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) or the lumen potential from the proximal convoluted tubules were monitored. The results showed that a short time (20 s) application of the SM electric field can significantly increase the magnitude of TEPD from 1-2 mV to about 20 mV. The TEPD is an active potential representing the transport current of the Na/K pumps in epithelial wall of renal tubules. This study showed that SM electric field can increase TEPD by activation of the pump molecules. Considering renal tubules, many active transporters are driven by the Na(+) concentration gradient built by the Na(+)/K(+) pumps, activation of the pump functions and increase in the magnitude of TEPD imply that the SM electric field may improve reabsorption functions of the renal tubules.

  15. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2) facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen (1O2 *) is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism. PMID:26783542

  16. ENHANCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A PLAY INTERVENTION BY ABOLISHING THE REINFORCING VALUE OF STEREOTYPY: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; White, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which a child with autism was allowed to engage in stereotypy freely prior to the intervention (abolishing operation component) to a second condition without the free-access period. Levels of stereotypy and problem behavior were lower and levels of functional play were higher in the condition with the abolishing operation component. These data provide preliminary support for the use of abolishing operations in interventions to increase the play skills of children with autism. PMID:20514199

  17. ABOLISHING AND ESTABLISHING OPERATION ANALYSES OF SOCIAL ATTENTION AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT FOR PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-01-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishing operation conditions decreased problem behavior during tests. PMID:20808502

  18. The trials of Hanna Porn: the campaign to abolish midwifery in Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, E R

    1994-01-01

    The case of Hanna Porn affords an opportunity to examine how the laws that led to the abolition of midwifery in Massachusetts evolved and were applied to the midwife whose case set the state legal precedent. Mrs Porn served primarily a Finnish-Swedish clientele of wives of laborers. The outcomes of the births she attended appear to have been positive, and she maintained a neonatal mortality rate of less than half that of local physicians. She also repeatedly defied court orders to stop practicing. Her case exemplifies the efforts that occurred nationally to abolish midwifery in the United States. PMID:8203670

  19. The trials of Hanna Porn: the campaign to abolish midwifery in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Declercq, E R

    1994-06-01

    The case of Hanna Porn affords an opportunity to examine how the laws that led to the abolition of midwifery in Massachusetts evolved and were applied to the midwife whose case set the state legal precedent. Mrs Porn served primarily a Finnish-Swedish clientele of wives of laborers. The outcomes of the births she attended appear to have been positive, and she maintained a neonatal mortality rate of less than half that of local physicians. She also repeatedly defied court orders to stop practicing. Her case exemplifies the efforts that occurred nationally to abolish midwifery in the United States.

  20. Leukocyte Agglomeration Reaction in Diagnosis of Allergy Reactions from Antibiotics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    tested in a clinic on 80 patients with serious allergic anamnesis . The results of the studies indicate that the leukocyte agglomeration reaction is a highly sensitive immunological indicator of hypersensitivity to antibiotics.

  1. Leukocyte-reduced blood components: patient benefits and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Higgins, V L

    1996-05-01

    To review the various types of filters used for red blood cell and platelet transfusions and to explain the trend in the use of leukocyte removal filters, practical information about their use, considerations in the selection of a filtration method, and cost-effectiveness issues. Published articles, books, and the author's experience. Leukocyte removal filters are used to reduce complications associated with transfused white blood cells that are contained in units of red blood cells and platelets. These complications include nonhemolytic febrile transfusion reactions (NHFTRs), alloimmunization and refractoriness to platelet transfusion, transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (CMV), and immunomodulation. Leukocyte removal filters may be used at the bedside, in a hospital blood bank, or in a blood collection center. Factors that affect the flow rate of these filters include the variations in the blood component, the equipment used, and filter priming. Studies on the cost-effectiveness of using leukocyte-reduced blood components demonstrate savings based on the reduction of NHFTRs, reduction in the number of blood components used, and the use of filtered blood components as the equivalent of CMV seronegative-screened products. The use of leukocyte-reduced blood components significantly diminishes or prevents many of the adverse transfusion reactions associated with donor white blood cells. Leukocyte removal filters are cost-effective, and filters should be selected based on their ability to consistently achieve low leukocyte residual levels as well as their ease of use. Physicians may order leukocyte-reduced blood components for specific patients, or the components may be used because of an established institutional transfusion policy. Nurses often participate in deciding on a filtration method, primarily based on ease of use. Understanding the considerations in selecting a filtration method will help nurses make appropriate decisions to ensure quality patient care.

  2. [Approaches to the immunological problems of leukocyte transfusions].

    PubMed

    Gualde, N; Malinvaud, G; Gaillard, S

    1975-01-01

    51 leukocyte transfusions from healthy donors and 3 from chronic myelogenous leukemia were given to 16 patients with acute leukemia and 4 with aplasia. During 14 transfusions we have observed clinicals reactions which are of immunological origin. The part of the transfusions and of the pregnancies in the presence of antibodies is argued. The necessity of utilisation of HL-A compatible donors during leukocyte transfusions is asserted.

  3. Class I odorant receptors, TAS1R and TAS2R taste receptors, are markers for subpopulations of circulating leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Agne; Fiedler, Julia; Fricke, Kristina; Ballweg, Ines; Pfaffl, Michael W.; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Our cellular immune system has to cope constantly with foodborne substances that enter the bloodstream postprandially. Here, they may activate leukocytes via specific but yet mostly unknown receptors. Ectopic RNA expression out of gene families of chemosensory receptors, i.e., the ∼400 ORs, ∼25 TAS2R bitter-taste receptors, and the TAS1R umami- and sweet-taste receptor dimers by which we typically detect foodborne substances, has been reported in a variety of peripheral tissues unrelated to olfaction or taste. In the present study, we have now discovered, by gene-specific RT-PCR experiments, the mRNA expression of most of the Class I ORs (TAS1R) and TAS2R in 5 different types of blood leukocytes. Surprisingly, we did not detect Class II OR mRNA. By RT-qPCR, we show the mRNA expression of human chemosensory receptors and their cow orthologs in PMN, thus suggesting an evolutionary concept. By immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate that some olfactory and taste receptors are expressed, on average, in 40–60% of PMN and T or B cells and largely coexpress in the same subpopulation of PMN. The mRNA expression and the size of subpopulations expressing certain chemosensory receptors varied largely among individual blood samples, suggesting a regulated expression of olfactory and taste receptors in these cells. Moreover, we show mRNA expression of their downstream signaling molecules and demonstrate that PTX abolishes saccharin- or 2-PEA-induced PMN chemotactic migration, indicating a role for Gi-type proteins. In summary, our data suggest "chemosensory"-type subpopulations of circulating leukocytes. PMID:25624459

  4. Gene expression profile of human Down syndrome leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Malagó, Wilson; Sommer, César A; Del Cistia Andrade, Camillo; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Abrao Possik, Patricia; Cassago, Alexandre; Santejo Silveira, Henrique C; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2005-08-01

    Identification of differences in the gene expression patterns of Down syndrome and normal leukocytes. We constructed the first Down syndrome leukocyte serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) library from a 28 year-old patient. This library was analyzed and compared with a normal leukocyte SAGE library using the eSAGE software. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to validate the results. We found that a large number of unidentified transcripts were overexpressed in Down syndrome leukocytes and some transcripts coding for growth factors (e.g. interleukin 8, IL-8), ribosomaproteins (e.g. L13a, L29, and L37), and transcription factors (e.g., Jun B, Jun D, and C/EBP beta) were underexpressed. The SAGE data were successfully validated for the genes IL-8, CXCR4, BCL2A1, L13a, L29, L37, and GTF3A using RT-PCR. Our analysis identified significant changes in the expression pattern of Down syndrome leukocytes compared with normal ones, including key regulators of growth and proliferation, ribosomal proteins, and a large number of overexpressed transcripts that were not matched in UniGene clusters and that may represent novel genes related to Down syndrome. This study offers a new insight into transcriptional changes in Down syndrome leukocytes and indicates candidate genes for further investigations into the molecular mechanism of Down syndrome pathology.

  5. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, K.; Matsui, N.; Nohira, K.

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of labeled leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 patients, the incidence of pain and swelling in 66 wrist joints and 66 knee joints was compared with the accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes. No accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes was seen in any of the patients' wrists (0/12) or knee joints (0/14) when both pain and swelling were absent. In contrast, 93% (25/27) of wrist joints and 80% (24/30) of knee joints with both pain and swelling were positive by (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scintigraphy. There was little correlation between the stage of the disease, as determinedmore » by radiography, and (/sup 111/In)leukocyte accumulation. This study suggests that (/sup 111/In)leukocyte imaging may be a reliable procedure for monitoring the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, especially for confirming the lack of an ongoing inflammatory response.« less

  6. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  7. Abolishing coinsurance for oral antihyperglycemic agents: effects on social insurance budgets.

    PubMed

    Athanasakis, Kostas; Skroumpelos, Anastasis G; Tsiantou, Vassiliki; Milona, Katerina; Kyriopoulos, John

    2011-02-01

    To assess the effects of abolishing coinsurance for oral antihyperglycemic agents (OAAs) on the social insurance fund budget in Greece. A mathematical model estimating the effect of a decrease in patient coinsurance rate on demand for and adherence to OAAs and the subsequent clinical and economic outcomes. Price elasticity of demand for antidiabetic agents was used to estimate quantity demand change as a result of a coinsurance rate decrease and consequent increased adherence to OAAs. Given the inverse relationship between OAA adherence and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level, the model calculated the mean decrease in A1C level and associated cost savings based on the cost difference between patients with controlled versus uncontrolled A1C levels. A decrease in patient coinsurance rate from 25% to 0% led to an incremental increase in OAA adherence of 30.5% and a mean decrease in A1C level of 0.6%. The A1C level decrease contributed to an 18.5% "shift" of uncontrolled patients to controlled A1C levels (<7%), which in economic terms translated into savings of 324 euro per patient over a 3-year period and an investment return rate of 122.8%. A series of 1-way and 2-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to verify the robustness and validity of the outcomes. The introduction of policies aimed at abolishing coinsurance for OAAs can result in improved patient outcomes and cost savings for the healthcare system.

  8. Pathophysiology of Relapsing Fever: Interaction of Borrelia Spirochetes with Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes Causes Production of Leukocytic Pyrogen and Tissue Thromboplastin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-10

    AD-A093 BN6 CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV CLEVELAND OH DEPT OF MEDICINE FIG 6/5 PAT1OPHYSIOLOGY OF RELAPSING FEVERS INTERACTION OF BORRELtA SPI-ETC(U...NUMBER 4 Pathophysiology of Relapsing Fever : Interaction of Borrelia Spirochetes 0 with Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes Causes Production of Leukocytic...Relapsing fever caused by Borrelia spirochetes is characterized by episodes of spirochetemia, fever , and disseminated intravascular coagu- lation (DIC

  9. Defining the chemokine basis for leukocyte recruitment during viral encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Michlmayr, Daniela; McKimmie, Clive S; Pingen, Marieke; Haxton, Ben; Mansfield, Karen; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Graham, Gerard J

    2014-09-01

    The encephalitic response to viral infection requires local chemokine production and the ensuing recruitment of immune and inflammatory leukocytes. Accordingly, chemokine receptors present themselves as plausible therapeutic targets for drugs aimed at limiting encephalitic responses. However, it remains unclear which chemokines are central to this process and whether leukocyte recruitment is important for limiting viral proliferation and survival in the brain or whether it is predominantly a driver of coincident inflammatory pathogenesis. Here we examine chemokine expression and leukocyte recruitment in the context of avirulent and virulent Semliki Forest virus (SFV) as well as West Nile virus infection and demonstrate rapid and robust expression of a variety of inflammatory CC and CXC chemokines in all models. On this basis, we define a chemokine axis involved in leukocyte recruitment to the encephalitic brain during SFV infection. CXCR3 is the most active; CCR2 is also active but less so, and CCR5 plays only a modest role in leukocyte recruitment. Importantly, inhibition of each of these receptors individually and the resulting suppression of leukocyte recruitment to the infected brain have no effect on viral titer or survival following infection with a virulent SFV strain. In contrast, simultaneous blockade of CXCR3 and CCR2 results in significantly reduced mortality in response to virulent SFV infection. In summary, therefore, our data provide an unprecedented level of insight into chemokine orchestration of leukocyte recruitment in viral encephalitis. Our data also highlight CXCR3 and CCR2 as possible therapeutic targets for limiting inflammatory damage in response to viral infection of the brain. Brain inflammation (encephalitis) in response to viral infection can lead to severe illness and even death. This therefore represents an important clinical problem and one that requires the development of new therapeutic approaches. Central to the pathogenesis of

  10. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of

  11. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Streicher, Katie; Shen, Nan; Higgs, Brandon W; Morehouse, Chris; Greenlees, Lydia; Amato, Anthony A; Ranade, Koustubh; Richman, Laura; Fiorentino, David; Jallal, Bahija; Greenberg, Steven A; Yao, Yihong

    2012-11-21

    Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of transcriptional changes in myositis muscle or other

  12. Mechanism of protection of transepithelial barrier function by Lactobacillus salivarius: strain dependence and attenuation by bacteriocin production.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Eiji; O'Callaghan, John; Buttó, Ludovica F; Hurley, Gráinne; Melgar, Silvia; Tanabe, Soichi; Shanahan, Fergus; Nally, Kenneth; O'Toole, Paul W

    2012-11-01

    Enhanced barrier function is one mechanism whereby commensals and probiotic bacteria limit translocation of foreign antigens or pathogens in the gut. However, barrier protection is not exhibited by all probiotic or commensals and the strain-specific molecules involved remain to be clarified. We evaluated the effects of 33 individual Lactobacillus salivarius strains on the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced barrier impairment in human epithelial Caco-2 cells. These strains showed markedly different effects on H(2)O(2)-induced reduction in transepithelial resistance (TER). The effective strains such as UCC118 and CCUG38008 attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced disassembly and relocalization of tight junction proteins, but the ineffective strain AH43324 did not. Strains UCC118 and CCUG38008 induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in Caco-2 cells, and the ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the barrier-protecting effect of these strains. In contrast, the AH43324 strain induced phosphorylation of Akt and p38, which was associated with an absence of a protective effect. Global transcriptome analysis of UCC118 and AH43324 revealed that some genes in a bacteriocin gene cluster were upregulated in AH43324 under TER assay conditions. A bacteriocin-negative UCC118 mutant displayed significantly greater suppressive effect on H(2)O(2)-induced reduction in TER compared with wild-type UCC118. The wild-type strain augmented H(2)O(2)-induced phosphorylation of Akt and p38, whereas a bacteriocin-negative UCC118 mutant did not. These observations indicate that L. salivarius strains are widely divergent in their capacity for barrier protection, and this is underpinned by differences in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Furthermore, bacteriocin production appears to have an attenuating influence on lactobacillus-mediated barrier protection.

  13. Transepithelial water and urea permeabilities of isolated perfused Munich-Wistar rat inner medullary thin limbs of Henle's loop.

    PubMed

    Nawata, C Michele; Evans, Kristen K; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role that water and urea fluxes play in the urine concentrating mechanism, we determined transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) and urea permeability (Purea) in isolated perfused Munich-Wistar rat long-loop descending thin limbs (DTLs) and ascending thin limbs (ATLs). Thin limbs were isolated either from 0.5 to 2.5 mm below the outer medulla (upper inner medulla) or from the terminal 2.5 mm of the inner medulla. Segment types were characterized on the basis of structural features and gene expression levels of the water channel aquaporin 1, which was high in the upper DTL (DTLupper), absent in the lower DTL (DTLlower), and absent in ATLs, and the Cl-(1) channel ClCK1, which was absent in DTLs and high in ATLs. DTLupper Pf was high (3,204.5 ± 450.3 μm/s), whereas DTLlower showed very little or no osmotic Pf (207.8 ± 241.3 μm/s). Munich-Wistar rat ATLs have previously been shown to exhibit no Pf. DTLupper Purea was 40.0 ± 7.3 × 10(-5) cm/s and much higher in DTLlower (203.8 ± 30.3 × 10(-5) cm/s), upper ATL (203.8 ± 35.7 × 10(-5) cm/s), and lower ATL (265.1 ± 49.8 × 10(-5) cm/s). Phloretin (0.25 mM) did not reduce DTLupper Purea, suggesting that Purea is not due to urea transporter UT-A2, which is expressed in short-loop DTLs and short portions of some inner medullary DTLs close to the outer medulla. In summary, Purea is similar in all segments having no osmotic Pf but is significantly lower in DTLupper, a segment having high osmotic Pf. These data are inconsistent with the passive mechanism as originally proposed.

  14. Transepithelial resistance and claudin expression in trout RTgill-W1 cell line: effects of osmoregulatory hormones.

    PubMed

    Trubitt, Rebecca T; Rabeneck, D Brett; Bujak, Joanna K; Bossus, Maryline C; Madsen, Steffen S; Tipsmark, Christian K

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the trout gill cell line RTgill-W1 as a possible tool for in vitro investigation of epithelial gill function in fish. After seeding in transwells, transepithelial resistance (TER) increased until reaching a plateau after 1-2 days (20-80Ω⋅cm(2)), which was then maintained for more than 6 days. Tetrabromocinnamic acid, a known stimulator of TER via casein kinase II inhibition, elevated TER in the cell line to 125% of control values after 2 and 6h. Treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid induced a decrease in TER to <15% of pre-treatment level. Cortisol elevated TER after 12-72 h in a concentration-dependent manner, and this increase was antagonized by growth hormone (Gh). The effects of three osmoregulatory hormones, Gh, prolactin, and cortisol, on the mRNA expression of three tight junction proteins were examined: claudin-10e (Cldn-10e), Cldn-30, and zonula occludens-1 (Zo-1). The expression of cldn-10e was stimulated by all three hormones but with the strongest effect of Gh (50-fold). cldn-30 expression was stimulated especially by cortisol (20-fold) and also by Gh (4-fold). Finally, zo-1 was unresponsive to hormone treatment. Western blot analysis detected Cldn-10e and Cldn-30 immunoreactive proteins of expected molecular weight in samples from rainbow trout gills but not from RTgill-W1 cultures, possibly due to low expression levels. Collectively, these results show that the RTgill-W1 cell layers have tight junctions between cells, are sensitive to hormone treatments, and may provide a useful model for in vitro study of some in vivo gill phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical lesion of the anterior optic tract abolishes polarotaxis in tethered flying locusts, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Mappes, Martina; Homberg, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Many insects can detect the polarization pattern of the blue sky and rely on polarization vision for sky compass orientation. In laboratory experiments, tethered flying locusts perform periodic changes in flight behavior under a slowly rotating polarizer even if one eye is painted black. Anatomical tracing studies and intracellular recordings have suggested that the polarization vision pathway in the locust brain involves the anterior optic tract and tubercle, the lateral accessory lobe, and the central complex of the brain. To investigate whether visual pathways through the anterior optic tract mediate polarotaxis in the desert locust, we transected the tract on one side and tested polarotaxis (1) with both eyes unoccluded and (2) with the eye of the intact hemisphere painted black. In the second group of animals, but not in the first group, polarotaxis was abolished. Sham operations did not impair polarotaxis. The experiments show that the anterior optic tract is an indispensable part of visual pathways mediating polarotaxis in the desert locust.

  16. Mands for information using "who?" and "which?" in the presence of establishing and abolishing operations.

    PubMed

    Shillingsburg, M Alice; Bowen, Crystal N; Valentino, Amber L; Pierce, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    Treatments designed to teach mands for information have included prompting and differential reinforcement, as well as procedures to manipulate the relevant establishing operation (EO). However, previous studies have not included relevant abolishing operation (AO) conditions to ensure that the mand is under relevant antecedent control. Data on listener responses (i.e., use of the information) are also absent in the literature. The current study shows differential responding under EO and AO conditions and reports listener responses that demonstrate use of the provided information. Three participants, diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, learned to mand for information using "who?" and "which?" questions exclusively under EO conditions. In addition, each participant responded to the information provided to access a preferred item. Generalization of the "which?" mand for information was also demonstrated across novel stimuli. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Loss of MACF1 Abolishes Ciliogenesis and Disrupts Apicobasal Polarity Establishment in the Retina.

    PubMed

    May-Simera, Helen L; Gumerson, Jessica D; Gao, Chun; Campos, Maria; Cologna, Stephanie M; Beyer, Tina; Boldt, Karsten; Kaya, Koray D; Patel, Nisha; Kretschmer, Friedrich; Kelley, Matthew W; Petralia, Ronald S; Davey, Megan G; Li, Tiansen

    2016-10-25

    Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) plays a role in the coordination of microtubules and actin in multiple cellular processes. Here, we show that MACF1 is also critical for ciliogenesis in multiple cell types. Ablation of Macf1 in the developing retina abolishes ciliogenesis, and basal bodies fail to dock to ciliary vesicles or migrate apically. Photoreceptor polarity is randomized, while inner retinal cells laminate correctly, suggesting that photoreceptor maturation is guided by polarity cues provided by cilia. Deletion of MACF1 in adult photoreceptors causes reversal of basal body docking and loss of outer segments, reflecting a continuous requirement for MACF1 function. MACF1 also interacts with the ciliary proteins MKKS and TALPID3. We propose that a disruption of trafficking across microtubles to actin filaments underlies the ciliogenesis defect in cells lacking MACF1 and that MKKS and TALPID3 are involved in the coordination of microtubule and actin interactions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The effects of an abolishing operation intervention component on play skills, challenging behavior, and stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio E; Aguilar, Jeannie; Fragale, Christina

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce stereotypy and challenging behavior during play skills instruction by adding an abolishing operation component (AOC) to the intervention strategy. An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which participants were allowed to engage in stereotypy freely before beginning the play skills intervention (AOC condition) to a second condition without this free access period (No AOC condition). Across 4 participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), levels of stereotypy and challenging behavior were lower and functional play was higher during play intervention sessions that followed the AOC. These data provided support for the inclusion of an AOC in interventions aimed at increasing the play skills of children with ASD who present with stereotypy.

  19. Agmatine abolishes restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance in mice.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Andiara E; Bettio, Luis E B; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-04-03

    Agmatine has been recently emerged as a novel candidate to assist the conventional pharmacotherapy of depression. The acute restraint stress (ARS) is an unavoidable stress situation that may cause depressive-like behavior in rodents. In this study, we investigated the potential antidepressant-like effect of agmatine (10mg/kg, administered acutely by oral route) in the forced swimming test (FST) in non-stressed mice, as well as its ability to abolish the depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by ARS. Agmatine reduced the immobility time in the mouse FST (1-100mg/kg) in non-stressed mice. ARS caused an increase in the immobility time in the FST, indicative of a depressive-like behavior, as well as hippocampal lipid peroxidation, and an increase in the activity of hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, reduced catalase (CAT) activity and increased SOD/CAT ratio, an index of pro-oxidative conditions. Agmatine was effective to abolish the depressive-like behavior induced by ARS and to prevent the ARS-induced lipid peroxidation and changes in SOD, GR and CAT activities and in SOD/CAT activity ratio. Hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were not altered by any experimental condition. In conclusion, the present study shows that agmatine was able to abrogate the ARS-induced depressive-like behavior and the associated redox hippocampal imbalance observed in stressed restraint mice, suggesting that its antidepressant-like effect may be dependent on its ability to maintain the pro-/anti-oxidative homeostasis in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lesion of medial prefrontal dopamine terminals abolishes habituation of accumbens shell dopamine responsiveness to taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bimpisidis, Zisis; De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Pisanu, Augusta; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2013-02-01

    Taste stimuli increase extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This effect shows single-trial habituation in NAc shell but not in core or in mPFC. Morphine sensitization abolishes habituation of DA responsiveness in NAc shell but induces it in mPFC. These observations support the hypothesis of an inhibitory influence of mPFC DA on NAc DA. To test this hypothesis, we used in vivo microdialysis to investigate the effect of mPFC 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) lesions on the NAc DA responsiveness to taste stimuli. 6-OHDA was infused bilaterally in the mPFC of rats implanted with guide cannulae. After 1 week, rats were implanted with an intraoral catheter, microdialysis probes were inserted into the guide cannulae, and dialysate DA was monitored in NAc shell/core after intraoral chocolate. 6-OHDA infusion reduced tissue DA in the mPFC by 75%. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed that lesions were confined to the mPFC. mPFC 6-OHDA lesion did not affect the NAc shell DA responsiveness to chocolate in naive rats but abolished habituation in rats pre-exposed to the taste. In the NAc core, mPFC lesion potentiated, delayed and prolonged the stimulatory DA response to taste but failed to affect DA in pre-exposed rats. Behavioural taste reactions and motor activity were not affected. The results indicate a top-down control of NAc DA by mPFC and a reciprocal relationship between DA transmission in these two areas. Moreover, habituation of DA responsiveness in the NAc shell is dependent upon an intact DA input to the mPFC. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Ablation of Arginase II Spares Arginine and Abolishes the Arginine Requirement for Growth in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Didelija, Inka C; Mohammad, Mahmoud A; Marini, Juan C

    2017-08-01

    Background: Arginine is considered a semiessential amino acid in many species, including humans, because under certain conditions its demand exceeds endogenous production. Arginine availability, however, is determined not only by its production but also by its disposal. Manipulation of disposal pathways has the potential to increase availability and thus abolish the requirement for arginine. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that arginase II ablation increases arginine availability for growth. Methods: In a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of treatments, postweaning growth was determined for 3 wk in male and female wild-type (WT) mice and arginase II knockout mice (ARGII) on a C57BL/6J background fed arginine-sufficient [Arg(+); 8 g arginine/kg] or arginine-free [Arg(-)] diets. Tracers were used to determine citrulline and arginine kinetics. Results: A sex dimorphism in arginine metabolism was detected; female mice had a greater citrulline flux (∼30%, P < 0.001), which translated to greater de novo synthesis of arginine (∼31%, P < 0.001). Female mice also had greater arginine fluxes ( P < 0.015) and plasma arginine concentrations ( P < 0.01), but a reduced arginine clearance rate ( P < 0.001). Ablation of arginase II increased plasma arginine concentrations in both sexes (∼27%, P < 0.01) but increased arginine flux only in males ( P < 0.01). The absence of arginine in the diet limited the growth of male WT mice ( P < 0.01), but had no effect on male ARGII mice ( P = 0.12). In contrast, WT females on the Arg(-) diet grew at the same rate and achieved final weight similar to that of female WT mice fed the Arg(+) diet ( P = 0.47). Conclusion: The ablation of arginase II in male mice spares arginine that can then be used for growth and to meet other metabolic functions, thus abolishing arginine requirements. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. High frequency stimulation abolishes thalamic network oscillations: an electrophysiological and computational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kendall H.; Hitti, Frederick L.; Chang, Su-Youne; Lee, Dongchul C.; Roberts, David W.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Leiter, James C.

    2011-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of epilepsy. To investigate the mechanism of action of thalamic DBS, we examined the effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS) on spindle oscillations in thalamic brain slices from ferrets. We recorded intracellular and extracellular electrophysiological activity in the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRt) and in thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus, stimulated the slice using a concentric bipolar electrode, and recorded the level of glutamate within the slice. HFS (100 Hz) of TC neurons generated excitatory post-synaptic potentials, increased the number of action potentials in both TC and nRt neurons, reduced the input resistance, increased the extracellular glutamate concentration, and abolished spindle wave oscillations. HFS of the nRt also suppressed spindle oscillations. In both locations, HFS was associated with significant and persistent elevation in extracellular glutamate levels and suppressed spindle oscillations for many seconds after the cessation of stimulation. We simulated HFS within a computational model of the thalamic network, and HFS also disrupted spindle wave activity, but the suppression of spindle activity was short-lived. Simulated HFS disrupted spindle activity for prolonged periods of time only after glutamate release and glutamate-mediated activation of a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) was incorporated into the model. Our results suggest that the mechanism of action of thalamic DBS as used in epilepsy may involve the prolonged release of glutamate, which in turn modulates specific ion channels such as Ih, decreases neuronal input resistance, and abolishes thalamic network oscillatory activity.

  3. Prolonged Baroreflex Activation Abolishes Salt-Induced Hypertension After Reductions in Kidney Mass.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Drew A; Irwin, Eric D; Lohmeier, Thomas E

    2016-12-01

    Chronic electric activation of the carotid baroreflex produces sustained reductions in sympathetic activity and arterial pressure and is currently being evaluated for therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. However, patients with significant impairment of renal function have been largely excluded from clinical trials. Thus, there is little information on blood pressure and renal responses to baroreflex activation in subjects with advanced chronic kidney disease, which is common in resistant hypertension. Changes in arterial pressure and glomerular filtration rate were determined in 5 dogs after combined unilateral nephrectomy and surgical excision of the poles of the remaining kidney to produce ≈70% reduction in renal mass. After control measurements, sodium intake was increased from ≈45 to 450 mol/d. While maintained on high salt, animals experienced increases in mean arterial pressure from 102±4 to 121±6 mm Hg and glomerular filtration rate from 40±2 to 45±2 mL/min. During 7 days of baroreflex activation, the hypertension induced by high salt was abolished (103±6 mm Hg) along with striking suppression of plasma norepinephrine concentration from 139±21 to 81±9 pg/mL, but despite pronounced blood pressure lowering, there were no significant changes in glomerular filtration rate (43±2 mL/min). All variables returned to prestimulation values during a recovery period. These findings indicate that after appreciable nephron loss, chronic suppression of central sympathetic outflow by baroreflex activation abolishes hypertension induced by high salt intake. The sustained antihypertensive effects of baroreflex activation occur without significantly compromising glomerular filtration rate in remnant nephrons. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Contour Detection of Leukocyte Cell Nucleus Using Morphological Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanti, R.; Satrio, G. P.; Ramadhani, Y.; Siswandari, W.

    2017-04-01

    Leukocytes are blood cells that do not contain color pigments. Leukocyte function to the tool body’s defenses. Abnormal forms of leukocytes can be a sign of serious diseases such example is leukemia. Most laboratories still use cell morphology examination to assist the diagnosis of illness associated with white blood cells such example is leukemia because of limited resources, both infrastructure, and human resources as happens in developing nations, such as Indonesia. This examination is less expensive and quicker process. However, morphological review requires the expertise of a specialist clinical pathology were limited. This process is sometimes less valid cause in some cases trying to differentiate morphology blast cells into the type of myoblasts, lymphoblast, monoblast, or erythroblast thus potentially misdiagnosis. The goal of this research is to develop a detection device types of blood cells automatically as lower-priced, easy to use and accurate so that the tool can be distributed across all units in existing health services throughout Indonesia and in particular for remote areas. However, because the variables used in the identification of abnormal leukocytes are very complex, in this paper, we emphasize on the contour detection of leukocyte cell nucleus using the morphological image. The results show that this method is promising for further development.

  5. Platelets Guide Leukocytes to Their Sites of Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Puhr-Westerheide, Daniel; Pörnbacher, Michaela; Lauber, Kirsten; Krombach, Fritz; Reichel, Christoph Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Effective immune responses require the directed migration of leukocytes from the vasculature to the site of injury or infection. How immune cells “find” their site of extravasation remains largely obscure. Here, we identified a previously unrecognized role of platelets as pathfinders guiding leukocytes to their exit points in the microvasculature: upon onset of inflammation, circulating platelets were found to immediately adhere at distinct sites in venular microvessels enabling these cellular blood components to capture neutrophils and, in turn, inflammatory monocytes via CD40-CD40L-dependent interactions. In this cellular crosstalk, ligation of PSGL-1 by P-selectin leads to ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent conformational changes of leukocyte integrins, which promote the successive extravasation of neutrophils and monocytes to the perivascular tissue. Conversely, blockade of this cellular partnership resulted in misguided, inefficient leukocyte responses. Our experimental data uncover a platelet-directed, spatiotemporally organized, multicellular crosstalk that is essential for effective trafficking of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. PMID:27152726

  6. Human leukocytic pyrogen: purification and development of a radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Dinarello, C A; Renfer, L; Wolff, S M

    1977-10-01

    Leukocytic pyrogen is a small endogenous protein that mediates fever. Because of the limitations of bioassays, circulating leukocytic pyrogen has not been demonstrated during fever in humans. The pyrogen was produced in vitro after phagocytosis of staphylococci by blood monocytes. Antibody against the pyrogen was obtained from rabbits immunized with leukocytic pyrogen and the antiserum was purified by solid-phase immunoadsorbants. Purified antibody to the pyrogen was attached to activated Sepharose 4B and used in conjunction with gel filtration to purify the pyrogen. The pyrogen was labeled with 125I and further purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The final preparation of 125I-labeled pyrogen demonstrated a homogeneous band during isoelectric focusing and other separation procedures. With antibody to pyrogen attached to Sepharose, less than 0.1 of a rabbit pyrogenic dose of human leukocytic pyrogen inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled pyrogen to this immunoadsorbant, and this inhibition was not affected by the presence of human serum. Thus, a radioimmunoassay for human leukocytic pyrogen has been developed that may be used to detect circulating pyrogen during fever in humans.

  7. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Schnoor, Michael; Alcaide, Pilar; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers. PMID:26568666

  8. Ultraviolet A: Visible spectral absorbance of the human cornea after transepithelial soaking with dextran-enriched and dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% ophthalmic solutions.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Marco; Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Pucci, Giuseppe; Barberi, Riccardo; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the stromal concentration of 2 commercially available transepithelial riboflavin 0.1% solutions in human donor corneas with the use of spectrophotometry. University of Calabria, Rende, Italy. Experimental study. The absorbance spectra of 12 corneal tissues were measured in the 330 to 700 nm wavelength range using a purpose-designed spectrophotometry setup before and after transepithelial corneal soaking with a 15% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6) or a hypotonic dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6). Both ophthalmic solutions contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and trometamol as enhancers. In addition, 4 deepithelialized corneal tissues underwent stromal soaking with a 20% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution and were used as controls. All the riboflavin solutions were applied topically for 30 minutes. The stromal concentration of riboflavin was quantified by analysis of absorbance spectra of the cornea collected before and after application of each solution. The mean stromal riboflavin concentration was 0.012% ± 0.003% (SD), 0.0005% ± 0.0003% (P < .001), and 0.004% ± 0.001% (P < .01) in tissues soaked with 20% dextran-enriched, 15% dextran-enriched, and hypotonic dextran-free solutions, respectively. The difference of stromal riboflavin concentration between the 2 transepithelial solutions was statistically significant (P < .01). Dextran-enriched solutions required complete corneal deepithelialization to permit effective stromal soaking with riboflavin. Nevertheless, riboflavin in hypotonic dextran-free solution with enhancers permeates across stroma through an intact epithelium. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Specificity, Size, and Frequency of Spaces That Characterize the Mechanism of Bulk Transepithelial Transport of Prions in the Nasal Cavities of Hamsters and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, J. I.; Bartz, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inhalation of infected brain homogenate results in transepithelial transport of prions across the nasal mucosa of hamsters, some of which occurs rapidly in relatively large amounts between cells (A. E. Kincaid, K. F. Hudson, M. W. Richey, and J. C. Bartz, J. Virol 86:12731–12740, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01930-12). Bulk transepithelial transport in the nasal cavity has not been studied to date. In the present study, we characterized the frequency, size, and specificity of the intercellular spaces that mediate the bulk transport of inhaled prions between cells of mice or hamsters following extranasal inoculation with mock-infected brain homogenate, different strains of prion-infected brain homogenate, or brain homogenate mixed with India ink. Infected or mock-infected inoculum was identified within lymphatic vessels of the lamina propria and in spaces of >5 μm between a small number of cells of the nasal mucosa in >90% of animals from 5 to 60 min after inhalation. The width of the spaces between cells, the amount of the inoculum within the lumen of lymphatic vessels, and the timing of the transport indicate that this type of transport was taking place through preexisting spaces in the nasal cavity that were orders of magnitude wider than what is normally reported for paracellular transport. The indiscriminate rapid bulk transport of brain homogenate in the nasal cavity results in immediate entry into nasal cavity lymphatics following inhalation. This novel mechanism may underlie the recent report of the early detection of prions in blood following inhalation and has implications for horizontal prion transmission. IMPORTANCE The results of these studies demonstrate that the nasal mucosa of mice and hamsters is not an absolute anatomical barrier to inhaled prion-infected or uninfected brain homogenate. Relatively large amounts of infected and uninfected brain homogenate rapidly cross the nasal mucosa and enter the lumen of lymphatic vessels

  10. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Facilitate Delivery of Whole Inactivated H9N2 Influenza Virus via Transepithelial Dendrites of Dendritic Cells in Nasal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tao; Yin, Yinyan; Yu, Qinghua; Huang, Lulu; Wang, Xiaoqing; Lin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The spread of the low-pathogenicity avian H9N2 influenza virus has seriously increased the risk of a new influenza pandemic. Although whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine via intranasal pathway is the effective method of blocking virus transmission, the mucosal barrier seems to be a major factor hampering its development. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, a known adjuvant, can target downstream dendritic cells (DCs) and effectively enhance the mucosal and systemic immune responses. However, the ability of CpGs to assist H9N2 WIV in transepithelial transport remains unknown. Here, in vitro and in vivo, we showed that CpGs provided assistance for H9N2 WIV in recruiting DCs to the nasal epithelial cells (ECs) and forming transepithelial dendrites (TEDs) to capture luminal viruses. CD103+ DCs participated in this process. Chemokine CCL20 from nasal ECs played a key role in driving DC recruitment and TED formation. Virus-loaded DCs quickly migrated into the draining cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) for antigen presentation. In addition, the competence of CpGs was independent of direct epithelial transport via the transcellular or paracellular pathway. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CpGs enhanced the transport of H9N2 WIV via TEDs of nasal DCs, which might be a novel mechanism for optimal adaptive immune responses. IMPORTANCE This paper demonstrates by both an in vivo and an in vitro coculture model that CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, known as an adjuvant generally targeting downstream immune responses, also are crucial for the transport of H9N2 WIV across nasal epithelial cells (ECs) via the uptake of transepithelial dendrites (TEDs). Our results prove for the first time to our knowledge that the immune-potentiating mechanism of CpGs is based on strengthening the transepithelial uptake of H9N2 WIV in nasal mucosa. These findings provide a fresh perspective for further improvement of intranasal influenza vaccines, which are urgently needed in the face of the

  11. Occult purulent pericarditis detected by indium-111 leukocyte imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.L.; Niebulski, H.I.; Uretsky, B.F.

    1984-05-01

    Leukocyte imaging with indium-111 is a relatively new technique which, to this point in time, has been discussed almost exclusively in the radiologic literature. Although this procedure has been used mainly to detect intra-abdominal infection, the thorax is routinely imaged along with the abdomen, and therefore detection of cardiac disease may be feasible. This case report is of a young woman after liver transplantation who developed occult purulent pericarditis initially detected by a leukocyte scan with indium-111. This case demonstrates that striking pericardial uptake on a whole-body indium-111 leukocyte scan can occur with purulent pericarditis, and it reemphasizes how insidiouslymore » purulent pericarditis may present in an immunosuppressed patient.« less

  12. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes and reticulocytes stained with proflavine.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, H; Tatsumi, N

    1997-12-01

    Proflavine, an acridine analog for industrial use, was used to stain blood cells. A drop of blood treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-2K was mixed with a 0.00001% solution of the dye and observed immediately by fluorescence microscopy with a green filter. Leukocytes, platelets, and reticulocytes were stained but mature red blood cells were not. Chromatin in the nuclei of all leukocytes and nucleoli of lymphocytes and monocytes had greenish-yellow fluorescence, and the kind of cell could be identified by the tone and intensity of this color. Granules in granulocytes were in green. Reticular fine-granular or granulofibrous structures in the reticulocytes were brownish. The proflavine could be used routinely in clinical laboratories because this single stain makes possible simultaneous differentiation of leukocytes and counting of reticulocytes.

  13. Leukocytes as carriers for targeted cancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Metastasis contributes to over 90% of cancer-related deaths. Numerous nanoparticle platforms have been developed to target and treat cancer, yet efficient delivery of these systems to the appropriate site remains challenging. Leukocytes, which share similarities to tumor cells in terms of their transport and migration through the body, are well suited to serve as carriers of drug delivery systems to target cancer sites. Areas covered This review focuses on the use and functionalization of leukocytes for therapeutic targeting of metastatic cancer. Tumor cell and leukocyte extravasation, margination in the bloodstream, and migration into soft tissue are discussed, along with the potential to exploit these functional similarities to effectively deliver drugs. Current nanoparticle-based drug formulations for the treatment of cancer are reviewed, along with methods to functionalize delivery vehicles to leukocytes, either on the surface and/or within the cell. Recent progress in this area, both in vitro and in vivo, is also discussed, with a particular emphasis on targeting cancer cells in the bloodstream as a means to interrupt the metastatic process. Expert opinion Leukocytes interact with cancer cells both in the bloodstream and at the site of solid tumors. These interactions can be utilized to effectively deliver drugs to targeted areas, which can reduce both the amount of drug required and various nonspecific cytotoxic effects within the body. If drug delivery vehicle functionalization does not interfere with leukocyte function, this approach may be utilized to neutralize tumor cells in the bloodstream to prevent the formation of new metastases, and also to deliver drugs to metastatic sites within tissues. PMID:25270379

  14. Leukocytes as carriers for targeted cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael J; King, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Metastasis contributes to over 90% of cancer-related deaths. Numerous nanoparticle platforms have been developed to target and treat cancer, yet efficient delivery of these systems to the appropriate site remains challenging. Leukocytes, which share similarities to tumor cells in terms of their transport and migration through the body, are well suited to serve as carriers of drug delivery systems to target cancer sites. This review focuses on the use and functionalization of leukocytes for therapeutic targeting of metastatic cancer. Tumor cell and leukocyte extravasation, margination in the bloodstream, and migration into soft tissue are discussed, along with the potential to exploit these functional similarities to effectively deliver drugs. Current nanoparticle-based drug formulations for the treatment of cancer are reviewed, along with methods to functionalize delivery vehicles to leukocytes, either on the surface and/or within the cell. Recent progress in this area, both in vitro and in vivo, is also discussed, with a particular emphasis on targeting cancer cells in the bloodstream as a means to interrupt the metastatic process. Leukocytes interact with cancer cells both in the bloodstream and at the site of solid tumors. These interactions can be utilized to effectively deliver drugs to targeted areas, which can reduce both the amount of drug required and various nonspecific cytotoxic effects within the body. If drug delivery vehicle functionalization does not interfere with leukocyte function, this approach may be utilized to neutralize tumor cells in the bloodstream to prevent the formation of new metastases, and also to deliver drugs to metastatic sites within tissues.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Transepithelial Corneal Cross-linking Using Iontophoresis with the Dresden Protocol in Progressive Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Marco; Giannini, Daniela; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Serrao, Sebastiano

    2017-06-01

    To compare clinical outcomes of transepithelial corneal cross-linking using iontophoresis (T-ionto CL) and standard corneal cross-linking (standard CL) for the treatment of progressive keratoconus 12 months after the operation. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Thirty-four eyes of 25 participants with progressive keratoconus were randomized into T-ionto CL (22 eyes) or standard CL (12 eyes). T-ionto CL was performed using an iontophoresis device with dextran-free 0.1% riboflavin-5-phosphate solution with enhancers and by irradiating the cornea with a 10 mW/cm 2 ultraviolet A device for 9 minutes. Standard CL was performed according to the Dresden protocol. The primary outcome measure was stabilization of keratoconus after 12 months through analysis of maximum simulated keratometry readings (K max , diopters). Other outcome measures were corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]), manifest spherical equivalent refraction (D), central corneal thickness (CCT, micrometers) and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up examinations were arranged at 3 and 7 days and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Twelve months after T-ionto CL and standard CL, K max on average flattened by -0.52±1.30 D (P = 0.06) and -0.82±1.20 D (P = 0.04), respectively. The mean change in CDVA was -0.10±0.12 logMAR (P = 0.003) and -0.03±0.06 logMAR (P = 0.10) after T-ionto CL and standard CL, respectively. The manifest spherical equivalent refraction changed on average by +0.71±1.44 D (P = 0.03) and +0.21±0.76 D (P = 0.38), respectively. The CCT and ECD measures did not change significantly in any group at 12 months. Significant differences in the outcome measures between treatments were found in the first week postoperatively. No complications occurred in the T-ionto CL group; 1 eye (8%) had sterile corneal infiltrates, which did not affect the final visual acuity, in the standard CL group. Significant visual and

  16. Mechanisms of transepithelial ammonia excretion and luminal alkalinization in the gut of an intestinal air-breathing fish, Misgurnus anguilliacaudatus.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jonathan M; Moreira-Silva, Joana; Delgado, Inês L S; Ebanks, Sue C; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Coimbra, João; Grosell, Martin

    2013-02-15

    The weatherloach, Misgurnus angulliacaudatus, is an intestinal air-breathing, freshwater fish that has the unique ability to excrete ammonia through gut volatilization when branchial and cutaneous routes are compromised during high environmental ammonia or air exposure. We hypothesized that transepithelial gut NH(4)(+) transport is facilitated by an apical Na(+)/H(+) (NH(4)(+)) exchanger (NHE) and a basolateral Na(+)/K(+)(NH(4)(+))-ATPase, and that gut boundary layer alkalinization (NH(4)(+) → NH(3) + H(+)) is facilitated by apical HCO(3)(-) secretion through a Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) anion exchanger. This was tested using a pharmacological approach with anterior (digestive) and posterior (respiratory) intestine preparations mounted in pH-stat-equipped Ussing chambers. The anterior intestine had a markedly higher conductance, increased short-circuit current, and greater net base (J(base)) and ammonia excretion rates (J(amm)) than the posterior intestine. In the anterior intestine, HCO(3)(-) accounted for 70% of J(base). In the presence of an imposed serosal-mucosal ammonia gradient, inhibitors of both NHE (EIPA, 0.1 mmol l(-1)) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ouabain, 0.1 mmol l(-1)) significantly inhibited J(amm) in the anterior intestine, although only EIPA had an effect in the posterior intestine. In addition, the anion exchange inhibitor DIDS significantly reduced J(base) in the anterior intestine although only at a high dose (1 mmol l(-1)). Carbonic anhydrase does not appear to be associated with gut alkalinization under these conditions as ethoxzolamide was without effect on J(base). Membrane fluidity of the posterior intestine was low, suggesting low permeability, which was also reflected in a lower mucosal-serosal J(amm) in the presence of an imposed gradient, in contrast to that in the anterior intestine. To conclude, although the posterior intestine is highly modified for gas exchange, it is the anterior intestine that is the likely site of ammonia excretion and

  17. Postoperative Corneal Asphericity in Low, Moderate, and High Myopic Eyes After Transepithelial PRK Using a New Pulse Allocation.

    PubMed

    Lin, David T C; Holland, Simon P; Verma, Shwetabh; Hogden, John; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the postoperative asphericity in low, moderate, and high myopic eyes after combined transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy and SmartSurf ACE treatment (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions GmbH, Kleinostheim, Germany). In this retrospective case series, the outcomes of myopic SmartSurf ACE were evaluated at 3 months postoperatively in 106 eyes and divided into low (less than -4.125 diopters [D]), moderate (-4.125 to -6.25 D), and high (more than -6.25 D) myopia groups. In all cases, standard examinations and preoperative and postoperative corneal topography (SCHWIND Sirius) were performed. The analysis comprised evaluating the change in asphericity versus planned correction, comparing expected and achieved postoperative asphericity for all eyes, and comparison of the three groups in terms of the preoperative and postoperatively expected and achieved asphericity. RESULTS At 3 months postoperatively, the low myopia group (n = 33) improved average negative asphericity (Q = -0.04 ± 0.17 preoperative vs -0.19 ± 0.20 postoperative, P < .05). The moderate myopia group (n = 35) maintained or slightly improved average negative asphericity (Q = -0.07 ± 0.14 preoperative vs -0.05 ± 0.24 postoperative, P = .35). For the high myopia group (n = 38), the eyes became more oblate compared to the preoperative status (Q = -0.09 ± 0.15 preoperative vs 0.62 ± 0.70 postoperative, P < .05). In terms of asphericity, the difference between the three groups was not statistically significant preoperatively (P > .10), but showed significant differences postoperatively (P < .007). The cohort's average preoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 0.01 ± 0.04 logMAR (range: 0.0 to 0.18 logMAR) and uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.03 ± 0.08 logMAR (range: -0.12 to 0.40 logMAR) 3 months postoperatively. SmartSurf ACE maintained or slightly improved preoperative corneal asphericity for low to moderate myopic corrections (up to -6.00 D). This may provide advantages in the

  18. Improvement of cellulose catabolism in Clostridium cellulolyticum by sporulation abolishment and carbon alleviation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Xu, Tao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium cellulolyticum can degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and ferment the soluble sugars to produce valuable chemicals such as lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. However, the cellulose utilization efficiency of C. cellulolyticum still remains very low, impeding its application in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. In this study, two metabolic engineering strategies were exploited to improve cellulose utilization efficiency, including sporulation abolishment and carbon overload alleviation. Results The spo0A gene at locus Ccel_1894, which encodes a master sporulation regulator was inactivated. The spo0A mutant abolished the sporulation ability. In a high concentration of cellulose (50 g/l), the performance of the spo0Amore » mutant increased dramatically in terms of maximum growth, final concentrations of three major metabolic products, and cellulose catabolism. The microarray and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways were up-regulated in the spo0A mutant. Based on this information, a partial isobutanol producing pathway modified from valine biosynthesis was introduced into C. cellulolyticum strains to further increase cellulose consumption by alleviating excessive carbon load. The introduction of this synthetic pathway to the wild-type strain improved cellulose consumption from 17.6 g/l to 28.7 g/l with a production of 0.42 g/l isobutanol in the 50 g/l cellulose medium. However, the spo0A mutant strain did not appreciably benefit from introduction of this synthetic pathway and the cellulose utilization efficiency did not further increase. A technical highlight in this study was that an in vivo promoter strength evaluation protocol was developed using anaerobic fluorescent protein and flow cytometry for C. cellulolyticum. Conclusions In this study, we inactivated the spo0A gene and introduced a heterologous synthetic pathway to manipulate the

  19. Impact of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion and Transepithelial Transport on Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibitory Activities of Brewer's Spent Yeast Autolysate.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elsa F; das Neves, José; Vitorino, Rui; Dias da Silva, Diana; Carmo, Helena; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2016-10-05

    Brewer's spent yeast (BSY) autolysates may have potential applications as food ingredients or nutraceuticals due to their antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The impact of simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion, the interaction with intracellular sources of oxidative stress, the intestinal cell permeability of BSY peptides, and the antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of BSY permeates were assayed. Gastrointestinal digestion of BSY autolysates enhanced antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities as measured in vitro. No cytotoxic effects were observed on Caco-2 cells after exposure to the digested BSY autolysates within a concentration range of 0.5 to 3.0 mg of peptides/mL. A protective role to induced oxidative stress was observed. The transepithelial transport assays indicate high apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) values for BSY peptides across Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell monolayer (14.5-26.1 × 10 -6 cm/s) and for Caco-2 cell monolayer model (12.4-20.8 × 10 -6 cm/s), while the antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities found in flux material from the basolateral side suggest transepithelial absorption of bioactive compounds.

  20. Prefrontal cortex damage abolishes brand-cued changes in cola preference.

    PubMed

    Koenigs, Michael; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Human decision-making is remarkably susceptible to commercial advertising, yet the neurobiological basis of this phenomenon remains largely unexplored. With a series of Coke and Pepsi taste tests we show that patients with damage specifically involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), an area important for emotion, did not demonstrate the normal preference bias when exposed to brand information. Both comparison groups (neurologically normal adults and lesion patients with intact VMPC) preferred Pepsi in a blind taste test, but in subsequent taste tests that featured brand information ('semi-blind' taste tests), both comparison groups' preferences were skewed toward Coke, illustrating the so-called 'Pepsi paradox'. Like comparison groups, the VMPC patients preferred Pepsi in the blind taste test, but unlike comparison groups, the VMPC patients maintained their Pepsi preference in the semi-blind test. The result that VMPC damage abolishes the 'Pepsi paradox' suggests that the VMPC is an important part of the neural substrate for translating commercial images into brand preferences.

  1. Kv1.1 channelopathy abolishes presynaptic spike width modulation by subthreshold somatic depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Vivekananda, Umesh; Novak, Pavel; Bello, Oscar D.; Korchev, Yuri E.; Krishnakumar, Shyam S.; Volynski, Kirill E.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2017-01-01

    Although action potentials propagate along axons in an all-or-none manner, subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations at the soma affect neurotransmitter release from synaptic boutons. An important mechanism underlying analog–digital modulation is depolarization-mediated inactivation of presynaptic Kv1-family potassium channels, leading to action potential broadening and increased calcium influx. Previous studies have relied heavily on recordings from blebs formed after axon transection, which may exaggerate the passive propagation of somatic depolarization. We recorded instead from small boutons supplied by intact axons identified with scanning ion conductance microscopy in primary hippocampal cultures and asked how distinct potassium channels interact in determining the basal spike width and its modulation by subthreshold somatic depolarization. Pharmacological or genetic deletion of Kv1.1 broadened presynaptic spikes without preventing further prolongation by brief depolarizing somatic prepulses. A heterozygous mouse model of episodic ataxia type 1 harboring a dominant Kv1.1 mutation had a similar broadening effect on basal spike shape as deletion of Kv1.1; however, spike modulation by somatic prepulses was abolished. These results argue that the Kv1.1 subunit is not necessary for subthreshold modulation of spike width. However, a disease-associated mutant subunit prevents the interplay of analog and digital transmission, possibly by disrupting the normal stoichiometry of presynaptic potassium channels. PMID:28193892

  2. Combined deficiency of MSH2 and Sμ region abolishes class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Claire; Haddad, Dania; Laviolette-Malirat, Nathalie; Nguyen Huu, Ngoc-Sa; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine

    2010-10-01

    Class switch recombination (CSR) is mediated by G-rich tandem repeated sequences termed switch regions. Transcription of switch regions generates single-stranded R loops that provide substrates for activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Mice deficient in MSH2 have a mild defect in CSR and analysis of their switch junctions has led to a model in which MSH2 is more critical for switch recombination events outside than within the tandem repeats. It is also known that deletion of the whole Sμ region severely impairs but does not abrogate CSR despite the lack of detectable R loops. Here, we demonstrate that deficiency of both MSH2 and the Sμ region completely abolishes CSR and that the abrogation occurs at the genomic level. This finding further supports the crucial role of MSH2 outside the tandem repeats. It also indicates that during CSR, MSH2 has access to activation-induced cytidine deaminase targets in R-loop-deficient Iμ-Cμ sequences rarely used in CSR, suggesting an MSH2-dependent DNA processing activity at the Iμ exon that may decrease with transcription elongation across the Sμ region.

  3. Focal lesions within the ventral striato-pallidum abolish attraction for male chemosignals in female mice.

    PubMed

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    In rodents, socio-sexual behaviour is largely mediated by chemosensory cues, some of which are rewarding stimuli. Female mice display an innate attraction towards male chemosignals, dependent on the vomeronasal system. This behaviour likely reflects the hedonic value of sexual chemosignals. The anteromedial aspect of the olfactory tubercle, along with its associated islands of Calleja, receives vomeronasal inputs and sexually-dimorphic vasopressinergic innervation. Thus, we hypothesised that this portion of the ventral striato-pallidum, known to be involved in reward processing, might be important for sexual odorant-guided behaviours. In this study, we demonstrate that lesions of this region, but not of regions in the posterolateral striato-pallidum, abolish the attraction of female mice for male chemosignals, without affecting significantly their preference for a different natural reward (a sucrose solution). These results show that, at least in female mice, the integrity of the anterior aspect of the medioventral striato-pallidum, comprising a portion of the olfactory tubercle and associated islands of Calleja, is necessary for the attraction for male chemosignals. We suggest that this region contributes to the processing of the hedonic properties of biologically significant odorants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sulfonamide-Based Inhibitors of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Eis Abolish Resistance to Kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J.; Green, Keith D.

    A two-drug combination therapy where one drug targets an offending cell and the other targets a resistance mechanism to the first drug is a time-tested, yet underexploited approach to combat or prevent drug resistance. By high-throughput screening, we identified a sulfonamide scaffold that served as a pharmacophore to generate inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase Eis, whose upregulation causes resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rational systematic derivatization of this scaffold to maximize Eis inhibition and abolish the Eis-mediated KAN resistance of M. tuberculosis yielded several highly potent agents. A crystal structure of Eis inmore » complex with one of the most potent inhibitors revealed that the inhibitor bound Eis in the AG-binding pocket held by a conformationally malleable region of Eis (residues 28–37) bearing key hydrophobic residues. These Eis inhibitors are promising leads for preclinical development of innovative AG combination therapies against resistant TB.« less

  5. Point mutations abolishing the mannose-binding capability of boar spermadhesin AQN-1.

    PubMed

    Ekhlasi-Hundrieser, Mahnaz; Calvete, Juan J; Von Rad, Bettina; Hettel, Christiane; Nimtz, Manfred; Töpfer-Petersen, Edda

    2008-05-01

    The mannose-binding capability of recombinant wild-type boar spermadhesin AQN-1 and of its site-directed mutants in the highly-conserved region around of the single glycosylation site (asparagine 50) of some spermadhesins, where the carbohydrate binding site has been proposed to be located, was checked using a solid-phase assay and a biotinylated mannose ligand. Substitution of glycine 54 by amino acids bearing an unipolar side chain did not cause significant decrease in the mannose-binding activity. However, amino acids with uncharged polar side chains or having a charged polar side chain abolished the binding of biotinylated mannose to the corresponding AQN-1 mutants. The results suggest that the higher surface accessibility of amino acids possessing polar side chains compared to those bearing nonpolar groups may sterically interfere with monosaccharide binding. The location of the mannose-binding site in AQN-1 appears to be topologically conserved in other heparin-binding boar spermadhesins, i.e., AQN-3 and AWN, but departs from the location of the mannose-6-phosphate-recognition site of PSP-II. This indicates that different spermadhesin molecules have evolved non-equivalent carbohydrate-binding capabilities, which may underlie their distinct patterns of biological activities.

  6. CRISPR Epigenome Editing of AKAP150 in DRG Neurons Abolishes Degenerative IVD-Induced Neuronal Activation.

    PubMed

    Stover, Joshua D; Farhang, Niloofar; Berrett, Kristofer C; Gertz, Jason; Lawrence, Brandon; Bowles, Robby D

    2017-09-06

    Back pain is a major contributor to disability and has significant socioeconomic impacts worldwide. The degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD) has been hypothesized to contribute to back pain, but a better understanding of the interactions between the degenerative IVD and nociceptive neurons innervating the disc and treatment strategies that directly target these interactions is needed to improve our understanding and treatment of back pain. We investigated degenerative IVD-induced changes to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron activity and utilized CRISPR epigenome editing as a neuromodulation strategy. By exposing DRG neurons to degenerative IVD-conditioned media under both normal and pathological IVD pH levels, we demonstrate that degenerative IVDs trigger interleukin (IL)-6-induced increases in neuron activity to thermal stimuli, which is directly mediated by AKAP and enhanced by acidic pH. Utilizing this novel information on AKAP-mediated increases in nociceptive neuron activity, we developed lentiviral CRISPR epigenome editing vectors that modulate endogenous expression of AKAP150 by targeted promoter histone methylation. When delivered to DRG neurons, these epigenome-modifying vectors abolished degenerative IVD-induced DRG-elevated neuron activity while preserving non-pathologic neuron activity. This work elucidates the potential for CRISPR epigenome editing as a targeted gene-based pain neuromodulation strategy. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Ca sup 2+ influx associated with exocytosis is specifically abolished in a Paramecium exocytotic mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Kerboeuf, D.; Cohen, J.

    1990-12-01

    A Paramecium possesses secretory organelles called trichocysts which are docked beneath the plasma membrane awaiting an external stimulus that triggers their exocytosis. Membrane fusion is the sole event provoked by the stimulation and can therefore be studied per se. Using 3 microM aminoethyl dextran as a vital secretagogue, we analyzed the movements of calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) during the discharge of trichocysts. We showed that (a) external Ca{sup 2+}, at least at 3 X 10(-7) M, is necessary for AED to induce exocytosis; (b) a dramatic and transient influx of Ca{sup 2+} as measured from {sup 45}Ca uptake is induced bymore » AED; (c) this influx is independent of the well-characterized voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels of the ciliary membranes since it persists in a mutant devoid of these channels; and (d) this influx is specifically abolished in one of the mutants unable to undergo exocytosis, nd12. We propose that the Ca{sup 2+} influx induced by AED reflects an increase in membrane permeability through the opening of novel Ca{sup 2+} channel or the activation of other Ca{sup 2+} transport mechanism in the plasma membrane. The resulting rise in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration would in turn induce membrane fusion. The mutation nd12 would affect a gene product involved in the control of plasma membrane permeability to Ca{sup 2+}, specifically related to membrane fusion.« less

  8. Fluoxetine treatment abolishes the in vitro respiratory response to acidosis in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Voituron, Nicolas; Shvarev, Yuri; Menuet, Clément; Bevengut, Michelle; Fasano, Caroline; Vigneault, Erika; El Mestikawy, Salah; Hilaire, Gérard

    2010-10-26

    To secure pH homeostasis, the central respiratory network must permanently adapt its rhythmic motor drive to environment and behaviour. In neonates, it is commonly admitted that the retrotrapezoid/parafacial respiratory group of neurons of the ventral medulla plays the primary role in the respiratory response to acidosis, although the serotonergic system may also contribute to this response. Using en bloc medullary preparations from neonatal mice, we have shown for the first time that the respiratory response to acidosis is abolished after pre-treatment with the serotonin-transporter blocker fluoxetine (25-50 µM, 20 min), a commonly used antidepressant. Using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistology, we have also shown the expression of the serotonin transporter mRNA and serotonin-containing neurons in the vicinity of the RTN/pFRG of neonatal mice. These results reveal that the serotonergic system plays a pivotal role in pH homeostasis. Although obtained in vitro in neonatal mice, they suggest that drugs targeting the serotonergic system should be used with caution in infants, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers.

  9. Fluoxetine Treatment Abolishes the In Vitro Respiratory Response to Acidosis in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Voituron, Nicolas; Shvarev, Yuri; Menuet, Clément; Bevengut, Michelle; Fasano, Caroline; Vigneault, Erika; Mestikawy, Salah El; Hilaire, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    Background To secure pH homeostasis, the central respiratory network must permanently adapt its rhythmic motor drive to environment and behaviour. In neonates, it is commonly admitted that the retrotrapezoid/parafacial respiratory group of neurons of the ventral medulla plays the primary role in the respiratory response to acidosis, although the serotonergic system may also contribute to this response. Methodology/Principal Findings Using en bloc medullary preparations from neonatal mice, we have shown for the first time that the respiratory response to acidosis is abolished after pre-treatment with the serotonin-transporter blocker fluoxetine (25–50 µM, 20 min), a commonly used antidepressant. Using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistology, we have also shown the expression of the serotonin transporter mRNA and serotonin-containing neurons in the vicinity of the RTN/pFRG of neonatal mice. Conclusions These results reveal that the serotonergic system plays a pivotal role in pH homeostasis. Although obtained in vitro in neonatal mice, they suggest that drugs targeting the serotonergic system should be used with caution in infants, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. PMID:21048979

  10. Prefrontal cortex damage abolishes brand-cued changes in cola preference

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Human decision-making is remarkably susceptible to commercial advertising, yet the neurobiological basis of this phenomenon remains largely unexplored. With a series of Coke and Pepsi taste tests we show that patients with damage specifically involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), an area important for emotion, did not demonstrate the normal preference bias when exposed to brand information. Both comparison groups (neurologically normal adults and lesion patients with intact VMPC) preferred Pepsi in a blind taste test, but in subsequent taste tests that featured brand information (‘semi-blind’ taste tests), both comparison groups’ preferences were skewed toward Coke, illustrating the so-called ‘Pepsi paradox’. Like comparison groups, the VMPC patients preferred Pepsi in the blind taste test, but unlike comparison groups, the VMPC patients maintained their Pepsi preference in the semi-blind test. The result that VMPC damage abolishes the ‘Pepsi paradox’ suggests that the VMPC is an important part of the neural substrate for translating commercial images into brand preferences. PMID:18392113

  11. Free Access to Running Wheels Abolishes Hyperphagia in Human Growth Hormone Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    KOMATSUDA, Mugiko; YAMANOUCHI, Keitaro; MATSUWAKI, Takashi; NISHIHARA, Masugi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is a major health problem, and increased food intake and decreased physical activity are considered as two major factors causing obesity. Previous studies show that voluntary exercise in a running wheel decreases not only body weight but also food intake of rats. We previously produced human growth hormone transgenic (TG) rats, which are characterized by severe hyperphagia and obesity. To gain more insight into the effects on physical activity to food consumption and obesity, we examined whether voluntary running wheel exercise causes inhibition of hyperphagia and alteration of body composition in TG rats. Free access to running wheels completely abolished hyperphagia in TG rats, and this effect persisted for many weeks as far as the running wheel is accessible. Unexpectedly, though the running distances of TG rats were significantly less than those of wild type rats, it was sufficient to normalize their food consumption. This raises the possibility that rearing environment, which enables them to access to a running wheel freely, rather than the amounts of physical exercises is more important for the maintenance of proper food intake. PMID:24717416

  12. Free access to running wheels abolishes hyperphagia in human growth hormone transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Komatsuda, Mugiko; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and increased food intake and decreased physical activity are considered as two major factors causing obesity. Previous studies show that voluntary exercise in a running wheel decreases not only body weight but also food intake of rats. We previously produced human growth hormone transgenic (TG) rats, which are characterized by severe hyperphagia and obesity. To gain more insight into the effects on physical activity to food consumption and obesity, we examined whether voluntary running wheel exercise causes inhibition of hyperphagia and alteration of body composition in TG rats. Free access to running wheels completely abolished hyperphagia in TG rats, and this effect persisted for many weeks as far as the running wheel is accessible. Unexpectedly, though the running distances of TG rats were significantly less than those of wild type rats, it was sufficient to normalize their food consumption. This raises the possibility that rearing environment, which enables them to access to a running wheel freely, rather than the amounts of physical exercises is more important for the maintenance of proper food intake.

  13. Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.

    To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures weremore » obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.« less

  14. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  19. Antiviral Activity of Intranasally Applied Human Leukocyte Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Stephen B.; Harmon, Maurice W.; Johnson, Paul E.; Couch, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the development of antiviral activity of human leukocyte interferon (IF) in nasal epithelial cells is time and concentration dependent and that the loss of intranasally applied human leukocyte IF is rapid. The present studies compared the activity of IF applied intranasally either by nasal drops or by a saturated cotton pledget. Adult volunteers had IF applied to an area of nasal mucosa (2 by 2 cm2) either by repeated nose drops or by a saturated cotton pledget that was applied to the nasal mucosa and left in place for 1 h. Nasal epithelial cells scraped from the area of application, as well as the control, untreated side of the same volunteers, were challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus. No significant reduction in mean virus yield was found in volunteers who received 80,000 U by nose drops. Significant reduction (P < 0.025) in mean virus yield was found in cells obtained 4 h after 80,000, 50,000, or 20,000 U was applied by cotton pledget or in volunteers pretreated with oral antihistamines prior to receiving 80,000 U by nose drops. These experiments indicate that nasal epithelial cells can be made antiviral in vivo by application of human leukocyte IF. However, practical usefulness of human leukocyte IF for prophylaxis against respiratory viral infections may depend on the method of local application. PMID:214028

  20. Fecal Leukocytes in Children Infected with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Erik H.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ecker, Lucie; Cabello, Martin; Durand, David; Barletta, Francesca; Molina, Margarita; Gil, Ana I.; Huicho, Luis; Lanata, Claudio F.; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and quantity of fecal leukocytes in children infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and to compare these levels between diarrhea and control cases. We analyzed 1,474 stool samples from 935 diarrhea episodes and 539 from healthy controls of a cohort study of children younger than 2 years of age in Lima, Peru. Stools were analyzed for common enteric pathogens, and diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were studied by a multiplex real-time PCR. Stool smears were stained with methylene blue and read by a blinded observer to determine the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field (L/hpf). Fecal leukocytes at >10 L/hpf were present in 11.8% (110/935) of all diarrheal episodes versus 1.1% (6/539) in controls (P < 0.001). Among stool samples with diarrheagenic E. coli as the only pathogen isolated (excluding coinfection), fecal leukocytes at >10 L/hpf were present in 8.5% (18/212) of diarrhea versus 1.3% (2/157) of control samples (P < 0.01). Ninety-five percent of 99 diarrheagenic E. coli diarrhea samples were positive for fecal lactoferrin. Adjusting for the presence of blood in stools, age, sex, undernutrition, and breastfeeding, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) isolation as a single pathogen, excluding coinfections, was highly associated with the presence of fecal leukocytes (>10 L/hpf) with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 15.51; P < 0.05). Although diarrheagenic E. coli was isolated with similar frequencies in diarrhea and control samples, clearly it was associated with a more inflammatory response during symptomatic infection; however, in general, these pathogens elicited a mild inflammatory response. PMID:21325554

  1. CD44 mediated hyaluronan adhesion of Toxoplasma gondii-infected leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Unno, Akihiro; Baba, Minami; Ohno, Tamio; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that infects humans and animals. Ingested parasites cross the intestinal epithelium, invade leukocytes and are then disseminated to peripheral organs. However, the mechanism of extravasation of the infected leukocytes remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that T. gondii-invaded human and mouse leukocytes express higher level of CD44, a ligand of hyaluronan (HA), and its expression on myeloid and non-myeloid leukocytes causes T. gondii-invaded human and mouse leukocyte to adhere to HA more effectively than non-invaded leukocytes. The specific adherence of parasite-invaded leukocytes was inhibited by anti CD44 antibody. Leukocytes of CD44 knockout mice did not show parasite-invaded leukocyte specific adhesion. Our results indicate that parasite-invaded leukocytes, regardless of whether myeloid or not, gain higher ability to adhere to HA than non-invaded leukocytes, via upregulation of CD44 expression and/or selective invasion to CD44 highly expressing cells. The difference in ability to adhere to HA between parasite-invaded cells and non-invaded neighboring cells might facilitate effective delivery of parasite-invaded leukocytes to the HA-producing endothelial cell surface and/or HA-rich extra cellular matrix. © 2013.

  2. A Paradoxical Effect of Presession Attention on Stereotypy: Antecedent Attention as an Establishing, Not an Abolishing, Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when…

  3. Enhancing the Effectiveness of a Play Intervention by Abolishing the Reinforcing Value of Stereotypy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; White, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which a child with autism was allowed to engage in stereotypy freely prior to the intervention (abolishing operation component) to a second condition without the free-access period. Levels of stereotypy and problem behavior were lower and levels of functional play were higher in the…

  4. Two Views on Discipline: What Happens When a District Abolishes Corporal Punishment? and Discipline, Disruption, and the Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhard, Victor J., Jr.; Mahoney, John T.

    1978-01-01

    Susquehanna Valley Central School abolished corporal punishment for practical reasons. At Perry Junior-Senior High School, there is a feeling on the part of parents, students, and teachers that all students are dealt with fairly and impartially since the adoption, two years ago, of the Cause-Effect Discipline Code. (Author/AM)

  5. Insertion sequence 1515 in the ply gene of a type 1 clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae abolishes pneumolysin expression.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Fabien; Janapatla, Rajendra Prasad; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Masson, Geoffrey; Grélaud, Carole; Stach, Jean François; Denis, François; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2007-07-01

    A serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae strain isolated by blood culture from a woman with pneumonia was found to harbor insertion sequence (IS) 1515 in the pneumolysin gene, abolishing pneumolysin expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an IS in the pneumolysin gene of S. pneumoniae.

  6. Simultaneous inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Src abolishes androgen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ghotbaddini, Maryam; Cisse, Keyana; Carey, Alexis; Powell, Joann B

    2017-01-01

    Altered c-Src activity has been strongly implicated in the development, growth, progression, and metastasis of human cancers including prostate cancer. Src is known to regulate several biological functions of tumor cells, including proliferation. There are several Src inhibitors under evaluation for clinical effectiveness but have shown little activity in monotherapy trials of solid tumors. Combination studies are being explored by in vitro analysis and in clinical trials. Here we investigate the effect of simultaneous inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Src on androgen receptor (AR) signaling in prostate cancer cells. AhR has also been reported to interact with the Src signaling pathway during prostate development. c-Src protein kinase is associated with the AhR complex in the cytosol and upon ligand binding to AhR, c-Src is activated and released from the complex. AhR has also been shown to regulate AR signaling which remains functionally important in the development and progression of prostate cancer. We provide evidence that co-inhibition of AhR and Src abolish AR activity. Evaluation of total protein and cellular fractions revealed decreased pAR expression and AR nuclear localization. Assays utilizing an androgen responsive element (ARE) and qRT-PCR analysis of AR genes revealed decreased AR promoter activity and transcriptional activity in the presence of both AhR and Src inhibitors. Furthermore, co-inhibition of AhR and Src reduced the growth of prostate cancer cells compared to individual treatments. Several studies have revealed that AhR and Src individually inhibit cellular proliferation. However, this study is the first to suggest simultaneous inhibition of AhR and Src to inhibit AR signaling and prostate cancer cell growth.

  7. Deletion of the Slo3 gene abolishes alkalization-activated K+ current in mouse spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xu-Hui; Yang, Chengtao; Kim, Sung Tae; Lingle, Christopher J.; Xia, Xiao-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to be composed of subunits encoded by the Slo3 gene. However, the equivalence of KSper and Slo3-dependent current remains uncertain, because heterologous expression of Slo3 results in currents that are less effectively activated by alkalization than are native KSper currents. Here, we show that genetic deletion of Slo3 abolishes all pH-dependent K+ current at physiological membrane potentials in corpus epididymal sperm. A residual pH-dependent outward current (IKres) is observed in Slo3−/− sperm at potentials of >0 mV. Differential inhibition of KSper/Slo3 and IKres by clofilium reveals that the amplitude of IKres is similar in both wild-type (wt) and Slo3−/− sperm. The properties of IKres suggest that it likely represents outward monovalent cation flux through CatSper channels. Thus, KSper/Slo3 may account for essentially all mouse sperm K+ current and is the sole pH-dependent K+ conductance in these sperm. With physiological ionic gradients, alkalization depolarizes Slo3−/− spermatozoa, presumably from CatSper activation, in contrast to Slo3/KSper-mediated hyperpolarization in wt sperm. Slo3−/− male mice are infertile, but Slo3−/− sperm exhibit some fertility within in vitro fertilization assays. Slo3−/− sperm exhibit a higher incidence of morphological abnormalities accentuated by hypotonic challenge and also exhibit deficits in motility in the absence of bicarbonate, revealing a role of KSper under unstimulated conditions. Together, these results show that KSper/Slo3 is the primary spermatozoan K+ current, that KSper may play a critical role in acquisition of normal morphology and sperm motility when faced with hyperosmotic challenges, and that Slo3 is critical for fertility. PMID:21427226

  8. Curcumin combined with turmerones, essential oil components of turmeric, abolishes inflammation-associated mouse colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akira; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Miyamoto, Shingo; Tanaka, Takuji; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR), a yellow pigment in turmeric, has marked potential for preventing colon cancer. We recently reported that ar-turmerone (ATM) suppressed nitric oxide (NO) generation in macrophages. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which ATM attenuates NO generation and examined the anti-carcinogenesis activity of turmerones (TUR, a mixture of 5 sesquiterpenes including ATM). Both CUR and ATM inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible forms of both nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (iNOS and COX-2, respectively). A chase experiment using actinomycin D revealed that ATM accelerated the decay of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism. ATM prevented LPS-induced translocation of HuR, an AU-rich element-binding protein that determines mRNA stability of certain inflammatory genes. In a colitis model, oral administration of TUR significantly suppressed 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced shortening of the large bowel by 52-58%. We also evaluated the chemopreventive effects of oral feeding of TUR, CUR, and their combinations using a model of dimethylhydradine-initiated and DSS-promoted mouse colon carcinogenesis. At the low dose, TUR markedly suppressed adenoma multiplicity by 73%, while CUR at both doses suppressed adenocarcinoma multiplicity by 63-69%. Interestingly, the combination of CUR and TUR at both low and high doses abolished tumor formation. Collectively, our results led to our hypothesis that TUR is a novel candidate for colon cancer prevention. Furthermore, we consider that its use in combination with CUR may become a powerful method for prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Vestibular short-latency evoked potential abolished by low-frequency noise exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Courtney E; Kanicki, Ariane C; Altschuler, Richard A; King, W M

    2018-02-01

    The vestibular system plays a critical role in detection of head movements and is essential for normal postural control. Because of their anatomical proximity to the cochlea, the otolith organs are selectively exposed to sound pressure and are at risk for noise overstimulation. Clinical reports suggest a link between noise exposure and balance problems, but the structural and physiological basis for this linkage is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of low-frequency noise (LFN) on the otolith organs by correlating changes in vestibular short-latency evoked potentials (VsEPs) with changes in saccular afferent endings following noise exposure. LFN exposure transiently abolished the VsEP and reduced the number of stained calyces within the sacculus. Although some recovery of the VsEP waveform could be observed within 3 days after noise, at 3 wk recovery was only partial in most animals, consistent with a reduced number of afferents with calyceal endings. These data show that a single intense noise exposure is capable of causing a vestibular deficit that appears to mirror the synaptic deficit associated with hidden hearing loss after noise-induced cochlear injury. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to explore the effects of low-frequency high-intensity noise on vestibular short-latency evoked potential (VsEP) responses, which shows a linkage between attenuated noise-induced VsEPs and pathological changes to otolith organ afferents. This finding suggests a potential limitation of the VsEP for evaluation of vestibular dysfunction, since the VsEP measurement may assess the activity of a specific class rather than all afferents.

  10. Modulation of leukocyte adhesion in rat mesenteric venules by aspirin and salicylate.

    PubMed

    Asako, H; Kubes, P; Wallace, J; Wolf, R E; Granger, D N

    1992-07-01

    Erythrocyte velocity, vessel diameter, leukocyte rolling velocity, and number of adherent and emigrated leukocytes were measured in postcapillary venules both before and during superfusion of rat mesentery with either aspirin or sodium salicylate. In some experiments, animals were treated with either a leukotriene (LT)-synthesis inhibitor (L-663,536), an LTD4 antagonist (MK-571), an LTB4 antagonist (SC-41930), misoprostol, or prostaglandin (PG) I2, then the aspirin protocol was repeated. Superfusion of aspirin but not sodium salicylate resulted in increased leukocyte adherence and a reduced leukocyte rolling velocity but did not affect leukocyte emigration. Aspirin-induced leukocyte adhesion was effectively prevented by the LT-synthesis inhibitor and LTB4 antagonist but not by the LTD4 antagonist. Misoprostol and PGI2 also prevented the aspirin-induced adhesion responses. Superfusion of the mesentery with either platelet-activating factor (PAF) or LTB4 enhanced leukocyte adherence and emigration while reducing leukocyte rolling velocity. Sodium salicylate prevented all of the adhesion responses elicited by LTB4. Although salicylate did not affect the PAF-induced leukocyte adherence and rolling responses, it completely prevented the increased leukocyte emigration. These results indicate that aspirin promotes, whereas sodium salicylate inhibits, leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesive interactions at therapeutically relevant concentrations.

  11. Programming and memory dynamics of innate leukocytes during tissue homeostasis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina; Geng, Shuo; Zhang, Yao; Rahtes, Allison; Li, Liwu

    2017-09-01

    The field of innate immunity is witnessing a paradigm shift regarding "memory" and "programming" dynamics. Past studies of innate leukocytes characterized them as first responders to danger signals with no memory. However, recent findings suggest that innate leukocytes, such as monocytes and neutrophils, are capable of "memorizing" not only the chemical nature but also the history and dosages of external stimulants. As a consequence, innate leukocytes can be dynamically programmed or reprogrammed into complex inflammatory memory states. Key examples of innate leukocyte memory dynamics include the development of primed and tolerant monocytes when "programmed" with a variety of inflammatory stimulants at varying signal strengths. The development of innate leukocyte memory may have far-reaching translational implications, as programmed innate leukocytes may affect the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. This review intends to critically discuss some of the recent studies that address this emerging concept and its implication in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. Big insights from small volumes: deciphering complex leukocyte behaviors using microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Daniel; Ellett, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an indispensable component of the immune response, and leukocytes provide the first line of defense against infection. Although the major stereotypic leukocyte behaviors in response to infection are well known, the complexities and idiosyncrasies of these phenotypes in conditions of disease are still emerging. Novel tools are indispensable for gaining insights into leukocyte behavior, and in the past decade, microfluidic technologies have emerged as an exciting development in the field. Microfluidic devices are readily customizable, provide tight control of experimental conditions, enable high precision of ex vivo measurements of individual as well as integrated leukocyte functions, and have facilitated the discovery of novel leukocyte phenotypes. Here, we review some of the most interesting insights resulting from the application of microfluidic approaches to the study of the inflammatory response. The aim is to encourage leukocyte biologists to integrate these new tools into increasingly more sophisticated experimental designs for probing complex leukocyte functions. PMID:27194799

  13. Depressive-like behavior induced by tumor necrosis factor-α is abolished by agmatine administration.

    PubMed

    Neis, Vivian Binder; Manosso, Luana Meller; Moretti, Morgana; Freitas, Andiara E; Daufenbach, Juliana; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-03-15

    Agmatine, an endogenous cationic amine, has been shown to exert antidepressant-like effects. This study investigated the ability of agmatine administered orally to abolish the depressive-like behavior induced by the administration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in mice. In control animals, agmatine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg) reduced the immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST). Acute administration of TNF-α (0.001 fg/mouse, i.c.v.) increased immobility time in the TST, indicative of a depressive-like behavior, and agmatine (0.0001, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg) prevented this effect. Additionally, we examined the effects of the combined administration of sub-effective doses of agmatine with antidepressants, the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) in mice exposed to either TNF-α or saline. In control mice, administration of a sub-effective dose of agmatine (0.0001 mg/kg) combined with sub-effective doses of either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.), bupropion (1 mg/kg, p.o.), MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, p.o.) or 7-NI (25 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST. All these administrations prevented the increased immobility time induced by TNF-α. The effect of agmatine in the TNF-α model of depression appears to be associated, at least partially, with an activation of the monoaminergic systems and inhibition of NMDA receptors and nitric oxide synthesis, although converging signal transduction pathways that may underlie the effect of agmatine should be further investigated. This set of results indicates that agmatine may constitute a new therapeutic alternative for the treatment of depression associated with inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutations that abolish the ability of Ha-Ras to associate with Raf-1.

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, M; Koide, H; Fujita-Yoshigaki, J; Oshio, H; Toyama, Y; Yamasaki, K; Fuhrman, S A; Villafranca, E; Kaziro, Y; Yokoyama, S

    1994-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed that Ras can associate physically with Raf. In the present study, we tested 34 mutants of Ha-Ras carrying substitution(s) in the region of residues 23-71 for their ability to associate with Raf-1. Mouse Ba/F3 cell lysates were incubated with each mutant Ras protein, in either the guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP gamma S)- or the guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP beta S)-bound form, and the anti-Ras antibody Y13-238. The immunoprecipitates were analysed for the presence of Raf-1 by Western blotting with an anti-Raf-1 antibody. Six mutants of Ras, E31K, P34G, T35S, D38N, D57A and A59T, failed to bind Raf-1. Mutations N26G, V29A, S39A, Y40W, R41A, V44A, V45E, L56A and T58A partially reduced the ability to bind Raf-1. All the other mutants could associate with Raf-1 with nearly the same efficiency as that of wild-type Ras. Thus, the Raf-I-binding ability of Ras appears to be affected by mutations in the N-terminal region, and in particular, by those in and neighboring the effector region (residues 32-40) and in the region (residues 56-59) flanking the N-terminal of Switch II. The abilities to bind Raf-1 and to induce neurite outgrowth of pheochromocytoma (PC) 12 cells correlate to each other for 22 Ras mutants. However, mutation A59T, which does not reduce the neurite-inducing or transforming activities, abolishes the ability to bind Raf-1. In contrast, mutations Y32F, K42A and L53A, which impair the neurite-inducing activity of Ras, have no effect on the Ras.Raf-1 association. Partially reduced Raf-1-binding ability was observed for mutants V29A, S39A, Y40W, R41A, V44A, L56A and T58A, which exhibit full neurite-inducing activity, and also for mutant V45E, which has no activity of neurite induction.

  15. ORAI1 mutations abolishing store-operated Ca2+ entry cause anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jayson; Cuk, Mario; Kahlfuss, Sascha; Kozhaya, Lina; Vaeth, Martin; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Picard, Capucine; Benson, Melina J; Jakovcevic, Antonia; Bilic, Karmen; Martinac, Iva; Stathopulos, Peter; Kacskovics, Imre; Vraetz, Thomas; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Issekutz, Thomas; Unutmaz, Derya; Feske, Stefan

    2017-11-16

    Store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) through Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ channels is an essential signaling pathway in many cell types. Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ channels are formed by ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3 proteins and activated by stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and STIM2. Mutations in the ORAI1 and STIM1 genes that abolish SOCE cause a combined immunodeficiency (CID) syndrome that is accompanied by autoimmunity and nonimmunologic symptoms. We performed molecular and immunologic analysis of patients with CID, anhidrosis, and ectodermal dysplasia of unknown etiology. We performed DNA sequencing of the ORAI1 gene, modeling of mutations on ORAI1 crystal structure, analysis of ORAI1 mRNA and protein expression, SOCE measurements, immunologic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte populations by using flow cytometry, and histologic and ultrastructural analysis of patient tissues. We identified 3 novel autosomal recessive mutations in ORAI1 in unrelated kindreds with CID, autoimmunity, ectodermal dysplasia with anhidrosis, and muscular dysplasia. The patients were homozygous for p.V181SfsX8, p.L194P, and p.G98R mutations in the ORAI1 gene that suppressed ORAI1 protein expression and SOCE in the patients' lymphocytes and fibroblasts. In addition to impaired T-cell cytokine production, ORAI1 mutations were associated with strongly reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T and regulatory T (Treg) cells and altered composition of γδ T-cell and natural killer cell subsets. ORAI1 null mutations are associated with reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T and Treg cells that likely contribute to the patients' immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. ORAI1-deficient patients have dental enamel defects and anhidrosis, representing a new form of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency that is distinct from previously reported patients with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the nuclear factor κB signaling

  16. Cardiomyopathy mutation (F88L) in troponin T abolishes length dependency of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Reda, Sherif M; Chandra, Murali

    2018-05-18

    Recent clinical studies have revealed a new hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated mutation (F87L) in the central region of human cardiac troponin T (TnT). However, despite its implication in several incidences of sudden cardiac death in young and old adults, whether F87L is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction is unknown. Because the central region of TnT is important for modulating the muscle length-mediated recruitment of new force-bearing cross-bridges (XBs), we hypothesize that the F87L mutation causes molecular changes that are linked to the length-dependent activation of cardiac myofilaments. Length-dependent activation is important because it contributes significantly to the Frank-Starling mechanism, which enables the heart to vary stroke volume as a function of changes in venous return. We measured steady-state and dynamic contractile parameters in detergent-skinned guinea pig cardiac muscle fibers reconstituted with recombinant guinea pig wild-type TnT (TnT WT ) or the guinea pig analogue (TnT F88L ) of the human mutation at two different sarcomere lengths (SLs): short (1.9 µm) and long (2.3 µm). TnT F88L increases pCa 50 (-log [Ca 2+ ] free required for half-maximal activation) to a greater extent at short SL than at long SL; for example, pCa 50 increases by 0.25 pCa units at short SL and 0.17 pCa units at long SL. The greater increase in pCa 50 at short SL leads to the abolishment of the SL-dependent increase in myofilament Ca 2+ sensitivity (ΔpCa 50 ) in TnT F88L fibers, ΔpCa 50 being 0.10 units in TnT WT fibers but only 0.02 units in TnT F88L fibers. Furthermore, at short SL, TnT F88L attenuates the negative impact of strained XBs on force-bearing XBs and augments the magnitude of muscle length-mediated recruitment of new force-bearing XBs. Our findings suggest that the TnT F88L -mediated effects on cardiac thin filaments may lead to a negative impact on the Frank-Starling mechanism. © 2018 Reda and Chandra.

  17. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids. PMID:26076445

  18. [The use of programmed microcalculators for automation of leukocyte count].

    PubMed

    Plykin, D L

    1989-01-01

    Soviet programmed microcalculators are recommended to be used for the calculation of the leukocytic formulae when making serial blood analyses at clinical laboratories. The suggested program helps completely automate the process of estimating the leukocyte types, detectable in microscopic examination of the blood smears; the results may be obtained as a per cent ratio of the cells (a form most prevalent nowadays) and as their quantity per microliter of blood. The presence of service elements in the program essentially simplifies the work, making it convenient for an untrained user of the microcalculator. Since commercial Soviet programmed microcalculators somewhat differ in the systems of program steps, two variants of the program are suggested, adapted to the two most prevalent designs.

  19. Role of flexural stiffness of leukocyte microvilli in adhesion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai-Hsien; Qi, Dewei

    2018-03-01

    Previous work reported that microvillus deformation has an important influence on dynamics of cell adhesion. However, the existing studies were limited to the extensional deformation of microvilli and did not consider the effects of their bending deformation on cell adhesion. This Rapid Communication investigates the effects of flexural stiffness of microvilli on the rolling process related to adhesion of leukocytes by using a lattice-Boltzmann lattice-spring method (LLM) combined with adhesive dynamics (AD) simulations. The simulation results reveal that the flexural stiffness of microvilli and their bending deformation have a profound effect on rolling velocity and adhesive forces. As the flexural stiffness of the microvilli decreases, their bending angles increase, resulting in an increase in the number of receptor-ligand bonds and adhesive bonding force and a decrease in the rolling velocity of leukocytes. The effects of flexural stiffness on deformation and adhesion represent crucial factors involved in cell adhesion.

  20. Effectiveness of leukocyte immunotherapy in primary recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    PubMed

    Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Foroughinia, Leila; Tavazoo, Fahimeh; Samsami Dehaghani, Alamtaj

    2007-09-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more sequential abortions before the twentieth week of gestation. There are evidences to support an allo-immunologic mechanism for RSA. One of the methods for treatment of RSA is leukocyte therapy; however there is still controversy about effectiveness of this method. To evaluate the effectiveness of leukocyte therapy for treatment of RSA. Ninety two non-pregnant women with at least three sequential abortions (60 primary & 32 secondary aborters) recognized as RSA were referred to our Laboratory for immunotherapy. All the cases were immunized by isolated lymphocytes from their husbands. Fifty to 100 million washed and resuspended mononuclear cells were injected by I.V., S.C., and I.D. route. The result of each injection was checked by WBC cross matching between couples after four weeks of injections. Immunization was repeated in fifth week to a maximum of 3 times if needed. Eighty one age-matched non-pregnant RSA women (52 primary and 29 secondary aborters) with at least three sequential abortions were also included in this study as controls. The control group was not immunized. 67 out of 92 (72.8%) immunized cases and 44 out of 81 controls (54.3%) showed a successful outcome of pregnancy (p<0.02). Comparison of primary and secondary aborters indicated a significantly better outcome only in primary (75% vs. 42.3%. p<0.001) but not in secondary aborters (68.8% vs. 75.9%, p = 0.7). The present investigation showed the effectiveness of leukocyte therapy in primary but not in secondary RSA patients. Despite the current controversy and limitation of leukocyte therapy in RSA, the results of our investigation provide evidence supporting the use of allo-immunization in improving the outcome of pregnancy in primary RSA patients.

  1. Dimensions of religious involvement and leukocyte telomere length.

    PubMed

    Hill, Terrence D; Ellison, Christopher G; Burdette, Amy M; Taylor, John; Friedman, Katherine L

    2016-08-01

    Although numerous studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with a wide range of favorable health outcomes, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to cellular aging. In this paper, we tested whether leukocyte telomere length varies according to several dimensions of religious involvement. We used cross-sectional data from the Nashville Stress and Health Study (2011-2014), a large probability sample of 1252 black and white adults aged 22 to 69 living in Davidson County, TN, USA. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction method with albumin as the single-copy reference sequence. Dimensions of religious involvement included religiosity, religious support, and religious coping. Our multivariate analyses showed that religiosity (an index of religious attendance, prayer frequency, and religious identity) was positively associated with leukocyte telomere length, even with adjustments for religious support, religious coping, age, gender, race, education, employment status, income, financial strain, stressful life events, marital status, family support, friend support, depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load. Unlike religiosity, religious support and religious coping were unrelated to leukocyte telomere length across models. Depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load failed to explain any of the association between religiosity and telomere length. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to link religious involvement and cellular aging. Although our data suggest that adults who frequently attend religious services, pray with regularity, and consider themselves to be religious tend to exhibit longer telomeres than those who attend and pray less frequently and do not consider themselves to be religious, additional research is needed to establish the mechanisms underlying this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  2. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  3. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and -independent pathways regulate hypoxic inhibition of transepithelial Na+ transport across human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, C D; Smolenski, R T; Harhun, M I; Patel, H K; Ahmed, S G; Wanisch, K; Yáñez-Muñoz, R J; Baines, D L

    2012-09-01

    Pulmonary transepithelial Na(+) transport is reduced by hypoxia, but in the airway the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of AMPK and ROS in the hypoxic regulation of apical amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channels and basolateral Na(+) K(+) ATPase activity. H441 human airway epithelial cells were used to examine the effects of hypoxia on Na(+) transport, AMP : ATP ratio and AMPK activity. Lentiviral constructs were used to modify cellular AMPK abundance and activity; pharmacological agents were used to modify cellular ROS. AMPK was activated by exposure to 3% or 0.2% O(2) for 60 min in cells grown in submerged culture or when fluid (0.1 mL·cm(-2) ) was added to the apical surface of cells grown at the air-liquid interface. Only 0.2% O(2) activated AMPK in cells grown at the air-liquid interface. AMPK activation was associated with elevation of cellular AMP:ATP ratio and activity of the upstream kinase LKB1. Hypoxia inhibited basolateral ouabain-sensitive I(sc) (I(ouabain) ) and apical amiloride-sensitive Na(+) conductance (G(Na+) ). Modification of AMPK activity prevented the effect of hypoxia on I(ouabain) (Na(+) K(+) ATPase) but not apical G(Na+) . Scavenging of superoxide and inhibition of NADPH oxidase prevented the effect of hypoxia on apical G(Na+) (epithelial Na(+) channels). Hypoxia activates AMPK-dependent and -independent pathways in airway epithelial cells. Importantly, these pathways differentially regulate apical Na(+) channels and basolateral Na(+) K(+) ATPase activity to decrease transepithelial Na(+) transport. Luminal fluid potentiated the effect of hypoxia and activated AMPK, which could have important consequences in lung disease conditions. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)–dependent and –independent pathways regulate hypoxic inhibition of transepithelial Na+ transport across human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, CD; Smolenski, RT; Harhun, MI; Patel, HK; Ahmed, SG; Wanisch, K; Yáñez-Muñoz, RJ; Baines, DL

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pulmonary transepithelial Na+ transport is reduced by hypoxia, but in the airway the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of AMPK and ROS in the hypoxic regulation of apical amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and basolateral Na+K+ ATPase activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H441 human airway epithelial cells were used to examine the effects of hypoxia on Na+ transport, AMP : ATP ratio and AMPK activity. Lentiviral constructs were used to modify cellular AMPK abundance and activity; pharmacological agents were used to modify cellular ROS. KEY RESULTS AMPK was activated by exposure to 3% or 0.2% O2 for 60 min in cells grown in submerged culture or when fluid (0.1 mL·cm−2) was added to the apical surface of cells grown at the air–liquid interface. Only 0.2% O2 activated AMPK in cells grown at the air–liquid interface. AMPK activation was associated with elevation of cellular AMP : ATP ratio and activity of the upstream kinase LKB1. Hypoxia inhibited basolateral ouabain-sensitive Isc (Iouabain) and apical amiloride-sensitive Na+ conductance (GNa+). Modification of AMPK activity prevented the effect of hypoxia on Iouabain (Na+K+ ATPase) but not apical GNa+. Scavenging of superoxide and inhibition of NADPH oxidase prevented the effect of hypoxia on apical GNa+ (epithelial Na+ channels). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Hypoxia activates AMPK-dependent and -independent pathways in airway epithelial cells. Importantly, these pathways differentially regulate apical Na+ channels and basolateral Na+K+ ATPase activity to decrease transepithelial Na+ transport. Luminal fluid potentiated the effect of hypoxia and activated AMPK, which could have important consequences in lung disease conditions. PMID:22509822

  5. Tracking flow of leukocytes in blood for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharat, Arslan; Turner, Wesley; Stephens, Gillian; Badillo, Benjamin; Lumpkin, Rick; Andre, Patrick; Perera, Amitha

    2011-03-01

    Modern microscopy techniques allow imaging of circulating blood components under vascular flow conditions. The resulting video sequences provide unique insights into the behavior of blood cells within the vasculature and can be used as a method to monitor and quantitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells at sites of vascular injury/ inflammation and potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker, helping screen new therapies and individualize dose and combinations of drugs. However, manual analysis of these video sequences is intractable, requiring hours per 400 second video clip. In this paper, we present an automated technique to analyze the behavior and recruitment of human leukocytes in whole blood under physiological conditions of shear through a simple multi-channel fluorescence microscope in real-time. This technique detects and tracks the recruitment of leukocytes to a bioactive surface coated on a flow chamber. Rolling cells (cells which partially bind to the bioactive matrix) are detected counted, and have their velocity measured and graphed. The challenges here include: high cell density, appearance similarity, and low (1Hz) frame rate. Our approach performs frame differencing based motion segmentation, track initialization and online tracking of individual leukocytes.

  6. Leukocyte glutamate dehydrogenase activity in patients with degenerative neurological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Aubby, D; Saggu, H K; Jenner, P; Quinn, N P; Harding, A E; Marsden, C D

    1988-01-01

    Leukocyte glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was measured in 39 normal subjects, 32 neurological controls, 66 patients with progressive ataxic disorders, 32 with multiple system atrophy, 40 with Parkinson's disease, eight with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome, eight with juvenile Parkinsonism and four with the dystonia-Parkinsonism syndrome. GDH activity was reproducible to within 10% in leukocyte pellets stored at -70 degrees C for up to 9 months, and did not vary with sex or age in control subjects. There was marked variation in the relative proportions of heat stable and heat labile forms of GDH between control subjects and on repeated assay in the same subject. Total leukocyte GDH activity was similar in normal subjects and neurological controls. Mean total GDH activity was reduced in all patient groups by between 15 to 29% compared with controls. Fourteen patients had total GDH activity below 50% of the control mean, but low values were not specific for any one disease (five had ataxic disorders, four Parkinson's disease, three multiple system atrophy, one juvenile Parkinsonism, and one dystonia-Parkinsonism). The heat labile fraction of GDH represented about 20% of total activity in control subjects, and 27% in the patients with reduced total GDH activity. Thus low GDH activity was not disease-specific in this study, and the heat-labile GDH fraction was not selectively affected. "Reduced" leucocyte GDH activity in some patients may represent no more than the lower end of a normal distribution. PMID:3204397

  7. Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies specific for hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules.

    PubMed

    Rees, Jennifer; Haig, David; Mack, Victoria; Davis, William C

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to identify mAbs that recognize conserved epitopes on hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules (hLDM) and also to characterize mAbs developed against hLDM. Initial screening of mAbs developed against LDMs in other species yielded mAbs specific for the major histocompatibility (MHC) II molecule, CD4 and CD18. Screening of sets of mAbs developed against hLDM yielded 22 new mAbs, including additional mAbs to MHC II molecules and mAbs that recognize LDMs expressed on all leukocytes, granulocytes, all lymphocytes, all T cells, a subset of T cells, or on all B cells. Based on comparison of the pattern of expression of LDMs expressed on all hamster leukocytes with the patterns of expression of known LDMs in other species, as detected by flow cytometry (FC), four mAbs are predicted to recognize CD11a, CD44, and CD45. Cross comparison of mAbs specific for a subset of hamster T cells with a cross reactive mAb known to recognize CD4 in mice and one recognising CD8 revealed they recognize CD4. The characterization of these mAbs expands opportunities to use hamsters as an additional model species to investigate the mechanisms of immunopathogenesis of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Signal-activated phospholipase regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Martha K

    2009-04-01

    Signal-activated phospholipases are a recent focus of the rapidly growing field of lipid signaling. The extent of their impact on the pathways regulating diverse cell functions is beginning to be appreciated. A critical step in inflammation is the attraction of leukocytes to injured or diseased tissue. Chemotaxis of leukocytes, a requisite process for monocyte and neutrophil extravasation from the blood into tissues, is a critical step for initiating and maintaining inflammation in both acute and chronic settings. Recent studies have identified new important and required roles for two signal-activated phospholipases A2 (PLA2) in regulating chemotaxis. The two intracellular phospholipases, cPLA2alpha (Group IVA) and iPLA2beta (Group VIA), act in parallel to provide distinct lipid mediators at different intracellular sites that are both required for leukocytes to migrate toward the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. This review will summarize the separate roles of these phospholipases as well as what is currently known about the influence of two other classes of intracellular signal-activated phospholipases, phospholipase C and phospholipase D, in regulating chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells, but particularly in human monocytes. The contributions of these phospholipases to chemotaxis both in vitro and in vivo will be highlighted.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA levels in Huntington disease leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jędrak, Paulina; Krygier, Magdalena; Tońska, Katarzyna; Drozd, Małgorzata; Kaliszewska, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; Sołtan, Witold; Sitek, Emilia J; Stanisławska-Sachadyn, Anna; Limon, Janusz; Sławek, Jarosław; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Barańska, Sylwia

    2017-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the huntingtin gene. Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions in, and especially influence of the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on, development of this disease is unclear. Here, samples of blood from 84 HD patients and 79 controls, and dermal fibroblasts from 10 HD patients and 9 controls were analysed for mtDNA levels. Although the type of mitochondrial haplogroup had no influence on the mtDNA level, and there was no correlation between mtDNA level in leukocytes in HD patients and various parameters of HD severity, some considerable differences between HD patients and controls were identified. The average mtDNA/nDNA relative copy number was significantly higher in leukocytes, but lower in fibroblasts, of symptomatic HD patients relative to the control group. Moreover, HD women displayed higher mtDNA levels in leukocytes than HD men. Because this is the largest population analysed to date, these results might contribute to explanation of discrepancies between previously published studies concerning levels of mtDNA in cells of HD patients. We suggest that the size of the investigated population and type of cells from which DNA is isolated could significantly affect results of mtDNA copy number estimation in HD. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration in studies on mtDNA in HD, and perhaps also in other diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction occurs.

  10. Low molecular weight fucoidan attenuates experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm through interfering the leukocyte-endothelial cells interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Ding, Yong; Cai, Liang; Wang, Yonggang; Lin, Changpo; Shi, Zhenyu

    2018-05-01

    Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Saccharina Japonica that presents high affinity for P-selectin and abolish selectin-dependent recruitment of leukocytes. We hypothesized that dietary intake of LMWF, as a competitive binding agent of P‑selectin, could limit the inflammatory infiltration and aneurysmal growth in an Angiotensin II‑induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) mouse model. The Gene Expression Omnibus database was used for gene expressions and gene set enrichment analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that focal adhesion was involved in the development of AAA. However, dietary intake of LMWF could limit the enlargement of AAA, decreasing maximal aortic diameter and preserving elastin lamellae. Although LMWF did not decrease the circulatory monocytes count and lower the expression of P‑selectin in endothelium, it reduced macrophages infiltration in media and adventitia. Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase expression was markedly downregulated, accompanied with reduced expression of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor‑α and monocyte chemotactic protein‑1. The present study revealed a novel target for the treatment of AAA and the anti‑inflammatory effects of LMWF.

  11. A Paradoxical Effect of Presession Attention on Stereotypy: Antecedent Attention as an Establishing, Not an Abolishing, Operation

    PubMed Central

    Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when noncontingent presession attention was provided, stereotypy occurred for social attention as a positive reinforcer, suggesting that the antecedent manipulation functioned as an establishing operation. PMID:17020219

  12. A paradoxical effect of presession attention on stereotypy: antecedent attention as an establishing, not an abolishing, operation.

    PubMed

    Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when noncontingent presession attention was provided, stereotypy occurred for social attention as a positive reinforcer, suggesting that the antecedent manipulation functioned as an establishing operation.

  13. Increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not necessary for wheel running to abolish conditioned place preference for cocaine in mice.

    PubMed

    Mustroph, M L; Merritt, J R; Holloway, A L; Pinardo, H; Miller, D S; Kilby, C N; Bucko, P; Wyer, A; Rhodes, J S

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that wheel running can abolish conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine in mice. Running significantly increases the number of new neurons in the hippocampus, and new neurons have been hypothesised to enhance plasticity and behavioral flexibility. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that increased neurogenesis was necessary for exercise to abolish cocaine CPP. Male nestin-thymidine kinase transgenic mice were conditioned with cocaine, and then housed with or without running wheels for 32 days. Half of the mice were fed chow containing valganciclovir to induce apoptosis in newly divided neurons, and the other half were fed standard chow. For the first 10 days, mice received daily injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. On the last 4 days, mice were tested for CPP, and then euthanized for measurement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by counting the number of BrdU-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus. Levels of running were similar in mice fed valganciclovir-containing chow and normal chow. Valganciclovir significantly reduced the numbers of neurons (BrdU-positive/NeuN-positive) in the dentate gyrus of both sedentary mice and runner mice. Valganciclovir-fed runner mice showed similar levels of neurogenesis as sedentary, normal-fed controls. However, valganciclovir-fed runner mice showed the same abolishment of CPP as runner mice with intact neurogenesis. The results demonstrate that elevated adult hippocampal neurogenesis resulting from running is not necessary for running to abolish cocaine CPP in mice. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. PHENOTYPIC EXPRESSIONS OF THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY LOCUS IN MAN (HL-A): LEUKOCYTE ANTIGENS AND MIXED LEUKOCYTE CULTURE REACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Amos, D. Bernard; Bach, Fritz H.

    1968-01-01

    The evidence is reviewed that a single genetic system, the major histocompatibility locus in man, HL-A, determines most of the antigens measured by presently available leukocyte isoantisera, and also controls reactivity in one-way mixed leucocyte culture tests. Studies in 12 families are presented to support this conclusion. Some interesting exceptions to the general typing—MLC tests correlation are presented and discussed. PMID:5675436

  15. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated rat lung. Role of flow and endogenous leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Seibert, A F; Haynes, J; Taylor, A

    1993-02-01

    Microvascular lung injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) may occur via leukocyte-dependent and leukocyte-independent pathways. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion may be a rate-limiting step in IR lung injury. Leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium occurs when the attractant forces between leukocyte and endothelium are greater than the kinetic energy of the leukocyte and the vascular wall shear rate. We hypothesized (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs are not free of endogenous leukocytes, (2) that endogenous leukocytes contribute to IR-induced microvascular injury as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and (3) that a reduction of perfusate flow rate would potentiate leukocyte-dependent IR injury. Sixty lungs were divided into four groups: (1) low-flow controls, (2) high-flow controls, (3) low-flow IR, and (4) high-flow IR. Microvascular injury was linearly related to baseline perfusate leukocyte concentrations at both low (r = 0.78) and high (r = 0.82) flow rates. Kfc in the high-flow IR group (0.58 +/- 0.03 ml/min/cm H2O/100 g) was less (p < 0.05) than Kfc in the low-flow IR group (0.82 +/- 0.07), and in both groups Kfc values were significantly greater than low-flow (0.34 +/- 0.03) and high-flow (0.31 +/- 0.01) control Kfc values after 75 min. Retention of leukocytes in the lung, evaluated by a tissue myeloperoxidase assay, was greatest in the low-flow IR group. We conclude (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs contain significant quantities of leukocytes and that these leukocytes contribute to IR lung injury, and (2) that IR-induced microvascular injury is potentiated by low flow.

  16. Comparison of Cytomegalovirus Loads in Plasma and Leukocytes of Patients with Cytomegalovirus Retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, Douglas A.; Forman, Michael; Enger, Cheryl; Jackson, J. Brooks

    1999-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA loads in paired leukocyte and plasma samples from 199 patient visits by 66 patients with CMV retinitis were determined. Leukocyte CMV load determinations had a greater range of values (mean, 24,587 copies/106 leukocytes; maximum, 539,000) than did plasma CMV load determinations (mean, 10,302 copies/ml; maximum, 386,000), and leukocyte viral loads were detectable in a greater proportion of patients at the time of diagnosis of CMV retinitis prior to initiation of anti-CMV therapy (82%) than were plasma viral loads (64%) (P = 0.0078). Agreement with CMV blood cultures was slightly better for plasma (κ = 0.68) than for leukocytes (κ = 0.53), due to a greater proportion of patients with detectable viral loads in leukocytes having negative blood cultures. PMID:10203500

  17. Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovatta, Iiris; de Mello, Vanessa D. F.; Kananen, Laura; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Peltonen, Markku; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (TL) is considered a biomarker for biological aging. Shortened TL has been observed in many complex diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Lifestyle intervention studies, e.g. the Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS), have shown a decrease in the incidence of T2DM by promoting healthy lifestyles in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Our aim was to study in the DPS the influence of the lifestyle intervention on TL. TL was measured by quantitative PCR-based method at two time points (N = 334 and 343) on average 4.5 years apart during the active intervention and post-intervention follow-up. TL inversely correlated with age. Our main finding was that TL increased in about two thirds of the individuals both in the intervention and in the control groups during follow-up; TL increased most in individuals with the shortest TL at the first measurement. TL was not associated with development of T2DM, nor did lifestyle intervention have an effect on TL. No association between insulin secretion or insulin resistance indices and TL was observed. We did not detect an association between TL and development of T2DM in the DPS participants. It could be due to all participants being overweight and having IGT at baseline, both of which have been found to be independently associated with shorter leukocyte TL in some earlier studies. TL had no substantial role in worsening of glucose tolerance in people with IGT. Our study confirms that leukocyte TL can increase with time even in obese people with impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:22493726

  18. [Chlamydia trachomaatis DNA in leukocytes of peripheral blood from neonates].

    PubMed

    López-Hurtado, Marcela; Cuevas-Recillas, Karla N; Flores-Salazar, Verónica R; Guerra-Infante, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in newborns is difficult; however, this diagnosis is performed by cell culture or by detection of IgM antibodies against C. trachomatis. Detection of C. trachomatis DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes using polymer chain reaction (PCR) may be a better tool for the diagnosis of infection by this pathogen. A total of 44 premature newborns, all weighing less than 2500g, were included in the study. A blood sample and nasopharyngeal lavages were obtained from each newborn. Leukocyte DNA was obtained by phenol-chloroform extraction technique. Detection of C. trachomatis was performed by amplifying the ompA gene using the PCR endpoint. Cell culture tests and the detection of IgM antibodies against C. trachomatis by microimmunofluorescence assay were also performed. Twenty newborns were PCR-positive (45.5%), with this test being significantly associated with the presence of pneumonia (RR=2.28; 95%CI: 1.01 to 5.17; P=.035). The cell culture of nasopharyngeal lavage was positive in only 7 samples and no significant association was observed with any clinical or laboratory data. The titer of IgM antibodies against C. trachomatis associated with PCR-positive was 1:32 (RR=2.74; 95%CI: 1.21 to 6.23; P=.008), however this titer was not associated with the presence of pneumonia. DNA detection in peripheral blood leukocytes could be useful for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Further comparisons of endogenous pyrogens and leukocytic endogenous mediators.

    PubMed

    Kampschmidt, R F; Upchurch, H F; Worthington, M L

    1983-07-01

    It was recently shown (Murphy et al., Infect. Immun. 34:177-183), that rabbit macrophages produce two biochemically and immunologically distinct endogenous pyrogens. One of these has or copurifies with substances having a molecular weight of 13,000 and a pI of 7.3. This protein was produced by blood monocytes or inflammatory cells elicited in 16-h rabbit peritoneal exudates. These acute peritoneal exudates were produced by the intraperitoneal injection of large volumes of saline containing shellfish glycogen. When the leukocytes in these exudates were washed and incubated at 37 degrees C in saline, they released an endogenous pyrogen. The injection of this pyrogen into rabbits, rats, or mice caused the biological manifestations which have been attributed to leukocytic endogenous mediator. These effects were increases in blood neutrophils, the lowering of plasma iron and zinc levels, and the increased synthesis of the acute-phase proteins. The other rabbit endogenous pyrogen seems to be a family of proteins with isoelectric points between 4.5 and 5.0. These proteins are produced by macrophages in the lung, liver, or in chronic peritoneal exudates. In these experiments, the lower-isoelectric-point endogenous pyrogens were produced by macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of rabbits that had been injected 4 days earlier with 50 ml of light mineral oil. These rabbit pyrogens were found to have leukocytic endogenous mediator activity in mice but to be completely inactive in rats. When injected into rabbits, these proteins produced fever, lowered plasma iron, increased blood neutrophils, but failed to elevate plasma fibrinogen.

  20. Further comparisons of endogenous pyrogens and leukocytic endogenous mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Kampschmidt, R F; Upchurch, H F; Worthington, M L

    1983-01-01

    It was recently shown (Murphy et al., Infect. Immun. 34:177-183), that rabbit macrophages produce two biochemically and immunologically distinct endogenous pyrogens. One of these has or copurifies with substances having a molecular weight of 13,000 and a pI of 7.3. This protein was produced by blood monocytes or inflammatory cells elicited in 16-h rabbit peritoneal exudates. These acute peritoneal exudates were produced by the intraperitoneal injection of large volumes of saline containing shellfish glycogen. When the leukocytes in these exudates were washed and incubated at 37 degrees C in saline, they released an endogenous pyrogen. The injection of this pyrogen into rabbits, rats, or mice caused the biological manifestations which have been attributed to leukocytic endogenous mediator. These effects were increases in blood neutrophils, the lowering of plasma iron and zinc levels, and the increased synthesis of the acute-phase proteins. The other rabbit endogenous pyrogen seems to be a family of proteins with isoelectric points between 4.5 and 5.0. These proteins are produced by macrophages in the lung, liver, or in chronic peritoneal exudates. In these experiments, the lower-isoelectric-point endogenous pyrogens were produced by macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of rabbits that had been injected 4 days earlier with 50 ml of light mineral oil. These rabbit pyrogens were found to have leukocytic endogenous mediator activity in mice but to be completely inactive in rats. When injected into rabbits, these proteins produced fever, lowered plasma iron, increased blood neutrophils, but failed to elevate plasma fibrinogen. PMID:6862633

  1. Activation of lysosomal cathepsins in pregnant bovine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Md Abdus Shabur; Balboula, Ahmed Zaky; Shirozu, Takahiro; Kim, Sung Woo; Kunii, Hiroki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ito, Tsukino; Kimura, Koji; Takahashi, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    In ruminants, interferon-tau (IFNT) - mediated expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can indicate pregnancy. Recently, type 1 IFN-mediated activation of lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins (CTSs) was observed in immune cells. This study investigated the status of lysosomal CTSs and lysosomes in PBLs collected from pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) dairy cows, and conducted in vitro IFNT stimulation of NP blood leukocytes. Blood samples were collected 0, 7, 14 and 18 days post-artificial insemination, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) separated. The fluorescent activity of CTSB and CTSK in PMNs significantly increased with the progress of pregnancy, especially on day 18. In vitro supplementation of IFNT significantly increased the activities of CTSB and CTSK in NP PBMCs and PMNs. CTSB expression was significantly higher in PBMCs and PMNs collected from P day-18 cows than from NP cows, whereas there was no difference in CTSK expression. IFNT increased CTSB expression but did not affect CTSK expression. Immunodetection showed an increase of CTSB in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. In vitro stimulation of IFNT increased CTSB in NP PBMCs and PMNs. Lysosomal acidification showed a significant increase in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. IFNT also stimulated lysosomal acidification. Expressions of lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 1 and LAMP2 were significantly higher in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. The results suggest that pregnancy-specific activation of lysosomal functions by CTS activation in blood leukocytes is highly associated with IFNT during maternal and fetal recognition of pregnancy. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Bacterial reduction by cell salvage washing and leukocyte depletion filtration.

    PubMed

    Waters, Jonathan H; Tuohy, Marion J; Hobson, Donna F; Procop, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Blood conservation techniques are being increasingly used because of the increased cost and lack of availability of allogeneic blood. Cell salvage offers great blood savings opportunities but is thought to be contraindicated in a number of areas (e.g., blood contaminated with bacteria). Several outcome studies have suggested the safety of this technique in trauma and colorectal surgery, but many practitioners are still hesitant to apply cell salvage in the face of frank bacterial contamination. This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of bacterial removal when cell salvage was combined with leukocyte depletion filtration. Expired packed erythrocytes were obtained and inoculated with a fixed amount of a stock bacteria (Escherichia coli American Type Culture Collections [ATCC] 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, or Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285) in amounts ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 colony forming units/ml. The blood was processed via a cell salvage machine. The washed blood was then filtered using a leukocyte reduction filter. The results for blood taken during each step of processing were compared using a repeated-measures design. Fifteen units of blood were contaminated with each of the stock bacteria. From the prewash sample to the postfiltration sample, 99.0%, 99.6%, 100%, and 97.6% of E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. fragilis were removed, respectively. Significant but not complete removal of contaminating bacteria was seen. An increased level of patient safety may be added to cell salvage by including a leukocyte depletion filter when salvaging blood that might be grossly contaminated with bacteria.

  3. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age), very preterm (28–31 wk), and moderately preterm (32–36 wk), as well as term (37–41 wk) infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2–5), transitional (d8–12) and mature milk (d26–30) samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  4. Subacute Low Dose Nerve Agent Exposure Causes DNA Fragmentation in Guinea Pig Leukocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    1 SUBACUTE LOW DOSE NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE CAUSES DNA FRAGMENTATION IN GUINEA PIG LEUKOCYTES. Jitendra R. Dave1, John R. Moffett1, Sally M...DNA fragmentation in blood leukocytes from guinea pigs by ‘Comet’ assay after exposure to soman at doses ranging from 0.1LD50 to 0.4 LD50, once per...computer. Data obtained for exposure to soman demonstrated significant increases in DNA fragmentation in circulating leukocytes in CWNA treated guinea pigs as

  5. The Study of Leukocyte Functions in a Rotating Wall Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trial, JoAnn

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of leukocytes under free-fall conditions in a rotating wall vessel. In such a vessel, the tendency of a cell to fall in response to gravity is opposed by the rotation of the vessel and the culture medium within, keeping the cells in suspension without fluid shear. Previous reports indicated that such functions as lymphocyte migration through collagen matrix or monocyte cytokine secretion are altered under these conditions, and these changes correlate with similar functional defects of cultured cells seen during spaceflight.

  6. Longitudinal evaluation of leukocyte transcripts in killer whales (Orcinus Orca).

    PubMed

    Sitt, Tatjana; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lee, Chia-Shan; Blanchard, Myra T; McBain, James; Dold, Christopher; Stott, Jeffrey L

    2016-07-01

    Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify "insults" and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value. To this end, a modest number of peripheral blood leukocyte gene transcripts were selected for application to a domestic killer whale population with a focus on broad representation of inducible immunologically relevant genes. Normalized leukocyte transcript values, longitudinally acquired from 232 blood samples derived from 26 clinically healthy whales, were not visibly influenced temporally nor by sex or the specific Park in which they resided. Stability in leukocyte transcript number during periods of health enhances their potential use in diagnostics through identification of outliers. Transcript levels of two cytokine genes, IL-4 and IL-17, were highly variable within the group as compared to the other transcripts. IL-4 transcripts were typically absent. Analysis of transcript levels on the other genes of interest, on an individual animal basis, identified more outliers than were visible when analyzed in the context of the entire population. The majority of outliers (9 samples) were low, though elevated transcripts were identified for IL-17 from 2 animals and one each for Cox-2 and IL-10. The low number of outliers was not unexpected as sample selection was intentionally directed towards animals that were clinically healthy at the time of collection. Outliers may reflect animals experiencing subclinical disease that is transient and self-limiting. The immunologic

  7. Are soluble factors relevant for polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysregulation in septicemia?

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Graninger, W

    1995-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of twelve patients with gram-negative septicemia exhibited a decreased capacity to phagocytize Escherichia coli and generate reactive oxygen products which normalized within 7 days of treatment. Ex vivo exchange of plasma from age-, sex-, and blood-group-identical normal controls resulted in an increase of both phagocytic capacity and reactive oxygen intermediate generation in PMNs of septicemic patients and transiently reduced phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediate production in PMNs of normal controls. These results suggest that extrinsic factors are crucial for PMN function. PMID:7697538

  8. Mini Bypass and Proinflammatory Leukocyte Activation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bao A V; Fiorentino, Francesca; Reeves, Barnaby C; Baig, Kamran; Athanasiou, Thanos; Anderson, Jon R; Haskard, Dorian O; Angelini, Gianni D; Evans, Paul C

    2016-04-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces systemic inflammation. Miniaturized CPB may attenuate systemic inflammatory activation. The intracellular signaling pathways promoting inflammation in cardiac operations and the relative effects of CPB on these processes are uncertain. In this study, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) within leukocytes, and leukocyte accumulation in cantharidin-induced blisters was compared in patients exposed to miniaturized CPB (mCPB) and those who underwent conventional CPB (cCPB). Patients undergoing CABG were randomized to receive either cCPB (n = 13) or mCPB (n = 13). Blood samples were collected preoperatively and 5 times after initiating CPB (up to 5 hours) and analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular markers of activation (ROS, p38-MAPK, and NF-κB phosphorylation). ROS in lymphocytes were elevated in cCPB compared with mCPB (p < 0.01), whereas ROS in granulocytes and monocytes were similar between groups. After initiation of CPB, p38-MAPK was higher in patients receiving cCPB compared with those receiving mCPB (p < 0.05). NF-κB phosphorylation in leukocyte subsets was similar in patients exposed to cCPB and those exposed to mCPB. Leukocyte accumulation in cantharidin-induced blisters, white cell counts, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was enhanced in response to cardiac operations, but no differences were observed between mCPB and cCPB groups. Postoperative serum creatinine levels were reduced in the mCPB group compared with the cCPB group (p < 0.05). Both p38-MAPK activation and ROS were attenuated with the use of mCPB compared with cCPB, providing a potential mechanism for reduced inflammation in association with CPB miniaturization. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal evaluation of leukocyte transcripts in killer whales (Orcinus Orca)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sitt, Tatjana; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lee, Chia-Shan; Blanchard, Myra; McBain, James; Dold, Christopher; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify “insults” and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value. To this end, a modest number of peripheral blood leukocyte gene transcripts were selected for application to a domestic killer whale population with a focus on broad representation of inducible immunologically relevant genes. Normalized leukocyte transcript values, longitudinally acquired from 232 blood samples derived from 26 clinically healthy whales, were not visibly influenced temporally nor by sex or the specific Park in which they resided. Stability in leukocyte transcript number during periods of health enhances their potential use in diagnostics through identification of outliers. Transcript levels of two cytokine genes, IL-4 and IL-17, were highly variable within the group as compared to the other transcripts. IL-4 transcripts were typically absent. Analysis of transcript levels on the other genes of interest, on an individual animal basis, identified more outliers than were visible when analyzed in the context of the entire population. The majority of outliers (9 samples) were low, though elevated transcripts were identified for IL-17 from 2 animals and one each for Cox-2 and IL-10. The low number of outliers was not unexpected as sample selection was intentionally directed towards animals that were clinically healthy at the time of collection. Outliers may reflect animals experiencing subclinical disease that is transient and self-limiting. The

  10. Monitoring of benzene-induced hematotoxicity in mice by serial leukocyte counting using a microcavity array.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masahito; Asami, Marie; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nakasono, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2013-02-15

    Monitoring of hematotoxicity, which requires serial blood collection, is difficult to carry out in small animals due to a lack of non-invasive, individual animal-appropriate techniques that enable enumeration of leukocyte subsets from limited amounts of whole blood. In this study, a microfluidic device equipped with a microcavity array that enables highly efficient separation of leukocytes from submicroliters of whole blood was applied for hematotoxicity monitoring in mice. The microcavity array can specifically separate leukocytes from whole blood based on differences in the size and deformability between leukocytes and other blood cells. Mouse leukocytes recovered on aligned microcavities were continuously processed for image-based immunophenotypic analysis. Our device successfully recovered almost 100% of mouse leukocytes in 0.1 μL of whole blood without the effect of serial blood collection such as changes in body weight and total leukocyte count. We assessed benzene-associated hematotoxicity in mice using this system. Mice were administered with benzene once daily and the depression of leukocyte numbers induced in individual mice was successfully monitored from tail vein blood collected every other day for 2 weeks. Serial monitoring of the leukocyte number in individual mice will contribute to the understanding of hematotoxicity and reduction of the number of animal experiment trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoperiod affects the expression of sex and species differences in leukocyte number and leukocyte trafficking in congeneric hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, S D; Dhabhar, F S; Viswanathan, K; Saul, A; Nelson, R J

    2003-11-01

    Sex differences in immune function are well documented. These sex differences may be modulated by social and environmental factors. Individuals of polygynous species generally exhibit more pronounced sex differences in immune parameters than individuals of monogamous species, often displaying an energetic trade-off between enhanced immunity and high mating success. During winter, animals contend with environmental conditions (e.g. low temperatures and decreased food availability) that evoke energetic-stress responses; many mammals restrict reproduction in response to photoperiod as part of an annual winter coping strategy. To test the hypothesis that extant sex and species differences in immune surveillance may be modulated by photoperiod, we examined leukocyte numbers in males and females of two closely related hamster species (Phodopus). As predicted, uniparental P. sungorus exhibited a robust sex difference, with total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, T cells, and B cells higher in females than males, during long days when reproduction occurs, but not during short days when reproduction usually stops. In contrast, biparental male and female P. campbelli exhibited comparable leukocyte numbers during both long and short days. To study sex differences in stress responses, we also examined immune cell trafficking in response to an acute (2 h) restraint stressor. During stressful challenges, it appears beneficial for immune cells to exit the blood and move to primary immune defense areas such as the skin, in preparation for potential injury or infection. Acute stress moved lymphocytes and monocytes out of the blood in all animals. Blood cortisol concentrations were increased in P. sungorus females compared to males at baseline (52%) and in response to restraint stress (38%), but only in long days. P. campbelli males and females exhibited comparable blood cortisol and stress responses during both long and short days. Our results suggest that interactions among

  12. Phenformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits transepithelial Na+ transport across H441 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Woollhead, Alison M; Scott, John W; Hardie, D Grahame; Baines, Deborah L

    2005-08-01

    Active re-absorption of Na+ across the alveolar epithelium is essential to maintain lung fluid balance. Na+ entry at the luminal membrane is predominantly via the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel (ENaC) down its electrochemical gradient. This gradient is generated and maintained by basolateral Na+ extrusion via Na+,K+-ATPase an energy-dependent process. Several kinases and factors that activate them are known to regulate these processes; however, the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the lung is unknown. AMPK is an ultra-sensitive cellular energy sensor that monitors energy consumption and down-regulates ATP-consuming processes when activated. The biguanide phenformin has been shown to independently decrease ion transport processes, influence cellular metabolism and activate AMPK. The AMP mimetic drug 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) also activates AMPK in intact cells. Western blotting revealed that both the alpha1 and alpha2 catalytic subunits of AMPK are present in Na+ transporting H441 human lung epithelial cells. Phenformin and AICAR increased AMPK activity in H441 cells in a dose-dependent fashion, stimulating the kinase maximally at 5-10 mm (P = 0.001, n = 3) and 2 mm (P < 0.005, n = 3), respectively. Both agents significantly decreased basal ion transport (measured as short circuit current) across H441 monolayers by approximately 50% compared with that of controls (P < 0.05, n = 4). Neither treatment altered the resistance of the monolayers. Phenformin and AICAR significantly reduced amiloride-sensitive transepithelial Na+ transport compared with controls (P < 0.05, n = 4). This was a result of both decreased Na+,K+-ATPase activity and amiloride-sensitive apical Na+ conductance. Transepithelial Na+ transport decreased with increasing concentrations of phenformin (0.1-10 mm) and showed a significant correlation with AMPK activity. Taken together, these results show that phenformin and AICAR suppress amiloride

  13. Phenformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits transepithelial Na+ transport across H441 lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Woollhead, Alison M; Scott, John W; Hardie, D Grahame; Baines, Deborah L

    2005-01-01

    Active re-absorption of Na+ across the alveolar epithelium is essential to maintain lung fluid balance. Na+ entry at the luminal membrane is predominantly via the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel (ENaC) down its electrochemical gradient. This gradient is generated and maintained by basolateral Na+ extrusion via Na+,K+-ATPase an energy-dependent process. Several kinases and factors that activate them are known to regulate these processes; however, the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the lung is unknown. AMPK is an ultra-sensitive cellular energy sensor that monitors energy consumption and down-regulates ATP-consuming processes when activated. The biguanide phenformin has been shown to independently decrease ion transport processes, influence cellular metabolism and activate AMPK. The AMP mimetic drug 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) also activates AMPK in intact cells. Western blotting revealed that both the α1 and α2 catalytic subunits of AMPK are present in Na+ transporting H441 human lung epithelial cells. Phenformin and AICAR increased AMPK activity in H441 cells in a dose-dependent fashion, stimulating the kinase maximally at 5–10 mm (P = 0.001, n = 3) and 2 mm (P < 0.005, n = 3), respectively. Both agents significantly decreased basal ion transport (measured as short circuit current) across H441 monolayers by approximately 50% compared with that of controls (P < 0.05, n = 4). Neither treatment altered the resistance of the monolayers. Phenformin and AICAR significantly reduced amiloride-sensitive transepithelial Na+ transport compared with controls (P < 0.05, n = 4). This was a result of both decreased Na+,K+-ATPase activity and amiloride-sensitive apical Na+ conductance. Transepithelial Na+ transport decreased with increasing concentrations of phenformin (0.1–10 mm) and showed a significant correlation with AMPK activity. Taken together, these results show that phenformin and AICAR suppress amiloride

  14. HDAC inhibitors: modulating leukocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Matthew J; Shakespear, Melanie R; Kamal, Nabilah A; Fairlie, David P

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in cancer models were first linked to their ability to cause growth arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. It is now clear that these agents also have pleiotropic effects on angiogenesis and the immune system, and some of these properties are likely to contribute to their anti-cancer activities. It is also emerging that inhibitors of specific HDACs affect the differentiation, survival and/or proliferation of distinct immune cell populations. This is true for innate immune cells such as macrophages, as well as cells of the acquired immune system, for example, T-regulatory cells. These effects may contribute to therapeutic profiles in some autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease models. Here, we review our current understanding of how classical HDACs (HDACs 1-11) and their inhibitors impact on differentiation, survival and proliferation of distinct leukocyte populations, as well as the likely relevance of these effects to autoimmune and inflammatory disease processes. The ability of HDAC inhibitors to modulate leukocyte survival may have implications for the rationale of developing selective inhibitors as anti-inflammatory drugs.

  15. Ethylene formation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Role of myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Ethylene formation from the thioethers, beta-methylthiopropionaldehyde (methional) and 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was found to be largely dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). Conversion was less than 10% of normal when MPO-deficient PMNs were employed; formation by normal PMNs was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitors, azide, and cyanide, and a model system consisting of MPO, H2O2, chloride (or bromide) and EDTA was found which shared many of the properties of the predominant PMN system. MPO-independent mechanisms of ethylene formation were also identified. Ethylene formation from methional by phagocytosing eosinophils and by H2O2 in the presence or absence of catalase was stimulated by azide. The presence of MPO-independent, azide-stimulable systems in the PMN preparations was suggested by the azide stimulation of ethylene formation from methional when MPO-deficient leukocytes were employed. Ethylene formation by dye-sensitized photooxidation was also demonstrated and evidence obtained for the involvement of singlet oxygen (1O2). These findings are discussed in relation to the participation of H2O2, hydroxyl radicals, the superoxide anion and 1O2 in the formation of ethylene by PMNs and by the MPO model system. PMID:212502

  16. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  17. Strategies that Target Leukocyte Traffic in IBD: Recent Developments

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Nieves, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the most recent developments regarding the targeting of molecules involved in the traffic of leukocytes for the treatment of IBD. Recent Findings We discuss the most important findings of one published phase II trial that targeted the β7 integrin (Etrolizumab), two phase II trials that targeted the α4β7 integrin ligand: Mucosal Addressin Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1, PF-00547659), a phase II targeting the chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10) in Crohn’s and a phase II trial that targeted the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1): ozanimod in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Summary Targeting molecules involved in leukocyte traffic has recently become an effective and safe strategy for the treatment of IBD. Novel approaches now not only target the integrins on the lymphocyte surface, but also its endothelial ligand: MAdCAM-1. As with vedolizumab, antibodies against MAdCAM-1 appear most effective in ulcerative colitis rather than in Crohn’s. Targeting chemokines or their receptors does not appear to have the same efficacy as those that target the most stable integrin:immunoglobulin superfamily interactions between the lymphocyte and endothelium. Preliminary results also suggest that the sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway might also be targeted therapeutically in IBD, no longer with parenterally administered antibodies but with orally administered small molecules. PMID:26398681

  18. Social Regulation of Leukocyte Homeostasis: The Role of Glucocorticoid Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steve W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent small-scale genomics analyses suggest that physiologic regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression by endogenous glucocorticoids may be compromised in individuals who experience chronic social isolation. This could potentially contribute to the elevated prevalence of inflammation-related disease previously observed in social isolates. The present study assessed the relationship between leukocyte distributional sensitivity to glucocorticoid regulation and subjective social isolation in a large population-based sample of older adults. Initial analyses confirmed that circulating neutrophil percentages were elevated, and circulating lymphocyte and monocyte percentages were suppressed, in direct proportion to circulating cortisol levels. However, leukocyte distributional sensitivity to endogenous glucocorticoids was abrogated in individuals reporting either occasional or frequent experiences of subjective social isolation. This finding held in both nonparametric univariate analyses and in multivariate linear models controlling for a variety of biological, social, behavioral, and psychological confounders. The present results suggest that social factors may alter immune cell sensitivity to physiologic regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in ways that could ultimately contribute to the increased physical health risks associated with social isolation. PMID:18394861

  19. The history of fever, leukocytic pyrogen and interleukin-1.

    PubMed

    Dinarello, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    There has been great progress in the 30 y since the reporting in 1984 of the cDNA for interleukin1 (IL1) β in the human and IL1α in the mouse. However, the history of IL1 begins in the early 1940s with investigations into the nature of an endogenous fever-producing protein released rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. Most researchers in immunology today are unaware that the field of cytokines, particularly the field of inflammatory cytokines. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity traces back to studies on fever. Researchers in infectious diseases wanted to know about an endogenous protein that caused fever, independent of infection. The endogenous fever-producing protein was called by various names: granulocyte, endogenous or leukocytic pyrogen. It is a fascinating and sometimes controversial story for biology and medicine and for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Few imagined that this fever-producing protein would play such a major role in nearly every cell and in most diseases. This paper reviews the true background and milestones of interleukin1 from the purification of leukocytic pyrogen to the first cDNA of IL1β and the validation of cytokine biology from ill-defined factors to its present day importance.

  20. Relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and leukocyte telomere length.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Enokido, Masanori; Shirata, Toshinori; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2017-10-10

    Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and telomere length represents a biological marker for cellular aging. Interpersonal sensitivity, excessive sensitivity to the behavior and feelings of others, is one of the vulnerable factors to depression. In the present study, we examined the effect of interpersonal sensitivity on telomere length in healthy subjects. The subjects were 159 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers. Mean age ± SD (range) of the subjects was 42.3 ± 7.8 (30-61) years. Interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Japanese version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Leukocyte telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method. Higher scores of the total IPSM were significantly (β = -0.163, p = 0.038) related to shorter telomere length. In the sub-scale analysis, higher scores of timidity were significantly (β = -0.220, p = 0.044) associated with shorter telomere length. The present study suggests that subjects with higher interpersonal sensitivity have shorter leukocyte telomere length, implying that interpersonal sensitivity has an impact on cellular aging.

  1. Is total abolishment of great saphenous reflux in the invasive treatment of superficial chronic venous insufficiency always necessary?

    PubMed

    Navarro, T P; Nunes, T A; Ribeiro, A L; Castro-Silva, M

    2009-02-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency ranges from mild telangiectasias to skin ulceration with poor prognosis regarding healing and quality of life. Varicose veins are the most frequent clinical presentation, affecting 75% of such patients and 71% are due to primary reflux of great saphenous vein, which is the most compromised vein in chronic venous insufficiency. However, about 75% of these veins are not dilated. The standard treatment has been stripping of the saphenous vein, because it has 85% of good results at long term. However, saphenous vein is the main arterial substitute and should be spared whenever possible. The development of non-invasive diagnostic methods showed that hemodynamic worsening correlates with clinical severity and that the majority of patients did not have a dilated saphenous vein. Thus, several selective operations proposed to spare the saphenous vein have reported good results. Minimally invasive techniques (eco-guided foam, radiofrequency and laser) have also emerged aiming to obliterate the vein and abolishing reflux and have also reported good results, but they do not spare the vessel. Measurement of saphenous diameter has been shown to correlate with clinical and hemodynamic worsening, thus allowing planning the invasive treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Dilated diameters (>7.2 mm) correlate with severe disease and poor prognosis, being an indication for total abolishment of saphenous vein reflux. All other presentations must be individualized, sparing saphenous vein whenever possible and and a standardized approach is not indicated for all patients.

  2. The reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) does not abolish the inhibitory nicotinic response recorded from rat dorsolateral septal neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, E. M.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Previous intracellular recordings have demonstrated that dorsolateral septal nucleus (DLSN) neurons express a novel nicotinic receptor which produces a direct membrane hyperpolarization when activated by nicotinic agonists. Activation of the classical excitatory nicotinic receptors has been shown to require a disulfide bond involving the cysteines at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunits of the receptor. Reduction of this cystine bond with dithiothreitol (DTT) abolishes agonist activation of excitatory nicotinic receptors. We have now examined whether DTT treatment of the inhibitory nicotinic receptor on DLSN neurons also abolishes the inhibitory nicotinic response. We find that the inhibitory response persists after treatment of the neurons with 1 mM DTT, even if the reduction is followed by alkylation of the receptor with bromoacetylcholine to prevent possible reformation of disulfide bonds. This result suggests that the agonist binding site on the inhibitory nicotinic receptor does not require an intact disulfide bond, similar to the bond on the alpha subunit of the excitatory nicotinic receptor, for agonist activation of the receptor. Some of these results have been previously reported in abstract form.

  3. Increased detection of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal dysplasia with adjunctive use of wide-area transepithelial sample with three-dimensional computer-assisted analysis (WATS)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Seth A; Smith, Michael S; Kaul, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Background Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal dysplasia (ED) are frequently missed during screening and surveillance esophagoscopy because of sampling error associated with four-quadrant random forceps biopsy (FB). Aim The aim of this article is to determine if wide-area transepithelial sampling with three-dimensional computer-assisted analysis (WATS) used adjunctively with FB can increase the detection of BE and ED. Methods In this multicenter prospective trial, patients screened for suspected BE and those with known BE undergoing surveillance were enrolled. Patients at 25 community-based practices underwent WATS adjunctively to targeted FB and random four-quadrant FB. Results Of 4203 patients, 594 were diagnosed with BE by FB alone, and 493 additional cases were detected by adding WATS, increasing the overall detection of BE by 83% (493/594, 95% CI 74%–93%). Low-grade dysplasia (LGD) was diagnosed in 26 patients by FB alone, and 23 additional cases were detected by adding WATS, increasing the detection of LGD by 88.5% (23/26, 95% CI 48%–160%). Conclusions Adjunctive use of WATS to FB significantly improves the detection of both BE and ED. Sampling error, an inherent limitation associated with screening and surveillance, can be improved with WATS allowing better informed decisions to be made about the management and subsequent treatment of these patients. PMID:29881608

  4. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SASH1 regulates melanocyte transepithelial migration through a novel Gαs-SASH1-IQGAP1-E-Cadherin dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ding'an; Wei, Zhiyun; Deng, Shanshan; Wang, Teng; Zai, Meiqing; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Zhang, Junyu; Zhong, Hailei; He, Lin; Xing, Qinghe

    2013-06-01

    One important function of melanocytes (MCs) is to produce and transfer melanin to neighbouring keratinocytes (KCs) to protect epithelial cells from UV radiation. The mechanisms regulating the specific migration and localisation of the MC lineage remain unknown. We have found three heterozygous mutations that cause amino acid substitutions in the SASH1 gene in individuals with a kind of dyschromatosis. In epidermal tissues from an affected individual, we observed the increased transepithelial migration of melanocytes. Functional analyses indicate that these SASH1 mutations not only cause the increased migration of A375 cells and but also induce intensive bindings with two novel cell adhesion partners IQGAP1 and Gαs. Further, SASH1 mutations induce uniform loss of E-Cadherin in human A375 cells. Our findings suggest a new scaffold protein SASH1 to regulate IQGAP1-E-Cadherin signalling and demonstrate a novel crosstalking between GPCR signalling, calmodulin signalling for the modulation of MCs invasion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A K(+)/H (+) P-ATPase transport in the accessory cell membrane of the blowfly taste chemosensilla sustains the transepithelial potential.

    PubMed

    Sollai, Giorgia; Solari, Paolo; Masala, Carla; Liscia, Anna; Crnjar, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    An electrogenic K(+) transport in the tormogen cell of insect chemosensilla is involved in the generation and maintenance of the transepithelial potential (TEP). To gain more information about the K(+) transport system underlying the TEP generation and the location of its components in the plasma membrane of the tormogen cell, we studied the effects of inhibitors of K(+)/H(+) P-ATPase (bafilomycin A1, omeprazole and Na-orthovanadate), of K(+)/Cl(-) co-transport (bumetanide), of Cl(-) channels (NPPB) and of a K(+) channel blocker (BaCl(2)). The relationship between TEP amplitude and spike firing activity was also studied. Experiments were performed on the labellar chemosensilla of the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae using a modified tip-recording technique. Results show that: (a) K(+)/H(+) P-ATPase inhibitors significantly decrease the TEP, when properly applied to the labellum for 20 min, so as to reach the basolateral side of the plasma membrane, while no effect was detected when applied to the apical side, (b) bumetanide, NPPB and BaCl(2) decrease the TEP value only when administered to the apical side, (c) spike activity is positively correlated with the TEP. A model is proposed of the active and passive K(+) transports sustaining the TEP associated with the blowfly chemosensilla.

  7. Management of corneal ectasia after LASIK with combined, same-day, topography-guided partial transepithelial PRK and collagen cross-linking: the athens protocol.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Binder, Perry S

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate a series of patients with corneal ectasia after LASIK that underwent the Athens Protocol: combined topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to reduce or eliminate induced myopia and astigmatism followed by sequential, same-day ultraviolet A (UVA) corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). Thirty-two consecutive corneal ectasia cases underwent transepithelial PRK (WaveLight ALLEGRETTO) immediately followed by CXL (3 mW/cm(2)) for 30 minutes using 0.1% topical riboflavin sodium phosphate. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent, keratometry, central ultrasonic pachymetry, corneal tomography (Oculus Pentacam), and endothelial cell counts were analyzed. Mean follow-up was 27 months (range: 6 to 59 months). Twenty-seven of 32 eyes had an improvement in UDVA and CDVA of 20/45 or better (2.25 logMAR) at last follow-up. Four eyes showed some topographic improvement but no improvement in CDVA. One of the treated eyes required a subsequent penetrating keratoplasty. Corneal haze grade 2 was present in 2 eyes. Combined, same-day, topography-guided PRK and CXL appeared to offer tomographic stability, even after long-term follow-up. Only 2 of 32 eyes had corneal ectasia progression after the intervention. Seventeen of 32 eyes appeared to have improvement in UDVA and CDVA with follow-up >1.5 years. This technique may offer an alternative in the management of iatrogenic corneal ectasia. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Hypoxia increases transepithelial electrical conductance and reduces occludin at the plasma membrane in alveolar epithelial cells via PKC-ζ and PP2A pathway

    PubMed Central

    Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Yshii, Cecilia; Butti, Maria L.; Westphal, Whitney; Borcherding, Jennifer A.; Allamargot, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    During pulmonary edema, the alveolar space is exposed to a hypoxic environment. The integrity of the alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the reabsorption of alveolar fluid. Tight junctions (TJ) maintain the integrity of this barrier. We set out to determine whether hypoxia creates a dysfunctional alveolar epithelial barrier, evidenced by an increase in transepithelial electrical conductance (Gt), due to a decrease in the abundance of TJ proteins at the plasma membrane. Alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) exposed to mild hypoxia (Po2 = 50 mmHg) for 30 and 60 min decreased occludin abundance at the plasma membrane and significantly increased Gt. Other cell adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin and claudins were not affected by hypoxia. AEC exposed to hypoxia increased superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Overexpression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) but not SOD2 prevented the hypoxia-induced Gt increase and occludin reduction in AEC. Also, overexpression of catalase had a similar effect as SOD1, despite not detecting any increase in H2O2 during hypoxia. Blocking PKC-ζ and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) prevented the hypoxia-induced occludin reduction at the plasma membrane and increase in Gt. In summary, we show that superoxide, PKC-ζ, and PP2A are involved in the hypoxia-induced increase in Gt and occludin reduction at the plasma membrane in AEC. PMID:21257729

  9. Cancer resistance of SR/CR mice in the genetic knockout backgrounds of leukocyte effector mechanisms: determinations for functional requirements.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anne M; Stehle, John R; Blanks, Michael J; Riedlinger, Gregory; Kim-Shapiro, Jung W; Monjazeb, Arta M; Adams, Jonathan M; Willingham, Mark C; Cui, Zheng

    2010-03-31

    Spontaneous Regression/Complete Resistant (SR/CR) mice are a colony of cancer-resistant mice that can detect and rapidly destroy malignant cells with innate cellular immunity, predominately mediated by granulocytes. Our previous studies suggest that several effector mechanisms, such as perforin, granzymes, or complements, may be involved in the killing of cancer cells. However, none of these effector mechanisms is known as critical for granulocytes. Additionally, it is unclear which effector mechanisms are required for the cancer killing activity of specific leukocyte populations and the survival of SR/CR mice against the challenges of lethal cancer cells. We hypothesized that if any of these effector mechanisms was required for the resistance to cancer cells, its functional knockout in SR/CR mice should render them sensitive to cancer challenges. This was tested by cross breeding SR/CR mice into the individual genetic knockout backgrounds of perforin (Prf-/-), superoxide (Cybb-/), or inducible nitric oxide (Nos2-/). SR/CR mice were bred into individual Prf-/-, Cybb-/-, or Nos2-/- genetic backgrounds and then challenged with sarcoma 180 (S180). Their overall survival was compared to controls. The cancer killing efficiency of purified populations of macrophages and neutrophils from these immunodeficient mice was also examined. When these genetically engineered mice were challenged with cancer cells, the knockout backgrounds of Prf-/-, Cybb-/-, or Nos2-/- did not completely abolish the SR/CR cancer resistant phenotype. However, the Nos2-/- background did appear to weaken the resistance. Incidentally, it was also observed that the male mice in these immunocompromised backgrounds tended to be less cancer-resistant than SR/CR controls. Despite the previously known roles of perforin, superoxide or nitric oxide in the effector mechanisms of innate immune responses, these effector mechanisms were not required for cancer-resistance in SR/CR mice. The resistance was

  10. The method of selection of leukocytes in images of preparations of peripheral blood and bone marrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, Y. V.; Nikitaev, V. G.; Polyakov, E. V.; Seldyukov, S. O.

    2017-01-01

    Study of the segmentation method on the basis of histogram analysis for the selection of leukocytes in the images of blood and bone marrow in the diagnosis of acute leukemia was conducted in this paper. Method of filtering was offered to eliminate the artifacts, resulting from the selection of leukocytes.

  11. Leukocyte Cell Surface Proteinases: Regulation of Expression, Functions, and Mechanisms of Surface Localization

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Caroline A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of proteinases are expressed on the surface of leukocytes including members of the serine, metallo-, and cysteine proteinase superfamilies. Some proteinases are anchored to the plasma membrane of leukocytes by a transmembrane domain or a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor. Other proteinases bind with high affinity to classical receptors, or with lower affinity to integrins, proteoglycans, or other leukocyte surface molecules. Leukocyte surface levels of proteinases are regulated by: 1) cytokines, chemokines, bacterial products, and growth factors which stimulate synthesis and/or release of proteinase by cells; 2) the availability of surface binding sites for proteinases; and/or 3) internalization or shedding of surface-bound proteinases. The binding of proteinases to leukocyte surfaces serves many functions including: 1) concentrating the activity of proteinases to the immediate pericellular environment; 2) facilitating pro-enzyme activation; 3) increasing proteinase stability and retention in the extracellular space; 4) regulating leukocyte function by proteinases signaling through cell surface binding sites or other surface proteins; and 5) protecting proteinases from inhibition by extracellular proteinase inhibitors. There is strong evidence that membrane-associated proteinases on leukocytes play critical roles in wound healing, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, fibrinolysis, and coagulation. This review will outline the biology of membrane-associated proteinases expressed by leukocytes and their roles in physiologic and pathologic processes. PMID:18329945

  12. Hug tightly and say goodbye: role of endothelial ICAM-1 in leukocyte transmigration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Arshad; Fazal, Fabeha

    2009-04-01

    Stable adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium is crucial for transendothelial migration (TEM) of leukocytes evoked during inflammatory responses, immune surveillance, and homing and mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The basis of stable adhesion involves expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an inducible endothelial adhesive protein that serves as a counter-receptor for beta(2)-integrins on leukocytes. Interaction of ICAM-1 with beta(2)-integrins enables leukocytes to adhere firmly to the vascular endothelium and subsequently, to migrate across the endothelial barrier. The emerging paradigm is that ICAM-1, in addition to firmly capturing leukocytes, triggers intracellular signaling events that may contribute to active participation of the endothelium in facilitating the TEM of adherent leukocytes. The nature, duration, and intensity of ICAM-1-dependent signaling events may contribute to the determination of the route (paracellular vs. transcellular) of leukocyte passage; these aspects of ICAM-1 signaling may in turn be influenced by density and distribution of ICAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface, the source of endothelial cells it is present on, and the type of leukocytes with which it is engaged. This review summarizes our current understanding of the "ICAM-1 paradigm" of TEM with an emphasis on the signaling events mediating ICAM-1 expression and activated by ICAM-1 engagement in endothelial cells.

  13. Elevated leukocyte count is associated with periodontitis in Korean adults: the 2012-2014 KNHANES.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Y-J; Jeon, K-J; Chung, T-H; Lee, Y-J

    2017-03-01

    Both an elevated leukocyte count and periodontitis share well-recognized associations with cardiometabolic diseases. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify whether the leukocyte count is associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative Korean adult population. Data from 9391 participants (3659 males and 5732 females) enrolled in 2012-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Leukocyte quartiles were categorized as follows: 3000 ≤ Q1 ≤ 4870, 4880 ≤ Q2 ≤5790, 5800 ≤ Q3 ≤ 6840, and 6850 ≤ Q4 ≤ 10000 cells/μl. Periodontitis was defined as scoring greater than or equal to 'code 3' in at least one site according to the WHO's Community Periodontal Index. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for periodontitis in each leukocyte count quartile were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of periodontitis was directly correlated with increasing leukocyte quartiles: 19%, 20.4%, 24.3%, and 30.3%. Compared with the lowest leukocyte quartile group, the OR (95% CI) for periodontitis of the highest leukocyte quartile was 1.558 (1.285-1.891) after controlling for confounding factors. An elevated leukocyte count was positively associated with the presence of periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparative Study of 6-Mercaptopurine Metabolism in Human Leukemic Leukocytes and L1210 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Tomihiko; Nakamura, Toru; Uchino, Haruto; Wakisaka, Gyoichi

    1977-01-01

    Leukocytes from patients with leukemia and L1210 cells from mice were examined for the rate of formation and cellular concentration of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate, the rate of thioinosinic acid formation, and a number of selected enzymes involved in purine nucleotide synthesis. The amount of thioinosinic acid formed in L1210 cells was much higher than that in human leukemic leukocytes. In cell extracts, the synthesis of thioinosinic acid was similar in both cell types, and the amount of purine phosphoribosyltransferase was not rate limiting in either case. Much higher concentrations and rates of formation of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate were found in L1210 cells than in human leukemic leukocytes. The difference in response to 6-mercaptopurine between L1210 cells and human leukemic leukocytes might be attributed to their difference in supply of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate-amidotransferase was found to be high in L1210 cells, but was not detected in human leukemic leukocytes. PMID:921247

  15. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, W.; Weisse, C.S.; Reynolds, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels.more » The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable.« less

  16. Theileria-transformed bovine leukocytes have cancer hallmarks.

    PubMed

    Tretina, Kyle; Gotia, Hanzel T; Mann, David J; Silva, Joana C

    2015-07-01

    The genus Theileria includes tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites of ruminants with substantial economic impact in endemic countries. Some species, including Theileria parva and Theileria annulata, infect leukocytes where they induce phenotypes that are shared with some cancers, most notably immortalization, hyperproliferation, and dissemination. Despite considerable research into the affected host signaling pathways, the parasite proteins directly responsible for these host phenotypes remain unknown. In this review we outline current knowledge on the manipulation of host cells by transformation-inducing Theileria, and we propose that comparisons between cancer biology and host-Theileria interactions can reveal chemotherapeutic targets against Theileria-induced pathogenesis based on cancer treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow cytofluorometric monitoring of leukocyte apoptosis in experimental cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsmanova, Ekaterina Y.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Livanova, Ludmila F.; Kobkova, Irina M.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.; Shchukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Smirnova, Nina I.; Kutyrev, Vladimir V.

    2003-10-01

    Flow cytofluorometric DNA analysis was applied to determine of the relative contents of proliferative (more then 2C DNA per cell) and apoptotic (less then 2C DNA per cell) leukocytes in blood of adult rabbits, challenged with 10,000 times the 50 % effective dose of Vibrio cholerae virulent strain by the RITARD technique. It has been shown that irreversible increase the percentage of cells carrying DNA in the degradation stage brings to disbalance between the genetically controlled cell proliferation and apoptosis that leads to animal death from the cholera infection. Such fatal changes were not observed in challenging of immunized animals that were not died. Thus received data show that the flow cytofluorometric measurements may be used for detection of transgressions in homeostasis during acute infection diseases, for outlet prognosis of the cholera infection.

  18. Characterization of Leukocyte-platelet Rich Fibrin, A Novel Biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Hasan, Fadi K

    2015-09-29

    Autologous platelet concentrates represent promising innovative tools in the field of regenerative medicine and have been extensively used in oral surgery. Unlike platelet rich plasma (PRP) that is a gel or a suspension, Leukocyte-Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is a solid 3D fibrin membrane generated chair-side from whole blood containing no anti-coagulant. The membrane has a dense three dimensional fibrin matrix with enriched platelets and abundant growth factors. L-PRF is a popular adjunct in surgeries because of its superior handling characteristics as well as its suturability to the wound bed. The goal of the study is to demonstrate generation as well as provide detailed characterization of relevant properties of L-PRF that underlie its clinical success.

  19. A new sensitive method for detecting human endogenous (leukocyte) pyrogen.

    PubMed

    Bodel, P; Miller, H

    1978-03-01

    Endogenous, or leukocyte pyrogen (EP), the mediator of fever, is currently detected by injection of pyrogen-containing supernatants into rabbits. This assay has been of little value in the study of human fever because it required injection of relatively large amounts of pyrogen. We now report that injection of medium containing human EP produces fever in mice. Supernatant from 1 c 10(5) granulocytes, stimulated by phagocytosis of staphylococci and incubated overnight, or 1 x 10(4) monocytes similarly treated, produce clear pyrogenic responses. This method for detecting EP is about 100-fold more sensitive than the rabbit assay, and it appears to be specific for EP. Preliminary studies of EP released by small samples of needle liver biopsies from febrile and afebrile patients suggests that this sensitive assay may be useful for investigations into the mechanisms of clinical fever.

  20. Chemiluminescence of peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes from adult periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Whyte, G J; Seymour, G J; Cheung, K; Robinson, M F

    1989-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) constitute a primary host resistance factor against infection. This study investigated the chemiluminescent (CL) response of peripheral blood PMN's isolated from human subjects with adult periodontitis. 32 subjects were categorized on the basis of age and periodontal disease status into 4 equal groups--young healthy, young diseased, old healthy and old diseased. PMN CL was stimulated using heat-killed, serum-opsonized Fusobacterium nucleatum--a specific periodontopathic gram-negative anaerobe, and Escherichia coli as a gram-negative control organism. The results showed a statistically significant enhancement (p less than 0.05) in the CL response, which was cell associated, in the young diseased subjects. This was not seen in the old subjects (p greater than 0.05), suggesting that in periodontal disease in young subjects the peripheral blood PMNs may be in a metabolically activated state. There was nevertheless a degree of variability between individual subjects within each of the 4 clinical groups.

  1. Meisoindigo, but not its core chemical structure indirubin, inhibits zebrafish interstitial leukocyte chemotactic migration.

    PubMed

    Ye, Baixin; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Deng, Xu; Gu, Lijuan; Wang, Qiongyu; Zeng, Zhi; Gao, Xiang; Gao, Qingping; Wang, Yueying

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory disease is a big threat to human health. Leukocyte chemotactic migration is required for efficient inflammatory response. Inhibition of leukocyte chemotactic migration to the inflammatory site has been shown to provide therapeutic targets for treating inflammatory diseases. Our study was designed to discover effective and safe compounds that can inhibit leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing possible novel therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases. In this study, we used transgenic zebrafish model (Tg:zlyz-EGFP line) to visualize the process of leukocyte chemotactic migration. Then, we used this model to screen the hit compound and evaluate its biological activity on leukocyte chemotactic migration. Furthermore, western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the hit compound on the AKT or ERK-mediated pathway, which plays an important role in leukocyte chemotactic migration. In this study, using zebrafish-based chemical screening, we identified that the hit compound meisoindigo (25 μM, 50 μM, 75 μM) can significantly inhibit zebrafish leukocyte chemotactic migration in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.01, p = 0.0006, p < 0.0001). Also, we found that meisoindigo did not affect the process of leukocyte reverse migration (p = 0.43). Furthermore, our results unexpectedly showed that indirubin, the core structure of meisoindigo, had no significant effect on zebrafish leukocyte chemotactic migration (p = 0.6001). Additionally, our results revealed that meisoindigo exerts no effect on the Akt or Erk-mediated signalling pathway. Our results suggest that meisoindigo, but not indirubin, is effective for inhibiting leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing a potential therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory diseases.

  2. CD18 activation epitopes induced by leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Beals, C R; Edwards, A C; Gottschalk, R J; Kuijpers, T W; Staunton, D E

    2001-12-01

    The cell surface adhesion molecule LFA-1 coordinates leukocyte trafficking and is a costimulatory molecule for T cell activation. We developed a panel of mAbs that recognize activation epitopes on the CD18 subunit, and show that stimulation of T lymphocytes appears to be accompanied by a conformational change in a subpopulation of LFA-1 that does not require ligand binding. Activation epitope up-regulation requires divalent cations, is sensitive to cellular signal transduction events, and correlates with cell adhesion. In addition, the stimulated appearance of these activation epitopes is absent in cell lines from patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1/variant that has previously been shown to be defective in LFA-1 activation. Thus, these activation epitope Abs can be used to dissect signal transmission to CD18. Evidence suggests that these CD18 activation epitopes are induced early in cellular activation and are independent of actin rearrangement necessary for avid adhesion. We have also determined that function-blocking CD18 Abs inhibit the induction of activation epitopes. One activation epitope Ab binds to a site on CD18 distinct from that of the blocking Abs, indicating that the blocking Abs suppress a conformational change in LFA-1. We also find that these neoepitopes are present on rLFA-1 with high affinity for ICAM-1 and their binding is modulated in parallel with the affinity of LFA-1 for ICAM-1. Collectively, these neoepitope Abs identify a subpopulation of LFA-1 most likely with high affinity for ICAM-1 and necessary for LFA-1 function.

  3. Leukocyte Anti-Trafficking Strategies: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Sands, Bruce E

    2017-01-01

    In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a pivotal step in the initiation and perpetuation of mucosal inflammation entails the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes to the gut. Understanding the carefully coordinated series of molecular events that culminate in the recruitment of leukocytes to the gut has resulted in novel interventions with new capabilities in treating both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Key Messages: Natalizumab, an anti-α4 integrin antibody, was the first agent to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach for the induction and maintenance of response and remission in Crohn's disease. Widespread adoption was mitigated by the previously unknown risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with this approach. Current approaches employ a more selective inhibition of adhesion molecules targeting the gut to avoid broad suppression of surveillance for JC virus, the causal pathogen of PML. Subsequently, vedolizumab, a humanized anti-α4β7 integrin antibody, has demonstrated efficacy in patients with IBD and has an excellent safety profile. To date, there have been no cases of PML in patients treated with vedolizumab, suggesting that this more selective agent does not have the same risk for PML as natalizumab. Other agents target β7 integrin (etrolizumab) and mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1, the endothelial ligand of α4β7 integrin. Efforts to inhibit the chemokine receptor CCR9 using the agent CCX282-B in Crohn's disease were not successful. An orally administered anti-α4 integrin compound showed some promise in a phase 2 trial but raises concern for PML. Finally, the S1P1 receptor agonist ozanimod showed promise in early trials in ulcerative colitis. In summary, anti-trafficking agents have the potential to provide safe and effective therapy for IBD, and are a burgeoning class of novel agents. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  5. The Nun protein of bacteriophage HK022 inhibits translocation of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase without abolishing its catalytic activities

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Siu Chun; Gottesman, Max E.

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriophage HK022 Nun protein blocks transcription elongation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase in vitro without dissociating the transcription complex. Nun is active on complexes located at any template site tested. Ultimately, only the 3′-OH terminal nucleotide of the nascent transcript in an arrested complex can turn over; it is removed by pyrophosphate and restored with NTPs. This suggests that Nun inhibits the translocation of RNA polymerase without abolishing its catalytic activities. Unlike spontaneously arrested complexes, Nun-arrested complexes cannot be reactivated by transcription factor GreB. The various complexes show distinct patterns of nucleotide incorporation and pyrophosphorolysis before or after treatment with Nun, suggesting that the configuration of RNAP, transcript, and template DNA is different in each complex. PMID:9334329

  6. Abolishing user fees for children and pregnant women trebled uptake of malaria-related interventions in Kangaba, Mali.

    PubMed

    Ponsar, Frédérique; Van Herp, Michel; Zachariah, Rony; Gerard, Séco; Philips, Mit; Jouquet, Guillaume

    2011-11-01

    Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 in Mali. Health centres provide primary care, including malaria treatment, under a system of cost recovery. In 2005, Médecins sans Frontieres (MSF) started supporting health centres in Kangaba with the provision of rapid malaria diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy. Initially MSF subsidized malaria tests and drugs to reduce the overall cost for patients. In a second phase, MSF abolished fees for all children under 5 irrespective of their illness and for pregnant women with fever. This second phase was associated with a trebling of both primary health care utilization and malaria treatment coverage for these groups. MSF's experience in Mali suggests that removing user fees for vulnerable groups significantly improves utilization and coverage of essential health services, including for malaria interventions. This effect is far more marked than simply subsidizing or providing malaria drugs and diagnostic tests free of charge. Following the free care strategy, utilization of services increased significantly and under-5 mortality was reduced. Fee removal also allowed for more efficient use of existing resources, reducing average cost per patient treated. These results are particularly relevant for the context of Mali and other countries with ambitious malaria treatment coverage objectives, in accordance with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This article questions the effectiveness of the current national policy, and the effectiveness of reducing the cost of drugs only (i.e. partial subsidies) or providing malaria tests and drugs free for under-5s, without abolishing other related fees. National and international budgets, in particular those that target health systems strengthening, could be used to complement existing subsidies and be directed towards effective abolition of user fees. This would contribute to increasing the impact of interventions on

  7. Interim results on abolishing reflux alongside a randomized clinical trial on laser ablation with phlebectomies versus foam sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, C R; Kalodiki, E; Azzam, M; Makris, G C; Somiayajulu, S; Geroulakos, G

    2013-08-01

    The early results of a randomised clinical trial comparing local anaesthesia endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) with concurrent phlebectomies versus ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) into the great saphenous vein (GSV) revealed that laser was more expensive but the results on abolition of reflux were similar. The interim results at 15 month follow-up are reported. Evaluations included ultrasound, the venous clinical severity score (VCSS), the Aberdeen varicose vein questionnaire (AVVQ) and the saphenous treatment score (STS). The global absence of reflux defined technical success. Adjuvant sclerotherapy to areas of reflux was administered on patient choice. Occlusion of the GSV was more effective with EVLA at 42/44 (95.5%) versus 31/46 (67.4%) for UGFS. However both techniques were equally effective at abolishing global venous reflux. The number of legs (N.=100) with total reflux abolition, above-knee, below-knee or combined reflux and loss to follow-up was 18, 6, 12, 8, 6 with EVLA and 20, 8, 11, 7, 4 with UGFS, respectively. The VCSS, AVVQ and STS reduced compared to baseline (P<0.0005), but there was no statistical difference between the groups. The AVVQ remained unchanged between 3-15 months (P=0.601). Also during this time, 19/46(41%) UGFS versus 9/44(20%) EVLA legs received adjuvant treatment (2.1 times increase). However, overall, adjuvant foam was given 4.7 times more frequently in the UGFS patients. EVLA and UGFS are equally effective at abolishing global venous reflux with overall success of 41% and 43%, respectively. The high reflux rate was not related to deterioration in quality of life indicating that this reflux was largely asymptomatic.

  8. Does leukocyte-poor or leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma applied with biopolymers have superiority to conventional platelet-rich plasma applications on chondrocyte proliferation?

    PubMed

    Yaşar Şirin, Duygu; Yılmaz, İbrahim; İsyar, Mehmet; Öznam, Kadir; Mahiroğulları, Mahir

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible effects of leukocyte concentration in the content of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the administration of PRP using a drug delivery system on chondrocyte proliferation in vitro conditions. Blood from nine male patients (mean age 65 years; range 49 to 81 years) with advanced stage osteoarthritis who had not responded to medical or conservative treatments and underwent total knee arthroplasty was used to prepare two formulations: PRP with low concentration leukocytes (2000-4000 leukocytes/µL) was designated as pure PRP (P-PRP), whereas PRP with high concentration leukocytes (9000-11000 leukocytes/µL) as leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP). Samples were divided into five groups as control group (group 1), chondrocyte cultures with P-PRP applied directly (group 2), chondrocyte cultures with L-PRP applied directly (group 3), chondrocytes co-cultured with P-PRP applied hydrogel (group 4), and chondrocytes co-cultured with L-PRP applied hydrogel (group 5). In all groups; cell morphology, viability and proliferation were compared with the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), a precondrocyte marker. Maximum cell proliferation and SSEA-1 expression occurred in group 4, with a statistically significant correlation between SSEA-1 expression and cell proliferation. Our study showed the importance of leukocyte concentration of PRP and efficiency of delivery systems such as hydrogel and that L-PRP administered with a delivery system is more efficient than conventional applications of PRP in the treatment of cartilage damage.

  9. Human severe sepsis cytokine mixture increases β2-integrin-dependent polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion to cerebral microvascular endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blom, Chris; Deller, Brittany L; Fraser, Douglas D; Patterson, Eric K; Martin, Claudio M; Young, Bryan; Liaw, Patricia C; Yazdan-Ashoori, Payam; Ortiz, Angelica; Webb, Brian; Kilmer, Greg; Carter, David E; Cepinskas, Gediminas

    2015-04-07

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a state of acute brain dysfunction in response to a systemic infection. We propose that systemic inflammation during sepsis causes increased adhesion of leukocytes to the brain microvasculature, resulting in blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Thus, our objectives were to measure inflammatory analytes in plasma of severe sepsis patients to create an experimental cytokine mixture (CM), and to use this CM to investigate the activation and interactions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and human cerebrovascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) in vitro. The concentrations of 41 inflammatory analytes were quantified in plasma obtained from 20 severe sepsis patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls employing an antibody microarray. Two CMs were prepared to mimic severe sepsis (SSCM) and control (CCM), and these CMs were then used for PMN and hCMEC/D3 stimulation in vitro. PMN adhesion to hCMEC/D3 was assessed under conditions of flow (shear stress 0.7 dyn/cm(2)). Eight inflammatory analytes elevated in plasma obtained from severe sepsis patients were used to prepare SSCM and CCM. Stimulation of PMN with SSCM led to a marked increase in PMN adhesion to hCMEC/D3, as compared to CCM. PMN adhesion was abolished with neutralizing antibodies to either β2 (CD18), αL/β2 (CD11α/CD18; LFA-1) or αM/β2 (CD11β/CD18; Mac-1) integrins. In addition, immune-neutralization of the endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cell adhesion molecule, ICAM-1 (CD54) also suppressed PMN adhesion. Human SSCM up-regulates PMN pro-adhesive phenotype and promotes PMN adhesion to cerebrovascular endothelial cells through a β2-integrin-ICAM-1-dependent mechanism. PMN adhesion to the brain microvasculature may contribute to SAE.

  10. A high-throughput microfluidic approach for 1000-fold leukocyte reduction of platelet-rich plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Strachan, Briony C.; Gifford, Sean C.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-10-01

    Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current ‘leukoreduction’ filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional ‘dead end’ filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed ‘controlled incremental filtration’ (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime. Leukocytes are separated from platelets within the PRP by progressively syphoning clarified PRP away from the concentrated leukocyte flowstream. Filtrate PRP collected from an optimally-designed CIF device typically showed a ~1000-fold (i.e. 99.9%) reduction in leukocyte concentration, while recovering >80% of the original platelets, at volumetric throughputs of ~1 mL/min. These results suggest that the CIF approach will enable users in many fields to now apply the advantages of microfluidic devices to particle separation, even for applications requiring macroscale flowrates.

  11. Long-Term Leukocyte Filtration Should Be Avoided during Extracorporeal Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiali; Tao, Kaiyu; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Chongwei; Gong, Lina; Luo, Nanfu

    2013-01-01

    Filtration during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) not only removes but also activates leukocytes; therefore, long-term leukocyte filtration may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by priming ECC with 300 mL of canine blood and examining filtration effects in 3 groups (n = 6 each) during 60 min ECC. In the control group (Group C) blood was filtrated with an arterial filter for 60 min; in long-term (Group L) and short-term (Group S) groups, blood was filtrated with a leukocyte filter for 60 and 5 min. We found that about 90% of leukocytes were removed after 5 min of filtration in both Groups L and S. Although leukocyte count continued to reduce, mean fluorescent intensities of CD11/CD18, free hemoglobin, and neutrophil elastase increased in Group L and were higher than those in Groups C and S at 60 min. Leukocyte rupture, cytoplasmic leakage, and circulating naked nuclei were also found in Group L. The data support our hypothesis that long-term filtration can induce inflammation and lead to leukocyte destruction. PMID:24453424

  12. In vivo imaging of leukocyte recruitment to glomeruli in mice using intravital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kitching, A Richard; Kuligowski, Michael P; Hickey, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Leukocytes mediate some forms of glomerulonephritis, particularly severe proliferative and crescentic forms. The renal glomerulus is one of the few sites within the microvasculature in which leukocyte recruitment occurs in capillaries. However, due to the difficulty of directly visualising the glomerulus, the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to glomerular capillaries are poorly understood. To overcome this, a murine kidney can be rendered hydronephrotic, by ligating one ureter, and allowing the mouse to rest for 12 weeks. This allows the visualisation of the glomerular microvasculature during inflammatory responses. In inflammation, in this example induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody, leukocytes can be observed undergoing adhesion in glomerular capillaries using intravital microscopy. Leukocyte adhesion can be quantitated using this approach. An observation protocol involving few, limited periods of epifluorescence avoids phototoxicity-induced leukocyte recruitment. The process of hydronephrosis does not alter the ability of anti-GBM-antibody to induce a glomerular inflammatory response. This approach allows detailed investigation of the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment within glomeruli.

  13. Detection of murine cytomegalovirus DNA in circulating leukocytes harvested during acute infection of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bale, J.F. Jr.; O'Neil, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    The authors used virus assay and in situ hybridization with a cloned fragment of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) genome to study MCMV infection of circulating leukocytes harvested from 3-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H mice infected with MCMV intraperitoneally. Infectious virus or MCMV DNA was detected in leukocytes on days 1 through 21 of infection in BALB/c mice and on days 3 through 7 in C57BL/6 mice. On days 5 and 7, MCMV DNA or infectious virus was detected in the leukocytes of 17 (94%) of 18 BALB/c mice and 10 (59%) of 17 C57BL/6 mice. In both strains infection peakedmore » on days 5 and 7, when as many as 0.01 to 0.1% of the circulating leukocytes contained MCMV DNA. In C3H mice, however, infectious virus was rarely recovered from leukocyte fractions and MCMV DNA was detected in the circulating leukocytes of only one animal. Circulating leukocytes may have an important role in the dissemination of CMV infections in susceptible hosts.« less

  14. Relationships between leukocytes and Hepatozoon spp. In green frogs, Rana clamitans.

    PubMed

    Shutler, Dave; Smith, Todd G; Robinson, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on amphibian leukocyte profiles, and relationships between amphibian leukocytes and parasites are even less well known. Using counts from 35 pairs of blood smears taken 2 days apart, we tested for correlations between leukocyte proportions and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. (either Hepatozoon catesbianae or Hepatozoon clamatae) in green frogs (Rana clamitans). On average (SE), we counted 65.4 (1.7) lymphocytes, 14.0 (1.3) neutrophils, 19.3 (1.6) eosinophils, 0.9 (0.1) monocytes, and 0.4 (0.1) basophils per 100 leukocytes. All frogs harbored Hepatozoon spp. (median seven parasites per 100 leukocytes; range 1-250). Significant relationships were not observed between numbers of leukocytes and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. Among the possible explanations for these null results are that Hepatozoon spp. is benign, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to evade detection by the immune system, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to manipulate leukocyte investment, or that other unmeasured or undetected parasites were more important in affecting immune response.

  15. p,p'-DDE depresses the immune competence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) leukocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misumi, Ichiro; Vella, Anthony T.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Schreck, Carl B.

    2005-01-01

    p,p′-DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, is still detected in aquatic environments throughout the world. Here, the effects and mechanisms by which p,p′-DDE exposure might affect the immune system of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was studied. Isolated salmon splenic and pronephric leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of p,p′-DDE, and cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and mitogenic responses were measured by flow cytometry and Alamar Blue assay. p,p′-DDE significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation and increased apoptosis. The effect of p,p′-DDE on pronephric leukocytes was more severe than on splenic leukocytes, likely because pronephric leukocytes had a higher proportion of granulocytes, cells that appear more sensitive to p,p′-DDE. The effect of p,p′-DDE on leukocytes appeared to vary between developmental stages or seasonal differences. The mitogenic response of leukocytes of chinook salmon exposed to p,p′-DDE in vivo exhibited a biphasic dose–response relationship. Only leukocytes isolated from salmon treated with 59 ppm p,p′-DDE had a significantly lower percentage of Ig+ blasting cells than controls, although the response was biphasic. These results support the theory that exposure to chemical contaminants could lead to an increase in disease susceptibility and mortality of fish due to immune suppression.

  16. Recipient-Matching of Passenger Leukocytes Prolongs Survival of Donor Lung Allografts in Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia L.; Michel, Sebastian G.; La Muraglia, Glenn M.; Sihag, Smita; Leonard, David A.; Farkash, Evan A.; Colvin, Robert B.; Cetrulo, Curtis L.; Huang, Christene A.; Sachs, David H.; Madsen, Joren C.; Allan, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allograft rejection continues to be a vexing problem in clinical lung transplantation, and the role played by passenger leukocytes in the rejection or acceptance of an organ is unclear. Here we tested whether recipient-matching of donor graft passenger leukocytes would impact graft survival in a preclinical model of orthotopic left lung transplantation. Methods In the experimental group (Group 1), donor lungs were obtained from chimeric swine, in which the passenger leukocytes (but not the parenchyma) were MHC-matched to the recipients (n=3). In the control group (Group 2), both the donor parenchyma and the passenger leukocytes were MHC-mismatched to the recipients (n = 3). Results Lungs harvested from swine previously rendered chimeric by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using recipient-type cells showed a high degree of passenger leukocyte chimerism by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. The chimeric lungs containing passenger leukocytes matched to the lung recipient (Group 1) survived on average 107 days (range 80–156). Control lung allografts (Group 2) survived on average 45 days (range 29–64; p<0.05). Conclusion Our data indicate that recipient-matching of passenger leukocytes significantly prolongs lung allograft survival. PMID:25757217

  17. Measurement of leukocyte rheology in vascular disease: clinical rationale and methodology. International Society of Clinical Hemorheology.

    PubMed

    Wautier, J L; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Nash, G B

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of leukocyte rheology in vascular disease is a recent development with a wide range of new opportunities. The International Society of Clinical Hemorheology has asked an expert panel to propose guidelines for the investigation of leukocyte rheology in clinical situations. This article first discusses the mechanical, adhesive and related functional properties of leukocytes (especially neutrophils) which influence their circulation, and establishes the rationale for clinically-related measurements of parameters which describe them. It is concluded that quantitation of leukocyte adhesion molecules, and of their endothelial receptors may assist understanding of leukocyte behaviour in vascular disease, along with measurements of flow resistance of leukocytes, free radical production, degranulation and gene expression. For instance, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) is abnormally present on endothelial cells in atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and inflammatory conditions. Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) or VCAM can be found elevated in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or infections disease. In the second part of the article, possible technical approaches are presented and possible avenues for leukocyte rheological investigations are discussed.

  18. Arithmetic of five-part of leukocytes based on image process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yian; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-12-01

    This paper apply computer image processing and pattern recognizition methods to solve the problem of auto classification and counting of leukocytes (white blood cell) in peripheral blood. In this paper a new leukocyte arithmetic of five-part based on image process and pattern recognizition is presented, which relized auto classify of leukocyte. The first aim is detect the leukocytes . A major requirement of the whole system is to classify these leukocytes to 5 classes. This arithmetic bases on notability mechanism of eyes, process image by sequence, divides up leukocytes and pick up characters. Using the prior kwonledge of cells and image shape information, this arithmetic divides up the probable shape of Leukocyte first by a new method based on Chamfer and then gets the detail characters. It can reduce the mistake judge rate and the calculation greatly. It also has the learning fuction. This paper also presented a new measurement of karyon's shape which can provide more accurate information. This algorithm has great application value in clinical blood test .

  19. A multiscale SPH particle model of the near-wall dynamics of leukocytes in flow.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Babak; Comerford, Andrew; Ellero, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiscale Lagrangian particle solver based on SPH is developed with the intended application of leukocyte transport in large arteries. In such arteries, the transport of leukocytes and red blood cells can be divided into two distinct regions: the bulk flow and the near-wall region. In the bulk flow, the transport can be modeled on a continuum basis as the transport of passive scalar concentrations. Whereas in the near-wall region, specific particle tracking of the leukocytes is required and lubrication forces need to be separately taken into account. Because of large separation of spatio-temporal scales involved in the problem, simulations of red blood cells and leukocytes are handled separately. In order to take the exchange of leukocytes between the bulk fluid and the near-wall region into account, solutions are communicated through coupling of conserved quantities at the interface between these regions. Because the particle tracking is limited to those leukocytes lying in the near-wall region only, our approach brings considerable speedup to the simulation of leukocyte circulation in a test geometry of a backward-facing step, which encompasses many flow features observed in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. House Dust Endotoxin and Peripheral Leukocyte Counts: Results from Two Large Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Michael B; Carnes, Megan U; Salo, Päivi M; Wilkerson, Jesse; Cohn, Richard D; King, Debra; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P; Travlos, Greg; London, Stephanie; Thorne, Peter; Zeldin, Darryl

    2017-05-31

    The peripheral leukocyte count is a biomarker of inflammation and is associated with human all-cause mortality. Although causes of acute leukocytosis are well-described, chronic environmental determinants of leukocyte number are less well understood. We investigated the relationship between house dust endotoxin concentration and peripheral leukocyte counts in human subjects. The endotoxin–leukocyte relationship was evaluated by linear regression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 (n=6,254) and the Agricultural Lung Health Study (ALHS; n=1,708). In the ALHS, we tested for a gene [Toll-like Receptor 4 ( TLR4 ), encoding the endotoxin receptor]-by-environment interaction in the endotoxin–leukocyte relationship using regression models with an interaction term. There is a statistically significant, positive association between endotoxin concentration and total leukocyte number [estimated change, 0.186×10 3 /μL (95% CI: 0.070, 0.301×10 3 /μL) per 10-fold change in endotoxin; p=0.004) in the NHANES. Similar positive associations were found for monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Stratified analyses revealed possible effect modification by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We observed similar associations in the ALHS. For total leukocytes, there was suggestive evidence in the ALHS of a gene-by-environment interaction for minor allele carrier status at the TLR4 haplotype defined by rs4986790 and rs4986791 (interaction p=0.15). This is, to our knowledge, the first report of an association between house dust endotoxin and leukocyte count in a national survey. The finding was replicated in a farming population. Peripheral leukocyte count may be influenced by residential endotoxin exposure in diverse settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP661.

  1. House Dust Endotoxin and Peripheral Leukocyte Counts: Results from Two Large Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Megan U.; Salo, Päivi M.; Wilkerson, Jesse; Cohn, Richard D.; King, Debra; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Travlos, Greg; London, Stephanie J.; Thorne, Peter S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The peripheral leukocyte count is a biomarker of inflammation and is associated with human all-cause mortality. Although causes of acute leukocytosis are well-described, chronic environmental determinants of leukocyte number are less well understood. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between house dust endotoxin concentration and peripheral leukocyte counts in human subjects. Methods: The endotoxin–leukocyte relationship was evaluated by linear regression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 (n=6,254) and the Agricultural Lung Health Study (ALHS; n=1,708). In the ALHS, we tested for a gene [Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), encoding the endotoxin receptor]-by-environment interaction in the endotoxin–leukocyte relationship using regression models with an interaction term. Results: There is a statistically significant, positive association between endotoxin concentration and total leukocyte number [estimated change, 0.186×103/μL (95% CI: 0.070, 0.301×103/μL) per 10-fold change in endotoxin; p=0.004) in the NHANES. Similar positive associations were found for monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Stratified analyses revealed possible effect modification by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We observed similar associations in the ALHS. For total leukocytes, there was suggestive evidence in the ALHS of a gene-by-environment interaction for minor allele carrier status at the TLR4 haplotype defined by rs4986790 and rs4986791 (interaction p=0.15). Conclusions: This is, to our knowledge, the first report of an association between house dust endotoxin and leukocyte count in a national survey. The finding was replicated in a farming population. Peripheral leukocyte count may be influenced by residential endotoxin exposure in diverse settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP661 PMID:28599265

  2. An agent-based model of leukocyte transendothelial migration during atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Rita; Hayenga, Heather N.

    2017-01-01

    A vast amount of work has been dedicated to the effects of hemodynamics and cytokines on leukocyte adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) and subsequent accumulation of leukocyte-derived foam cells in the artery wall. However, a comprehensive mechanobiological model to capture these spatiotemporal events and predict the growth and remodeling of an atherosclerotic artery is still lacking. Here, we present a multiscale model of leukocyte TEM and plaque evolution in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. The approach integrates cellular behaviors via agent-based modeling (ABM) and hemodynamic effects via computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this computational framework, the ABM implements the diffusion kinetics of key biological proteins, namely Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Tissue Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Interlukin-10 (IL-10) and Interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β), to predict chemotactic driven leukocyte migration into and within the artery wall. The ABM also considers wall shear stress (WSS) dependent leukocyte TEM and compensatory arterial remodeling obeying Glagov’s phenomenon. Interestingly, using fully developed steady blood flow does not result in a representative number of leukocyte TEM as compared to pulsatile flow, whereas passing WSS at peak systole of the pulsatile flow waveform does. Moreover, using the model, we have found leukocyte TEM increases monotonically with decreases in luminal volume. At critical plaque shapes the WSS changes rapidly resulting in sudden increases in leukocyte TEM suggesting lumen volumes that will give rise to rapid plaque growth rates if left untreated. Overall this multi-scale and multi-physics approach appropriately captures and integrates the spatiotemporal events occurring at the cellular level in order to predict leukocyte transmigration and plaque evolution. PMID:28542193

  3. An agent-based model of leukocyte transendothelial migration during atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Rita; Hayenga, Heather N

    2017-05-01

    A vast amount of work has been dedicated to the effects of hemodynamics and cytokines on leukocyte adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) and subsequent accumulation of leukocyte-derived foam cells in the artery wall. However, a comprehensive mechanobiological model to capture these spatiotemporal events and predict the growth and remodeling of an atherosclerotic artery is still lacking. Here, we present a multiscale model of leukocyte TEM and plaque evolution in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. The approach integrates cellular behaviors via agent-based modeling (ABM) and hemodynamic effects via computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this computational framework, the ABM implements the diffusion kinetics of key biological proteins, namely Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Tissue Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Interlukin-10 (IL-10) and Interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β), to predict chemotactic driven leukocyte migration into and within the artery wall. The ABM also considers wall shear stress (WSS) dependent leukocyte TEM and compensatory arterial remodeling obeying Glagov's phenomenon. Interestingly, using fully developed steady blood flow does not result in a representative number of leukocyte TEM as compared to pulsatile flow, whereas passing WSS at peak systole of the pulsatile flow waveform does. Moreover, using the model, we have found leukocyte TEM increases monotonically with decreases in luminal volume. At critical plaque shapes the WSS changes rapidly resulting in sudden increases in leukocyte TEM suggesting lumen volumes that will give rise to rapid plaque growth rates if left untreated. Overall this multi-scale and multi-physics approach appropriately captures and integrates the spatiotemporal events occurring at the cellular level in order to predict leukocyte transmigration and plaque evolution.

  4. Identification and quantification of human microcirculatory leukocytes using handheld video microscopes at the bedside.

    PubMed

    Uz, Zühre; van Gulik, Thomas M; Aydemirli, Mehtap Derya; Guerci, Philippe; Ince, Yasin; Cuppen, Diede V; Ergin, Bulent; Aksu, Ugur; de Mol, Bas A; Ince, Can

    2018-03-08

    Leukocyte recruitment and adhesion to the endothelium are hallmarks of systemic inflammation that manifest in a wide range of diseases. At present, no method is available to directly measure leukocyte kinetics at the bedside. In this study, we validate a new method to identify and quantify microcirculatory leukocytes observed by handheld vital microscopy (HVM) using space-time diagram (STD) analysis. Video clips (N=59) containing one capillary-post capillary venule (C-PCV) unit where leukocytes could be observed emanating from a capillary into a venule in cardiac surgery patients (N=20) were included. STD analysis and manual counting were used to quantify the number of leukocytes (total, rolling and non-rolling). Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine agreement between the STDs and manual counting. For reproducibility, intra- and inter-observer coefficients of variation (CVs) were assessed. Leukocyte (rolling and non-rolling) and red blood cell velocities were assessed. The STDs and manual counting procedures for the quantification of rolling leukocytes showed good agreement (r=0.8197, P<0.0001), with a Bland-Altman analysis mean difference of -0.0 (-6.56; 6.56). The overall intra-observer CV for the STD method was 1.5%. The overall inter-observer CVs for the STD and the manual method were 5.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The non-rolling velocity was significantly higher than the rolling velocity (812{plus minus}519 µm/s vs 201{plus minus}149 µm/s, P=0.001). The STD results agreed with the manual counting procedure results, had a better reproducibility and could assess the leukocyte velocity. STD analysis using bedside HVM imaging presented a new methodology for quantifying leukocyte kinetics and functions in the microcirculation.

  5. Peritoneal dialysis solution attenuates microvascular leukocyte adhesion induced by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    White, R; Ram, S

    1996-01-01

    In the mesenteric microcirculation, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis results in an inflammatory response through increased leukocyte adherence to the microvascular postcapillary venular endothelium. Recent studies have demonstrated that elevated concentrations of endogenous NO synthesis inhibitors are present in renal failure. How peritoneal dialysis solutions may affect leukocyte-endothelial interactions during inflammation induced by NO synthesis inhibition has been previously unknown. Using in vivo intravital microscopy of the rat mesenteric postcapillary venules, microvascular leukocyte adherence was quantitated during baseline conditions in which the mesentery was superfused with a buffer solution, followed by the superfusion of a NO synthesis inhibitor NG-nitro-L-ARGININE methyl ester (L-NAME) added to the buffer, followed by 4.25% Dianeal (4.25% D). When compared to baseline, L-NAME increased the mean number of adherent leukocytes by fivefold (2.2 +/- 0.9 vs 11.6 +/- 3.6 leukocytes/100 microns venule/10 min, p < 0.05), while 4.25% D quickly reversed the L-NAME-induced inflammatory response, returning the number of adherent leukocytes back to baseline values (11.6 +/- 3.6 vs 2.4 +/- 1.3 leukocytes/100 microns venule/ 10 min, p < 0.05). These results confirm that NO synthesis inhibition induces inflammation in mesenteric postcapillary venules. Superfusion of 4.25% D reverses leukocyte adhesion induced by NO synthesis inhibition. Thus, a standard peritoneal dialysis solution (4.25% D) reverses the leukocyte-adhesive effects of NO synthesis inhibition in the mesenteric microcirculation.

  6. Kinetics of leukocyte sequestration in the lungs of acutely septic primates: A study using sup 111 In-labeled autologous leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hangen, D.H.; Segall, G.M.; Harney, E.W.

    1990-03-01

    To further clarify the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of ARDS, we studied the localization and kinetics of leukocyte migration using 111In-labeled autologous white cell scans ({sup 111}In wbc scans) in four primates made acutely septic with infusions of Escherichia coli. Whole body images were obtained with a gamma camera and were acquired on computer every 15 min beginning immediately after the E. coli infusion. Simultaneous measurements of C5a and peripheral blood leukocyte count were also obtained. Within 5 min of initiating sepsis, three major events occurred: complement activation as measured by the production of C5a, a profound fallmore » in peripheral leukocyte count, and a significant increase in the sequestration of leukocytes in the lungs. The pulmonary sequestration reached a peak at 15 min with a mean of 152% of baseline activity. This sequestration consisted of a population that was predominantly neutrophils. Damage to the pulmonary capillary endothelium was demonstrated by an increase in extravascular lung water. The results support a role for neutrophils and complement as mediators in the pathogenesis of ARDS.« less

  7. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluts, A. A.; Gapeyev, A. B.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kosareva, O. G.; Matyunin, S. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Pashovkin, T. N.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 - 200 μW cm-2 within the frequency range of 0.1 - 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes.

  8. Acute Fluoxetine Treatment Induces Slow Rolling of Leukocytes on Endothelium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Nadine; Mauler, Maximilian; Witsch, Thilo; Stallmann, Daniela; Schmitt, Stefanie; Mezger, Julius; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Activated platelets release serotonin at sites of inflammation where it acts as inflammatory mediator and enhances recruitment of neutrophils. Chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) depletes the serotonin storage pool in platelets, leading to reduced leukocyte recruitment in murine experiments. Here, we examined the direct and acute effects of SSRI on leukocyte recruitment in murine peritonitis. Methods C57Bl/6 and Tph1−/− (Tryptophan hydroxylase1) mice underwent acute treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine or vehicle. Serotonin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion on endothelium was analyzed by intravital microscopy in mesentery venules with and without lipopolysaccharide challenge. Leukocyte extravasation in sterile peritonitis was measured by flow cytometry of abdominal lavage fluid. Results Plasma serotonin levels were elevated 2 hours after fluoxetine treatment (0.70±0.1 µg/ml versus 0.27±0.1, p = 0.03, n = 14), while serum serotonin did not change. Without further stimulation, acute fluoxetine treatment increased the number of rolling leukocytes (63±8 versus 165±17/0.04 mm2min−1) and decreased their velocity (61±6 versus 28±1 µm/s, both p<0.0001, n = 10). In Tph1−/− mice leukocyte rolling was not significantly influenced by acute fluoxetine treatment. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide decreased rolling velocity and induced leukocyte adhesion, which was enhanced after fluoxetine pretreatment (27±3 versus 36±2/0.04 mm2, p = 0.008, n = 10). Leukocyte extravasation in sterile peritonitis, however, was not affected by acute fluoxetine treatment. Conclusions Acute fluoxetine treatment increased plasma serotonin concentrations and promoted leukocyte-endothelial interactions in-vivo, suggesting that serotonin is a promoter of acute inflammation. E-selectin was upregulated on endothelial cells in the presence of serotonin, possibly explaining the observed

  9. Affinity-tuning leukocyte integrin for development of safe therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Spencer

    Much attention has been given to the molecular and cellular pathways linking inflammation with cancer and the local tumor environment to identify new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Among the many molecular players involved in the complex response, central to the induction of inflammation is intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, which is of particular interest for its highly sensitive and localized expression in response to inflammatory signals. ICAM-1, which has been implicated to play a critical role in tumor progression in various types of cancer, has also been linked to cancer metastases, where ICAM-1 facilitates the spread of metastatic cancer cells to secondary sites. This unique expression profile of ICAM-1 throughout solid tumor microenvironment makes ICAM-1 an intriguing molecular target, which holds great potential as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Herein, we have engineered the ligand binding domain, or the inserted (I) domain of a leukocyte integrin, to exhibit a wide range of monovalent affinities to the natural ligand, ICAM-1. Using the resulting I domain variants, we have created drug and gene delivery nanoparticles, as well as targeted immunotherapeutics that have the ability to bind and migrate to inflammatory sites prevalent in tumors and the associated microenvironment. Through the delivery of diagnostic agents, chemotherapeutics, and immunotherapeutics, the following chapters demonstrate that the affinity enhancements achieved by directed evolution bring the affinity of I domains into the range optimal for numerous applications.

  10. Role of bacteria in leukocyte adhesion deficiency-associated periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hajishengallis, George; Moutsopoulos, Niki M

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Type I (LAD-I)-associated periodontitis is an aggressive form of inflammatory bone loss that has been historically attributed to lack of neutrophil surveillance of the periodontal infection. However, this form of periodontitis has proven unresponsive to antibiotics and/or mechanical removal of the tooth-associated biofilm. Recent studies in LAD-I patients and relevant animal models have shown that the fundamental cause of LAD-I periodontitis involves dysregulation of a granulopoietic cytokine cascade. This cascade includes interleukin IL-23 (IL-23) and IL-17 that drive inflammatory bone loss in LAD-I patients and animal models and, moreover, foster a nutritionally favorable environment for bacterial growth and development of a compositionally unique microbiome. Although the lack of neutrophil surveillance in the periodontal pockets might be expected to lead to uncontrolled bacterial invasion of the underlying connective tissue, microbiological analyses of gingival biopsies from LAD-I patients did not reveal tissue-invasive infection. However, bacterial lipopolysaccharide was shown to translocate into the lesions of LAD-I periodontitis. It is concluded that the bacteria serve as initial triggers for local immunopathology through translocation of bacterial products into the underlying tissues where they unleash the dysregulated IL-23-IL-17 axis. Subsequently, the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory response sustains and shapes a unique local microbiome which, in turn, can further exacerbate inflammation and bone loss in the susceptible host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by Legionella pneumophila exoproducts.

    PubMed

    Sahney, N N; Lambe, B C; Summersgill, J T; Miller, R D

    1990-08-01

    Total exoproducts (relative molecular mass greater than 10,000) from wild-type strains of Legionella pneumophila markedly inhibited human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) superoxide anion generation, at sub-lethal concentrations, in response to four stimuli [1.7, 0, 0.6 and 3.4% of control for zymosan activated particles (ZAP), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore (A 23187), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), respectively]. PMN chemotaxis towards fMLP and spontaneous migration, were also dramatically inhibited (2.8 and 2.9% of buffer-treated controls, respectively). In contrast, total exoproducts from the cas-1 strain of L. pneumophila, a protease-deficient mutant generated by ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis, failed to inhibit PMN superoxide production in response to ZAP and PMA and only partially inhibited PMN response to A 23187 and fMLP. PMN spontaneous migration was unaffected by treatment with total exoproducts from the mutant, while directed chemotaxis was partially inhibited (51.4%). These data demonstrated that L. pneumophila total exoproducts, primarily protease had significant inhibitory effects on normal PMN function and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of legionnaire's disease.

  12. Food Security and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Adult Americans.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of biologic age. Whether food security status modulates LTL is still unknown. We investigated the association between food security and LTL in participants of the 1999-2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the association between food security categories and LTL controlling for sex, race, and education and accounting for the survey design and sample weights. We included 10,888 participants with 5228 (48.0%) being men. They were aged on average 44.1 years. In all, 2362 (21.7%) had less than high school, 2787 (25.6%) had achieved high school, while 5705 (52.5%) had done more than high school. In sex-, race-, and education-adjusted ANCOVA, average LTL (T/S ratio) for participants with high food security versus those with marginal, low, or very low food security was 1.32 versus 1.20 for the age group 25-35 years and 1.26 versus 1.11 for the 35-45 years, ( p < 0.001). The association between food insecurity and LTL shortening in young adults suggest that some of the future effects of food insecurity on chronic disease risk in this population could be mediated by telomere shortening.

  13. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L.

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat lessmore » than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.« less

  14. The Human Leukocyte Antigen–presented Ligandome of B Lymphocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Chopie; Kester, Michel G. D.; de Ru, Arnoud H.; Hombrink, Pleun; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Nijveen, Harm; Leunissen, Jack A. M.; Heemskerk, Mirjam H. M.; Falkenburg, J. H. Frederik; van Veelen, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Peptides presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on the cell surface play a crucial role in adaptive immunology, mediating the communication between T cells and antigen presenting cells. Knowledge of these peptides is of pivotal importance in fundamental studies of T cell action and in cellular immunotherapy and transplantation. In this paper we present the in-depth identification and relative quantification of 14,500 peptide ligands constituting the HLA ligandome of B cells. This large number of identified ligands provides general insight into the presented peptide repertoire and antigen presentation. Our uniquely large set of HLA ligands allowed us to characterize in detail the peptides constituting the ligandome in terms of relative abundance, peptide length distribution, physicochemical properties, binding affinity to the HLA molecule, and presence of post-translational modifications. The presented B-lymphocyte ligandome is shown to be a rich source of information by the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens, virus-derived epitopes, and post-translationally modified HLA ligands, and it can be a good starting point for solving a wealth of specific immunological questions. These HLA ligands can form the basis for reversed immunology approaches to identify T cell epitopes based not on in silico predictions but on the bona fide eluted HLA ligandome. PMID:23481700

  15. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ modulates oxidative stress, inflammation and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in leukocytes isolated from type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Lopez, Irene; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; de Marañon, Arantxa Martinez; Orden, Samuel; Alvarez, Angeles; Bañuls, Celia; Rocha, Milagros; Murphy, Michael P; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M

    2016-12-01

    It is not known if the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as mitoquinone (MitoQ) can modulate oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in T2D patients. We aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of MitoQ on oxidative stress parameters and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in leukocytes of T2D patients. The study population consisted of 98 T2D patients and 71 control subjects. We assessed metabolic and anthropometric parameters, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1), NFκB-p65, TNFα and leukocyte-endothelium interactions. Diabetic patients exhibited higher weight, BMI, waist circumference, SBP, DBP, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, triglycerides, hs-CRP and lower HDL-c with respect to controls. Mitochondrial ROS production was enhanced in T2D patients and decreased by MitoQ. The antioxidant also increased GPX-1 levels and PMN rolling velocity and decreased PMN rolling flux and PMN adhesion in T2D patients. NFκB-p65 and TNFα were augmented in T2D and were both reduced by MitoQ treatment. Our findings support that the antioxidant MitoQ has an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action in the leukocytes of T2D patients by decreasing ROS production, leukocyte-endothelium interactions and TNFα through the action of NFκB. These data suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as MitoQ should be investigated as a novel means of preventing cardiovascular events in T2D patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro phagocytosis of several Candida berkhout species by murine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; Bibas Bonet de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A

    1985-03-01

    In vitro phagocytosis of thirteen Candida berkhout species by rat leukocytes was studied to assess a possible correlation between pathogenicity and phagocytosis Yeast-leukocyte suspensions were mixed up for 3 h and phagocytic index, germ-tube formation and leukocyte candidacidal activity were evaluated. Highest values for phagocytosis were reached in all cases at the end of the first hour. Leukocyte candidacidal activity was absent. Only C. albicans produced germ-tubes. The various phagocytosis indices were determined depending on the Candida species assayed. Under these conditions, the more pathogenic species presented the lower indices of phagocytosis. It is determined that the in vitro phagocytic index may bear a close relationship with the pathogenicity of the Candida berkhout.

  17. No difference in sensitivity for occult infection between tropolone- and oxine-labeled indium-111 leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Bedont, R.A.; Baker, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    There is considerable disagreement as to whether oxine or tropolone is the best labeling agent for indium leukocytes. The authors have previously looked at the sensitivity of oxine-labeled /sup 111/In leukocyte scans for occult infections and now present a similar group of patients imaged with tropolone-labeled /sup 111/In leukocytes. Thirty-four patients (38 studies) with possible occult infection were prospectively studied. Patients were imaged 1-4 hr after injection and again at 24 hr postinjection. The differences in sensitivity between oxine and tropolone when imaged early and at 24 hr were not statistically significant. They conclude that there is not significant differencemore » in the ability to detect infection between oxine- and tropolone-labeled leukocytes, both early at 1-4 hr, and on delayed imaging 24 hr after injection.« less

  18. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.

    1990-05-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinicalmore » improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.« less

  19. Infection in diabetic osteoarthropathy: use of indium-labeled leukocytes for diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, A.H.; Millmond, S.H.; Knight, L.C.

    1986-10-01

    Indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging was compared with three-phase skeletal scintigraphy as a means of determining whether osteomyelitis was complicating diabetic osteoarthropathy. Three-phase scintigraphy demonstrated increased activity in both infected and noninfected osteopathic bone, with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 56% for osteomyelitis. Leukocyte imaging had the same sensitivity but was most helpful for excluding infection (specificity, 89%) when three-phase imaging could not. Abnormal leukocyte localization was seen at the primary site of infection in all cases within 4 hours after injection. Disadvantages of leukocyte imaging included long preparation time, low count rates resulting in poor spatial resolution,more » and absence of bone landmarks, which made it difficult to differentiate soft tissue from bone infection.« less

  20. Vitamin C Prevents Cigarette Smoke-Induced Leukocyte Aggregation and Adhesion to Endothelium in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Frei, Balz; Arfors, Karl-E.

    1994-08-01

    A common feature of cigarette-smoke (CS)-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary emphysema is the activation, aggregation, and adhesion of leukocytes to micro- and macrovascular endothelium. A previous study, using a skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy in awake hamsters, has shown that exposure of hamsters to the smoke generated by one research cigarette elicits the adhesion of fluorescently labeled leukocytes to the endothelium of arterioles and small venules. By the combined use of intravital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we now demonstrate in the same animal model that (i) CS-induced leukocyte adhesion is not confined to the microcirculation, but that leukocytes also adhere singly and in clusters to the aortic endothelium; (ii) CS induces the formation in the bloodstream of aggregates between leukocytes and platelets; and (iii) CS-induced leukocyte adhesion to micro- and macrovascular endothelium and leukocyte-platelet aggregate formation are almost entirely prevented by dietary or intravenous pretreatment with the water-soluble antioxidant vitamin C (venules, 21.4 ± 11.0 vs. 149.6 ± 38.7 leukocytes per mm^2, P < 0.01; arterioles, 8.5 ± 4.2 vs. 54.3 ± 21.6 leukocytes per mm^2, P < 0.01; aortas, 0.8 ± 0.4 vs. 12.4 ± 5.6 leukocytes per mm^2, P < 0.01; means ± SD of n = 7 animals, 15 min after CS exposure). No inhibitory effect was observed by pretreatment of the animals with the lipid-soluble antioxidants vitamin E or probucol. The protective effects of vitamin C on CS-induced leukocyte adhesion and aggregation were seen at vitamin C plasma levels (55.6 ± 22.2 μM, n = 7) that can easily be reached in humans by dietary means or supplementation, suggesting that vitamin C effectively contributes to protection from CS-associated cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases in humans.

  1. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Ledesma, Marta; Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn.

  2. Fine-grained leukocyte classification with deep residual learning for microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Qin, Feiwei; Gao, Nannan; Peng, Yong; Wu, Zizhao; Shen, Shuying; Grudtsin, Artur

    2018-08-01

    Leukocyte classification and cytometry have wide applications in medical domain, previous researches usually exploit machine learning techniques to classify leukocytes automatically. However, constrained by the past development of machine learning techniques, for example, extracting distinctive features from raw microscopic images are difficult, the widely used SVM classifier only has relative few parameters to tune, these methods cannot efficiently handle fine-grained classification cases when the white blood cells have up to 40 categories. Based on deep learning theory, a systematic study is conducted on finer leukocyte classification in this paper. A deep residual neural network based leukocyte classifier is constructed at first, which can imitate the domain expert's cell recognition process, and extract salient features robustly and automatically. Then the deep neural network classifier's topology is adjusted according to the prior knowledge of white blood cell test. After that the microscopic image dataset with almost one hundred thousand labeled leukocytes belonging to 40 categories is built, and combined training strategies are adopted to make the designed classifier has good generalization ability. The proposed deep residual neural network based classifier was tested on microscopic image dataset with 40 leukocyte categories. It achieves top-1 accuracy of 77.80%, top-5 accuracy of 98.75% during the training procedure. The average accuracy on the test set is nearly 76.84%. This paper presents a fine-grained leukocyte classification method for microscopic images, based on deep residual learning theory and medical domain knowledge. Experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach. Extended experiments support that the fine-grained leukocyte classifier could be used in real medical applications, assist doctors in diagnosing diseases, reduce human power significantly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotic-Enhanced Phagocytosis of ’Borrelia recurrentis’ by Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-30

    hours after Butler 7 institution of antibiotic treatment. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are known to release endogenous pyrogen after phagocytosis of...other bacteria (6), and endogenous pyrogen may be one of the mediators of the rigor and temperature rise in the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (2). Release...the pathogenesis of fever. XII. The effect of phagocytosis on the release of endogenous pyrogen by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Exp. Med. 119:715

  4. Large transient nonproton ion movements in purple membrane suspensions are abolished by solubilization in Triton X-100.

    PubMed Central

    Marinetti, T; Mauzerall, D

    1986-01-01

    Light-induced release/uptake of both protons and other ions cause transient changes in conductivity in suspensions of purple membrane (PM) fragments (Marinetti, Tim, and David Mauzerall, 1983, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80:178-180). We find that the release/uptake of nonproton ions with quantum yield greater than 1 is observed at most pHs and ionic strengths. Only at both low pH and low ionic strength is the conductivity transient mostly due to protons. Our hypothesis is that during the photocycle, changes occur in the PM's dense surface charge distribution that result in changes in the number of counterions bound or condensed at the membrane surface. To test this, the PM structure was perturbed with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. Immediately after addition, Triton does not abolish the nonproton ion movements; in fact at low detergent concentrations (0.02% vol/vol) the signal amplitudes increased considerably. However, when PM is completely solubilized into monomers in Triton, the conductivity transients are due to protons alone, though at lower quantum yield compared with native PM. These results suggest that changes in the surface charge distribution in native PM's photocycle could contribute to proton transfer between the aqueous phase and bR itself. PMID:3019444

  5. Substitution of histidine-137 by glutamine abolishes the catalytic activity of the ribosome-inactivating protein alpha-sarcin.

    PubMed Central

    Lacadena, J; Mancheño, J M; Martinez-Ruiz, A; Martínez del Pozo, A; Gasset, M; Oñaderra, M; Gavilanes, J G

    1995-01-01

    The alpha-sarcin cytotoxin is an extracellular fungal protein that inhibits protein biosynthesis by specifically cleaving one phosphodiester bond of the 28 S rRNA. The His137 residue of alpha-sarcin is suggested to be involved in the catalytic activity of this protein, based on the observed sequence similarity with some fungal ribonucleases. Replacement of this residue by Gln (H137Q mutant variant of alpha-sarcin) abolishes the ribonuclease activity of the protein. This has been demonstrated for an homogeneous preparation of the H137Q alpha-sarcin by measuring its effect against both intact rabbit ribosomes and the homopolymer poly(A). The conformation of H137Q alpha-sarcin is highly similar to that of the wild-type protein, which has been analysed by CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Both H137Q and wild-type alpha-sarcin exhibit identical CD spectra in the peptide-bond region, indicating that no changes at the level of the secondary structure are produced upon mutation. Only minor differences are observed in both near-UV CD and fluorescence emission spectra in comparison to those of the wild-type protein. Moreover, H137Q alpha-sarcin interacts with phospholipid vesicles, promoting the same effects as the native cytotoxin. Therefore, we propose that His137 is part of the ribonucleolytic active site of the cytotoxin alpha-sarcin. Images Figure 4 PMID:7626023

  6. Diminished but Not Abolished Effect of Two His351 Mutants of Anthrax Edema Factor in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Taoran; Zhao, Xinghui; Liu, Ju; Meng, Yingying; Feng, Yingying; Fang, Ting; Zhang, Jinlong; Yang, Xiuxu; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Edema toxin (ET), which is composed of a potent adenylate cyclase (AC), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA), is one of the major toxicity factors of Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we introduced mutations in full-length EF to generate alanine EF(H351A) and arginine EF(H351R) variants. In vitro activity analysis displayed that the adenylyl cyclase activity of both the mutants was significantly diminished compared with the wild-type EF. When the native and mutant toxins were administered subcutaneously in a mouse footpad edema model, severe acute swelling was evoked by wild-type ET, while the symptoms induced by mutant toxins were very minor. Systemic administration of these EF variants caused non-lethal hepatotoxicity. In addition, EF(H351R) exhibited slightly higher activity in causing more severe edema than EF(H351A). Our findings demonstrate that the toxicity of ET is not abolished by substitution of EF residue His351 by alanine or arginine. These results also indicate the potential of the mouse footpad edema model as a sensitive method for evaluating both ET toxicity and the efficacy of candidate therapeutic agents. PMID:26848687

  7. Lesions of the amygdala central nucleus abolish lipoprivic-enhanced responding during oil-predicting conditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Benoit, S C; Morell, J R; Davidson, T L

    1999-12-01

    T. L. Davidson, A. M. Altizer, S. C. Benoit, E. K. Walls, and T. L. Powley (1997) reported that rats show facilitated responding to conditioned stimuli (CSs) that predict oil, after administration of the lipoprivic agent, Na-2-mercaptoacetate (MA). This facilitation was blocked by vagal deafferentation. The present article extends that investigation to another structure, the amygdala central nucleus (CN). The CN receives inputs from dorsal vagal nuclei, and neurotoxic lesions of this nucleus are reported to abolish feeding in response to lipoprivic challenges. In Experiment 1, rats with ibotenic acid (IBO) lesions of the CN failed to show enhanced appetitive responding during oil-predicting CSs after administration of MA. Experiment 2 used a conditioned taste-aversion procedure to establish that rats with IBO lesions of the CN were able to discriminate the tastes of sucrose and peanut oil and had intact CS-US representations. It is concluded that the amygdala CN is a necessary structure for the detection of lipoprivic challenges.

  8. Simultaneous ablation of prmt-1 and prmt-5 abolishes asymmetric and symmetric arginine dimethylations in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Keiko; Shigekawa, Chihiro; Araoi, Sho; Sha, Liang; Inagawa, Takayuki; Kanou, Akihiko; Kako, Koichiro; Daitoku, Hiroaki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to arginine residues and are classified into two types: type I producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and type II producing symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). PRMTs have been shown to regulate many cellular processes, including signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. Since the loss-of-function mutation of PRMT1 and PRMT5, each of which is the predominant type I and II, respectively, causes embryonic lethality in mice, their physiological significance at the whole-body level remains largely unknown. Here, we show the morphological and functional phenotypes of single or double null alleles of prmt-1 and prmt-5 in Caenorhabditis elegans. The prmt-1;prmt-5 double mutants are viable, and exhibit short body length and small brood size compared to N2 and each of the single mutants. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that the levels of ADMA and SDMA were abolished in the prmt-1;prmt-5 double mutants. Both prmt-1 and prmt-5 were required for resistance to heat and oxidative stresses, whereas prmt-5 is not involved in lifespan regulation even when prmt-1 is ablated. This mutant strain would be a useful model animal for investigating the role of asymmetric and symmetric arginine dimethylation in vivo. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Abolished thermal and mechanical antinociception but retained visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Soichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Ishihara, Kumatoshi; Uhl, George R.; Satoh, Masamichi; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Butorphanol is hypothesized to induce analgesia via opioid pathways, although the precise mechanisms for its effects remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) in thermal, mechanical, and visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol using MOP knockout (KO) mice. Butorphanol-induced thermal antinociception, assessed by the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous and abolished in homozygous MOP-KO mice compared with wildtype mice. The results obtained from our butorphanol-induced mechanical antinociception experiments, assessed by the Randall-Selitto test, were similar to the results obtained from the thermal antinociception experiments in these mice. Interestingly, however, butorphanol retained its ability to induce significant visceral chemical antinociception, assessed by the writhing test, in homozygous MOP-KO mice. The butorphanol-induced visceral chemical antinociception that was retained in homozygous MOP-KO mice was completely blocked by pretreatment with nor-binaltorphimine, a κ-opioid receptor (KOP) antagonist. In vitro binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate assays also showed that butorphanol possessed higher affinity for KOPs and MOPs than for δ-opioid receptors. These results molecular pharmacologically confirmed previous studies implicating MOPs, and partially KOPs, in mediating butorphanol-induced analgesia. PMID:18417173

  10. Reconciling the role of serotonin in behavioral inhibition and aversion: acute tryptophan depletion abolishes punishment-induced inhibition in humans

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.; Clark, Luke; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2009-01-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin has been implicated in a large number of affective and executive functions, but its precise contribution to motivation remains unclear. One influential hypothesis has implicated serotonin in aversive processing; another has proposed a more general role for serotonin in behavioral inhibition. Since behavioral inhibition is a pre-potent reaction to aversive outcomes, it has been a challenge to reconcile these two accounts. Here, we show that serotonin is critical for punishment-induced inhibition, but not overall motor response inhibition or reporting aversive outcomes. We used acute tryptophan depletion to temporarily lower brain serotonin in healthy human volunteers as they completed a novel task designed to obtain separate measures of motor response inhibition, punishment-induced inhibition, and sensitivity to aversive outcomes. Following a placebo treatment, participants were slower to respond under punishment conditions, compared to reward conditions. Tryptophan depletion abolished this punishment-induced inhibition, without affecting overall motor response inhibition or the ability to adjust response bias in line with punishment contingencies. The magnitude of reduction in punishment-induced inhibition depended on the degree to which tryptophan depletion reduced plasma tryptophan levels. These findings extend and clarify previous research on the role of serotonin in aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, and fit with current theorizing on serotonin's involvement in predicting aversive outcomes. PMID:19776285

  11. Seasonal changes in cortisol sensitivity and glucocorticoid receptor affinity and number in leukocytes of coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, Alec G.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpe, Cameron

    1993-01-01

    To determine if there were organ-specific changes in immune responses or immune-endocrine interaction, we monitored in vitro immune response, cortisol sensitivity and number and affinity of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in leukocytes from freshwater-adapted juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during the physiological changes that prepare them to enter the marine environment. During this period, absolute immune response declined, but splenic leukocytes generated more antibody-producing cells than did cells from anterior kidney. Splenic leukocytes were initially more sensitive to the suppressive effects of cortisol and had fewer GR than leukocytes from the anterior kidney. Leukocytes from the anterior kidney were initially insensitive to cortisol but developed sensitivity at about the same time as the dissociation constant and number of GR increased. In vitro incubation of anterior kidney leukocytes in cortisol altered GR variables when experiments were conducted during March through September but not during November through February. In some years, changes in GR or immune responses were correlated with plasma cortisol titers, but in other years there was no correlation. Thus, the exact relation between cortisol, GR and immune response in anadromous salmonids is unclear and other factors are involved.

  12. Uptake of apoptotic leukocytes by synovial lining macrophages inhibits immune complex-mediated arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Lent, P L; Licht, R; Dijkman, H; Holthuysen, A E; Berden, J H; van den Berg, W B

    2001-11-01

    Previously we have shown that synovial lining macrophages (SLMs) determine the onset of experimental immune complex-mediated arthritis (ICA). During joint inflammation, many leukocytes undergo apoptosis, and removal of leukocytes by SLMs may regulate resolution of inflammation. In this study we investigated binding and uptake of apoptotic leukocytes by SLMs and its impact on the onset of murine experimental arthritis. We used an in vitro model to evaluate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells on chemotaxis. Phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes resulted in a significant decrease (58%) of chemotactic activity for polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). If apoptotic cells were injected directly into a normal murine knee joint, SLMs resulted in a prominent uptake of cells. After ICA induction, electron micrographs showed that apoptotic leukocytes were evidently present in SLMs on days 1 and 2. Injection of apoptotic leukocytes into the knee joint 1 h before induction of ICA significantly inhibited PMN infiltration into the knee joint at 24 h (61% decrease). This study indicates that uptake of apoptotic leukocytes by SLM reduces chemotactic activity and inhibits the onset of experimental arthritis. These findings indicate an important mechanism in the resolution of joint inflammation.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of leukocyte lineage derived from human hematopoietic cells in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Otsuka, Kensuke; Yoshino, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Nakasono, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    Recently, humanized animals whereby a part of the animal is biologically engineered using human genes or cells have been utilized to overcome interspecific differences. Herein, we analyzed the detail of the differentiation states of various human leukocyte subpopulations in humanized mouse and evaluated comprehensively the similarity of the leukocyte lineage between humanized mice and humans. Humanized mice were established by transplanting human CD34(+) cord blood cells into irradiated severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid/IL2Rγ(null) (NOG) mice, and the phenotypes of human cells contained in bone marrow, thymus, spleen and peripheral blood from the mice were analyzed at monthly intervals until 4 months after cell transplantation. The analysis revealed that transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells via the caudal vein homed and engrafted themselves successfully at the mouse bone marrow. Subsequently, the differentiated leukocytes migrated to the various tissues. Almost all of the leukocytes within the thymus were human cells. Furthermore, analysis of the differentiation states of human leukocytes in various tissues and organs indicated that it is highly likely that the human-like leukocyte lineage can be developed in mice. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  15. Stress-induced enhancement of leukocyte trafficking into sites of surgery or immune activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Kavitha; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2005-04-01

    Effective immunoprotection requires rapid recruitment of leukocytes into sites of surgery, wounding, infection, or vaccination. In contrast to immunosuppressive chronic stressors, short-term acute stressors have immunoenhancing effects. Here, we quantify leukocyte infiltration within a surgical sponge to elucidate the kinetics, magnitude, subpopulation, and chemoattractant specificity of an acute stress-induced increase in leukocyte trafficking to a site of immune activation. Mice acutely stressed before sponge implantation showed 200-300% higher neutrophil, macrophage, natural killer cell, and T cell infiltration than did nonstressed animals. We also quantified the effects of acute stress on lymphotactin- (LTN; a predominantly lymphocyte-specific chemokine), and TNF-- (a proinflammatory cytokine) stimulated leukocyte infiltration. An additional stress-induced increase in infiltration was observed for neutrophils, in response to TNF-, macrophages, in response to TNF- and LTN, and natural killer cells and T cells in response to LTN. These results show that acute stress initially increases trafficking of all major leukocyte subpopulations to a site of immune activation. Tissue damage-, antigen-, or pathogen-driven chemoattractants subsequently determine which subpopulations are recruited more vigorously. Such stress-induced increases in leukocyte trafficking may enhance immunoprotection during surgery, vaccination, or infection, but may also exacerbate immunopathology during inflammatory (cardiovascular disease or gingivitis) or autoimmune (psoriasis, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis) diseases. chemokine | psychophysiological stress | surgical sponge | wound healing | lymphotactin

  16. Leukocyte integrin activation mediates transient neutropenia after G-CSF administration

    PubMed Central

    Tuschong, Laura; Bauer, Thomas R.; Yau, Yu Ying; Leitman, Susan F.; Hickstein, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    After administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), there is a marked, albeit transient, drop in circulating neutrophils. To determine the role of leukocyte integrins in this disappearance, a dog having canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) or CLAD dogs who had undergone gene correction either by matched littermate allogeneic transplant or autologous gene therapy were evaluated. Shortly after G-CSF administration, a dramatic, yet transient, neutropenia was observed in the control littermates. This neutropenia was not as marked in the CLAD dogs. In all instances, it was CD18+ neutrophils that preferentially egressed from the circulation. The association of CD18 with this rapid loss suggested leukocyte integrin activation after G-CSF administration. To determine the activation status of the integrin, a monoclonal antibody recognizing the activated α-subunit cation binding domain (mAb24) was used to evaluate human leukocytes after G-CSF administration. Mirroring the dramatic decrease in circulating neutrophil numbers, there was a dramatic and specific increase in the activation of the α-subunit after G-CSF expression on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This activation, like the drop in neutrophil count, was transient. These results demonstrate that the leukocyte integrin on circulating neutrophils is transiently activated after G-CSF administration and mediates the transient neutropenia observed after G-CSF administration. PMID:21844566

  17. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (P<0.05 for time effect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

  18. Single-step transepithelial ASLA (SCHWIND) with mitomycin-C for the correction of high myopia: long term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Georgoudis, Panagiotis N; Selimis, Vasilis D; Mukherjee, Achyut N

    2015-01-01

    We wanted to compare the outcomes of single-step modified transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) termed a SCHWIND all surface laser ablation (ASLA) versus conventional alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the correction of higher myopia of 6.00 diopters (D) or more, in an area with high risk of haze due to high intensity of sunlight. We used a prospective interventional cohort with matched retrospective control groups. Patients with >6 D myopia and <3.5 D of astigmatism were included. All treatments were performed with the SCHWIND Amaris system using aspheric ablation profiles. Mitomycin C was used in all PRK and ASLA cases. Outcomes were postoperative refraction, visual acuity, stability, and complications. The follow-up period was up to 12 months. In total, 101 eyes were included after exclusions. Mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -7.9 D, -8.2 D, and -7.4 D in the ASLA (n=41), PRK (n=29), and LASIK (n=31) groups. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent at 12 months postoperatively was -0.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.34), -0.2 (SD: 0.59), and -0.08 (SD: 0.36) in the ASLA, PRK, and LASIK groups, with 91.4%, 85.7%, and 83.9% within 0.5 D of target, respectively. Refractive outcomes and regression at 12 months did not vary among groups (P>0.05). Mean logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) uncorrected distance visual acuity at 12 months was 0.00 (SD: 0.05), 0.06 (SD: 0.1), and 0.05 (SD: 0.09) in the ASLA, PRK, and LASIK groups, with significantly better vision in the tPRK group versus LASIK (P=0.01) and PRK (P=0.01) groups. ASLA (SCHWIND) tPRK with mitomycin C for high myopia demonstrates comparable refractive outcomes to LASIK and PRK, with relatively favorable visual acuity outcomes. There was no increased incidence of haze in the ASLA group.

  19. Transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy protocol for treating irregular astigmatism based on population epithelial thickness measurements by artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Dickeson, Zachary I; Gobbe, Marine

    2014-06-01

    To report the outcomes of transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (TE-PTK) in the treatment of irregular astigmatism and define a standard treatment protocol based on population epithelial thickness measurements. Retrospective analysis of 41 TE-PTK procedures in cases of irregular astigmatism after refractive surgery or with corneal irregularities. The TE-PTK ablations were performed according to preoperative epithelial thickness maps obtained using an Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound arc-scanner (ArcScan, Inc., Morrison, CO). Visual and refractive outcomes were analyzed 12 months after the procedure. The efficacy of the stromal surface regularization was evaluated as the change in epithelial thickness range (ie, the difference between minimum and maximum epithelial thickness). A further refractive ablation was performed immediately after TE-PTK in 12 eyes. Corrected distance visual acuity was improved by one or more lines in 58% of eyes, whereas 1 eye lost one line and no eyes lost two lines. Significant stromal surface regularization was achieved with epithelial thickness range reduced on average from 41 to 29 μm. There was an unpredictable refractive shift in the TE-PTK only group with a change of more than 0.50 diopter (D) in 59% of eyes. Refractive accuracy in the TE-PTK with refractive ablation group was reasonably good, although there were two outliers (18%) outside ±1.00 D. A therapeutic window was identified between the highest thinnest epithelium of 51 μm and lowest thickest epithelium of 60 μm. TE-PTK can be a safe and effective method of reducing stromal surface irregularities by taking advantage of the natural masking effect of the epithelium. There can be a significant refractive shift due to lenticular epithelial masking. A standard protocol of targeting an initial TE-PTK ablation for 55 μm will likely achieve breakthrough of the thinnest epithelium without total epithelial removal, allowing the treatment to be continued in a

  20. Single-step transepithelial ASLA (SCHWIND) with mitomycin-C for the correction of high myopia: long term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Georgoudis, Panagiotis N; Selimis, Vasilis D; Mukherjee, Achyut N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We wanted to compare the outcomes of single-step modified transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) termed a SCHWIND all surface laser ablation (ASLA) versus conventional alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the correction of higher myopia of 6.00 diopters (D) or more, in an area with high risk of haze due to high intensity of sunlight. Methods We used a prospective interventional cohort with matched retrospective control groups. Patients with >6 D myopia and <3.5 D of astigmatism were included. All treatments were performed with the SCHWIND Amaris system using aspheric ablation profiles. Mitomycin C was used in all PRK and ASLA cases. Outcomes were postoperative refraction, visual acuity, stability, and complications. The follow-up period was up to 12 months. Results In total, 101 eyes were included after exclusions. Mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -7.9 D, -8.2 D, and -7.4 D in the ASLA (n=41), PRK (n=29), and LASIK (n=31) groups. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent at 12 months postoperatively was −0.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.34), −0.2 (SD: 0.59), and −0.08 (SD: 0.36) in the ASLA, PRK, and LASIK groups, with 91.4%, 85.7%, and 83.9% within 0.5 D of target, respectively. Refractive outcomes and regression at 12 months did not vary among groups (P>0.05). Mean logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) uncorrected distance visual acuity at 12 months was 0.00 (SD: 0.05), 0.06 (SD: 0.1), and 0.05 (SD: 0.09) in the ASLA, PRK, and LASIK groups, with significantly better vision in the tPRK group versus LASIK (P=0.01) and PRK (P=0.01) groups. Conclusion ASLA (SCHWIND) tPRK with mitomycin C for high myopia demonstrates comparable refractive outcomes to LASIK and PRK, with relatively favorable visual acuity outcomes. There was no increased incidence of haze in the ASLA group. PMID:25565766

  1. Thyrotropin Receptor Epitope and Human Leukocyte Antigen in Graves’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hidefumi; De Groot, Leslie J.; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since the extracellular domain of human TSHR (TSHR-ECD) is shed into the circulation, TSHR-ECD is a preferentially immunogenic portion of TSHR. Both genetic factors and environmental factors contribute to development of GD. Inheritance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides. These peptide epitopes bind to HLA-class II molecules, and subsequently the complex of HLA-class II and TSHR-ECD epitope is presented to CD4+ T cells. The activated CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines/chemokines that stimulate B-cells to produce TSAb, and in turn hyperthyroidism occurs. Numerous studies have been done to identify T- and B-cell epitopes in TSHR-ECD, including (1) in silico, (2) in vitro, (3) in vivo, and (4) clinical experiments. Murine models of GD and HLA-transgenic mice have played a pivotal role in elucidating the immunological mechanisms. To date, linear or conformational epitopes of TSHR-ECD, as well as the molecular structure of the epitope-binding groove in HLA-DR, were reported to be related to the pathogenesis in GD. Dysfunction of central tolerance in the thymus, or in peripheral tolerance, such as regulatory T cells, could allow development of GD. Novel treatments using TSHR antagonists or mutated TSHR peptides have been reported to be effective. We review and update the role of immunogenic TSHR epitopes and HLA in GD, and offer perspectives on TSHR epitope specific treatments. PMID:27602020

  2. Energy intake and leukocyte telomere length in young adults123

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Nehama; Kimura, Masayuki; Sinnreich, Ronit; Aviv, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary energy restriction in mammals, particularly at a young age, extends the life span. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is thought to be a bioindicator of aging in humans. High n−6 (omega-6) PUFA intake may accelerate LTL attrition. Objective: We determined whether lower energy and higher PUFA intakes in young adulthood are associated with shorter LTL in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Design: In a longitudinal observational study (405 men, 204 women), diet was determined at baseline by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and LTL was determined by Southern blots at mean ages of 30.1 y (baseline) and 43.2 y (follow-up). Spearman correlations and multivariable linear regression were used. Results: Baseline energy intake was inversely associated with follow-up LTL in men (standardized β = −0.171, P = 0.0005) but not in women (P = 0.039 for sex interaction). The difference in men between the highest and lowest quintiles of energy was 244 base pairs (bp) (95% CI: 59, 429 bp) and between extreme quintiles of LTL was 440 kcal (95% CI: 180, 700 kcal). Multivariable adjustment modestly attenuated the association (β = −0.157, P = 0.002). Inverse associations, which were noted for all macronutrients, were strongest for the unsaturated fatty acids. In multivariable models including energy and the macronutrients (as percentage of energy), the significant inverse energy-LTL association (but not the PUFA-LTL association) persisted. The energy-LTL association was restricted to never smokers (standardized β = −0.259, P = 0.0008; P = 0.050 for the smoking × calorie interaction). Conclusions: The inverse calorie intake–LTL association is consistent with trial data showing beneficial effects of calorie restriction on aging biomarkers. Further exploration of energy intake and LTL dynamics in the young is needed. PMID:22237065

  3. Postnatal development of leukocyte subset composition and activity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Toman, M; Faldyna, M; Knotigova, P; Pokorova, D; Sinkora, J

    2002-09-10

    The aim of the presentation is to summarise our data on the counts and activity of circulating canine leukocytes at birth and on their changes in the first 3 months of life. On day 1, neutrophil counts were almost three times higher than lymphocyte counts. During the first week of life, a decrease of neutrophil and an increase of lymphocyte counts, resulting in a predominance of lymphocytes, were observed. Neutrophil counts reached values comparable with those in adults in 1 month. Lymphocyte counts were higher than those in adults during the first 3 months. From birth to the age of 3 months, the phagocytic activity of neutrophils was nonsignificantly higher than in young adults. When compared with adults, the peripheral blood of new-born pups contained a lower proportion of T lymphocytes (detected by CD3 and CD5 markers), with a very low percentage of CD8(+) cells and a higher proportion of CD21(+) B lymphocytes. The counts of individual subsets levelled out during the first 3 months of life, although the proportion of CD21(+) B cells remained higher all the time. Lymphocytes of new-born pups were able to respond to nonspecific mitogen stimulation. Spontaneous proliferation in vitro was higher during the first week of life. Although in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes with Concanavalin A in some pups was comparable with that of adult dogs, mean activity was weaker. Pups with zero or very low levels of maternal antibodies were able to develop specific immune responses to a parvovirus antigen as early as at 2 weeks of age. On the basis of these data, we assume that pups are born with an immune system that can respond to external stimuli. Nevertheless its development continues in the postnatal period and some parameters differ from adult values for at least 3 months after birth.

  4. Paradoxical attenuation of leukocyte rolling in response to ischemia- reperfusion and extracorporeal blood circulation in inflamed tissue.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Stephan C; Sehrt, Desiree N; Kamler, Markus; Jakob, Heinz; Lehr, Hans-Anton

    2005-07-01

    In contrast to acute preparations such as the exteriorized mesentery or the cremaster muscle, chronically instrumented chamber models allow one to study the microcirculation under "physiological" conditions, i.e., in the absence of trauma-induced leukocyte rolling along the venular endothelium. To underscore the importance of studying the naive microcirculation, we implanted titanium dorsal skinfold chambers in hamsters and used intravital fluorescence microscopy to study venular leukocyte rolling in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury or extracorporeal blood circulation. The experiments were performed in chambers that fulfilled all well-established criteria for a physiological microcirculation as well as in chambers that showed various extents of leukocyte rolling due to trauma, hemorrhage, or inflammation. In ideal chambers with a physiological microcirculation (<30 rolling leukocytes/mm vessel circumference in 30 s), ischemia-reperfusion injury and extracorporeal blood circulation significantly stimulated leukocyte rolling along the venular endothelium and, subsequently, firm leukocyte adhesion. In contrast, both stimuli failed to elicit leukocyte rolling in borderline chambers (30-100 leukocytes/mm), and in blatantly inflamed chambers with yet higher numbers of rolling leukocytes at baseline (>100 leukocytes/mm), we observed a paradoxical reduction of leukocyte rolling after ischemia-reperfusion injury or extracorporeal blood circulation. A similar effect was observed when we superfused leukotriene B4 (LTB4) onto the chamber tissue. The initial increase in leukocyte rolling in response to an LTB4 challenge was reversed by a second superfusion 90 min later. These observations underscore 1) the benefit of studying leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in chronically instrumented chamber models and 2) the necessity to strictly adhere to well-established criteria of a physiological microcirculation.

  5. Polymeric capsule-cushioned leukocyte cell membrane vesicles as a biomimetic delivery platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changyong; Wu, Zhiguang; Lin, Zhihua; Lin, Xiankun; He, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    We report a biomimetic delivery of microsized capsule-cushioned leukocyte membrane vesicles (CLMVs) through the conversion of freshly reassembled leukocyte membrane vesicles (LMVs), including membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins onto the surface of layer-by-layer assembled polymeric multilayer microcapsules. The leukocyte membrane coating was verified by using electron microscopy, a quartz crystal microbalance, dynamic light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The resulting CLMVs have the ability to effectively evade clearance by the immune system and thus prolong the circulation time in mice. Moreover, we also show that the right-side-out leukocyte membrane coating can distinctly improve the accumulation of capsules in tumor sites through the molecular recognition of membrane-bound proteins of CLMVs with those of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The natural cell membrane camouflaged polymeric multilayer capsules with the immunosuppressive and tumor-recognition functionalities of natural leukocytes provide a new biomimetic delivery platform for disease therapy.We report a biomimetic delivery of microsized capsule-cushioned leukocyte membrane vesicles (CLMVs) through the conversion of freshly reassembled leukocyte membrane vesicles (LMVs), including membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins onto the surface of layer-by-layer assembled polymeric multilayer microcapsules. The leukocyte membrane coating was verified by using electron microscopy, a quartz crystal microbalance, dynamic light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The resulting CLMVs have the ability to effectively evade clearance by the immune system and thus prolong the circulation time in mice. Moreover, we also show that the right-side-out leukocyte membrane coating can distinctly improve the accumulation of capsules in tumor sites through the molecular recognition of membrane-bound proteins of CLMVs with those of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The natural

  6. Evaluation of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Chang, Yan-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yan

    2017-11-01

    The overexpression of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G is associated with malignant tumours. The purpose of our study was to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G concentrations in ascites and to evaluate the value of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the diagnosis of malignant ascites. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in 64 patients with malignant ascites and 30 patients with benign ascites. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the detection of malignant ascites. Ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels were significantly higher in the malignant ascites group than in the benign ascites group (20.718 ± 3.215 versus 12.467 ± 3.678 µg/L, t = 7.425, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G was 0.957 (95% confidence interval, 0.872-0.992). At a cut-off value of 19.60 µg/L, the sensitivity and specificity of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G were 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 71.0%-96.5%) and 100% (95% confidence interval, 88.4%-100%), respectively. With respect to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity, ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (0.810, 68.75% and 83.33%, respectively) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (0.710, 65.63% and 70%, respectively) significantly differed (all p < 0.05). In malignant ascites that were cytology-negative and biopsy-positive, the rate of positivity for ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G was 75%, which was higher than the corresponding rates for ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (31.25%) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (6.25%; both p < 0.05). In conclusion, The detection of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G exhibited good performance for diagnosing malignant ascites, and particularly those that

  7. Nanowire array chips for molecular typing of rare trafficking leukocytes with application to neurodegenerative pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Minsuk; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Mi-Ri; Wu, Yu; Han, Lin; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2014-05-01

    Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective

  8. A Homozygous Missense Mutation in TGM5 Abolishes Epidermal Transglutaminase 5 Activity and Causes Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Andrew J.; van Steensel, Maurice A. M.; Steijlen, Peter M.; van Geel, Michel; Velden, Jaap van der; Morley, Susan M.; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora; McLean, W. H. Irwin

    2005-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by the shedding of the outer epidermis. In the acral form, the dorsa of the hands and feet are predominantly affected. Ultrastructural analysis has revealed tissue separation at the junction between the granular cells and the stratum corneum in the outer epidermis. Genomewide linkage analysis in a consanguineous Dutch kindred mapped the gene to 15q15.2 in the interval between markers D15S1040 and D15S1016. Two homozygous missense mutations, T109M and G113C, were found in TGM5, which encodes transglutaminase 5 (TG5), in all affected persons in two unrelated families. The mutation was present on the same haplotype in both kindreds, indicating a probable ancestral mutation. TG5 is strongly expressed in the epidermal granular cells, where it cross-links a variety of structural proteins in the terminal differentiation of the epidermis to form the cornified cell envelope. An established, in vitro, biochemical cross-linking assay revealed that, although T109M is not pathogenic, G113C completely abolishes TG5 activity. Three-dimensional modeling of TG5 showed that G113C lies close to the catalytic domain, and, furthermore, that this glycine residue is conserved in all known transglutaminases, which is consistent with pathogenicity. Other families with more-widespread peeling skin phenotypes lacked TGM5 mutations. This study identifies the first causative gene in this heterogeneous group of skin disorders and demonstrates that the protein cross-linking function performed by TG5 is vital for maintaining cell-cell adhesion between the outermost layers of the epidermis. PMID:16380904

  9. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin is critical for maintaining a differentiated brain response to threatening face emotions. Lower serotonin leads to a broadening of a normally fear-specific response to anger, and higher levels reduce the differentiated brain response to aversive face emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute heat-evoked temperature sensation is impaired but not abolished in mice lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels.

    PubMed

    Marics, Irène; Malapert, Pascale; Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation.

  11. Cocaine self-administration abolishes associative neural encoding in the nucleus accumbens necessary for higher-order learning.

    PubMed

    Saddoris, Michael P; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-01-15

    Cocaine use is often associated with diminished cognitive function, persisting even after abstinence from the drug. Likely targets for these changes are the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which are critical for mediating the rewarding aspects of drugs of abuse as well as supporting associative learning. To understand this deficit, we recorded neural activity in the NAc of rats with a history of cocaine self-administration or control subjects while they learned Pavlovian first- and second-order associations. Rats were trained for 2 weeks to self-administer intravenous cocaine or water. Later, rats learned a first-order Pavlovian discrimination where a conditioned stimulus (CS)+ predicted food, and a control (CS-) did not. Rats then learned a second-order association where, absent any food reinforcement, a novel cued (SOC+) predicted the CS+ and another (SOC-) predicted the CS-. Electrophysiological recordings were taken during performance of these tasks in the NAc core and shell. Both control subjects and cocaine-experienced rats learned the first-order association, but only control subjects learned the second-order association. Neural recordings indicated that core and shell neurons encoded task-relevant information that correlated with behavioral performance, whereas this type of encoding was abolished in cocaine-experienced rats. The NAc core and shell perform complementary roles in supporting normal associative learning, functions that are impaired after cocaine experience. This impoverished encoding of motivational behavior, even after abstinence from the drug, might provide a key mechanism to understand why addiction remains a chronically relapsing disorder despite repeated attempts at sobriety. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Glutamatergic stimulation of the left dentate gyrus abolishes depressive-like behaviors in a rat learned helplessness paradigm.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeho; Cho, Hojin; Kim, Gun Tae; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Goo

    2017-10-01

    Episodic experiences of stress have been identified as the leading cause of major depressive disorder (MDD). The occurrence of MDD is profoundly influenced by the individual's coping strategy, rather than the severity of the stress itself. Resting brain activity has been shown to alter in several mental disorders. However, the functional relationship between resting brain activity and coping strategies has not yet been studied. In the present study, we observed different patterns of resting brain activity in rats that had determined either positive (resilient to stress) or negative (vulnerable to stress) coping strategies, and examined whether modulation of the preset resting brain activity could influence the behavioral phenotype associated with negative coping strategy (i.e., depressive-like behaviors). We used a learned helplessness paradigm-a well-established model of MDD-to detect coping strategies. Differences in resting state brain activity between animals with positive and negative coping strategies were assessed using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Glutamatergic stimulation was used to modulate resting brain activity. After exposure to repeated uncontrollable stress, seven of 23 rats exhibited positive coping strategies, while eight of 23 rats exhibited negative coping strategies. Increased resting brain activity was observed only in the left ventral dentate gyrus of the positive coping rats using FDG-PET. Furthermore, glutamatergic stimulation of the left dentate gyrus abolished depressive-like behaviors in rats with negative coping strategies. Increased resting brain activity in the left ventral dentate gyrus helps animals to select positive coping strategies in response to future stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal ozone exposure abolishes stress activation of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase in the nucleus tractus solitarius of adult rat.

    PubMed

    Boussouar, A; Araneda, S; Hamelin, C; Soulage, C; Kitahama, K; Dalmaz, Y

    2009-03-06

    Ozone (O3) is widely distributed in the environment, with high levels of air pollution. However, very few studies have documented the effects on postnatal development of O3 during pregnancy. The long-term effects of prenatal O3 exposure in rats (0.5 ppm 12 h/day from embryonic day E5 to E20) were evaluated in the adult nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) regulating respiratory control. Neuronal response was assessed by Fos protein immunolabeling (Fos-IR), and catecholaminergic neuron involvement by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) labeling (TH-IR). Adult offspring were analyzed at baseline and following immobilization stress (one hour, plus two hours' recovery); immunolabeling was observed by confocal microscopy. Prenatal O3 increased the baseline TH gray level per cell (p < 0.001). In contrast, the number of Fos-IR cells, Fos-IR/TH-IR colabeled cells and proportion of TH double-labeled with Fos remained unchanged. After stress, the TH gray level (p < 0.001), number of Fos-IR cells (p < 0.001) and of colabeled Fos-IR/TH-IR cells (p < 0.05) and percentage of colabeled Fos-IR/TH-IR neurons against TH-IR cells (p < 0.05) increased in the control group. In prenatal-O3 rats, immobilization stress abolished these increases and reduced the TH gray level (p < 0.05), indicating that prenatal O3 led to loss of adult NTS reactivity to stress. We conclude that long-lasting sequelae were detected in the offspring beyond the prenatal O3 exposure. Prenatal O3 left a print on the NTS, revealed by stress. Disruption of neuronal plasticity to new challenge might be suggested.

  14. Acute Heat-Evoked Temperature Sensation Is Impaired but Not Abolished in Mice Lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation. PMID:24925072

  15. Chemokine Ligand 20: A Signal for Leukocyte Recruitment During Human Ovulation?

    PubMed

    Al-Alem, Linah; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Rosewell, Kathy; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James; Boldt, Jeffrey; Muse, Ken; Curry, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    Ovulation is one of the cornerstones of female fertility. Disruption of the ovulatory process results in infertility, which affects approximately 10% of couples. Using a unique model in which the dominant follicle is collected across the periovulatory period in women, we have identified a leukocyte chemoattractant, chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), in the human ovary. CCL20 mRNA is massively induced after an in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulus in granulosa (>10 000-fold) and theca (>4000-fold) cells collected during the early ovulatory (12-18 h) and late ovulatory (18-34 h) periods after hCG administration. Because the LH surge sets in motion an inflammatory reaction characterized by an influx of leukocytes and CCL20 is known to recruit leukocytes in other systems, the composition of ovarian leukocytes (CD45+) containing the CCL20 receptor CCR6 was determined immediately prior to ovulation. CD45+/CCR6+ cells were primarily natural killer cells (41%) along with B cells (12%), T cells (11%), neutrophils (10%), and monocytes (9%). Importantly, exogenous CCL20 stimulated ovarian leukocyte migration 59% within 90 minutes. Due to the difficulties in obtaining human follicles, an in vitro model was developed using granulosa-lutein cells to explore CCL20 regulation. CCL20 expression increased 40-fold within 6 hours after hCG, was regulated partially by the epithelial growth factor pathway, and was positively correlated with progesterone production. These results demonstrate that hCG dramatically increases CCL20 expression in the human ovary, that ovarian leukocytes contain the CCL20 receptor, and that CCL20 stimulates leukocyte migration. Our findings raise the prospect that CCL20 may aid in the final ovulatory events and contribute to fertility in women.

  16. Chemokine Ligand 20: A Signal for Leukocyte Recruitment During Human Ovulation?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alem, Linah; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Rosewell, Kathy; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James; Boldt, Jeffrey; Muse, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Ovulation is one of the cornerstones of female fertility. Disruption of the ovulatory process results in infertility, which affects approximately 10% of couples. Using a unique model in which the dominant follicle is collected across the periovulatory period in women, we have identified a leukocyte chemoattractant, chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), in the human ovary. CCL20 mRNA is massively induced after an in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulus in granulosa (>10 000-fold) and theca (>4000-fold) cells collected during the early ovulatory (12–18 h) and late ovulatory (18–34 h) periods after hCG administration. Because the LH surge sets in motion an inflammatory reaction characterized by an influx of leukocytes and CCL20 is known to recruit leukocytes in other systems, the composition of ovarian leukocytes (CD45+) containing the CCL20 receptor CCR6 was determined immediately prior to ovulation. CD45+/CCR6+ cells were primarily natural killer cells (41%) along with B cells (12%), T cells (11%), neutrophils (10%), and monocytes (9%). Importantly, exogenous CCL20 stimulated ovarian leukocyte migration 59% within 90 minutes. Due to the difficulties in obtaining human follicles, an in vitro model was developed using granulosa-lutein cells to explore CCL20 regulation. CCL20 expression increased 40-fold within 6 hours after hCG, was regulated partially by the epithelial growth factor pathway, and was positively correlated with progesterone production. These results demonstrate that hCG dramatically increases CCL20 expression in the human ovary, that ovarian leukocytes contain the CCL20 receptor, and that CCL20 stimulates leukocyte migration. Our findings raise the prospect that CCL20 may aid in the final ovulatory events and contribute to fertility in women. PMID:26125463

  17. Endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte integrins in preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Haller, H; Ziegler, E M; Homuth, V; Drab, M; Eichhorn, J; Nagy, Z; Busjahn, A; Vetter, K; Luft, F C

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation is important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; however, the nature of the activation is unknown. We investigated 22 patients with preeclampsia. 29 normotensive pregnancies, and 18 nonpregnant women to test the hypothesis that serum from preeclamptic patients induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and stimulates intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured endothelial cells. We then asked whether the corresponding integrin adhesive counter receptors lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b/CD18), p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), and very late activation antigen-4 (CD49/CD29) are increased in patients with preeclampsia. In the pregnant women, the measurements were conducted both before and after delivery. Integrin expression was measured by fluorescent antibody cell sorting analysis using monoclonal antibodies. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were analyzed on endothelial cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura 2. Serum from preeclamptic patients increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression but not VCAM-1 expression. Preeclamptic patients' serum also increased [Ca2+]i in endothelial cells compared with serum from normal nonpregnant or normal pregnant women. Endothelial cell [Ca2+]i concentrations were correlated with the ICAM-1 expression in preeclamptic patients (r = .80, P < .001) before but not after delivery. Expression of the integrin counter receptors on leukocytes was similarly increased in preclampsia and normal pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state. The expression decreased significantly after delivery in both groups. Our results demonstrate that serum from preeclamptic women induces increased ICAM-1 surface expression on endothelial cells, while the expression of the integrin counterreceptors was not different. The effect on endothelial cells may be related to an increase in [Ca2+]i

  18. Epidemiology of human leukocyte antigens among omani population.

    PubMed

    Al Salmi, Issa; Metry, Abdul Massiah; Al Ismaili, Faisal; Hola, Alan; Shaheen, Faissal; Fakhoury, Hana; Hannawi, Suad

    2017-01-01

    Oman is located on the Southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and its population has high levels of consanguinity. Human leukocytic antigen (HLA) typing analysis in human population holds unexploited potential for elucidating the genetic causes of human disease and possibly leads to personalized medicine. This is a retrospective, descriptive study evaluating HLA frequencies of Omani individuals who underwent workup for kidney transplantation at the Royal Hospital (RH) from 2005 to 2016. Data on 870 subjects were collected from the Oman kidney transplant registry at RH as well from electronic medical record system. The mean age (standard deviation) years for the cohort were 33.2 (13.0). Males constituted 56.3% (490) while females constituted 43.7% (380). Seven HLA-A alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total alleles. Of which, HLA-A2 contributed the highest frequency (24%), followed by HLA A11 (9.4%), and A32 (8.1%). Ten alleles accounted for 70% of HLA-B alleles. Of which, HLA-B51 was the most common (18.9%), followed by HLA-B-35 (13.6%), and HLA-B8 (7.9%). Seven HLA-DRB1 alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total HLA DRB1 alleles, of which HLA- DRB1*16 contributed the highest frequency (29.56%). This was followed by HLA-DRB1*03 (14.57%) and HLA-DRB1*11 (9.48%). While three alleles accounted for more than 75% of the total HLA DQB1alleles. Of which, HLA-DQB1*05 contributed the highest frequency (37.56%). This was followed by allele HLA-DQB1*02 (26.48%) and HLA-DQB1*03 (17.18%). This study showed considerable heterogeneity in both HLA Class I and Class II antigens, which reflects admixture of our population with rest of old world countries. Despite the high levels of consanguinity, this population is genetically highly heterogeneous. These findings may be useful for transplantation programs, noncommunicable diseases, epidemiology of HLA linked diseases, pharmacogenomics, and anthropology.

  19. Traffic of leukocytes in microfluidic channels with rectangular and rounded cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Burns, Jennie M; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2011-10-07

    Traffic of leukocytes in microvascular networks (particularly through arteriolar bifurcations and venular convergences) affects the dynamics of capillary blood flow, initiation of leukocyte adhesion during inflammation, and localization and development of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. Recently, a growing research effort has been focused on fabricating microvascular networks comprising artificial vessels with more realistic, rounded cross-sections. This paper investigated the impact of the cross-sectional geometry of microchannels on the traffic of leukocytes flowing with human whole blood through a non-symmetrical bifurcation that consisted of a 50 μm mother channel bifurcating into 30 μm and 50 μm daughter branches. Two versions of the same bifurcation comprising microchannels with rectangular and rounded cross-sections were fabricated using conventional multi-layer photolithography to produce rectangular microchannles that were then rounded in situ using a recently developed method of liquid PDMS/air bubble injection. For microchannels with rounded cross-sections, about two-thirds of marginated leukocytes traveling along a path in the top plane of the bifurcation entered the smallest 30 μm daughter branch. This distribution was reversed in microchannels with rectangular cross-sections--the majority of leukocytes traveling along a similar path continued to follow the 50 μm microchannels after the bifurcation. This dramatic difference in the distribution of leukocyte traffic among the branches of the bifurcation can be explained by preferential margination of leukocytes towards the corners of the 50 μm mother microchannels with rectangular cross-sections, and by the additional hindrance to leukocyte entry created by the sharp transition from the 50 μm mother microchannel to the 30 μm daughter branch at the intersection. The results of this study suggest that the trajectories of marginated leukocytes passing through non-symmetrical bifurcations are

  20. Direct Leukocyte Migration across Pulmonary Arterioles and Venules into the Perivascular Interstitium of Murine Lungs during Bleomycin Injury and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping M.; Kachel, Diane L.; Cesta, Mark F.; Martin, William J.

    2011-01-01

    During acute lung injury and repair, leukocytes are thought to enter the lung primarily across alveolar capillaries and postcapillary venules. We hypothesized that leukocytes also migrate across pulmonary arterioles and venules, which serve as alternative sites for leukocyte influx into the lung during acute lung injury and repair. Lung sections from C57BL/6J mice up to 14 days after intratracheal bleomycin (3.33 U/kg) or saline instillation were assessed by light, fluorescence, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy for evidence of inflammatory cell sequestration and transmigration at these sites. After bleomycin treatment, large numbers of leukocytes (including neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes) were present in the vascular lumina and in perivascular interstitia of pulmonary arterioles and venules, as well as within the vascular walls. Leukocytes were observed within well-defined pathways in arteriolar walls and much less structured pathways in venular walls, apparently in the process of transmigration. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were expressed at sites of leukocyte interaction with the luminal surface, especially in arterioles. Leukocytes appeared to exit from the vessels near collagen fibers into the perivascular interstitium. Results indicate that leukocytes can directly migrate across arteriolar and venular walls into the perivascular interstitium, which may represent an important but under-recognized pathway for leukocyte influx into the lung during injury and repair. PMID:21641381

  1. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  3. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Morales-González, José A.; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna y; Suástegui-Domínguez, Sigrit; Valadez-Vega, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is naturally present in the earth’s crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF) as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm) NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT) oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm) for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks. PMID:20957113

  4. Microfluidic Investigation Reveals Distinct Roles for Actin Cytoskeleton and Myosin II Activity in Capillary Leukocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Sylvain; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Bongrand, Pierre; Théodoly, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Circulating leukocyte sequestration in pulmonary capillaries is arguably the initiating event of lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a microfluidic investigation of the roles of actin organization and myosin II activity during the different stages of leukocyte trafficking through narrow capillaries (entry, transit and shape relaxation) using specific drugs (latrunculin A, jasplakinolide, and blebbistatin). The deformation rate during entry reveals that cell stiffness depends strongly on F-actin organization and hardly on myosin II activity, supporting a microfilament role in leukocyte sequestration. In the transit stage, cell friction is influenced by stiffness, demonstrating that the actin network is not completely broken after a forced entry into a capillary. Conversely, membrane unfolding was independent of leukocyte stiffness. The surface area of sequestered leukocytes increased by up to 160% in the absence of myosin II activity, showing the major role of molecular motors in microvilli wrinkling and zipping. Finally, cell shape relaxation was largely independent of both actin organization and myosin II activity, whereas a deformed state was required for normal trafficking through capillary segments. PMID:19450501

  5. Inhibition of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase by guava tea leaves prevents development of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Otsuki, Akemi; Mori, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Yuki; Ito, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the crucial steps for atherosclerosis development, and an essential role of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase expressed in macrophages in this process has been demonstrated. The biochemical mechanism of the oxidation of circulating LDL by leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase in macrophages has been proposed. The major ingredients in guava tea leaves which inhibited the catalytic activity of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase were quercetin and ethyl gallate. Administration of extracts from guava tea leaves to apoE-deficient mice significantly attenuated atherogenic lesions in the aorta and aortic sinus. We recently showed that Qing Shan Lu Shui inhibited the catalytic activity of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase. The major components inhibiting the enzyme contained in Qing Shan Lu Shui were identified to be novel monoterpene glycosides. The anti-atherogenic effect of the tea leaves might be attributed to the inhibition of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase by these components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor expression on circulating leukocytes in healthy and asthmatic adolescents in response to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kim D.; Cooper, Dan; Haddad, Fadia; Zaldivar, Frank; Kraft, Monica; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor aerobic fitness is associated with worsening of asthma symptoms and fitness training may improve asthma control. The mechanism linking fitness with asthma is not known. We hypothesized that repeated bouts of exercise would lead to a downregulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression on circulating leukocytes reflecting a reduced responsiveness to stress. Methods In a prospective exercise training intervention of healthy and asthmatic adolescents, GR expression in leukocytes was measured using flow cytometry in response to a brief exercise challenge before and after the training intervention. PBMC gene expression of GR, GRβ, HSP70, and TGFβ1, 2 were determined using RT-PCR. Results Peak V̇O2 increased by 14.6 ± 2.3% indicating an effective training (p<0.01). There was a significant difference in GR expression among leukocyte subtypes, with highest expression in eosinophils. Following the training intervention, there was a significant decrease in baseline GR expression (p<0.05) in leukocyte and monocyte subtypes in both healthy and asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions This is the first study in adolescents to show that exercise training reduces GR expression on circulating leukocytes. We speculate that exercise training downregulates the stress response in general, manifested by decreased GR expression, and may explain why improving fitness improves asthma health. PMID:28796240

  7. The effect of acupuncture on leukocyte levels in peripheral blood is modified by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Vilchis, José Federico; Barrera-Escorcia, Eduardo; Fregoso-Padilla, Martha

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that acupuncture can modify circulating levels of subpopulations of leukocytes. There have been few investigations on the effect of acupuncture on prostaglandins metabolism. Aspirin is capable of inhibiting the metabolism of prostaglandins and to produce several pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior administration of aspirin could modify the action of acupuncture on levels of circulating leukocytes. Fourteen healthy males (age: 19-23 years) were recruited from a university student population. This study was a placebo-controlled, prospective, cross-over design. Subjects were randomly assigned into A or B groups. Group A received aspirin 500 mg and group B placebo, after 1 week of a washout period, group A received placebo and group B aspirin. Subjects were given acupuncture with manual needling in GV14 (Dazhui) acupoint 2 hr after receiving medication. The needle was stimulated for 10 sec and was kept in place for 5 min. Leukocytes and their subpopulations were quantified in blood samples taken immediately before and 2 hr after acupuncture treatment. In each subject pre-acupuncture values were compared to those post-acupuncture. The results showed that acupuncture significantly increased overall leukocytes (p=0.006) and neutrophils (p<0.001). Aspirin partially inhibited these effects. The data suggest that the effect of acupuncture on leukocytes may be related to levels of prostaglandins.

  8. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.

    1981-04-01

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6more » mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients.« less

  9. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.

    1981-04-01

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6more » mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients.« less

  10. Heat-sterilized PD fluid blocks leukocyte adhesion and increases flow velocity in rat peritoneal venules.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, P; Bagge, U; Wieslander, A; Braide, M

    1996-01-01

    Data from cell culture experiments indicate that heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids produces cytotoxic glucose degradation products. The present vital microscopic study investigated the effects of different sterilization methods on the biocompatibility of PD fluids. Thus, heat-sterilized (commercially obtained and experimentally produced) and filter-sterilized PD fluids (pH = 5.30-5.40; 1.5% glucose) were compared with Tyrode buffer, with respect to the effects on microvascular blood flow velocity and leukocyte adhesion in the rat mesentery. Exteriorization of the mesentery produced a mild inflammation, known from the literature and characterized by the adhesive rolling of leukocytes along venular walls. Superfusion of the mesentery with filter-sterilized PD fluid had no significant effects on leukocyte rolling or flow velocity in venules 25-40 microns in diameter compared with buffer superfusion. Heat-sterilized PD fluid decreased the concentration of rolling leukocytes and increased flow velocity significantly, as compared with buffer and filter-sterilized PD fluid. The results indicate that heat sterilization of PD fluids produces substances that interact with microvascular tone and leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, which hypothetically could impair the acute, granulocyte-mediated defense against bacterial infections.

  11. Uropod elongation is a common final step in leukocyte extravasation through inflamed vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Young-Min; Sumagin, Ronen; Sarangi, Pranita P.; Lomakina, Elena; Overstreet, Michael G.; Baker, Christina M.; Fowell, Deborah J.; Waugh, Richard E.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient trafficking of immune cells into peripheral nonlymphoid tissues is key to enact their protective functions. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of cell migration in secondary lymphoid organs, real-time leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues is not well characterized. The conventional multistep paradigm of leukocyte extravasation depends on CD18 integrin–mediated events such as rapid arrest and crawling on the surface of the endothelium and transmigration through the endothelial layer. Using enhanced three-dimensional detection of fluorescent CD18 fusion proteins in a newly developed knockin mouse, we report that extravasating leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells) show delayed uropod detachment and become extremely elongated before complete transmigration across the endothelium. Additionally, these cells deposit CD18+ microparticles at the subendothelial layer before retracting the stretched uropod. Experiments with knockout mice and blocking antibodies reveal that the uropod elongation and microparticle formation are the result of LFA-1–mediated adhesion and VLA-3–mediated cell migration through the vascular basement membrane. These findings suggest that uropod elongation is a final step in the leukocyte extravasation cascade, which may be important for precise regulation of leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues. PMID:22711877

  12. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  13. Higher leukocyte count predicts 3-month poor outcome of ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Sen; Chen, Guo-Rong; Xie, Xue-Ling; Shang-Guan, Huang-Cheng; Gao, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Zheng, Shu-Fa; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Kang, De-Zhi

    2018-04-11

    It is not fully established whether leukocyte can predict the poor outcome for ruptured cerebral aneurysms (CA) or not. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 428 patients with ruptured CA between 2010 and 2015. Patients' demographic data, including gender, age, history of smoking, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, Hunt-Hess and Fisher grade, occurrence of hydrocephalus, aneurysm location, time to surgery, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) and peak leukocyte of blood test from day 1 to 3 after aneurysmal rupture were recorded and analyzed. In the multivariable analysis model, gender, Fisher grade, time to surgery and hydrocephalus were not relevant to poor outcome. However, Hunt-Hess grade, DIND and preoperative leukocyte count (>13.84 × 10 9 /L) were significantly associated with adverse outcome. The respective increased risks were 5.2- (OR5.24, 95% CI 1.67-16.50, p = 0.005), 6.2-(OR 6.24, 95% CI 3.55-10.99, p < 0.001) and 10.9-fold (OR 9.35, 95% CI 5.98-19.97, p < 0.001). The study revealed that Hunt-Hess grade, DIND and preoperative leukocyte count (>13.84 × 10 9 /L) were independent risk factors for poor outcome of ruptured CA at 3 months. Higher leukocyte count is a convenient and useful marker to predict 3-month poor outcome for ruptured CA.

  14. Raised intracellular [Ca2+] abolishes excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibres of rat and toad.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, G D; Junankar, P R; Stephenson, D G

    1995-01-01

    1. Raising the intracellular [Ca2+] for 10 s at 23 degrees C abolished depolarization-induced force responses in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of toad and rat (half-maximal effect at 10 and 23 microM, respectively), without affecting the ability of caffeine or low [Mg2+] to open the ryanodine receptor (RyR)/Ca2+ release channels. Thus, excitation-contraction coupling was lost, even though the Ca2+ release channels were still functional. Coupling could not be restored in the duration of an experiment (up to 1 h). 2. The Ca(2+)-dependent uncoupling had a Q10 > 3.5, and was three times slower at pH 5.8 than at pH 7.1. Sr2+ caused similar uncoupling at twenty times higher concentration, but Mg2+, even at 10 mM, was ineffective. Uncoupling was not noticeably affected by removal of ATP or application of protein kinase or phosphatase inhibitors. 3. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the transverse tubular system was sealed in its entirety in mechanically skinned fibres and that its integrity was maintained in uncoupled fibres. Electron microscopy revealed distorted or severed triad junctions and Z-line aberrations in uncoupled fibres. 4. Only when uncoupling was induced at a relatively slow rate (e.g. over 60 s with 2.5 microM Ca2+) could it be prevented by the protease inhibitor leupeptin (1 mM). Immunostaining of Western blots showed no evidence of proteolysis of the RyR, the alpha 1-subunit of dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) or triadin in uncoupled fibres. 5. Fibres which, whilst intact, were stimulated repeatedly by potassium depolarization with simultaneous application of 30 mM caffeine showed reduced responsiveness after skinning to depolarization but not to caffeine. Rapid release of endogenous Ca2+, or raised [Ca2+] under conditions which minimized the loss of endogenous diffusible myoplasmic molecules from the skinned fibre, caused complete uncoupling. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca(2+)-dependent uncoupling can also occur in intact

  15. A functional splice variant associated with decreased asthma risk abolishes the ability of gasdermin B to induce epithelial cell pyroptosis.

    PubMed

    Panganiban, Ronald A; Sun, Maoyun; Dahlin, Amber; Park, Hae-Ryung; Kan, Mengyuan; Himes, Blanca E; Mitchel, Jennifer A; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Randell, Scott H; Israel, Elliot; Tantisira, Kelan; Shore, Stephanie; Park, Jin-Ah; Weiss, Scott T; Wu, Ann Chen; Lu, Quan

    2018-01-09

    Genetic variants in the chromosomal region 17q21 are consistently associated with asthma. However, mechanistic studies have not yet linked any of the associated variants to a function that could influence asthma, and as a result, the identity of the asthma gene(s) remains elusive. We sought to identify and characterize functional variants in the 17q21 locus. We used the Exome Aggregation Consortium browser to identify coding (amino acid-changing) variants in the 17q21 locus. We obtained asthma association measures for these variants in both the Genetic Epidemiology Research in Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort (16,274 cases and 38,269 matched controls) and the EVE Consortium study (5,303 asthma cases and 12,560 individuals). Gene expression and protein localization were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and fluorescence immunostaining, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies were performed to determine the functional effects of coding variants. Two coding variants (rs2305480 and rs11078928) of the gasdermin B (GSDMB) gene in the 17q21 locus were associated with lower asthma risk in both GERA (odds ratio, 0.92; P = 1.01 × 10 -6 ) and EVE (odds ratio, 0.85; joint P EVE  = 1.31 × 10 -13 ). In GERA, rs11078928 had a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0.45 in unaffected (nonasthmatic) controls and 0.43 in asthma cases. For European Americans in EVE, the MAF of rs2305480 was 0.45 for controls and 0.39 for cases; for all EVE subjects, the MAF was 0.32 for controls and 0.27 for cases. GSDMB is highly expressed in differentiated airway epithelial cells, including the ciliated cells. We found that, when the GSDMB protein is cleaved by inflammatory caspase-1 to release its N-terminal fragment, potent pyroptotic cell death is induced. The splice variant rs11078928 deletes the entire exon 6, which encodes 13 amino acids in the critical N-terminus, and abolishes the pyroptotic activity of the GSDMB protein. Our study identified a functional asthma variant in the

  16. Myeloid differentiation architecture of leukocyte transcriptome dynamics in perceived social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Capitanio, John P.; Chun, Katie; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Cacioppo, John T.

    2015-01-01

    To define the cellular mechanisms of up-regulated inflammatory gene expression and down-regulated antiviral response in people experiencing perceived social isolation (loneliness), we conducted integrative analyses of leukocyte gene regulation in humans and rhesus macaques. Five longitudinal leukocyte transcriptome surveys in 141 older adults showed up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), monocyte population expansion, and up-regulation of the leukocyte conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). Mechanistic analyses in a macaque model of perceived social isolation confirmed CTRA activation and identified selective up-regulation of the CD14++/CD16− classical monocyte transcriptome, functional glucocorticoid desensitization, down-regulation of Type I and II interferons, and impaired response to infection by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). These analyses identify neuroendocrine-related alterations in myeloid cell population dynamics as a key mediator of CTRA transcriptome skewing, which may both propagate perceived social isolation and contribute to its associated health risks. PMID:26598672

  17. Pathology in rabbits treated with leukocyte-degraded meningococci in combination with meningococcal endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, I W; Gilka, F; Gilchrist, J E; Yu, E

    1977-01-01

    The effects of a preparative dose of the leukocyte egesta containing degraded meningococci and a provocative dose of the meningococcal lipopolysaccharide on development of pathological lesions associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation were studied in tissues of 32 rabbits. These effects were compared with effects of a single dose of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide as well as leukocyte egesta containing degraded Staphylococcus epidermidis. Rabbits injected subcutaneously with egesta containing degraded meningococci followed after 12 h with meningococcal endotoxin (intravenously) exhibited heterophilic leukocytosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation mainly in the pulmonary capillaries and venules; focal necroses occurred in myocardium, lungs, and liver, whereas, cortical renal necrosis developed in lethal cases. Similar lesions, however, but less severe and with less frequency, developed even after a single dose of meningococcal endotoxin or after endotoxin that followed a dose of supernatant fluid from normal leukocytes. Our findings suggest that meningococcal material from polymorphonuclear degradation plays a role in the pathology characteristic of meningococcal septicemia. Images PMID:406202

  18. Triggering of leukocytes by phase contrast in imaging cytometry with scanning fluorescence microscope (SFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Marecka, Monika; Malkusch, Wolf; Tárnok, Attila

    2009-02-01

    Slide-based cytometry (SBC) leads to breakthrough in cytometry of cells in tissues, culture and suspension. Carl Zeiss Imaging Solutions' new automated SFM combines imaging with cytometry. A critical step in image analysis is selection of appropriate triggering signal to detect all objects. Without correct target cell definition analysis is hampered. DNA-staining is among the most common triggering signals. However, the majority of DNA-dyes yield massive spillover into other fluorescence channels limiting their application. By microscopy objects of >5μm diameter can be easily detected by phase-contrast signal (PCS) without any staining. Aim was to establish PCS - triggering for cell identification. Axio Imager.Z1 motorized SFM was used (high-resolution digital camera, AxioCam MRm; AxioVision software: automatic multi-channel scanning, analysis). Leukocytes were stained with FITC (CD4, CD8) and APC (CD3) labelled antibodies in combinations using whole blood method. Samples were scanned in three channels (PCS/FITC/APC). Exposition-times for PCS were set as low as possible; the detection efficiency was verified by fluorescence. CD45-stained leukocytes were counted and compared to the number of PCS detected events. Leukocyte subtyping was compared with other cytometers. In focus the PCS of cells showed ring-form that was not optimal for cell definition. Out of focus PCS allows more effective qualitative and quantitative cell analyses. PCS was an accurate triggering signal for leukocytes enabling cell counting and discrimination of leukocytes from platelets. Leukocyte subpopulation frequencies were comparable to those obtained by other cytometers. In conclusion PCS is a suitable trigger-signal not interfering with fluorescence detection.

  19. Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile electrospun nano-fibrous mats as leukocyte removal filter media.

    PubMed

    Pourbaghi, Raha; Zarrebini, Mohammad; Semnani, Dariush; Pourazar, Abbasali; Akbari, Nahid; Shamsfar, Reihaneh

    2018-07-01

    Removal of leukocytes from blood products is the most effective means for elimination of undesirable side effects and prevention of possible reactions in recipients. Micro-fibrous mats are currently used for removal of leukocytes from blood. In this study, samples of electrospun nano-fibrous mats were produced. The performance of the produced electrospun nano-fibrous mats as means of leukocytes removal from fresh whole blood was both evaluated and compared with that of commercially available micro-fibrous mats. In order to produce the samples, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nano-fibrous mats were made under different electrospinning conditions. Mean fiber diameter, pore characterization and surface roughness of the PAN nano-fibrous mats were determined using image processing technique. In order to evaluate the surface tension of the fabricated mats, water contact angle was measured. The leukocyte removal performance, erythrocytes recovery percent and hemolysis rate of the nano-fibrous mats were compared. The effectiveness of nano-fibrous mats in removing leukocyte was established using both scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Results showed that for given weight, the fabricated nano-fibrous mats were not only more efficient but also more cost-effective than their commercial counterparts. Results confirmed that changes in mean fiber diameter, the number of layer and weight of each layer in the absence of any chemical reaction or physical surface modification, the fabricated nano-fibrous mats were able to remove 5-log of leukocytes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1759-1769, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High plasma folate is negatively associated with leukocyte telomere length in Framingham Offspring cohort.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ligi; Jacques, Paul F; Aviv, Abraham; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Levy, Daniel; Selhub, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Shortening of telomeres, the protective structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, is associated with age-related pathologies. Telomere length is influenced by DNA integrity and DNA and histone methylation. Folate plays a role in providing precursors for nucleotides and methyl groups for methylation reactions and has the potential to influence telomere length. We determined the association between leukocyte telomere length and long-term plasma folate status (mean of 4 years) in Framingham Offspring Study (n = 1,044, females = 52.1 %, mean age 59 years) using data from samples collected before and after folic acid fortification. Leukocyte telomere length was determined by Southern analysis and fasting plasma folate concentration using microbiological assay. There was no significant positive association between long-term plasma folate and leukocyte telomere length among the Framingham Offspring Study participants perhaps due to their adequate folate status. While the leukocyte telomere length in the second quintile of plasma folate was longer than that in the first quintile, the difference was not statistically significant. The leukocyte telomere length of the individuals in the fifth quintile of plasma folate was shorter than that of those in the second quintile by 180 bp (P < 0.01). There was a linear decrease in leukocyte telomere length with higher plasma folate concentrations in the upper four quintiles of plasma folate (P for trend = 0.001). Multivitamin use was associated with shorter telomeres in this cohort (P = 0.015). High plasma folate status possibly resulting from high folic acid intake may interfere with the role of folate in maintaining telomere integrity.

  1. Effects of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on retinal leukocyte and erythrocyte flux in the human retina.

    PubMed

    Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Malec, Magdalena; Polska, Elzbieta; Jilma, Bernd; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2002-05-01

    The blue-field entoptic technique was introduced more than 20 years ago to quantify perimacular white blood cell flux. However, a final confirmation that the perceived corpuscles represent leukocytes is still unavailable. The study design was randomized, placebo-controlled, and double masked with two parallel groups. Fifteen healthy male subjects received a single dose of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, 300 microg) and 15 other subjects received placebo. The following parameters were assessed at baseline and at 12 minutes and 8 hours after administration: retinal white blood cell flux, with the blue-field entoptic technique; retinal blood velocities, with bidirectional laser Doppler velocimetry; retinal venous diameter determined with a retinal vessel analyzer; and blood pressure and pulse rate determined by automated oscillometry and pulse oxymetry, respectively. After 12 minutes, G-CSF reduced total leukocyte count from 5.5 +/- 1.4 10(9)/L at baseline to 1.9 +/- 0.4 10(9)/L. This was paralleled by a 35% +/- 11% decrease in retinal white blood cell density. After 8 hours G-CSF increased total leukocyte counts to 20.0 +/- 4.4 10(9)/L. Again, this increase in circulating leukocytes was reflected by an increase in retinal white blood cell density (110% +/- 48%). All effects were significant at P < 0.001. By contrast, none of the other hemodynamic parameters was changed by administration of G-CSF. The results clearly indicate that the blue-field entoptic technique assesses leukocyte movement in the perimacular capillaries of the retina. Moreover, white blood cell density appears to adequately reflect the number of circulating leukocytes within the retinal microvasculature. Hence, an increase in retinal white blood cell density does not necessarily reflect retinal vasodilatation.

  2. Exercise leukocyte profiles in healthy, type 1 diabetic, overweight, and asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Jaime S; Schwindt, Christina D; Oliver, Stacy R; Leu, Szu-Yun; Flores, Rebecca L; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2009-02-01

    Leukocytosis contributes to exercise-induced immune modulation, which is a mechanism of cardiovascular protection. However, this process is poorly defined in children. We therefore measured leukocytes in 45 healthy, 18 overweight, 16 type 1 diabetic, and 8 asthmatic children at pre, end-, and 30-min postexercise (30-min intermittent or 6-min continuous). In all groups, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased at end-exercise, but returned to baseline by 30-min postexercise, including neutrophils, previously reported to remain elevated for at least some exercise formats. This highly preserved pattern indicates the importance of the adaptive response to physical stress across multiple health conditions.

  3. Pulmonary uptake in Indium-111 leukocyte imaging: clinical significance in patients with suspected occult infections

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, P.S.; Datz, F.L.; Disbro, M.A.

    1984-02-01

    A retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate the frequency and significance of pulmonary activity noted on 306 indium-111 leukocyte studies involving 232 patients with suspected occult infections. Forty-eight studies showed pulmonary activity in one of two patterns of uptake, focal or diffuse. Fourteen of 27 studies (52%) with focal uptake and two of 21 studies (10%) with diffuse uptake were associated with infectious processes. Lung uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes was a poor predictor of pulmonary infection in patients studied for occult infection, although the focal pattern was more likely than the diffuse pattern to be associated with infection.

  4. Detection of occult abscesses with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.R.; Gurevich, N.; Goris, M.L.

    1979-07-01

    Clinicians are frequently faced with the problem of a patient in whom they suspect an occult abscess. In such a situation, there may be no clinical signs to localize the site of the abscess and often extensive investigations do not provide additional useful information. This report illustrates the efficacy of autologous leukocytes labeled with /sup 111/In oxine in detecting the site and extent of occult abscesses in two patients. The technique of in vitro lebeling of leukocytes is simple and has been mastered by all of our nuclear medicine technologists.

  5. Effectiveness of Panax ginseng on Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Was Abolished by Flutamide via Endogenous Testosterone-Mediated Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Luo; Shaozhen, Hou; Gengting, Dong; Tingbo, Chen; Liang, Liu; Hua, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms for Panax ginseng's cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury involve the estrogen-mediated pathway, but little is known about the role of androgen. A standardized Panax ginseng extract (RSE) was orally given with or without flutamide in a left anterior descending coronary artery ligation rat model. Infarct size, CK and LDH activities were measured. Time-related changes of NO, PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling, and testosterone concentration were also investigated. RSE (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited myocardial infarction and CK and LDH activities, while coadministration of flutamide abolished this effect of RSE. NO was increased by RSE and reached a peak after 15 min of ischemia; however, flutamide cotreatment suppressed this elevation. Western blot analysis showed that RSE significantly reversed the decreases of expression and activation of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS evoked by ischemia, whereas flutamide attenuated the effects of these protective mechanisms induced by RSE. RSE completely reversed the dropping of endogenous testosterone level induced by I/R injury. Flutamide plus RSE treatment not only abolished RSE's effect but also produced a dramatic change on endogenous testosterone level after pretreatment and ischemia. Our results for the first time indicate that blocking androgen receptor abolishes the ability of Panax ginseng to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury. PMID:24282438

  6. Cutaneous inputs from the back abolish locomotor-like activity and reduce spastic-like activity in the adult cat following complete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Frigon, Alain; Thibaudier, Yann; Johnson, Michael D.; Heckman, C.J.; Hurteau, Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    Spasticity is a condition that can include increased muscle tone, clonus, spasms, and hyperreflexia. In this study, we report the effect of manually stimulating the dorsal lumbosacral skin on spontaneous locomotor-like activity and on a variety of reflex responses in 5 decerebrate chronic spinal cats treated with clonidine. Cats were spinalized 1 month before the terminal experiment. Stretch reflexes were evoked by stretching the left triceps surae muscles. Crossed reflexes were elicited by electrically stimulating the right tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. Windup of reflex responses was evoked by electrically stimulating the left tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. We found that pinching the skin of the back abolished spontaneous locomotor-like activity. We also found that back pinch abolished the rhythmic activity observed during reflex testing without eliminating the reflex responses. Some of the rhythmic episodes of activity observed during reflex testing were consistent with clonus with an oscillation frequency greater than 3 Hz. Pinching the skin of the back effectively abolished rhythmic activity occurring spontaneously or evoked during reflex testing, irrespective of oscillation frequency. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that locomotion and clonus are produced by common central pattern-generators. Stimulating the skin of the back could prove helpful in managing undesired rhythmic activity in spinal cord-injured humans. PMID:22487200

  7. Morphogen and proinflammatory cytokine release kinetics from PRGF-Endoret fibrin scaffolds: evaluation of the effect of leukocyte inclusion.

    PubMed

    Anitua, E; Zalduendo, M M; Prado, R; Alkhraisat, M H; Orive, G

    2015-03-01

    The potential influence of leukocyte incorporation in the kinetic release of growth factors from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may explain the conflicting efficiency of leukocyte platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) scaffolds in tissue regeneration. To assess this hypothesis, leukocyte-free (PRGF-Endoret) and L-PRP fibrin scaffolds were prepared, and both morphogen and proinflammatory cytokine release kinetics were analyzed. Clots were incubated with culture medium to monitor protein release over 8 days. Furthermore, the different fibrin scaffolds were morphologically characterized. Results show that leukocyte-free fibrin matrices were homogenous while leukocyte-containing ones were heterogeneous, loose and cellular. Leukocyte incorporation produced a significant increase in the contents of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-16 but not in the platelet-derived growth factors release (<1.5-fold). Surprisingly, the availability of vascular endothelial growth factor suffered an important decrease after 3 days of incubation in the case of L-PRP matrices. While the release of proinflammatory cytokines was almost absent or very low from PRGF-Endoret, the inclusion of leukocytes induced a major increase in these cytokines, which was characterized by the presence of a latent period. The PRGF-Endoret matrices were stable during the 8 days of incubation. The inclusion of leukocytes alters the growth factors release profile and also increased the dose of proinflammatory cytokines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. CFTR is restricted to a small population of high expresser cells that provide a forskolin-sensitive transepithelial Cl- conductance in the proximal colon of the possum, Trichosurus vulpecula.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shujun; Harfoot, Natalie; Bartolo, Ray C; Butt, A Grant

    2012-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is central to anion secretion in both the possum and eutherian small intestine. Here, we investigated its role in the possum proximal colon, which has novel transport properties compared with the eutherian proximal colon. Despite considerable CFTR expression, high doses of the CFTR activator forskolin (EC(50)≈10 μmol l(-1)) were required for a modest, CFTR-dependent increase in short-circuit current (I(sc)) in the proximal colon. Presumably, this is because CFTR is restricted to the apical membrane of a small population of CFTR high expresser (CHE) cells in the surface and upper crypt epithelium. Furthermore, although the forskolin-stimulated I(sc) was dependent on serosal Na(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-), consistent with anion secretion, inhibition of the basolateral Na-K-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) or Na-HCO(3) (pNBCe1) cotransporters did not prevent it. Therefore, although NKCC1 and pNBCe1 are expressed in the colonic epithelium they do not appear to be expressed in CHE cells. At low doses (IC(50)≈1 μmol l(-1)), forskolin also decreased the transepithelial conductance (G(T)) of the colon through inhibition of a 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulphonic acid-sensitive anion conductance in the basolateral membrane of the CHE cells. This conductance is arranged in series with CFTR in the CHE cells and, therefore, the CHE cells provide a transepithelial Cl(-) conductance for passive Cl(-) absorption across the epithelium. Inhibition of the basolateral Cl(-) conductance of the CHE cells by forskolin will inhibit Na(+) absorption by restricting the movement of its counter-ion Cl(-), assisting in the conversion of the tissue from an absorptive to a secretory state.

  9. Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: Stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1{beta} effect and increase in the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, Marc; Yahi, Nouara; Younes-Sakr, Lama

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites responsible of food-mediated intoxication in animals and humans. Deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin are the best known enteropathogenic mycotoxins able to alter intestinal functions resulting in malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Although their effects on intestinal barrier and transport activities have been extensively characterized, the mechanisms responsible for their pro-inflammatory effect are still poorly understood. Here we investigated if mycotoxin-induced intestinal inflammation results from a direct and/or indirect pro-inflammatory activity of these mycotoxins on human intestinal epithelial cells, using differentiated Caco-2 cells as model and interleukin 8 (IL-8) as an indicator ofmore » intestinal inflammation. Deoxynivalenol was the only mycotoxin able to directly increase IL-8 secretion (10- to 15-fold increase). We also investigated if these mycotoxins could indirectly stimulate IL-8 secretion through: (i) a modulation of the action of pro-inflammatory molecules such as the interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), and/or (ii) an increase in the transepithelial passage of non-invasive commensal Escherichia coli. We found that deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin all potentiated the effect of IL-1{beta} on IL-8 secretion (ranging from 35% to 138% increase) and increased the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria (ranging from 12- to 1544-fold increase). In addition to potentially exacerbate established intestinal inflammation, these mycotoxins may thus participate in the induction of sepsis and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins is mediated by both direct and indirect effects.« less

  10. Acute effects of high- and low-intensity exercise bouts on leukocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Neves, Pedro Rogério Da Silva; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo Dos Santos; Lins, Tatiana Acioli; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Botero, João Paulo; Do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2015-06-01

    It is widely accepted that physical exercise may bring about changes in the immune system. Even acute bouts of exercise can alter the number and function of leukocytes, but the degree of white blood cell trafficking depends on the intensity and duration of exercise. The aim of this study was to analyze the acute and short-term effects of exercise intensity on leukocyte counts and leukocyte subsets. Nine physically healthy, active young males (21.0 ± 1.9 years) underwent three experimental trials: high exercise intensity [80% peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak )], low exercise intensity (40% VO 2peak ), and the control condition (no exercise). Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, immediately after exercise, and 2 hours after exercise. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to evaluate differences between the trials and the time-points, and to compare times within trials. There was a greater increase in the leukocyte count after high-intensity exercise, compared to the control condition ( p  < 0.01) and low-intensity exercise ( p  < 0.01). This effect was still present 2 hours after passive recovery ( p  < 0.01). When the same participants were submitted to different exercise intensities, the acute and short-term effects of exercise on white blood cells were intensity-dependent immediately after exercise (i.e., lymphocytosis and monocytosis) and 2 hours after passive recovery (i.e., neutrophilia).

  11. [In-line leukocyte depletion ov thrombocytapheresis concentrates with the Fresenius-AS-104 cell separator].

    PubMed

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on in-line filtration of 72 platelet concentrates (PC) collected by the Fresenius AS 104 cell separator, using the new C4F sets with integrated leukocyte filters (Biofil P plus). 72 volunteer donors, automatic counts of platelets, microscopical counting of residual leukocytes with the Nageotte chamber, GMP-140 by flow cytometrie, beta-thromboglobulin release, platelet aggregation (ADP, collagen). Filtration reduced leukocytes by 98.5%. Residual leukocyte contamination remained clearly below 5 x 10(6) (mean 0.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(6), maximum 2.8 x 10(6). Platelet loss by filtration was found to be between 27.4 and 0.7% (median 8.5%). Filtration caused a significant decrease of platelet aggregability (p < 0.005), but no significant increase of beta-thromboglobulin release and only a slight decrease of GMP-140 expression. From these data can be concluded that in-line filtration was highly efficient with acceptable platelet retention. No significant platelet activation could be observed in the PC. The decrease of platelet aggregability have been due to the reduction of activated platelets which are believed to show reduced in vivo survival.

  12. Association of peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts with obesity-related complications in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Aya; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Orito, Chieko; Kawahara, Yukako; Takasaki, Hiroyo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashino, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been demonstrated to be associated with elevated leukocytes in adults and children. This study assessed the associations between peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts and obesity-related complications in young adults. 12 obese (median age 21.5 (range 19-28) years, median BMI 35.7 (range 32.0-44.9) kg/m(2)) and 11 normal (median age 23 (range 18-27) years, median BMI 19.5 (range 18.1-21.7) kg/m(2)) adults were enrolled. Complete blood count and serum levels of liver enzymes, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Fat mass was calculated using a bioimpedance analysis device, and ultrasonography was performed to measure fat thickness and to detect fatty change of the liver. Total leukocyte and monocyte counts were significantly increased in obese young adults. Total leukocyte count was associated with liver enzyme levels, insulin resistance as well as visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness. Neutrophil count was associated with insulin resistance. Lymphocyte count was associated with serum liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Monocyte count was associated with serum liver enzyme, insulin resistance, visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, body fat mass, and percentage body fat. The results of this study suggest that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in young adults. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Multiple, targeted deficiencies in selectins reveal a predominant role for P-selectin in leukocyte recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen D.; Frenette, Paul S.; Rayburn, Helen; Cummiskey, Marge; Ullman-Culleré, Mollie; Wagner, Denisa D.; Hynes, Richard O.

    1999-01-01

    We extend our previous analyses of mice deficient in selectins by describing the generation and comparative phenotype of mice lacking one, two, or three selectins after sequential ablation of the murine genes encoding P-, E-, and L-selectins. All mice deficient in selectins are viable and fertile as homozygotes. However, mice missing both P- and E-selectins (PE−/−), and mice missing all three selectins (ELP−/−) develop mucocutaneous infections that eventually lead to death. Mice deficient in multiple selectins display varying degrees of leukocytosis, resulting in part from alterations in leukocyte rolling and recruitment. PE−/− mice, ELP−/− mice, and mice missing both P- and L-selectins (PL−/−) show drastic reductions in leukocyte rolling and in extravasation of neutrophils in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. In a separate inflammatory model (ragweed-induced peritoneal eosinophilia), we demonstrate P-selectin to be both necessary and sufficient for the recruitment of eosinophils. The phenotype of mice missing both E- and L-selectins (EL−/−) is less severe than those seen in the other double knockouts. Comparisons among the double knockouts suggest that P-selectin normally cooperates with both E- and L-selectins. Our results indicate a preeminent role for P-selectin in regulating leukocyte behavior in mice. Data from the ELP−/− mice indicate, however, that all three selectins are important to leukocyte homeostasis and efficient neutrophil recruitment. PMID:10500197

  14. Maternal T-Cell Engraftment Interferes With Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing in Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Duffy, Brian; Bednarski, Jeffrey J; Calhoun, Cecelia; Lay, Lindsay; Rundblad, Barrett; Payton, Jacqueline E; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2016-02-01

    To report the laboratory investigation of a case of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with maternal T-cell engraftment, focusing on the interference of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing by blood chimerism. HLA typing was performed with three different methods, including sequence-specific primer (SSP), sequence-specific oligonucleotide, and Sanger sequencing on peripheral blood leukocytes and buccal cells, from a 3-month-old boy and peripheral blood leukocytes from his parents. Short tandem repeat (STR) testing was performed in parallel. HLA typing of the patient's peripheral blood leukocytes using the SSP method demonstrated three different alleles for each of the HLA-B and HLA-C loci, with both maternal alleles present at each locus. Typing results from the patient's buccal cells showed a normal pattern of inheritance for paternal and maternal haplotypes. STR enrichment testing of the patient's CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD15+ myeloid cells confirmed maternal T-cell engraftment, while the myeloid cell profile matched the patient's buccal cells. Maternal T-cell engraftment may interfere with HLA typing in patients with SCID. Selection of the appropriate typing methods and specimens is critical for accurate HLA typing and immunologic assessment before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. CD Nomenclature 2015: Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshops as a Driving Force in Immunology.

    PubMed

    Engel, Pablo; Boumsell, Laurence; Balderas, Robert; Bensussan, Armand; Gattei, Valter; Horejsi, Vaclav; Jin, Bo-Quan; Malavasi, Fabio; Mortari, Frank; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard; Stockinger, Hannes; van Zelm, Menno C; Zola, Heddy; Clark, Georgina

    2015-11-15

    CD (cluster of differentiation) Ags are cell surface molecules expressed on leukocytes and other cells relevant for the immune system. CD nomenclature has been universally adopted by the scientific community and is officially approved by the International Union of Immunological Societies and sanctioned by the World Health Organization. It provides a unified designation system for mAbs, as well as for the cell surface molecules that they recognize. This nomenclature was established by the Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops. In addition to defining the CD nomenclature, these workshops have been instrumental in identifying and determining the expression and function of cell surface molecules. Over the past 30 y, the data generated by the 10 Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops have led to the characterization and formal designation of more than 400 molecules. CD molecules are commonly used as cell markers, allowing the identification and isolation of leukocyte populations, subsets, and differentiation stages. mAbs against these molecules have proven to be essential for biomedical research and diagnosis, as well as in biotechnology. More recently, they have been recognized as invaluable tools for the treatment of several malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In this article, we describe how the CD nomenclature was established, present the official updated list of CD molecules, and provide a rationale for their usefulness in the 21st century. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2015-01-01

    A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don't seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001) reject Null HYPOTHESIS and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  17. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001) reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children. PMID:27335975

  18. Haplotype resolution of leukocyte receptor complex in cattle through targeted enrichment and SMRT sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The highly repetitive nature of cattle leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) has made it difficult to assemble and fully characterize this region with short reads used by second-generation sequencing. Previously, we reported the first two cattle killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) haplotypes; one ...

  19. TEMPORAL CHANGES IN PH WITHIN THE PHAGOCYTIC VACUOLE OF THE POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHILIC LEUKOCYTE

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael S.; Bainton, Dorothy F.

    1973-01-01

    Although previous workers have established that the pH of the phagocytic vacuole of the polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte changes from neutral to acid, the time course of conversion has not been investigated. The present experiments were initiated to study pH changes immediately after phagocytosis. Peritoneal exudates were induced in rats; 4 h later, yeast stained with pH indicators was injected intraperitoneally, and the exudate was retrieved at 30-s intervals and examined by light microscopy. Results revealed that (a) within 3 min, pH dropped to ∼6.5, as indicated by the change in color of neutral red-stained yeast; (b) within 7–15 min, pH dropped progressively to ∼4.0, as indicated by color change in bromcresol green-stained yeast; (c) pH did not fall below 4, since no color change was observed up to 24 h when bromphenol blue-stained yeast was used. The finding that intravacuolar acidity increases rapidly after phagocytosis is undoubtedly important with respect to PMN leukocyte function in killing and digesting microorganisms, for many PMN leukocyte granule enzymes (i.e., peroxidase and lysosomal enzymes) are activated at acid pH (∼4.5). It follows that temporal changes in pH and maximal pH depression should be considered in studies of intraleukocytic microbicidal mechanisms, since a defect in these factors could result in impaired PMN leukocyte function. PMID:4118890

  20. Relationship between shift work and peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts in Chinese steel workers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Tsai, I-Ting; Hung, Wei-Chin; Yu, Teng-Hung; Wu, Cheng-Ching; Hsu, Chia-Chang; Lu, Yung-Chuan; Chung, Fu-Mei; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen

    2016-01-01

    Even though shift work has been suspected to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, little research has been done to determine the logical underlying inflammation mechanisms. This study investigated the association between shift work and circulating total and differential leukocyte counts among Chinese steel workers. The subjects were 1,654 line workers in a steel plant, who responded to a cross-sectional survey with a questionnaire on basic attributes, life style, and sleep. All workers in the plant received a periodic health checkup. Total and differential leukocytes counts were also examined in the checkup. Shift workers had higher rates of alcohol use, smoking, poor sleep, poor physical exercise, and obesity than daytime workers. In further analysis, we found that the peripheral total WBC, monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were also greater in shift workers than in daytime workers. When subjects were divided into quartiles according to total WBC, neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts, increased leukocyte count was associated with shift work. Using stepwise linear regression analysis, smoking, obesity, and shift work were independently associated with total WBC, monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. This study indicates that peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts are significantly higher in shift workers, which suggests that shift work may be a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of cardiovascular disease for shift workers.

  1. Leukocyte and platelet changes following low-dose lipopolysaccharide administration in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Flatland, B; Fry, M M; LeBlanc, C J; Rohrbach, B W

    2011-02-01

    Effects of low-dose LPS (0.1 μg/kg i.v.) on leukocyte and platelet parameters measured using an Advia 120 hematology analyzer were investigated. Five dogs received a saline sham treatment prior to LPS, and blood was collected before and 3, 6, and 24 h post-treatment. LPS-treated dogs had mild neutrophil toxic change and increased neutrophil bands at 3 and 6 h. Compared to saline-treated controls, total leukocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts of LPS-treated dogs were significantly decreased at 3 h and increased at 24 h. Compared to baseline, total leukocyte counts of LPS-treated dogs were significantly decreased at 3 h and increased at 24 h. Mean platelet volume was significantly increased and mean platelet component concentration was decreased at 3 h compared to baseline. Platelet count was significantly decreased at 3 and 6 h; plateletcrit did not change significantly. High dosage is not required in order to detect LPS-mediated hematologic effects in dogs. Low-dose LPS administration causes significant changes in leukocyte and platelet indices in dogs without causing severe clinical signs or death. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Longer leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica's Nicoyan Peninsula: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2013-01-01

    Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, p<0.05) than in other areas of Costa Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related. This relationship remains unchanged (79 base pairs, p<0.05) after statistically controlling for nineteen potential biological, dietary and social and demographic mediators. Thus the difference in mean leukocyte telomere length that characterizes this unique region does not appear to be explainable by traditional behavioral and biological risk factors. More detailed examination of mean leukocyte telomere length by age shows that the regional telomere length difference declines at older ages. PMID:23988653

  3. Red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients awaiting kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Gláucia Maria; da Silva, Sonia Leite; Alves, Tânia Maria de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Ilana Farias; Ribeiro, Thyciana Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Maria do Carmo Serpa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients with chronic kidney disease awaiting kidney transplantation. Methods In this cross-sectional and prospective study, the serum of 393 chronic kidney disease patients on a transplant waiting list in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil were tested for red cell and leukocyte antibodies. In addition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results The average age in the sample of 393 patients was 34.1 ± 14 years. Slightly more than half (208; 52.9%) were male. The average numbers of transfusions and gestations were 3.1 ± 3.3 and 1.6 ± 6, respectively. One third (33.6%) were alloimmunized: 78% with leukocyte antibodies, 9.1% with red cell antibodies and 12.9% with both. Red cell antibodies were detected in 29 cases (7.4%), 17 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001). The most frequently detected red cell antibodies belonged to the Rh (24.1%) and Kell (13.8%) blood group systems. Leukocyte antibodies were detected in 30.5% of cases, 83 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001) and were more reactive to panel reactive antibodies (p-value < 0.0001). The mean alloreactivity to panel reactive antibodies was 47.7 ± 31.2%. Conclusion Chronic kidney disease patients on the transplant waiting list in Ceará, Brazil, display high rates of red cell (7.4%) and leukocyte (30.5%) alloimmunization. In this sample, alloimmunization was significantly associated with the number of transfusions and gender. PMID:23904808

  4. The associations between leukocyte, erythrocyte or platelet, and metabolic syndrome in different genders of Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pingping; Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Hu, Tianpeng; Upadhyaya, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Leukocyte, erythrocyte or platelet and metabolic syndrome (MS) are closely correlated, and there exist gender differences. We aimed to explore the associations between the hematological parameters and MS in different genders of Chinese. This cross-sectional study included 32,900 participants (20,733 males, 12,167 females) who were enrolled in a health examination. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements and serum parameters were collected. The associations between hematological parameters and MS of both genders were analyzed separately. Odds ratio (OR) of MS was calculated by binary logistic regression models. All hematological parameters were related to MS. With leukocyte and erythrocyte counts rising, the risks of developing MS increased in both genders, which was more obvious in women. For instance, in model 3, the ORs of MS in leukocyte quartiles in females were from 1.333 to 2.045 (P < 0.01), while in males, from 1.238 to 1.675 (P < 0.01). Platelet seemed as a protective factor in males. Model 1 and model 3 in quartile 2 demonstrated ORs of 0.922 (P < 0.05) and 0.912 (P < 0.05). However, platelet acted as risk factor in female. For instance, the ORs were 1.253 (P < 0.01), 1.461 (P < 0.01), and 1.322 (P < 0.01) in platelet quartile 4 of all 3 models in female. Gender has influences on the associations between leukocyte, erythrocyte or platelet, and MS. In both genders, higher levels of leukocyte and erythrocyte increased risks of MS. For men, platelet was a protective factor, but for women, platelet seemed as a risk factor. PMID:27858856

  5. The associations between leukocyte, erythrocyte or platelet, and metabolic syndrome in different genders of Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingping; Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Hu, Tianpeng; Upadhyaya, Arun

    2016-11-01

    Leukocyte, erythrocyte or platelet and metabolic syndrome (MS) are closely correlated, and there exist gender differences. We aimed to explore the associations between the hematological parameters and MS in different genders of Chinese. This cross-sectional study included 32,900 participants (20,733 males, 12,167 females) who were enrolled in a health examination. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements and serum parameters were collected. The associations between hematological parameters and MS of both genders were analyzed separately. Odds ratio (OR) of MS was calculated by binary logistic regression models. All hematological parameters were related to MS. With leukocyte and erythrocyte counts rising, the risks of developing MS increased in both genders, which was more obvious in women. For instance, in model 3, the ORs of MS in leukocyte quartiles in females were from 1.333 to 2.045 (P < 0.01), while in males, from 1.238 to 1.675 (P < 0.01). Platelet seemed as a protective factor in males. Model 1 and model 3 in quartile 2 demonstrated ORs of 0.922 (P < 0.05) and 0.912 (P < 0.05). However, platelet acted as risk factor in female. For instance, the ORs were 1.253 (P < 0.01), 1.461 (P < 0.01), and 1.322 (P < 0.01) in platelet quartile 4 of all 3 models in female. Gender has influences on the associations between leukocyte, erythrocyte or platelet, and MS. In both genders, higher levels of leukocyte and erythrocyte increased risks of MS. For men, platelet was a protective factor, but for women, platelet seemed as a risk factor.

  6. Altered mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in leukocytes of anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Victor, Victor M; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Saiz-Alarcon, Vanessa; Sangüesa, Maria C; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Bañuls, Celia; Falcón, Rosa; Castelló, Raquel; Rojo, Luis; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a common illness among adolescents and is characterised by oxidative stress. The effects of anorexia on mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes from anorexic subjects were evaluated. A multi-centre, cross-sectional case-control study was performed. Our study population consisted of 20 anorexic patients and 20 age-matched controls, all of which were Caucasian women. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in the study population. To assess whether anorexia nervosa affects mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes of anorexic patients, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione levels, mitochondrial mass, and complex I and III activity in polymorphonuclear cells. Mitochondrial function was impaired in the leukocytes of the anorexic patients. This was evident in a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption (P<0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01) and GSH levels (P<0.05), and an increase in ROS production (P<0.05) with respect to control subjects. Furthermore, a reduction of mitochondrial mass was detected in leukocytes of the anorexic patients (P<0.05), while the activity of mitochondrial complex I (P<0.001), but not that of complex III, was found to be inhibited in the same population. Oxidative stress is produced in the leukocytes of anorexic patients and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results lead us to propose that the oxidative stress that occurs in anorexia takes place at mitochondrial complex I. Future research concerning mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress should aim to determine the physiological mechanism involved in this effect and the physiological impact of anorexia.

  7. Efficacy of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin in wound healing: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Georgiou, Charalambos A; Fontas, Eric; David, Sylvain; Dumas, Pierre; Ihrai, Tarik; Lebreton, Elisabeth

    2012-12-01

    Application of platelet concentrates to wounds could speed healing. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin, a relatively recent development, stands out from the other preparations. This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial studied the rate of healing of postoperative hand wounds after a single application of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin. Eligible patients were healthy individuals older than 18 years who had been scheduled for elective McCash (open palm) surgery for Dupuytren disease at the Plastic and Hand Surgery Department of Nice's University Hospital between August of 2007 and February of 2010. The control group received the reference care of petroleum jelly mesh (Vaselitulle), and test patients had leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin applied. The primary endpoint was healing delay measured in postoperative days. Secondary endpoints included pain, bleeding, and wound exudate. The trial was carried out as a single-blind trial. Among the 68 randomized patients, 33 patients in the leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin group and 31 in the Vaselitulle group were analyzed. Primary endpoint analysis showed a median healing delay of 24 days (interquartile range, 18 to 28 days) for the fibrin group and 29 days (interquartile range, 26 to 35 days) for the Vaselitulle group (p = 0.014, log-rank test). Postoperative pain assessment, bleeding, and exudate were always lower for the fibrin group, but not significantly so. The authors trial demonstrates that a single leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin application on fresh postoperative hand wounds shows a median improvement of 5 days in comparison with the standard treatment. Therapeutic, II.

  8. Cognitive-behavioral stress management reverses anxiety-related leukocyte transcriptional dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Michael H.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Blomberg, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S.; Lechner, Suzanne; Diaz, Alain; Stagl, Jamie; Arevalo, Jesusa M.G.; Cole, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic threat and anxiety are associated with pro-inflammatory transcriptional profiles in circulating leukocytes, but the causal direction of that relationship has not been established. This study tested whether a Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) intervention targeting negative affect and cognition might counteract anxiety-related transcriptional alterations in people confronting a major medical threat. Methods 199 women undergoing primary treatment of Stage 0–III breast cancer were randomized to a 10-week CBSM protocol or an active control condition. 79 provided peripheral blood leukocyte samples for genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatic analyses at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results Baseline negative affect was associated with > 50% differential expression of 201 leukocyte transcripts, including up-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory and metastasis-related genes. CBSM altered leukocyte expression of 91 genes by > 50% at follow-up (Group × Time interaction), including down-regulation of pro-inflammatory and metastasis-related genes and up-regulation of Type I interferon response genes. Promoter-based bioinformatic analyses implicated decreased activity of NF-κB/Rel and GATA family transcription factors and increased activity of Interferon Response Factors and the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) as potential mediators of CBSM-induced transcriptional alterations. Conclusions In early stage breast cancer patients, a 10-week CBSM intervention can reverse anxiety-related up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in circulating leukocytes. These findings clarify the molecular signaling pathways by which behavioral interventions can influence physical health and alter peripheral inflammatory processes that may reciprocally affect brain affective and cognitive processes. PMID:22088795

  9. [Clinical effects of the transfusion of leukocytes isolated by filtration from continuous flux].

    PubMed

    Malinvaud, G; Gailiard, S; Gualde, N

    1977-09-01

    The present work studies clinical effects of leukocyte transfusions to patients with medular aplasis. Leukocytes were collected by filtration on a continuous flow, according to the technique earlier described in this review [9]. Two major points are stressed on tolerance by the patients of the injected products and clinical efficiency. Seventy eight suspensions were prepared and transfused to 30 patients in the course of 36 incidents of myeloid insufficiency. All patients but two evidenced by the time of transfusion a number of polynuclears inferior to 500 per cubic millimeter. The infection was quite serious with increased gravity despite the antibiotherapy. Intolerance was noticeable in about one third of the cases, half of which consisted only in chillis by the end or after transfusion. Only one accident consisting in acute respiration troubles and shock was observed. This however does not occur by chance. It involves sensitization which may be related to HLA system but may also be of different nature, although not clearly identified. Nevertheless is efficiency of the injected products demonstrated by recirculation of the transfused leukocytes. This was noticed within an hour following transfusion for more than 50 percent of the cases. Furthermore it lasted for 16 hours in more than one fourth of the patients. In addition following results are in favour of real clinical efficiency. Certainly in the course of 16 aplasic incidents, no improvement was observed. For most patients however transfusions were late and not renewed or the patients were highly immunized. Conversely the infection state did improve in 8 patients, the disease responsible for aplasia running its course on its own. Lastly in the course of 12 aplasic incidents, infection and acute aplasia did cure. All these observations should lead one to study with great care the immunological state of the recipient. Instructions being known, the number of transfused leukocytes should be sufficient and

  10. With medium-chain triglycerides, higher and faster oxygen radical production by stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes occurs.

    PubMed

    Kruimel, J W; Naber, A H; Curfs, J H; Wenker, M A; Jansen, J B

    2000-01-01

    Parenteral lipid emulsions are suspected of suppressing the immune function. However, study results are contradictory and mainly concern the conventional long-chain triglyceride emulsions. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were preincubated with parenteral lipid emulsions. The influence of the lipid emulsions on the production of oxygen radicals by these stimulated leukocytes was studied by measuring chemiluminescence. Three different parenteral lipid emulsions were tested: long-chain triglycerides, a physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides, and structured triglycerides. Structured triglycerides consist of triglycerides where the medium- and long-chain fatty acids are attached to the same glycerol molecule. Stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with the physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides showed higher levels of oxygen radicals (p < .005) and faster production of oxygen radicals (p < .005) compared with polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with long-chain triglycerides or structured triglycerides. Additional studies indicated that differences in results of various lipid emulsions were not caused by differences in emulsifier. The overall production of oxygen radicals was significantly lower after preincubation with the three lipid emulsions compared with controls without lipid emulsion. A physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides induced faster production of oxygen radicals, resulting in higher levels of oxygen radicals, compared with long-chain triglycerides or structured triglycerides. This can be detrimental in cases where oxygen radicals play either a pathogenic role or a beneficial one, such as when rapid phagocytosis and killing of bacteria is needed. The observed lower production of oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the presence of parenteral lipid emulsions may result in immunosuppression by these lipids.

  11. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Major Depression: Correlations with Chronicity, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress - Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Su, Yali; Reus, Victor I.; Rosser, Rebecca; Burke, Heather M.; Kupferman, Eve; Compagnone, Mariana; Nelson, J. Craig; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with an unusually high rate of aging-related illnesses and early mortality. One aspect of “accelerated aging” in depression may be shortened leukocyte telomeres. When telomeres critically shorten, as often occurs with repeated mitoses or in response to oxidation and inflammation, cells may die. Indeed, leukocyte telomere shortening predicts early mortality and medical illnesses in non-depressed populations. We sought to determine if leukocyte telomeres are shortened in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), whether this is a function of lifetime depression exposure and whether this is related to putative mediators, oxidation and inflammation. Methodology Leukocyte telomere length was compared between 18 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 controls and was correlated with lifetime depression chronicity and peripheral markers of oxidation (F2-isoprostane/Vitamin C ratio) and inflammation (IL-6). Analyses were controlled for age and sex. Principal Findings The depressed group, as a whole, did not differ from the controls in telomere length. However, telomere length was significantly inversely correlated with lifetime depression exposure, even after controlling for age (p<0.05). Average telomere length in the depressed subjects who were above the median of lifetime depression exposure (≥9.2 years' cumulative duration) was 281 base pairs shorter than that in controls (p<0.05), corresponding to approximately seven years of “accelerated cell aging.” Telomere length was inversely correlated with oxidative stress in the depressed subjects (p<0.01) and in the controls (p<0.05) and with inflammation in the depressed subjects (p<0.05). Conclusions These preliminary data indicate that accelerated aging at the level of leukocyte telomeres is proportional to lifetime exposure to MDD. This might be related to cumulative exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation in MDD. This suggest that telomere shortening does not antedate depression and is

  12. Comparison of oxidative stress & leukocyte activation in patients with severe sepsis & burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Mühl, Diana; Woth, Gábor; Drenkovics, Livia; Varga, Adrienn; Ghosh, Subhamay; Csontos, Csaba; Bogár, Lajos; Wéber, György; Lantos, János

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: We evaluated pro- and anti-oxidant disturbances in sepsis and non-sepsis burn patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Adhesion molecules and inflammation markers on leukocytes were also analyzed. We hypothesized that oxidative stress and leukocyte activation markers can lead to the severity of sepsis. Methods: In 28 severe sepsis and 27 acute burn injury patients blood samples were collected at admission and 4 days consecutively. Oxidative stress markers: production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and endogenous antioxidants: plasma protein sulphydryl groups, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured. Flow cytometry was used to determine CD11a, CD14, CD18, CD49d and CD97 adhesion molecules on leukocytes. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, platelet count and lactate were also analyzed. Results: Pro-oxidant parameters were significantly elevated in sepsis patients at admission, ROS intensity increased in burn patients until the 5th day. Endogenous antioxidant levels except catalase showed increased levels after burn trauma compared to sepsis. Elevated granulocyte activation and suppressed lymphocyte function were found at admission and early activation of granulocytes caused by increasing activation/migration markers in sepsis. Leukocyte adhesion molecule expression confirmed the suppressed lymphocyte and monocyte function in sepsis. Interpretation & conclusions: Severe sepsis is accompanied by oxidative stress and pathological leukocyte endothelial cell interactions. The laboratory parameters used for the evaluation of sepsis and several markers of pro- and antioxidant status were different between sepsis and non-sepsis burn patients. The tendency of changes in these parameters may refer to major oxidative stress in sepsis and developing SIRS in burns. PMID:21808137

  13. Effects of non-leukocyte-reduced and leukocyte-reduced packed red blood cell transfusions on oxygenation of rat spinotrapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Sripriya; Dodhy, Sami C.; Pittman, Roland N.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Leukoreduction of blood used for transfusion alleviates febrile transfusion reactions, graft versus host disease and alloimmunization to leukocyte antigen. However, the actual clinical benefit of leukoreduction in terms of microcirculatory tissue O2 delivery after packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion has not been investigated. As such, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of non-leukoreduced (NLR) and leukoreduced (LR) fresh pRBC transfusion on interstitial oxygenation in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interstitial fluid PO2 and arteriolar diameters in spinotrapezius muscle preparations were monitored before and after transfusion with NLR- or LR-pRBCs. The major findings were that (1) transfusion of NLR-pRBCs significantly decreased interstitial oxygenation whereas transfusion of LR-pRBCs did not, and (2) transfusion with LR-pRBCs elicited a substantially greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than did transfusion with NLR-pRBCs. These changes in PO2 and ABP were not associated with changes in the diameters of resistance arterioles in the spinotrapezius muscle. These data suggest that transfusion of fresh NLR-pRBCs may negatively affect tissue oxygenation via enhanced leukocyte influx and decreased O2 delivery. They also suggest that leukocytes diminish the capability of transfused pRBCs to increase cardiac output. As such, transfusion of LR-pRBCs may be less deleterious on tissue PO2 levels than NLR-pRBCs although a concomitantly greater increase in ABP may accompany transfusion of LR-pRBCs. PMID:24189119

  14. Anethole and eugenol reduce in vitro and in vivo leukocyte migration induced by fMLP, LTB4, and carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Kummer, Raquel; Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Grespan, Renata; Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda Alcântara; Baroni, Silmara; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anethole (AN) and eugenol (EUG) on leukocyte migration using in vitro chemotaxis and in situ microcirculation assays. BALB/c mice were used for the in vitro chemotaxis assay, and Wistar rats for the in situ microcirculation assay. We evaluated (a) the in vitro leukocyte migration in response to chemotactic factors (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP] and leukotriene B4 [LTB4]) and (b) the rolling, adhesion, and migration of leukocytes induced by an injection of carrageenan (100 µg/cavity) into the scrotum of the animal. In the in vitro chemotaxis assay, AN and EUG at doses of 1, 3, 9, and 27 µg/ml significantly inhibited leukocyte migration when stimulated by the chemotactic agents fMLP and LTB4. In the in situ microcirculation assay, AN at doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg and EUG at a dose of 250 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of leukocytes that rolled, adhered, and migrated to perivascular tissue. The results indicate that AN and EUG exert inhibitory effects on leukocyte migration, highlighting their possible use to diminish excessive leukocyte migration in the inflammatory process.

  15. Altered circulating leukocytes and their chemokines in a clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy*.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Dorothea D; Lee, Timothy; Chiuzan, Cody; Perkel, Jessica K; Rollins, Laura Grace; Wagner, Carol L; Katikaneni, Lakshmi P; Bass, W Thomas; Kaufman, David A; Horgan, Michael J; Laungani, Sheela; Givelichian, Laurence M; Sankaran, Koravangatta; Yager, Jerome Y; Martin, Renee

    2013-10-01

    To determine systemic hypothermia's effect on circulating immune cells and their corresponding chemokines after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates. In our randomized, controlled, multicenter trial of systemic hypothermia in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, we measured total and leukocyte subset and serum chemokine levels over time in both hypothermia and normothermia groups, as primary outcomes for safety. Neonatal ICUs participating in a Neurological Disorders and Stroke sponsored clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia. Sixty-five neonates with moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy within 6 hours after birth. Patients were randomized to normothermia of 37°C or systemic hypothermia of 33°C for 48 hours. Complete and differential leukocyte counts and serum chemokines were measured every 12 hours for 72 hours. The hypothermia group had significantly lower median circulating total WBC and leukocyte subclasses than the normothermia group before rewarming, with a nadir at 36 hours. Only the absolute neutrophil count rebounded after rewarming in the hypothermia group. Chemokines, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-8, which mediate leukocyte chemotaxis as well as bone marrow suppression, were negatively correlated with their target leukocytes in the hypothermia group, suggesting active chemokine and leukocyte modulation by hypothermia. Relative leukopenia at 60-72 hours correlated with an adverse outcome in the hypothermia group. Our data are consistent with chemokine-associated systemic immunosuppression with hypothermia treatment. In hypothermic neonates, persistence of lower leukocyte counts after rewarming is observed in infants with more severe CNS injury.

  16. Leukocytes Are Recruited through the Bronchial Circulation to the Lung in a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Model of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Benjamin B.; Shen, Yi-Hsin; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Flores, Vanessa; Davis, Ryan P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) kills approximately 2.8 million people each year, and more than 80% of COPD cases can be attributed to smoking. Leukocytes recruited to the lung contribute to COPD pathology by releasing reactive oxygen metabolites and proteolytic enzymes. In this work, we investigated where leukocytes enter the lung in the early stages of COPD in order to better understand their effect as a contributor to the development of COPD. We simultaneously evaluated the parenchyma and airways for neutrophil accumulation, as well as increases in the adhesion molecules and chemokines that cause leukocyte recruitment in the early stages of tobacco smoke induced lung disease. We found neutrophil accumulation and increased expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines in the bronchial blood vessels that correlated with the accumulation of leukocytes recovered from the lung. The expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines in other vascular beds did not correlate with leukocytes recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These data strongly suggest leukocytes are recruited in large measure through the bronchial circulation in response to tobacco smoke. Our findings have important implications for understanding the etiology of COPD and suggest that pharmaceuticals designed to reduce leukocyte recruitment through the bronchial circulation may be a potential therapy to treat COPD. PMID:22457750

  17. Leukocyte Rolling on P-Selectin: A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of the Effect of Cytoplasmic Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Khismatullin, Damir B.; Truskey, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Rolling leukocytes deform and show a large area of contact with endothelium under physiological flow conditions. We studied the effect of cytoplasmic viscosity on leukocyte rolling using our three-dimensional numerical algorithm that treats leukocyte as a compound droplet in which the core phase (nucleus) and the shell phase (cytoplasm) are viscoelastic fluids. The algorithm includes the mechanical properties of the cell cortex by cortical tension and considers leukocyte microvilli that deform viscoelastically and form viscous tethers at supercritical force. Stochastic binding kinetics describes binding of adhesion molecules. The leukocyte cytoplasmic viscosity plays a critical role in leukocyte rolling on an adhesive substrate. High-viscosity cells are characterized by high mean rolling velocities, increased temporal fluctuations in the instantaneous velocity, and a high probability for detachment from the substrate. A decrease in the rolling velocity, drag, and torque with the formation of a large, flat contact area in low-viscosity cells leads to a dramatic decrease in the bond force and stable rolling. Using values of viscosity consistent with step aspiration studies of human neutrophils (5–30 Pa·s), our computational model predicts the velocities and shape changes of rolling leukocytes as observed in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22768931

  18. Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

    2001-05-01

    Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

  19. High molecular weight kininogen regulates platelet-leukocyte interactions by bridging Mac-1 and glycoprotein Ib.

    PubMed

    Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Santoso, Sentot; Clemetson, Kenneth J; Sachs, Ulrich J H; Isordia-Salas, Irma; Pixley, Robin A; Nawroth, Peter P; Colman, Robert W; Preissner, Klaus T

    2003-11-14

    Leukocyte-platelet interaction is important in mediating leukocyte adhesion to a thrombus and leukocyte recruitment to a site of vascular injury. This interaction is mediated at least in part by the beta2-integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and its counter-receptor on platelets, glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha). High molecular weight kininogen (HK) was previously shown to interact with both GPIbalpha and Mac-1 through its domains 3 and 5, respectively. In this study we investigated the ability of HK to interfere with the leukocyte-platelet interaction. In a purified system, HK binding to GPIbalpha was inhibited by HK domain 3 and the monoclonal antibody (mAb) SZ2, directed against the epitope 269-282 of GPIbalpha, whereas mAb AP1, directed to the region 201-268 of GPIbalpha had no effect. In contrast, mAb AP1 inhibited the Mac-1-GPIbalpha interaction. Binding of GPIbalpha to Mac-1 was enhanced 2-fold by HK. This effect of HK was abrogated in the presence of HK domains 3 or 5 or peptides from the 475-497 region of the carboxyl terminus of domain 5 as well as in the presence of mAb SZ2 but not mAb AP1. Whereas no difference in the affinity of the Mac-1-GPIbalpha interaction was observed in the absence or presence of HK, maximal binding of GPIbalpha to Mac-1 doubled in the presence of HK. Moreover, HK/HKa increased the Mac-1-dependent adhesion of myelomonocytic U937 cells and K562 cells transfected with Mac-1 to immobilized GPIbalpha or to GPIbalpha-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Finally, Mac-1-dependent adhesion of neutrophils to surface-adherent platelets was enhanced by HK. Thus, HK can bridge leukocytes with platelets by interacting via its domain 3 with GPIbalpha and via its domain 5 with Mac-1 thereby augmenting the Mac-1-GPIbalpha interaction. These distinct molecular interactions of HK with leukocytes and platelets contribute to the regulation of the adhesive behavior of vascular cells and provide novel molecular targets for reducing atherothrombotic

  20. Lipids and leukocytes in newborn umbilical vein blood, birth weight and maternal body mass index.

    PubMed

    Brittos, T; de Souza, W B; Anschau, F; Pellanda, L

    2016-12-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy may influence fetal development and possibly predispose offspring to cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy, and newborn birth weight, with lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leukocyte in newborns. We performed a cross-sectional study of 245 mothers and their children. Blood was collected from the umbilical vein and assayed for lipid profile, hs-CRP and leukocyte count. Newborns average weight was 3241 g, total cholesterol 53.9 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) 21.9 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) 26.2 mg/dl, triglyceride 29.5 mg/dl and leukocytes 13,777/mm3. There was a direct correlation of pre-pregnancy BMI of overweight mothers with total cholesterol (r=0.220, P=0.037) and LDL-c (r=0.268, P=0.011) of newborns. Total cholesterol, LDL-c and HDL-c were higher in pre-term newborns (66.3±19.7, 35.9±14.6 and 25.2±7.7 mg/dl, respectively) that in full-term (52.4±13.1, 25.0±8.7 and 21.5±6.0 mg/dl), with P=0.001, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively. Leukocyte counts were higher in full-term newborns (14,268±3982/mm3) compared with pre-term (9792±2836/mm3, P<0.0001). There was a direct correlation between birth weight and leukocyte counts of newborns (r=0.282, P<0.0001). These results suggest the possible interaction of maternal weight and fetal growth with lipid metabolism and leukocyte count in the newborn, which may be linked to programming of the immune system.

  1. Association between Kinin B1 Receptor Expression and Leukocyte Trafficking across Mouse Mesenteric Postcapillary Venules

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Peter G.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Perretti, Mauro

    2000-01-01

    Using intravital microscopy, we examined the role played by B1 receptors in leukocyte trafficking across mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo. B1 receptor blockade attenuated interleukin (IL)-1β–induced (5 ng intraperitoneally, 2 h) leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and leukocyte emigration (∼50% reduction). The B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9bradykinin (DABK), although inactive in saline- or IL-8–treated mice, caused marked neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and emigration 24 h after challenge with IL-1β (when the cellular response to IL-1β had subsided). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot revealed a temporal association between the DABK-induced response and upregulation of mesenteric B1 receptor mRNA and de novo protein expression after IL-1β treatment. DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking was antagonized by the B1 receptor antagonist des-arg10HOE 140 but not by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. Similarly, DABK effects were maintained in B2 receptor knockout mice. The DABK-induced responses involved the release of neuropeptides from C fibers, as capsaicin treatment inhibited the responses. Treatment with the neurokinin (NK)1 and NK3 receptor antagonists attenuated the responses, whereas NK2, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists had no effect. Substance P caused leukocyte recruitment that, similar to DABK, was inhibited by NK1 and NK3 receptor blockade. Mast cell depletion using compound 48/80 reduced DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking, and DABK treatment was shown histologically to induce mast cell degranulation. DABK-induced trafficking was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor blockade. Our findings provide clear evidence that B1 receptors play an important role in the mediation of leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules, leading to leukocyte recruitment during an inflammatory response. This involves activation of C fibers and mast cells

  2. DOR(2)-selective but not DOR(1)-selective antagonist abolishes anxiolytic-like effects of the δ opioid receptor agonist KNT-127.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Azusa; Nagase, Hiroshi; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Saitoh, Akiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Recently, we reported that the δ opioid receptor (DOR) agonist KNT-127 produces anxiolytic-like effects in behaving rats. Here, we report on the roles of DOR subtypes ( DOR(1) and DOR(2)) play in mediating KNT-127-induced anxiolytic-like effects. Pretreatment with the DOR(2)-selective antagonist naltriben (NTB; 0.05mg/kg, s.c.) completely abolished KNT-127 (3.0mg/kg, s.c.)-induced anxiolytic-like effects in rats performing the elevated plus-maze task. By contrast, the DOR(1)-selective antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone (BNTX; 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) produced no effect at a dose that completely blocked the antinociceptive effects of KNT-127. These findings were also supported by results from a light/dark test and open-field test. We clearly demonstrated that the DOR(2)-selective antagonist, but not the DOR(1)-selective antagonist, abolishes the anxiolytic-like effects of the DOR agonist KNT-127, suggesting different roles of these DOR subtypes in anxiety. We propose that DOR(2)-selective agonists would be good candidates for future development of anxiolytic drugs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PPAR{gamma} activation abolishes LDL-induced proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells via SOD-mediated down-regulation of superoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Kyung-Sun; Department of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Yuseong, Daejeon; Kim, Dong-Uk

    Native LDL would be a mitogenic and chemotactic stimulus of VSMC proliferation and differentiation in the atherosclerotic lesion where endothelial disruption occurred. In previous studies, our group investigated the molecular mechanisms by which LDL induces IL-8 production and by which PPAR{alpha} activation abolishes LDL effects in human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs). Herein is the first report of PPAR{gamma} activation by troglitazone (TG) exerting its inhibitory effects on LDL-induced cell proliferation via generation not of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but of O2?-, and the subsequent activation of Erk1/2 in hAoSMCs. Moreover, in this study TG abolished the LDL-accelerated G{sub 1}-S progression to controlmore » levels via down-regulation of active cyclinD1/CDK4 and cyclinE/CDK2 complexes and up-regulation of p21{sup Cip1} expression. TG exerted its anti-proliferative effects through the up-regulation of basal superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression. This data suggests that the regulation of O2?- is located at the crossroads between LDL signaling and cell proliferation.« less

  4. Comparative Genome Analysis of Three Eukaryotic Parasites with Differing Abilities To Transform Leukocytes Reveals Key Mediators of Theileria-Induced Leukocyte Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmodium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. PMID:22951932

  5. Sphingolipids role in the regulation of inflammatory response: From leukocyte biology to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, Elena; Loberto, Nicoletta; Schiumarini, Domitilla; Samarani, Maura; Mancini, Giulia; Tamanini, Anna; Lippi, Giuseppe; Dechecchi, Maria Cristina; Bassi, Rosaria; Giussani, Paola; Aureli, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are amphiphilic molecules mainly associated with the external leaflet of eukaryotic plasma membrane, and are structural membrane components with key signaling properties. Since the beginning of the last century, a large number of papers described the involvement of these molecules in several aspects of cell physiology and pathology. Several lines of evidence support the critical role of SLs in inflammatory diseases, by acting as anti- or pro-inflammatory mediators. They are involved in control of leukocyte activation and migration, and are recognized as essential players in host response to pathogenic infection. We propose here a critical overview of current knowledge on involvement of different classes of SLs in inflammation, focusing on the role of simple and complex SLs in pathogen-mediated inflammatory response. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  6. Investigation of light scattering characteristics of individual leukocytes using three-dimensional refractive index maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Kung-Bin; Lin, Yang-Hsien; Lin, Fong-jheng; Hsieh, Chao-Mao; Wu, Shang-Ju

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) refractive-index (RI) microscopy is an emerging technique suitable for live-cell imaging due to its label-free and fast 3D imaging capabilities. We have developed a common-path system to acquire 3D RI microscopic images of cells with excellent speed and stability. After obtaining 3D RI distributions of individual leukocytes, we used a 3D finite-difference time-domain tool to study light scattering properties. Backscattering spectra of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils are different from each other. Backscattering spectra of lymphocytes matched well with those of homogeneous spheres as predicted by Mie theory while backscattering spectra of neutrophils are significantly more intense than those of the other two types. This suggests the possibility of classifying the three types of leukocytes based on backscattering.

  7. Hierarchical biointerfaces assembled by leukocyte-inspired particles for specifically recognizing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingxin; Liu, Hongliang; Liu, Xueli; Yang, Gao; Zhang, Pengchao; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei

    2014-09-24

    By mimicking certain biochemical and physical attributes of biological cells, bio-inspired particles have attracted great attention for potential biomedical applications based on cell-like biological functions. Inspired by leukocytes, hierarchical biointerfaces are designed and prepared based on specific molecules-modified leukocyte-inspired particles. These biointerfaces can efficiently recognize cancer cells from whole blood samples through the synergistic effect of molecular recognition and topographical interaction. Compared to flat, mono-micro or nano-biointerfaces, these micro/nano hierarchical biointerfaces are better able to promote specific recognition interactions, resulting in an enhanced cell-capture efficiency. It is anticipated that this study may provide promising guidance to develop new bio-inspired hierarchical biointerfaces for biomedical applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fluorescent staining for leukocyte chemotaxis. Eosinophil-specific fluorescence with aniline blue.

    PubMed

    McCrone, E L; Lucey, D R; Weller, P F

    1988-11-10

    To overcome problems associated with the quantitation of human eosinophil chemotaxis in micropore filters, we have developed a fluorescent method of specifically staining eosinophils in chemotactic filters. A neutral solution of aniline blue yielded bright green fluorescent staining of the cytoplasmic granules of eosinophils. Other leukocytes and contaminating neutrophils potentially present with eosinophils did not fluoresce with aniline blue. The fluorescent staining eosinophils within filters provided bright, non-fading images that facilitated visual microscopic counting and were of sufficiently high contrast, unlike those with conventional eosinophil stains, to allow image analyzer based enumeration of eosinophil chemotactic responses at levels through the filters. Although not cell type-specific, congo red and ethidium bromide also provided high contrast, fluorescent images of all leukocyte types within chemotactic filters. Fluorescent staining with aniline blue constitutes a rapid, stable and eosinophil-specific stain that facilitates the visual or image analyzer-based quantitation of eosinophil chemotaxis.

  9. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of human leukocyte proteins from patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, K.E.; Thorsrud, A.K.; Munthe, E.

    Human leukocyte proteins from more than 150 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, together with age- and sex-matched controls, were analyzed by use of the ISO-DALT technique of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, psoriatic arthritis, calcium tendinitis, post-infectious arthritis, and asymmetrical seronegative arthritis were also included as positive controls. Synthesis of several proteins, referred to by number as members of the Rheuma set, is shown to increase in the leukocyte preparations from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis. Several of these proteins are specific to monocytes or granulocytes; others are of unknown cellular origin, but appear to bemore » unique to rheumatoid arthritis. The Rheuma proteins appear to be indicators of disease activity, because their increased synthesis can be correlated with sedimentation rate and other clinical indices of rheumatoid disease activity.« less

  10. Vitamin C metabolites, independent of smoking status, significantly enhance leukocyte, but not plasma ascorbate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A; Combs, Maile A; Vrablic, Angelica S; Velasquez, Janet; Turner, Benilda; Bernal, Samuel

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effects of acute doses of vitamin C alone, calcium ascorbate with vitamin C metabolites, and placebo, on total plasma and leukocyte vitamin C concentrations over 24 hours. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study was performed consisting of four separate phases lasting 24 hours each and utilizing one of four oral 1000-mg preparations within each phase (one of vitamin C alone, two separate vitamin C formulations of calcium ascorbate with vitamin C metabolites, and placebo). There was a 7-day washout between phases, and blood draws at seven time points within each phase of the study for a total of 28 serologic measurements per subject and 420 total measurements for the entire clinical trial. Vitamin C concentration in plasma and leukocytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and at six sequential time periods over 24 hours. Fifteen healthy males were enrolled, aged 18-39 years; nine were had never smoked and six were chronic smokers. No significant difference in plasma vitamin C levels was observed when comparing the different preparations. However, at 24 hours, calcium ascorbate with metabolites resulted in significantly higher concentrations of vitamin C in leukocytes (P<0.0001) compared with vitamin C alone. These results were similar for both metabolite formulations, and independent of smoking status. Regardless of smoking status, vitamin C metabolites may enhance leukocyte utilization of vitamin C itself, despite no consistent difference in plasma levels among the different preparations. A larger clinical investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings, and to determine the clinical relevance of this impact on overall immune function.

  11. [Action of human leukocyte interferon on poliomyelitis virus reproduction in resistant MIO(r) cells].

    PubMed

    Gulevich, N E; Orlova, N G; Pokidysheva, L N

    1981-01-01

    The effect of human leukocyte interferon on reproduction of poliomyelitis virus in MIO cells resistant to this virus (MIOr) and sensitive MIO cells was studied. Interferon was shown to exert a short-time protective effect in the sensitive cells and to induce virus reproduction in the resistant cells. It is suggested that poliomyelitis virus reproduction in the resistant cells is due to activation of lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D, in this system.

  12. Platelet and leukocyte activation, atherosclerosis and inflammation in European and South Asian men.

    PubMed

    Dotsenko, O; Chaturvedi, N; Thom, S A McG; Wright, A R; Mayet, J; Shore, A; Schalkwijk, C; Hughes, A D

    2007-10-01

    Increased platelet activation occurs in ischemic heart disease (IHD), but increased platelet activation is also seen in cerebrovascular atherosclerosis and peripheral artery disease. It is not clear therefore whether platelet activation is an indicator of IHD or a marker of generalized atherosclerosis and inflammation. South Asian subjects are at high risk of IHD, but little is known regarding differences in platelet and leukocyte function between European and South Asian subjects. Fifty-four male subjects (age 49-79 years) had coronary artery calcification measured by multislice computed tomography (CT), aortic atherosclerosis assessed by measurement of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (aortic PWV), and femoral and carotid atherosclerosis measured by B-mode ultrasound. Platelet and leukocyte activation was assessed by flow cytometry of platelet-monocyte complexes (PMC), platelet expression of PAC-1 binding site and CD62P, and expression of L-selectin on leukocytes. Elevated circulating PMC correlated significantly with elevated aortic PWV and PMC were higher in subjects with femoral plaques. In contrast PMC did not differ by increasing coronary artery calcification category or presence of carotid plaques. Higher numbers of PMC were independently related to elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), higher aortic PWV, hypertension and smoking in a multivariate model. Markers of platelet and leukocyte activation did not differ significantly by ethnicity. Increased PMC are related to the extent of aortic and femoral atherosclerosis rather than coronary or carotid atherosclerosis. The association between elevated CRP and increased PMC suggests that inflammation in relation to generalized atherosclerosis may play an important role in PMC activation.

  13. Higher Circulating Leukocytes in Women with PCOS is Reversed by Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Jeffrey D.; Tam, Charmaine S.; Pasarica, Magdalena; Redman, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance, elevated circulating leukocytes, and hypothesized to have higher adipose tissue inflammation. Aerobic exercise reduces circulating leukocytes and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals, but the effect of exercise on inflammation in PCOS is not known. We investigated circulating leukocytes, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, serum pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-α, total and high molecular weight adiponectin), and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression of proinflammatory markers in 8 PCOS women and 8 obese control females matched for BMI. Additionally, in a prospective study, the 8 women with PCOS underwent a 16-week aerobic exercise regimen with the same measures performed post-intervention. Compared to controls, white blood cell counts (WBC) were 30% higher (p = 0.04) and circulating total adiponectin levels were 150% lower (p = 0.03) in women with PCOS at baseline/pre-exercise conditions. SAT gene expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, p < 0.01) and interleukin-6 (IL-6, p < 0.05) were also lower in women with PCOS. In response to 16 weeks of aerobic exercise, insulin sensitivity improved (p < 0.01) and WBC counts decreased (p = 0.02). The exercise-induced change in WBC and circulating neutrophils correlated inversely with changes in glucose disposal rate (r= -0.73, p=0.03; and r= -0.82, p=0.01, respectively). Aerobic exercise reduced serum leptin (p < 0.05) after 4 weeks, trended to reduce the ratio of leptin-to-high molecular weight adiponectin (p < 0.1) by the 8th week, and significantly increased serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, p < 0.001) after 16 weeks. In conclusion, women with PCOS have higher circulating leukocytes compared to controls, which can be reversed by aerobic exercise and is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:25446648

  14. Genotoxicity of waterpipe smoke in buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes as determined by comet assay.

    PubMed

    Al-Amrah, Hadba Jar-Allah; Aboznada, Osama Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; ElAssouli, M-Zaki Mustafa; Mujallid, Mohammad Ibrahim; ElAssouli, Sufian Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe smoke causes DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes and in buccal cells of smokers. To determine the exposure effect of waterpipe smoke on buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes in regard to DNA damage using comet assay. The waterpipe smoke condensates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study was performed on 20 waterpipe smokers. To perform comet assay on bucaal cells of smokers, 10 µl of cell suspension was mixed with 85 µl of pre-warmed 1% low melting agarose, applied to comet slide and electrophoresed. To analyze the effect of smoke condensate in vitro, 1 ml of peripheral blood was mixed with 10 µl of smoke condensate and subjected for comet assay. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4on, nicotine, hydroxymethyl furancarboxaldehyde and 3-ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the smoke condensates. Waterpipe smoking caused DNA damage in vivo in buccal cells of smokers. The tail moment and tail length in buccal cells of smokers were 186 ± 26 and 456 ± 71, respectively, which are higher than control. The jurak and moassel smoke condensates were found to cause DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. The moassel smoke condensate was more damaging. There is wide misconception that waterpipe smoking is not as harmful as cigarette smoking. This study demonstrated that waterpipe smoke induced DNA damage in exposed cells. Waterpipe smokes cause DNA damage in buccal cells. The smoke condensate of both jurak and moassel caused comet formation suggesting DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  15. Abacavir and didanosine induce the interaction between human leukocytes and endothelial cells through Mac-1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    De Pablo, Carmen; Orden, Samuel; Apostolova, Nadezda; Blanquer, Amando; Esplugues, Juan V; Alvarez, Angeles

    2010-06-01

    Abacavir and didanosine are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) widely used in therapy for HIV-infection but which have been linked to cardiovascular complications. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of clinically relevant doses of abacavir and didanosine on human leukocyte-endothelium interactions and to compare them with those of other NRTIs. The interactions between human leukocytes - specifically peripheral blood polymorphonuclear (PMN) or mononuclear (PBMC) cells - and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were evaluated in a flow chamber system that reproduces conditions in vivo. The expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed by flow cytometry. Abacavir induced a dose-dependent increase in PMN and PBMC rolling and adhesion. This was reproduced by didanosine but not by lamivudine or zidovudine. Both abacavir and didanosine increased Mac-1 expression in neutrophils and monocytes, but produced no effects on either lymphocytes or the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. The PMN/PBMC rolling and adhesion induced by abacavir or didanosine did not occur when antibodies against Mac-1 or its ligand ICAM-1 were blocked. Abacavir induces significant human leukocyte accumulation through the activation of Mac-1, which in turn interacts with its endothelial ligand ICAM-1. The fact that didanosine exhibits similar effects and that lamivudine and zidovudine do not points to a relationship between the chemical structure of NRTIs and the induction of leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions. This mechanism may be especially relevant to the progression of the vascular damage associated with atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in abacavir and didanosine-treated patients.

  16. Association between global DNA hypomethylation in leukocytes and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji-Yeob; James, Smitha R.; Link, Petra A.; McCann, Susan E.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Davis, Warren; Nesline, Mary K.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Karpf, Adam R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Global DNA hypomethylation may result in chromosomal instability and oncogene activation, and as a surrogate of systemic methylation activity, may be associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: Samples and data were obtained from women with incident early-stage breast cancer (I–IIIa) and women who were cancer free, frequency matched on age and race. In preliminary analyses, genomic methylation of leukocyte DNA was determined by measuring 5-methyldeoxycytosine (5-mdC), as well as methylation analysis of the LINE-1-repetitive DNA element. Further analyses used only 5-mdC levels. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of breast cancer in relation to amounts of methylation. Results: In a subset of samples tested (n = 37), 5-mdC level was not correlated with LINE-1 methylation. 5-mdC level in leukocyte DNA was significantly lower in breast cancer cases than healthy controls (P = 0.001), but no significant case–control differences were observed with LINE-1 methylation (P = 0.176). In the entire data set, we noted significant differences in 5-mdC levels in leukocytes between cases (n = 176) and controls (n = 173); P value < 0.001. Compared with women in the highest 5-mdC tertile (T3), women in the second (T2; OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 0.84–2.65) and lowest tertile (T1; OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.65–4.94) had higher risk of breast cancer (P for trend ≤0.001). Among controls only and cases and controls combined, only alcohol intake was found to be inversely associated with methylation levels. Conclusion: These findings suggest that leukocyte DNA hypomethylation is independently associated with development of breast cancer. PMID:19584139

  17. Association between global DNA hypomethylation in leukocytes and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Yeob; James, Smitha R; Link, Petra A; McCann, Susan E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Davis, Warren; Nesline, Mary K; Ambrosone, Christine B; Karpf, Adam R

    2009-11-01

    Global DNA hypomethylation may result in chromosomal instability and oncogene activation, and as a surrogate of systemic methylation activity, may be associated with breast cancer risk. Samples and data were obtained from women with incident early-stage breast cancer (I-IIIa) and women who were cancer free, frequency matched on age and race. In preliminary analyses, genomic methylation of leukocyte DNA was determined by measuring 5-methyldeoxycytosine (5-mdC), as well as methylation analysis of the LINE-1-repetitive DNA element. Further analyses used only 5-mdC levels. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of breast cancer in relation to amounts of methylation. In a subset of samples tested (n = 37), 5-mdC level was not correlated with LINE-1 methylation. 5-mdC level in leukocyte DNA was significantly lower in breast cancer cases than healthy controls (P = 0.001), but no significant case-control differences were observed with LINE-1 methylation (P = 0.176). In the entire data set, we noted significant differences in 5-mdC levels in leukocytes between cases (n = 176) and controls (n = 173); P value < 0.001. Compared with women in the highest 5-mdC tertile (T3), women in the second (T2; OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 0.84-2.65) and lowest tertile (T1; OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.65-4.94) had higher risk of breast cancer (P for trend < or = 0.001). Among controls only and cases and controls combined, only alcohol intake was found to be inversely associated with methylation levels. These findings suggest that leukocyte DNA hypomethylation is independently associated with development of breast cancer.

  18. Raised plasma soluble P-selectin in peripheral arterial occlusive disease enhances leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Woollard, K J; Kling, D; Kulkarni, S; Dart, A M; Jackson, S; Chin-Dusting, J

    2006-01-06

    Raised levels of soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) have been reported in the plasma of patients with vascular diseases; however, the functional importance of this ligand remains unclear. In this study we have examined a potential role for plasma sP-selectin in regulating neutrophil adhesion in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patients with PAOD had significantly higher levels of sP-selectin (mean+/-SD: 73.3+/-13.0 versus 16.7+/-6.4 ng/mL) and enhanced whole blood leukocyte adhesion to platelets under shear. To examine whether the raised sP-selectin levels can directly influence leukocyte adhesion, isolated neutrophils were incubated with plasma from PAOD patients before and after immunodepletion of sP-selectin. Neutrophil adhesion to fibrinogen increased 2-fold following incubation with PAOD plasma, which was abrogated on sP-selectin immunodepletion. We subsequently demonstrated that recombinant sP-selectin dose-dependently (75 to 250 ng/mL) increased leukocyte adhesion to fibrinogen and platelet monolayers. This increase was PSGL-1 and Src kinase-dependent and correlated with an increase in sP-selectin-mediated Mac-1 activation. sP-selectin-stimulated neutrophil adhesion to platelet monolayers was inversely correlated with shear, such that at low shear (50 s(-1)) a 92.7%+/-15.7 increase in adhesion was observed decreasing to 38.5%+/-11.9 at 150 s(-1) and 10.1%+/-7.4 at 300 s(-1). These studies suggest a potentially important role for sP-selectin in modulating neutrophil adhesion in patients with PAOD, particularly at sites of low shear, where it raises the possibility that raised plasma sP-selectin levels may enhance leukocyte recruitment to vascular injury and promote disease progression.

  19. Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and DNA Methylation in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baccarelli, Andrea; Hoffman, Elaine; Tarantini, Letizia; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wright, Robert O.; Christiani, David C