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Sample records for abomasal emptying rate

  1. Effects of wheat protein in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate in calves.

    PubMed

    Wittek, T; Ernstberger, M; Muckenhuber, M; Flöck, M

    2016-04-01

    Diarrhoea is a condition with tremendous impact on calf health. Infectious agents play a dominant role; however, non-infective factors may also contribute to pathogenesis of diarrhoea. One factor, the abomasal emptying rate, is mainly influenced by the composition of feed. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different protein sources in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate and clinical parameters. The effect of increasing age of the calves on abomasal emptying was also evaluated. The study compared abomasal emptying rates and clinical parameters in calves, which were fed either milk replacer containing only whey protein or one which partially contained wheat protein. Abomasal emptying rate was estimated by ultrasonography. Ten calves were used in the study over 18 days, and each calf was fed 3 periods of 3 days length using different milk replacers in an alternating crossover design. The abomasum was emptied significantly faster when the wheat protein containing milk replacer was fed (half-emptying time wheat protein 49.1 ± 4.1 min, half-emptying time milk protein 59.1 ± 7.4 min); however, clinical parameters and weight gain did not differ between the feeding regimes. Age did not significantly influence abomasal emptying rate. As milk replacers containing wheat proteins increased abomasal emptying rate, they may have a higher potential to initiate diarrhoea, especially if high volumes are fed. Thus, the feeding regimes are likely to be even more important when such milk replacers are used.

  2. Effect of spiramycin and tulathromycin on abomasal emptying rate in milk-fed calves

    PubMed Central

    Rashnavadi, Mehdi; Nouri, Mohammad; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad R.; Najafzadeh, Housain; Constable, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired abomasal motility is common in cattle with abomasal disorders. The macrolide erythromycin has been demonstrated to be an effective prokinetic agent in healthy calves and in adult cattle with abomasal volvulus or left displaced abomasum. We hypothesized that 2 structurally related macrolides, spiramycin and tulathromycin, would also be effective prokinetic agents in cattle. Six milk-fed, male, Holstein-Friesian calves were administered each of the following 4 treatments: spiramycin, 75 000 IU/kg BW, IM, this dose approximates 25 mg/kg BW, IM; tulathromycin, 2.5 mg/kg BW, SC; 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl (negative control); and erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg BW, IM (positive control). Calves were fed 2 L of cow’s milk containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg body weight) 30 min after each treatment was administered and jugular venous blood samples were obtained periodically after the start of sucking. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed by the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Spiramycin, tulathromycin, and the positive control erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate compared to the negative control. We conclude that the labeled antimicrobial dose of spiramycin and tulathromycin increases the abomasal emptying rate in healthy milk-fed calves. Additional studies investigating whether spiramycin and tulathromycin exert a prokinetic effect in adult cattle with abomasal hypomotility appear indicated. PMID:24396182

  3. Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, T; Stockdale, H R; Critchley, M; Grime, J S; Jones, R S; Maltby, P

    1997-01-01

    A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition of the stomach compartments. When the reticular groove reflex was stimulated with oral copper sulphate the radionuclide bypassed the reticulorumen, allowing quantitative analysis of abomasal activity. However, the repeatability of the reflex activation was low. Radionuclide administered directly into the abomasum produced good images of abomasal outflow and provided digital data which were analysed quantitatively. A wide range of emptying rates was observed, generally with a stepped pattern.

  4. Effect of plane of milk replacer intake and age on glucose and insulin kinetics and abomasal emptying in female Holstein Friesian dairy calves fed twice daily.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, J A R; Berends, H; Leal, L N; Cant, J P; Martín-Tereso, J; Steele, M A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how preweaning plane of milk replacer intake and age can affect insulin and glucose kinetics as well as abomasal emptying rate in dairy calves fed twice a day. A total of 12 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked by cow parity, paired by colostrum origin, and were randomly assigned to a high plane of milk replacer intake (8 L/d, 1.2kg of milk replacer/d; n=6) or a low plane of nutrition (4 L/d, 0.6kg of milk replacer/d; n=6). All calves received 4 L of colostrum over 2 meals (1 and 6h after birth) and were then directly transferred to their assigned feeding plans until they were stepped-down from milk by 50% during wk 7 and weaned on wk 8. Milk replacer (24% crude protein, 18% crude fat) was fed at 150g/L twice daily (0700 and 1700h) and all calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter, chopped wheat straw, and water. Jugular catheters were placed in all calves at 4, 7, and 10wk of age. Then, postprandial response to plasma glucose, insulin, and acetaminophen (supplied with the meal) were determined to measure abomasal emptying. The next day, a glucose tolerance test was conducted by infusing glucose via the jugular catheter. At 4 and 7wk of age, the rate constant (%/h) for abomasal emptying of the meal was lower in high calves (0.21±0.02 in wk 4; 0.27±0.02 in wk 7) compared with low (0.34±0.02 in wk 4; 0.47±0.02 in wk 7). The postprandial plasma insulin area under the curve over 420min was greater in high calves (18,443±7,329; low=5,834±739 µU/mL) compared with low. We found no differences in glucose tolerance test kinetics between the high and low dairy calves at 4, 7, or 10wk of age. The findings from this study suggest that feeding dairy calves an elevated plane of nutrition in 2 meals of milk replacer per day does not decrease insulin sensitivity. PMID:27522426

  5. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  6. Ultrasonographic imaging of abomasal milk clotting and abomasal diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Daniela; Schwedhelm, Lea; Wenge, Julia; Steinhöfel, Ilka; Heinrich, Christian; Coenen, Manfred; Bachmann, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    In case of diarrhea calves are treated with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), which are known to increase abomasal pH and inhibit milk clotting in vitro. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that ORS with HCO3(-) ≤ 62 mmol/L do not interfere with abomasal milk clotting in healthy calves. However, in diarrheic calves, feeding ORS and milk simultaneously may disturb abomasal curd formation and exacerbate diarrhea due to faster abomasal passage of ingesta. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ultrasonographically examine abomasal milk clotting and diameter after feeding milk and milk replacer (MR) with and without ORS to healthy and diarrheic calves. Abomasal curd formation and diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves were ultrasonographically imaged before and after feeding milk, MR and ORS prepared in milk or MR. Feeding mixtures of milk or MR with ORS did not cause any remarkable differences in the ultrasonographic images of abomasal content. Moreover, abomasal milk clotting was not disturbed due to diarrhea. Statistically significant differences of abomasal diameter after feeding between healthy and diarrheic calves indicated that abomasal emptying is delayed in diarrheic calves. Hence, further studies are needed to determine reasons for decelerated abomasal passage in calves suffering from diarrhea.

  7. Normal rate of ventricular emptying in valvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, S M; Gash, A K; Bove, A A; Spann, J F

    1981-01-01

    The delayed upstroke of the arterial pulse in valvular aortic stenosis has been attributed, in part, to prolonged left ventricular emptying. Left ventricular emptying rate, however, has not been measured in aortic stenosis. We assessed the rate of left ventricular emptying by computer analysis of biplane cineangiograms in seven normal subjects, six patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, and 12 patients with severe aortic stenosis. As an indicator of delayed arterial pulse rise, T time index (time to half maximum aortic pressure corrected for heart rate) was measured in each group. T time index averaged 0.07 +/- 0.01 units in normal subjects, 0.14 +/- 0.04 units in the patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, and 0.13 +/- 0.05 units in those with severe aortic stenosis. Patients with mild to moderate and severe aortic stenosis differed significantly from normal subjects. Relative emptying rates were defined as the percentage of initial systolic volume ejected divided by the percentage of systole elapsed. These relative emptying rates were determined during the first, second, and third thirds of systole in all three groups. No significant decrease in the relative rate of left ventricular emptying was noted when each group of patients with aortic stenosis was compared with the normal subjects. Neither was there slowing in the actual rate of ejection of blood in ml per second throughout systole. We conclude that the rate of ventricular emptying is normal in aortic stenosis and does not explain the arterial pulse delay in this disease. PMID:7295438

  8. Gastric emptying rate in the elderly: implications for drug therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.A.; Triggs, E.J.; Cheung, M.; Broe, G.A.; Creasey, H.

    1981-05-01

    The effect of the aging process on gastric emptying was studied in 11 elderly subjects (mean age, 77) and in 7 young healthy volunteers (mean age, 26). Gastric emptying rates were assessed by a modified sequential scinti-scanning technique after administration of the nonabsorbable chelated radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-DTPA. The rate of emptying, expressed as half-time (T 1/2e) in minutes, was significantly longer (p less than 0.001) in the elderly subjects (mean apparent T 1/2e . 123.23 min) compared to the young healthy volunteers (mean apparent T 1/2e . 49.69 min). Clinical implications of these findings are discussed, particularly with respect to the rate and extent of drug absorption in elderly persons.

  9. [pH, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate and chloride in the rumen and abomasal contents of cows with abomasal displacement].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Reiche, D; Seeh, C; Thünker, B; Verwohlt, S; Failing, K

    1996-01-01

    after abomasal correction, pH and the concentrations of K, Mg, Ca, and P were lower and the concentrations of Cl higher than in controls. These findings indicate that before abomasal correction in cattle with abomasal displacement secretion from the abomasal glands was increased, abomasal contents backed up in the abomasum, whereby the secretion/backup was less with L than with R+, and that the backed-up contents are passed on after the abomasum is corrected. The findings also suggest that the increased rate of secretion from the abomasal glands or abomasal motility disorders continues on to the third day after abomasal correction.

  10. Role of Clostridium perfringens in causing abomasal ulcers in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi, Ali R Ghadrdan; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Kamali, Sojdeh; Kohli, Raghu N

    2010-11-15

    In this study, the correlation between abomasal ulcers and presence of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) was evaluated in 80 (50 affected and 30 non affected) randomly slaughtered buffaloes in Ahvaz slaughterhouse. Immediately after the slaughter, the abomasums was isolated and an incision was made on the wall of it. Then the abomasums were emptied and its interior was washed with water. The inner surface was examined for presence of abnormal lesion. Ulcers from affected and piece of abomasa from non affected buffaloes were cultured. Cultures were also made from contents of all samples and smears were also prepared from affected and non affected tissues. Cultures from content samples (12%) of 50 ulcerated abomasa were positive for C. perfringens while the agents were isolated from 1 content (3.3%) of non ulcerated abomasa. There was no statistical difference between presence of C. perfringens in contents and abomasal ulcers. Totally C. perfringens were isolated from ulcers of 6 (12%) ulcerated and tissues of 3 (10%) non ulcerated cases. Statistical analysis showed no correlation between presences of C. perfringens and abomasal ulcers. There was no statistical difference between sex and age of the affected animals. In conclusion C. perfringens seems not to be solely, a cause ofabomasal ulcers in buffaloes.

  11. Effect of rise in simulated inspiratory flow rate and carrier particle size on powder emptying from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Chavan, V; Dalby, R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of carrier particle size and simulated inspiratory flow increase rate on emptying from dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Several flow rate ramps were created using a computer-generated voltage signal linked to an electronic proportioning valve with a fast response time. Different linear ramps were programmed to reach 30, 60, 90, and 120 L/minute over 1, 2, or 3 seconds. At the lower flow rates, 100-ms and 500-ms ramps were also investigated. Three DPIs, Spinhaler, Rotahaler, and Turbuhaler, were used to test the effect of flow rate ramp on powder emptying. To test the effect of carrier particle size, anhydrous lactose was sieved into 3 particle sizes, and 20 mg of each was introduced into #2 and #3 hard gelatin capsules for Spinhaler and Rotahaler, respectively. Emptying tests were also carried out using the on/off solenoid valve described in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) (resulting in no ramp generation). Powder emptying increased from 9% to 46% for Rotahaler and 69% to 86% for Spinhaler from the shallowest (3 seconds to reach peak flow) to the 100-ms ramp for the 53- to 75 microm lactose size range at 30 L/minute. Similar trends were observed for larger particle size fractions at the same flow rate. However, at higher airflow rates (60, 90, and 120 L/minute), there was no significant increase in percentage of emptying within the ramps for a particular particle size range. Trends observed were similar for placebo-filled Turbuhaler and commercially available Rotacaps used with Rotahaler, with the steepest ramp demonstrating more complete emptying. Percentage of powder emptying determined by the USP solenoid valve overestimated the emitted dose compared with the ramp method at 30 L/minute for all 3 devices. Results indicate that there is a significant difference in powder emptying at 30 L/minute from the shallowest to the steepest ramp within a particular size range. Within a particular particle size range, the

  12. Gastric emptying rate in subjects with malocclusion examined by [(13) C] breath test.

    PubMed

    Koike, S; Sujino, T; Ohmori, H; Shimazaki, K; Fukuyama, E; Kanai, T; Hibi, T; Ono, T

    2013-08-01

    Masticatory function is significantly lower in individuals with malocclusion than in those with normal occlusion. Although several studies suggest that masticatory function influences gastrointestinal digestive function, the relationship between malocclusion and gastrointestinal symptoms has not been studied extensively. We hypothesised that insufficient masticatory function would increase the functional burden of the stomach and have some influence on the gastrointestinal system. The purpose of this study was to investigate masticatory function and gastric emptying rate in subjects with malocclusion. Eleven healthy dentate female volunteers and eleven female patients with maloc-clusion underwent a (13) C-acetate breath test with a liquid meal. Maximum (13) CO2 exhalation time (Tmax ) was compared statistically between both groups. Masticatory function was assessed by colour-changeable chewing gum. In addition, the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroeso-phageal reflux disease (FSSG) and questionnaires on food intake were given to both groups. The mean Tmax of the malocclusion group was significantly longer than that of the normal occlusion group (P = 0·007). Masticatory performance, measured by colour-changeable gum and questionnaires, was significantly lower in the malocclusion group than in the normal occlusion group (P = 0·023, P = 0·003). There was no significant difference in the FSSG results between the two groups (P = 0·262). This study suggested that there was a correlation between malocclusion and gastric emptying function in women.

  13. Bed occupancy rates and hospital-acquired infections--should beds be kept empty?

    PubMed

    Kaier, K; Mutters, N T; Frank, U

    2012-10-01

    There is growing evidence that bed occupancy (BO) rates, overcrowding and understaffing influence the spread of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). In this article, a systematic review of the literature is presented, summarizing the evidence on the adverse effects of high BO rates and overcrowding in hospitals on the incidence of HAIs. A Pubmed database search identified 179 references, of which 44 were considered to be potentially relevant for full-text review. The majority (62.9%) focused on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-associated infection or colonization. Only 12 studies were found that provided a statistical analysis of the impact of BO on HAI rates. The median BO rate of the analysed studies was 81.2%. The majority of studies (75%) indicated that BO rates and understaffing directly influence the incidence of HAIs. Only three studies showed no significant association between BO rates and the incidence of HAIs. Interestingly, only one of the included studies detected a seasonal trend in the BO rate. The present review shows an association between BO rates and the spread of HAIs in various settings. Because the evidence on this topic is limited, we conclude that further research is needed in order to analyse the rationale of a threshold BO rate, because keeping beds empty is comparatively costly.

  14. Tubular biofilter for toluene removal under various organic loading rates and gas empty bed residence times.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Luo, Shenglian; Yu, Guanlong

    2012-10-01

    A tubular biofilter (TBF) which consisted of a closed chamber, a polyurethane sponge tube and a nutrient solution distributor was developed and evaluated under organic loading rates (OL) ranging from 18.7 to 149.3 gm(-3)h(-1) and gas empty bed residence times (EBRTs) of 30-5.0 s. Using toluene as model VOC, the startup of the TBF lasted approximately 7 weeks. The removal efficiency decreased from 99% to 52.2% when OL was increased from 18.7 to 149.3g toluene m(-3)h(-1) at 15s, but did not decline significantly when the EBRT was reduced from 30 to 5.0 s at 18.7 gm(-3)h(-1). Biomass concentration did not increase significantly within the sponge tube during the 391 days' operation as observed through the Plexiglas pipe of the TBF. The TBF is suitable for treating waste gases with low toluene concentrations even at high gas flow and over long periods.

  15. Effect of abomasal infusion of saliva on reticular motility and ruminal liquid contents of steers.

    PubMed

    Froetschel, M A

    1995-11-01

    Two Holstein and two Jersey steers with ruminal and abomasal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to test the effects of abomasal infusion of saliva on reticular contractions and on contents of the reticulorumen. Steers were fed a ration based on sorghum silage (58.3% DM) at 2-h intervals in 12 equal amounts at 1.25 times the maintenance requirement. Saliva was collected from eight esophageally fistulated steers, pooled, and stored frozen at -20 degrees C. Saliva was mixed with McDougall's buffer (0, 33.3, 66.7, or 100% saliva) and infused abomasally at a rate of 1.5 L/h for 3 h. Abomasal infusion of saliva resulted in linear decreases in ruminal liquid and DM contents. Ruminal dilution rate tended to be faster for infused steers as concentration of saliva increased. Frequency of reticular contractions increased linearly as saliva infusion increased. The influence of saliva infusion on duration of reticular contractions was complicated by inverse patterns of response for each separate phase of the reticular contraction. The first phase of the contraction was influenced by saliva infusion in a negative, quadratic manner; the second phase exhibited an opposite response pattern. A quadratic effect was evident for both amplitude and area of contractions, indicating that the contraction strength was decreased at the intermediate salivary infusion. Postruminal passage of saliva may influence ruminal digestive function by regulating reticular motility and digesta passage.

  16. Investigating the relationship between abomasal hairballs and perforating abomasal ulcers in unweaned beef calves.

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, M D; Ribble, C S; Campbell, J R; Janzen, E D

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between abomasal hairballs (trichobezoars) and perforating abomasal ulcers in unweaned beef calves <4 mo of age. The calves enrolled in the study represented routine necropsy submissions to veterinary practitioners in western Canada and to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine. Regardless of the cause of death, each calf was examined for evidence of abomasal ulcers and hairballs. Thirty-two practitioners and the Western College of Veterinary Medicine provided 166 cases for the study; 56 died of perforating ulcers (ulcer calves), and 110 died of causes unrelated to abomasum (non-ulcer calves). The calves ranged in age from 1-90 d; 154 (92.8%) were <61 d of age. Overall, ulcer calves were 2.74 (P = 0.003) times more likely to die with an abomasal hairball than were the nonulcer calves. However, stratifying the calves into 2 age groups, young (<31 d) and old (>30 d), yielded conflicting results. While the young ulcer calves were 3.81 (P = 0.003) times more likely to have a hairball than were the young nonulcer calves, there was no statistically significant relationship (OR = 0.76, P = 0.65) between ulcer and hairballs in the older calves. The authors concluded that the relationship between hairballs and ulcers in the young calves was probably spurious, created by a Berkson's bias. It is unlikely that abomasal hairballs have a significant role in the development of fatal perforating ulcers in beef calves. PMID:8746415

  17. Investigating the relationship between abomasal hairballs and perforating abomasal ulcers in unweaned beef calves.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, M D; Ribble, C S; Campbell, J R; Janzen, E D

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between abomasal hairballs (trichobezoars) and perforating abomasal ulcers in unweaned beef calves <4 mo of age. The calves enrolled in the study represented routine necropsy submissions to veterinary practitioners in western Canada and to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine. Regardless of the cause of death, each calf was examined for evidence of abomasal ulcers and hairballs. Thirty-two practitioners and the Western College of Veterinary Medicine provided 166 cases for the study; 56 died of perforating ulcers (ulcer calves), and 110 died of causes unrelated to abomasum (non-ulcer calves). The calves ranged in age from 1-90 d; 154 (92.8%) were <61 d of age. Overall, ulcer calves were 2.74 (P = 0.003) times more likely to die with an abomasal hairball than were the nonulcer calves. However, stratifying the calves into 2 age groups, young (<31 d) and old (>30 d), yielded conflicting results. While the young ulcer calves were 3.81 (P = 0.003) times more likely to have a hairball than were the young nonulcer calves, there was no statistically significant relationship (OR = 0.76, P = 0.65) between ulcer and hairballs in the older calves. The authors concluded that the relationship between hairballs and ulcers in the young calves was probably spurious, created by a Berkson's bias. It is unlikely that abomasal hairballs have a significant role in the development of fatal perforating ulcers in beef calves.

  18. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  19. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a /sup 99m/technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it.

  20. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with abomasal lymphosarcoma: Case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This case report describes the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in a Swiss Braunvieh cow with lymphosarcoma of the abomasum. Case Presentation The main clinical findings were vomiting in response to eating and melena. The results of serum biochemistry and rumen fluid analysis were indicative of abomasal reflux syndrome. The main ultrasonographic findings were two enlarged lymph nodes caudal to the reticulum and a severely enlarged abomasum with thickening of the abomasal wall and folds. Based on all the findings, pyloric stenosis caused by lymphosarcoma was tentatively diagnosed and later confirmed at postmortem examination. Conclusions This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of abomasal reflux syndrome. PMID:21612590

  1. Effects of aeration rate on degradation process of oil palm empty fruit bunch with kinetic-dynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of different aeration rates on the organic matter (OM) degradation during the active phase of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)-rabbit manure co-composting process under constant forced-aeration system has been studied. Four different aeration rates, 0.13 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.49 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) and 0.74 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) were applied. 0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) provided enough oxygen level (10%) for the rest of composting period, showing 40.5% of OM reduction that is better than other aeration rates. A dynamic mathematical model describing OM degradation, based on the ratio between OM content and initial OM content with correction functions of moisture content, free air space, oxygen and temperature has been proposed.

  2. Effects of aeration rate on degradation process of oil palm empty fruit bunch with kinetic-dynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of different aeration rates on the organic matter (OM) degradation during the active phase of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)-rabbit manure co-composting process under constant forced-aeration system has been studied. Four different aeration rates, 0.13 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.49 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) and 0.74 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) were applied. 0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) provided enough oxygen level (10%) for the rest of composting period, showing 40.5% of OM reduction that is better than other aeration rates. A dynamic mathematical model describing OM degradation, based on the ratio between OM content and initial OM content with correction functions of moisture content, free air space, oxygen and temperature has been proposed. PMID:25079208

  3. Estimation of calcium and phosphorus content in growing and finishing pigs: whole empty body components and relative accretion rates.

    PubMed

    Pettey, L A; Cromwell, G L; Jang, Y D; Lindemann, M D

    2015-01-01

    Two comparative serial-slaughter experiments were conducted to determine whole empty body (WEB) composition and accretion rates of Ca and P in 18 to 109 kg BW pigs to provide information for modeling of these nutrients for growth. Both studies were conducted with 5 sets of 5 littermate barrows which were allotted to 5 slaughter groups in each study (Exp. 1: 18, 27, 36, 45, and 54 kg BW; Exp. 2: 36, 54, 73, 91, and 109 kg BW). Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets fortified with minerals and vitamins in 2 dietary phases in Exp. 1 (Phase 1: 18 to 36 kg BW; Phase 2: 36 to 54 kg BW) and 3 dietary phases in Exp. 2 (Phase 2: 36 to 54 kg BW; Phase 3: 54 to 78 kg BW; and Phase 4: 78 to 109 kg BW). At the predetermined BW, pigs were slaughtered and separated into body components of hair, hooves, blood, head, viscera, and carcass. The carcass was split along the dorsal midline and the left carcass side was ground for chemical analysis. Whole empty body weight averaged 93.6% and 94.0% of live BW in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. As WEB weight increased in both experiments, the percentage carcass of the WEB linearly (P < 0.05) increased, the percentage viscera linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, and the mass (g) of N, ash, Ca, and P in the WEB increased linearly (R(2) = 0.98). The concentration (g/kg) of P in the WEB of 18 to 54 kg pigs increased from 4.30 to 4.57 (linear; P < 0.05) and for Ca increased from 5.13 to 5.66 (linear; P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, P concentration was not related to WEB weight and Ca concentration increased quadratically (P < 0.05). The relative accretion rate of N to P was 1.00 (R(2) = 0.99) in the pigs from 18 to 54 kg. In conclusion, these results indicate that compositional changes as BW increases are strongly related to P retention and that the quantification of WEB P and relationships of WEB P to other chemical components in the body may be useful for modeling purposes in growing and finishing pigs.

  4. Estimation of calcium and phosphorus content in growing and finishing pigs: whole empty body components and relative accretion rates.

    PubMed

    Pettey, L A; Cromwell, G L; Jang, Y D; Lindemann, M D

    2015-01-01

    Two comparative serial-slaughter experiments were conducted to determine whole empty body (WEB) composition and accretion rates of Ca and P in 18 to 109 kg BW pigs to provide information for modeling of these nutrients for growth. Both studies were conducted with 5 sets of 5 littermate barrows which were allotted to 5 slaughter groups in each study (Exp. 1: 18, 27, 36, 45, and 54 kg BW; Exp. 2: 36, 54, 73, 91, and 109 kg BW). Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets fortified with minerals and vitamins in 2 dietary phases in Exp. 1 (Phase 1: 18 to 36 kg BW; Phase 2: 36 to 54 kg BW) and 3 dietary phases in Exp. 2 (Phase 2: 36 to 54 kg BW; Phase 3: 54 to 78 kg BW; and Phase 4: 78 to 109 kg BW). At the predetermined BW, pigs were slaughtered and separated into body components of hair, hooves, blood, head, viscera, and carcass. The carcass was split along the dorsal midline and the left carcass side was ground for chemical analysis. Whole empty body weight averaged 93.6% and 94.0% of live BW in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. As WEB weight increased in both experiments, the percentage carcass of the WEB linearly (P < 0.05) increased, the percentage viscera linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, and the mass (g) of N, ash, Ca, and P in the WEB increased linearly (R(2) = 0.98). The concentration (g/kg) of P in the WEB of 18 to 54 kg pigs increased from 4.30 to 4.57 (linear; P < 0.05) and for Ca increased from 5.13 to 5.66 (linear; P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, P concentration was not related to WEB weight and Ca concentration increased quadratically (P < 0.05). The relative accretion rate of N to P was 1.00 (R(2) = 0.99) in the pigs from 18 to 54 kg. In conclusion, these results indicate that compositional changes as BW increases are strongly related to P retention and that the quantification of WEB P and relationships of WEB P to other chemical components in the body may be useful for modeling purposes in growing and finishing pigs. PMID:25568364

  5. Dietary abomasal impaction in a herd of dairy replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, K J

    1991-04-15

    An episode of dietary abomasal impaction in a herd of dairy replacement heifers was found to be caused by excess almond shells in the ration. Clinical signs and necropsy findings led to the diagnosis. Removal of the almond shells and increasing the energy and digestibility of the ration corrected the problem. Factors contributing to the dietary impactions included advanced stages of pregnancy, high energy demands of growing heifers, and cold weather. Dietary abomasal impactions are not common in dairy cattle because of the high-quality ration a dairy cow generally receives. Replacement heifers in advanced stages of pregnancy have nutritional requirements similar to those of dairy cows, yet are often nutritionally neglected. The clinical findings in this report may help make veterinarians aware of the possibility of dietary abomasal impactions in dairy replacement heifers fed low-quality feeds.

  6. Crop-emptying rate and the design of pesticide risk assessment schemes in the honey bee and wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Alice; Rollin, Orianne; Le Féon, Violette; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël

    2014-02-01

    Recent scientific literature and reports from official sanitary agencies have pointed out the deficiency of current pesticide risk assessment processes regarding sublethal effects on pollinators. Sublethal effects include troubles in learning performance, orientation skills, or mobility, with possible contribution to substantial dysfunction at population scale. However, the study of sublethal effects is currently limited by considerable knowledge gaps, particularly for the numerous pollinators other than the honey bee Apis mellifera L.--the traditional model for pesticide risk assessment in pollinators. Here, we propose to use the crop-emptying time as a rule of thumb to guide the design of oral exposure experiments in the honey bee and wild bees. The administration of contaminated sucrose solutions is typically followed by a fasting time lapse to allow complete assimilation before the behavioral tests. The fasting duration should at least encompass the crop-emptying time, because no absorption takes place in the crop. We assessed crop-emptying rate in fasted bees and how it relates 1) with sucrose solution concentration in the honey bee and 2) with body mass in wild bees. Fasting duration required for complete crop emptying in honey bees fed 20 microl of a 50% sucrose solution was nearly 2 h. Actual fasting durations are usually shorter in toxicological studies, suggesting incomplete crop emptying, and therefore partial assimilation of experimental solutions that could imply underestimation of sublethal effects. We also found faster crop-emptying rates in large wild bees compared with smaller wild bees, and suggest operative rules to adapt sublethal assessment schemes accordingly.

  7. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  8. Post systolic shortening in nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with delayed emptying of the apex: a Doppler flow, tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging case study.

    PubMed

    Støylen, Asbjørn; Sletvold, Olav; Skjaerpe, Terje

    2003-02-01

    We report a case of a 92-year-old woman with syncope and exertional dyspnea, who on echocardiographic examination proved to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Doppler flow revealed delayed emptying of the apex, extending into the early filling phase. Tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging illustrated postsystolic shortening corresponding to the apical ejection, demonstrating that the apical flow was due to wall thickening resulting in active ejection. The imaging methods and mechanics of post-systolic shortening are discussed.

  9. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P< 0·05): the half gastric emptying time of DM was 137 v. 172 min ( ± 7·4 min pooled standard error) for the diets with and without actinidin, respectively. The presence of dietary actinidin in the stomach chyme increased the digestion of beef muscle protein (P< 0·05) and, more specifically, those proteins with a high molecular weight (>34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins.

  10. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  11. Emptiness Formation Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  12. Abomasal protein infusions for growing steers fed corn grain rations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Owens, F N; Mizwicki, K L

    1982-01-01

    Casein was abomasally infused into five growing 226-kg steers consuming a urea-supplemented corn grain diet ad libitum. Infusate solutions in the 5 x 5 Latin square arrangement of treatments contained 0, 20, 40, 80 and 120 g casein made isocaloric and isonitrogenous by the addition of dextrose and urea. Feed intake averaged 5.4 kg dry matter daily and was not altered significantly by abomasal infusions. Apparent digestibility of N decreased from 71.7 to 66.8% as level of casein infusion increased. N retentions (NR) were 40.5, 35.5, 42.8, 35.1 and 32.7 g/d at the five levels of infusion, respectively. A second study was conducted to determine whether level of feed intake influenced the benefit seen from postruminal protein supplementation. Four steers (306 kg) ate ad libitum or were limit-fed (2.5 kg/d) a 1% urea-supplemented corn grain diet in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. These steers were abomasally infused with 120 g casein or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous dextrose-urea mixture. Daily ad libitum feed intake averaged 4.7 kg and was not altered significantly by infusion composition. NR tended to increase with casein infusion at both levels of intake, but, as a percentage, the increase tended to be greater with limit feeding (43 vs 20%). To determine whether supplemental abomasal urea might be beneficial, a third trial was conducted with four 313 kg steers consuming the same diet ad libitum in a crossover design. Infusates consisted of 120 g dextrose or 120 g dextrose plus 42.6 g urea/d. Daily feed intakes were 4.5 and 4.8 kg/d for the steers given the dextrose and the dextrose plus urea infusions, respectively. NR tended to increase with urea infusion (20.9 vs 29.7 g/d). Results suggest that energy, total N or other nutrients, but not postruminal amino acids, limited N balance of young growing steers fed a urea-supplemented, cracked corn diet and gaining weight at .9 kg daily.

  13. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  14. Effects of abomasal lipid infusion on liver triglyceride accumulation and adipose lipolysis during fatty liver induction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brickner, A E; Pires, J A A; Gressley, T F; Grummer, R R

    2009-10-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of abomasal infusion of linseed oil on liver triglyceride (TG) accumulation and adipose tissue lipolysis during an experimental protocol for induction of fatty liver. Eight nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. Treatments were abomasal infusion of water (W), tallow (T), linseed oil (LO), or half linseed oil and half tallow (LOT) at a rate of 0.56 g/kg of body weight per day. Each experimental period consisted of a 4-d fast concurrent with administration of treatments into the abomasum in 6 equal doses per day (every 4 h). Cows were fed ad libitum for 24 d between periods of fasting and lipid infusion. Infusion of linseed oil (LO and LOT) increased alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) content in serum (12.2, 10.4, 4.2, and 4.6 g/100 g of fatty acids for LO, LOT, T, and W, respectively), but not in the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) fraction of plasma. Treatments had no effect on plasma NEFA concentrations. Abomasal infusion of lipid increased in vitro stimulated lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue, compared with W (4,294, 3,809, 4,231, and 3,293 nmol of glycerol released x g(-1) tissue x 2 h(-1) for LO, LOT, T, and W, respectively), but there was no difference between fat sources. Hepatic TG accumulation over 4-d fast was 2.52, 2.60, 2.64, and 2.09 +/- 0.75 microg of TG/microg of DNA for W, LO, LOT, and T, respectively, which did not differ. Abomasal infusion of LO did not reduce liver TG accumulation, plasma NEFA concentration, or alter in vitro adipose tissue lipolysis when compared with T. These results contrast with a previous study involving i.v. infusion of lipid emulsion derived from LO. Discrepancies might be explained by the use of different administration routes and a relatively modest induction of liver TG accumulation in the current experiment.

  15. Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H G; Björck, I M

    1996-12-01

    The possible effects of organic acids or an organic salt on the rate of gastric emptying was studied to identify the cause for reduced postmeal responses of blood glucose and insulin to foods containing such components, eg, sourdough bread. Paracetamol was included in bread products with added lactic acid or sodium propionate and used as a marker for the rate of gastric emptying in healthy subjects. In parallel, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety were evaluated. The influence of lactic acid, propionic acid, and sodium propionate was also studied in rats after they were tube-fed with glucose solutions. The bread products with lactic acid or sodium propionate both lowered blood glucose and insulin responses. The bread with sodium propionate also prolonged satiety. The reason for the lowered metabolic responses with sodium propionate was probably a lowered gastric emptying rate, as judged from reduced blood paracetamol concentrations; there was no such effect observed with bread with added lactic acid. A similar amount of lactic acid in solution tube-fed to rats did not affect the disappearance of glucose from the stomach. In contrast with the finding in humans, sodium propionate had no effect on the rate of gastric emptying in rats whereas an equimolar solution of propionic acid reduced gastric emptying rate in rats. Possibly, less of this acid was produced in the gastric contents after a bolus load of a sodium propionate solution (in rats) than in an eating situation. Also, the pH and/or the osmolarity may be important, and when provided in excessive amounts, lactic acid reduced the gastric emptying rate in rats. A hydrochloric acid solution of similar pH was much less effective in this respect.

  16. [Results of treatment by rotation in left-sided abomasal displacement (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Uyanik, N; van Dijk, S; van Beukelen, P; Kuiper, R; Breukink, H J

    1982-04-01

    The results are given of the treatment of thirty cows with left-sided abomasal displacement by rotation, followed by intravenous injection of hypertonic sodium chloride solution and a calcium borogluconate solution. In addition, ammonium chloride was administered orally for a few days. The rations of the animals were gradually restored to normal levels. The purpose was to examine whether recurrences following rotation could be prevented by supplementary measures. Of these thirty animals, five did not respond to treatment because of complications that would otherwise not have reacted favourably to any form of treatment either. Correction of the abomasal displacement was successful in more than 90 per cent (23 animals) of the remaining five cows. However, abomasal displacement recurred in sixteen of these twenty-three animals (70%). Of these fourteen cows, two animals developed an abomasal torsion. It is concluded that the supplementary measures adopted will not prevent recurrences.

  17. Effect of pH, empty bed contact time and hydraulic loading rate on lead removal by granular activated carbon columns

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.E.; Jamil, M.; Thomas, B.

    1996-07-01

    Batch and column studies were performed to determine the effect of pH, empty bed contact time (EBCT), and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on lead removal by granular activated carbon (GAC) columns. Lead removal increased with increasing pH, and for the majority of the adsorbate:adsorbent ratios investigated, was 100% as pHs < pH{sub prec}. Column pH was extremely important to lead removal in GAC columns. A simple acid-base regeneration procedure was found to be effective in desorbing/resolubilizing the carbon-bound lead and raising the pH for the subsequent treatment run. Regeneration efficiencies were often less than 100%, but column performance was not adversely affected. For 1 mg/L lead, the optimum EBCT was between 6 and 7 minutes, Whereas for 10 mg/L lead it was less than 10 minutes. The effect of HLR (4.9 and 9.8 m/hr) on column performance was minimal for 1 mg/L lead, whereas at 10 mg/L lead column removal was slightly better at the higher HLR. Carbon usage rates were higher than those observed for wastewaters containing organic contaminants, especially at 10 mg/L lead. However, given the relatively simple regeneration scheme, the applicability of GAC columns for metal-bearing wastewaters appears to be technically feasible. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities in abomasal ulcers by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Hund, Alexandra; Dzieciol, Monika; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Wittek, Thomas

    2015-05-15

    Abomasal ulcers are important pathological alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in cattle and are exceptionally hard to diagnose in vivo. The microbiome of the abomasum in cattle with or without ulcers has hardly been studied to date, and if so, the studies used culture-dependent methods. In the present study, the bacterial communities associated with abomasal ulcers of slaughter cows, bulls, and calves in Austria were described using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Sequences were clustered into 10,459 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), affiliating to 28 phyla with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes dominating (96.4% of all reads). The most abundant genera belonged to Helicobacter, Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, and novel Mycoplasma-like phylotypes. Significant differences between the microbial communities of healthy and ulcerated calves compared to cows and bulls could be observed. However, only few statistically significant differences in the abundances of certain OTUs between healthy and ulcerated abomasal mucosa were found. Additionally, near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences of the most abundant phylotypes were obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing (n=88). In conclusion, our results allow the first deep insights into the composition of abomasal mucosal bacterial communities in cattle and describe a hitherto unknown high diversity and species richness of abomasal bacteria in cattle. Our results suggest that bacteria may have only limited involvement in the etiology of abomasal ulcers. However, future research will be needed to verify the contribution of bacteria to abomasal ulcer formation as presence or absence of bacteria does not necessarily correlate with etiology of disease. PMID:25770891

  19. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  20. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  1. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with abomasal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Tajik, Javad; Nazifi, Saeed; Heidari, Mahdi; Babazadeh, Marzieh

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  2. Empty sella syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... pituitary gland. Prolactin stimulates breast development and milk production in women. Complications of secondary empty sella syndrome are related to the cause of pituitary gland disease or to the effects of too little pituitary hormone.

  3. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Galindo, C; Larsen, M; Ouellet, D R; Maxin, G; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2015-11-01

    Nine Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used to study the effects of supplementing AA on milk lactose secretion, whole-body rate of appearance (WB-Ra) of glucose, and tissue metabolism of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and β-OH-butyrate (BHBA) in postpartum dairy cows according to a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures in time. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and were allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (n=4) or abomasal infusion of free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to the same basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half the maximal dose at 1 d in milk (DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d from DIM 2 to 29 to cover the estimated essential AA deficit. On DIM 5, 15, and 29, D[6,6-(2)H2]-glucose (23.7 mmol/h) was infused into a jugular vein for 5h, and 6 blood samples were taken from arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary sources at 45-min intervals, starting 1h after the initiation of the D[6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion. Trans-organ fluxes were calculated as veno-arterial differences times plasma flow (splanchnic: downstream dilution of deacetylated para-aminohippurate; mammary: Fick principle using Phe+Tyr). Energy-corrected milk and lactose yields increased on average with AA-CN by 6.4 kg/d and 353 g/d, respectively, with no DIM × treatment interaction. Despite increased AA supply and increased demand for lactose secretion with AA-CN, net hepatic release of glucose remained unchanged, but WB-Ra of glucose tended to increase with AA-CN. Portal true flux of glucose increased with AA-CN and represented, on average, 17% of WB-Ra. Splanchnic true flux of glucose was unaltered by treatments and was numerically equivalent to WB-Ra, averaging 729 and 741 mmol/h, respectively. Mammary glucose utilization increased with AA-CN infusion, averaging 78% of WB-Ra, and increased

  4. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Galindo, C; Larsen, M; Ouellet, D R; Maxin, G; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2015-11-01

    Nine Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used to study the effects of supplementing AA on milk lactose secretion, whole-body rate of appearance (WB-Ra) of glucose, and tissue metabolism of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and β-OH-butyrate (BHBA) in postpartum dairy cows according to a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures in time. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and were allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (n=4) or abomasal infusion of free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to the same basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half the maximal dose at 1 d in milk (DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d from DIM 2 to 29 to cover the estimated essential AA deficit. On DIM 5, 15, and 29, D[6,6-(2)H2]-glucose (23.7 mmol/h) was infused into a jugular vein for 5h, and 6 blood samples were taken from arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary sources at 45-min intervals, starting 1h after the initiation of the D[6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion. Trans-organ fluxes were calculated as veno-arterial differences times plasma flow (splanchnic: downstream dilution of deacetylated para-aminohippurate; mammary: Fick principle using Phe+Tyr). Energy-corrected milk and lactose yields increased on average with AA-CN by 6.4 kg/d and 353 g/d, respectively, with no DIM × treatment interaction. Despite increased AA supply and increased demand for lactose secretion with AA-CN, net hepatic release of glucose remained unchanged, but WB-Ra of glucose tended to increase with AA-CN. Portal true flux of glucose increased with AA-CN and represented, on average, 17% of WB-Ra. Splanchnic true flux of glucose was unaltered by treatments and was numerically equivalent to WB-Ra, averaging 729 and 741 mmol/h, respectively. Mammary glucose utilization increased with AA-CN infusion, averaging 78% of WB-Ra, and increased

  5. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most important helminth parasite for small ruminants. Here we characterized the impact of helminth infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were exposed to 5,000 H. contortus L3 larvae for 50 days. Six age-matched goats served a...

  6. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  7. Sustained pectin ingestion delays gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S E; Levine, R A; Singh, A; Scheidecker, J R; Track, N S

    1982-10-01

    The effects of sustained fiber ingestion on gastric emptying glucose tolerance, hormone responses, and jejunal absorption of glucose and lysine were studied in healthy volunteers. Subjects were placed on a low-fiber (3 g) diet for 2 wk, followed by 4 wk of an isocaloric diet supplemented with 20 g/day of either apple pectin (7 subjects) or alpha-cellulose (6 subjects). At the conclusion of each dietary period subjects ingested a low-fiber breakfast surface-labeled with 99mtechnetium sulfur-colloid. Gastric emptying half-time, plasma glucose, calcium, phosphorus, insulin, glucagon, gastrin, human pancreatic polypeptide, and motilin were determined. Gastric emptying half-time was prolonged approximately twofold after pectin supplementation (p less than 0.005) and returned to normal 3 wk after discontinuing pectin supplementation. Cellulose supplementation did not alter the gastric emptying rate. Plasma glucose, calcium, phosphorus, and hormonal responses to the meal were unchanged after either pectin or cellulose supplementation. Pectin ingestion did not impair intestinal absorption of glucose or lysine. In contrast to sustained cellulose ingestion, sustained pectin ingestion slows the gastric emptying rate; the mechanism underlying this adaptive effect is unknown.

  8. Effect of abomasal carbohydrates and live yeast on measures of postruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gressley, T F; Davison, K A; Macies, J; Leonardi, C; McCarthy, M M; Nemec, L M; Rice, C A

    2016-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of abomasal carbohydrate infusion on nutrient digestibility and fecal measures. In Exp. 1, 5 Holstein steers were assigned to a Latin square with 1-wk periods and were abomasally infused on a single day at the end of each period with water alone, a single pulse dose of water with 1 g/kg BW oligofructose or cornstarch, or 4 pulse doses of water with 0.25 g/kg BW oligofructose or cornstarch administered every 6 h. Total tract nutrient digestibility was not affected by treatment except for a tendency for a decrease in starch digestibility in response to the 1 g/kg BW dose of cornstarch ( < 0.10). Compared with the control, both oligofructose and starch infusions caused similar decreases in fecal pH ( < 0.05) and increases in fecal short-chain fatty acids ( ≤ 0.01) measured 12 h after the first infusion, with the single 1 g/kg BW infusions causing a greater magnitude of pH change compared with the four 0.25-g/kg BW infusions ( < 0.01). All treatments increased concentration of fecal lipopolysaccharide compared with the control for at least 1 time point following the infusion ( < 0.05), with a greater increase observed for the 0.25 g/kg BW infusions of oligofructose compared with the other treatments ( < 0.05). Results of Exp. 1 indicate that both oligofructose and cornstarch infusions increased carbohydrate fermentation in the intestines and can be used as a method to evaluate the impact of excessive intestinal fermentation on intestinal health. In Exp. 2, 6 Holstein steers received abomasal pulse doses of 0 (control) or 10 g/d live var. (SB) according to a crossover design with 18-d periods. Abomasal infusions of 4 pulse doses of 0.25 g/kg BW oligofructose administered every 6 h were conducted on d 16 of each period. During the baseline period prior to the oligofructose challenge, there were no effects of SB on fecal measures except for an increase in apparent total tract NDF digestibility ( < 0.05), suggesting that

  9. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  10. The vagus, the duodenal brake, and gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Shahidullah, M; Kennedy, T L; Parks, T G

    1975-01-01

    It has been suggested that an intact vagal supply is essential for the normal function of the recptors in the duodenum and proximal small bowel, which influence the rate of gastric emptying. This paper reports the effect of vagal denervation on gastric emptying and also examines the site and mode of action of receptors in the proximal small bowel.It has been demonstrated in the dog that most, if not all, the receptors controlling gastric emptying lie in the proximal 50 cm of the small bowel. Following truncal vagotomy the emptying time of each instillation increased significantly and the differential rate of emptying of different instillations remained unchanged. The proximal 50 cm of small bowel was capable to differentiating between different instillates even after selective extragastric vagotomy, in which the duodenum was vagally denervated and, therefore, duodenal braking receptors function independently of vagal innervation. PMID:1140630

  11. Gastric emptying of combined liquid-solid meals in healed duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; McIntyre, B.; Alazraki, N.

    1985-12-01

    The gastric emptying rates of combined liquid and solid radioisotopically labeled meals in 47 healed duodenal ulcer subjects and 17 healthy control subjects are compared. No significant differences were found between the groups in emptying slopes and the emptying half-times or in the percent retention values at any of the counting intervals for either the liquid or solid meals. These results are compatible with the observation that the rapid gastric emptying in many patients with duodenal ulcer is associated with the disease and that healing results in a return to normal gastric emptying rates. However, since gastric emptying rates during active ulceration were not determined in our patients, a more definitive interpretation awaits a study comparing emptying rates obtained during and after healing of active ulceration in the same patient.

  12. Empty sella syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Anne M; Root, Allen W

    2012-08-01

    An empty sella (ES) develops when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills the sella turcica and compresses pituitary tissue until it lines the sellar floor and walls. Primary ES occurs when CSF enters the sella through a rent in the sellar diaphragm that may or may not be associated with increased intracranial pressure. Secondary ES is a result of an injury to the pituitary itself (e.g., pituitary apoplexy) or the consequence of surgical or radiation treatment. In adults, ES is most commonly found in older, obese, hypertensive, multiparous women and may be asymptomatic. In children, however, ES is more likely to be associated with clinical symptoms and endocrinopathies, particularly growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropism, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. The incidence of ES in children varies greatly depending on the population surveyed, ranging from 1.2% (children without endocrine symptoms) to 68% (children with known endocrinopathy). Children with a finding of ES require endocrinologic and ophthalmologic evaluation. Treatment of ES includes replacement of hormone deficiencies and occasionally surgical measures to relieve obstructive intracranial lesions.

  13. Analysis of gastric emptying data

    SciTech Connect

    Elashoff, J.D.; Reedy, T.J.; Meyer, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    How should gastric emptying data be summarized to allow comparisons between males or between groups of subjects within a study, and to facilitate comparisons of results from study to study. We review standardization issues for reporting gastric emptying data, discuss criteria for choosing a method of analysis, review methods which have been used to describe gastric emptying data, recommend trial of the power exponential curve, and illustrate its use in the analysis and interpretation of data from several studies involving different types of meals and different types of subjects. We show why nonlinear curves should be fit using nonlinear least squares.

  14. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E. R.; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml−1 ± 0.13 µg ml−1) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

  15. Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes in lambs in a steppe environment (North-Eastern Algeria).

    PubMed

    Meradi, Salah; Cabaret, Jacques; Bentounsi, Bourhane

    2016-01-01

    Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes was studied in 30 permanent grazing lambs on a large farm in the North-East of Algeria. The steppe climate has cold winters and hot and dry summers. The lambs were monitored monthly for gastrointestinal nematodes using nematode faecal egg counts, from February 2008 to February 2009. Every 2 months, two of the original 30 permanent lambs were necropsied after being held in pens for three weeks so that recently ingested infective larvae could develop into adults. The highest percentage of fourth stage larvae (L4), reaching 48% of the total worm burden, was recorded in abomasal contents in June. Teladorsagia and other Ostertagiinae constituted the highest percentage of L4 larvae (71%), whereas the percentage of Trichostrongylus (17.4%) or Haemonchus (11.6%) remained low. The dynamics of infection observed here (highest faecal egg count in August) and the stage composition of worm burden (highest percentage of L4 in June) provide strong evidence that arrested development had occurred. PMID:27608531

  16. Perforating abomasal ulcer caused by yolk sac tumor in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiromi; Goyama, Takashi; Noda, Yoichiro; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-07-01

    A 2-month-old male Holstein calf showed clinical signs of abdominal bloating, melena, and pain and was suspected of having a perforating abomasal ulcer. Necropsy revealed a large mass located preferentially around the abomasum and a large perforating abomasal ulcer on the pyloric antrum. Milky white masses of various sizes were also found in the abdominal cavity that consisted of agglutinated nodules ranging in size from a pinhead to a golf ball and were distributed on the surfaces of the liver, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, and diaphragm. Microscopic examination revealed that the masses were composed primarily of hyaline matrices, epithelioid tumor cells, and large atypical cells with hyaline droplets and/or vacuoles. Stromal hyaline matrices and hyaline droplets of the large tumor cells stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff stain. Tumor cells showed a positive reaction to anti-human alpha-fetoprotein, which is a marker of yolk sac tumors. These findings strongly suggested that the masses found in the abdominal cavity were yolk sac tumor, a rare germ cell tumor in cattle.

  17. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  18. Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes in lambs in a steppe environment (North-Eastern Algeria)

    PubMed Central

    Meradi, Salah; Cabaret, Jacques; Bentounsi, Bourhane

    2016-01-01

    Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes was studied in 30 permanent grazing lambs on a large farm in the North-East of Algeria. The steppe climate has cold winters and hot and dry summers. The lambs were monitored monthly for gastrointestinal nematodes using nematode faecal egg counts, from February 2008 to February 2009. Every 2 months, two of the original 30 permanent lambs were necropsied after being held in pens for three weeks so that recently ingested infective larvae could develop into adults. The highest percentage of fourth stage larvae (L4), reaching 48% of the total worm burden, was recorded in abomasal contents in June. Teladorsagia and other Ostertagiinae constituted the highest percentage of L4 larvae (71%), whereas the percentage of Trichostrongylus (17.4%) or Haemonchus (11.6%) remained low. The dynamics of infection observed here (highest faecal egg count in August) and the stage composition of worm burden (highest percentage of L4 in June) provide strong evidence that arrested development had occurred. PMID:27608531

  19. Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes in lambs in a steppe environment (North-Eastern Algeria).

    PubMed

    Meradi, Salah; Cabaret, Jacques; Bentounsi, Bourhane

    2016-01-01

    Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes was studied in 30 permanent grazing lambs on a large farm in the North-East of Algeria. The steppe climate has cold winters and hot and dry summers. The lambs were monitored monthly for gastrointestinal nematodes using nematode faecal egg counts, from February 2008 to February 2009. Every 2 months, two of the original 30 permanent lambs were necropsied after being held in pens for three weeks so that recently ingested infective larvae could develop into adults. The highest percentage of fourth stage larvae (L4), reaching 48% of the total worm burden, was recorded in abomasal contents in June. Teladorsagia and other Ostertagiinae constituted the highest percentage of L4 larvae (71%), whereas the percentage of Trichostrongylus (17.4%) or Haemonchus (11.6%) remained low. The dynamics of infection observed here (highest faecal egg count in August) and the stage composition of worm burden (highest percentage of L4 in June) provide strong evidence that arrested development had occurred.

  20. [Gastric emptying and functional dyspepsia].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Aros, S

    2006-01-01

    Dyspeptic syndrome includes symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, nausea and/or vomiting. These symptoms are common to highly diverse processes such as duodenal ulcer, pancreatitis and even intestinal ischemia, among many others. However, most patients who consult for this syndrome do not have any of these well known processes. New mechanisms have been proposed that could explain the symptoms presented by these patients. Among these mechanisms are those relating to an alteration of normal gastroduodenal motor function, such as alterations of gastric compliance, antral distension, gastric accommodation to anomalous ingestion, and alterations of gastric emptying. The present review evaluates the role of gastric emptying in producing dyspeptic symptoms according to the evidence available to date. We discuss gastric emptying in patients with functional or idiopathic dyspepsia compared with that in the healthy population, the correlation between gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms, and the response of dyspeptic symptoms to the prokinetic therapies carried out to date.

  1. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    SciTech Connect

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; Roca-Chiapas, J. M. de ls; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-11

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t{sub 1/2}). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography.

  2. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; De la Roca-Chiapas, J. M.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-01

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t1/2). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography.

  3. The effects of Lipomul, CCK, and TRH on gallbladder emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1983-02-01

    /sup 99m/Tc IDA compounds have been used in the quantitative analysis of motor function of the gallbladder. However, stimuli to provoke emptying have been variable and frequently nonphysiologic. To determine the utility and dependability of provocative agents for gallbladder emptying, we studied the effects of Lipomul, CCK, and TRH after the intravenous administration of /sup 99m/Tc disofenin. Computer processing of region-of-interest over the gallbladder permitted time/activity analysis of each study and computation of the ejection fraction (EF). Results showed that Lipomul consistently produced an effect on gallbladder emptying (EF 16-42%). CCK, while more dramatic in response, was less predictable (EF 8-100%). TRH favored accumulation of activity and did not cause gallbladder emptying. The combination of CCK and TRH decreased the rate of gallbladder emptying produced by CCK alone. We conclude that the availability, low cost, and dependable effect on gallbladder emptying make Lipomul the gallbladder stimulant of choice for clinical use.

  4. Empty Signifiers, Education and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The paper assumes that education is part of the process of discursive construction of society. The theoretical framework on which this argument is based includes Ernesto Laclau's theory of the "ontological impossibility and political necessity of society", and the role discourse and empty signifiers play in the establishment of political…

  5. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  6. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  7. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  8. The empty forest revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.

  9. The empty forest revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now. PMID:21449969

  10. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  11. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight. 31.16 Section 31.16... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  12. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight. 31.16 Section 31.16... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  13. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  14. Parallel gastric emptying of nonhydrolyzable fat and water after a solid-liquid meal in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Cortot, A.; Phillips, S.F.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the control of gastric emptying of the oil phase of a mixed solid and liquid meal. Previous studies had shown that liquid dietary fats normally leave the stomach at a slower rate than does water. We wished to determine whether the slower emptying of fats was due to the physical characteristics of food (lower density and greater viscosity than water), to retardation by duodenal feedback mechanisms, or whether both factors contributed. Thus, we quantified the emptying rates of water and sucrose polyester (a nonabsorbable analog of dietary fat) ingested by healthy volunteers as a mixed solid and liquid meal. Gastric emptying was quantified by an intubation-perfusion method incorporating an occlusive jejunal balloon to facilitate recovery. Four phase-specific, nonabsorbable markers were used. (14C(Sucrose octaoleate and polyethylene glycol were incorporated in the meal and traced the lipid and water phases, respectively; (3H)glycerol triether and phenolsulfonphthalein were used as duodenal recovery markers. Sucrose polyester (substituting for dietary fat) was emptied very rapidly, and at about the same rate as was water, in contrast to natural fat, which empties very slowly. Emptying of water was rapid and comparable to that observed after mixed meals containing natural fat. These results imply that gastric emptying of the oil phase is controlled by receptors sensitive to the hydrolytic products of fat digestion and that the slow emptying of dietary fat is not simply due to its lower density.

  15. Small volume resuscitation with hypertonic sodium chloride solution in cattle undergoing surgical correction of abomasal volvulus.

    PubMed

    Sickinger, M; Doll, K; Roloff, N C; Halekoh, U

    2014-09-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of rapid intravenous (IV) infusion of a 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with that of continuous application of an isotonic solution in stabilizing the circulation of cows with abomasal volvulus. Cattle treated with hypertonic saline had a significantly greater reduction in volume deficit within the first 10 min of therapy than cows treated with isotonic saline (from 5.9 ± 4.8 to 2.1 ± 4.4 L/100 kg vs. 7.0 ± 4.5 to 4.9 ± 3.8 L/100 kg, respectively). The central venous pressure (CVP) of the cows given the hypertonic saline rose within the first 10 min of therapy from 7.3 ± 3.5 to 10.8 ± 3.4 cm H2O, while the CVP of the cattle treated with isotonic saline did not increase significantly during this time. Sixty minutes after the start of the infusion, the CVP of the isotonic group was still significantly lower than that of the hypertonic group (9.5 ± 2.1 vs. 10.3 ± 3.3 cm H2O, respectively). Within the first 60 min, the base excess decreased from 5.5 ± 6.9 to 4.7 ± 6.2 mmol/L in the hypertonic group whereas it increased from 5.6 ± 5.7 to 6.8 ± 5.4 mmol/L in the isotonic group. These results suggest that for cows with abomasal volvulus, IV therapy with hypertonic saline may improve the haemodynamic and circulatory situation considerably faster and more effectively than continuous infusion with isotonic saline.

  16. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the postruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs ( = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had catheters surgically implanted into the portal vein, a branch of the hepatic vein, a mesenteric vein, and the abdominal aorta. A cannula was placed in the abomasum to deliver the treatment. Lambs were fed a pelleted ration once daily consisting of 69.7% dehydrated alfalfa, 30.0% ground corn, and 0.3% salt at 1.3 × NE requirement. The experimental design was a crossover balanced in time, so that each lamb received both treatments. Treatments consisted of either a pulse dose infusion of butyrate (buffered solution) to supply butyrate (10 mg/kg BW) or a buffered saline solution (1 mL/kg BW) once daily at the time of feeding. On d 14 of the treatment period, nutrient fluxes were measured using para-aminohippuric acid as a blood flow marker. Blood samples were collected from the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic vein every hour for 9 h beginning at 30 min prior to treatment/feeding. There was a tendency for a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.05) for portal vein blood flow, indicating that blood flow began to decrease earlier postprandial in lambs receiving butyrate. The butyrate treatment tended to increase the uptake of O ( = 0.07) and increased the uptake of glucose ( = 0.002), glutamate ( = 0.04), and glutamine ( = 0.02) by the PDV. There was a treatment × time interaction ( < 0.01) for flux of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and valerate across the PDV. The interaction was mainly due to an earlier postprandial peak and associated decrease in the flux rate of the VFA. The alteration in timing of the postprandial peak of VFA flux was also observed in hepatic fluxes of VFA. It appears that supplying butyrate to the postruminal tissues through an abomasal cannula

  17. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the postruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs ( = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had catheters surgically implanted into the portal vein, a branch of the hepatic vein, a mesenteric vein, and the abdominal aorta. A cannula was placed in the abomasum to deliver the treatment. Lambs were fed a pelleted ration once daily consisting of 69.7% dehydrated alfalfa, 30.0% ground corn, and 0.3% salt at 1.3 × NE requirement. The experimental design was a crossover balanced in time, so that each lamb received both treatments. Treatments consisted of either a pulse dose infusion of butyrate (buffered solution) to supply butyrate (10 mg/kg BW) or a buffered saline solution (1 mL/kg BW) once daily at the time of feeding. On d 14 of the treatment period, nutrient fluxes were measured using para-aminohippuric acid as a blood flow marker. Blood samples were collected from the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic vein every hour for 9 h beginning at 30 min prior to treatment/feeding. There was a tendency for a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.05) for portal vein blood flow, indicating that blood flow began to decrease earlier postprandial in lambs receiving butyrate. The butyrate treatment tended to increase the uptake of O ( = 0.07) and increased the uptake of glucose ( = 0.002), glutamate ( = 0.04), and glutamine ( = 0.02) by the PDV. There was a treatment × time interaction ( < 0.01) for flux of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and valerate across the PDV. The interaction was mainly due to an earlier postprandial peak and associated decrease in the flux rate of the VFA. The alteration in timing of the postprandial peak of VFA flux was also observed in hepatic fluxes of VFA. It appears that supplying butyrate to the postruminal tissues through an abomasal cannula

  18. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  19. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig M; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2014-11-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum trigonocephalum; in sheep, Teladorsagia circumcincta/Teladorsagia trifurcata, O. gruehneri/O. arctica, Nematodirus filicollis and N. spathiger. In the sheep sharing corral with reindeer, the only abomasal nematode species found was O. gruehneri, a reindeer parasite. The generation interval of O. gruehneri in Finnish reindeer appears to be shorter than in Canadian Arctic caribou, where complete larval inhibition leading to only one generation yearly has been reported.

  20. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig M; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2014-11-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum trigonocephalum; in sheep, Teladorsagia circumcincta/Teladorsagia trifurcata, O. gruehneri/O. arctica, Nematodirus filicollis and N. spathiger. In the sheep sharing corral with reindeer, the only abomasal nematode species found was O. gruehneri, a reindeer parasite. The generation interval of O. gruehneri in Finnish reindeer appears to be shorter than in Canadian Arctic caribou, where complete larval inhibition leading to only one generation yearly has been reported. PMID:25106839

  1. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L; Urban, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  2. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  3. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  4. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  5. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  6. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  7. Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lecaroz, R; Warnick, L D; Guard, C L; Smith, M C; Barry, D A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. PMID:10769767

  8. [Endocrine disorders in "empty" sella turcica].

    PubMed

    Mizetskaia, E A; Snigireva, R Ia

    1984-01-01

    The results of endocrine examination of 37 patients with an "empty" sella turcica (22 with primary and 15 with secondary) are discussed. The diagnosis in all cases was verified by the findings of pneumocisternotomography and computer-aided tomography. The trophic function of the hypophysis was mainly studied. It was found that primary "empty" sella turcica mostly occurs in females with a history of many pregnancies. Obesity and disorders of menstrual function were the principal clinical manifestations of endocrine disorders. The inconstantly encountered moderate hyperprolactinemia disappeared after parlodel medication. In secondary "empty" sella turcica hyperprolactinemia was of a more stable character. The trophic function of the hypophysis was reduced in primary "empty" sella turcica as a result of which lesser doses of substitutive hormonal preparations were needed than in secondary "empty" sella turcica. The endocrine disorders in primary "empty" sella turcica were probably of hypothalamic origin, those in a secondary condition were evidently associated with a tumor of the adenohypophysis. PMID:6528785

  9. Catastrophic health expenditure: a comparative analysis of empty-nest and non-empty-nest households with seniors in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Chu, Jie; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Li, Cuicui; Jiang, Shan; Zheng, Wengui; Sun, Liyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) prevalence and its determinants between empty-nest and non-empty-nest elderly households. Setting Shandong province of China. Participants A total of 2761 elderly households are included in the analysis. Results CHE incidence among elderly households was 44.9%. The CHE incidence of empty-nest singles (59.3%, p=0.000, OR=3.19) and empty-nest couples (52.9%, p=0.000, OR=2.45) are both statistically higher than that of non-empty-nest elderly households (31.4%). An inverse association was observed between CHE incidence and income level in all elderly household types. Factors including 1 or more household elderly members with non-communicable chronic diseases in the past 6 months, 1 or more elderly household members being hospitalised in the past year and lower household income, are significant risk factors for CHE in all 3 household types (p<0.05). Health insurance status was found to be a significant determinant of CHE among empty-nest singles and non-empty-nest households (p<0.05). Conclusions CHE incidence among elderly households is high in China. Empty-nest households are at higher risk for CHE than non-empty-nest households. Based on these findings, we suggest that special insurance be developed to broaden the coverage of health services and heighten the reimbursement rate for empty-nest elderly in the existing health insurance schemes. Financial and social protection interventions are also essential for identified at-risk subgroups among different types of elderly households. PMID:27381206

  10. Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

  11. Empty Consonants in Root-Medial Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    This analysis of verb morphology in Seri finds evidence that empty consonants occur in root-medial position. Analysis focuses on the parallel conjugation patterns of the verbs for "know" and "give," finding an empty consonant slot in the middle of each. This position is never preceded by a consonant, so it never appears as a geminated consonant,…

  12. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  13. Emptiness as defense in severe regressive states.

    PubMed

    LaFarge, L

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the empty states experienced by severely ill borderline patients. At times of stressful regression, these patients use complaints of emptiness to describe profound disturbances of affect, cognition, object relations, and bodily experience. Empty states may be seen as complex defensive configurations which protect a borderline level of psychic structure from the impact of aggressively charged object relations, and ward off further regression to states of fragmentation or fusion. Severely ill borderline patients consolidate an empty screen by means of a characteristic repertoire of primitive defenses consisting of various forms of projective identification, including bitriangulation and projective identification of psychic agencies, somatization, acting out, and specific alterations in cognition. The author describes the highly deviant organizations of the object world seen in empty states, and the complex and disturbing countertransferences which these states evoke.

  14. Epigastric impedance: a non-invasive method for the assessment of gastric emptying and motility.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, G R; Sutton, J A

    1985-01-01

    The impedance of the epigastrium to a 4 mA, 100 KHz AC current increases while liquids of low electrical conductivity are being drunk. Logically, the decline which follows occurs as the liquid leaves the stomach. This impedance measurement of gastric emptying proved comparable with the dye dilution method. In a placebo controlled trial the impedance method recorded significantly faster gastric emptying rates after metoclopramide. The impedance trace contains regular activity in the 2-4 cycle/min range consistent with gastric contractions. This non-invasive and technically simple method may thus provide a measure of simultaneous gastric emptying rates and motility. PMID:3891533

  15. Effect of Y-25130, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist, on gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Haga, K; Asano, K; Inaba, K; Morimoto, Y; Setoguchi, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of Y-25130 on gastric emptying of nutrient test meals (solid chow) was examined in mice. In a dose range of 0.01-1 mg/kg, p.o., Y-25130 significantly accelerated gastric emptying of solid meals in a dose-dependent manner, at an ED30 of 0.021 mg/kg. Other 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and prokinetic agents having 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonistic properties accelerated the emptying of solid meals in the following rank order of potency: Y-25130 = granisetron > or = tropisetron > ondansetron > cisapride > metoclopramide. The acceleration of the gastric emptying showed a good correlation with the antagonistic potencies of these compounds on 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors, determined by the inhibition test of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex in anesthetized rats (r2 = 0.99). Domperidone (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and trimebutine (10 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) failed to increase the rate of emptying from the stomach. Cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p.), a chemotherapeutic agent, significantly delayed the gastric emptying of solid meals, and Y-25130 (0.1-1 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented such a delay in emptying in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Y-25130 accelerates the gastric emptying in mice by antagonism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor. PMID:7625886

  16. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  17. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.; Smith, H.J.; Simon, T.R.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 . 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 . 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of indigestible solids; the method may be a more sensitive indicator of gastric motor dysfunction than radionuclide scintigraphy.

  18. The effect of filled and empty intervals on clock and memory processes in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Price, Elizabeth; Santi, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    According to the mixed memory model (Penney, Gibbon, & Meck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 1770-1787, 2000), different clock rates for stimuli with different nontemporal properties must be stored within a single reference memory distribution in order to detect a difference between the clock rates of the different signals. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained in a between-subjects design to discriminate empty intervals (bound by two 1-s visual markers) and filled intervals (a continuous visual signal). The intervals were signaled by different visual stimuli, and they required responses to different sets of comparison stimuli. Empty intervals were judged as being longer than filled intervals. The difference between the point of subjective equality (PSE) for the empty intervals and the PSE for the filled intervals increased proportionally as the magnitudes of the anchor duration pairs were increased from 2 and 8 s to 4 and 16 s. In Experiment 2, the pigeons were trained to discriminate intervals signaled by the absence of houselight illumination (Group Empty) or the presence of houselight illumination (Group Filled). The psychophysical timing functions for these intervals were identical to each other. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that memory mixing is not necessary for detecting a timing difference between empty and filled intervals in pigeons. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that the nature of the stimuli that signal the empty and filled intervals impacts how pigeons judge the durations of empty and filled intervals.

  19. Variation in the Ovine Abomasal Lymph Node Transcriptome between Breeds Known to Differ in Resistance to the Gastrointestinal Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Albin M.; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P.; McGettigan, Paul; Browne, John; Keane, Orla M.; Bahar, Bojlul; Mehta, Jai; Markey, Bryan; Lohan, Amanda; Sweeney, Torres

    2015-01-01

    Texel lambs are known to be more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection than Suffolk lambs, with a greater ability to limit infection. The objectives of this study were to: 1) profile the whole transcriptome of abomasal lymph node tissue of GIN-free Texel and Suffolk lambs; 2) identify differentially expressed genes and characterize the immune-related biological pathways and networks associated with these genes. Abomasal lymph nodes were collected from Texel (n = 6) and Suffolk (n = 4) lambs aged 19 weeks that had been GIN-free since 6 weeks of age. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed using RNA-seq on the Illumina platform. At the time of conducting this study, a well annotated Ovine genome was not available and hence the sequence reads were aligned with the Bovine (UMD3.1) genome. Identification of differentially expressed genes was followed by pathway and network analysis. The Suffolk breed accounted for significantly more of the differentially expressed genes, (276 more highly expressed in Suffolk v 162 in Texel; P < 0.001). The four most significant differentially expressed pathways were all related to immunity and were classified as: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Recognition of Bacteria and Viruses, Activation of IRF by Cytosolic Pattern Recognition Receptors, Role of RIG-I-like Receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity, and Interferon Signaling. Of significance is the fact that all of these four pathways were more highly expressed in the Suffolk. These data suggest that in a GIN-free environment, Suffolk lambs have a more active immune profile relative to the Texel: this immune profile may contribute to the poorer efficiency of response to a GIN challenge in the Suffolk breed compared to the Texel breed. PMID:25978040

  20. Novel gene expression responses in the ovine abomasal mucosa to infection with the gastric nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Infection of sheep with the gastric nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta results in distinct Th2-type changes in the mucosa, including mucous neck cell and mast cell hyperplasia, eosinophilia, recruitment of IgA/IgE producing cells and neutrophils, altered T-cell subsets and mucosal hypertrophy. To address the protective mechanisms generated in animals on previous exposure to this parasite, gene expression profiling was carried out using samples of abomasal mucosa collected pre- and post- challenge from animals of differing immune status, using an experimental model of T. circumcincta infection. Recently developed ovine cDNA arrays were used to compare the abomasal responses of sheep immunised by trickle infection with worm-naïve sheep, following a single oral challenge of 50 000 T. circumcincta L3. Key changes were validated using qRT-PCR techniques. Immune animals demonstrated highly significant increases in levels of transcripts normally associated with cytotoxicity such as granulysin and granzymes A, B and H, as well as mucous-cell derived transcripts, predominantly calcium-activated chloride channel 1 (CLCA1). Challenge infection also induced up-regulation of transcripts potentially involved in initiating or modulating the immune response, such as heat shock proteins, complement factors and the chemokine CCL2. In contrast, there was marked infection-associated down-regulation of gene expression of members of the gastric lysozyme family. The changes in gene expression levels described here may reflect roles in direct anti-parasitic effects, immuno-modulation or tissue repair. (Funding; DEFRA/SHEFC (VT0102) and the BBSRC (BB/E01867X/1)). PMID:21682880

  1. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    PubMed Central

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  2. How often do fishes "run on empty"?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arrington, D.A.; Winemiller, K.O.; Loftus, W.F.; Akin, S.

    2002-01-01

    We used a large data set of African, Neotropical, and North American fishes to examine the frequency with which fishes have empty stomachs (nspecies = 254; nindividuals = 36875). Mean percentage of empty stomachs was low across all fishes (16.2 ?? 1.2%) but varied from 0% to 79.4% among individual species. Nocturnal fishes had empty stomachs more frequently than diurnal fishes. Trophic classification was strongly associated with the percentage of empty stomachs, a pattern also revealed from an intraspecific analysis. Fishes appear to adjust their feeding intervals relative to the energy density, conversion efficiency, and particle size of their food. Piscivorous fishes seem to be the only trophic group that regularly experience long periods of empty stomachs, with species that consume prey whole and those that provide extended parental care having the highest proportions of empty stomachs. Activity patterns and life histories of some piscivorous species probably have evolved in partial response to energetic benefits of large, energy-rich food resources.

  3. The effect of trimebutine maleate on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, A; Caner, B; Ozturk, F; Bayhan, H; Narin, Y; Mentes, T

    1999-08-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of trimebutine maleate, a drug used in both hyperkinetic and hypokinetic motility disorders, on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia having prolonged gastric emptying rates and to compare the parameters used for the determination of the lag period observed during the emptying of solid foods from the stomach. Gastric emptying was measured by the radionuclide technique. Twenty normal volunteers and 43 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia participated in the study. Radionuclide imaging was performed by using a solid meal labeled with 99mTc-tin colloid. Of the patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, 20 had prolonged gastric emptying. They were given three weeks of oral treatment with trimebutine maleate and had their radionuclide gastric emptying study repeated. Treatment with trimebutine maleate resulted in reduction in duration of the lag period and less retention of food at 100 minutes (p < 0.0005). After treatment with trimebutine maleate, no significant difference has been observed in the mean symptom score of patients with prolonged gastric emptying. Among the parameters used for the determination of the lag period, lag period determined by a mathematical equation (TLAG) has been found to be longer than the lag period determined by visual inspection of the images (VLAG) and there was correlation between the two parameters when the lag time was short. PMID:10510878

  4. A Simple, Realistic Stochastic Model of Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Yokrattanasak, Jiraphat; De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Satiracoo, Pairote; Lawton, Wayne M.; Lenbury, Yongwimon

    2016-01-01

    Several models of Gastric Emptying (GE) have been employed in the past to represent the rate of delivery of stomach contents to the duodenum and jejunum. These models have all used a deterministic form (algebraic equations or ordinary differential equations), considering GE as a continuous, smooth process in time. However, GE is known to occur as a sequence of spurts, irregular both in size and in timing. Hence, we formulate a simple stochastic process model, able to represent the irregular decrements of gastric contents after a meal. The model is calibrated on existing literature data and provides consistent predictions of the observed variability in the emptying trajectories. This approach may be useful in metabolic modeling, since it describes well and explains the apparently heterogeneous GE experimental results in situations where common gastric mechanics across subjects would be expected. PMID:27057750

  5. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  6. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  7. Highly variable gastric emptying in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, T V; Johnson, C P; Kalbfleisch, J H; Roza, A M; Wood, C M; Weisbruch, J P; Soergel, K H

    1995-01-01

    Some diabetic patients--particularly those with nausea and vomiting--frequently have evidence of delayed gastric emptying while other diabetic patients may in fact exhibit accelerated gastric emptying. Whether the presence or absence of symptoms of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction correlated with objective measures of gastric emptying in insulin dependent diabetic subjects was investigated. Twenty one insulin dependent diabetic patients underwent a solid phase gastric emptying scintiscan using in vivo labelled chicken liver. Thirteen patients had symptoms suggestive of gastrointestinal dysfunction (nausea, vomiting, early satiety, or constipation), while eight patients had no gastrointestinal symptoms. Eleven patients had orthostatic hypotension. All patients had been diabetic since childhood or adolescence. As a group, the diabetic patients showed a half time (T50) of gastric emptying (mean (SD) 150.0 min (163.7) that was not significantly different from that of 12 healthy control subjects (148.1 min (62.4)). Those diabetic patients without gastrointestinal symptoms and without orthostatic hypotension, however, showed a gastric emptying half time (70.1 min (41.6)) that was significantly faster than that of the control subjects. Conversely, those diabetic patients with nausea, vomiting, and early satiety (or early satiety alone) showed T50 values that were significantly greater than those of the diabetic patients without these symptoms. No correlation was found between the T50 value and the duration of diabetes, the fasting blood glucose at the time of study, or the respiratory variation in heart rate (E:I ratio). These observations indicate that highly variable rates of gastric emptying occur in insulin dependent diabetic patients, and that accelerated gastric emptying may occur in diabetic patients who have no symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:7672674

  8. Gastric emptying, postprandial blood pressure, glycaemia and splanchnic flow in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Trahair, Laurence G; Kimber, Thomas E; Flabouris, Katerina; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine gastric emptying, blood pressure, mesenteric artery blood flow, and blood glucose responses to oral glucose in Parkinson’s disease. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (13 M, 8 F; age 64.2 ± 1.6 years) with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ± 0.1, duration of known disease 6.3 ± 0.9 years) consumed a 75 g glucose drink, labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Gastric emptying was quantified with scintigraphy, blood pressure and heart rate with an automated device, superior mesenteric artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and blood glucose by glucometer for 180 min. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated with cardiovascular reflex tests and upper gastrointestinal symptoms by questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time was 106 ± 9.1 min, gastric emptying was abnormally delayed in 3 subjects (14%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell (P < 0.001) and mesenteric blood flow and blood glucose (P < 0.001 for both) increased, following the drink. Three subjects (14%) had definite autonomic neuropathy and 8 (38%) had postprandial hypotension. There were no significant relationships between changes in blood pressure, heart rate or mesenteric artery blood flow with gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was related to the score for autonomic nerve function (R = 0.55, P < 0.01). There was an inverse relationship between the blood glucose at t = 30 min (R = -0.52, P < 0.05), while the blood glucose at t = 180 min was related directly (R = 0.49, P < 0.05), with gastric emptying. CONCLUSION: In mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease, gastric emptying is related to autonomic dysfunction and a determinant of the glycaemic response to oral glucose. PMID:27239112

  9. Effects of delayed gastric emptying on postprandial glucose kinetics, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, Ling; Schiavon, Michele; Mallad, Ashwini; Man, Chiara Dalla; Basu, Rita; Bharucha, Adil E; Cobelli, Claudio; Carter, Rickey E; Basu, Ananda; Kudva, Yogish C

    2014-09-15

    Controlling meal-related glucose excursions continues to be a therapeutic challenge in diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic reasons for this need to be understood better to develop appropriate therapies. To investigate delayed gastric emptying effects on postprandial glucose turnover, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responsivity and function, as a feasibility study prior to studying patients with type 1 diabetes, we used the triple tracer technique C-peptide and oral minimal model approach in healthy subjects. A single dose of 30 μg of pramlintide administered at the start of a mixed meal was used to delay gastric emptying rates. With delayed gastric emptying rates, peak rate of meal glucose appearance was delayed, and rate of endogenous glucose production (EGP) was lower. C-peptide and oral minimal models enabled the assessments of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responsivity simultaneously. Delayed gastric emptying induced by pramlintide improved total insulin sensitivity and decreased total β-cell responsivity. However, β-cell function as measured by total disposition index did not change. The improved whole body insulin sensitivity coupled with lower rate of appearance of EGP with delayed gastric emptying provides experimental proof of the importance of evaluating pramlintide in artificial endocrine pancreas approaches to reduce postprandial blood glucose variability in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25074985

  10. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

  11. Novel method to assess gastric emptying in humans: the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, S. Y.; Neudeck, B. L.; Welage, L. S.; Amidon, G. E.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    To further validate the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test (PGET) as a marker of gastric emptying, a randomized, four-way crossover study was conducted with 12 healthy subjects. The study consisted of oral co-administration of enteric coated caffeine (CAFF) and acetaminophen (APAP) pellets in four treatment phases: Same Size (100 kcal), Fasted, Small Liquid Meal (100 kcal), and Standard Meal (847 kcal). The time of first appearance of measurable drug marker in plasma, t(initial), was taken as the emptying time for the markers. Co-administration of same size enteric coated pellets of CAFF and APAP (0.7 mm in diameter) revealed no statistically significant differences in t(initial) values indicating that emptying was dependent only on size and not on chemical make-up of the pellets. Co-administration of different size pellets indicated that the smaller 0.7-mm diameter (CAFF) pellets were emptied and absorbed significantly earlier than the larger 3.6-mm diameter (APAP) pellets with both the Small Liquid Meal (by 35 min) and the Standard Meal (by 33 min) (P<0.05). The differences in emptying of the pellets were not significant in the Fasted Phase. The results suggest that the pellet gastric emptying test could prove useful in monitoring changes in transit times in the fasted and fed states and their impact on drug absorption.

  12. Gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of lipids in man. A new scintigraphic method of study

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, R.; Vigneron, N.; Najean, Y.; Bernier, J.J.

    1982-08-01

    We measured gastric emptying of fat and water from a solid-liquid meal in healthy volunteers using a tubeless scintigraphic method. /sup 75/Se glycerol triether, incorporated in butter, was the lipid-phase marker, and /sup 99m/Tcm, ingested with 250 ml water, the non-lipid phase marker. In seven of these subjects we also measured the gastric emptying of solids and liquids with /sup 99m/Tc bound to cooked egg whites as the solid-phase marker and /sup 111/In ingested with 250 ml water as the marker of the solid and aqueous phases. Emptying and intragastric repartition of each marker were measured by detection of radioactivity changes over the abdominal area using a gamma-camera. The stability and the specificity of the labeling was checked for each marker. Mean gastric emptying rate (expressed as percentage ingested marker emptied per hr) of lipids (17.4 +/- 2.4) was much lower than that of the rest of the meal (34.2 +/- 1.8) and slightly, but significantly, lower than that of solids (22.8 +/- 1.8). An intragastric layering of fat above nonlipids was observed only after the first postprandial hour and remained moderate. Thus, lipids are emptied more slowly than any other component of an ordinary meal, and this is not due only to layering of fat above water.

  13. Pit latrine emptying behavior and demand for sanitation services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Marion W; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-02-27

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  14. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marion W.; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:25734790

  15. Ectopic jejunal pacemakers and gastric emptying after Roux gastrectomy: Effect of intestinal pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, L.; Kelly, K.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether ectopic pacemakers are present after meals in the Roux limbs of dogs after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy, whether these pacemakers slow gastric emptying of liquids or solids, and whether abolishing the pacemakers with electric pacing might speed any slow emptying that occurs. In six dogs that underwent vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy and in four dogs that underwent vagotomy and Billroth gastrectomy (controls), myoelectric activity of the Roux limb or duodenum was measured during gastric emptying of a 500 kcal mixed meal of 99mTc-labeled cooked egg and 111In-labeled milk. Roux dogs were tested with and without pacing of the Roux limb. Roux dogs showed ectopic pacemaker in the Roux limb that drove the pacesetter potentials of the limb in a reverse, or orad, direction during 57% of the postprandial recordings. Billroth dogs had no ectopic pacemakers (p less than 0.05). Liquids emptied more slowly in Roux dogs (half-life (t1/2) = 121 +/- 15 minutes) than in Billroth dogs (t1/2 = 43 +/- 9 minutes; p less than 0.05), but solids emptied similarly in both groups of dogs (t1/2 approximately 8 hours). Pacing the Roux limb abolished the ectopic pacemakers, restored the slow emptying of liquids to the more rapid rate found in the Billroth dogs (t1/2: paced Roux, 72 +/- 15 minutes; Billroth, 43 +/- 9 minutes; p greater than 0.05) and did not change emptying of solids. The conclusion was that ectopic pacemakers present in the Roux limb after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy drove the limb in a reverse direction and slowed emptying of liquids after the operation. The defect was corrected by pacing the Roux limb in a forward direction.

  16. Quantum mechanics: The subtle pull of emptiness

    SciTech Connect

    Seife, C.

    1997-01-10

    Classic physics dictates that the vacuum is devoid not only of matter but also of energy. But quantum mechanics often seems to depart from common sense. A paper in the Physical Review Letters describes the first successful measurement of the ultimate quantum free lunch: the Casimir force, a pressure exerted by empty space. This paper describes the background and the experiment.

  17. The volume and energy content of meals as determinants of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J N; Stubbs, D F

    1975-01-01

    1. Results were collected from thirty-three published and unpublished studies of gastric emptying. The volumes of the meals ranged from 50 to 1250 ml., and composition varied from pure carbohydrates to ordinary food. 2. From the published composition of the meals, their nutritive density, as kcal/ml. (4-18 KJ/ml.) was computed: it ranged from zero to 2-3 kcal/ml. 3. The volume of each meal, or test meal, delivered to the duodenum in 30 min was determined, assuming that gastric emptying was exponential. 4. The greater the nutritive density of a meal, the less was the volume transferred to the duodenum in 30 min. The original volume of meal given was not a determinant of the rate of emptying (ml./min). 5. The slowing of gastric emptying with a meal of high nutritive density was not sufficient to prevent an increased rate of delivery of energy to the duodenum (nutritive density times volume delivered in unit time) with a meal of high nutritive density. 6. Assuming an appropriate relationship for the interaction of a stimulus (kcal/ml.) and duodenal receptors, it was possible to predict a rate of gastric emptying for each meal, given its nutritive density. Knowing the initial volume of the meal, it was possible to predict the mean half time for its emptying. 7. There were eight sets of anomalous results: in four the volumes of meal given were less than 200 ml.; explanations of the anomalies in the other four results could not be provided. 8. The results are consistent with equal slowing of gastric emptying by the duodenal action of the products of digestion of isocaloric amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrate, for example, 4 g fat or 9 g carbohydrate, both 36 kcal, taking carbohydrate and protein as 4 kcal/g and fat as 9 kcal/g. PMID:1127608

  18. Enigmatic electrons, photons, and ``empty`` waves

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, M.H.

    1995-08-22

    A spectroscopic analysis is made of electrons and photons from the standpoint of physical realism. In this conceptual framework, moving particles are portrayed as localized entities which are surrounded by ``empty`` waves. A spectroscopic model for the electron Stands as a guide for a somewhat similar, but in essential respects radically different, model for the photon. This leads in turn to a model for the ``zeron``. the quantum of the empty wave. The properties of these quanta mandate new basis states, and hence an extension of our customary framework for dealing with them. The zeron wave field of a photon differs in one important respect from the standard formalism for an electromagnetic wave. The vacuum state emerges as more than just a passive bystander. Its polarization properties provide wave stabilization, particle probability distributions, and orbit quantization. Questions with regard to special relativity are discussed.

  19. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Ziehlke, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  20. Measurements of Gastric Emptying by Biomagnetic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, L. A.; Sosa, M.; Córdova, T.; Vargas, F. M.; Huerta, M. R.

    2006-09-01

    In the present work a new method to measure the average time of gastric emptying by using a magnetic tracer is showed, this work shows the application of foundations of the electromagnetic theory in the study of the gastrointestinal system. The presented technique is relatively cheap and can be used it to diagnose of diseases, is a noninvasive method, is a technique that does not use ionizing radiation. In this investigation was possible to measure the average time of gastric emptying with a very high precision. In this investigation measurements of 10 healthy volunteers were made, and an average time of gastric emptying of 36.45 minutes in the space of the time was obtained, in addition with the analysis to the signal by means of the use of a pass-band filter it was possible to measure the peristaltic frequencies of the stomach and an average time of 37.24 minutes in the space of frequencies. With this technique it is possible to obtain data of the walls of the stomach. A peristaltic frequency of 2.79 was obtained cpm (cycles per minute).

  1. Transcriptional profiling of the ovine abomasal lymph node reveals a role for timing of the immune response in gastrointestinal nematode resistance.

    PubMed

    McRae, Kathryn M; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P; McCabe, Matthew S; Cormican, Paul; Sweeney, Torres; O'Connell, Mary J; Keane, Orla M

    2016-07-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in grazing ruminants. The major ovine defence mechanism is acquired immunity, with protective immunity developing over time in response to infection. Nematode resistance varies both within and between breeds and is moderately heritable. A detailed understanding of the genes and mechanisms involved in protective immunity, and the factors that regulate this response, is required to aid both future breeding strategies and the development of effective and sustainable nematode control methods. The aim of this study was to compare the abomasal lymph node transcriptome of resistant and susceptible lambs in order to determine biological processes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible individuals. Scottish Blackface lambs, with divergent phenotypes for resistance, were challenged with 30,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta larvae (L3), and abomasal lymph nodes recovered at 7 and 14days post-infection (dpi). High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from the abomasal lymph node was used to quantitatively sample the transcriptome with an average of 32 million reads per sample. A total of 194 and 144 genes were differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible lambs at 7 and 14 dpi respectively. Differentially expressed networks and biological processes were identified using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Genes involved in the inflammatory response, attraction of T lymphocytes and binding of leukocytes were more highly expressed in resistant animals at 7 dpi and in susceptible animals at 14 dpi indicating that resistant animals respond to infection earlier than susceptible animals. Twenty-four Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) within 11 differentially expressed genes, were tested for association with gastrointestinal nematode resistance in the Scottish Blackface lambs. Four SNP, in 2 genes (SLC30A2 and ALB), were suggestively associated with faecal egg count. In conclusion, a large

  2. Interspecies differences in the empty body chemical composition of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Maeno, H; Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2013-07-01

    Domestication of animals has resulted in phenotypic changes by means of natural and human-directed selection. Body composition is important for farm animals because it reflects the status of energy reserves. Thus, there is the possibility that farm animals as providers of food have been more affected by human-directed selection for body composition than laboratory animals. In this study, an analysis was conducted to determine what similarities and differences in body composition occur between farm and laboratory animals using literature data obtained from seven comparative slaughter studies (n = 136 observations). Farm animals from four species (cattle, goats, pigs and sheep) were all castrated males, whereas laboratory animals from three species (dogs, mice and rats) comprised males and/or females. All animals were fed ad libitum. The allometric equation, Y = aX b , was used to determine the influence of species on the accretion rates of chemical components (Y, kg) relative to the growth of the empty body, fat-free empty body or protein weights (X, kg). There were differences between farm and laboratory animals in terms of the allometric growth coefficients for chemical components relative to the empty BW and fat-free empty BW (P < 0.01); farm animals had more rapid accretion rates of fat (P < 0.01) but laboratory animals had more rapid accretion rates of protein, water and ash (P < 0.01). In contrast, there was no difference in terms of the allometric growth coefficients for protein and water within farm animals (P > 0.2). The allometric growth coefficients for ash weight relative to protein weight for six species except sheep were not different from a value of 1 (P > 0.1), whereas that of sheep was smaller than 1 (P < 0.01). When compared at the same fat content of the empty body, the rate of change in water content (%) per unit change in fat content (%) was not different (P > 0.05) across farm animal species and similar ash-to-protein ratios were obtained

  3. Patterns of ventricular emptying by Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool studies

    SciTech Connect

    Links, J.M.; Douglass, K.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Temporal Fourier analysis was applied to the processing of ECG-gated cardiac blood-pool studies on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to yield information about the pattern of ventricular emptying in normal hearts and in others with conduction abnormalities. The transform data at the fundamental frequency (the heart rate) were used to construct two types of display: (a) a distribution histogram of the pixel phase values, and (b) a cinematic display of the wave of emptying as it spread over the cardiac chambers. Preliminary results indicate that temporal Fourier analysis permits visualization of the pattern of ventricular emptying, which may prove useful in the study of motion abnormalities and asynergies, including those resulting from myocardial hypertrophy or conduction abnormalities, and as an aid in the optimum placement of pacemakers.

  4. Gastric emptying for solids in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after highly selective vagotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mistiaen, W.; Van Hee, R.; Blockx, P.; Hubens, A. )

    1990-03-01

    In a series of 31 duodenal ulcer patients (23 males and 8 females), who underwent a highly selective vagotomy, gastric emptying characteristics of a solid meal, labeled with (99mTc)stannous colloid, were assessed before, two weeks and six months after operation. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy and x-ray; failure of treatment with H2 antagonists or antacids during 1-18 (mean 5) years was the direct indication for operative treatment. A temporary delay in gastric emptying is noted two weeks after operation (T1/2: 124 vs 57 min). After six months, gastric emptying time has practically normalized. It appears that this is the result of the preservation of the antropyloric vagal nerve supply. In these patients, a 10% recurrence rate is noted, comparable to the results in the literature. Highly selective vagotomy proves to be a safe and effective procedure with few side effects. It does not impair gastric motility.

  5. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.J.; Pitman, K.; Starr, G.; Wood, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon.

  6. Gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal are not coordinated in liver cirrhosis--a simultaneous sonographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Acalovschi, M; Dumitraşcu, D L; Csakany, I

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: An impaired contractility has been suggested as a contributor to the increased incidence of gallstones in liver cirrhosis, but the few studies on gall bladder emptying in cirrhotics offered contradictory results. Ingestion of a meal triggers the physiological pathway of gall bladder emptying; therefore, it was decided to analyse postprandial kinetics by investigating simultaneously the rates of gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Gastric and gall bladder emptying were measured using ultrasound techniques after a solid-liquid meal (14 g fat, 425 kcal) in 24 patients with liver cirrhosis and in 12 controls. None of the subjects had gall bladder disease. Sequential changes in cross sectional area of the gastric antrum and in gall bladder volume were represented as a monoexponential process after the test meal. Cirrhotic patients were analysed according to the severity of disease (Child classes). The presence of portal gastropathy was assessed by endoscopy. Differences between groups were assessed using the two tailed Student's t test for unpaired observations and the correlations by linear regression (Pearson's coefficient). RESULTS: It was found that gastric emptying after the solid-liquid meal was delayed in cirrhotic patients compared with controls. Gall bladder emptying was significantly diminished in cirrhotic patients: the area under curve was greater in Child A (p = 0.01), Child B (p = 0.04), and Child C (p = 0.014) cirrhotics compared with controls. No correlation was found between the variables of gastric and gall bladder emptying. Gall bladder refilling began earlier in cirrhotics than in controls, before completion of gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the lack of coordination between gastric and gall bladder emptying in liver cirrhosis. They also support the hypothesis that diminished gall bladder contractility might contribute to the increased gallstone

  7. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Jayden A. R.; Berends, Harma; Steele, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components. PMID:27253712

  8. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components.

    PubMed

    Stahel, Priska; Cant, John P; MacPherson, Jayden A R; Berends, Harma; Steele, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components. PMID:27253712

  9. Agoraphobia and Melancholia: Thoughts on Milrod's "Emptiness in Agoraphobia Patients".

    PubMed

    Yates, Sheena

    2015-08-01

    Milrod (2007) identifies persistent emptiness in agoraphobic patients whose symptoms of anxiety and avoidance have remitted. To this important identification, a number of critical considerations may be raised regarding the meanings of emptiness in the psychoanalytic clinic. Milrod's admonishment to distinguish between an emptiness that indicates a deficit in the structure and stability of self-representation, and an emptiness that is strictly defensive, is a case in point. While much of the literature supports an interpretation of emptiness as a defense against overwhelming rage, these patients' assertions and experiences of emptiness can be better explained by the presence of traumatic, unmourned losses. Several explanations are offered as to why agoraphobic patients, in particular, defend unconsciously against mourning. PMID:26263925

  10. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M; Galindo, C; Ouellet, D R; Maxin, G; Kristensen, N B; Lapierre, H

    2015-11-01

    Nine Holstein cows with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used in a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures to study the effect of increased early postpartum AA supply on splanchnic and mammary AA metabolism. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (CTRL; n=4) or free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to a basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half of the maximal dose at the calving day (1 d in milk; DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d until 29 DIM. On 5, 15, and 29 DIM, 6 sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary blood were taken at 45-min intervals. Over the whole period, increasing AA supply increased milk (+7.8 ± 1.3 kg/d) and milk protein yields (+220 ± 65 g/d) substantially. The increased milk yield was not supported by greater dry matter intake (DMI) as, overall, DMI decreased with AA-CN (-1.6 ± 0.6 kg/d). Arterial concentrations of essential AA were greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL. The net portal-drained viscera (PDV) release of His, Met, and Phe was greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 72 to 102% once changes in DMI were accounted for. The hepatic removal of these AA was increased equivalently to the increased net PDV release, resulting in an unaltered net splanchnic release. The net PDV release of Ile, Leu, Val, and Lys tended to be greater for AA-CN, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 69 to 73%, indicating increased PDV metabolism with AA-CN. The fractional hepatic removal of these AA did not differ from zero and was unaffected by the increased supply. Consequently, the splanchnic release of these AA was approximately equivalent to their net PDV release for both CTRL and AA-CN. Overall, greater early postpartum AA supply increased milk and milk protein

  11. Histochemical study of the effects on abomasal mucins of Haemonchus contortus or Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in lambs.

    PubMed

    Simpson, H V; Umair, S; Hoang, V C; Savoian, M S

    2016-08-15

    in both antrum and fundus contrasts with reported hypersecretion of mucus in the intestine, which is believed to aid in parasite expulsion. It has been proposed that intestinal goblet cell hypersecretion occurs only in resistant animals, therefore reduced mucins in the abomasum may be indicative of susceptibility to abomasal parasites. PMID:27387375

  12. Relationships between metabolite and IGF1 concentrations with fertility and production outcomes following left abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Lyons, N A; Cooke, J S; Wilson, S; van Winden, S C; Gordon, P J; Wathes, D C

    2014-06-28

    Left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is an important periparturient disorder of dairy cows. This study evaluated differences in metabolic parameters between case-control pairs of cows (n=67) from 24 farms, and related these to outcomes in fertility and production. Cows with an assisted delivery were ×3 more likely to develop LDA, and affected cows tended to have had a longer dry period. At recruitment, cows with LDA tended to be in lower body condition accompanied by significantly higher circulating concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glucose and lower IGF1. Overall culling rate for all cows in the subsequent lactation was 22.5 per cent. Cows with LDA were not at increased odds of being culled but they produced, on average, 2272 l less milk and tended to have longer intervals to conception. Considering all cows irrespective of LDA status, the mean IGF1 level at recruitment was the only measured parameter associated with subsequent risk of culling (culled 11.7 ng/ml, not culled 23.5 ng/ml; P=0.005). Our findings support previous work indicating that poor insulin sensitivity through an uncoupling of the somatotrophic axis may be an important factor associated with LDA. Improved nutritional management of dry cows should reduce the incidence of both LDA and culling. PMID:24696444

  13. Sharing food in the stomachs of seabirds between adults and chicks--a case for delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Ryan, P G; Wilson, M P

    1989-01-01

    1. Retention times of food in stomachs of breeding and non-breeding African pengiuns (Spheniscus demersus) were examined. 2. Rates of gastric emptying in non-breeding birds were linearly related to the mass of food in the stomach. 3. Breeding birds returned to the nest with more food in their stomachs when chicks were larger. The rate of regurgitation of food was linearly related to chick mass. 4. Retention times of food in the stomachs of breeding penguins can only be explain by cognisance of observed regurgitation rates and by assuming that there is no gastric emptying through the pyloric sphincter. PMID:2574097

  14. Sharing food in the stomachs of seabirds between adults and chicks--a case for delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Ryan, P G; Wilson, M P

    1989-01-01

    1. Retention times of food in stomachs of breeding and non-breeding African pengiuns (Spheniscus demersus) were examined. 2. Rates of gastric emptying in non-breeding birds were linearly related to the mass of food in the stomach. 3. Breeding birds returned to the nest with more food in their stomachs when chicks were larger. The rate of regurgitation of food was linearly related to chick mass. 4. Retention times of food in the stomachs of breeding penguins can only be explain by cognisance of observed regurgitation rates and by assuming that there is no gastric emptying through the pyloric sphincter.

  15. 27 CFR 25.36 - Empty container storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Empty container storage. 25.36 Section 25.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.36 Empty container...

  16. 27 CFR 25.36 - Empty container storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Empty container storage. 25.36 Section 25.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.36 Empty container...

  17. 27 CFR 25.36 - Empty container storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Empty container storage. 25.36 Section 25.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.36 Empty container...

  18. Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Ledford, Carolyn; Stapleton, Joy

    2007-01-01

    A preservice teacher doing her internship overhears some of her students asking a classmate why he regularly takes home empty tissue boxes. The boy replies that he builds cities and bridges with his empty boxes. His classmates then ask why he does not just build a city with Legos or building blocks. The preservice teacher listens intently as the…

  19. Gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.S.; Rock, E.; Malmud, L.S.

    1986-06-01

    Cholescintigraphy, using 99mTc-HIDA, was employed to determine the gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding of a steak and potato meal, and to compare it with the emptying responses to direct cholinergic stimulation by bethanechol and to ingestion of the test meal. The maximal cumulative gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding was 44.1% + 10.1%, which was not significantly different from the response to bethanechol. Cholinergic blockade with atropine eliminated the emptying response to sham feeding. Also, sham feeding did not stimulate gallbladder emptying in patients with vagotomy. This study suggests that intact vagus nerves and cholinergic pathways are required in order for the gallbladder to respond to sham feeding. The precise mechanism for this effect has not been elucidated.

  20. Secondary partial empty sella syndrome in an elite bodybuilder.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, R D; Jaikumar, S

    2001-06-01

    The pituitary gland is a hormone-responsive gland and is known to vary in size depending on the hormonal status of the patient and the multifaceted positive and negative feedback hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Partial empty sella syndrome with an atrophied pituitary gland is seen in primary neuroendocrinopathies such as growth hormone deficiency, primary hypothyroidism, central diabetes insipidus and hypogonadism. Partial empty sella has also been shown to occur in patients with elevations in intracranial pressure. Secondary partial empty sella syndrome with significant pituitary gland atrophy from negative feedback inhibition of long-term exogenous hormonal use has not been previously reported. We are reporting on a case of partial empty sella syndrome occurring in an elite bodybuilder with a long history of exogenous abuse of growth hormone, testosterone and thyroid hormone. The pathophysiological mechanisms of secondary partial empty sella syndrome from exogenous hormone use and the possibility for elevations in intracranial pressure contributing to this syndrome will be discussed.

  1. Studies on the histogenesis of the tunica mucosa of the stomach of the Egyptian water buffalo (Bos bubalus L.). V. Histogenesis of the abomasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Osman, A H; Berg, R

    1984-01-01

    The primordia of the mucosal longitudinal folds are already prominent in the fetus with 9 cm CRL. In the fetus with 9 cm CRL the epithelium is stratified and becomes mixtured of simple and pseudostratified columnar in the fetus with 16 cm CRL in which the primordia of the abomasal glands are firstly seen but finally in the fetus with 17 cm CRL the whole epithelium becomes simple columnar. Although some few parietal cells are evident in the fetus with 73 cm among some fundic glands, but the complete-establishment of their cellular elements is completed postnatally. The Lamina muscularis mucosae is firstly seen in the fetus with 16 cm in the terminal portion of the abomasum.

  2. Abomasal infusion of casein, starch and soybean oil differentially affect plasma concentrations of gut peptides and feed intake in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, Alejandro E; Reynolds, Christopher K

    2008-07-01

    The effects of specific nutrients on secretion and plasma concentrations of gut peptides (glucagon-like peptide-1((7-36)) amide (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin-8 (CCK)) differ across species, but are not reported for cattle. Our objective was to determine acute (hours) and chronic (1 week) effects of increased abomasal supply of protein, carbohydrate, or fat to the small intestine on dry matter intake (DMI) and plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, CCK, and insulin. Four mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment. Treatments were 7-day abomasal infusions of water, soybean oil (500 g/d), corn starch (1100 g/d), or casein (800 g/d). Jugular vein plasma was obtained over 7h at the end of the first and last day of infusions. Oil infusion decreased DMI on day 7, but total metabolizable energy (ME) supply (diet plus infusate) did not differ from water infusion. Casein and starch infusion had no effect on feed DMI; thus, ME supply increased. Decreased DMI on day 7 of oil infusion was accompanied by increased plasma GLP-1 concentration, but decreased plasma CCK concentration. Increased plasma GIP concentration was associated with increased ME supply on day 7 of casein and starch infusion. Casein infusion tended to increase plasma CCK concentration on both days of sampling, and increased plasma GLP-1 and insulin concentration on day 1 of infusion. The present data indicate a sustained elevation of plasma concentration of GLP-1, but not CCK, may contribute to the reduced DMI observed in dairy cows provided supplemental fat.

  3. Effects of abomasal infusion of nicotinic acid on responses to glucose and β-agonist challenges in underfed lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Stumpf, L F; Soutullo, I D; Pescara, J B; Stocks, S E; Grummer, R R

    2016-03-01

    The objectives were to assess the use of nicotinic acid (NA) to chronically (i.e., 74 h) manipulate plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in partially feed-restricted lactating cows, determine whether the reduction of plasma NEFA altered responses to i.v. glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) and whether NA would attenuate an acute lipolytic stimuli of a β-agonist challenge (ivBAC). Eight lactating dairy cows [244 ± 31 d in milk; 696 ± 63 kg of body weight (BW)] were blocked by breed and body condition score (3.2 ± 0.4) and randomly assigned to a sequence of 2 treatments in a crossover design. Treatments were 74-h continuous abomasal infusion of NA solution (3mg/h per kg of BW) as an antilipolytic agent to decrease plasma NEFA concentrations or the same volume of water (200 mL/h), concomitant with partial feed restriction. From 0 to 74 h of each experimental period, cows were feed-restricted to 33% of the ad libitum intake recorded during the prior 5 d. An ivGTT (0.25 g/kg of BW of glucose i.v.) and an ivBAC (4 nmol/kg of BW of isoproterenol hydrochloride, i.v.) were performed at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Intake was 24.1, 8.2, 8.0, and 8.0 kg of dry matter/d before restriction, on d 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Nicotinic acid decreased plasma NEFA and increased insulin and glucose concentrations during feed restriction. Nicotinic acid also led to greater glucose and insulin response areas under the curve during ivGTT [glucose: 6,562 vs. 5,056 (mg/dL) × 180 min; insulin: 6,042 vs. 2,502 (µIU/mL) × 180 min] and ivBAC [glucose: 535 vs. 240 (mg/dL) × 120 min; insulin: 1,283 vs. 222 (µIU/mL) × 120 min], and enhanced NEFA area under the curve during ivBAC [45,521 vs. 22,862 (µEq/L) × 120 min]. Milk, fat, and protein yields (29.1, 1.2, and 0.93 kg on d -2, respectively) decreased to 17.9, 0.81, and 0.56 kg for control, and 11.5, 0.54, and 0.39 kg for NA on d 3, respectively. Nicotinic acid may have decreased production by inhibiting the supply of NEFA

  4. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M; Galindo, C; Ouellet, D R; Maxin, G; Kristensen, N B; Lapierre, H

    2015-11-01

    Nine Holstein cows with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used in a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures to study the effect of increased early postpartum AA supply on splanchnic and mammary AA metabolism. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (CTRL; n=4) or free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to a basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half of the maximal dose at the calving day (1 d in milk; DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d until 29 DIM. On 5, 15, and 29 DIM, 6 sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary blood were taken at 45-min intervals. Over the whole period, increasing AA supply increased milk (+7.8 ± 1.3 kg/d) and milk protein yields (+220 ± 65 g/d) substantially. The increased milk yield was not supported by greater dry matter intake (DMI) as, overall, DMI decreased with AA-CN (-1.6 ± 0.6 kg/d). Arterial concentrations of essential AA were greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL. The net portal-drained viscera (PDV) release of His, Met, and Phe was greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 72 to 102% once changes in DMI were accounted for. The hepatic removal of these AA was increased equivalently to the increased net PDV release, resulting in an unaltered net splanchnic release. The net PDV release of Ile, Leu, Val, and Lys tended to be greater for AA-CN, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 69 to 73%, indicating increased PDV metabolism with AA-CN. The fractional hepatic removal of these AA did not differ from zero and was unaffected by the increased supply. Consequently, the splanchnic release of these AA was approximately equivalent to their net PDV release for both CTRL and AA-CN. Overall, greater early postpartum AA supply increased milk and milk protein

  5. The caprine abomasal microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitism is considered the number one health problem in small ruminants. The barber's pole worm Haemonchus contortus infection in goats elicits a strong host immune response. However, the effect of the parasitic infection on the structure and function of the gut microbiome remains largely unknown....

  6. Gastric emptying after oesophagectomy as assessed by plasma paracetamol concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstraw, P; Bach, P

    1981-01-01

    Gastric emptying after oesophagogastrectomy may be affected by opposing influences. Truncal vagotomy of the orthotopic stomach, as used by surgeons for peptic ulcer, results in delayed gastric emptying. The emptying of such a denervated stomach is affected by position and posture and may result in gastric "incontinence", particularly if associated with drainage procedures. It is possible that postural effects may outweigh the reduced motility if the vagotomised stomach is transplanted into the chest as after oesophagogastrectomy. Despite the effect that disturbed gastric emptying may have on nutrition and drug absorption there have been few studies concerning patients who have had oesophageal resection or bypass. We report our preliminary experience of an indirect method to estimate gastric emptying after oesophageal resection and bypass, using the absorption profile of paracetamol (acetaminophen). This technique is safe and has been shown to reflect gastric emptying accurately in the innervated stomach. With this technique we have shown that, even in the absence of a concomitant drainage procedure, oesophageal resection, or bypass, using the denervated stomach to restore alimentary continuity does not result in any detectable delay in gastric emptying. PMID:7314021

  7. Preoperative gastric emptying. Effects of anxiety and oral carbohydrate administration.

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, J; Thorell, A; Jacobsson, H; Larsson, S; Schnell, P O; Hylén, L; Ljungqvist, O

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overnight fasting is routine before elective surgery. This may not be the optimal way to prepare for surgical stress, however, because intravenous carbohydrate supplementation instead of fasting has recently been shown to reduce postoperative insulin resistance. In the current study, gastric emptying of a carbohydrate-rich drink was investigated before elective surgery and in a control situation. METHODS: Twelve patients scheduled for elective surgery were randomly given 400 mL of either a carbohydrate-rich drink (285 mOsm/kg, 12.0% carbohydrates, n = 6) or water 4 hours before being anesthetized. Gastric emptying was measured (gamma camera, 99Tcm). Each patient repeated the protocol postoperatively as a control. All values were presented as the mean +/- SEM by means of a nonparametric statistical evaluation. RESULTS: Despite the increased anxiety experienced by patients before surgery (p < 0.005), gastric emptying did not differ between the experimental and control situations. Initially, water emptied more rapidly than carbohydrate. However, after 90 minutes, the stomach was emptied regardless of the solution administered (3.2 +/- 1.1% [mean +/- SEM] remaining in the stomach in the carbohydrate group versus 2.3 +/- 1.2% remaining in the stomach in the water group). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative anxiety does not prolong gastric emptying. The stomach had been emptied 90 minutes after ingestion of both the carbohydrate-rick drink and water, thereby indicating the possibility of allowing an intake of iso-osmolar carbohydrate-rich fluids before surgery. PMID:8526579

  8. Empty, filled, and condensed metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Arndt

    1985-03-01

    Aspects of structure, bonding, physical, and chemical properties are discussed for (a) compounds containing discrete empty clusters and clusters with interstitial H atoms: Nb 6I 11, HNb 6I 11, HCsNb 6I 11, (b) metal-rich lanthanide halides and halide carbides,-nitrides and -hydrides, focusing on the role of interstitial atoms: Gd 2Br 2C 2, Gd 2Br 2C, Gd 3Cl 3C, Gd 10Cl 18C 4, Gd 10Il 17C 4, Gd 10I 16C 4, GD 2Cl 3N, Gd XH n ( X=Cl, Br, I; 0.6< n<0.9), GdBrD 2; (c) metal-rich oxides of the alkali metals rubidium and cesium. Chemical bonding in the suboxide clusters Rb 9O 2 and Cs 11O 3 is discussed along the lines valid for (a) and (b) and covers recently described "hypervalent" species as Li 6C, Li 4O, etc.

  9. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  10. Fate of ingested fluids: factors affecting gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of beverages in humans.

    PubMed

    Leiper, John B

    2015-09-01

    The volume of fluid ingested for rehydration is essential in determining the restoration of euhydration because it must be in excess of the water lost since the individual was last euhydrated. The formulation of any ingested beverage is also important as this affects the rate at which the fluid is emptied from the stomach, absorbed in the small intestine, and hence assimilated into the body water pool. This review highlights the essential role of the gastrointestinal tract in the maintenance of hydration status.

  11. Here's How to Prevent Closed Schools from Becoming Empty Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Ways of preventing school buildings from standing empty include finding alternative uses within the school system, leasing the buildings, and selling the buildings. All uses should be measured by their impact on the community around the school. (Author/IRT)

  12. Interior view to the east of an empty computer room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view to the east of an empty computer room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  13. 61. View of bellmouth which empties into Printz Basin, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. View of bellmouth which empties into Printz Basin, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. Delayed Gastric Emptying after Living Donor Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Griesemer, Adam D.; Parsons, Ronald F.; Graham, Jay A.; Emond, Jean C.; Samstein, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy. PMID:25610698

  15. 8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS CENTER (LEFT) AND LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE ON NORTH BANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  16. Study of the Gastric Emptying in Humans: Biomagnetic Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sosa, M.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2006-09-01

    Biomagnetic studies of the gastrointestinal system can be carried out in two ways. Recording the magnetic field produced by the myenteric nervous system or created by any oral contrast mean as magnetic tracers or markers. In the first case, a SQUID magnetometer is demanded while a fluxgate magnetometer is enough in the second case. In this work, a magnetic marker was ingested by 8 healthy volunteers, in three gastric volume conditions, to measure the luminal content volume effect in the gastric emptying and to perform the quantification of the peristaltic frequencies in gastric and duodenum tract segments. The average emptying times for low luminal content, relative to the emptying time when the intake was the highest, were 43.6 ± 15.6 % and 77.3 ± 47.0 %. These results show that the biomagnetic technique is a powerful modality to estimate the effects of the gastric volume in the gastric emptying and a way to record the peristaltic frequencies.

  17. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  18. Arg-Ile-Tyr (RIY) derived from rapeseed protein decreases food intake and gastric emptying after oral administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Ewa D; Ohinata, Kousaku; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2006-09-01

    We previously reported that a bioactive tripeptide Arg-Ile-Tyr (RIY), which has been isolated as an inhibitor for angiotensin I-converting enzyme from the subtilisin digest of rapeseed protein, decreased blood pressure. In this study, we also found that RIY dose-dependently decreased food intake at a dose of 150 mg/kg after oral administration in fasted ddY male mice. The anorexigenic action of RIY was blocked by a cholecystokinin-1 CCK1 receptor antagonist, lorglumide. RIY also decreased the gastric emptying rate at a dose of 150 mg/kg and the RIY-induced delay of gastric emptying was blocked by lorglumide. However, RIY had no affinity for CCK1 receptor. Taken together, RIY decreased food intake and gastric emptying by stimulating CCK release.

  19. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Terashi, Mutsumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro; Chaolu, Huke; Ushikai, Miharu; Inui, Akio

    2011-03-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Ucn3, food intake was measured in the light and dark phases, and the rate of gastric emptying was determined. We found that i.p. administration of Ucn3 significantly inhibited feeding behavior in mice, and significantly delayed gastric emptying 1-2 h after administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Ucn3 contributes to the modulation of feeding behavior and gut motility. Thus, Ucn3 and CRF-R2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal and eating disorders.

  20. Why the self is empty. Toward a historically situated psychology.

    PubMed

    Cushman, P

    1990-05-01

    This article presents a contextualized treatment of the current configuration of self, some of the pathologies that plague it, and the technologies that attempt to heal it. Of particular interest is the historical shift from the Victorian, sexually restricted self to the post-World War II empty self. The empty self is soothed and made cohesive by becoming "filled up" with food, consumer products, and celebrities. Its historical antecedents, economic constituents, and political consequences are the focus of this article. The two professions most responsible for healing the empty self, advertising and psychotherapy, find themselves in a bind: They must treat a psychological symptom without being able to address its historical causes. Both circumvent the bind by employing the life-style solution, a strategy that attempts to heal by covertly filling the empty self with the accoutrements, values, and mannerisms of idealized figures. This strategy solves an old problem but creates new ones, including an opportunity for abuse by exploitive therapists, cult leaders, and politicians. Psychology's role in constructing the empty self, and thus reproducing the current hierarchy of power and privilege, is examined.

  1. Gastric emptying of multi-particulate dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Newton, J Michael

    2010-08-16

    The evidence in the literature for the concept that multi-particulate dosage forms below a specific size empty from the stomach as if they were liquids and hence have the potential to provide the best solution to the formulation of controlled release oral dosage forms, has been considered. There is some evidence that particles less than 1.0mm provide a more rapid response than larger size particles but there is also evidence that this is not always the case and that rapid and reproducible gastric emptying of small particles does not always occur when they are administered. There is strong evidence that food can delay the gastric emptying of multi-particulate systems. Some of the misconception for gastric emptying performance of multi-particulate system is shown to be related to the limitation of the study design and limitation of the way the data is processed. Nevertheless, there is clear evidence that multi-particulate systems can provide effective oral controlled release dosage forms. There is still some way to go with experimental techniques which would allow a definitive answer to the issue of how the variability of the gastric emptying of multi-particulate systems of less than 2.0mm arises.

  2. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with α-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p < 0.001, n = 27 across six cats) or bilateral intermittent SR stimulation (25 ± 23%, p < 0.005, n = 4 across two cats). After bilateral transection of the nerves innervating the urethral sphincter, intermittent SR stimulation voided 79 ± 17% (n = 12 across three cats), comparable to clinical results obtained with SR stimulation. Voiding via intermittent PN stimulation did not increase after neurotomy (p > 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  3. Effect of MWCNTs on Gastric Emptying in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Qi, W.; Geng, Yx; Pan, Dq; Lu, Y.; Xu, Jz; Wu, Ws

    2011-12-01

    After making model of gastric functional disorder (FD), part of model mice were injected intravenously (i.v.) with oxide multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) to investigate effect of carbon nanotubes on gastric emptying. The results showed that NO content in stomach, compared with model group, was decreased significantly and close to normal level post-injection with oMWCNTs (500 and 800 μg/mouse). In contrast to FD or normal groups, the content of acetylcholine (Ach) in stomach was increased obviously in injection group with 500 or 800 μg/mouse of oMWCNTs. The kinetic curve of emptying was fitted to calculate gastric motility factor k; the results showed that the k of injection group was much higher than FD and normal. In other words, the gastric motility of FD mice was enhanced via injection with oMWCNTs. In certain dosage, oMWCNTs could improve gastric emptying and motility.

  4. Oral versus intubated feeding and the effect on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, gastric emptying and satiety.

    PubMed

    Morey, S; Shafat, A; Clegg, M E

    2016-01-01

    Cephalic phase responses (CPR) are important in early initiation of digestion and maximal absorption of nutrients prior to ingestion. Bypassing CPR has been shown to have consequences on metabolic responses that may influence satiety. The aim of this study was to investigate if using gastric intubation to bypass oro-pharyngeal and oesophageal exposure would reduce CPR including insulin and blood glucose and whether these impact on gastric emptying and satiety. Ten male subjects were tested on 2 occasions, 3-7 days apart after an overnight fast, in randomized order. Subjects were cannulated and intubated with a gastric tube for both tests. For test one, subjects ate 400 ml soup with a spoon and for test two the soup was infused into the stomach at an equivalent rate. Subsequently measurements of glycaemic (GR) and insulinaemic responses (IR) from cannula samples, breath samples for measurement of gastric emptying using the [(13)C] sodium acetate breath test and visual analogue scales (VAS) for satiety were taken over 180 min. There were differences in IR over the first 15 min (Oral: 169.0 ± 22.1; Gastric 124.1 ± 18.8; t(9) = 2.67; p = 0.028) but no difference in GR. There were differences in gastric emptying half time (Oral: 85.0 ± 2.7; Gastric 79.4 ± 3.3; t(9) = 2.40; p = 0.04) and ascension time (Oral: 68.2 ± 2.2; Gastric 64.0 ± 2.2; t(9) = 2.57; p = 0.03) with food taking longer to empty from the stomach on the Oral test day than on the Gastric test day. There was no significant difference in the satiety ratings. This study demonstrated that bypassing oro-pharyngeal and oesophageal exposure decreases the normal physiological CPR with detriment to IR and gastric emptying.

  5. Empty versus filled polyhedra: 11 vertex bare germanium clusters.

    PubMed

    Uţă, Matei-Maria; King, Robert Bruce

    2014-04-01

    The structures and energetics of centered 10-vertex Ge@Ge₁₀(z) (z = -4, -2, 0, +2, +4) clusters have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) for comparison with the previously studied isomeric empty 11-vertex Ge₁₁(z) clusters. For the cationic species (z = +2, +4) such centered Ge@Ge₁₀(z) structures are shown to be energetically competitive (within ∼1 kcal mol⁻¹) to the lowest energy isomeric empty Ge₁₁(z) structures. These Ge@Ge₁₀(z) structures can be derived from the lowest energy empty 10-vertex Ge₁₀(z-4) structures by inserting a Ge⁴⁺ ion in the center. The outer 10-vertex polyhedron in the lowest energy Ge@Ge₁₀²⁺ dication structure is the most spherical D(4d) bicapped square antiprism, which is also the lowest energy structure of the empty Ge₁₀²⁻ dianion, as expected from the Wade-Mingos skeletal electron counting rules. For the tetracationic Ge₁₁⁴⁺ /Ge@Ge₁₀⁴⁺ system the lowest energy centered Ge@Ge₁₀⁴⁺ structure can be obtained by inserting a Ge⁴⁺ ion in the center of a C(3v) deltahedral empty Ge10 cluster. Centered 10-vertex polyhedral Ge@Ge₁₀(z) structures were also found for the neutral (z = 0) and dianionic (z = -2) systems but at significantly higher energies than the lowest energy isomeric empty Ge₁₁(z) structures.

  6. [The effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, H

    1990-02-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying and the sites of their action in the stomach, changes in gastric emptying after administration of these drugs were determined in healthy adults by means of radioisotopic technique, by setting 3 regions of interest, i.e., the whole stomach, the proximal area and the antral area. Following results were obtained. 1. With metoclopramide administration, no particular movement of gastric contents was found for several minutes after ingestion. Once the movement of emptying was initiated, the gastric contents were transferred more efficiently from the proximal area to the antral area in comparison with the corresponding movement observed in persons given no metoclopramide. On the other hand, the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum exceeded the inflow from the proximal area to the antral area. 2. With domperidon administration, transfer of gastric contents was markedly increased, but the outflow from the antral area did not exceed the inflow. Domperidone caused overall facilitation of gastric emptying, mainly by enhancing the emptying movement in the proximal area. 3. With aclatonium napadisilate administration, marked transfer of the gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was noted, and the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum was equal to the inflow within 10 min, then exceeded the inflow. 4. With trimebutine maleate administration, transfer of gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was conspicuous, and the outflow from the antral area exceeded the increased inflow, resulting in overall faciliation of gastric emptying. PMID:2255123

  7. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  8. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  9. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an “empty forest” loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance. PMID:27757421

  10. Gastric emptying of wholemeal and white bread.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D S; Goddard, J

    1977-09-01

    We studied the rates at which solid and liquid leave the stomach after meals of wholemeal and white bread by using a double isotope technique. There was no difference in the rates at which the solid phases of the gastric contents left the stomach but liquid left the stomach significantly more rapidly with white bread than with wholemeal bread. Furthermore, the amount of liquid leaving the stomach unaccompanied and therefore unbuffered by solid was significantly greater after while bread than wholemeal bread. These findings may be of significance in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and they provide a rational basis for a possible form of dietary treatment.

  11. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    SciTech Connect

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  12. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  13. 19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER TRIANGULATED CHANNELS AND OUT THE RAISED DUCTS TO FILTRATION PLANT. MOVEABLE BOARDS ON BOTTOM ASSIST IN REMOVING SLUDGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. FILTER CONTROL BUILDING AT REAR. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Managing complications I: leaks, strictures, emptying, reflux, chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Esophagectomy can be used to treat several esophageal diseases; it is most commonly used for treatment of esophageal cancer. Esophagectomy is a major procedure that may result in various complications. This article reviews only the important complications resulting from esophageal resection, which are anastomotic complications after esophageal reconstruction (leakage and stricture), delayed emptying or dumping syndrome, reflux, and chylothorax. PMID:24876942

  15. 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, second floor above canning area. The belt has been removed from the conveyor, but sections of can conveyor tracks are visible on the floor. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY CORE BOX UNDER A FULL MAGAZINE AND THE FULL CORE BOX TO AN OPEN POSITION TO ALLOW CORE REMOVAL. WILLIAM SEAL STACK CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Generalized emptiness formation probability in the six-vertex model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomo, F.; Pronko, A. G.; Sportiello, A.

    2016-10-01

    In the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions, the emptiness formation probability is the probability that a rectangular region in the top left corner of the lattice is frozen. We generalize this notion to the case where the frozen region has the shape of a generic Young diagram. We derive here a multiple integral representation for this correlation function.

  18. 5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING EMPTY NAVIGATION LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING EMPTY NAVIGATION LOCK #1 WITH DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES OPEN; PHOTO TAKEN FROM MIDDLE OF SWING BRIDGE DOWNSTREAM FROM LOCK. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. Your Full Future...After the Empty Nest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coad, Cynthia P.

    This book is designed for women who want to react to the empty nest syndrome with a new career. The first chapter contains an introduction and activities to help with self-awareness and career exploration. The second chapter discusses the importance of a positive plan. Strategies for setting long and short term goals, a sense of responsibility for…

  20. Canine gastric emptying of polycarbophil: an indigestible, particulate substance.

    PubMed

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1985-08-01

    We tested whether indigestible solids could empty from the canine stomach independently of gastric burst motor activity. Test meals contained polycarbophil, an indigestible particulate (1-3 mm diameter) substance. Test meals were slurries of 30 or 90 g of radiolabeled polycarbophil particles in saline. Meals were administered via an oral gastric tube. After 4 h, the stomach was drained via a gastric cannula, and the percentage of meal that had emptied into the duodenum was calculated. Antroduodenal motor responses to the meals were monitored with strain-gage force transducers. The motor responses to polycarbophil meals were compared with those after canned food and saline meals. Fifty percent of the 90-g polycarbophil meal emptied by 4 h; this occurred independently of gastric burst motor activity. Both polycarbophil and canned food elicited similar indexed motor responses and both delayed the postprandial reappearance of gastric burst motor activity. We conclude that small indigestible particles can stimulate fed state-like motility and empty from the stomach independently of gastric burst activity.

  1. Spirit and Its Now-Empty Mother Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead polar image was captured after the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took a few baby rolls away from the spacecraft that bore it millions of miles to Mars. The empty lander, now named the Columbia Memorial Station, can be seen to the right of the rover. This image was taken by Spirit's navigation camera.

  2. Non-wandering sets with non-empty interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdenur, Flavio; Bonatti, Christian; Díaz, Lorenzo J.

    2004-01-01

    We study diffeomorphisms of a closed connected manifold whose non-wandering set has a non-empty interior and conjecture that C1-generic diffeomorphisms whose non-wandering set has a non-empty interior are transitive. We prove this conjecture in three cases: hyperbolic diffeomorphisms, partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms with two hyperbolic bundles, and tame diffeomorphisms (in the first case, the conjecture is folklore; in the second one, it follows by adapting the proof in Brin (1975 Topological transitivity of a certain class of dynamical systems, and flows of frames on manifolds of negative curvature Funct. Anal. Appl. 9 9-19)). We study this conjecture without global assumptions and prove that, generically, a homoclinic class with non-empty interior is either the whole manifold or else accumulated by infinitely many different homoclinic classes. Finally, we prove that, generically, homoclinic classes and non-wandering sets with non-empty interiors are weakly hyperbolic (the existence of a dominated or a volume hyperbolic splitting).

  3. The Empty Set and Teaching Educational Administration: An Australasian Dreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, R. J. S.; Edwards, W. L.

    An Australian conference for lecturers in educational administration was disrupted by a group dubbed "The Empty Set," which explored the political nature of knowledge and practice in educational administration. The group claims that most of educational administration's major research themes are derived from noneducational areas. Stating that such…

  4. Effect of pirenzepine on gallbladder emptying in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.L.; Anagnostides, A.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of the selective antimuscarinic agent, pirenzepine, on gallbladder function was studied in six healthy volunteers, using /sup 99m/Tc HIDA (N-(2,6-diethylthenyl) carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid) hepatobiliary scanning. Pirenzepine, in doses that inhibit gastric acid secretion, did not alter gallbladder emptying responses to sham feeding stimulation or to a test meal.

  5. The Empty Nest Syndrome: Ways to Enhance Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dianbing; Yang, Xinxiao; Aagard, Steve Dale

    2012-01-01

    Empty nest syndrome occurs as a result of urbanization and loosened relationships among family members. It may threaten the life quality of older adults and stability of society as a whole. This survey was designed to investigate the situation and factors that influence the life quality of a sample of older adults in a western state. Thirty-five…

  6. Diunsaturated Aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal in the Intestinal Lumen Suppresses Gastric Emptying through Serotonin Signaling in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hira, Tohru; Yahagi, Asuka; Nishimura, Saki; Sakaino, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-09-23

    We recently demonstrated that a diunsaturated aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (2,4-decadienal), potently stimulated secretion of cholecystokinin in the enteroendocrine cell line. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin and serotonin play critical roles in reducing postprandial gastric emptying. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of 2,4-decadienal (50-100 mg/kg) reduced gastric emptying rate in rats, assessed by both the acetaminophen absorption test and the phenol red recovery method. In contrast, saturated aldehyde, alcohol, and fatty acids having the same chain length as 2,4-decadienal did not affect the gastric emptying rate. Duodenal administration of 2,4-decadienal potently reduced gastric emptying rate, but intraperitoneal administration did not. Furthermore, the gastric inhibitory effect of 2,4-decadienal was attenuated by treatment with a serotonin receptor antagonist. These results demonstrated that 2,4-decadienal in the small intestinal lumen has a potent inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, possibly through stimulation of the serotonin-producing enteroendocrine cells. PMID:26322627

  7. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  8. Effects of proton pump inhibitors on gastric emptying: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sanaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Kuyama, Yasushi

    2010-09-01

    The proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is widely used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer diseases, and functional dyspepsia. The pathogenesis of these acid-related and/or functional upper gastrointestinal disorders is potentially associated with abnormal gastric emptying. To date, variable effects of PPIs on gastric emptying have been reported. Therefore, it is relevant to gather and analyze published information on this topic. A systematic literature search has been performed, showing that the delaying effect of PPIs on gastric emptying of solid meals is consistent, whereas the effect of PPIs on the emptying of liquids is inconsistent. The underlying mechanisms whereby PPIs may affect gastric emptying have been discussed, most of which still remain hypothetic. Gastric emptying of solids involves a process of peptic hydrolysis. PPIs impair the hydrolytic digestion by inhibiting acid-dependent peptic activity, thereby delaying the solid emptying. Gastric emptying of liquids largely depends on volume and energy density of intragastric contents. PPIs variably modify the volume and the energy density by reducing gastric fluid secretion, thereby modifying the liquid emptying in an unpredictable manner. Hypergastrinemia has been considered to delay gastric emptying, but it seems of minor importance in the regulation of gastric emptying during PPI use. The delayed emptying of solids due to PPI therapy may have clinical implications in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, as well as diabetes. PMID:20012198

  9. The Effect of the Empty Nest on the Morale of Mexican American and White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Teresa H.; Ragan, Pauline K.

    The empty nest has been thought to be associated with low morale among women. The emphasis on the mother role among Mexican American families may result in a stronger negative association between low morale and the empty nest among Mexican American women than among white women. This study tests two hypotheses: first, that the empty nest is…

  10. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  11. 44. View looking northeast. The lock was emptied of guests ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. View looking northeast. The lock was emptied of guests periodically during the day so that the timbers could be sprayed down with water. The board walk was laid over the west miter sill (at center) to allow visitors to enter without damaging the sill. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  12. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.M.; Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100..mu..Ci of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU.

  13. Influence of gallstones and ursodeoxycholic acid therapy on gallbladder emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Forgacs, I.C.; Maisey, M.N.; Murphy, G.M.; Dowling, R.H.

    1984-08-01

    Altered gallbladder motility could predispose to, or result from, gallstone formation and could also explain the alleged relief of biliary colic seen during bile acid therapy. Therefore, in 14 controls, 25 patients with radiolucent gallstones, and 14 patients with radiopaque gallstones, the authors used two techniques to measure gallbladder contraction--radionuclide imaging and real-time ultrasound--in response to one of two stimuli--a Lundh meal or intravenous cholecystokinin-octapeptide. Using the radionuclide technique, postprandial gallbladder emptying (t1/2) was prolonged both in patients with radiopaque and radiolucent gallstones when compared with controls. In patients with radiolucent stones, the t1/2 of gallbladder emptying became further prolonged after 1 mo of therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. A similar pattern of results was seen after cholecystokinin-octapeptide and also with real-time ultrasound. Thus, after both stimuli and using two independent techniques, gallbladder contraction was reduced in patients with gallstones. The slower and less complete gallbladder emptying with ursotherapy might explain the reduction in biliary colic noted during treatment.

  14. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  15. Abomasal or ruminal administration of flax oil and hulls on milk production, digestibility, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kazama, R; Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Zeoula, L M; Santos, G T D; Petit, H V

    2010-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated primiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of the site of administration (rumen or abomasum) of flax oil and flax hulls on diet digestibility and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. The treatments were 1) oil and hulls administered in the rumen and abomasal infusion of water (RUM/RUM), 2) oil and hulls infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO), 3) oil administered in the rumen and hulls infused in the abomasum (RUM/ABO), and 4) oil infused in the abomasum and hulls placed in the rumen (ABO/RUM). Cows on the ABO/ABO and RUM/RUM treatments had the highest and lowest amounts of basal dry matter eaten, respectively. Higher dry matter digestibility was obtained when flax oil bypassed the rumen (ABO/ABO and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax oil was administered directly in the rumen (RUM/ABO and RUM/RUM). Apparent digestibility of ether extract was higher when flax hulls were administered in the rumen (RUM/RUM and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax hulls were infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO and RUM/ABO). The lowest digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber was obtained when both flax products were added in the rumen, which may be attributed to the high amount of oil present in the rumen (7.8% of total dry matter input). The lowest yield of 4% fat-corrected milk was obtained for cows on the RUM/RUM treatment, probably as a result of lower dry matter intake and digestibility of fiber. Milk concentrations of protein, fat, total solids, and lactose were similar among treatments. Administration of oil and hulls in the rumen resulted in the highest concentrations of intermediate products of biohydrogenation and total trans fatty acids in milk fat compared with the other treatments. All ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in milk fat were lower than the 4 to 1 ratio recommended to improve human health. These results suggest that the presence of both flax oil and flax hulls in

  16. Sodium bicarbonate treatment prevents gastric emptying delay caused by acute exercise in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Moisés T B; Palheta-Junior, Raimundo C; Sousa, Daniel F; Fonseca-Magalhães, Patrícia A; Okoba, Willy; Campos, Caio P S; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Magalhães, Pedro J C; Santos, Armenio A

    2014-05-01

    Physical exercise, mainly after vigorous activity, may induce gastrointestinal dysmotility whose mechanisms are still unknown. We hypothesized that physical exercise and ensuing lactate-related acidemia alter gastrointestinal motor behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of short-term exercise on gastric emptying rate in awake rats subjected to 15-min swimming sessions against a load equivalent to 5% of their body weight. After 0, 10, or 20 min of exercise testing, the rats were gavage fed with 1.5 ml of a liquid test meal (0.5 mg/ml of phenol red in 5% glucose solution) and euthanized 10 min postprandially to measure fractional gastric dye recovery. In addition to inducing acidemia and increasing blood lactate levels, acute exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric retention. Such a phenomenon presented a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between blood lactate levels and fractional gastric dye recovery. Gastric retention and other acidbase-related changes were all prevented by NaHCO3 pretreatment. Additionally, exercise enhanced (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. Compared with sedentary control rats, acute exercise also inhibited (P < 0.05) the contractility of gastric fundus strips in vitro. In conclusion, acute exercise delayed the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal by interfering with the acid-base balance. PMID:24557800

  17. Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of ingested water and saline by hypovolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Edward M; Bykowski, Michael R; Hossler, Carrie A Smith; Curtis, Kathleen S; Smith, James C

    2009-12-01

    Recent experiments showed that in a one-bottle test conducted 16h after sc injection of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, hypovolemic rats consumed water or 0.30 M NaCl in an initial drinking episode but did not empty the ingested fluid from the stomach or absorb it from the small intestine very rapidly, certainly not as rapidly as when 0.15M NaCl was consumed (Smith et al., Am J Physiol 292: R2089-R2099, 2007). The present experiments examined the patterns of water and 0.30 M NaCl ingestion and the movement of consumed fluid through the gastrointestinal tract when PEG-treated rats were given a two-bottle delayed-access test. We found that both fluids always were consumed in the first drinking episode, that the fluid mixture ingested was equivalent to 0.10-0.15M NaCl, and that gastric emptying rate and net fluid absorption from the small intestine usually were much faster than when PEG-treated rats drank either water or hypertonic saline alone. Thus, ingestion of water and 0.30 M NaCl by hypovolemic rats in the same episode adaptively facilitated the movement into the circulation of a near-isotonic fluid that is ideal for restoring plasma volume deficits.

  18. Comprehensive Comparison between Empty Nest and Non-Empty Nest Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study among Rural Populations in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ye; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Li, Zhao; Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively compare the general characteristics, lifestyles, serum parameters, ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) parameters, depression, quality of life, and various comorbidities between empty nest and non-empty nest elderly among rural populations in northeast China. This analysis was based on our previous study which was conducted from January 2012 to August 2013, using a multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling scheme. The final analyzed sample consisted of 3208 participants aged no less than 60 years, which was further classified into three groups: non-empty nest group, empty nest group (living as a couple), and empty nest group (living alone). More than half of the participants were empty nest elderly (60.5%). There were no significant statistical differences for serum parameters, UCG parameters, lifestyles, dietary pattern, and scores of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF) among the three groups. Empty nest elderly showed no more risk for comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, left atrial enlargement (LAE), and stroke. Our study indicated that empty nest elderly showed no more risk for depression, low quality of life and comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, LAE, and stroke among rural populations in northeast China. PMID:27618905

  19. Comprehensive Comparison between Empty Nest and Non-Empty Nest Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study among Rural Populations in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ye; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Li, Zhao; Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively compare the general characteristics, lifestyles, serum parameters, ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) parameters, depression, quality of life, and various comorbidities between empty nest and non-empty nest elderly among rural populations in northeast China. This analysis was based on our previous study which was conducted from January 2012 to August 2013, using a multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling scheme. The final analyzed sample consisted of 3208 participants aged no less than 60 years, which was further classified into three groups: non-empty nest group, empty nest group (living as a couple), and empty nest group (living alone). More than half of the participants were empty nest elderly (60.5%). There were no significant statistical differences for serum parameters, UCG parameters, lifestyles, dietary pattern, and scores of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF) among the three groups. Empty nest elderly showed no more risk for comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, left atrial enlargement (LAE), and stroke. Our study indicated that empty nest elderly showed no more risk for depression, low quality of life and comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, LAE, and stroke among rural populations in northeast China. PMID:27618905

  20. Changes in proportions of empty body depots and constituents for nine breeds of cattle under various feed availabilities.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    1997-01-01

    Mature cows (146) representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds were slaughtered to contribute to the investigation of the effect of various feed availabilities on body composition. Weights recorded when cows were placed on feed were used to set daily diets at four rates of intake within each breed (55, 76, 96, and 111 g DM/[kg wt.75.d]). Cows remained on their assigned daily feed allotment throughout the study (3 to 5 yr). On the day of slaughter, shrunk live weights were recorded. Chemical determinations of protein (nitrogen x 6.25), ether extractable lipid, ash of dry matter, and moisture for hide and offal were obtained for all cows. Chemical determinations of these same constituents were obtained for the carcass soft tissue of 98 cows. Relationships among estimator traits carcass ash, warm carcass weight, resistive impedance, and carcass water from the 97 carcasses were used to predict the carcass constituents for the remaining 49 cows. Within breed, relationships between proportions of fat and empty body (sum of fat, ash, water, and protein from the three body pools of hide, offal, and carcass) were used to estimate empty body weight at 251 g fat/kg (standard reference body weight) for each of the nine breeds. Proportions of offal, carcass, hide, chemical constituents, and selected abdominal and thoracic organs relative to empty body weight from cows that attained weight stasis were regressed on one minus the ratio of individual actual empty body weight to breed standard reference weight. Among mature cows attaining weight stasis at various feeding rates, the proportion of offal remained constant, proportions of fat in carcass, hide, and offal increased with increasing feed level, and proportions of water and protein decreased. Significant variation (P < .01) attributable to breed in proportions of carcass, offal, hide, chemical constituents of the hide and offal, water, and protein of the

  1. Changes in proportions of empty body depots and constituents for nine breeds of cattle under various feed availabilities.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    1997-01-01

    Mature cows (146) representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds were slaughtered to contribute to the investigation of the effect of various feed availabilities on body composition. Weights recorded when cows were placed on feed were used to set daily diets at four rates of intake within each breed (55, 76, 96, and 111 g DM/[kg wt.75.d]). Cows remained on their assigned daily feed allotment throughout the study (3 to 5 yr). On the day of slaughter, shrunk live weights were recorded. Chemical determinations of protein (nitrogen x 6.25), ether extractable lipid, ash of dry matter, and moisture for hide and offal were obtained for all cows. Chemical determinations of these same constituents were obtained for the carcass soft tissue of 98 cows. Relationships among estimator traits carcass ash, warm carcass weight, resistive impedance, and carcass water from the 97 carcasses were used to predict the carcass constituents for the remaining 49 cows. Within breed, relationships between proportions of fat and empty body (sum of fat, ash, water, and protein from the three body pools of hide, offal, and carcass) were used to estimate empty body weight at 251 g fat/kg (standard reference body weight) for each of the nine breeds. Proportions of offal, carcass, hide, chemical constituents, and selected abdominal and thoracic organs relative to empty body weight from cows that attained weight stasis were regressed on one minus the ratio of individual actual empty body weight to breed standard reference weight. Among mature cows attaining weight stasis at various feeding rates, the proportion of offal remained constant, proportions of fat in carcass, hide, and offal increased with increasing feed level, and proportions of water and protein decreased. Significant variation (P < .01) attributable to breed in proportions of carcass, offal, hide, chemical constituents of the hide and offal, water, and protein of the

  2. Effect of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed Central

    Maddern, G J; Jamieson, G G; Myers, J C; Collins, P J

    1991-01-01

    Some patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease have delayed gastric emptying. This study investigates the effect of cisapride on gastric emptying in 34 patients with proved reflux and delayed gastric emptying of solids. They were enrolled in a double blind controlled crossover study. Placebo or cisapride (10 mg) tablets were given three times a day for three days followed by further assessment of gastric emptying. The protocol was repeated with the crossover tablet. Gastric emptying was assessed by a dual radionuclide technique. The percentage of a solid meal remaining in the stomach at 100 minutes (% R100 minutes) and the time taken for 50% of the liquid to empty (T50 minutes) were calculated and analysed by the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and expressed as medians (ranges). For gastric emptying of solids the initial % R100 minutes (70 (60-100)%) was not significantly different from placebo (71 (35-100)%). After cisapride treatment a significant acceleration (p less than 0.001) in gastric emptying occurred (% R100 minutes, 50.5 (28-93)%). Similarly with gastric emptying of liquids, the initial T50 minute value was 26.5 (12-82) minutes, after placebo the value was 28 (11-81) minutes, but this was significantly accelerated with cisapride (p less than 0.03) to 22.5 (6-61) minutes. The acceleration in gastric emptying occurred in the proximal portion of the stomach for gastric emptying of both solids and liquids suggesting that this is the principal site of action of cisapride. We conclude that cisapride significantly accelerates gastric emptying of both solids and liquids in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:2040466

  3. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  4. Phaseguides: a paradigm shift in microfluidic priming and emptying.

    PubMed

    Vulto, Paul; Podszun, Susann; Meyer, Philipp; Hermann, Carsten; Manz, Andreas; Urban, Gerald A

    2011-05-01

    Phaseguide technology gives complete control over filling and emptying of any type of microfluidic structures, independent of the chamber and channel geometry. The technique is based on a step-wise advancement of the liquid-air interface using the meniscus pinning effect. In this paper, the main effects and parameters underlying the phaseguiding principle are discussed and a demonstration is given of its potential for dead angle filling, spatially controlled phaseguide overflow and sequential phaseguide overflow, all accumulating in a passive valving approach. Phaseguides represent a new direction in microfluidic design thinking that will prove a leap forward towards more simple, flexible and reliable microfluidic systems. PMID:21394334

  5. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  6. Ectopic prolactinoma within the sphenoidal sinus associated with empty sella

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Bendersky, Damián; Hem, Santiago; Campero, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pituitary adenomas are a common cause of endocrinal dysfunction, which comprise 10–20% of all intracranial tumors. Although almost all of them arise within the sella turcica, there are some rare cases in which a pituitary adenoma is located outside the intrasellar region, so it is defined as an ectopic pituitary adenoma (EPA). Case Description: We described a case of a 31-year-old male with a serum prolactin (PRL) value of 240 ng/ml Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a space-occupying mass within the sphenoid sinus (SS) which partially enhanced by gadolinium. MRI did not reveal any sellar floor defect and an empty sella was detected. As dopamine agonist treatment had failed in lowering the serum PRL level, he underwent surgical treatment. A transsphenoidal approach without opening the sellar floor was performed using an operating microscope and the lesion within the SS was completely removed. Conclusion: Although intrasphenoidal EPAs are rare findings, the presence of an endocrine disorder related to pituitary hormones, and a space-occupying mass within the SS associated with either a normal sellar pituitary gland or an empty sella must lead us to suspect this diagnosis. PMID:22629484

  7. Surgery of the turbinates and “empty nose” syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Surgical therapy of the inferior and/or middle turbinate is indicated when conservative treatment options have failed. The desired goal is a reduction of the soft tissue volume of the turbinates regarding the individual anatomic findings, whilst simultaneously conserving as much mucosa as possible. As the turbinates serve as a functional entity within the nose, they ensure climatisation, humidification and cleaning of the inhaled air. Thus free nasal breathing means a decent quality of life, as well. Regarding the multitude of different surgical techniques, we confirm that no ideal standard technique for turbinate reduction has been developed so far. Moreover, there is a lack of prospective and comparable long-term studies, which makes it difficult to recommend evidence-based surgical techniques. However, the anterior turbinoplasty seems to fulfil the preconditions of limited tissue reduction and mucosa-preservation, and therefore it is the method of choice today. Radical resection of the turbinates may lead to severe functional disturbances developing a secondary atrophic rhinitis. The “empty nose” syndrome is a specific entity within the secondary atrophic rhinitis where intranasal changes in airflow result in disturbed climatisation and also interfere with pulmonary function. Results deriving from an actual in vivo study of climatisation and airflow in “empty nose” patients are presented. PMID:22073107

  8. Gastric emptying of solid food in patients with gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, S.; Eggli, D.; Van Nostrand, D.; Johnson, L.

    1985-05-01

    While delayed solid gastric emptying (GE) has been reported in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the relationship of GE to daytime and/or nighttime reflux patterns, and the severity of endoscopic esophagitis are unknown. The authors measured GE in a study population of symptomatic patients (n=33) with abnormal 24 hour pH monitoring (24 hr pH). The study population was divided into two groups by esophagoscopy; those with (E+=22); and 2) those without (E-=11) erosive esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus. GE was measured in all patients and in 15 normal volunteers (NL) by the in vivo labelling of chicken liver with Tc-99m-SC, which was in turn diced into 1 cm. cubes and given in 7 1/2 oz. of beef stew. Upright one minute anterior and posterior digital images were obtained every 15 min. for 2.5 hours. 24 hour pH was divided into daytime (upright) and nighttime (supine) segments, and acid exposure was defined as % time pH < 4 for that posture. There was no correlation between GE T 1/2 and acid exposure, daytime or nighttime, for the patient population as a whole. However, patients with the longest GE T1/2 tended to have severe daytime reflux. The authors rarely found delayed solid food gastric emptying in patients with reflux; moreover, they found no association between GE and either diurnal reflux patterns on 24 hr pH or the severity of endoscopic esophagitis.

  9. Xenin-25 delays gastric emptying and reduces postprandial glucose levels in humans with and without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sara; Reeds, Dominic N; Crimmins, Dan L; Patterson, Bruce W; Laciny, Erin; Wang, Songyan; Tran, Hung D; Griest, Terry A; Rometo, David A; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J; Ladenson, Jack H; Polonsky, Kenneth S; Wice, Burton M

    2014-02-15

    Xenin-25 (Xen) is a neurotensin-related peptide secreted by a subset of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing enteroendocrine cells. In animals, Xen regulates gastrointestinal function and glucose homeostasis, typically by initiating neural relays. However, little is known about Xen action in humans. This study determines whether exogenously administered Xen modulates gastric emptying and/or insulin secretion rates (ISRs) following meal ingestion. Fasted subjects with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 10-14 per group) ingested a liquid mixed meal plus acetaminophen (ACM; to assess gastric emptying) at time zero. On separate occasions, a primed-constant intravenous infusion of vehicle or Xen at 4 (Lo-Xen) or 12 (Hi-Xen) pmol · kg(-1) · min(-1) was administered from zero until 300 min. Some subjects with NGT received 30- and 90-min Hi-Xen infusions. Plasma ACM, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, Xen, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured and ISRs calculated. Areas under the curves were compared for treatment effects. Infusion with Hi-Xen, but not Lo-Xen, similarly delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial glucose levels in all groups. Infusions for 90 or 300 min, but not 30 min, were equally effective. Hi-Xen reduced plasma GLP-1, but not GIP, levels without altering the insulin secretory response to glucose. Intense staining for Xen receptors was detected on PGP9.5-positive nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle of the human stomach. Thus Xen reduces gastric emptying in humans with and without T2DM, probably via a neural relay. Moreover, endogenous GLP-1 may not be a major enhancer of insulin secretion in healthy humans under physiological conditions. PMID:24356886

  10. Xenin-25 delays gastric emptying and reduces postprandial glucose levels in humans with and without Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sara; Reeds, Dominic N.; Crimmins, Dan L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Laciny, Erin; Wang, Songyan; Tran, Hung D.; Griest, Terry A.; Rometo, David A.; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Xenin-25 (Xen) is a neurotensin-related peptide secreted by a subset of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing enteroendocrine cells. In animals, Xen regulates gastrointestinal function and glucose homeostasis, typically by initiating neural relays. However, little is known about Xen action in humans. This study determines whether exogenously administered Xen modulates gastric emptying and/or insulin secretion rates (ISRs) following meal ingestion. Fasted subjects with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 10–14 per group) ingested a liquid mixed meal plus acetaminophen (ACM; to assess gastric emptying) at time zero. On separate occasions, a primed-constant intravenous infusion of vehicle or Xen at 4 (Lo-Xen) or 12 (Hi-Xen) pmol·kg−1·min−1 was administered from zero until 300 min. Some subjects with NGT received 30- and 90-min Hi-Xen infusions. Plasma ACM, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, Xen, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured and ISRs calculated. Areas under the curves were compared for treatment effects. Infusion with Hi-Xen, but not Lo-Xen, similarly delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial glucose levels in all groups. Infusions for 90 or 300 min, but not 30 min, were equally effective. Hi-Xen reduced plasma GLP-1, but not GIP, levels without altering the insulin secretory response to glucose. Intense staining for Xen receptors was detected on PGP9.5-positive nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle of the human stomach. Thus Xen reduces gastric emptying in humans with and without T2DM, probably via a neural relay. Moreover, endogenous GLP-1 may not be a major enhancer of insulin secretion in healthy humans under physiological conditions. PMID:24356886

  11. Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250μm). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

  12. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-13C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Results Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). Conclusions In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats. PMID:25266643

  13. Characterization of relative growth of empty body and carcass components for bulls from a five-breed diallel.

    PubMed

    Baker, J F; Bryson, W L; Sanders, J O; Dahm, P F; Cartwright, T C; Ellis, W C; Long, C R

    1991-08-01

    Slaughter and carcass data were obtained on 197 bulls produced in a diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey that were slaughtered at either 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, or 30 mo of age. Bulls were given ad libitum access to a 72% TDN diet on an individual basis from 6 mo of age until slaughter. Empty body weight (EBWT) was determined as the sum of the weights of blood, hide, hard drop, soft drop (minus contents of the digestive tract), and carcass weight (CWT), which were recorded at slaughter. Carcass protein (CPROT) and fat (CFAT) were based on weights and chemical analyses of lean and fat tissue and bone of the carcass. Empty body protein (EBPROT) and fat (EBFAT) were based on weights and chemical estimates of the components of the empty body. Growth of EBWT, EBPROT, EBFAT, CWT, CPROT, and CFAT relative to either live weight (LWT), EBWT, or CWT were investigated using the allometric equation. Breed-type differences existed (P less than .01) for the growth of EBWT relative to LWT. Comparisons of general combining abilities revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey generally had lower maturing rates of EBWT relative to LWT and that Brahman and Holstein had higher maturing rates. Across breed-type, relative growth rates indicated that fat and protein were later-maturing components relative to LWT, EBWT, or CWT, which implies that other components mature relatively earlier. Relative maturing rates of components studied were not important in explaining differences in body composition that have been previously reported for these breed-types. PMID:1894551

  14. Characterization of relative growth of empty body and carcass components for bulls from a five-breed diallel.

    PubMed

    Baker, J F; Bryson, W L; Sanders, J O; Dahm, P F; Cartwright, T C; Ellis, W C; Long, C R

    1991-08-01

    Slaughter and carcass data were obtained on 197 bulls produced in a diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey that were slaughtered at either 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, or 30 mo of age. Bulls were given ad libitum access to a 72% TDN diet on an individual basis from 6 mo of age until slaughter. Empty body weight (EBWT) was determined as the sum of the weights of blood, hide, hard drop, soft drop (minus contents of the digestive tract), and carcass weight (CWT), which were recorded at slaughter. Carcass protein (CPROT) and fat (CFAT) were based on weights and chemical analyses of lean and fat tissue and bone of the carcass. Empty body protein (EBPROT) and fat (EBFAT) were based on weights and chemical estimates of the components of the empty body. Growth of EBWT, EBPROT, EBFAT, CWT, CPROT, and CFAT relative to either live weight (LWT), EBWT, or CWT were investigated using the allometric equation. Breed-type differences existed (P less than .01) for the growth of EBWT relative to LWT. Comparisons of general combining abilities revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey generally had lower maturing rates of EBWT relative to LWT and that Brahman and Holstein had higher maturing rates. Across breed-type, relative growth rates indicated that fat and protein were later-maturing components relative to LWT, EBWT, or CWT, which implies that other components mature relatively earlier. Relative maturing rates of components studied were not important in explaining differences in body composition that have been previously reported for these breed-types.

  15. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  16. [Primary empty sella. Clinico-radiologic considerations in 18 cases].

    PubMed

    Pompili, A; Jachetti, M; Carapella, C M; Crecco, M; Gaudino, G; Isabella, F; Mastrostefano, R

    1985-01-28

    18 patients with "primary empty sella" were reviewed for this study. In 3 of them the sellar enlargement was discovered occasionally by performing skull radiographs for other reasons. The galattorrhea-dismenorrhea or amenorrhea syndrome and obesity were the most common clinical features. Endocrinological tests were normal in ten patients and abnormal in eight. Slight elevation of serum PRL was the most common record. 12 patients had enlarging of the sella turcica; in 4, only the floor was asymmetric and in 2 the sella was quite normal. In 5 patients C.T. without intra-thecal contrast was sufficient to discover the E.S. In 13 patients we performed C.T. cysternography by injecting in the lumbar subarachnoid space 8-10 ml of Iopamidolo 200. This is an excellent and safe technique to perform C.T. cysternography.

  17. A benchmark study of controlled emptying of equalization basins.

    PubMed

    Bolmstedt, J; Olsson, G

    2005-01-01

    Storm tanks, or equalization basins, have been used for many years in sewer or wastewater treatment systems to reduce the amount of combined sewer overflows. In this paper, a systematic control of an equalization basin is used not only to dampen or reduce the hydraulic load, but also to systematically improve the effluent quality in a nitrogen removal plant. It is demonstrated that the effluent ammonia concentration is the key component. The Benchmark Simulation Model 1, implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, has been used to perform the evaluations. It has been extended with systematic rainfall generations. Intuitively, it is apparent that the equalization basin should be emptied before a rainfall. This requires a prediction capacity. It is shown that the choice of prediction time is by no means trivial and it is not true that a long prediction horizon is always advantageous.

  18. Summertime blues: August foraging leaves honey bees empty-handed.

    PubMed

    Couvillon, Margaret J; Fensome, Katherine A; Quah, Shaun Kl; Schürch, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A successful honey bee forager tells her nestmates the location of good nectar and pollen with the waggle dance, a symbolic language that communicates a distance and direction. Because bees are adept at scouting out profitable forage and are very sensitive to energetic reward, we can use the distance that bees communicate via waggle dances as a proxy for forage availability, where the further the bees fly, the less forage can be found locally. Previously we demonstrated that bees fly furthest in the summer compared with spring or autumn to bring back forage that is not necessarily of better quality. Here we show that August is also the month when significantly more foragers return with empty crops (P = 7.63e-06). This provides additional support that summer may represent a seasonal foraging challenge for honey bees.

  19. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    SciTech Connect

    Shockley, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  20. Depth spreading through empty space induced by sparse disparity cues.

    PubMed

    Li, Xintong; Huang, Abigail E; Altschuler, Eric L; Tyler, Christopher W

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of visual processing is to develop an understanding of the three-dimensional layout of the objects in our immediate vicinity from the variety of incomplete and noisy depth cues available to the eyes. Binocular disparity is one of the dominant depth cues, but it is often sparse, being definable only at the edges of uniform surface regions, and visually resolvable only where the edges have a horizontal disparity component. To understand the full 3D structure of visual objects, our visual system has to perform substantial surface interpolation across unstructured visual space. This interpolation process was studied in an eight-spoke depth spreading configuration corresponding to that used in the neon color spreading effect, which generates a strong percept of a sharp contour extending through empty space from the disparity edges within the spokes. Four hypotheses were developed for the form of the depth surface induced by disparity in the spokes defining an incomplete disk in depth: low-level local (isotropic) depth propagation, mid-level linear (anisotropic) depth-contour interpolation or extrapolation, and high-level (anisotropic) figural depth propagation of a disk figure in depth. Data for both perceived depth and position of the perceived contour clearly rejected the first three hypotheses and were consistent with the high-level figural hypothesis in both uniform disparity and slanted disk configurations. We conclude that depth spreading through empty visual space is an accurately quantifiable perceptual process that propagates depth contours anisotropically along their length and is governed by high-level figural properties of 3D object structure. PMID:23946433

  1. Prehension of Half-Full and Half-Empty Glasses: Time and History Effects on Multi-Digit Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    We explored how digit forces and indices of digit coordination depend on the history of getting to a particular set of task parameters during static prehension tasks. The participants held in the right hand an instrumented handle with a light-weight container attached on top of the handle. At the beginning of each trial, the container could be empty, filled to the half with water (0.4 l) or filled to the top (0.8 l). The water was pumped in/out of the container at a constant, slow rate over 10 s. At the end of each trial, the participants always held a half-filled container that has just been filled (Empty-Half), emptied (Full-Half), or stayed half-filled throughout the trial (Half-Only). Indices of co-variation (synergy indices) of elemental variables (forces and moments of force produced by individual digits) stabilizing such performance variables as total normal force, total tangetial force, and total moment of force were computed at two levels of an assumed control hierarchy. At the upper level, the task is shared between the thumb and virtual finger (an imagined digit with the mechanical action equal to that of the four fingers), while at the lower level, action of the virtual finger is shared among the actual four fingers. Filling or emptying the container led to a drop in the safety margin (proportion of grip force over the slipping threshold) below the values observed in the Half-Only condition. Synergy indices at both levels of the hierarchy showed changes over the Full-Half and Empty-Half condition. These changes could be monotonic (typical of moment of force and normal force) or non-monotonic (typical of tangential force). For both normal and tangential forces, higher synergy indices at the higher level of the hierarchy corresponded to lower indices at the lower level. Significant differences in synergy indices across conditions were seen at the final steady-state showing that digit coordination during steady holding an object is history dependent. The

  2. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-08-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with /sup 51/Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK.

  3. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... airplane at the time of determining empty weight must be one that is well defined and can be...

  4. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  5. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  6. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  7. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  8. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  9. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  10. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  11. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  12. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  13. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  14. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  15. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  16. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  17. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  18. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  19. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  20. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  1. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  2. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  3. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  4. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  5. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  6. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  7. The pattern of gastric emptying: a new view of old results

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    1. Gastric emptying has until now been regarded as exponential in form, but this pattern does not account for all phases of a meal. 2. A pattern of emptying in which the square root of the volume of meal remaining declines linearly with time has been shown to account for the experimental results with less error. PMID:5937408

  8. Differing Interpretations of Empty Categories in English and Japanese VP Ellipsis Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Ayumi

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how English and Japanese children interpret empty categories in Verb Phrase Ellipsis contexts as in (1):(1) The penguin [sat on his chair] and the robot did [delta], too. To obtain an adultlike interpretation of (1), English children have to do two things. First, they need to find a suitable antecedent for the empty verb…

  9. Expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in olfactory sense organ development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sonia; Hartmann, Beate; Reichert, Heinrich; Rodrigues, Veronica

    2010-11-01

    In Drosophila, the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles plays key roles in embryonic patterning of the peripheral and central nervous system. During postembryonic development, it is involved in the development of central olfactory circuitry in the antennal lobe of the adult. However, its possible role in the postembryonic development of peripheral olfactory sense organs has not been investigated. Here, we show that empty spiracles acts in a subset of precursors that generate the olfactory sense organs of the adult antenna. All empty spiracles-expressing precursor cells co-express the proneural gene amos and the early patterning gene lozenge. Moreover, the expression of empty spiracles in these precursor cells is dependent on both amos and lozenge. Functional analysis reveals two distinct roles of empty spiracles in the development of olfactory sense organs. Genetic interaction studies in a lozenge-sensitized background uncover a requirement of empty spiracles in the formation of trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla. MARCM-based clonal mutant analysis reveals an additional role during axonal targeting of olfactory sensory neurons to glomeruli within the antennal lobe. Our findings on empty spiracles action in olfactory sense organ development complement previous studies that demonstrate its requirement in olfactory interneurons and, taken together with studies on the murine homologs of empty spiracles, suggest that conserved molecular genetic programs might be responsible for the formation of both peripheral and central olfactory circuitry in insects and mammals.

  10. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  11. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  12. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  13. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  14. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  15. Expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in olfactory sense organ development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sonia; Hartmann, Beate; Reichert, Heinrich; Rodrigues, Veronica

    2010-11-01

    In Drosophila, the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles plays key roles in embryonic patterning of the peripheral and central nervous system. During postembryonic development, it is involved in the development of central olfactory circuitry in the antennal lobe of the adult. However, its possible role in the postembryonic development of peripheral olfactory sense organs has not been investigated. Here, we show that empty spiracles acts in a subset of precursors that generate the olfactory sense organs of the adult antenna. All empty spiracles-expressing precursor cells co-express the proneural gene amos and the early patterning gene lozenge. Moreover, the expression of empty spiracles in these precursor cells is dependent on both amos and lozenge. Functional analysis reveals two distinct roles of empty spiracles in the development of olfactory sense organs. Genetic interaction studies in a lozenge-sensitized background uncover a requirement of empty spiracles in the formation of trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla. MARCM-based clonal mutant analysis reveals an additional role during axonal targeting of olfactory sensory neurons to glomeruli within the antennal lobe. Our findings on empty spiracles action in olfactory sense organ development complement previous studies that demonstrate its requirement in olfactory interneurons and, taken together with studies on the murine homologs of empty spiracles, suggest that conserved molecular genetic programs might be responsible for the formation of both peripheral and central olfactory circuitry in insects and mammals. PMID:20940227

  16. Botulinum toxin A as a treatment for delayed gastric emptying in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Max L.; Fransson, Boel A.; Barry, Sabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    A toy Australian shepherd dog was referred for bile peritonitis following excision of a biliary mucocele. Subsequent delayed gastric emptying was refractory to prokinetic therapy but responded to injection of botulinum toxin A into the muscularis layer of the pylorus; a novel therapy for delayed gastric emptying in dogs. PMID:24982520

  17. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch.

  18. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch. PMID:27233286

  19. Vascular connections between the receptacle and empty achenes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Alkio, Merianne; Grimm, Eckhard

    2003-01-01

    Empty achenes in sunflower, particularly in the centre of the capitulum, may be caused by poor vascularization. This hypothesis was tested by microscopic examination and translocation experiments. Phloem and xylem were identified by fluorescence of aniline-blue-stained callose and autofluorescence, respectively. Vascular strands that extended from the receptacle into empty achenes were regularly found in longitudinal sections. The phloem-mobile probe, carboxyfluorescein, was translocated from the receptacle to the pericarp and the testa of empty achenes. Similarly, (14)CO(2)-derived (14)C-photoassimilates moved into empty achenes. The observations suggest that empty achenes are both structurally and functionally connected with the vascular system of the receptacle. Hence, deficient vascular connections do not prevent seed filling in sunflower. PMID:12493862

  20. Acetaminophen absorption kinetics in altered gastric emptying: establishing a relevant pharmacokinetic surrogate using published data.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2015-06-01

    Acetaminophen has been used as a tool for clinical and nonclinical experimental designs that evaluate gastric emptying because acetaminophen is not absorbed in stomach but efficiently absorbed from the small intestine. Published pharmacokinetic data of acetaminophen in subjects with normal gastric emptying vs. impaired gastric emptying (i.e., morphine treatment) were evaluated to select a key surrogate. Using Caverage (average concentration), computed from the exposure within the first hour, individual rank distribution was plotted across different studies. Caverage was highly correlated with Cmax (maximum concentration) in subjects with normal gastric emptying (R(2) = .7532) but not in those where gastric emptying was impaired (R(2) = .0213). The 50th percentile value of the distribution pattern of 1/Caverage in acetaminophen+morphine-treated group (coincided with the first shift in the slope) was considered as the cutoff point to figure out the impaired gastric emptying. The individual rank distribution plots for 1/Caverage across different studies supported similar trends in subjects with normal gastric emptying but showed a distinct distribution pattern in the cohort of impaired gastric emptying. Caverage, calculated within the first hour of dosing of acetaminophen (average concentration at 0-1 hour, C0-1havg), can be used as a key surrogate to distinguish the effects of gastric emptying on the absorption of acetaminophen. A 4 μg/mL C0-1havg of acetaminophen (dose: 1.5 g) may be used as cutoff point in future clinical investigations of acetaminophen to clarify the role of gastric emptying.

  1. [Determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction and its application in the evaluation of gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-na; Sun, Su-juan; Shen, Zhu-fang

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to establish a method to determine the serum acetaminophen concentration based on diazo reaction, and apply it in the gastric emptying evaluation. Theoretically, acetaminophen could take hydrolysis reaction in hydrochloric acid solution to produce p-aminophenol, which could then take diazo reaction resulting in a product with special absorption peak at 312 nm. Then the serum acetaminophen concentration and recovery rate were calculated according to the standard curve drawn with absorbance at 312 nm. ICR mice were given a dose of acetaminophen (500 mg x kg(-1)) by gavage and the serum acetaminophen was dynamically measured through the diazo reaction. Besides, ICR mice were subcutaneously injected with the long-acting GLP-1 analog GW002 before the gavage of acetaminophen, and serum acetaminophen concentration was measured as above to study how GW002 could influence the gastric emptying. The data showed acetaminophen ranging from 0 to 160 μg x mL(-1) could take diazo reaction with excellent linear relationship, and the regression equation was y = 0.0181 x +0.0104, R2 = 0.9997. The serum acetaminophen was also measured with good linear relationship (y = 0.0045 x + 0.0462, R = 0.9982) and the recovery rate was 97.4%-116.7%. The serum concentration of acetaminophen reached peak at about 0.5 h after gavage, and then gradually decreased. GW002 could significantly lower the serum acetaminophen concentration and make the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) decrease by 28.4%. In conclusion, a method for the determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction was established with good accuracy and could be used in the evaluation of gastric emptying.

  2. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  3. Ultransonic circumferential waves in empty and water- filled tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xing

    Ultrasonic waves propagating in the circumference of elastic isotropic cylindrical shells are theoretically and experimentally studied. Dispersion relations of different circumferential modes, including the SH-type and Lamb-type families, are obtained by solving the wave equations numerically. Asymptotic solutions are also given for the SH-like modes. Various technologies are applied for generating and detecting the circumferential waves. In particular, a new approach is developed for experimental determination of the dispersion of the circumferential waves in cylindrical shells. With a chirp interdigital transducer (IDT) as a broadband transmitter and receiver made on a stainless steel tube coated with piezoelectric film, both the group and phase velocities of the circumferential waves are obtained over a wide frequency range, which covers the most sensitive region of the lowest flexural mode. Other transduction approaches are also used as complementary tools in the experiments. Experiments are carried out on both empty and fluid- loaded cylindrical shells at different frequencies. With the specially developed experimental configuration, propagation of a new flexural wave type in a water-filled tube is observed. Mode conversions are also observed between the A 0 mode in the shell and the compressional waves in the water. The results show good application potentials in liquid level sensing.

  4. Serum Biopterin and Neopterin Levels as Predictors of Empty Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hamuro, Akihiro; Tachibana, Daisuke; Misugi, Takuya; Katayama, Hiroko; Ozaki, Koji; Fujino, Yuji; Yoshihiro, Nakamura; Shintaku, Haruo; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study measured serum and follicular fluid (FF) levels of biopterin, neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in patients receiving mild ovarian stimulation for oocyte retrieval. PATIENTS AND METHODS Infertile patients who underwent ovarian stimulation were divided into the following: Group 1, no oocyte retrieval (n = 12), and Group 2, retrieval of more than four oocytes (n = 13). Median total gonadotropin dose in both groups was 150 IU. Biopterin and neopterin levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. VEGF and M-CSF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Compared to Group 2, serum and FF levels of neopterin and VEGF and serum levels of M-CSF were significantly increased, and serum and FF levels of biopterin were significantly decreased in Group 1 (P < 0.05 each). CONCLUSION Biopterin and neopterin levels showed similar differences in FF and serum of patients with empty follicles. Decreased biopterin and increased neopterin in serum could predict poor oocyte retrieval. PMID:26568687

  5. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  6. Synthesis of empty african horse sickness virus particles.

    PubMed

    Maree, Sonja; Maree, Francois F; Putterill, John F; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Huismans, Henk; Theron, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    As a means to develop African horse sickness (AHS) vaccines that are safe and DIVA compliant, we investigated the synthesis of empty African horse sickness virus (AHSV) particles. The emphasis of this study was on the assembly of the major viral core (VP3 and VP7) and outer capsid proteins (VP2 and VP5) into architecturally complex, heteromultimeric nanosized particles. The production of fully assembled core-like particles (CLPs) was accomplished in vivo by baculovirus-mediated co-synthesis of VP3 and VP7. The two different outer capsid proteins were capable of associating independently of each other with preformed cores to yield partial virus-like particles (VLPs). Complete VLPs were synthesized, albeit with a low yield. Crystalline formation of AHSV VP7 trimers is thought to impede high-level CLP production. Consequently, we engineered and co-synthesized VP3 with a more hydrophilic mutant VP7, resulting in an increase in the turnover of CLPs. PMID:26686484

  7. Gastric emptying and sieving of solid food and pancreatic and biliary secretions after solid meals in patients with nonresective ulcer surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.A.; Thomson, J.B.; Jehn, D.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Deveny, C.; Meyer, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to compare with previously published findings in normal subjects and subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy the effects of nonresective ulcer surgery on (a) gastric emptying, grinding, and sieving of solid food and on (b) pancreatic and biliary secretions. Six subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy and 7 subjects with truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty were studied using a previously validated indicator perfusion system with its aspiration port placed in the proximal jejunum. All subjects were given a meal of 30 g of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, 60 g of beefsteak, and 100 ml of H/sub 2/O. In conjunction with a gamma-camera to measure total gastric emptying of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, this method allowed the estimation of the fraction of 99mTc-liver emptied from the stomach as particles of less than 1-mm diameter; in addition, it was possible to measure jejunal concentrations and outputs of bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy, all parameters studied were indistinguishable from normal. Subjects with truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty behaved similarly to subjects with vagotomy and antrectomy, showing (a) early precipitous emptying of food, (b) heterogeneous distribution of half-emptying times, (c) near normal concentration of biliary and pancreatic secretions, (d) markedly reduced jejunal flow rates, and (e) a reduction in postcibal trypsin secretion. In contrast to subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy, however, the majority of subjects with vagotomy and pyloroplasty did not show a persistent defect in grinding and sieving of solid food.

  8. Separation of empty and water-filled single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey A; Huh, Ji Yeon; Simpson, Jeffrey R; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Holt, Josh M; Larsen, Brian A; Walker, Angela R Hight

    2011-05-24

    The separation of empty and water-filled laser ablation and electric arc synthesized nanotubes is reported. Centrifugation of these large-diameter nanotubes dispersed with sodium deoxycholate using specific conditions produces isolated bands of empty and water-filled nanotubes without significant diameter selection. This separation is shown to be consistent across multiple nanotube populations dispersed from different source soots. Detailed spectroscopic characterization of the resulting empty and filled fractions reveals that water filling leads to systematic changes to the optical and vibrational properties. Furthermore, sequential separation of the resolved fractions using cosurfactants and density gradient ultracentrifugation reveals that water filling strongly influences the optimal conditions for metallic and semiconducting separation.

  9. Multiple Small Coronary Artery Fistulas Emptying into the Left Ventricle: A Rare but Challenging Problem

    PubMed Central

    Kahaly, Omar

    2016-01-01

    A coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or a great vessel. CAFs are rare based on coronary arteriography and when found they most often empty into the right ventricle and atrium and less often into the high pressure, low compliance left ventricle (LV). A patient who presented with atypical chest pain and was found to have multiple small CAFs originating from the ramus intermedius coronary artery and emptying into the LV is presented. This case highlights the challenges in providing an appropriate therapy for multiple small CAFs emptying into the LV. PMID:27525009

  10. Effect of drink carbohydrate content on postexercise gastric emptying, rehydration, and the calculation of net fluid balance.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David J; Evans, Gethin H; James, Lewis J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the gastric emptying and rehydration effects of hypotonic and hypertonic glucose-electrolyte drinks after exercise-induced dehydration. Eight healthy males lost ~1.8% body mass by intermittent cycling and rehydrated (150% of body mass loss) with a hypotonic 2% (2% trial) or a hypertonic 10% (10% trial) glucose-electrolyte drink over 60 min. Blood and urine samples were taken at preexercise, postexercise, and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min postexercise. Gastric and test drink volume were determined 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min postexercise. At the end of the gastric sampling period 0.3% (2% trial) and 42.1% (10% trial; p < .001) of the drinks remained in the stomach. Plasma volume was lower (p < .01) and serum osmolality was greater (p < .001) at 60 and 120 min during the 10% trial. At 240 min, 52% (2% trial) and 64% (10% trial; p < .001) of the drinks were retained. Net fluid balance was greater from 120 min during the 10% trial (p < .001). When net fluid balance was corrected for the volume of fluid in the stomach, it was greater at 60 and 120 min during the 2% trial (p < .001). These results suggest that the reduced urine output following ingestion of a hypertonic rehydration drink might be mediated by a slower rate of gastric emptying, but the slow gastric emptying of such solutions makes rehydration efficiency difficult to determine in the hours immediately after drinking, compromising the calculation of net fluid balance.

  11. Impaired cholecystokinin-induced gallbladder emptying incriminated in spontaneous "black" pigment gallstone formation in germfree Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie E; Leonard, Monika R; Hayden, Joshua A; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Bernert, Kara R; Lavoie, Brigitte; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Whary, Mark T; Mawe, Gary M; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Carey, Martin C; Fox, James G

    2015-02-15

    "Black" pigment gallstones form in sterile gallbladder bile in the presence of excess bilirubin conjugates ("hyperbilirubinbilia") from ineffective erythropoiesis, hemolysis, or induced enterohepatic cycling (EHC) of unconjugated bilirubin. Impaired gallbladder motility is a less well-studied risk factor. We evaluated the spontaneous occurrence of gallstones in adult germfree (GF) and conventionally housed specific pathogen-free (SPF) Swiss Webster (SW) mice. GF SW mice were more likely to have gallstones than SPF SW mice, with 75% and 23% prevalence, respectively. In GF SW mice, gallstones were observed predominately in heavier, older females. Gallbladders of GF SW mice were markedly enlarged, contained sterile black gallstones composed of calcium bilirubinate and <1% cholesterol, and had low-grade inflammation, edema, and epithelial hyperplasia. Hemograms were normal, but serum cholesterol was elevated in GF compared with SPF SW mice, and serum glucose levels were positively related to increasing age. Aged GF and SPF SW mice had deficits in gallbladder smooth muscle activity. In response to cholecystokinin (CCK), gallbladders of fasted GF SW mice showed impaired emptying (females: 29%; males: 1% emptying), whereas SPF SW females and males emptied 89% and 53% of volume, respectively. Bilirubin secretion rates of GF SW mice were not greater than SPF SW mice, repudiating an induced EHC. Gallstones likely developed in GF SW mice because of gallbladder hypomotility, enabled by features of GF physiology, including decreased intestinal CCK concentration and delayed intestinal transit, as well as an apparent genetic predisposition of the SW stock. GF SW mice may provide a valuable model to study gallbladder stasis as a cause of black pigment gallstones.

  12. Impaired cholecystokinin-induced gallbladder emptying incriminated in spontaneous “black” pigment gallstone formation in germfree Swiss Webster mice

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephanie E.; Leonard, Monika R.; Hayden, Joshua A.; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Bernert, Kara R.; Lavoie, Brigitte; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Mawe, Gary M.; Nolan, Elizabeth M.; Carey, Martin C.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    “Black” pigment gallstones form in sterile gallbladder bile in the presence of excess bilirubin conjugates (“hyperbilirubinbilia”) from ineffective erythropoiesis, hemolysis, or induced enterohepatic cycling (EHC) of unconjugated bilirubin. Impaired gallbladder motility is a less well-studied risk factor. We evaluated the spontaneous occurrence of gallstones in adult germfree (GF) and conventionally housed specific pathogen-free (SPF) Swiss Webster (SW) mice. GF SW mice were more likely to have gallstones than SPF SW mice, with 75% and 23% prevalence, respectively. In GF SW mice, gallstones were observed predominately in heavier, older females. Gallbladders of GF SW mice were markedly enlarged, contained sterile black gallstones composed of calcium bilirubinate and <1% cholesterol, and had low-grade inflammation, edema, and epithelial hyperplasia. Hemograms were normal, but serum cholesterol was elevated in GF compared with SPF SW mice, and serum glucose levels were positively related to increasing age. Aged GF and SPF SW mice had deficits in gallbladder smooth muscle activity. In response to cholecystokinin (CCK), gallbladders of fasted GF SW mice showed impaired emptying (females: 29%; males: 1% emptying), whereas SPF SW females and males emptied 89% and 53% of volume, respectively. Bilirubin secretion rates of GF SW mice were not greater than SPF SW mice, repudiating an induced EHC. Gallstones likely developed in GF SW mice because of gallbladder hypomotility, enabled by features of GF physiology, including decreased intestinal CCK concentration and delayed intestinal transit, as well as an apparent genetic predisposition of the SW stock. GF SW mice may provide a valuable model to study gallbladder stasis as a cause of black pigment gallstones. PMID:25477375

  13. [Primary empty sella syndrome. Observations on 71 cases].

    PubMed

    Bianconcini, G; Bragagni, G; Bianconcini, M

    1999-02-01

    Primary empty sella syndrome (ESS) is an anatomo-radiological picture characterized by the presence of an arachnoid herniation filled with liquor that compresses the pituitary against the sellar wall. ESS occurs particularly in obese, hypertensive, cephalgic women, it is often asymptomatic but it may be associated with ophthalmologic, neurologic and sometime non-characterizing endocrine disorders. We report here 71 cases of primary ESS observed and assessed during the last fourteen years. The following endocrinological diagnostic procedures were carried out: hormonal (RIA) basal profile: FT3, FT4, TSH, PRL, ACTH, FSH, LH, 8.00 a.m. and p.m. cortisolemia, Aldo, PRA, DHEA-S, FTe, E2, P, PTH, CT, and calcemia and phosphoremia; provocative tests: TRH, GnRH, insulin hypoglycemia, etc.; inhibition tests: "overnight" and high dose dexamethasone. Clinical, radiological (skull radiographs, CT and/or MRI) and ophthalmologic (fundus, visual fields) assessment were made. We found principally cephalgia (52/71: 73.2%), hypertension (42/71: 59.1%), obesity (47/71: 66.1%). But we found especially mental disorders (57/71: 80.2%), in our knowledge not previously reported in the literature, as anxiety or dysthymic disorders with behavioural disturbances (chiefly oral compulsion). We found endocrinopathies in 36/71 (50.7%), isolated or coexisting in some patients: hyperPRL (14%), hypopituitarism (10.4%), hypogonadism (7%), diabetes insipidus (2.8%), hyperACTH (1.4%), hypoGH (15.4%), pituitary adenomas (8.4%). Several hypothalamic illness show a clinical picture including mental disorders and obesity. The Authors hypothesize that the ESS may be a "new" hypothalamic syndrome (compression/stretching on hypophysis and/or hypophyseal stalk by arachnoidocele; disorder of some hormones and neurotransmitters as leptin, neuropeptide Y, orexins, POMC-derived peptides, etc).

  14. The Empty Number Line: A Useful Tool or Just Another Procedure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobis, Janette

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the origins and potential benefits of the empty number line for the development of mental computation. It also provides a learner's perspective of its use through the reflections of nine-year-old Emily. (Contains 3 figures.)

  15. Automated analysis for scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying using invariant moments.

    PubMed

    Abutaleb, A; Delalic, Z J; Ech, R; Siegel, J A

    1989-01-01

    This study introduces a method for automated analysis of the standard solid-meal gastric emptying test. The purpose was to develop a diagnostic tool to characterize more reproducibly abnormalities of solid-phase gastric emptying. The processing of gastric emptying is automated using geometrical moments that are invariant to scaling, rotation, and shift. Twenty subjects were studied. The first step was to obtain images of the stomach using a nuclear gamma camera immediately after the subject had eaten a radio-labeled meal. The second step was to process and analyze the images by a recently developed automated gastric emptying analysis (AGEA) method, which determines the gastric contour and the geometrical properties include such parameters as area, centroid, orientation, and moments of inertia. Statistical tests showed that some of the moments were sensitive to the patient's gastric status (normal versus abnormal). The difference between the normal and abnormal patients became noticeable approximately 1 h after meal ingestion. PMID:18230536

  16. Empty sella in children and adolescents with possible hypothalamic-pituitary disorders.

    PubMed

    Cacciari, E; Zucchini, S; Ambrosetto, P; Tani, G; Carlà, G; Cicognani, A; Pirazzoli, P; Sganga, T; Balsamo, A; Cassio, A

    1994-03-01

    Several computed tomographic scan studies have described empty sellae in children with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging, however, is a more precise technique for visualizing the intrasellar content, such as the stalk and pituitary lobes. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we studied 339 children and adolescents (mean age +/- SD, 12.7 +/- 4.5 yr) with possible hypothalamic-pituitary disorders to ascertain the frequency of primary empty sella and examine its relationships with other intrasellar abnormalities, pituitary function, and adverse perinatal events. One hundred and ninety-three patients had isolated GH deficiency, 43 had multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, 10 had diabetes insipidus, 17 had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 5 had idiopathic delayed puberty, 47 had precocious puberty, and 24 had other hypothalamic pituitary disorders of hyperfunction. One tenth (10.9%) of the patients (37 cases) had empty sella, with a marked variation of incidences among the disorders listed above. A statistically higher frequency of subjects with empty sellae was found only in patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. Patients with and without empty sellae were not different in regard to age or sex. The incidence of empty sella in the various groups of patients was as follows: isolated GH deficiency, 8.8% (17 cases); multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, 34.9% (15 cases); hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 5.9% (1 case); idiopathic delayed puberty, 40% (2 cases); and precocious puberty, 4.2% (2 cases). No patients with isolated diabetes insipidus or other hypothalamic-pituitary disorders had empty sellae. In the patients with empty sellae, abnormalities of the stalk or posterior lobe were found in 1 patient with isolated GH deficiency (5.9%), 13 patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (86.7%), and no patients with puberty disorders. Likewise, adverse perinatal events were found only in 1 patient with isolated GH deficiency and 9

  17. Peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy accelerates gastric emptying in healthy pigs: proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    Geyl, Sophie; Legros, Romain; Charissou, Aurélie; Mesturoux, Laura; Couquet, Claude-Yves; Carrier, Paul; Brayette, Anaïs; El-Ouafi, Zora; Loustaud-Ratti, Veronique; Sautereau, Denis; Monteil, Jacques; Jacques, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, can be diagnosed with gastric emptying scintigraphy. Manometric studies of patients with gastroparesis show increased pyloric tone (pylorospasm). Among the recent endoscopic therapies for pylorospasm is peroral endoscopic pylorotomy (POP). In this study, we explored the effect of POP on gastric emptying in healthy pigs. Material and methods: Four mini-pigs underwent POP following general anaesthesia. The mucosal entrance was situated 5 cm above the pylorus. POP was performed through a submucosal tunnel dissection. The duration of gastric emptying was assessed by scintigraphy before and after the procedure. The pigs were then euthanised for necropsy and pathologic assessment of the pylorus. Results: The mean duration of the procedure was 55 (± 4 SD) min. All surgeries were performed in their entirety with 100 % feasibility. There were no cases of bleeding. The one case of perforation had no clinical significance. The duration of gastric emptying was 2.22-fold shorter after POP compared with before POP (T½ post-POP = 84.5 [± 35.7 SD] min vs. T½ pre-POP = 188.4 [± 87.3 SD] min; P = 0.029). In agreement with the endoscopic observations, sectioning of the pyloric muscle in each pig was histologically complete. Conclusion: The efficacy of the procedure provides indirect proof of the involvement of the pyloric ring in delayed gastric emptying and suggests new therapies for patients with gastroparesis. Our protocol combining gastric emptying scintigraphy and POP validated the use of anaesthetised mini-pigs as a learning and training model for POP or other endoscopic/surgical procedures related to gastric emptying. PMID:27556100

  18. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) of this chapter is empty if: (i) All wastes have been... container that has held an acute hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) is empty if: (i) The... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in...

  19. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) of this chapter is empty if: (i) All wastes have been... container that has held an acute hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) is empty if: (i) The... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in...

  20. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) of this chapter is empty if: (i) All wastes have been... container that has held an acute hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) is empty if: (i) The... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in...

  1. Microgravity Separation of Alginate Empty Capsules from Encapsulated Pancreatic Islets Using a Microfluidic System.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je; Hong, Jong Wook

    2015-10-01

    Although microencapsulated pancreatic islets have merits, such as ease of transplantation, viability and functionality improvement, and immune protection in vivo, the co-production of alginate empty capsules during the encapsulation of islets with alginate makes them unusable for biomedical application. In previous research, the removal of empty alginate capsules with high yield was achieved using density-gradient centrifugation. Here, we report advanced microgravity-based separation techniques in a microfluidic format for alginate empty capsules. The optimal separation conditions were mathematically evaluated using Stokes' law and the separation of the encapsulation product was accomplished. A microfluidic chip was designed with two inlets and two outlets at different elevations to mimic the vertical percoll gradient in density-gradient centrifugation. The separation of alginate empty capsules using microgravitational force resulted in effective separation of encapsulated islets from alginate empty capsules with more than 70% efficiency. Moreover, no loss of encapsulated islets was expected because the process is a one-pot separation, unlike the previous method. This type of microgravitational particle separation could be used both for the fractionization of heterogeneous encapsulated cells and to remove empty capsules. PMID:26726432

  2. Microgravity Separation of Alginate Empty Capsules from Encapsulated Pancreatic Islets Using a Microfluidic System.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je; Hong, Jong Wook

    2015-10-01

    Although microencapsulated pancreatic islets have merits, such as ease of transplantation, viability and functionality improvement, and immune protection in vivo, the co-production of alginate empty capsules during the encapsulation of islets with alginate makes them unusable for biomedical application. In previous research, the removal of empty alginate capsules with high yield was achieved using density-gradient centrifugation. Here, we report advanced microgravity-based separation techniques in a microfluidic format for alginate empty capsules. The optimal separation conditions were mathematically evaluated using Stokes' law and the separation of the encapsulation product was accomplished. A microfluidic chip was designed with two inlets and two outlets at different elevations to mimic the vertical percoll gradient in density-gradient centrifugation. The separation of alginate empty capsules using microgravitational force resulted in effective separation of encapsulated islets from alginate empty capsules with more than 70% efficiency. Moreover, no loss of encapsulated islets was expected because the process is a one-pot separation, unlike the previous method. This type of microgravitational particle separation could be used both for the fractionization of heterogeneous encapsulated cells and to remove empty capsules.

  3. Intragastric infusion of denatonium conditions flavor aversions and delays gastric emptying in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Glendinning, John I.; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Because most naturally occurring toxins taste bitter to humans, any mechanism that reduces the rate at which bitter substances are ingested and digested should be adaptive. Based on the recent discovery of T2R bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents, we asked whether intragastric (IG) infusion of denatonium (a ligand for T2R receptors) would condition a flavor aversion and/or delay gastric emptying. Four experiments tested for post-oral responses to denatonium in rodents. First, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to associate intake of a flavored solution (the CS+) with IG denatonium infusions, and intake of a different-flavored solution (the CS−) with IG water infusions during 30 min/day sessions. The rats acquired an aversion to the CS+ flavor when it was paired with IG infusions of 10 mM (but not 2.5 mM) denatonium. Intragastric infusions of 10 mM denatonium also delayed gastric emptying of food in the same rats. Second, we asked how long it took for rats to suppress their drinking while being infused IG with 10 mM denatonium. Rats drinking a palatable solution paired with IG infusions of 10 mM denatonium suppressed their licking within 6 min, as compared to rats infused IG with water. Third, we trained C57BL/6J (B6) mice 24 h/day to associate a CS+ flavor paired with IG infusions of 12 mM denatonium (diluted to 6 mM by orally consumed CS+). Like rats, the mice acquired a robust aversion to the CS+ flavor when it was paired with IG infusions of denatonium. A final experiment assessed the potential toxicity of denatonium. To this end, we gave B6 mice a 6 mM denatonium solution as their only source of water for 3 weeks. The mice grew normally and did not display any clinical signs of denatonium toxicosis. This study provides the first evidence that rodents respond to the presence of “bitter” substances in their gastrointestinal tract by generating both behavioral and physiological responses. PMID:18174110

  4. A conserved leucine occupies the empty substrate site of LeuT in the Na+-free return state

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskaite, Lina; Said, Saida; Sahin, Caglanur; Grouleff, Julie; Shahsavar, Azadeh; Bjerregaard, Henriette; Noer, Pernille; Severinsen, Kasper; Boesen, Thomas; Schiøtt, Birgit; Sinning, Steffen; Nissen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial members of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family perform Na+-dependent amino-acid uptake and extrude H+ in return. Previous NSS structures represent intermediates of Na+/substrate binding or intracellular release, but not the inward-to-outward return transition. Here we report crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus LeuT in an outward-oriented, Na+- and substrate-free state likely to be H+-occluded. We find a remarkable rotation of the conserved Leu25 into the empty substrate-binding pocket and rearrangements of the empty Na+ sites. Mutational studies of the equivalent Leu99 in the human serotonin transporter show a critical role of this residue on the transport rate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that extracellular Na+ is blocked unless Leu25 is rotated out of the substrate-binding pocket. We propose that Leu25 facilitates the inward-to-outward transition by compensating a Na+- and substrate-free state and acts as the gatekeeper for Na+ binding that prevents leak in inward-outward return transitions. PMID:27221344

  5. Gasification of oil palm empty fruit bunches: a characterization and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M A A; Salmiaton, A; Wan Azlina, W A K G; Mohamad Amran, M S

    2012-04-01

    Empty fruit bunches (EFBs), a waste material from the palm oil industry, were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification. A high content of volatiles (>82%) increased the reactivity of EFBs, and more than 90% decomposed at 700°C; however, a high content of moisture (>50%) and oxygen (>45%) resulted in a low calorific value. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the higher the heating rate and the smaller the particle size, the higher the peak and final reaction temperatures. The least squares estimation for a first-order reaction model was used to study the degradation kinetics. The values of activation energy increased from 61.14 to 73.76 and from 40.06 to 47.99kJ/mol when the EFB particle size increased from 0.3 to 1.0mm for holocellulose and lignin degradation stages, respectively. The fuel characteristics of EFB are comparable to those of other biomasses and EFB can be considered a good candidate for gasification.

  6. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: application to environmental problems.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Mansor, Mariatul F; Wahid, Radziah

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800 degrees C and physical activation at 150 degrees C (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800 degrees C showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800 degrees C. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of activated carbon) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes.

  7. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  8. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  9. Assessment of gastric emptying in normal subjects with sucralfate (Carafate) and Amphojel

    SciTech Connect

    Marano, A.R.; Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum-containing antacids (e.g Amphojel) and aluminum-containing compounds such as sucralfate (Carafate) have been shown in animal and human studies to delay gastric emptying, and are one proposed mechanism of action for healing of duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the authors designed a study to study the effects of Carafate and Amphojel on gastric emptying. Ten normal volunteers of mean age 27 years with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal diseases were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of 30gm of cooked chicken liver injected with lmCi of 99m-Tc-S-C, mixed with 7.5 oz. of beef stew, and eaten with 4 oz. of water labeled with 100..mu..Ci of 111-In-DTPA. Immediately after ingestion of the meal, the subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. Gastric emptying (GE) was expressed as percent emptied. On separate days the subject was given either lgm of Carafate (190mg Al/gm) or placebo in a double blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. On the third day, each subject was given 30cc of Amphojel (105mg Al/5cc) followed 30 minutes later by the test meal. GE at 2 hours for the solid meal was 60%, 69%, and 54% and 79%, 86% and 68% at 3 hours for placebo, Carafate, and Amphojel respectively. A small but not significant difference in gastric emptying between Amphojel and placebo was seen from 2 to 3 hours. For the liquid meal approximately 90% emptying was present at 1 hour for all three studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether these medications administered in the standard doses given here may affect gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients.

  10. Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Unexplained Nausea and Vomiting and Normal Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Colvin, Ryan; Yates, Katherine; Hasler, William L.; Abell, Thomas L.; Ünalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Farrugia, Gianrico; Koch, Kenneth L.; Parkman, Henry P.; Snape, William J.; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying is a poorly understood syndrome; we analyzed its characteristics. Methods We collected and analyzed data from 425 patients with chronic nausea and vomiting, enrolled at 6 centers by the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Registry. Results Among the patients, 319 (75%) had delayed emptying, defined by the results of a standardized, low-fat meal, and 106 had normal gastric emptying. Patients with or without delayed emptying did not differ in age, sex, or race, although those with normal gastric emptying were less likely to be diabetic. Symptom severity indices were similar between groups for nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach fullness, inability to complete a meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite, bloating, and visibly larger stomach. There were no differences in health care utilization, quality of life indices, depression, or trait anxiety scores. However, state anxiety scores were slightly higher among patients with delayed gastric emptying. Total gastroparesis cardinal symptom index scores were not correlated with gastric retention after 2 or 4 hours in either group. Patients with the syndrome were not adequately captured by the stand-alone criteria for the Rome III diagnoses of chronic idiopathic nausea and functional vomiting. With rare exceptions, the diagnosis remained stable after a 48-weeks follow-up period. Conclusions Patients with nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying represent a significant medical problem and are, for the most part, indistinguishable from those with gastroparesis. This syndrome is not categorized in the medical literature—it might be a separate clinical entity. PMID:21397732

  11. Anorexigenic effects of miglitol in concert with the alterations of gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Tajiri, Y; Yamada, K

    2012-04-01

    Although the α-glucosidase inhibitor miglitol (MG) has been reported to have anorexigenic effects, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of MG on appetite in relation to concomitant changes in postprandial gut hormone levels. This randomized open-label crossover study included 20 healthy volunteers. The effects of 50 mg MG on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin levels were assessed in conjunction with a simultaneous determination of appetite scores using visual analogue scales (VAS) over 3 h after the ingestion of a 592 kcal test cookie. Additionally, the gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using breath ¹³CO₂ appearance in 10 subjects. 12 subjects were administered 50 mg MG thrice a day for 1 week, and alterations of the gut hormone levels and the VAS scores for appetite were evaluated. MG pre-administration resulted in a significant enhancement of GLP-1 and PYY responses induced by the cookie ingestion. Following MG administration, ghrelin level declined at 1 h, with a persistent suppression during the postprandial phase in contrast to the restoration to the basal level without MG. Furthermore, MG pre-administration suppressed appetite and maintained satiety evaluated using a VAS rating with concomitant inhibition of GER after cookie ingestion. One-week administration of MG did not influence either gut hormone levels before a meal or VAS rating during a whole day. These observations suggest that MG exerts an anorexigenic effects with concomitant alterations of gut hormone secretions and gastric emptying after meal ingestion. PMID:22351480

  12. Subtotal nephrectomy inhibits the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    da Graça, José Ronaldo Vasconcelos; Parente, Cynara Carvalho; Fiúza, Robério Ferreira; da Silva, Pedro Alberto Freitas; Mota, Bruno Teixeira; Salles, Luiz Derwal; Silva, Camila Meirelles de Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of blood volume (BV) is attained through a functional interaction between the cardiovascular and renal systems. The gastrointestinal tract also adjusts its permeability and motor behavior after acute BV imbalances. We evaluated the effect of progressive nephron loss on gut motility. Male Wistar rats were subjected or not (sham) to 5/6 partial nephrectomy (PNX) in two steps (0 and 7th day). After further 3, 7, or 14 days, PNX and sham operation (control) rats were instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), and blood collection for biochemical analysis. The next day, they were gavage fed with a liquid test meal (phenol red in glucose solution), and fractional dye recovery determined 10, 20, or 30 min later. The effect of nonhypotensive hypovolemia and the role of neuroautonomic pathways on PNX-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay were also evaluated. Compared with the sham-operated group, PNX rats exhibited higher (P < 0.05) MAP and CVP values as well as increased values of gastric dye recovery, phenomenon proportional to the BV values. Gastric retention was prevented by prior hypovolemia, bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, coelic ganglionectomy + splanchnicectomy, guanethidine, or atropine pretreatment. PNX also inhibited (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, PNX increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. In conclusion, the progressive loss of kidney function delayed the GE rate, which may contribute to gut dysmotility complaints associated with severe renal failure. PMID:25677547

  13. The TRPA1 Agonist, Methyl Syringate Suppresses Food Intake and Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression. PMID:23990963

  14. Method for the quantitation of gastric emptying time of gel test meals.

    PubMed

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1984-09-01

    Isotopic markers were developed to allow measurement of the gastric emptying times of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous gel meals. Meals containing the dietary fibers psyllium and guar gum presented as homogeneous, viscous gels while meals containing the synthetic polymer polycarbophil presented as discrete gel particle-water mixtures. Fiber meals were labeled differently than polycarbophil meals. Fiber meals were labeled with 51Cr-CM-Sephadex. The marker was uniformly suspended in meals containing at least 1% guar or 2% psyllium. In contrast, polycarbophil particles were labeled by hydrating the dried granules with saline in which Na2(51)CrO4 had been dissolved. Use of the markers to measure gastric emptying was demonstrated in dogs fitted with duodenal cannulas. Half of the fiber meals emptied from the stomach in about 40 min without significant dilution by secretions. In contrast, only 8% of the polycarbophil particles emptied by 90 min. Particle-specific labeling of polycarbophil was important because the meal effluent was diluted extensively by secretions. We conclude that 51Cr-CM-Sephadex and soluble Cr-51 may be used as meal markers for estimation of the gastric emptying times of certain homogeneous and nonhomogeneous gel-type meals, respectively.

  15. Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs. [Cobalt 60 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Jacobus, J.P.; Grissom, M.P.; Eng, R.R.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-03-01

    The relation between radiation-induced vomiting and gastric emptying is unclear and the treatment of this condition is not established. We explored, therefore, (a) the effect of cobalt 60 irradiation on gastric emptying of solids and liquids and (b) the possibility of preventing radiation-induced vomiting with the dopamine antagonist, domperidone. Twenty dogs were studied on two separate days, blindly and in random order, after i.v. injection of either a placebo or 0.06 mg/kg domperidone. On a third day, they received 8 Gy (800 rads) whole body irradiation with cobalt 60 gamma-rays after either placebo (n . 10) or domperidone (n . 10). Before each study, each dog was fed chicken liver tagged in vivo with 99mTc-sulfur colloid (solid marker), and water containing 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (liquid marker). Dogs were placed in a Pavlov stand for the subsequent 3 h and radionuclide imaging was performed at 10-min intervals. Irradiation produced vomiting in 9 of 10 dogs given placebo but only in 1 of 10 dogs pretreated with domperidone (p less than 0.01). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids was significantly suppressed by irradiation (p less than 0.01) after both placebo and domperidone. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced vomiting is accompanied by suppression of gastric emptying. Furthermore, domperidone prevents vomiting produced by ionizing radiation but does not alter the accompanying delay of gastric emptying.

  16. Gastric emptying of a light hospital breakfast. A study using real time ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Søreide, E; Hausken, T; Søreide, J A; Steen, P A

    1996-05-01

    While intake of clear fluids 2-3 h before surgery is considered safe as it does not influence gastric content, it is not known if the same applies to a light breakfast meal. We therefore studied gastric emptying of a light breakfast in healthy, female volunteers without evidence of gastrointestinal motility disorders. The test meal consisted of one slice of buttered toast with jam, one cup of coffee without milk or sugar and one glass of pulp-free orange juice taken together with a paracetamol mixture. Using gastric ultrasonography, the stomach was identified without problems in all subjects, and gastric emptying curves using changes in gastric antral area and serum-paracetamol were obtained. Emptying of the fluid phase started immediately after intake of the meal. All subjects had solid particles in the stomach 120 min after the meal, 3 patients were considered empty after 180 min, 6 after 210 min and all after 240 min. The gastric antral area returned to fasting value significantly faster than the disappearance of solid particles; median 150 min versus 210 min; P = 0.01. Our results show that in healthy subjects the stomach cannot be considered empty for solid particles the first 4 h after a light breakfast meal. To secure some safety limits, we suggest a 6-h mandatory preoperative fast after a light breakfast.

  17. Anethole restores delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation in rodents.

    PubMed

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2016-03-25

    Functional dyspepsia (FD), a functional gastrointestinal disorder, is characterized by persistent or recurrent postprandial upper abdominal discomfort and epigastric pain. The high prevalence of FD and associated healthcare costs suggests that treatment of this condition by methods other than prescribed medicines, such as natural products, could be beneficial. Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation play important roles in the development of FD. Anethole (1-methoxy-4-((E)-propenyl)-benzene), a major component of essential fennel oil, has been used as a flavoring, in alcoholic beverage production and in pharmaceutical formulations for many years. In this study, we examined the effects of anethole on delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation in rodents. Oral administration of anethole improved clonidine-induced delayed gastric emptying but did not affect normal gastric emptying in mice. Fennel oil and Anchu-san (a Japanese herbal medicine containing anethole) also restored delayed gastric emptying. Furthermore, oral administration of anethole stimulated gastric accommodation in rats. These results suggest that anethole could be beneficial for the treatment of FD. PMID:26915803

  18. [Gastric emptying in elderly patients with cerebral vascular diseases and the effect of trimebutine].

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Kobatake, K; Haruma, K; Yamanaka, H; Fujimura, J; Yoshihara, M; Sumii, K; Kajiyama, G

    1993-01-01

    The authors investigated gastric emptying in 18 elderly patients with cerebral vascular diseases using the acetaminophen method. Subjects were divided into 2 groups according to their levels of daily activity. One group consisted of 10 comatose patients (71-92 years old), the other consisted of 8 patients (74-95 years old) who could walk by themselves. We also investigated gastric emptying in 6 comatose patients (38-83 years old) because of other diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in 11 elder controls (75-95 years old). In elderly controls, the acetaminophen concentration at 45 minutes was 9.08 +/- 1.71 micrograms/ml. In comatose patients due to cerebral vascular diseases, the concentration was 3.89 +/- 1.60 micrograms/ml, which showed significantly delayed gastric emptying (p < 0.05). In patients with cerebral vascular diseases who could walk, the concentration was 6.51 +/- 0.99 micrograms/ml. In comatose patients by another diseases, the concentration was 5.82 +/- 1.13 micrograms/ml. We suspected that delayed gastric emptying is related to the comatose state. Trimebutine significantly (p < 0.01) improved gastric emptying in comatose patients with cerebral vascular diseases. PMID:8474227

  19. Effects of abomasal infusion of conjugated linoleic acids, Sterculia foetida oil, and fish oil on production performance and the extent of fatty acid Δ⁹-desaturation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, M P; Taga, H; Ma, L; Corl, B A; Gervais, R; Lebeuf, Y; Richard, F J; Chouinard, P Y

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Sterculia foetida oil (STO), and fish oil (FO) on milk yield and composition, milk FA profile, Δ(9)-desaturation activity, and mammary expression of 2 isoforms of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD-1 and SCD-5) in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (69 ± 13 d postpartum) were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. For the first 14 d of each period, cows received an abomasal infusion of (1) 406 g of a saturated fatty acid (SFA) supplement (112 g of 16:0 + 230 g of 18:0) used as a control (CTL), (2) 36 g of a CLA supplement (13.9 g of trans-10,cis-12 18:2) + 370 g of SFA, (3) 7 g of STO (3.1g of 19:1 cyclo) + 399 g of SFA, or (4) 406 g of FO (55.2 g of cis-5,-8,-11,-14,-17 20:5 + 59.3 g of cis-4,-7,-10,-13,-16,-19 22:6). Infusions were followed by a 14-d washout interval. Compared with CTL, STO decreased milk yield from 38.0 to 33.0 kg/d, and increased milk fat concentration from 3.79 to 4.45%. Milk fat concentration was also decreased by CLA (2.23%) and FO (3.34%). Milk fat yield was not affected by STO (1,475 g/d) compared with CTL (1,431 g/d), but was decreased by CLA (774 g/d) and FO (1,186 g/d). Desaturase indices for 10:0, 12:0, and 20:0 were decreased, whereas the extent of desaturation of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, and 18:0 was not affected by CLA treatment compared with CTL. Infusion of STO significantly decreased all calculated desaturase indices compared with CTL; the 14:0 index was reduced by 80.7%. Infusion of FO decreased the desaturase indices for 10:0, 14:0, 20:0, trans-11 18:1, and 18:0. The effect of FO on the 14:0 index indicates a decrease in apparent Δ(9)-desaturase activity of 30.2%. Compared with CTL, mammary mRNA abundance of SCD-1 was increased by STO (+30%) and decreased by CLA (-24%), whereas FO had no effect. No effect was observed on mRNA abundance of SCD-5. In conclusion, abomasal infusion of CLA, STO, and FO

  20. Gastric emptying of indigestible tablets in relation to composition and time of ingestion of meals studied by metal detector.

    PubMed

    Ewe, K; Press, A G; Bollen, S; Schuhn, I

    1991-02-01

    Enteric-coated tablets leave the stomach mainly during the interdigestive phase. Composition as well as time of ingestion of meals may influence their gastric emptying considerably. In 12 normal volunteers gastric emptying of a plastic tablet with a metal core was followed by a metal detector in relation to different compositions and various times of ingestion of meals. With an empty stomach and after ingestion of 250 ml water, the mean time for gastric emptying of the tablet was 38 +/- 11 min (mean +/- SEM) and 38 +/- 8 min. Two hundred fifty milliliters of milk (652 kJ) and a formula diet (1000 kJ) delayed gastric emptying time to 128 +/- 14 and 152 +/- 6 min, respectively (P less than 0.05). Breakfast (2200 kJ) further retarded gastric emptying compared with both liquids to 249 +/- 24 min (P less than 0.05). There was a close correlation between nutritive density and gastric emptying of the tablet (r = 0.92; P less than 0.001). Main meals also delayed gastric emptying of tablets when compared to empty stomach (P less than 0.05). A snack after breakfast further delayed gastric emptying from 201 +/- 10 to 278 +/- 19 min (P less than 0.05). The largest delay was observed following ingestion of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and additional snacks (509 +/- 220 min). We conclude that the delay of gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets by food is related to its nutritive density and eating habits. The gastric emptying of an enteric coated tablet that is ingested early in the morning may be delayed until late at night when several meals and snacks are ingested during the day, leading to unwanted alterations in bioavailability and to possible adverse effects.

  1. [The evaluation of the time of gastric radio-isotopic emptying in subjects with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Allegra, G; Costa, R; Scaffidi, L; Campisi, D; Cangialosi, G; Scaffidi, A

    1996-03-01

    Abnormal gastro-intestinal motility is a well-recognized complication of autonomic neuropathy in diabetics; delayed gastric emptying is frequently documented. Various pharmacologic agents have been used to treat this complication such as cisapride. We have evaluated the effects of cisapride on gastric emptying in nine diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy through radio-scintigraphic method. Gastric emptying diabetic patients was significantly prolonged compared control subjects (p < 0.01). In our study cisapride increased gastric emptying, but this did not reach statistical significance. We concluded that cisapride may be considered as a good alternative in cases where limited efficacy or side effects preclude the use of metoclopramide.

  2. Selective lack of tolerance to delayed gastric emptying after daily administration of WIN 55,212-2 in the rat.

    PubMed

    Abalo, R; Cabezos, P A; López-Miranda, V; Vera, G; González, C; Castillo, M; Fernández-Pujol, R; Martín, M I

    2009-09-01

    The use of cannabinoids to treat gastrointestinal (GI) motor disorders has considerable potential. However, it is not clear if tolerance to their actions develops peripherally, as it does centrally. The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on GI motility, as well as those in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. WIN was administered for 14 days, at either non-psychoactive or psychoactive doses. Cardiovascular parameters were measured in anaesthetized rats, whereas central effects and alterations in GI motor function were assessed in conscious animals using the cannabinoid tetrad and non-invasive radiographic methods, respectively. Tests were performed after first (acute effects) and last (chronic effects) administration of WIN, and 1 week after discontinuing treatment (residual effects). Food intake and body weight were also recorded throughout treatment. Blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged after acute or chronic administration of WIN. Central activity and GI motility were acutely depressed at psychoactive doses, whereas non-psychoactive doses only slightly reduced intestinal transit. Most effects were reduced after the last administration. However, delayed gastric emptying was not and could, at least partially, account for a concomitant reduction in food intake and body weight gain. The remaining effects of WIN administration in GI motility were blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM 251, which slightly accelerated motility when administered alone. No residual effects were found 1 week after discontinuing cannabinoid treatment. The different systems show differential sensitivity to cannabinoids and tolerance developed at different rates, with delayed gastric emptying being particularly resistant to attenuation upon chronic treatment. PMID:19413685

  3. Misleading inferences from discretization of empty spacetime: Snyder-noncommutativity case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Astuti, Valerio

    2015-06-01

    Alternative approaches to the study of the quantum gravity problem are handling the role of spacetime very differently. Some are focusing on the analysis of one or another novel formulation of "empty spacetime", postponing to later stages the introduction of particles and fields, while other approaches assume that spacetime should only be an emergent entity. We here argue that recent progress in the covariant formulation of quantum mechanics, suggests that empty spacetime is not physically meaningful. We illustrate our general thesis in the specific context of the noncommutative Snyder spacetime, which is also of some intrinsic interest, since hundreds of studies were devoted to its analysis. We show that empty Snyder spacetime, described in terms of a suitable kinematical Hilbert space, is discrete, but this is only a formal artifact: the discreteness leaves no trace on the observable properties of particles on the physical Hilbert space.

  4. Raman-based Oxygen and Nitrogen Sensor for Monitoring Empty Airplane Fuel Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a Raman-based method for detecting oxygen and nitrogen in empty fuel tanks. The need for such a method comes from the potential danger of allowing explosive oxygen-fuel mixtures to accumulate in empty airplane fuel tanks. An explosion resulting from such a mixture is believed to have caused the Flight TWA 800 disaster in 1996. Recently, (e.g., February 17,2004 press release) the FAA announced its intentions to make fuel tank inerting mandatory. One potential solution to this problem is to use an inert gas such as nitrogen to flood the empty fue1 tanks in order to reduce the concentration of oxygen.

  5. A relation between the chain length of fatty acids and the slowing of gastric emptying

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J. N.; Knox, M. T.

    1968-01-01

    1. Test meals of solutions and suspensions of potassium and sodium salts of a series of saturated fatty acids, from C2 to C18, were given to healthy subjects. 2. From the volume of these meals recovered after a fixed interval the relative effectiveness of the salts of the acids in slowing gastric emptying was assessed. 3. On a molar basis the salts of fatty acids from acetic up to decanoic were relatively ineffective in slowing gastric emptying. 4. The salts of fatty acids with 12-18 carbon atoms were much more effective than those with up to 10 carbon atoms. Myristate was the most effective of the salts. 5. Buffering the test meals with 33 mM sodium citrate increased the effectiveness of the salts in slowing gastric emptying. PMID:5639357

  6. Research requirements to reduce empty weight of helicopters by use of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffstedt, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Utilization of the new, lightweight, high-strength, aerospace structural-composite (filament/matrix) materials, when specifically designed into a new aircraft, promises reductions in structural empty weight of 12 percent at recurring costs competive with metals. A program of basic and applied research and demonstration is identified with the objective of advancing the state of the art to the point where civil helicopters are confidently designed, produced, certified, and marketed by 1985. A structural empty-weight reduction of 12 percent was shown to significantly reduce energy consumption in modern high-performance helicopters.

  7. Airway structure and alveolar emptying in the lungs of sea lions and dogs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denison, D. M.; Warrell, D. A.; West, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of various cycles of compression and decompression on the alveolar volumes of the excised lungs of sea lions and dogs. The results obtained include the finding that, in comparison to dog lungs, sea lion lungs empty more completely on mild compression and much more completely on severe compression. These findings support Scholander's (1940) hypothesis that some marine mammals are protected from decompression sickness by cartilaginous reinforcement of the small airways which permits alveolar emptying during a dive, so isolating compressed gas from pulmonary capillary blood.

  8. Changes in patients’ symptoms and gastric emptying after Helicobacter pylori treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Geng, Chang-Hui; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yan-Lin; Tong, Li-Quan; Gao, Ping; Gao, Yue-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes in clinical symptoms and gastric emptying and their association in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. METHODS: Seventy FD patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative group (28 patients), and H. pylori-positive group (42 patients). Patients in the H. pylori-positive group were further randomly divided into groups: H. pylori-treatment group (21 patients) and conventional treatment group (21 patients). Seventy two healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The proximal and distal stomach area was measured by ultrasound immediately after patients took the test meal, and at 20, 40, 60 and 90 min; then, gastric half-emptying time was calculated. The incidence of symptoms and gastric half-emptying time between the FD and control groups were compared. The H. pylori-negative and conventional treatment groups were given conventional treatment: domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The H. pylori-treatment group was given H. pylori eradication treatment + conventional treatment: lansoprazole 30 mg once daily, clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily and amoxicillin 1.0 g twice daily for 1 wk, then domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The incidence of symptoms and gastric emptying were compared between the FD and control groups. The relationship between dyspeptic symptoms and gastric half-emptying time in the FD and control groups were analyzed. Then total symptom scores before and after treatment and gastric half-emptying time were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: The incidence of abdominal pain, epigastric burning sensation, abdominal distension, nausea, belching, and early satiety symptoms in the FD group were significantly higher than in the control group (50.0% vs 20.8%; 37.1% vs 12.5%; 78.6% vs 44.4%; 45.7% vs 22.2%; 52.9% vs 15.3%; 57.1% vs 19.4%; all P < 0.05). The gastric half-emptying times of the proximal end, distal end, and the whole stomach in the FD group were slower than in the

  9. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Andrew M.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Bierau, Jörgen; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2) ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen) in an upright seated position (control) and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion). Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05), which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA) response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05). Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05). Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease. PMID:27089362

  10. Un-nesting DNA Russian dolls - the potential for constructing food webs using residual DNA in empty aphid mummies.

    PubMed

    Varennes, Y-D; Boyer, S; Wratten, S D

    2014-08-01

    Constructing food-web assemblages comprising parasitoid wasps involves large field collections of hosts followed by labour-intensive rearing of the insects to evaluate the rates of parasitism along with morphological or molecular identification of the parasitoid species. This article presents research towards a new molecular method for the practical and accurate construction of aphid-based food webs. We hypothesize that parasitoid and hyperparasitoid DNA left inside aphid mummies after emergence of these third and fourth trophic-level guilds can be simultaneously detected using universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for nonspecific DNA amplification in combination with single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Such a protocol theoretically allows food-web construction to be performed with no a priori knowledge of the species present. Moreover, the use of empty mummies circumvents rearing and minimizes labour and time in the field and laboratory. To test our hypothesis, we conducted DNA analyses on laboratory-produced parasitized aphids (mummies) from Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae (two important aphid pest species) after exposure to the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and the hyperparasitoid Asaphes vulgaris. DNA is amplifiable in empty aphid mummies for as long as 3 weeks after parasitoid emergence. However, the simultaneous identification of several species in a single mummy sample was rare, which hinders the accurate inference of trophic links. DNA quality and relative quantity, together with preferential amplification, are potential explanations of current results. Technical refinements are needed to ensure full reliability and detection of complex trophic links. The use of PCR-SSCP for food-web construction is novel, and its potential to include an important number of different species is yet to be fully explored.

  11. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  16. The Empty Nest Syndrome in Midlife Families: A Multimethod Exploration of Parental Gender Differences and Cultural Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Barbara A.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores parental health and well-being in relation to "empty nest" transitions. Focus is placed on the purported empty nest syndrome (i.e., self-reported experiences of depression and emotional distress when children leave home) and variations by parental gender and cultural background. This study is primarily based on in-depth…

  17. Socratic Knowledge, Christian Love, Confucian Virtue and Buddhist Emptiness: Guiding Principles for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    Socrates' view of knowledge, Jesus' conception of love, Confucius' idea of virtue and Buddha's path of emptiness provide valuable insights and guiding principles to help us achieve a well-rounded education. Each of these individuals caused a transformation in the individual and collective lives of their followers and their respective societies…

  18. Zur Besetzung der Leerstellen von Valenztragern (The Occupation of the Empty Spaces of Valence Bearers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeldt, Karl-Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Study of the linguistic means related to the occupation and non-occupation of Leerstellen'' (empty spaces) initiated by semantic and syntactic valence, as in the elliptical usage: Die Henne legt wieder. (Eier)'' (The hen is laying again. YeggsI). (RS)

  19. Effect of carob bean on gastric emptying time in Thai infants.

    PubMed

    Vivatvakin, Boosba; Buachum, Vacharee

    2003-01-01

    Thickening agents, such as carob bean gum or galactomannan, have been successfully administered for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. To study the effect of carob bean gum on gastric emptying and to symptoms of regurgitation, we recruited 20 full term Thai infants (mean age=13.4+/-7 week; mean body weight=4943+/-1272gm) without pathological gastroesophageal reflux. Initially, we determined half time gastric emptying (T 1/2 GET) by Tc99m radioscintigraphy method (mean T 1/2 GET=116.1+/-72 min) in infants consuming standard infant cow's milk formula for 2 weeks. Afterwards, carob bean infant formula was given for 2-4 weeks and weight gain, vomiting symptoms, night cough, colic, flatus, defaecation character and T 1/2 GET were assessed. There were statistically significant improvements in symptoms of vomiting (a smaller quantity P<0.001 and frequency of vomiting P<0.0001) and improvements in weight gain per week (W1=121.2+106.9gm, W2=221.3+136.1gm; P=0.005) when infants consumed the carob bean formula. However, there was no significance difference in gastric emptying half time (GET1=116.1+72, GET2=148.5+130.9; P=0.154). In conclusion, carob bean gum, as a thickening agent, improves the clinical symptoms of regurgitating infants, but does not significantly alter the gastric emptying physiology.

  20. Comparison of strategies for the production of FMDV empty capsids using the baculovirus vector system.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, V; Mignaqui, A C; Nuñez, M C; Reytor, E; Escribano, J M; Wigdorovitz, A

    2014-11-01

    Recombinant FMDV empty capsids have been produced in insect cells and larvae using the baculovirus expression system, although protein yield and efficiency of capsid assembly have been highly variable. In this work, two strategies were compared for the expression of FMDV A/Arg/01 empty capsids: infection with a dual-promoter baculovirus vector coding for the capsid precursor (P12A) and the protease 3C under the control of the polyhedrin and p10 promoters, respectively (BacP12A-3C), or a single-promoter vector coding the P12A3C cassette (BacP12A3C). Expression levels and assembly into empty capsids were analyzed in insect cells and larvae. We observed that the use of the single-promoter vector allowed higher levels of expression both in insect cells and larvae. Recombinant capsid proteins produced by both vectors were recognized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against conformational epitopes of FMDV A/Arg/01 and proved to self-assemble into empty capsids (75S) and pentamers (12S) when analyzed by sucrose gradient centrifugation.

  1. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... held any hazardous waste, except a waste that is a compressed gas or that is identified as an acute... gallons in size. (2) A container that has held a hazardous waste that is a compressed gas is empty when... another method that has been shown in the scientific literature, or by tests conducted by the...

  2. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... held any hazardous waste, except a waste that is a compressed gas or that is identified as an acute... gallons in size. (2) A container that has held a hazardous waste that is a compressed gas is empty when... another method that has been shown in the scientific literature, or by tests conducted by the...

  3. Effect of Empty Uterine Space on Placental Development, Farrowing Intervals, and Stillbirth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged farrowing intervals (FI) are associated with stillbirth and decrease as litter size increases, but the reason is unclear. We hypothesized that unoccupied uterine space associated with small litters could present a barrier to delivery of piglets and increase FI. Empty uterine space was crea...

  4. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... intended for injection in the engine. (b) The condition of the airplane at the time of determining...

  5. Comparing the Use of the Empty Number Line in England and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to meet the needs of children's learning in arithmetic has led to an increased emphasis on the teaching of mental calculation strategies in England. This has included the adoption of didactical tools such as the empty number line (ENL) that was developed as part of the realistic mathematics movement in the Netherlands. It has been claimed…

  6. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  7. 7. TYPICAL INTERIOR AND BOTTOM OF EMPTY 14.5FOOTDIAMETER RIVETED STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. TYPICAL INTERIOR AND BOTTOM OF EMPTY 14.5-FOOT-DIAMETER RIVETED STEEL SOAP KETTLE, WITH STEAM COILS; VIEW DOWN FROM KETTLE TOP, FIFTH FLOOR, EAST BAY, THIRD KETTLE FROM SOUTH - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-13, 48-50 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  8. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  9. Gastric emptying in children. IV. Studies on kwashiorkor and on marasmic kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Franco, V H; Collares, E F; Troncon, L E

    1986-01-01

    Gastric emptying of 20 ml/kg body weight of 5% glucose was assessed by the double-sample test meal in 22 malnourished hospitalized children divided into two groups according to the form of malnutrition presented: kwashiorkor (n = 11) or marasmic kwashiorkor (n = 11). Gastric emptying tests were carried out within 72 hours of admission and 30 days later when nutritional status was in net recovery. The control group consisted of seven healthy children who were submitted to a single test. The volumes remaining in the stomach of the children in the kwashiorkor group after the initial test did not differ significantly from those obtained after the second test, when recovery of nutritional status had started. In marasmic kwashiorkor children, intragastric liquid volumes 30 minutes after the test meal were significantly higher in newly-admitted children than in controls, but the differences disappeared after recovery had started. We conclude that kwashiorkor children have no detectable abnormalities of the gastric emptying of a liquid meal, whereas marasmic kwashiorkor malnourished children have delayed gastric emptying but the abnormality is reversible after recovery of nutritional status.

  10. Imparting small vorticity to a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batakis, Nikos A.

    1981-04-01

    We present and briefly discuss a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime. The field equations have been solved after being linearized with respect to a parameter which imparts vorticity to the model. The limit of zero vorticity is an already known solution.

  11. DNA degradation and genetic analysis of empty puparia: genetic identification limits in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Morena; Alessandrini, Federica; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Wells, Jeffrey D; Campobasso, Carlo P

    2010-02-25

    Puparial cases are common remnants of necrophagous flies in crime investigations. They usually represent the longest developmental time and, therefore, they can be very useful for the estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI). However, before any PMI estimate, it is crucial to identify the species of fly eclosed from each puparium associated with the corpse. Morphological characteristics of the puparium are often distinctive enough to permit a species identification. But, even an accurate morphological analysis of empty puparia cannot discriminate among different species of closely related flies. Furthermore, morphological identification may be impossible if the fly puparia are poorly preserved or in fragments. This study explores the applicability of biomolecular techniques on empty puparia and their fragments for identification purposes. A total of 63 empty puparia of necrophagous Diptera resulting from forensic casework were examined. Samples were divided into three groups according to size, type and time of eclosion in order to verify whether the physical characteristics and puparia weathering can influence the amount of DNA extraction. The results suggest that a reliable genetic identification of forensically important flies may also be performed from empty puparia and/or their fragments. However, DNA degradation can deeply compromise the genetic analysis since the older the fly puparia, the smaller are the amplified fragments.

  12. Study of gastrointestinal opiate receptors: the role of the mu receptor on gastric emptying: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.; Sullivan, S.

    1983-08-01

    Animal and in vitro experiments suggest that opiates exert their actions by interaction with possibly five different subtypes of opiate receptors, identified as mu, kappa, sigma, delta, and epsilon. As yet there is no conclusive evidence for their existence in man. Our experiments on morphine and the enkephalin analog DAMME have suggested at least two types of opiate receptors involved in gastric secretion. In this study we have used the very powerful and nonselective opiate agonist etorphine to stimulate as many of the different opiate receptors as possible. We have then attempted to block selectively the ..mu.. receptor by administering a small dose of naloxone. Etorphine delayed gastric emptying whereas naloxone alone had no effect. In combination, the inhibitory effect of etorphine on gastric emptying was incompletely prevented while the subjective effects of etorphoine were completely abolished. These results may indicate that ..mu.. receptors are important in the regulation of gastric emptying, but that other (non-..mu..) receptors are also involved. The radionuclide study of gastric emptying, as used here, is a potentially powerful tool in physiological research on the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Effect of the energy density of a solid-liquid meal on gastric emptying and satiety.

    PubMed

    Carbonnel, F; Lémann, M; Rambaud, J C; Mundler, O; Jian, R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of the energy density of a meal on gastric emptying and satiety was assessed in nine volunteers. They ingested, in randomized order, a diluted (2671 kJ/L, 950 mL) and a concentrated (7452 kJ/L, 350 mL) test meal of 2500 kJ each (80% as solids). Half-emptying times of solids and liquids were not significantly different for the diluted and concentrated meal (solids: 145 +/- 18 and 156 +/- 16 min, respectively; liquids: 76 +/- 10 and 84 +/- 10 min, respectively), and consequently, pyloric outputs of energy were identical. Neither the intensity and duration of satiety, nor the amount of energy ingested, ad libitum, 6 h after the test meal, were significantly affected by energy density of the food ingested. Both the intensity and duration of satiety correlated significantly with the gastric emptying time for solids (r = 0.60 and 0.67, respectively, P < 0.01). These results show that satiety depends on gastric emptying of energy and is not affected by the energy density of food intake. PMID:8074058

  14. Influence of regular exercise on gastric emptying in healthy men: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Kentaro; Mori, Hideki; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), including functional dyspepsia (FD), are common chronic disorders even in the younger population. Physical activity is advocated for patients with FGIDs, although the evidence is insufficient. We investigated the association between the intensity of regular exercise and gastric emptying to determine the effect of physical activity on dyspeptic symptoms. Thirty healthy individuals were selected and divided into three groups (low, moderate, and high) using the index of total exercise intensity in a week. Gastric emptying was evaluated by the 13C-acetate breath test. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, dyspeptic symptoms, stool forms, scores of anxiety and depression, and scores of sleep quality were also compared. Baseline scores of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality were not different among the three groups. Gastric emptying was significantly faster in low-intensity exercise group than the moderate-intensity exercise group. Although the presence of loose stool and alcohol consumption were also associated with the intensity of regular exercise, these variables were not confounders. In conclusion, the intensity of regular exercise was independently associated with gastric emptying in healthy individuals. These baseline data would be useful for consideration of an optimal exercise intervention for the treatment of FD.

  15. Theophylline and gastric emptying in very low birthweight neonates: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris, A; Kokori, P; Varchalama, L; Konstandinidi, K; Skouroliakou, M; Alexiou, N; Costalos, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Theophylline treatment causes side effects such as tachycardia, hyperglycaemia, abdominal distension, and vomiting. The latter two are probably the result of delayed gastric evacuation. Objective: To study the effect of theophylline on gastric emptying time in preterm infants. Patients: The subjects were 18 premature neonates with a mean (SD) birth weight of 1302 (240) g and a mean (SD) gestational age of 28.7 (1.9) weeks. Main outcome measures: In each case, gastric emptying was measured on two occasions: once when the newborns were being treated with theophylline and once when they were not. Half of the cases were randomised to receive theophylline before the initial measurement. The opposite was applied for the rest. Gastric emptying was assessed ultrasonically by measuring the change in antral cross sectional area (ACSA) at regular intervals over 120 minutes. Results: The mean (SD) ACSA half time in the newborns receiving theophylline was 52 (19) minutes compared with 37 (16) minutes in those not receiving theophylline. This difference is significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Treatment with theophylline seems to delay gastric emptying in very low birthweight neonates, and this must be taken into consideration when this drug is used to treat apnoea of prematurity. PMID:15210659

  16. Emptying the Nest: Launching Your Young Adult toward Success and Self-Reliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Brad E.

    2010-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world and challenging economy, young adults increasingly find themselves at a crossroads between financial and emotional dependence and autonomy. Drawing on Dr. Sachs' extensive clinical experience and his illuminating discussion of the latest psychological research, "Emptying the Nest" will support parents in their…

  17. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  18. The Empty Cup (Power Teaching in a Digital Age). Occasional Paper #9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    What might count as a world class, national public education system in 2020? That empty cup took the floor at the 2010 Future of Learning (FoL) Summer Institute at Harvard University. It traveled from Longfellow Hall's lecture room on Appian Way to several learning groups scattered around campus. Though not deliberately created to think about…

  19. The Empty Cup: "Teaching for Understanding" at 21st Century Edward Waters College. Occasional Paper #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    What happens in a final project that fosters teaching for understanding? That inquiry calls to mind the Taoist belief that emptiness makes a cup useful. In the context of this paper, the inquiry organizes a narrative about how teaching for understanding surfaced in a "Theories of Learning" course at Edward Waters College. At a deeper level, the…

  20. Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.F.; Dodds, W.J.; Pelc, L.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Hogan, W.J.; Teeter, B.C.

    1984-02-02

    The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with (/sup -99m/Tc)sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary peristaltic sequence, although esophageal pH did not rise until the first swallow 30 seconds later. Esophageal pH then returned to normal by a series of step increases, each associated with a swallow-induced peristaltic sequence. Saliva stimulation by an oral lozenge shortened the time required for acid clearance, whereas aspiration of saliva from the mouth abolished acid clearance. Saliva stimulation or aspiration did not affect the virtually complete emptying of acid volume by the initial peristaltic sequence. It was concluded that esophageal acid clearance normally occurs as a two-step process: (1) virtually all acid volume is emptied from the esophagus by one or two peristaltic sequences, leaving a minimal residual amount that sustains a low pH, and (2) residual acid is neutralized by swallowed saliva. 13 references, 3 figures.

  1. Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.F.; Dodds, W.J.; Pelc, L.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Hogan, W.J.; Teeter, B.C.

    1984-02-02

    The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary peristaltic sequence, although esophageal pH did not rise until the first swallow 30 seconds later. Esophageal pH then returned to normal by a series of step increases, each associated with a swallow-induced peristaltic sequence. Saliva stimulation by an oral lozenge shortened the time required for acid clearance, whereas aspiration of saliva from the mouth abolished acid clearance. Saliva stimulation or aspiration did not affect the virtually complete emptying of acid volume by the initial peristaltic sequence. It was concluded that esophageal acid clearance normally occurs as a two-step process: (1) Virtually all acid volume is emptied from the esophagus by one or two peristaltic sequences, leaving a minimal residual amount that sustains a low pH, and (2) residual acid is neutralized by swallowed saliva.

  2. Delayed gastric emptying of liquids and solids following Roux-en-Y biliary diversion.

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, M P; Vogel, S B; Falasca, C A; Woodward, E R

    1981-01-01

    Recent reports cite an increased incidence in delayed gastric emptying following Roux-en-Y biliary diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis. The effect of Roux-en-Y diversion on the gastric emptying of liquids and solids was evaluated following vagotomy and antrectomy and vagotomy and subtotal gastrectomy. Twenty dogs underwent placements of large Thomas cannula in the stomach. Four dogs with intact stomachs served a controls. Eight dogs each with vagotomy and antrectomy were subdivided into Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy (RYA) and a Billroth II (B-IIA) group. Eight dogs each with vagotomy and subtotal gastrectomy were subdivided into similar groups. Four dogs - Roux-en-Y (RSTG) and four dogs - Billroth II (B-IISTG). Gastric emptying of solid food, normal saline and 25% dextrose was evaluated. RYA dogs demonstrated a significant delay in gastric emptying of solids compared with corresponding B-IIA animals. RYA dogs had 76, 61 and 42% of solid food retained at three, five and eight hours while B-II animals retained 56, 41 and 20%, respectively. The results are highly significant at all time intervals (p less than 0.001 at five and eight hours). Control animals retained 34, 17 and 3% of solid food at three, five and eight hours. RSTG animals had 73, 52 and 28% retained solids at three, five and eight hours, while B-IISTG animals had 55, 42 and 13% retention, respectively (p less than 0.05 at eight hours). Normal saline was significantly delayed in both Roux-en-Y subgroups compared with B-II dogs (p less than 0.02 in V/A, p less than 0.05 in V/STG). There was a trend toward delayed emptying of 25% dextrose in the Roux-en-Y groups, but significance was achieved only in the RYA compared with B-IIA groups (p less than 0.02 at 30 minutes). Delayed gastric emptying following Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy is documented in the experimental animals which underwent vagotomy and appears greater in magnitude than that observed following vagotomy and B-II gastrectomy. These data

  3. Improved bladder emptying in urinary retention by electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Cheng, Chen-Li; Grill, Warren M.

    2008-06-01

    Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder completely, and may result from bladder hypocontractility, increases in outlet resistance or both. Chronic urinary retention can lead to several urological complications and is often refractory to pharmacologic, behavioral and surgical treatments. We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve could engage an augmenting reflex and thereby improve bladder emptying in an animal model of urinary retention. We measured the efficiency of bladder emptying with and without concomitant electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents in urethane-anesthetized rats. Voiding efficiency (VE = voided volume/initial volume) was reduced from 72 ± 7% to 29 ± 7% following unilateral transection of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve (UST) and from 70 ± 5% to 18 ± 4% following bilateral transection (BST). Unilateral electrical stimulation of the proximal transected sensory pudendal nerve during distention-evoked voiding contractions significantly improved VE. Low-intensity stimulation at frequencies of 1-50 Hz increased VE to 40-51% following UST and to 39-49% following BST, while high-intensity stimulation was ineffective at increasing VE. The increase in VE was mediated by increases in the duration of distention-evoked voiding bladder contractions, rather than increases in contraction amplitude. These results are consistent with an essential role for pudendal sensory feedback in efficient bladder emptying, and raise the possibility that electrical activation of pudendal nerve afferents may provide a new approach to restore efficient bladder emptying in persons with urinary retention.

  4. Change in gastric emptying eight weeks after endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients with early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Nakamura, Jun; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gastric emptying after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in gastric emptying from before ESD to 8 weeks after ESD. Methods: In total, 54 patients with early gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. A breath test with carbon 13 (13C) was conducted before ESD and at 1 and 8 weeks after ESD. The Tlag and T1/2 values were analyzed at each time point. The primary outcomes were the changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 and 8 weeks after ESD. The secondary outcomes were the factors associated with the changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values. Results: Gastric emptying was delayed at 1 and 8 weeks after ESD compared with before ESD (Tlag P = 0.002, P < 0.001; T1/2 P = 0.005, P = 0.001, respectively). The changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 week after ESD were greater for proximal stomach lesions than for distal stomach lesions (P = 0.028, P < 0.001). Proximal stomach lesions were identified as the significant factor that influenced changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 week after ESD in the multivariate analyses (Tlag P = 0.003, T1/2 P = 0.005). Conclusions: ESD induced delayed gastric emptying until 8 weeks after ESD. Proximal stomach lesions were also associated with decreased emptying 1 week after ESD. PMID:27227121

  5. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2014-12-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials.

  6. Effects of Levosulpiride in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia Accompanied by Delayed Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi-Wook; Chun, Hoon-Jae; Kim, Chang-Duck; Ryu, Ho-Sang; Choe, Jae-Gol; Hyun, Jin-Hai

    1998-01-01

    Objectives Levosulpiride is the levo-enantiomer of sulpiride, a well-known antiemetic, antidyspeptic and antipsychotic drug. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of levosulpiride on dyspeptic symptoms and gastric motor function in a group of patients with functional dyspepsia showing delayed gastric emptying. Method Forty two eligible patients were entered into a 3 week, double-blind randomized comparison of 25mg of levosulpiride or placebo t.i.d.. Symptom assessment and gastric scintigraphy following the intake of scrambled egg sandwich, were performed in each patient before and after treatment. Results The improvement of symptom score in levosulpiride group was higher than the placebo group (p<0.05). We assessed global efficacy, which was excellent in 1 (6%), good 11 (65%), fair 4 (24%), nil 1 (6%) of those receiving levosulpiride, and fair 9(60%), nil 5 (33%), poor 1 (6%) of those receiving placebo. Levosulpiride tended to be more effective than placebo in relieving the dyspeptic symptoms especially in the subgroups of dysmotility-like (p<0.05) and nonspecific (p<0.05) as compared to other subgroups (p=0.16). The reduction of gastric emptying time after levosulpiride treatment was more marked than Placebo group (p<0.05). We found a significant correlation between changes of symptom score and gastric emptying time (r=0.47, p=0.01. No serious adverse effects were reported after administration of either levosulpiride or placebo. Only two patients reported mild somnolence during levosulpiride administration. Conclusions Levosulpiride is effective and well tolerated in patients with functional dyspepsia accompanied by delayed gastric emptying. Its efficacy may be related to its action on the gastric motor function by improving the delayed gastric emptying. PMID:9538626

  7. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C; Kuhs, Werner F

    2014-12-11

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials. PMID:25503235

  8. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C; Kuhs, Werner F

    2014-12-11

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials.

  9. G1/ELE Functions in the Development of Rice Lemmas in Addition to Determining Identities of Empty Glumes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjia; Li, Haifeng; Su, Yali; Li, Wenqiang; Shi, Chunhai

    2016-01-01

    Rice empty glumes, also named sterile lemmas or rudimentary lemmas according to different interpretations, are distinct from lemmas in morphology and cellular pattern. Consistently, the molecular mechanism to control the development of lemmas is different from that of empty glumes. Rice LEAFY HULL STERILE1(OsLHS1) and DROOPING LEAF(DL) regulate the cellular pattern and the number of vascular bundles of lemmas respectively, while LONG STERILE LEMMA1 (G1)/ELONGATED EMPTY GLUME (ELE) and PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2)/OsMADS34 determine identities of empty glumes. Though some progress has been made, identities of empty glumes remain unclear, and genetic interactions between lemma genes and glume genes have been rarely elucidated. In this research, a new G1/ELE mutant g1–6 was identified and the phenotype was analyzed. Similar to previously reported mutant lines of G1/ELE, empty glumes of g1–6 plants transform into lemma-like organs. Furthermore, Phenotypes of single and double mutant plants suggest that, in addition to their previously described gene-specific functions, G1/ELE and OsLHS1 play redundant roles in controlling vascular bundle number, cell volume, and cell layer number of empty glumes and lemmas. Meanwhile, expression patterns of G1/ELE in osmads1-z flowers and OsLHS1 in g1–6 flowers indicate they do not regulate each other at the level of transcription. Finally, down-regulation of the empty glume gene OsMADS34/PAP2 and ectopic expression of the lemma gene DL, in the g1–6 plants provide further evidence that empty glumes are sterile lemmas. Generally, our findings provided valuable information for better understanding functions of G1 and OsLHS1 in flower development and identities of empty glumes. PMID:27462334

  10. G1/ELE Functions in the Development of Rice Lemmas in Addition to Determining Identities of Empty Glumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjia; Li, Haifeng; Su, Yali; Li, Wenqiang; Shi, Chunhai

    2016-01-01

    Rice empty glumes, also named sterile lemmas or rudimentary lemmas according to different interpretations, are distinct from lemmas in morphology and cellular pattern. Consistently, the molecular mechanism to control the development of lemmas is different from that of empty glumes. Rice LEAFY HULL STERILE1(OsLHS1) and DROOPING LEAF(DL) regulate the cellular pattern and the number of vascular bundles of lemmas respectively, while LONG STERILE LEMMA1 (G1)/ELONGATED EMPTY GLUME (ELE) and PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2)/OsMADS34 determine identities of empty glumes. Though some progress has been made, identities of empty glumes remain unclear, and genetic interactions between lemma genes and glume genes have been rarely elucidated. In this research, a new G1/ELE mutant g1-6 was identified and the phenotype was analyzed. Similar to previously reported mutant lines of G1/ELE, empty glumes of g1-6 plants transform into lemma-like organs. Furthermore, Phenotypes of single and double mutant plants suggest that, in addition to their previously described gene-specific functions, G1/ELE and OsLHS1 play redundant roles in controlling vascular bundle number, cell volume, and cell layer number of empty glumes and lemmas. Meanwhile, expression patterns of G1/ELE in osmads1-z flowers and OsLHS1 in g1-6 flowers indicate they do not regulate each other at the level of transcription. Finally, down-regulation of the empty glume gene OsMADS34/PAP2 and ectopic expression of the lemma gene DL, in the g1-6 plants provide further evidence that empty glumes are sterile lemmas. Generally, our findings provided valuable information for better understanding functions of G1 and OsLHS1 in flower development and identities of empty glumes. PMID:27462334

  11. Solid gastric emptying mediated by the serotonin (5-HT)3 receptor in mice is a simple marker to predict emesis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kentaro; Takagi, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and emesis are often observed as side effects with many medicines and may lead to poor treatment compliance. In the present study, we aimed to establish simple methods for predicting nausea and/or emesis in mice, which do not vomit, using drugs and chemicals known to evoke nausea and/or emesis. The gastrointestinal transit test, the liquid gastric emptying by phenol red solution (Phenol red method) and the solid gastric emptying by resin beads (Beads method) were used and the effects of antispasmogenics (atropine, 0.1-3 mg/kg i.p.; salmon calcitonin, 1-30 units/kg i.m.), nauseants (copper sulfate, 1-30 mg/kg p.o.; apomorphine, 0.01-0.3 mg/kg s.c.) and chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, 0.3-10 mg/kg i.v.; doxorubicin, 0.3-10 mg/kg i.v.) were evaluated. In addition, the effects of ondansetron, a serotonin (5-HT)(3) receptor antagonist, on the inhibition of solid gastric emptying induced by salmon calcitonin, copper sulfate, cisplatin and doxorubicin were also assessed. Only the solid gastric emptying method could detect changes of gastric emptying by all drugs and chemicals. We also found that the inhibition of solid gastric emptying induced by cisplatin and doxorubicin was dose-dependently antagonized by ondansetron. However, ondansetron failed to antagonize the salmon calcitonin-induced delay, but exerted only very weak effects with copper sulfate. Solid gastric emptying may be more suitable than gastrointestinal intestinal transit or liquid gastric emptying in mice to predict nausea and/or emesis. Our results also suggest that chemotherapeutic-induced delay of solid gastric emptying mediated via 5-HT(3) receptors in mice could also be useful for prediction purposes. PMID:21297338

  12. Mouse gallbladder emptying by egg yolk: a possible new rapid method for antispasmodic activity evaluation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, B; Toson, G

    1982-05-01

    Gallbladder emptying was induced in female albino mice by single oral administrations of 30% lyophylized egg yolk suspension. Mice were killed 15 min later, their gallbladders removed and then weighed. Gallbladder emptying was assessed by comparing weights from control and egg yolk administered mice. The ability of the antispasmodic drugs atropine, N-butylscopolamine, papaverine, trimebutine, dicyclomine, and rociverine to delay gallbladder emptying was determined by administering them either intraperitoneally or orally 7.5 or 15 min prior to egg yolk. PMID:7109644

  13. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  14. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  15. Engineering empty space between Si nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liu, Nian; Carney, Thomas J; Yang, Yuan; Cui, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Silicon is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries yet attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to pulverization of the silicon and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation during the electrochemical cycles. Despite significant advances in nanostructured Si electrodes, challenges including short cycle life and scalability hinder its widespread implementation. To address these challenges, we engineered an empty space between Si nanoparticles by encapsulating them in hollow carbon tubes. The synthesis process used low-cost Si nanoparticles and electrospinning methods, both of which can be easily scaled. The empty space around the Si nanoparticles allowed the electrode to successfully overcome these problems Our anode demonstrated a high gravimetric capacity (~1000 mAh/g based on the total mass) and long cycle life (200 cycles with 90% capacity retention).

  16. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  17. Oral pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen to evaluate gastric emptying profiles of Shiba goats.

    PubMed

    Elbadawy, Mohamed; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Aboubakr, Mohamed; Khalil, Waleed Fathy; Shimoda, Minoru

    2015-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was investigated following oral dosing to Shiba goats in order to evaluate the properties of gastric emptying. Acetaminophen was intravenously and orally administered at 30 mg/kg body weight to goats using a crossover design with a 3-week washout period. The stability of acetaminophen in rumen juice was also assessed. Acetaminophen concentrations were measured by HPLC. Since acetaminophen was stable in rumen juice for 24 hr, the extremely low bioavailability (16%) was attributed to its hepatic extensive first-pass effect. The mean absorption time and absorption half-life were unexpectedly short (4.93 and 3.35 hr, respectively), indicating its marked absorption from the forestomach, which may have been due to its smaller molecular weight. Therefore, acetaminophen was considered to be unsuitable for evaluating gastric emptying in Shiba goats.

  18. Preparation of activated carbon by microwave heating of langsat (Lansium domesticum) empty fruit bunch waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.

  19. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P < 0.001), whereas higher casein, whey, and lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P < 0.006). Curding did not affect emptying. Influences of fortification, pasteurization, and differing breast milk compositions are small and unlikely implicated in preterm feeding intolerance.

  20. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P < 0.001), whereas higher casein, whey, and lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P < 0.006). Curding did not affect emptying. Influences of fortification, pasteurization, and differing breast milk compositions are small and unlikely implicated in preterm feeding intolerance. PMID:25729886

  1. Decreased gallbladder emptying in dogs with biliary sludge or gallbladder mucocele.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Taro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Biliary sludge in dogs is dismissed commonly as an incidental finding. On the other hand, gallbladder mucocele is reported increasingly in dogs and can lead to biliary obstruction or gallbladder rupture. Cholestasis is suspected to play a role in development of sludge and mucoceles, though there are no data in dogs to support this. We investigated gallbladder emptying, a key factor in biliary flow, in dogs with mobile sludge, immobile sludge, or gallbladder mucocele and in healthy controls. Gallbladder ejection fraction estimated by ultrasonography was used as the index of gallbladder emptying. The ejection fraction at 60 min after eating was significantly decreased in all three abnormal groups. Moreover, all dogs with sludge or a mucocele had gallbladder distension. These changes were the greatest in the mucocele group. Thus, biliary stasis occurs not only in dogs with gallbladder mucocele but also in dogs with biliary sludge. Cholestasis may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of these diseases in dogs.

  2. Method of utilizing empty aluminum beverage cans to provide an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Tune, H.S.

    1982-03-30

    A method of utilizing empty aluminum cans to provide a source of electrical energy is disclosed. The method includes the steps of placing the cans in an electrolyte medium, preferably a salt water solution, and positioning a carbon depolarizer in the electrolyte to form an aluminum-air cell. A cup-shaped, inverted, carbon depolarizer and suitable mounting structure for positioning the depolarizer inside a beverage-type can is also disclosed.

  3. Pretreatment of empty fruit bunch from oil palm for fuel ethanol production and proposed biorefinery process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Yongcheng; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of some pretreatment processes to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) for ethanol production. The experimental results show that the bisulfite pretreatment was practical for EFB pretreatment. Moreover, the optimum pretreatment conditions of the bisulfite pretreatment (180 °C, 30 min, 8% NaHSO3, 1% H2SO4) were identified. In the experiments, a biorefinery process of EFB was proposed to produce ethanol, xylose products, and lignosulfonates.

  4. Extra-Pontine Myelinolysis in a Case of Pan-hypopituitarism Due to Empty Sella Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal Anand; Karnik, Niteen; Itolikar, Manish; Vekariya, Ketan

    2015-10-01

    Rapid correction of hyponatremia is known to cause central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). It may concurrently involve other areas of brain as well, referred as extra-pontine myelinolysis (EPM). Isolated EPM however is a very rare occurrence. We present a case of EPM where the hyponatremia was secondary to hypothyroidism due to empty sella syndrome. Chronic hyponatremia should always be corrected slowly to avoid such osmotic myelinolysis syndromes (OMS). PMID:27608705

  5. Effect of altered gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility on metformin absorption

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Punit H; Wen, Yandong; Norton, Jean; Greene, Douglas S; Barbhaiya, Rashmi H; Wilding, Ian R

    2000-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this in vivo human study was to assess the effect of altered gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility on the absorption of metformin in healthy subjects. Methods An open-label, three treatment, three period crossover study was conducted in 11 healthy volunteers. Each subject received 550 mg metformin hydrochloride in solution alone; 5 min after a 10 mg i.v. dose of metoclopramide; and 30 min after a 30 mg oral dose of propantheline. Metformin solution was radiolabeled by the addition of 99mTc-DTPA. The gastrointestinal transit of the solution was monitored by gamma scintigraphy and the pharmacokinetic data were correlated with the scintigraphic findings. Results Scintigraphic data indicated that pretreatment with metoclopramide decreased gastric emptying time and increased gastrointestinal motility while pretreatment with propantheline had the opposite effect. The systemic disposition of metformin was not altered by pretreatment with metoclopramide and propantheline, as judged by unchanged renal clearance and elimination half-life of metformin. Extent of metformin absorption was essentially unchanged after pretreatment with metoclopramide. However, AUC(0,∞) and % UR (percent dose excreted unchanged in urine) generally increased with increase in gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit times. GI overlay plots showed that the absorption phase of metformin plasma profile always coincided with gastric emptying and the beginning of decline of metformin plasma concentrations was usually associated with the colon arrival. Only in cases where the intestinal transit was drastically prolonged by propantheline pretreatment, was a decline in plasma levels observed prior to colon arrival. Conclusions Metformin is primarily absorbed from the small intestine. The extent of metformin absorption is improved when the gastrointestinal motility is slowed. These findings have significant implications in the design of a metformin modified release

  6. Mathematical analysis of recent analytical approximations to the collapse of an empty spherical bubble.

    PubMed

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M

    2013-02-28

    We analyze the Rayleigh equation for the collapse of an empty bubble and provide an explanation for some recent analytical approximations to the model. We derive the form of the singularity at the second boundary point and discuss the convergence of the approximants. We also give a rigorous proof of the asymptotic behavior of the coefficients of the power series that are the basis for the approximate expressions.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of delayed gastric emptying in hospitalised Type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kojecky, Vladimir; Bernatek, Jaromir; Horowitz, Michael; Zemek, Stanislav; Bakala, Jiri; Hep, Ales

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in older patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: One hundred and forty seven patients with Type 2 diabetes, of whom 140 had been hospitalised, mean age 62.3 ± 8.0 years, HbA1c 9.1% ± 1.9%, treated with either oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin were studied. GE of a solid meal (scintigraphy), autonomic nerve function, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, acute and chronic glycemic control were evaluated. Gastric emptying results were compared to a control range of hospitalised patients who did not have diabetes. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed (T50 > 85 min) in 17.7% patients. Mean gastric emptying was slower in females (T50 72.1 ± 72.1 min vs 56.9 ± 68.1 min, P = 0.02) and in those reporting nausea (112.3 ± 67.3 vs 62.7 ± 70.0 min, P < 0.01) and early satiety (114.0 ± 135.2 vs 61.1 ± 62.6 min, P = 0.02). There was no correlation between GE with age, body weight, duration of diabetes, neuropathy, current glycemia or the total score for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prolonged GE occurs in about 20% of hospitalised elderly patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to hospitalised patients who do not have diabetes. Female gender, nausea and early satiety are associated with higher probability of delayed GE. PMID:18330949

  8. Do rats time filled and empty intervals of equal duration differently?

    PubMed

    Macinnis, Mika L M

    2007-06-01

    The goal was to determine whether rats time filled and empty intervals of equal duration differently. Each of five rats was trained for 50 sessions on an instrumental appetitive head entry procedure in which food was available (primed) every 120 s. On "empty" cycles, 30s prior to the next food prime, a 0.5-s pulse of white noise was presented. On "filled" cycles, 30s prior to the next food prime, white noise came on and stayed on until food was delivered. The two types of cycles were presented with equal probability. The results showed that the rats timed both the food-to-food interval and the stimulus-to-food interval. A comparison of the response gradients on filled and empty cycles following stimulus presentation showed better temporal discrimination on filled cycles. The results were modeled using a Packet theory of timing, with a linear averaging rule to combine the temporal information provided by the stimulus and food. The model fits to the individual response gradients were evaluated with a Turing test.

  9. Effects of cholecystectomy on gastric emptying and myoelectrical activity in man.

    PubMed

    Riezzo, G; Chiloiro, M; Pezzolla, F; Lorusso, D

    1997-10-01

    To investigate the effects of cholecystectomy on gastric motor function, 13 patients with symptomatic gallstones were studied before and 8-12 months after surgery. Twelve healthy subjects entered the study as control group. The cutaneous electrogastrography and ultrasound examination of gastric emptying were simultaneously performed at pre- and post-prandial states. The dominant gastric frequency and its coefficient of variation were not affected by surgery. After cholecystectomy, an increase in normal 3 cpm wave percentage and a decrease in power ratio were found (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Gastric emptying recorded after cholecystectomy was faster than before surgery (306.9 +/- 15.9 min vs 336.9 +/- 11.8 min, respectively; P < 0.05). Such changes were associated with the relief of symptoms, and the comparison between patients and controls showed a normalization of the gastric electrical activity and gastric emptying after surgery. In conclusion, in symptomatic patients, gallstones are associated with motor dysfunctions, and cholecystectomy seems to induce a normalization of gastrointestinal motility.

  10. Effects of glucose and fructose solutions on food intake and gastric emptying in nonobese women.

    PubMed

    Guss, J L; Kissileff, H R; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1994-12-01

    The differential effects of fructose and glucose on food intake were studied by giving two concentrations (1 and 10%) of glucose and fructose solutions (500 ml) to one group of women 30 min, and to another 135 min, before a meal of macaroni and beef. The 1% solutions of each sugar were sweetened to match 10% fructose by selective additions of aspartame. Gastric emptying of the 10% solutions and water was measured for 90 min. Under the 30-min delay, subjects ate a mean of 75.8 g more (P < 0.05) after the 1% solutions than after water, and 52.2 g (P > 0.05) less after the 10% solutions than after water, but there were no differences in intake between types of sugar under either delay nor between concentrations at the 135-min delay. However, 10% fructose and 1% glucose sweetened to match it reduced intake significantly compared with water. Glucose (10%) emptied significantly slower (t1/2 = 93.61 min) than water (t1/2 = 29.77 min), while fructose (10%) was intermediate (t1/2 = 65.45 min). Therefore, gastric emptying differences did not account for these results. We conclude that sweetener-enhanced dilute sugar solutions may increase subsequent intake at 30 min, but dilute glucose solutions may have potential for substantial energy savings if consumed 135 min before a meal.

  11. Delayed gastric emptying and enteric nervous system dysfunction in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Greene, James G; Noorian, Ali Reza; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of GI dysmotility in PD include early satiety and weight loss from delayed gastric emptying and constipation from impaired colonic transit. Understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of these symptoms in PD patients has been hampered by the lack of investigation into GI symptoms and pathology in PD animal models. We report that the parkinsonian neurotoxin and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone causes delayed gastric emptying and enteric neuronal dysfunction when administered chronically to rats in the absence of major motor dysfunction or CNS pathology. When examined 22-28 days after initiation of rotenone infusion by osmotic minipump (3 mg/kg/day), 45% of rotenone-treated rats had a profound delay in gastric emptying. Electrophysiological recording of neurally-mediated muscle contraction in isolated colon from rotenone-treated animals confirmed an enteric inhibitory defect associated with rotenone treatment. Rotenone also induced a transient decrease in stool frequency that was associated with weight loss and decreased food and water intake. Pathologically, no alterations in enteric neuron numbers or morphology were apparent in rotenone-treated animals. These results suggest that enteric inhibitory neurons may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of mitochondrial inhibition by parkinsonian neurotoxins and provide evidence that parkinsonian gastrointestinal abnormalities can be modeled in rodents. PMID:19409896

  12. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants each played an important role in empty calorie intake among US children during 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2 to 18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast-food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar-sweetened beverages, grain desserts, and high-fat milk∗ from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and sugar-sweetened beverages, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast-food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. These findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast-food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to implementation of these changes, schools resembled fast-food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake.

  13. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2-18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), grain desserts, and high-fat milk from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and SSBs, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. In conclusion, these findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to their implementation, schools resembled fast food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. PMID:24200654

  14. Measuring of Gastric Emptying in Egyptian Pediatric Patients with Portal Hypertension by Using Real-time Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Mona E.; Osman, Mahmoud A.; Mahmoud, Rehab A.; Mohamed, Lamiaa K.; Seif-elnasr, Khaled I.; Eskander, Ayman E.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Among the various methods for evaluating gastric emptying, the real-time ultrasound is safe, does not require intubation, or rely on either radiologic or radionuclide technique. The aim of our work was to measure the gastric emptying in pediatric patients with portal hypertension by using the real-time ultrasound. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with portal hypertension with mean age 7 ± 2.8 years and 20 healthy children as a control group underwent gastric emptying study by using real-time ultrasound. The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured in the fasting state and then each subject was allowed to drink tap water then calculated by using formula area (π longitudinal × anteroposterior diameter/4). The intragastric volume was assumed to be directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the antrum. Results: The mean gastric emptying half-time volume was significantly delayed in portal hypertension patients (40 ± 6.8 min) compared with the control subjects (27.1 ± 3.6) min (P<0.05). Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction had significant delayed gastric emptying in comparison to patients with portal hypertension due to other etiologies (36.14 ± 4.9 vs 44.41 ± 6.04 min; P<0.01). Conclusion: Ultrasound is a noninvasive and a reliable method for measuring gastric emptying in pediatric patients. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in patients with portal hypertension. Etiology of portal hypertension may influence gastric emptying time in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:22249091

  15. Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's landing site, the Columbia Memorial Station, at Gusev Crater, Mars. This spectacular view may encapsulate Spirit's entire journey, from lander to its possible final destination toward the east hills. On its way, the rover will travel 250 meters (820 feet) northeast to a large crater approximately 200 meters (660 feet) across, the ridge of which can be seen to the left of this image. To the right are the east hills, about 3 kilometers (2 miles) away from the lander. The picture was taken on the 16th martian day, or sol, of the mission (Jan. 18/19, 2004). A portion of Spirit's solar panels appear in the foreground. Data from the panoramic camera's green, blue and infrared filters were combined to create this approximate true color image.

  16. A gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential is a better fit for gastric emptying data from mice

    PubMed Central

    Bajzer, Željko; Gibbons, Simon J.; Coleman, Heidi D.; Linden, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive breath tests for gastric emptying are important techniques for understanding the changes in gastric motility that occur in disease or in response to drugs. Mice are often used as an animal model; however, the gamma variate model currently used for data analysis does not always fit the data appropriately. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate mathematical models to better fit mouse gastric emptying data including when two peaks are present in the gastric emptying curve. We fitted 175 gastric emptying data sets with two standard models (gamma variate and power exponential), with a gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential and with a proposed two-component model. The appropriateness of the fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion. We found that extension of the gamma variate model to include a stretched exponential improves the fit, which allows for a better estimation of T1/2 and Tlag. When two distinct peaks in gastric emptying are present, a two-component model is required for the most appropriate fit. We conclude that use of a stretched exponential gamma variate model and when appropriate a two-component model will result in a better estimate of physiologically relevant parameters when analyzing mouse gastric emptying data. PMID:26045615

  17. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 2. Intestinal transit time, stomach emptying and digestibility in short-term feeding studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, P M; Nugteren, D H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of jojoba oil (JO) incorporation in the diet on stomach emptying and intestinal transit time, and the digestion and absorption of JO were investigated in short-term feeding studies in rats. The animals were fed purified diets containing 18% (w/w) fat, of which half consisted of a mixture of lard and sunflower seed oil (SF) supplemented with an equivalent amount of JO. The control animals were fed a mixture of lard and SF (18%). No treatment-related differences were observed in the rate of stomach emptying or the intestinal transit time. Comparative lipid analysis of lymph, intestinal content, intestinal mucosa and faeces indicated that most of the ingested JO was degraded and absorbed. Part of the JO was present as wax ester in the lymph. Hydrolysis of JO was much slower than that of triacylglycerols and continued in the alimentary tract beyond the small intestine due to bacterial processes. JO did not influence the absorption of the conventional fat.

  18. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on low temperature acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Robiah; Salleh, Shanti Faridah; Abdullah, Nurhafizah; Biak, Dyg Radiah Awg

    2010-12-01

    Various pre-treatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre prior to acid hydrolysis has been evaluated. The main objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonic pre-treatment could function as a pre-treatment method for the acid hydrolysis of OPEFB fibre at a low temperature and pressure. Hydrolysis at a low temperature was studied using 2% sulphuric acid; 1:25 solid liquid ratio and 100 degrees C operating temperature. A maximum xylose yield of 58% was achieved when the OPEFB fibre was ultrasonicated at 90% amplitude for 45min. In the absence of ultrasonic pre-treatment only 22% of xylose was obtained. However, no substantial increase of xylose formation was observed for acid hydrolysis at higher temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C on ultrasonicated OPEFB fibre. The samples were then analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to describe the morphological changes of the OPEFB fibre. The SEM observations show interesting morphological changes within the OPEFB fibre for different acid hydrolysis conditions. PMID:20719502

  19. Ash of palm empty fruit bunch as a natural catalyst for promoting the CO₂ gasification reactivity of biomass char.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-03-01

    Palm empty fruit bunch ash (EFB-ash) was used as a natural catalyst, rich in potassium to enhance the CO2 gasification reactivity of palm shell char (PS-char). Various EFB-ash loadings (ranging from 0 to 12.5wt.%) were implemented to improve the reactivity of PS-char during CO2 gasification studies using thermogravimetric analysis. The achieved results explored that the highest gasification reactivity was devoted to 10% EFB-ash loaded char. The SEM-EDS and XRD analyses further confirmed the successful loading of EFB-ash on PS-char which contributed to promoting the gasification reactivity of char. Random pore model was applied to determine the kinetic parameters in catalytic gasification of char at various temperatures of 800-900°C. The dependence of char reaction rate on gasification temperature resulted in a straight line in Arrhenius-type plot, from which the activation energy of 158.75kJ/mol was obtained for the catalytic char gasification.

  20. Effect of gas empty bed contact time on performances of various types of rotating drum biofilters for removal of VOCs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunping; Suidan, Makram T; Zhu, Xueqing; Kim, Byung J; Zeng, Guangming

    2008-08-01

    The effects of gas empty bed contact time (EBCT), biofilter configuration, and types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were evaluated to assess the performance of rotating drum biofilters (RDBs), especially at low EBCT values. Three types of pilot-scale RDBs, a single-layer RDB, a multi-layer RDB, and a hybrid RDB, were examined at various gas EBCTs but at a constant VOC loading rate. Diethyl ether, toluene, and hexane were used separately as model VOC. When EBCT increased from 5.0 to 60s at a constant VOC loading rate of 2.0kgCOD/(m(3)day), ether removal efficiency increased from 73.1% to 97.6%, from 81.6% to 99.9%, and from 84.0% to 99.9% for the single-layer RDB, the multi-layer RDB, and the hybrid RDB, respectively, and toluene removal efficiency increased from 76.4% to 99.9% and from 84.8% to 99.9% for the multi-layer RDB and the hybrid RDB, respectively. When hexane was used as the model VOC at a constant loading rate of 0.25kgCOD/(m(3)day), hexane removal efficiency increased from 31.1% to 57.0% and from 29.5% to 50.0% for the multi-layer RDB and hybrid RDB, respectively. The single-layer, multi-layer, and hybrid RDBs exhibited, respectively, the lowest, middle, and highest removal efficiencies, when operated under similar operational loading conditions. Hexane exhibited the lowest removal efficiency, while diethyl ether displayed the highest removal efficiency. The data collected at the various EBCT values correlated reasonably well with a saturation model. The sensitivity of removal efficiency to EBCT varied significantly with EBCT values, VOC properties, and biofilter configurations. Process selection and design for RDB processes should consider these factors. PMID:18684482

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) into bio-oil in different organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwono, Rakhman; Pusfitasari, Eka Dian; Ghozali, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    Thermochemical Liquefaction of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil in different organic solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene and hexane) were comparatively investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave at different temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C with a fixed solid/liquid rasio of 3 gram in 50 ml solvent, without catalysts and reaction time of 5 hours. The efficiency of above solvents in terms of conversion rate, soluble liquid and carbon products were investigated in the experiments. Increasing the reaction temperature increased the conversion rate in all organic solvents and water, but gaseous products also increased using a reaction temperature of 400 oC. The water solvent gave higher conversion rate of 49.14%, while toluene, acetone, methanol, hexane and ethanol gave conversion of 35.76%, 26.5%, 25.98%, 24.26 %, and 22.24%, respectively. The bio-oil produced in order of the largest amount were using methanol, water, ethanol, toluene, acetone, and hexane solvents. The chemical properties of bio-oil products were significantly affected by the type of liquefaction solvent. The composition of bio-oil consisted of mostly of a mixture of organic acids, ketones, and esters. The methanol and ethanol solvents resulted in mostly esters, while toluene and hexane resulted in mostly organic acids. Acetone solvent resulted in the same amount of organic acid and esters. In water as a solvent resulted in 2-pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl. The bio-oil consisted of a range of carbon C6 - C20 fragments.

  2. Normal Solid Gastric Emptying Values Measured by Scintigraphy Using Asian-style Meal:A Multicenter Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Vasavid, Pataramon; Chaiwatanarat, Tawatchai; Pusuwan, Pawana; Sritara, Chanika; Roysri, Krisana; Namwongprom, Sirianong; Kuanrakcharoen, Pichit; Premprabha, Teerapon; Chunlertrith, Kitti; Thongsawat, Satawat; Sirinthornpunya, Siam; Ovartlarnporn, Bancha; Kachintorn, Udom; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Chakkaphak, Suriya; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To report gastric emptying scintigraphy, normal values should be established for a specific protocol. The aim of this study was to provide normal gastric emptying values and determine factors affecting gastric emptying using Asian rice-based meal in healthy volunteers. Methods One hundred and ninety-two healthy volunteers were included at 7 tertiary care centers across Thailand. Gastric emptying scintigraphy was acquired in 45 degree left anterior oblique view immediately after ingestion of a 267 kcal steamed-rice with technetium-99m labeled-microwaved egg meal with 100 mL water for up to 4 hours. Results One hundred and eighty-nine volunteers (99 females, age 43 ± 14 years) completed the study. The medians (5–95th percentiles) of lag time, gastric emptying half time (GE T1/2) and percent gastric retentions at 2 and 4 hours for all volunteers were 18.6 (0.5–39.1) minutes, 68.7 (45.1–107.8) minutes, 16.3% (2.7–49.8%) and 1.1% (0.2–8.8%), respectively. Female volunteers had significantly slower gastric emptying compared to male (GE T1/2, 74 [48–115] minutes vs. 63 (41–96) minutes; P < 0.05). Female volunteers who were in luteal phase of menstrual cycle had significantly slower gastric emptying compared to those in follicular phase or menopausal status (GE T1/2, 85 [66–102] mintes vs. 69 [50–120] minutes or 72 [47–109] minutes, P < 0.05). All of smoking volunteers were male. Smoker male volunteers had significantly faster gastric emptying compared to non-smoker males (GE T1/2, 56 [44–80] minutes vs. 67 [44–100] minutes, P < 0.05). Age, body mass index and alcohol consumption habits did not affect gastric emptying values. Conclusions A steamed-rice with microwaved egg meal was well tolerated by healthy volunteers. Gender, menstrual status and smoking status were found to affect solid gastric emptying. PMID:24948129

  3. Effect of trimebutine maleate on emptying of stomach and gallbladder and release of gut peptide following a solid meal in man.

    PubMed

    Okano, H; Saeki, S; Inui, A; Kawai, Y; Ohno, S; Morimoto, S; Ohmoto, A; Nakashima, T; Miyamoto, M; Okita, M

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the effect of orally administered trimebutine maleate on gastric and gallbladder emptying and on the release of gut peptide, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and gastrin in humans for 120 min after ingestion of a solid meal. Gastric emptying was measured by a radionuclide technique. Gallbladder emptying was estimated by real-time ultrasonography. The oral administration of 200 mg of trimebutine maleate significantly shortened the lag time in starting gastric emptying (P < 0.05). Considering gallbladder emptying, trimebutine significantly inhibited the fasting emptying induced by neural reflex. Postprandially, there was a tendency toward an accelerated gallbladder emptying in the early phase. Neither the maximal percentage of gallbladder emptying nor the time of peak gallbladder emptying were affected. Trimebutine significantly blunted the post-prandial PP response in the cephalic and gastric phases, reflecting a vagal-cholinergic activity (P < 0.05). The PP response in the intestinal phase was also blunted. Gastrin release was significantly augmented only during the period of fasting after drug administration (P < 0.05). The major effect of trimebutine maleate appears to be a shortening of the lag time at the start of gastric emptying probably via its anticholinergic activity. PMID:8482179

  4. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Ryan, T.; Broderick, W.; Way, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestine varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed.

  5. Wine Glass Sign and Empty Delta Sign: A Rare Imaging Presentation of Postpartum Encephalopathy in Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Suprasanna, K.; Dudekula, Anees; Hegde, Madhav; Kory, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Rapid correction of hyponatremia is a well-known cause of central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. But uncommonly seen and rarely reported in Hypernatraemia. We report a rare case presenting as postpartum psychosis, wherein imaging revealed myelinolysis of corticospinal tracts in wine glass distribution and empty delta sign due to cortical venous thrombosis. At follow-up 3 months later, revealed significant neurological improvement. Concurrance occurrence of this dual pathology is not been described, which in our case was due to high serum sodium levels at presentation and dehydration. PMID:27504377

  6. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  7. Psychosis in Secondary Empty Sella Syndrome following a Russell's Viper Bite

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, Badr; Punnoose, Varghese P.; Das, Soumitra; Kartha, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can present with psychiatric symptoms. We report a unique case of psychosis in clear consciousness in a case of hypopituitarism due to the secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite which was untreated and presented with psychotic symptoms for past 13 years following the snake bite. After the diagnosis of psychosis due to hypopituitarism was made, the patient was treated with levothyroxine and prednisolone supplements and his psychotic symptoms subsided without any psychotropic drugs. Vasculotoxic snake bites can cause hypopituitarism and can present with psychosis. Further research will be needed into the prevalence of this phenomenon. PMID:27335524

  8. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  9. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  10. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawken, A. J.; Michelett, D.; Granett, B.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.

    2016-10-01

    Using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres we identified 245 voids in the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We show how by modelling the anisotropic void-galaxy cross correlation function we can probe the growth rate of structure.

  11. The Willingness-to-Pay for General Practitioners in Contractual Service and Influencing Factors among Empty Nesters in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Xiang-Long; Yang, Zhan; Tan, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, a pilot health policy of contractual service relations between general practitioners and patients was implemented in China. Due to the decline in body and cognitive function, as well as the lack of family care and narrow social support networks, the demand of health services among the elderly is much higher than that among the general population. This study aims to probe into the empty nesters’ willingness-to-pay for general practitioners using a contractual service policy, investigating empty nesters’ payment levels for the service, and analyze the main factors affecting the willingness of empty-nesters’ general practitioners using contractual service supply cost. Methods: This cross-sectional study adopted a multistage stratified sampling method to survey 865, city empty nesters (six communities in three districts of one city) aged 60–85 years. A condition value method was used to infer the distribution of the willingness-to-pay; Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of willingness-to-pay. Results: More than seventy percent (76.6%) of the empty nesters in this city were willing to pay general practitioners using contract service in Chongqing. The level of willingness-to-pay for the surveyed empty nesters was 34.1 yuan per year. The median value was 22.1 yuan per year, which was below the Chongqing urban and rural cooperative medical insurance individual funding level (60 yuan per year) in 2013. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model analysis showed that the higher the education level was, the worse the self-reported health status would be, accompanied by higher family per capita income, higher satisfaction of community health service, and higher willingness-to-pay empty nesters using a contract service. Women had a higher willingness-to-pay than men. Conclusions: The willingness-to-pay for general practitioners by contractual service is high among city empty nesters in

  12. [The effect of food intake on the gastric emptying of gastric juice-resistant tablets and capsules].

    PubMed

    Ewe, K; Press, A G; Oestreicher, M

    1992-02-21

    To test the effect of food intake on gastric emptying of gastric juice-resistant drugs, emptying time of a 11 x 6 mm tablet and a 20 x 7 mm capsule was measured by means of a metal detector in 10 healthy persons (5 men and 5 women; mean age 25 [18-30] years) after fasting and after eating three main and three in-between meals. After fasting the tablets left the stomach after 78 +/- 18 min, the capsules after 60 +/- 16 min, while meal intake delayed emptying by a factor of 10 to 12 +/- 1.3 hours and 10 +/- 1.8 hours, respectively. The slightly shorter emptying time of capsules was statistically not significant. The results indicate that gastric juice-resistant tablets taken during day-time may, if several meals are eaten, accumulate in the stomach and then be emptied together at night. It is recommended that such drugs be taken in the fasting state in the morning and between meals, while avoiding in-between meals.

  13. A hybrid transducer to evaluate stomach emptying by ultrasound and susceptometric measurements: an in vivo feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Alexandre C; Sampaio, Diego R T; Pavan, Theo Z; Baffa, Oswaldo; Carneiro, Antonio A O

    2015-07-01

    Gastric emptying reflects a diversity of important physiological functions. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) is an inexpensive, radiation-free, and minimally invasive method to evaluate gastric emptying, but its response depends on the spatial distribution of the magnetized material and does not provide precise anatomical information. The hybrid transducer, which combines ACB and an ultrasound probe, is an alternative to improve susceptometry measurements, namely the spatial localization of the magnetized source. In this study, initial stomach emptying, in rats, was monitored with the aid of the hybrid transducer. Yogurt mixed with ferrite particles was injected into the rat's stomach. The hybrid transducer was placed on the rat's abdomen during experiments, and the susceptometry signal and magnetomotive ultrasound (MMUS) images were saved and postprocessed. MMUS highlighted the movement of magnetic particles due to magnetic force from ACB excitation coils, and showed the rat's stomach location. In this feasibility study, we monitored the stomach emptying of 4 rats for 20 min. The mean relative ACB signal decayed by 4.6 ± 0.1%, and the mean relative area of MMUS images decreased by 4.5 ± 0.2%, after 20 min postingestion of the magnetic meal due to stomach emptying. In a second experiment, 3-D MMUS images from axial sequences were obtained by spatially translating the hybrid transducer, providing details of the stomach wall, which may enable minimally invasive detection of abnormalities. In conclusion, the MMUS image increased ACB spatial resolution and furnished additional anatomical information. PMID:26168175

  14. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Moore, J.G.; Datz, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. The stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled pureed meat (liver pate) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice have been compared. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver pate were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. In vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver pate. The pate labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its prepartion was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver pate. Labeled liver pate is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying.

  15. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver paté as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Christian, P E; Moore, J G; Datz, F L

    1984-03-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. We have compared the stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled puréed meat (liver paté) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver paté were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. Our in vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver paté. The paté labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its preparation was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver paté. Labeled liver paté is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying.

  16. Bio-composite Nonwoven Media Based on Chitosan and Empty Fruit Bunches for Wastewater Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadikin, Aziatul Niza; Nawawi, Mohd Ghazali Mohd; Othman, Norasikin

    2011-01-01

    Fibrous filter media in the form of non-woven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Lignocellulosic such as empty fruit bunches have potential to be used as a low cost filter media as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly. Laboratory filtration tests were performed to investigate the potential application of empty fruit bunches that enriched with chitosan as a fiber filter media to remove suspended solids, oil and grease, and organics in terms of chemical oxygen demand from palm oil mill effluent. The present paper studies the effect of chitosan concentration on the filter media performance. Bench-scaled experiment results indicated that pre-treatment using the fiber filtration system removed up to 67.3% of total suspended solid, 65.1% of oil and grease and 46.1% of chemical oxygen demand. The results show that the lignocellulosic fiber filter could be a potential technology for primary wastewater treatment.

  17. Physicochemical profile of microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches of oil palm trees.

    PubMed

    Lim, Li Yee; Bong, Cassendra Phun Chien; Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Chew Tin

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) inoculated with effective microorganisms (EM∙1™). The duration of microbial-assisted composting was shorter (∼7 days) than control samples (2 months) in a laboratory scale (2 kg) experiment. The temperature profile of EFB compost fluctuated between 26 and 52 °C without the presence of consistent thermophilic phase. The pH of compost changed from weak acidic (pH ∼5) to mild alkaline (pH ∼8) because of the formation of nitrogenous ions such as ammonium (NH4 (+)), nitrite (NO2 (-)), and nitrate (NO3 (-)) from organic substances during mineralization. The pH of the microbial-treated compost was less than 8.5 which is important to prevent the loss of nitrogen as ammonia gas in a strong alkaline condition. Similarly, carbon mineralization could be determined by measuring CO2 emission. The microbial-treated compost could maintain longer period (∼13 days) of high CO2 emission resulted from high microbial activity and reached the threshold value (120 mg CO2-C kg(-1) day(-1)) for compost maturity earlier (7 days). Microbial-treated compost slightly improved the content of minerals such as Mg, K, Ca, and B, as well as key metabolite, 5-aminolevulinic acid for plant growth at the maturity stage of compost. Graphical Abstract Microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches.

  18. Gastric emptying of solids measured by means of magnetised iron oxide powder.

    PubMed

    Forsman, M

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a radiation-free method to measure gastric emptying. Such a method would be useful e.g. for patients who need repeated measurements and in pregnancy. Ferrimagnetic particles (gamma-Fe2O3), ingested within a solid test meal (pancakes), were magnetised by an applied magnetic field. After magnetisation, the remanent magnetic field was measured with fluxgate magnetometers outside the stomach (anterior and posterior). The intragastric contents was estimated from the strength of the remanent field. The procedure was repeated 18 times over a period of up to 2 h postprandially. The test meal was chosen to correspond to a radiolabelled test meal that had previously been used in a scintigraphic study with (other) healthy persons. In vivo measurements were carried out on 16 healthy male volunteers. The estimated retained magnetic tracer in the stomach after the 2 h measurement time was 31 +/- 12% (mean +/- SD) and the lag phase time was 31 +/- 11 min. The corresponding scintigraphic curve (from the previous study) from 16 males showed 40 +/- 14% retained isotope after 2 h. The early part of the mean emptying curve decreased slightly faster than the corresponding scintigraphic one, but the similarity of the two seems promising enough for further development of the present method. PMID:9614740

  19. Effects of calcium channel blockers on gastric emptying and acid secretion of the rat in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Brage, R.; Cortijo, J.; Esplugues, J.; Esplugues, J. V.; Martí-Bonmatí, E.; Rodriguez, C.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of three calcium channel blockers (verapamil, diltiazem and cinnarizine) on gastric emptying and secretion in the rat. Pretreatment with the calcium blockers delayed gastric emptying of phenol red in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil was the most effective of the agents tested. Verapamil and diltiazem inhibited gastric acid secretion in the pylorus-ligated rat without affecting pepsin output. Cinnarizine was ineffective in this model. When the perfused lumen of the anaesthetized rat was used, verapamil was found to inhibit responses to carbachol or histamine more than those to pentagastrin. Further, we found a greater sensitivity to verapamil for basal compared with vagal-stimulated (2-deoxy-D-glucose) acid secretion. Neither diltiazem nor cinnarizine modified gastric acid secretion in this experimental model. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of extracellular calcium in gastric motility and secretion, and the existence of a regional and functional selectivity for calcium blockers is proposed. PMID:3814903

  20. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying but is without effect on acid secretion and gastric endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Dornonville de la Cour, Charlotta; Lindström, Erik; Norlén, Per; Håkanson, Rolf

    2004-08-15

    Ghrelin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, is produced by endocrine cells in the stomach, the so-called A-like cells. Ghrelin binds to the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor and releases GH. It is claimed to be orexigenic and to control gastric acid secretion and gastric motility. In this study, we examined the effects of ghrelin, des-Gln14-ghrelin, des-octanoyl ghrelin, ghrelin-18, -10 and -5 (and motilin) on gastric emptying in mice and on gastric acid secretion in chronic fistula rats and pylorus-ligated rats. We also examined whether ghrelin affected the activity of the predominant gastric endocrine cell populations, G cells, ECL cells and D cells. Ghrelin and des-Gln14-ghrelin stimulated gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner while des-octanoyl ghrelin and motilin were without effect. The C-terminally truncated ghrelin fragments were effective but much less potent than ghrelin itself. Ghrelin, des-Gln14-ghrelin and des-octanoyl ghrelin neither stimulated nor inhibited gastric acid secretion, and ghrelin, finally, did not affect secretion from either G cells, ECL cells or D cells.

  1. Experimental evidence for empty cage methane clathrate hydrates grown using surfactants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, Jeffrey; Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Taborek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Clathrate hydrates are non-stochiometric ice-like crystalline compounds consisting of host water molecules forming a cage-like structure around guest molecules. The guest molecule is necessary for the stability of the hydrate. Surfactants have been shown to greatly enhance the kinetics of hydrate growth, which is important for many applications. We have built custom cells that allow in situ Raman and optical imaging of the growth of methane clathrate hydrates from liquid water. In our studies, above 0C, we observe the formation of solid that precedes the absorption of methane gas required to form clathrate hydrates. Our research shows that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) causes a fundamental change in the growth mechanism of methane hydrates, creating a temporary empty cage clathrate structure. The existence of this transitional state is confirmed by in situ Raman measurements, in situ NMR. We have simultaneously monitored the gas uptake and the NMR signal of the growing hydrate in a high pressure NMR cell. The empty cage solid structure appears to be unique to surfactant assisted hydrate growth, and begins to disappear for low SDS concentrations (<25ppm). Supported by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  2. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.

  3. Bio-composite Nonwoven Media Based on Chitosan and Empty Fruit Bunches for Wastewater Application

    SciTech Connect

    Sadikin, Aziatul Niza; Nawawi, Mohd Ghazali Mohd; Othman, Norasikin

    2011-01-17

    Fibrous filter media in the form of non-woven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Lignocellulosic such as empty fruit bunches have potential to be used as a low cost filter media as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly. Laboratory filtration tests were performed to investigate the potential application of empty fruit bunches that enriched with chitosan as a fiber filter media to remove suspended solids, oil and grease, and organics in terms of chemical oxygen demand from palm oil mill effluent. The present paper studies the effect of chitosan concentration on the filter media performance. Bench-scaled experiment results indicated that pre-treatment using the fiber filtration system removed up to 67.3% of total suspended solid, 65.1% of oil and grease and 46.1% of chemical oxygen demand. The results show that the lignocellulosic fiber filter could be a potential technology for primary wastewater treatment.

  4. Analysis of the creation of 'emptiness', of 'nothingness', in certain types of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ellonen-Jéquier, Mireille

    2009-08-01

    Some psychotic patients manage to create nothingness and emptiness thanks to the amount of work their ego accomplishes. That is the paradox we find in schizophrenic patients, their ego is simultaneously weak and powerful. When we analyse how this nothingness/emptiness is created, we enter into a strange world in which the patient's ego is, in part, defective and fragmented; his or her thinking apparatus, capacity for perceiving and feeling are under attack. Yet this same ego can call on intellectual ability, imagination and tremendous energy in order to create a highly complex structure, thanks to which the psychotic individual manages to create a kind of para-organization of space by splitting 'nothingness' (the space between representations) and 'density' (a compact magma made up of many different highly-condensed representations). Both nothingness and density may give the impression that the patient is 'nowhere to be found' and therefore impossible to analyse. In this paper, I shall describe these mechanisms as they appear in the clinical material of a female psychotic patient.

  5. Physicochemical profile of microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches of oil palm trees.

    PubMed

    Lim, Li Yee; Bong, Cassendra Phun Chien; Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Chew Tin

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) inoculated with effective microorganisms (EM∙1™). The duration of microbial-assisted composting was shorter (∼7 days) than control samples (2 months) in a laboratory scale (2 kg) experiment. The temperature profile of EFB compost fluctuated between 26 and 52 °C without the presence of consistent thermophilic phase. The pH of compost changed from weak acidic (pH ∼5) to mild alkaline (pH ∼8) because of the formation of nitrogenous ions such as ammonium (NH4 (+)), nitrite (NO2 (-)), and nitrate (NO3 (-)) from organic substances during mineralization. The pH of the microbial-treated compost was less than 8.5 which is important to prevent the loss of nitrogen as ammonia gas in a strong alkaline condition. Similarly, carbon mineralization could be determined by measuring CO2 emission. The microbial-treated compost could maintain longer period (∼13 days) of high CO2 emission resulted from high microbial activity and reached the threshold value (120 mg CO2-C kg(-1) day(-1)) for compost maturity earlier (7 days). Microbial-treated compost slightly improved the content of minerals such as Mg, K, Ca, and B, as well as key metabolite, 5-aminolevulinic acid for plant growth at the maturity stage of compost. Graphical Abstract Microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches. PMID:26286798

  6. Cellular response to empty and palladium-conjugated amino-polystyrene nanospheres uptake: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Pietrovito, Laura; Cano-Cortés, Victoria; Gamberi, Tania; Magherini, Francesca; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M; Fasano, Mauro; Modesti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Amino polystyrene nanospheres are shown to be efficient and controllable delivery devices, capable of transporting several bioactive cargoes. Recently, the design of a new device for prodrug activation, using these nanospheres with palladium encapsulated onto them, has been developed successfully. To study the influence of the cellular uptake of these nanodevices, we investigated the cellular response of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T) and murine fibroblasts (L929) treated with empty or palladium-conjugated amino polystyrene nanospheres. To identify differentially expressed proteins, we performed an exhaustive proteomic analysis. In accordance with genomic data previously obtained, the uptake of the empty nanospheres did not induce significant variation in protein expression levels. Following the treatment with palladium-conjugated nanospheres, some changes in protein profiles in both cell lines were observed; these alterations affect proteins involved in cell metabolism and intracellular transport. No key regulator of the cell cycle result was differentially expressed after the treatment, confirming that these innovative drug delivery systems are harmless and well tolerated by the cells.

  7. Formation of Bragg band gaps in anisotropic phononic crystals analyzed with the empty lattice model

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yan -Feng; Maznev, Alexei; Laude, Vincent

    2016-05-11

    Bragg band gaps of phononic crystals generally, but not always, open at Brillouin zone boundaries. The commonly accepted explanation stems from the empty lattice model: assuming a small material contrast between the constituents of the unit cell, avoided crossings in the phononic band structure appear at frequencies and wavenumbers corresponding to band intersections; for scalar waves the lowest intersections coincide with boundaries of the first Brillouin zone. However, if a phononic crystal contains elastically anisotropic materials, its overall symmetry is not dictated solely by the lattice symmetry. We construct an empty lattice model for phononic crystals made of isotropic andmore » anisotropic materials, based on their slowness curves. We find that, in the anisotropic case, avoided crossings generally do not appear at the boundaries of traditionally defined Brillouin zones. Furthermore, the Bragg "planes" which give rise to phononic band gaps, are generally not flat planes but curved surfaces. Lastly, the same is found to be the case for avoided crossings between shear (transverse) and longitudinal bands in the isotropic case.« less

  8. Modeling and computational simulation of dilution and biochemical materials balance equations for partially emptied batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Ndon, Udeme J; Zhao, Jin C; Siguan, Marta Larroya

    2007-01-01

    Sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) including aerobic SBRs and anaerobic SBRs (ASBRs) are partially emptied batch reactors that are widely used as bioprocesses in pollution control. We present dilution and biochemical materials balance modeling equations and simulation results for the partially emptied batch reactors, especially for ASBR treatment of low-strength wastewater. The simulated substrate and microbial concentrations for both dilution and materials balance equations follow the same pattern during both feeding and reaction times. However, the results of the materials balance equations show microbial activities during feeding as well as during reaction times and were found to be more appropriate for the biologic system in which substrate removal is associated with microbial growth. Furthermore, the simulation results point to the need to foster high microbial accumulation in the system during startup to optimize the process performance and the need to operate the system at a short reaction time, especially for low substrate concentrations. The results were found to be in agreement with the results of prior laboratory studies.

  9. Electrical bioimpedance and other techniques for gastric emptying and motility evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, María Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Montes-Frausto, Juana Berenice; Flores-Hernández, Corina; Morales-Mata, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify non-invasive, inexpensive, highly sensitive and accurate techniques for evaluating and diagnosing gastric diseases. In the case of the stomach, there are highly sensitive and specific methods for assessing gastric motility and emptying (GME). However, these methods are invasive, expensive and/or not technically feasible for all clinicians and patients. We present a summary of the most relevant international information on non-invasive methods and techniques for clinically evaluating GME. We particularly emphasize the potential of gastric electrical bioimpedance (EBI). EBI was initially used mainly in gastric emptying studies and was essentially abandoned in favor of techniques such as electrogastrography and the gold standard, scintigraphy. The current research evaluating the utility of gastric EBI either combines this technique with other frequently used techniques or uses new methods for gastric EBI signal analysis. In this context, we discuss our results and those of other researchers who have worked with gastric EBI. In this review article, we present the following topics: (1) a description of the oldest methods and procedures for evaluating GME; (2) an explanation of the methods currently used to evaluate gastric activity; and (3) a perspective on the newest trends and techniques in clinical and research GME methods. We conclude that gastric EBI is a highly effective non-invasive, easy to use and inexpensive technique for assessing GME. PMID:22368782

  10. Observation of empty liquids and equilibrium gels in a colloidal clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Barbara; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Zulian, Laura; Angelini, Roberta; Sztucki, Michael; Moussaïd, Abdellatif; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Sciortino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of anisotropic interactions in colloidal systems has recently emerged in the context of the rational design of new soft materials. Patchy colloids of different shapes, patterns and functionalities are considered the new building blocks of a bottom-up approach toward the realization of self-assembled bulk materials with predefined properties. The ability to tune the interaction anisotropy will make it possible to recreate molecular structures at the nano- and micro-scales (a case with tremendous technological applications), as well as to generate new unconventional phases, both ordered and disordered. Recent theoretical studies suggest that the phase diagram of patchy colloids can be significantly altered by limiting the particle coordination number (that is, valence). New concepts such as empty liquids—liquid states with vanishing density—and equilibrium gels—arrested networks of bonded particles, which do not require an underlying phase separation to form—have been formulated. Yet no experimental evidence of these predictions has been provided. Here we report the first observation of empty liquids and equilibrium gels in a complex colloidal clay, and support the experimental findings with numerical simulations.

  11. Structure of a Pheromone Receptor-Associated MHC Molecule with an Open and Empty Groove

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Neurons in the murine vomeronasal organ (VNO) express a family of class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins (M10s) that interact with the V2R class of VNO receptors. This interaction may play a direct role in the detection of pheromonal cues that initiate reproductive and territorial behaviors. The crystal structure of M10.5, an M10 family member, is similar to that of classical MHC molecules. However, the M10.5 counterpart of the MHC peptide-binding groove is open and unoccupied, revealing the first structure of an empty class I MHC molecule. Similar to empty MHC molecules, but unlike peptide-filled MHC proteins and non-peptide–binding MHC homologs, M10.5 is thermally unstable, suggesting that its groove is normally occupied. However, M10.5 does not bind endogenous peptides when expressed in mammalian cells or when offered a mixture of class I–binding peptides. The F pocket side of the M10.5 groove is open, suggesting that ligands larger than 8–10-mer class I–binding peptides could fit by extending out of the groove. Moreover, variable residues point up from the groove helices, rather than toward the groove as in classical MHC structures. These data suggest that M10s are unlikely to provide specific recognition of class I MHC–binding peptides, but are consistent with binding to other ligands, including proteins such as the V2Rs. PMID:16089503

  12. Drug-resin drug interactions in patients with delayed gastric emptying: What is optimal time window for drug administration?

    PubMed

    Camilleri, M

    2016-08-01

    Most drug-drug interactions involve overlap or competition in drug metabolic pathways. However, there are medications, typically resins, whose function is to bind injurious substances such as bile acids or potassium within the digestive tract. The objective of this article is to review the functions of the stomach and the kinetics of emptying of different food forms or formulations to make recommendations on timing of medication administration in order to avoid intragastric drug interactions. Based on the profiles and kinetics of emptying of liquid nutrients and homogenized solids, a window of 3 h between administration of a resin drug and another 'target' medication would be expected to allow a median of 80% of medications with particle size <1 mm to empty from the stomach and, hence, avoid potential interaction such as binding of the 'target' medication within the stomach. PMID:26987693

  13. Effect of the presence of empty sites on the evolution of cooperation by costly punishment in spatial games.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Takuya; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2009-01-21

    Cooperation and spiteful behavior are still evolutionary puzzles. Costly punishment, for which the game payoff is the same as that of spiteful behavior, is one mechanism for promoting the evolution of cooperation. A spatially structured population facilitates the evolution of either cooperation or spite/punishment if cooperation is linked explicitly or implicitly with spite/punishment; a cooperator cooperates with another cooperator and punishes/spites the other type of player. Different updating rules in the evolutionary game produce different evolutionary outcomes: with one updating rule-the score-dependent viability model, in which a player dies with a probability inversely proportional to the game score and the resulting unoccupied site is colonized by one player chosen randomly-the evolution of spite/punishment is promoted more than with the other updating rule-the score-dependent fertility model, in which, after a player dies randomly, the site is colonized by a player with a higher game score. If the population has empty sites, spiteful players or punishers should have less chance to interact with others and then spite/punish others. Thus the presence of empty sites would affect the evolutionary dynamics of spite/punishment. Here, we investigated whether the presence of empty sites discourages the evolution of spite/punishment in both a lattice-structured population and a completely mixing population where players interact with others randomly, especially when the score-dependent viability model is adopted. In the lattice-structured population adopting this viability model, the presence of empty sites promoted the evolution of cooperation and did not reduce the effect of spite/punishment. In the completely mixing population, the presence of empty sites did not promote evolution of cooperation by punishment. The evolutionary dynamics of the score-dependent viability model with empty sites were close to those of the score-dependent fertility model.

  14. Revealing the Empty-State Electronic Structure of Single-Unit-Cell FeSe/SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dennis; Song, Can-Li; Webb, Tatiana A; Fang, Shiang; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Hoffman, Jennifer E

    2015-07-01

    We use scanning tunneling spectroscopy to investigate the filled and empty electronic states of superconducting single-unit-cell FeSe deposited on SrTiO3(001). We map the momentum-space band structure by combining quasiparticle interference imaging with decay length spectroscopy. In addition to quantifying the filled-state bands, we discover a Γ-centered electron pocket 75 meV above the Fermi energy. Our density functional theory calculations show the orbital nature of empty states at Γ and explain how the Se height is a key tuning parameter of their energies, with broad implications for electronic properties. PMID:26182116

  15. Desvenlafaxine succinate ameliorates visceral hypersensitivity but delays solid gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Lei, Yong; Li, Shiying; Song, Gengqing; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-08-15

    Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DVS on visceral hypersensitivity and solid gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastric hyperalgesia. Twenty-eight gastric hyperalgesia rats and 20 control rats were used. Visceral sensitivity during gastric distention (GD) was assessed by recording of electromyogram (EMG) at pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg. DVS with doses of 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg were administrated by gavage, 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.3 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously, and 5-HT2A antagonist (ketanserin, 1 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally. The level of norepinephrine in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 1) visceral hypersensitivity induced by acetic acid was validated. 2) DVS dose-dependently reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the gastric hypersensitivity rats. The EMG (% of baseline value without GD) during GD at 60 and 80 mmHg with DVS at a dose of 30 mg/kg were 119.4 ± 2.3% (vs. saline 150.9 ± 2.7%, P < 0.001) and 128.2 ± 3.2% (vs. saline 171.1 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg. DVS at a dose of 1 mg/kg reduced visceral hypersensitivity only during GD at 60 mmHg. 3) Neither WAY-100635 nor ketanserin blocked the effect of DVS on visceral sensitivity. 4) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly increased plasma NE level (P = 0.012 vs. saline). 5) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly delayed solid gastric emptying (P < 0.05 vs. saline). We conclude that DVS reduces visceral sensitivity in a rodent model of visceral hypersensitivity and delays solid gastric emptying. Caution should be made when DVS is used for treating patients.

  16. Desvenlafaxine succinate ameliorates visceral hypersensitivity but delays solid gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Lei, Yong; Li, Shiying; Song, Gengqing; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-08-15

    Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DVS on visceral hypersensitivity and solid gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastric hyperalgesia. Twenty-eight gastric hyperalgesia rats and 20 control rats were used. Visceral sensitivity during gastric distention (GD) was assessed by recording of electromyogram (EMG) at pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg. DVS with doses of 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg were administrated by gavage, 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.3 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously, and 5-HT2A antagonist (ketanserin, 1 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally. The level of norepinephrine in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 1) visceral hypersensitivity induced by acetic acid was validated. 2) DVS dose-dependently reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the gastric hypersensitivity rats. The EMG (% of baseline value without GD) during GD at 60 and 80 mmHg with DVS at a dose of 30 mg/kg were 119.4 ± 2.3% (vs. saline 150.9 ± 2.7%, P < 0.001) and 128.2 ± 3.2% (vs. saline 171.1 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg. DVS at a dose of 1 mg/kg reduced visceral hypersensitivity only during GD at 60 mmHg. 3) Neither WAY-100635 nor ketanserin blocked the effect of DVS on visceral sensitivity. 4) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly increased plasma NE level (P = 0.012 vs. saline). 5) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly delayed solid gastric emptying (P < 0.05 vs. saline). We conclude that DVS reduces visceral sensitivity in a rodent model of visceral hypersensitivity and delays solid gastric emptying. Caution should be made when DVS is used for treating patients. PMID:23764892

  17. Numerical Simulation of Airflow Fields in Two Typical Nasal Structures of Empty Nose Syndrome: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Di, Meng-Yang; Jiang, Zhe; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhi; An, Yi-Ran; Lv, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of empty nose syndrome (ENS) has not been elucidated so far. Though postulated, there remains a lack of experimental evidence about the roles of nasal aerodynamics on the development of ENS. Objective To investigate the nasal aerodynamic features of ENS andto explore the role of aerodynamic changes on the pathogenesis of ENS. Methods Seven sinonasal models were numerically constructed, based on the high resolution computed tomography images of seven healthy male adults. Bilateral radical inferior/middle turbinectomy were numerically performed to mimic the typical nasal structures of ENS-inferior turbinate (ENS-IT) and ENS-middle turbinate (ENS-MT). A steady laminar model was applied in calculation. Velocity, pressure, streamlines, air flux and wall shear stress were numerically investigated. Each parameter of normal structures was compared with those of the corresponding pathological models of ENS-IT and ENS-MT, respectively. Results ENS-MT: Streamlines, air flux distribution, and wall shear stress distribution were generally similar to those of the normal structures; nasal resistances decreased. Velocities decreased locally, while increased around the sphenopalatine ganglion by 0.20±0.17m/s and 0.22±0.10m/s during inspiration and expiration, respectively. ENS-IT: Streamlines were less organized with new vortexes shown near the bottom wall. The airflow rates passing through the nasal olfactory area decreased by 26.27%±8.68% and 13.18%±7.59% during inspiration and expiration, respectively. Wall shear stresses, nasal resistances and local velocities all decreased. Conclusion Our CFD simulation study suggests that the changes in nasal aerodynamics may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of ENS. An increased velocity around the sphenopalatine ganglion in the ENS-MT models could be responsible for headache in patients with ENS-MT. However, these results need to be validated in further studies with a larger sample size and more

  18. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch biomass pellets using multimode microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch pellets were subjected to pyrolysis in a multimode microwave (MW) system (1 kW and 2.45 GHz frequency) with and without the MW absorber, activated carbon. The ratio of biomass to MW absorber not only affected the temperature profiles of the EFB but also pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas. The highest bio-oil yield of about 21 wt.% was obtained with 25% MW absorber. The bio-oil consisted of phenolic compounds of about 60-70 area% as detected by GC-MS and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Ball lightning (plasma arc) occurred due to residual palm oil in the EFB biomass without using an MW absorber. The bio-char can be utilized as potential alternative fuel because of its heating value (25 MJ/kg).

  19. Biomagnetic techniques for evaluating gastric emptying, peristaltic contraction and transit time

    PubMed Central

    la Roca-Chiapas, Jose María De; Cordova-Fraga, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Biomagnetic techniques were used to measure motility in various parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly a new technique for detecting magnetic markers and tracers. A coil was used to enhance the signal from a magnetic tracer in the GI tract and the signal was detected using a fluxgate magnetometer or a magnetoresistor in an unshielded room. Estimates of esophageal transit time were affected by the position of the subject. The reproducibility of estimates derived using the new biomagnetic technique was greater than 85% and it yielded estimates similar to those obtained using scintigraphy. This technique is suitable for studying the effect of emotional state on GI physiology and for measuring GI transit time. The biomagnetic technique can be used to evaluate digesta transit time in the esophagus, stomach and colon, peristaltic frequency and gastric emptying and is easy to use in the hospital setting. PMID:22025978

  20. Biomagnetic techniques for evaluating gastric emptying, peristaltic contraction and transit time.

    PubMed

    la Roca-Chiapas, Jose María De; Cordova-Fraga, Teodoro

    2011-10-15

    Biomagnetic techniques were used to measure motility in various parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly a new technique for detecting magnetic markers and tracers. A coil was used to enhance the signal from a magnetic tracer in the GI tract and the signal was detected using a fluxgate magnetometer or a magnetoresistor in an unshielded room. Estimates of esophageal transit time were affected by the position of the subject. The reproducibility of estimates derived using the new biomagnetic technique was greater than 85% and it yielded estimates similar to those obtained using scintigraphy. This technique is suitable for studying the effect of emotional state on GI physiology and for measuring GI transit time. The biomagnetic technique can be used to evaluate digesta transit time in the esophagus, stomach and colon, peristaltic frequency and gastric emptying and is easy to use in the hospital setting. PMID:22025978

  1. Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunch via a one step heterogeneous acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan Daud, Wan Rosli; Djuned, Fauzi Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA. PMID:26256348

  2. Steam explosion pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) using autocatalytic hydrolysis: A biorefinery approach.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jesus David Coral; Woiciechowski, Adenise; Zandona Filho, Arion; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are an attractive source of carbon for the production of biochemical products, therefore, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the steam explosion (SE) pretreatment under autocatalytic conditions on EFB using a full experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the operational variables studied. The EFB treated at 195°C for 6 min showed an increase of 34.69% in glycan (mostly cellulose), and a reduction of 68.12% in hemicelluloses, with increased enzymatic digestibility to 33% producing 4.2 g L(-1) of glucose. Scanning electron micrographs of the steam treated EFB exhibited surface erosion and an increased fiber porosity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the solubilization of hemicellulose and modification of cellulose in treated EFB.

  3. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-03

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  4. A cell-permeable inhibitor to trap Gαq proteins in the empty pocket conformation.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Anna-Lena; Schrage, Ramona; Gaffal, Evelyn; Charpentier, Thomas H; Wiest, Johannes; Hiltensperger, Georg; Morschel, Julia; Hennen, Stephanie; Häußler, Daniela; Horn, Velten; Wenzel, Daniela; Grundmann, Manuel; Büllesbach, Katrin M; Schröder, Ralf; Brewitz, H Henning; Schmidt, Johannes; Gomeza, Jesús; Galés, Céline; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Tüting, Thomas; Imhof, Diana; Tietze, Daniel; Gütschow, Michael; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sondek, John; Harden, T Kendall; Mohr, Klaus; Kostenis, Evi

    2014-07-17

    In spite of the crucial role of heterotrimeric G proteins as molecular switches transmitting signals from G protein-coupled receptors, their selective manipulation with small molecule, cell-permeable inhibitors still remains an unmet challenge. Here, we report that the small molecule BIM-46187, previously classified as pan-G protein inhibitor, preferentially silences Gαq signaling in a cellular context-dependent manner. Investigations into its mode of action reveal that BIM traps Gαq in the empty pocket conformation by permitting GDP exit but interdicting GTP entry, a molecular mechanism not yet assigned to any other small molecule Gα inhibitor to date. Our data show that Gα proteins may be "frozen" pharmacologically in an intermediate conformation along their activation pathway and propose a pharmacological strategy to specifically silence Gα subclasses with cell-permeable inhibitors.

  5. Tensile and characterization properties of regenerated cellulose empty fruit bunch biocomposite films using ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husseinsyah, Salmah; Zailuddin, Nur Liyana Izyan; Li, Chew Li; Mostapha @ Zakaria, Marliza

    2016-07-01

    The regenerated cellulose (RC) empty fruit bunch (EFB) biocomposite films were prepared using ionic liquid. The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of regenerated cellulose biocomposite films achieved maximum value at 2 wt% of EFB contents while at 3 and 4 wt% of EFB the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity tend to decreased. The elongation at break tends to decreased at 2 wt% of EFB content but increased at 3 and 4 wt% of EFB contents. The crystallinity index reaches maximum at 2 wt% EFB content, followed by declination with further addition of EFB content. The morphology study illustrated that regenerated cellulose biocomposite films at 2 wt% of EFB contents exhibit a smooth surface that suggested the reinforcement was surrounded by the regenerated cellulose matrix, while at 4 wt% EFB content shows a rough morphology.

  6. Identification of Fe 3d empty states from the total current spectra of an ?(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, P. J.; Komolov, S. A.; Lazneva, E. F.

    1996-09-01

    An intensive triplet line is revealed in the total current spectrum (TCS) of a reconstructed 0953-8984/8/36/009/img7 surface. The nature of the observed structure in the TCS is discussed in comparison with previously reported data from photoemission, inverse photoemission and theoretical investigations. It is found to be a consequence of the electron transitions into an Fe 3d band of empty states. Energy locations of Fe 3d-band extrema (0953-8984/8/36/009/img8 and 0953-8984/8/36/009/img9 above the bottom of the conduction band) and its splitting 0953-8984/8/36/009/img10 are estimated from the proposed schemes of electron transitions.

  7. Simultaneous markers for fluid and solid gastric emptying: new variations on an old theme: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Thompson, D; Syed, I

    1981-09-01

    Radiotracer techniques for the assessment of gastric emptying have become popular in the past 6 yr. A new double-nuclide technique, for the simultaneous tagging of the solid and fluid phases, is described. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC) is used in a manner similar to that described by Meyer and colleagues, but the new technique does not involve the use of live chickens, a significant advantage over the earlier procedures. Several fluid-phase radionuclides were tested to be used in conjunction with the Tc-99m SC. Indium-111 DTPA was found to be the only compatible fluid-phase agent. This new double-tracer technique promises to be safe, economical, simple, and physiologically sound. PMID:7277021

  8. Modes of empty off-axis unstable resonators with rectangular mirrors.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M M

    1979-06-01

    The effect of Fresnel edge diffraction on mode loss and far-field beam quality is investigated for empty offaxis unstable resonators with rectangular mirrors. For the cases investigated, mode-loss separation and beam quality of the lowest-loss mode are maximized nonconcurrently when the optical axis intersects the small convex mirror near one of its corners rather than its center. Although these properties indicate that the near-corner off-axis resonator can achieve superior beam quality to that achieved by an on-axis resonator, it is also shown that a large instability in beam quality can occur near the operating point which gives maximum mode-loss separation and superior beam quality. PMID:20212557

  9. Ghrelin and obestatin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Igor A; Koebnick, Corinna; Tasi, Atingwa M; Hahn, Eckhart Georg; Konturek, Peter C

    2009-10-01

    Alterations in the neurohumoral regulation of the upper intestine may change rhythmicity and pattern of ghrelin and obestatin, the latter presumably antagonizing ghrelin effects. Five nongastroparetic diabetic patients and five with gastroparesis were investigated. Over 390 min including breakfast and lunch, ghrelin was significantly lower in patients with gastroparesis compared with in those without (P = 0.015). Ghrelin subsequent to lunch decreased significantly (P = 0.011) in patients without gastroparesis, but not in gastroparetic patients (P = 0.669). Obestatin was similar in both groups and unchanged. No significant differences in ghrelin-to-obestatin ratio were observed (P = 0.530). Loss of rhythmicity in the ghrelin levels of gastroparetic diabetics highlights the importance of integrity of the neurohumoral-intestinal axis. Stable diurnal obestatin levels do not support the concept of interaction between ghrelin and obestatin in terms of regulation of food intake and gastric emptying. PMID:19082715

  10. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC's were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC's are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  11. [A case of chronic acalculous cholecystitis diagnosed by delayed contrast emptying in gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Jong Min; Coh, Jane; Jung, In Sung; Kang, Ki Man; Jung, Shin Hong; Lee, Gye Sung; Kim, Anna; Kwak, Seung Soo; Lee, Mi Sun

    2004-05-01

    Chronic acalculous cholecystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion in patients complaining acalculous biliary pain. The possible causes of acalculous biliary pain are chronic gallbladder (GB) inflammation, GB dysfunction, cholesterolosis, cystic duct stenosis or microlithiasis. Recently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the choice of treatment for acalculous biliary pain. We experienced a 32-year-old woman whose initial symptoms were right upper quadrant pain and nausea only. The abdominal computed tomography, DISIDA scan, and upper and lower endoscopic examinations were nonspecific. Up to 48 hours after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, contrast emptying of GB was delayed, implying dysfunctional GB. As the patient's right upper quadrant pain and tenderness became aggravated, the laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done and the final diagnosis of chronic acalculous cholecystitis was confirmed. PMID:15156120

  12. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Dasan, Y. K. Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-22

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  13. Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunch via a one step heterogeneous acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan Daud, Wan Rosli; Djuned, Fauzi Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA.

  14. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch biomass pellets using multimode microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch pellets were subjected to pyrolysis in a multimode microwave (MW) system (1 kW and 2.45 GHz frequency) with and without the MW absorber, activated carbon. The ratio of biomass to MW absorber not only affected the temperature profiles of the EFB but also pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas. The highest bio-oil yield of about 21 wt.% was obtained with 25% MW absorber. The bio-oil consisted of phenolic compounds of about 60-70 area% as detected by GC-MS and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Ball lightning (plasma arc) occurred due to residual palm oil in the EFB biomass without using an MW absorber. The bio-char can be utilized as potential alternative fuel because of its heating value (25 MJ/kg). PMID:23026320

  15. A Cell-Permeable Inhibitor to Trap Gαq Proteins in the Empty Pocket Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anna-Lena; Schrage, Ramona; Gaffal, Evelyn; Charpentier, Thomas H.; Wiest, Johannes; Hiltensperger, Georg; Morschel, Julia; Hennen, Stephanie; Häußler, Daniela; Horn, Velten; Wenzel, Daniela; Grundmann, Manuel; Büllesbach, Katrin M.; Schröder, Ralf; Brewitz, H. Henning; Schmidt, Johannes; Gomeza, Jesús; Galés, Céline; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Tüting, Thomas; Imhof, Diana; Tietze, Daniel; Gütschow, Michael; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sondek, John; Harden, T. Kendall; Mohr, Klaus; Kostenis, Evi

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In spite of the crucial role of heterotrimeric G proteins as molecular switches transmitting signals from G protein-coupled receptors, their selective manipulation with small molecule, cell-permeable inhibitors still remains an unmet challenge. Here, we report that the small molecule BIM-46187, previously classified as pan-G protein inhibitor, preferentially silences Gαq signaling in a cellular context-dependent manner. Investigations into its mode of action reveal that BIM traps Gαq in the empty pocket conformation by permitting GDP exit but interdicting GTP entry, a molecular mechanism not yet assigned to any other small molecule Gα inhibitor to date. Our data show that Gα proteins may be “frozen” pharmacologically in an intermediate conformation along their activation pathway and propose a pharmacological strategy to specifically silence Gα subclasses with cell-permeable inhibitors. PMID:25036778

  16. Empty liquid phase of colloidal ellipsoids: the role of shape and interaction anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Varga, Szabolcs; Meneses-Júarez, Efrain; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2014-04-01

    We study the effect of anisotropic excluded volume and attractive interactions on the vapor-liquid phase transition of colloidal ellipsoids. In our model, the hard ellipsoid is embedded into an ellipsoidal well, where both the shape of the hard ellipsoid and that of the added enclosing ellipsoidal well can be varied independently. The bulk properties of these particles are examined by means of a van der Waals type perturbation theory and validated with replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that both the critical volume fraction (ηc) and the critical temperature (Tc) of the vapor-liquid phase transition vanish with increasing shape anisotropy for oblate shapes, while ηc → 0 and Tc ≠ 0 are obtained for very elongated prolate shapes. These results suggest that the chance to stabilize empty liquids (a liquid phase with vanishing density) is higher in suspensions of rod-like colloidal ellipsoids than in those of plate-like ones.

  17. Micromechanical modelling of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies.

    PubMed

    Omar, Farah Nadia; Hanipah, Suhaiza Hanim; Xiang, Loo Yu; Mohammed, Mohd Afandi P; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2016-09-01

    Experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to study the micromechanics of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies. The finite viscoelastic-plastic material model called Parallel Rheological Network model was proposed, that fitted well with cyclic and stress relaxation tensile tests of the fibres. Representative volume element and microstructure models were developed using finite element method, where the models information was obtained from microscopy and X-ray micro-tomography analyses. Simulation results showed that difference of the fibres model with silica bodies and those without ones is larger under shear than compression and tension. However, in comparison to geometrical effect (i.e. silica bodies), it is suggested that ultrastructure components of the fibres (modelled using finite viscoelastic-plastic model) is responsible for the complex mechanical behaviour of oil palm fibres. This can be due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components and the interface behaviour, as reported on other lignocellulosic materials. PMID:27183430

  18. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO4). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  19. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan.

  20. Gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and fecal output in dystrophic (mdx) mice.

    PubMed

    Mulè, Flavia; Amato, Antonella; Serio, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which results from deficiency in dystrophin, a sarcolemma protein of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, is characterized by progressive striated muscle degeneration, but various gastrointestinal clinical manifestations have been observed. The aim was to evaluate the possible impact of the dystrophin loss on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mdx mice (animal model for DMD). The gastric emptying of a carboxymethyl cellulose/phenol red dye non-nutrient meal was not significantly different at 20 min from gavaging between wild-type and mdx mice. The intestinal transit and the fecal output were significantly decreased in mdx versus normal animals, although the length of the intestine was similar in both animals. The present results provide evidence for motor intestinal alterations in mdx mice in in vivo conditions. PMID:19784719

  1. Is your glass half full or half empty? Your decision may impact your practice.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil; Homisakt, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The attitude of the doctor and the medical staff can have a profound impact on the success of a practice. You can be sure that if everyone has a positive attitude toward patients, your patients will have a positive experience and will tell others about that positive experience. On the other hand, if a doctor is sullen, unhappy, and uninterested in his or her work, you can be sure that this negativity will be transferred to the staff and subsequently to the patients. As a result, there will be unhappy patients, unhappy staff, increased staff turnover, and a doctor who continues to be unhappy and dissatisfied with the practice of medicine. This article will describe both types of attitudes, and what can be done to improve the attitude of the practice and have a glass that is half full and not half empty.

  2. Structural Characterization of H-1 Parvovirus: Comparison of Infectious Virions to Empty Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sujata; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Vogel, Michèle; Dinsart, Christiane; Salomé, Nathalie; McKenna, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The structure of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) packaging H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV), which is being developed as an antitumor gene delivery vector, has been determined for wild-type (wt) virions and noninfectious (empty) capsids to 2.7- and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The capsid viral protein (VP) structure consists of an α-helix and an eight-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel with large loop regions between the strands. The β-barrel and loops form the capsid core and surface, respectively. In the wt structure, 600 nucleotides are ordered in an interior DNA binding pocket of the capsid. This accounts for ∼12% of the H-1PV genome. The wt structure is identical to the empty capsid structure, except for side chain conformation variations at the nucleotide binding pocket. Comparison of the H-1PV nucleotides to those observed in canine parvovirus and minute virus of mice, two members of the genus Parvovirus, showed both similarity in structure and analogous interactions. This observation suggests a functional role, such as in capsid stability and/or ssDNA genome recognition for encapsulation. The VP structure differs from those of other parvoviruses in surface loop regions that control receptor binding, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and antibody recognition, including VP sequences reported to determine tumor cell tropism for oncotropic rodent parvoviruses. These structures of H-1PV provide insight into structural features that dictate capsid stabilization following genome packaging and three-dimensional information applicable for rational design of tumor-targeted recombinant gene delivery vectors. PMID:23449783

  3. Symptomatic empty sella syndrome: an unusual manifestation of Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Wann Jia; Sittampalam, Kesavan; Tan, Suan Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a potentially fatal condition characterized by infiltration of multiple organs by non-Langerhans histiocytes. Although endocrine dysfunction has been reported in association with ECD, to date, there have been no previous reports of empty sella syndrome (ESS) associated with it. We report the case of a patient with ECD who had symptomatic ESS. A 55-year-old man of Chinese ethnicity initially presented with symptoms of heart failure, fatigue and knee joint pain. Physical examination revealed xanthelasma, gynaecomastia, lung crepitations, hepatomegaly and diminished testicular volumes. He had laboratory evidence of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, secondary hypoadrenalism and GH deficiency. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteosclerosis of the long bones on X-ray, a mass in the right atrium and thickening of the pleura and of the thoracic aorta on fusion positron emission tomography–computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an empty sella. The diagnosis of ECD was confirmed by bone biopsy. Learning points ECD is a multisystemic disease that can affect the pituitary and other organs. The diagnosis of ECD is based on clinical and radiological features and histology, showing lipid-laden CD68+ CD1a− S100− histiocytes surrounded by fibrosis.The finding of xanthelasmas especially in the presence of normal lipid levels in the presence of a multisystem infiltrative disorder should raise the suspicion of ECD.Systemic perturbation of autoimmunity may play a role in the pathogenesis of ECD and is an area that merits further research. PMID:25810917

  4. Exenatide in obesity with accelerated gastric emptying: a randomized, pharmacodynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; O’Neill, Jessica; Eckert, Deborah; Carlson, Paula; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with differences in satiety, gastric emptying (GE), gastric volume, and psychological traits. Exenatide, a short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is associated with variable weight loss. We compared the effects of exenatide, 5 μg, and placebo SQ, twice daily for 30 days on GE of solids and liquids (scintigraphy), satiety (ad libitum buffet meal), satiation (nutrient drink test, maximum tolerated volume [MTV]), and weight loss in 20 participants with documented accelerated GE of solids (T1/2 < 90 min). Exenatide delayed GE of solids (T1/2 [Δ] 86 min relative to placebo, P < 0.001) and reduced calorie intake at buffet meal ([Δ] 129 kcal compared to placebo). Median weight loss was −0.95 kg (IQR −0.7 to −2.1) for exenatide and −0.55 kg (0.3 to −2.1) for placebo (P = 0.23); 80% of exenatide group had documented reduction in weight. In the exenatide treatment group, there was an inverse correlation between gastric emptying T1/2 and MTV (R = −0.548, P = 0.089). The univariate association of weight change with posttreatment MTV was borderline (Rs = 0.43, P = 0.06); in the multiple regression model, posttreatment MTV was associated with weight change (P = 0.047). The effect of the short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on GE is associated with the change in food intake, and the latter impacts weight loss in response to exenatide treatment. PMID:26542264

  5. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; de Almeida, Eros Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. PMID:25494017

  6. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P < 0.05). There was no additional effect of the sweeter glucose + saccharin solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  7. Diabetes Insipidus and Polydipsia in a Patient with Asperger's Disorder and an Empty Sella: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Giammarco, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Italian patient with Asperger disorders, Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, and Primary Empty Sella. His response to vasopressin treatment suggested a concomitant presence of primary polydipsia. Implications of the observed concurrence of these rare disorders are discussed in relation to diagnosis and pathogenesis. (Author/CR)

  8. Validation of corrections for errors in collimation during measurement of gastric emptying of nuclide-labeled meals.

    PubMed

    VanDeventer, G; Thomson, J; Graham, L S; Thomasson, D; Meyer, J H

    1983-03-01

    The study was undertaken to validate phantom-derived corrections for errors in collimation due to septal penetration or scatter, which vary with the size of the gastric region of interest (ROI). Six volunteers received 495 ml of 20% glucose labeled with both In-113m DTPA and Tc-99m DTPA. Gastric emptying of each nuclide was monitored by gamma camera as well as by periodic removal and reinstillation of the meal through a gastric tube. Serial aspirates from the gastric tube confirmed parallel emptying of In-113m and Tc-99m, but analyses of gamma-camera data yielded parallel emptying only when adequate corrections were made for errors in collimation. Analyses of ratios of gastric counts from anterior to posterior, as well as analyses of peak-to-scatter ratios, revealed only small, insignificant anteroposterior movement of the tracers within the stomach during emptying. Accordingly, there was no significant improvement in the camera data when corrections were made for attenuation with intragastric depth. PMID:6338170

  9. Empty Sets as Part of the Numerical Continuum: Conceptual Precursors to the Zero Concept in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Rugani, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current research was to explore whether monkeys possess conceptual precursors necessary for understanding zero. We trained rhesus monkeys on a nonsymbolic numerical matching-to-sample task, and on a numerical ordering task. We then introduced nondifferentially reinforced trials that contained empty sets to determine whether monkeys…

  10. Nanoindentation studies of full and empty viral capsids and the effects of capsid protein mutations on elasticity and strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J. P.; Ivanovska, I. L.; Gibbons, M. M.; Klug, W. S.; Knobler, C. M.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Schmidt, C. F.

    2006-04-01

    The elastic properties of capsids of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have been examined at pH 4.8 by nanoindentation measurements with an atomic force microscope. Studies have been carried out on WT capsids, both empty and containing the RNA genome, and on full capsids of a salt-stable mutant and empty capsids of the subE mutant. Full capsids resisted indentation more than empty capsids, but all of the capsids were highly elastic. There was an initial reversible linear regime that persisted up to indentations varying between 20% and 30% of the diameter and applied forces of 0.6-1.0 nN; it was followed by a steep drop in force that is associated with irreversible deformation. A single point mutation in the capsid protein increased the capsid stiffness. The experiments are compared with calculations by finite element analysis of the deformation of a homogeneous elastic thick shell. These calculations capture the features of the reversible indentation region and allow Young's moduli and relative strengths to be estimated for the empty capsids. atomic force microscopy | cowpea chlorotic mottle virus | finite element analysis | biomechanics

  11. Serum levels of ghrelin and obestatin in children with symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying of unclear etiology

    PubMed Central

    Saliakellis, Efstratios; Karatzas, Nikolaos; Iakovou, Ioannis; Farmaki, Evangelia; Varlamis, Georgios; Fotoulaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Ghrelin and obestatin are peptides of the gut-brain axis affecting appetite and gastrointestinal motility. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, case-control study to determine pre- and postprandial serum levels of total ghrelin and obestatin along with gastric emptying scintigraphy in children with symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying time (GET), not attributable to any identifiable cause. Results Twenty children with symptoms suggestive of delayed GET, of whom 9 had delayed GET, and 20 age-matched healthy children were enrolled. Preprandial ghrelin and obestatin were higher compared to controls (GHR mean level in patients and controls: 1162 pg/mL and 401 pg/mL respectively; P<0.05; OB mean level in patients and controls: 417 pg/mL and 325 pg/mL respectively; not statistically significant). Postprandial ghrelin was significantly decreased in the subgroup of patients with delayed GET (GHR mean level in children with normal and prolonged GET: 1237 pg/mL and 584 pg/mL respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion Obestatin and ghrelin were deranged in children with symptoms indicative of delayed GET of unexplained etiology. Gastric emptying was prolonged in almost half of the patients thus gastric emptying scintigraphy should be considered in the investigation of children with such symptomatology. PMID:26423109

  12. Measurement of gallbladder emptying sequentially using a single dose of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled hepatobiliary agent

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.R.; Kingston, E.; Turner, F.

    1982-10-01

    The gallbladder emptying response to a single large (20 ng/kg) and four equally divided sequential small (5 ng/kg each) doses of octapeptide of cholecystokinin at 20-min intervals was measured in a paired study in six normal subjects noninvasively and quantitatively by a nongeometric method using a gamma camera, computer, and /sup 99m/Tc labeled hepatobiliary agent. The gallbladder mean (+/- SD) ejection fraction after a single large dose (20 ng/kg) of octapeptide of cholecystokinin was 34 +/- 24% and after four sequential small (5 ng/kg each) doses was 42 +/- 14%, 45 +/- 28%, 37 +/- 22%, and 32 +/- 27%, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the first part of the 5 ng/kg sequential octapeptide of cholecystokinin dose is as effective as the single 20-ng/kg dose. The gallbladder emptying requires continued presence of high levels of octapeptide of cholecystokinin in the serum closer to levels that initiate contraction and in the absence of which the gallbladder ceases to empty further despite the fact it has inherent capacity to do so. Each of four equal octapeptide of cholecystokinin doses given sequentially elicits, on the average, an equal degree of emptying response. The method has potential for application in the study of the pharmacological effects of drugs on the biliary dynamics using a single dose of /sup 99/mTc-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceutical.

  13. Empty Bowls Feed the Hungry: Service Learning across the Curriculum with the Visual Arts at the Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namnoun, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Describes a school-wide, cross-curricular project called, "Empty Bowls", at Hall High School (West Hartford, Connecticut). Explains that students created ceramic bowls and made soup to fill the bowls to raise money to fight hunger. Provides a description of how the school became involved and raised the money. (CMK)

  14. Human parvovirus B19 VP2 empty capsids bind to human villous trophoblast cells in vitro via the globoside receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Carole C; Jordan, Jeanne A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women acutely infected with human parvovirus B19 (B19) may transmit the virus to the developing fetus. The mechanism whereby the virus interacts with the placenta is unknown. It is known that globoside receptor is required for successful infection of the target cells, which are the highly undifferentiated, actively dividing colony and burst-form units of the erythroid series. Globoside is present on trophoblast cells which have intimate contact with maternal blood, and may therefore serve as a potential route for B19 transmission into the fetal compartment. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether B19 VP2 capsids could bind to villous trophoblast cells in vitro and whether globoside was involved. METHODS: Binding of B19 VP2 empty capsid to first-trimester villous trophoblast cells was assessed by multiple approaches, including ICC using either biotinylated B19 VP2 empty capsid or unlabeled B19 VP2 empty capsid. Quantification of viral binding involved I125-labeled B19 VP2 empty capsid. Competition studies included excess unlabeled empty capsids or pretreatment with globoside-specific IgM antibody. RESULTS: Linear binding of B19 VP2 capsid to purified villous trophoblast cells in vitro was clearly demonstrated (R2= 0.9524). Competition studies revealed specificity of I125-labeled B19 VP2 capsid binding to villous trophoblast cells when pretreatment with either 60-fold excess unlabeled B19 capsid or globoside-specific IgM antibody took place. The results illustrated B19's ability to bind in a specific manner to globoside-containing villous trophoblast cells. CONCLUSION: We speculate that the globoside present on trophoblast cells may play a role in viral binding in vivo, which may facilitate B19 transmission across the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:15739820

  15. The glycemic response to fibre rich foods and their relationship with gastric emptying and motor functions: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Gopirajah, R; Raichurkar, Keshav Prakash; Wadhwa, Rajkumar; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2016-09-14

    The chief motor functions of human stomach, namely receiving, storing, mixing and emptying, influence the absorption of ingested food and hence determine the glycemic response to the meal. However, among these functions, the gastric emptying pattern of the stomach is essentially regulated by the meal characteristics such as particle size, volume, nutrient composition and viscosity. Understanding the complex relationship between the stomach motor functions and the physicochemical characteristics of meal on glycemic control needs more attention in the formulation of functional foods. Hence, the objective of this study is to employ the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique in ten healthy human volunteers to elucidate the relationship between the motor functions of the stomach and the glycemic response to fibre rich foods. For this, wheat and oat based breakfast meals were selected as fibre rich foods with low (0.042 Pa s) and high (0.266 Pa s) viscosity, respectively. Although wheat meal had a lower viscosity compared to oatmeal, the gastric emptying was found to be delayed for the former due to its high caloric density. This was reflected in the glycemic response as well, with wheat meal having a lower area under the curve (AUC) value than oatmeal. The antral contraction frequency is significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with delayed gastric emptying in the case of high nutrient wheat meal. Overall, the study demonstrated the synergistic effect of gastric emptying, stomach motor functions and physicochemical characteristics of food on the glycemic response to a meal. This information will aid in the development of functional foods with specific end applications. PMID:27549354

  16. The glycemic response to fibre rich foods and their relationship with gastric emptying and motor functions: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Gopirajah, R; Raichurkar, Keshav Prakash; Wadhwa, Rajkumar; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2016-09-14

    The chief motor functions of human stomach, namely receiving, storing, mixing and emptying, influence the absorption of ingested food and hence determine the glycemic response to the meal. However, among these functions, the gastric emptying pattern of the stomach is essentially regulated by the meal characteristics such as particle size, volume, nutrient composition and viscosity. Understanding the complex relationship between the stomach motor functions and the physicochemical characteristics of meal on glycemic control needs more attention in the formulation of functional foods. Hence, the objective of this study is to employ the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique in ten healthy human volunteers to elucidate the relationship between the motor functions of the stomach and the glycemic response to fibre rich foods. For this, wheat and oat based breakfast meals were selected as fibre rich foods with low (0.042 Pa s) and high (0.266 Pa s) viscosity, respectively. Although wheat meal had a lower viscosity compared to oatmeal, the gastric emptying was found to be delayed for the former due to its high caloric density. This was reflected in the glycemic response as well, with wheat meal having a lower area under the curve (AUC) value than oatmeal. The antral contraction frequency is significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with delayed gastric emptying in the case of high nutrient wheat meal. Overall, the study demonstrated the synergistic effect of gastric emptying, stomach motor functions and physicochemical characteristics of food on the glycemic response to a meal. This information will aid in the development of functional foods with specific end applications.

  17. Effects of electrolytes in carbohydrate beverages on gastric emptying and secretion.

    PubMed

    Rehrer, N J; Beckers, E J; Brouns, F; Saris, W H; Ten Hoor, F

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments were done at rest to examine gastric residue and secretion volume and electrolyte composition after ingestion of beverages of varying composition. In the first experiment the effects of two different sport drinks, one isotonic (7% carbohydrate, primarily sucrose) (I) and one hypertonic (18% carbohydrate, primarily maltodextrin) (H), and a control beverage (0.08 g.l-1 aspartame in water) (C) on titratable acid, pH, osmolality, gastric emptying and secretion volume, and Na+, K+, and Cl- content were measured. In a second experiment five solutions were tested all containing 150 g.l-1 maltodextrin, with 28 meq.l-1 Na+ (low Na), 140 meq.l-1 Na+(high Na), 28 meq.l-1 K+(K), or 140 meq.l-1 Na+ and 28 meq.l-1 K+(high NaK). Beverages H and C, and distilled water (W) were also tested. Samples were taken via a nasogastric tube. A dye dilution technique for serial sampling was employed to determine beverage and secretion volumes. After receiving a bolus of 8 ml.kg-1 body weight, samples of gastric residue were taken at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 min. Gastric secretion of Na+, K+, and Cl- was fairly constant despite large differences in beverage composition. Changes in gastric residue pH, titratable acid, osmolality, and electrolyte composition reflected the increasing proportion of the residue that was from gastric secretions. The effects of varying concentrations of Na+ and K+ (in a 150 g.l-1 maltodextrin solution) on gastric emptying were not significant. The high carbohydrate concentration and/or the large volume ingested may have overridden any effect of sodium or potassium. No differences were observed between W and C. Secretion was decreased in these two solutions versus all the others. Although nonsignificant, there was a trend for greater secretion in H versus the other carbohydrate containing solutions in experiment 2. This may be a result of the higher pH maintained after ingestion of this beverage.

  18. Gastric emptying and plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones in patients with peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Li, Jun-Man; Li, Xue-Hui; Hao, Hong-Sheng; Fu, Shu-Hua

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the plasma level of gastrointestinal hormones and the time of gastric emptying in patients with peptic ulcer. METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric ulcer (GU), 29 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU), and 12 healthy controls were studied. Plasma levels of somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric emptying half-time (GET1/2) was measured by the TC-99m resin/solid meal method. RESULTS: GET1/2 was significantly longer in the GU patients than that in the healthy controls (65.9 ± 14.8 min vs 53.3 ± 4.3 min, P < 0.01) and plasma VIP levels were significantly higher (37.5 ± 10.7 ng/L vs 18.4 ± 5.9 ng/L, P < 0.05).There was a significant positive correlation between GET1/2 and plasma VIP levels (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in SS and SP levels when GU patients were compared with healthy controls (P > 0.05). GET1/2 was markedly shorter in the DU patients than in the healthy controls (41.7 ± 10.2 min vs 53.3 ± 4.3 min, P < 0.01) and plasma SS levels were significantly lower (6.4 ± 2.5 ng/L vs 11.9 ± 3.4 ng/L, P < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between GET1/2 and SS levels (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Plasma SP levels in the DU patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (54.4 ± 12.7 ng/L vs 41.6 ± 5.8 ng/L, P < 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between GET1/2 and SP levels (r = -0.68, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in the plasma VIP levels when DU patient were compared to healthy controls (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Elevation in VIP may contribute to occurrence of GU and its associated delay in GET1/2. Increased SP and reduced SS may play important roles in GET1/2 acceleration and in the pathogensis of DU. PMID:27053894

  19. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    PubMed

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs.

  20. Role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiber, Antonio; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    We examine the role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids. The charges on the protein subunits that make the viral capsid mutually interact and are expected to yield electrostatic repulsion acting against the assembly of capsids. Thus, attractive protein-protein interactions of nonelectrostatic origin must act to enable the capsid formation. We investigate whether the interplay of repulsive electrostatic and attractive interactions between the protein subunits can result in the formation of spherical viral capsids of a preferred radius. For this to be the case, we find that the attractive interactions must depend on the angle between the neighboring protein subunits (i.e., on the mean curvature of the viral capsid) so that a particular angle(s) is (are) preferred energywise. Our results for the electrostatic contributions to energetics of viral capsids nicely correlate with recent experimental determinations of the energetics of protein-protein contacts in the hepatitis B virus [P. Ceres A. Zlotnick, Biochemistry 41, 11525 (2002)].

  1. Transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophage populations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, Munmun; Golbar, Hossain M.; Bondoc, Alexandra; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes have been used as a vehicle for encapsulating chemicals or toxins in toxicological studies. We investigated the transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophages by applying a single intravenous injection at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight in 6-week-old male F344 rats. One day after injection, the numbers of hepatic macrophages reacting to CD163, CD68, Iba-1, MHC class II, Gal-3 and CD204 were significantly increased in liposome-treated rats. CD163+ Kupffer cells and CD68+ macrophages with increased phagocytic activity in hepatic lobules were most sensitive. The histological architecture of the liver was not changed following liposome injection; however, hepatocytes showed increased proliferating activity, demonstrable with proliferation marker immunostaining and by an increase in gene profiles related to the cell cycle. In the liposome-treated rats, interestingly, AST and ALT values were significantly decreased, and MCP-1, IL-1β and TGF-β1 mRNAs were significantly increased. Collectively, the present study found that hepatic macrophages activated by liposomes can influence liver homeostasis. This information would be useful for background studies on liposomes. PMID:27182120

  2. Crystal Structure and Proteomics Analysis of Empty Virus-like Particles of Cowpea Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nhung T; Hesketh, Emma L; Saxena, Pooja; Meshcheriakova, Yulia; Ku, You-Chan; Hoang, Linh T; Johnson, John E; Ranson, Neil A; Lomonossoff, George P; Reddy, Vijay S

    2016-04-01

    Empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) are currently being utilized as reagents in various biomedical and nanotechnology applications. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMV eVLPs determined using X-ray crystallography at 2.3 Å resolution and compare it with previously reported cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of eVLPs and virion crystal structures. Although the X-ray and cryo-EM structures of eVLPs are mostly similar, there exist significant differences at the C terminus of the small (S) subunit. The intact C terminus of the S subunit plays a critical role in enabling the efficient assembly of CPMV virions and eVLPs, but undergoes proteolysis after particle formation. In addition, we report the results of mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of coat protein subunits from CPMV eVLPs and virions that identify the C termini of S subunits undergo proteolytic cleavages at multiple sites instead of a single cleavage site as previously observed. PMID:27021160

  3. Use of Inflated Foley Catheters to Prevent Early Empty Pelvis Complications Following Pelvic Exenteration.

    PubMed

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Tomescu, Dana; Balescu, Irina

    2015-10-01

    For most patients with bulky pelvic tumors, pelvic exenteration remains the only curative option. Although initially reported as a palliative procedure, nowadays it is rather performed with curative intent. Once the resectional phase is ended, a large defect will remain at the level of the pelvic diaphragm, predisposing to severe complications which are generically included under the name of empty pelvis syndrome. It has been widely demonstrated that this type of complication is associated with severe mortality, even if the patient is free of any pelvic recurrence. We present the case of a 56-year-old patient submitted to total pelvic exenteration for locally invasive previously chemo-irradiated cervical cancer who presented six months after surgery with a severe enteroperineal fistula. We decided to reoperate on the patient; intraoperatively we found recurrence on both pelvic walls and an enteroperineal fistula caused by tumoral invasion. We performed an intestinal resection with enteroenteral anastomosis. In order to isolate the intestinal loops from the unresectable pelvic recurrence, in the pelvis we placed three Foley catheters inflated with 60 ml of saline each, in order to hold the intestinal loops away from the pelvic wall. The postoperative course was uneventful. The urinary cathethers were removed after six weeks.

  4. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  5. Hydrothermal pre-treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch into fermentable sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhd Ali, M. D.; Tamunaidu, P.; Nor Aslan, A. K. H.; Morad, N. A.; Sugiura, N.; Goto, M.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Presently oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is one of the solid waste which is produced daily whereby it is usually left at plantation site to act as organic fertilizer for the plants to ensure the sustainability of fresh fruit bunch. The major drawback in biomass conversion technology is the difficulty of degrading the material in a short period of time. A pre-treatment step is required to break the lignocellulosic biomass to easily accessible carbon sources for further use in the production of fuels and fine chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment under different reaction temperatures (100 - 250°C), reaction time (10 - 40 min), solid to solvent ratio of (1:10 - 1:20 w/v) and particle size (0.15 - 1.00 mm) on the solubilization of OPEFB to produce soluble fermentable sugars. The maximum soluble sugars of 68.18 mg glucose per gram of OPEFB were achieved at 175°C of reaction temperature, 20 min of reaction time, 1:15 w/v of solid to solvent ratio for 30 mm of particle size. Results suggest that reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of solid to solvent ratio and size of the particle are crucial parameters for hydrothermal pretreatment, in achieving a high yield of soluble fermentable sugars.

  6. Thermal Analysis for Improving Fuel Characteristics of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. S.; Horst, K.; Ariffin, M. A. Md.

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture waste is well known with low melting ashes. This is due to the large quantities of alkali metals are required as nutrients. Potassium is the one of the alkali metal that contributes to the low melting ash of empty fruit bunch biomass fuel. Thermal analysis was conducted in order to determine the increasing of ash fusion temperature of EFB fiber. Ash fusion temperature has four type of shape which is initial deformation, softening temperature, hemispherical temperature and fluidization temperature. EFB fiber has melting temperature 1061°C in average. To solve low melting ashes, Ca(OH)2 was added with EFB fiber in order to increase the ash melting point. 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by dry weight was added to EFB fiber. From the experiment by adding 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of Ca(OH)2, the melting temperature was increase to 1114°C, 1239°C, 1277 °C and 1315 °C respectively. As conclusion this lab scale thermal analysis test was conducted in order to allow the determination of additive percentage for larger scale in order to adapt with biomass gasifiers.

  7. Discrimination of two neighboring intra- and intermodal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Hasuo, Emi; Labonté, Katherine; Laflamme, Vincent; Grondin, Simon

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the discrimination of two neighboring intra- or inter-modal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli. Each of the three markers was a flash (visual-V) or a sound (auditory-A). The first and last markers were of the same modality, while the second one was either A or V, resulting in four conditions: VVV, VAV, AVA and AAA. Participants judged whether the second interval, whose duration was systematically varied, was shorter or longer than the 500-ms first interval. Compared with VVV and AAA, discrimination was impaired with VAV, but not so much with AVA (in Experiment 1). Whereas VAV and AVA consisted of the same set of single intermodal intervals (VA and AV), discrimination was impaired in the VAV compared to the AVA condition. This difference between VAV and AVA could not be attributed to the participants' strategy to perform the discrimination task, e.g., ignoring the standard interval or replacing the visual stimuli with sounds in their mind (in Experiment 2). These results are discussed in terms of sequential grouping according to sensory similarity.

  8. Peptide-controlled access to the interior surface of empty virus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Frank; Saunders, Keith; Aljabali, Alaa A A; Evans, David J; Lomonossoff, George P

    2011-11-01

    The structure of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is known to high resolution, thereby enabling the rational use of the particles in diverse applications, from vaccine design to nanotechnology. A recently devised method for the production of empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) has opened up new possibilities for CPMV capsid-based technologies, such as internal mineralisation of the particle. We have investigated the role of the carboxyl (C) terminus of the small coat (S) protein in controlling access to the interior of CPMV eVLPs by determining the efficiency of internal mineralisation. The presence of the C-terminal 24-amino acid peptide of the S protein was found to inhibit internal mineralisation, an effect that could be eliminated by enzymatic removal of this region. We have also demonstrated the amenability of the C terminus to genetic modification. Substitution with six histidine residues generated stable particles and facilitated external mineralisation by cobalt. These findings demonstrate consistent internal and external mineralisation of CPMV, and will aid the further exploration and development of the use of eVLPs for bionanotechnological and medical applications.

  9. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber reinforced PVC/ENR blend-electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, Chantara Thevy; Raju, Gunasunderi; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2007-12-01

    The effect of irradiation on the tensile properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/epoxidized natural rubber (PVC/ENR) blends were studied. The composites were prepared by mixing the fiber and the PVC/ENR blend using HAAKE Rheomixer at 150 °C. The composites were then irradiated by using a 3.0 MeV electron beam machine at doses ranging from 0 to 100 kGy in air and room temperature. The tensile strength, Young's modulus, elongation at break and gel fraction of the composites were measured. Comparative studies were also made by using poly(methyl acrylate) grafted OPEFB fiber in the similar blend system. An increase in tensile strength, Young's modulus and gel fraction, with a concurrent reduction in the elongation at break (Eb) of the PVC/ENR/OPEFB composites were observed upon electron beam irradiation. Studies revealed that grafting of the OPEFB fiber with methyl acrylate did not cause appreciable effect to the tensile properties and gel fraction of the composites upon irradiation. The morphology of fractured surfaces of the composites, examined by a scanning electron microscope showed an improvement in the adhesion between the fiber and the matrix was achieved upon grafting of the fiber with methyl acrylate.

  10. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan. PMID:27561506

  11. Biobutanediol-mediated liquefaction of empty fruit bunch saccharification residues to prepare lignin biopolyols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2016-05-01

    Saccharification residue from empty fruit bunch (EFB) was liquefied with bio-butanediol to produce lignin biopolyols for the preparation of biopolyurethane. To substitute petroleum-derived polyhydric alcohols, butanediol isomers (1,4-butanediol, levo-2,3-bio-butanediol, and meso-2,3-bio-butanediol) or PEG#400-blended butanediol isomers were used as liquefaction solvents in the presence of sulfuric acid catalyst. Lignin biopolyols with a conversion of 63.3%, a hydroxyl number of 582.7 mg KOH/g and an acid number of 21.7 mg KOH/g were obtained under the optimal condition consisting of 25% biomass loading, 3% acid loading, and a temperature of 150°C for 120 min when liquefied with 1,4-butanediol/PEG#400 blended solvent (9/1, w/w). When the levo-2,3-bio-butanediol solvent was used in the absence of PEG#400, the highest conversion, 68.9%, was obtained. Lignin biopolyol-based biopolyurethanes were synthesized with toluene diisocyanate. FT-IR analysis revealed that EFB lignin biopolyols liquefied with bio-butanediols were suitable monomers for the preparation of biopolyurethane. PMID:26918835

  12. Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively. PMID:23247371

  13. Nanoporous separators for supercapacitor using activated carbon monolith electrode from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Nor, N. S. M. Deraman, M. Omar, R. Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.

    2014-02-24

    Activated porous carbon electrode prepared from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches was used for preparing the carbon based supercapacitor cells. The symmetrical supercapacitor cells were fabricated using carbon electrodes, stainless steel current collector, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, and three types of nanoporous separators. Cells A, B and C were fabricated using polypropylene, eggshell membrane, and filter paper, respectively. Electrochemical characterizations data from Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, and Galvanic Charge Discharge techniques showed that specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy for cell A were 122 F g{sup −1}, 177 W kg{sup −1}, 3.42 Wh kg{sup −1}, cell B; 125 F g{sup −1}, 179 W kg{sup −1}, and 3.64 Wh kg{sup −1}, and cell C; 180 F g{sup −1}, 178 W kg{sup −1}, 4.27 Wh kg{sup −1}. All the micrographs from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that the different in nanoporous structure of the separators lead to a significant different in influencing the values of specific capacitance, power and energy of supercapacitors, which is associated with the mobility of ion into the pore network. These results indicated that the filter paper was superior than the eggshell membrane and polypropylene nanoporous separators. However, we found that in terms of acidic resistance, polypropylene was the best nanoporous separator for acidic medium.

  14. Emptying patterns of the lung studied by multiple-breath N2 washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the nitrogen concentration seen during the single-breath nitrogen washout reflect changes in relative flow (ventilation) from units with differing ventilation/volume ratios. The multiple-breath washout provides sufficient data on ventilation for units with varying ventilation/volume ratios to be plotted as a function of the volume expired. Flow from the dead space may also be determined. In young normals the emptying patterns are narrow and unimodal throughout the alveolar plateau with little or no flow from the dead space at the end of the breath. Older normals show more flow from the dead space, particularly toward the end of the breath, and some show a high ventilation/volume ratio mode early in the breath. Patients with obstructive lung disease have a high flow from the dead space which is present throughout the breath. A well ventilated mode at the end of the breath is seen in some obstructed subjects. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed a poorly ventilated mode appearing at the end of the breath as well as a very high dead space.

  15. Production of cellulose phosphate from oil palm empty fruit bunch: Effect of chemical ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohaizu, R.; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose phosphate was synthesized from oil palm biomass residue that has the potential to represent a considerable added value product for the oil palm biomass utilization. Cellulose phosphate (CP) is prepared viaa phosphorylation process using the H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4/hexanol sequence using oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) as the starting material. Various factors affect its synthesis; one of them which is the subject of this investigation is the orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) to triethylphosphate(Et3PO4) ratio which have the capability to increase the phosphorus content of CP. It is believed that during this reaction, the esterification of the free hydroxyl groups of the cellulose occurred. The H3PO4/Et3PO4 ratios applied were 0.16, 1.00, and 1.84. The effect of the H3PO4/Et3PO4 ratio on phosphorus content, yield, water swelling and molecular structure of CP are discussed.

  16. Biobutanediol-mediated liquefaction of empty fruit bunch saccharification residues to prepare lignin biopolyols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2016-05-01

    Saccharification residue from empty fruit bunch (EFB) was liquefied with bio-butanediol to produce lignin biopolyols for the preparation of biopolyurethane. To substitute petroleum-derived polyhydric alcohols, butanediol isomers (1,4-butanediol, levo-2,3-bio-butanediol, and meso-2,3-bio-butanediol) or PEG#400-blended butanediol isomers were used as liquefaction solvents in the presence of sulfuric acid catalyst. Lignin biopolyols with a conversion of 63.3%, a hydroxyl number of 582.7 mg KOH/g and an acid number of 21.7 mg KOH/g were obtained under the optimal condition consisting of 25% biomass loading, 3% acid loading, and a temperature of 150°C for 120 min when liquefied with 1,4-butanediol/PEG#400 blended solvent (9/1, w/w). When the levo-2,3-bio-butanediol solvent was used in the absence of PEG#400, the highest conversion, 68.9%, was obtained. Lignin biopolyol-based biopolyurethanes were synthesized with toluene diisocyanate. FT-IR analysis revealed that EFB lignin biopolyols liquefied with bio-butanediols were suitable monomers for the preparation of biopolyurethane.

  17. Physical Ingredients Controlling Stability and Structural Selection of Empty Viral Capsids.

    PubMed

    Aznar, María; Reguera, David

    2016-07-01

    One of the crucial steps in the viral replication cycle is the self-assembly of its protein shell. Typically, each native virus adopts a unique architecture, but the coat proteins of many viruses have the capability to self-assemble in vitro into different structures by changing the assembly conditions. However, the mechanisms determining which of the possible capsid shapes and structures is selected by a virus are still not well-known. We present a coarse-grained model to analyze and understand the physical mechanisms controlling the size and structure selection in the assembly of empty viral capsids. Using this model and Monte Carlo simulations, we have characterized the phase diagram and stability of T = 1,3,4,7 and snub cube shells. In addition, we have studied the tolerance of different shells to changes in physical parameters related to ambient conditions, identifying possible strategies to induce misassembly or failure. Finally, we discuss the factors that select the shape of a capsid as spherical, faceted, elongated, or decapsidated. Our model sheds important light on the ingredients that control the assembly and stability of viral shells. This knowledge is essential to get capsids with well-defined size and structure that could be used for promising applications in medicine or bionanotechnology. PMID:27114062

  18. Alkaline peroxide pulping of oil palm empty fruit bunch by variation of chemical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermawan, Yunita Megasari; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    Papers produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) via Alkaline Peroxide Pulping (APP) was preceded by three main steps; dewaxing of EFB, alkaline peroxide (AP) impregnation into EFB and refining of biomass to generate pulp. The experiment was carried by varying chemical level and number of impregnation stages. For 2:2.5% AP level, two-stage impregnation improved hand sheets tear index by 45%, 164% boost in tensile index, 26% enhancement in zero span index and more than 5% in burst index. By applying 8:10% AP level, significant improvements were gained at the third and fourth stages of AP impregnation. Although there was no significant change in hand sheet strength with multiple impregnation for 4:5% AP level, improvement in brightness of hand sheets was apparent, analogous to the effect of increasing AP level. The found paper properties development show that alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB could be adapted to various targeted properties by adjustment of AP level and impregnation stages.

  19. Crystal Structure and Proteomics Analysis of Empty Virus-like Particles of Cowpea Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nhung T; Hesketh, Emma L; Saxena, Pooja; Meshcheriakova, Yulia; Ku, You-Chan; Hoang, Linh T; Johnson, John E; Ranson, Neil A; Lomonossoff, George P; Reddy, Vijay S

    2016-04-01

    Empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) are currently being utilized as reagents in various biomedical and nanotechnology applications. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMV eVLPs determined using X-ray crystallography at 2.3 Å resolution and compare it with previously reported cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of eVLPs and virion crystal structures. Although the X-ray and cryo-EM structures of eVLPs are mostly similar, there exist significant differences at the C terminus of the small (S) subunit. The intact C terminus of the S subunit plays a critical role in enabling the efficient assembly of CPMV virions and eVLPs, but undergoes proteolysis after particle formation. In addition, we report the results of mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of coat protein subunits from CPMV eVLPs and virions that identify the C termini of S subunits undergo proteolytic cleavages at multiple sites instead of a single cleavage site as previously observed.

  20. Pretreatment of aqueous ammonia on oil palm empty fruit fiber (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkiple, Nursyafiqah; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) is an agricultural residue that has the potential to become a good source for renewable feedstock for production of sugar. This work evaluated the effectiveness of aqueous ammonia as pretreatment at low (soaking, SAA) and elevated temperature (pressurized chamber) to deconstruct the lignocellulosic feedstock, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The ammonia pretreatments were compared against the standard NaOH method. The best tested pressurized chamber method conditions were at 100°C with 3 hour retention time, 12.5% ammonium hydroxide and 1:30 solid loading. The digestibility of the feedstock is determined with enzymatic hydrolysis using Cellic Ctech2 and Cellic Htech2. The sugars produced by pressurized chamber method within 24 hour of enzyme hydrolysis are similar to that produced by NaOH method which is 439.90 mg/ml and 351.61 mg/ml, respectively. Compared with optimum SAA method (24 hour, 6.25% of ammonium hydroxide at room temperature), pressurized chamber method was capable of producing enhanced delignification and higher production of sugar upon hydrolysis. These findings were supported by the disappearance peak at 1732, 1512 and 1243 on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectrum) of treated OPEFB by pressurized chamber method. XRD determination showed reduced crystallinity of OPEFB (37.23%) after treatment by pressurized chamber, suggesting higher accessibility toward enzyme hydrolysis. The data obtained suggest that the pressurized chamber pre-treatment method are suitable for OPEFB deconstruction to produce high yield of sugar.

  1. Use of pyloroplasty (Y-U) to treat presumed delayed gastric emptying in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Neiffer, D L; Pardo, A D; Klein, E C

    2000-12-01

    A 4-yr-old cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with a 2-yr history of chronic intermittent vomiting and spiral bacteria-associated gastritis presented with dramatically increased vomiting frequency and marked intermittent abdominal distention. Physical examination revealed loss of muscle mass and poor fur coat quality. Contrast radiography was consistent with delayed gastric emptying due to presumed gastric outlet obstruction. Both Y-U pyloroplasty and incisional gastropexy were performed, and no subsequent vomiting has been observed for 3 yr with the exception of three episodes during the immediate postoperative period. The cause of delayed gastric emptying was not determined, although a gastric motility disorder associated with gastric bacterial infection and elevated gastrin levels was suspected.

  2. Roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall bladder stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Veysey, M J; Kennedy, C; Jenkins, P; Murphy, G M; Wass, J A; Dowling, R H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Octreotide treatment of acromegalic patients increases the % deoxycholic acid conjugates and the cholesterol saturation of gall bladder bile, and induces gall stone formation. AIMS--To study the roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in these phenomena. METHODS AND PATIENTS--Gall bladder emptying and mouth to caecum transit was measured in (a) control subjects and acromegalic patients given saline or 50 micrograms of octreotide, and (b) acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide. In the second group, large bowel transit was also measured. RESULTS--A single dose of octreotide inhibited meal stimulated gall bladder emptying, the ejection fraction falling from mean (SEM) 66.0 (2.3)% to 7.0 (5.3)% in controls (p < 0.001); from 72.5 (2.1) to 16.6 (5.1)% in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 30.4 (9.5)% in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic group). Octreotide prolonged mouth to caecum transit time, from 112 (15) min to 237 (13) min in controls (p < 0.001), from 170 (13) min to 282 (11) min in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 247 (10) min in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic patients). The mean large bowel transit in octreotide untreated compared with treated acromegalic patients remained unchanged (40 (6) h v 47 (6) h). CONCLUSIONS--Prolongation of intestinal transit and impaired gall bladder emptying may contribute to lithogenic changes in bile composition and gall stone formation in patients receiving long term octreotide. PMID:8707128

  3. The evaluation of empty bed contact time on the biodegradation of pentachlorophenol using an anaerobic GAC fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.J.; Khodadoust, A.P.; Suidan, M.T.; Wagner, J.A.; Brenner, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of decreasing the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) on pentachlorophenol and its intermediates utilizing an anaerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized bed. The bioreactor A was fed an 100 mg/l influent concentration of PCP. EBCTs of 1.167 to 0.292 days for reactor A resulted in a PCP reduction greater than 99%. In addition, an equimolar conversion of PCP to monochlorophenol was observed.

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary "empty" sella turcica syndrome at the stage of sanatorium-and-spa rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Efimenko, N V; Akhkubekova, N K; Babiakin, A F; Kaĭsinova, A S

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the first attempt to develop the treatment strategy for patients with primary "empty" sella turcica syndrome based at a health resort facility. It is shown that combined therapy including radon baths and acupuncture at specific auricular points makes it possible to improve functioning of the pituitary-ovarian system, decrease body weight, normalize blood prolactin level, eliminate visceral obesity, enhance tissue sensitivity to insulin, reduce hyperinsulimenia and fertility problems (anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and hypoluteinism) associated with insulin resistance. PMID:21086599

  5. Research on the separation properties of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and conditions for simulated distillation (SIMDIS).

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Marian

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have revealed it is possible to separate a high-boiling mixture by gas chromatography in empty fused-silica capillary tubing rather than in columns coated with stationary phase. Chromatographic separation occurs solely on the basis of the different boiling points of the substances separated. The high similarity of such separations to those in classic distillation seems advantageous when gas chromatography is used for simulated distillation. This paper presents results from further research on the separation properties of empty fused silica tubing. The efficiency of this chromatographic system has been examined. The usefulness of such conditions has been studied for simulated distillation, i.e. to determine the boiling-point distribution of complex mixtures, mainly petroleum fractions and products, on the basis of their retention relative to reference substances. The results obtained by use of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and by use of classical simulated distillation columns have been compared for solutes of different polarity. Studies revealed boiling points determined by EC-GC were more accurate than those obtained by the standard method of simulated distillation.

  6. Research on the separation properties of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and conditions for simulated distillation (SIMDIS).

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Marian

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have revealed it is possible to separate a high-boiling mixture by gas chromatography in empty fused-silica capillary tubing rather than in columns coated with stationary phase. Chromatographic separation occurs solely on the basis of the different boiling points of the substances separated. The high similarity of such separations to those in classic distillation seems advantageous when gas chromatography is used for simulated distillation. This paper presents results from further research on the separation properties of empty fused silica tubing. The efficiency of this chromatographic system has been examined. The usefulness of such conditions has been studied for simulated distillation, i.e. to determine the boiling-point distribution of complex mixtures, mainly petroleum fractions and products, on the basis of their retention relative to reference substances. The results obtained by use of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and by use of classical simulated distillation columns have been compared for solutes of different polarity. Studies revealed boiling points determined by EC-GC were more accurate than those obtained by the standard method of simulated distillation. PMID:23925798

  7. Filling, postcholecystokinin emptying, and refilling of normal gallbladder: effects of two different doses of CCK on refilling: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Mesgarzadeh, M.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.R.; Langrell, K.

    1983-08-01

    A study of 18 normal subjects was undertaken to evaluate the rapidity of gallbladder filling with Tc-99m IDA during fast, and the degree of emptying and incidence of refilling after intravenous infusion of either 20 or 40 ng/kg of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8). During fast, the frequency of onset of gallbladder filling with Tc-99m IDA at 20, 30, 40, and 42 min was 68%, 84%, 95%, and 100%, respectively. Following CCK-8 infusion, the gallbladder mean ejection period of 11 +/- 4 (s.d.) min and ejection fraction of 40% +/- 23 were similar in subjects given either a 20 ng/kg or a 40 ng/kg dose. The frequency of onset of refilling at 20, 30, 40, and 50 min after CCK-8 was 33%, 63%, 71%, and 79%, respectively for the combined groups. At 50 min after CCK-8, all subjects given 20 ng/kg refilled, whereas only 63% of the 40-ng/kg group did so. There was no correlation between the degree of emptying (ejection fraction) and onset of refilling. We conclude that the frequency of post CCK-8 onset of gallbladder refilling, which reflects sphincter tone recovery, is widely variable, depending upon both the dose and the duration from the time of infusion of CCK-8 and should be taken into consideration if a pre-emptying procedure is adopted during hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA agents.

  8. Characterization of the internal surfaces of two emptied 30A UF{sub 6} storage cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Ellis, A.; Freels, D.

    1993-12-31

    Before any cylinders used for storage of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) can be decommissioned, all chemical and metallurgical changes in the cylinder walls during storage need to be known. This study was conducted to obtain initial data on changes that may have occurred in cylinders because of long-term contact with UF{sub 6}. Two 2.5-ton cylinders, emptied of UF{sub 6} and rinsed, were selected based on the extent of residual radioactivity, as judged from sweeps of a field survey meter over the outside surfaces of a batch of cylinders. A videoprobe was used to record the appearance of the internal surface of the selected cylinder. Sections of the cylinders representing various levels of residual radioactivity were cut out using a 6 in. diameter hole saw. These sections were further characterized by nuclear spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present. Pieces were cut from the sections, mounted in taper section, and metallographically examined to characterize near-surface changes, including those resulting from surface corrosion from the moisture present in the washed cylinders. X-ray diffraction was used to further identify the various phases present, both in the corroded surface layers and in the immediate subsurface areas. Samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis to examine the morphology and chemical nature of surface residues relative to the various levels of residual radioactivity measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to examine the very-near surface layers. Results from the various techniques are discussed and compared and are interpreted in terms of overall impact on decommissioning.

  9. Optimization of NaOH-catalyzed steam pretreatment of empty fruit bunch

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empty fruit bunch (EFB) has many advantages, including its abundance, the fact that it does not require collection, and its year-round availability as a feedstock for bioethanol production. But before the significant costs incurred in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can be reduced, an efficient sugar fractionation technology has to be developed. To that end, in the present study, an NaOH-catalyzed steam pretreatment process was applied in order to produce ethanol from EFB more efficiently. Results The EFB pretreatment conditions were optimized by application of certain pretreatment variables such as, the NaOH concentrations in the soaking step and, in the steam step, the temperature and time. The optimal conditions were determined by response surface methodology (RSM) to be 3% NaOH for soaking and 160°C, 11 min 20 sec for steam pretreatment. Under these conditions, the overall glucan recovery and enzymatic digestibility were both high: the glucan and xylan yields were 93% and 78%, respectively, and the enzymatic digestibility was 88.8% for 72 h using 40 FPU/g glucan. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the maximum ethanol yield and concentration were 0.88 and 29.4 g/l respectively. Conclusions Delignification (>85%) of EFB was an important factor in enzymatic hydrolysis using CTec2. NaOH-catalyzed steam pretreatment, which can remove lignin efficiently and requires only a short reaction time, was proven to be an effective pretreatment technology for EFB. The ethanol yield obtained by SSF, the key parameter determining the economics of ethanol, was 18% (w/w), equivalent to 88% of the theoretical maximum yield, which is a better result than have been reported in the relevant previous studies. PMID:24286374

  10. Expression and self-assembly of empty virus-like particles of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T C; Yamakawa, Y; Suzuki, K; Tatsumi, M; Razak, M A; Uchida, T; Takeda, N; Miyamura, T

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a pathogenic agent that causes fecally-orally transmitted acute hepatitis. The genome, a single-stranded positive-sense RNA, encodes three forward open reading frames (ORFs), in which an approximately 2-kb structural protein is located in the 3' end. To produce HEV-like particles the structural protein, with its N terminus truncated (amino acid residues 112 to 660 of ORF2), was expressed in insect Tn5 cells by a recombinant baculovirus. In addition to the primary translation product with a molecular mass of 58 kDa, a large amount of a further-processed molecule with a molecular mass of 50 kDa was generated and efficiently released into the culture medium. Electron microscopic observation of the culture medium revealed that the 50-kDa protein self-assembled to form empty virus-like particles (VLPs). The buoyant density of the VLPs in CsCl was 1.285 g/cm3 and their diameter was 23.7 nm, a little smaller than the 27 nm of native HEV particles secreted into the bile or stools of experimentally infected monkeys. The yield of the VLPs was 1 mg per 10(7) cells as a purified form. The particles possess antigenicity similar to that of authentic HEV particles and, consequently, they appear to be a good antigen for the sensitive detection of HEV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies. Furthermore, the VLP may be the most promising candidate yet for an HEV vaccine, owing to its potent immunogenicity. PMID:9311793

  11. A Review of String Vessels or Collapsed, Empty Basement Membrane Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William R.

    2011-01-01

    String vessels are thin connective tissue strands, remnants of capillaries, with no endothelial cells; they do not carry blood flow. They occur in numerous species, particularly in the central nervous system, but can occur in any tissue where capillaries have died. String vessels are often associated with pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, ischemia, and irradiation, but are also found in normal human brains from preterm babies to the aged. They provide a record of the original blood vessel location, but gradually disappear after months or years. There have been numerous studies of string vessels (acellular capillaries) in the retina, because retinal vessels can be seen in great detail in whole mounts after trypsin digestion. Capillary regression occurs by apoptosis, synchronously along capillary segments, with macrophages engulfing apoptotic endothelial cells. Macrophages may cause the apoptosis, or the regression may be triggered by loss of the endothelial cell survival factor VEGF. VEGF expression is induced by hypoxia and promotes capillary growth. Cessation of blood flow eliminates the shear stress that helps maintain endothelial cell survival. Capillaries can re-grow by proliferation and migration of endothelial cells into empty basement membrane tubes, which provide a structural scaffold, replete with signaling molecules. This is a problem in tumor control, but useful for recovery from capillary loss. There is an age-related waning of VEGF expression in response to hypoxia. This causes an age-related decline in cerebral angiogenesis and results in neuronal loss. It may also contribute to the proposed age-related loss of brain reserve. PMID:20634580

  12. Prognostic utility of right atrial emptying fractions in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Nathan W; Haddad, Francois; Kobayashi, Yukari; Hsi, Andrew; Swiston, John R; Gin, Kenneth G; Zamanian, Roham T

    2015-09-01

    Although left atrial function has been extensively studied in patients with heart failure, the determinants and clinical correlates of impaired right atrial (RA) function have been poorly studied. We investigated measures of RA function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We identified all treatment-naive patients with World Health Organization category 1 PAH seen at our center during 2000-2011 who had right heart catheterization and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) within 1 month of initial echocardiographic examination. Atrial size was measured using the monoplane area-length method, and atrial function was quantified using total, passive, and active RA emptying fractions (RAEFs). We compared measures of RAEF with known prognostic clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic parameters. For the subset of patients with follow-up echocardiographic examination/6MWT within 6-18 months, we investigated the change in RAEF. In an exploratory analysis, we investigated the association between RAEF and mortality. Our population consisted of 39 patients with treatment-naive (incident) PAH, 30 of whom had follow-up testing. The mean total, passive, and active RAEFs were 24.4% ± 15.1%, 8.5% ± 6.9%, and 17.6% ± 13.9%, respectively. Total and active RAEFs correlated with tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005) and cardiac output (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01). The change in active RAEF correlated with change in 6-minute walk distance (P = 0.02). In our Cox regression analysis, low active and total RAEF were associated with mortality, with hazard ratios of 5.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-26.2; P = 0.03) and 4.2 (95% CI, 1.1-15.5; P = 0.03), respectively. Passive RAEF was poorly reproducible and not associated with outcome. Measures of RAEF appear to have prognostic importance in PAH and warrant further study. PMID:26401248

  13. Decreased electrophysiological activity represents the conscious state of emptiness in meditation.

    PubMed

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stephanie; Kamei, Tsutomu; Walach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Many neuroscientific theories explain consciousness with higher order information processing corresponding to an activation of specific brain areas and processes. In contrast, most forms of meditation ask for a down-regulation of certain mental processing activities while remaining fully conscious. To identify the physiological properties of conscious states with decreased mental and cognitive processing, the electrical brain activity (64 channels of EEG) of 50 participants of various meditation proficiencies was measured during distinct and idiosyncratic meditative tasks. The tasks comprised a wakeful "thoughtless emptiness (TE)," a "focused attention," and an "open monitoring" task asking for mindful presence in the moment and in the environment without attachment to distracting thoughts. Our analysis mainly focused on 30 highly experienced meditators with at least 5 years and 1000 h of meditation experience. Spectral EEG power comparisons of the TE state with the resting state or other forms of meditation showed decreased activities in specific frequency bands. In contrast to a focused attention task the TE task showed significant central and parietal gamma decreases (p < 0.05). Compared to open monitoring TE expressed decreased alpha and beta amplitudes, mainly in parietal areas (p < 0.01). TE presented significantly less delta (p < 0.001) and theta (p < 0.05) waves than a wakeful closed eyes resting condition. A group of participants with none or little meditation practice did not present those differences significantly. Our findings indicate that a conscious state of TE reached by experienced meditators is characterized by reduced high-frequency brain processing with simultaneous reduction of the low frequencies. This suggests that such a state of meditative conscious awareness might be different from higher cognitive and mentally focused states but also from states of sleep and drowsiness.

  14. Decreased electrophysiological activity represents the conscious state of emptiness in meditation

    PubMed Central

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stephanie; Kamei, Tsutomu; Walach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Many neuroscientific theories explain consciousness with higher order information processing corresponding to an activation of specific brain areas and processes. In contrast, most forms of meditation ask for a down-regulation of certain mental processing activities while remaining fully conscious. To identify the physiological properties of conscious states with decreased mental and cognitive processing, the electrical brain activity (64 channels of EEG) of 50 participants of various meditation proficiencies was measured during distinct and idiosyncratic meditative tasks. The tasks comprised a wakeful “thoughtless emptiness (TE),” a “focused attention,” and an “open monitoring” task asking for mindful presence in the moment and in the environment without attachment to distracting thoughts. Our analysis mainly focused on 30 highly experienced meditators with at least 5 years and 1000 h of meditation experience. Spectral EEG power comparisons of the TE state with the resting state or other forms of meditation showed decreased activities in specific frequency bands. In contrast to a focused attention task the TE task showed significant central and parietal gamma decreases (p < 0.05). Compared to open monitoring TE expressed decreased alpha and beta amplitudes, mainly in parietal areas (p < 0.01). TE presented significantly less delta (p < 0.001) and theta (p < 0.05) waves than a wakeful closed eyes resting condition. A group of participants with none or little meditation practice did not present those differences significantly. Our findings indicate that a conscious state of TE reached by experienced meditators is characterized by reduced high-frequency brain processing with simultaneous reduction of the low frequencies. This suggests that such a state of meditative conscious awareness might be different from higher cognitive and mentally focused states but also from states of sleep and drowsiness. PMID:24596562

  15. Optimizing Analysis of Stable Isotope Breath Tests to Estimate Gastric Emptying of Solids

    PubMed Central

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T.; Camilleri, Michael; Szarka, Lawrence A.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Breath tests using 13C-substrates have been proposed for the measurement of gastric emptying (GE). The mathematical analysis of the breath 13CO2 excretion that most accurately predicts GE t1/2 from simultaneous scintigraphy is unresolved. Aim To compare 5 mathematical methods to estimate GE t½ by breath test (BT) with t½ from simultaneous scintigraphy. Methods Data acquired from a dual-labeled solid-liquid meal containing 99mTc sulfur colloid and 13C-Spirulina platensis from 57 healthy volunteers were used to compare 4 mathematical methods reported in the literature (Ghoos method; generalized linear regression [Viramontes]; linear regression [Szarka]; Wagner-Nelson method) and the total cumulative breath 13CO2 excretion with ≥ 12 breath samples collected over at least 4 hours. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for the t½ results obtained with each method using breath test data was compared with the results obtained with scintigraphy. Results The linear regression and generalized linear regression methods used 5 samples at 45, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes. All methods, except for the Wagner-Nelson method, resulted in mean GE t½ that approximated t½ obtained with scintigraphy. The highest CCC was observed with the linear regression method. Simple cumulative excretion of breath 13CO2 provides a better CCC than the Ghoos method. Conclusion The linear regression and generalized linear regression methods (which also require relatively few breath samples) provide the most accurate analyses of breath 13CO2 excretion in stable isotope GEBT. PMID:19309440

  16. Why do dogs (Canis familiaris) select the empty container in an observational learning task?

    PubMed

    Kupán, Krisztina; Miklósi, Ádám; Gergely, György; Topál, József

    2011-03-01

    Many argue that dogs show unique susceptibility to human communicative signals that make them suitable for being engaged in complex co-operation with humans. It has also been revealed that socially provided information is particularly effective in influencing the behaviour of dogs even when the human's action demonstration conveys inefficient or mistaken solution of task. It is unclear, however, how the communicative nature of the demonstration context and the presence of the human demonstrator affect the dogs' object-choice behaviour in observational learning situations. In order to unfold the effects of these factors, 76 adult pet dogs could observe a communicative or a non-communicative demonstration in which the human retrieved a tennis ball from under an opaque container while manipulating another distant and obviously empty (transparent) one. Subjects were then allowed to choose either in the presence of the demonstrator or after she left the room. Results showed a significant main effect of the demonstration context (presence or absence of the human's communicative signals), and we also found some evidence for the response-modifying effect of the presence of the human demonstrator during the dogs' choice. That is, dogs predominantly chose the baited container, but if the demonstration context was communicative and the human was present during the dogs' choice, subjects' tendency to select the baited container has been reduced. In agreement with the studies showing sensitivity to human's communicative signals in dogs, these findings point to a special form of social influence in observational learning situations when it comes to learning about causally opaque and less efficient (compared to what comes natural to the dog) action demonstrations.

  17. Effects of production conditions on yield and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from rice husk and oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Saba; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Sapari, Nasiman B

    2016-09-01

    Biochar is the bio-solid material produced by pyrolysis. The biochar properties are controlled by feedstock and pyrolysis variables. In this study, the impacts of these production variables on biochar yield and physicochemical properties including pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) content, surface area, and pore volume and size were investigated. Rice husk (RH) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were used as biomass. The biochars were produced at temperature range of 300 to 700 °C, heating rate of 3 to 10 °C/min and retention time of 1 to 3 h. The pyrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) technique to maximize the values of the responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results demonstrated that the data fitted well to the linear and quadratic equations. Temperature was found to be the most effective parameter on the responses followed by retention time and heating rate, sequentially. CEC, TOC, surface area, and pore characteristics were evaluated as biochar properties determining their sorption potential. The optimum conditions for the maximum values of the properties were temperatures of 700 and 493.44 °C and time of 3 and 1 h for RH and EFB biochars, respectively. Heating rate at 3 °C/min was found to be the best rate for both biochars. The structure of EFB biomass was more sensitive to heating than rice husk. The biomass type and the production variables were demonstrated as the direct effective factors on biochar yield and physicochemical properties.

  18. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in the new solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)/Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride (TBAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliza, M. Y.; Shahruddin, M.; Noormaziah, J.; Rosli, W. D. Wan

    2015-06-01

    The surplus of Oil Palm is the most galore wastes in Malaysia because it produced about half of the world palm oil production, which contributes a major disposal problem Synthesis from an empty fruit bunch produced products such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC), could apply in diverse application such as for paper coating, food packaging and most recently, the potential as biomaterials has been revealed. In this study, CMC was prepared by firstly dissolved the bleached pulp from OPEFB in mixture solution of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without any prior chemical modification. It took only 30 minutes to fully dissolve at temperature 60°C before sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added for activation and monochloroacetateas terrifying agent. The final product is appeared in white powder, which is then will be analyzedby FTIR analysis. FTIR results show peaks appeared at wavenumber between 1609 cm-1 to 1614 cm-1 proved the existence of carboxymethyl groups which substitute OH groups at anhydroglucose(AGU) unit. As a conclusion, mixture solution of DMSO/TBAF is the suitable solvent used for dissolved cellulose before modifying it into CMC with higher Degree of Substitution (DS). Furthermore, the dissolution of the OPEFB bleached pulp was easy, simple and at a faster rate without prior chemical modification at temperature as low as 60°C.

  19. Preparation and characterization of poly(ethyl hydrazide)-grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre for the removal of Cu(II) ions from an aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Johari, Ili Syazana; Yusof, Nor Azah; Haron, Md Jelas; Nor, Siti Mariam Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ethyl hydrazide)-grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre (peh-g-opefb) was successfully prepared by heating poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted opefb (pma-g-opefb) at 60 °C for 4 h with a solution of hydrazine hydrate (15% v/v) in ethanol. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the product shows a secondary amine peak at 3267 cm⁻¹, with amide carbonyl peaks at 1729 cm⁻¹ and 1643 cm⁻¹. The chelating ability of peh-g-opefb was tested with copper ion in aqueous solution. A batch adsorption study revealed that maximum adsorption of copper ion was achieved at pH 5. An isotherm study showed the adsorption follows a Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 43.48 mg g-1 at 25 °C. A kinetic study showed that the adsorption of copper ion rapidly reaches equilibrium and follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with a constant rate of 7.02 × 10⁻⁴ g mg⁻¹ min⁻¹ at 25 °C. The Gibbs free energy, ∆G⁰, value is negative, indicating a spontaneous sorption process. Entropy, ∆S⁰, gives a positive value, indicating that the system is becoming increasingly disordered after the adsorption of copper ion. A positive enthalpy value, ∆H⁰, shows that the endothermic process takes place during the adsorption and is more favourable at high temperatures. PMID:23873385

  20. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groucutt, Huw S.; White, Tom S.; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Parton, Ash; Crassard, Rémy; Shipton, Ceri; Jennings, Richard P.; Parker, Adrian G.; Breeze, Paul S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    The Empty Quarter (or Rub' al Khali) of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest continuous sandy desert in the world. It has been known for several decades that Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, representing phases of wetter climate, are preserved there. These sequences have yielded palaeontological evidence in the form of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils and have been dated using various radiometric techniques. However, evidence for human presence during these wetter phases has until now been ephemeral. Here, we report on the first stratified and dated archaeology from the Empty Quarter, recovered from the site of Mundafan Al-Buhayrah (MDF-61). Human occupation at the site, represented by stone tools, has been dated to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 using multiple luminescence dating techniques (multigrain and single grain OSL, TT-OSL). The sequence consists primarily of lacustrine and palustrine sediments, from which evidence for changing local environmental conditions has been obtained through analysis of fossil assemblages (phytoliths and non-marine molluscs and ostracods). The discovery of securely-dated archaeological material at ∼100 to 80 ka in the Empty Quarter has important implications for hypotheses concerning the timing and routes of dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa, which have been much debated. Consequently, the data presented here fill a crucial gap in palaeoenvironmental and archaeological understanding of the southern Arabian interior. Fossils of H. sapiens in the Levant, also dated to MIS 5, together with Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites in Arabia and India are thought to represent the earliest dispersal of our species out of Africa. We suggest that the widespread occurrence of similar lithic technologies across southern Asia, coupled with a growing body of evidence for environmental amelioration across the Saharo-Arabian belt, indicates that occupation of the Levant by H. sapiens during MIS 5