Science.gov

Sample records for abomasal emptying rate

  1. Effect of spiramycin and tulathromycin on abomasal emptying rate in milk-fed calves

    PubMed Central

    Rashnavadi, Mehdi; Nouri, Mohammad; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad R.; Najafzadeh, Housain; Constable, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired abomasal motility is common in cattle with abomasal disorders. The macrolide erythromycin has been demonstrated to be an effective prokinetic agent in healthy calves and in adult cattle with abomasal volvulus or left displaced abomasum. We hypothesized that 2 structurally related macrolides, spiramycin and tulathromycin, would also be effective prokinetic agents in cattle. Six milk-fed, male, Holstein-Friesian calves were administered each of the following 4 treatments: spiramycin, 75 000 IU/kg BW, IM, this dose approximates 25 mg/kg BW, IM; tulathromycin, 2.5 mg/kg BW, SC; 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl (negative control); and erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg BW, IM (positive control). Calves were fed 2 L of cow’s milk containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg body weight) 30 min after each treatment was administered and jugular venous blood samples were obtained periodically after the start of sucking. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed by the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Spiramycin, tulathromycin, and the positive control erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate compared to the negative control. We conclude that the labeled antimicrobial dose of spiramycin and tulathromycin increases the abomasal emptying rate in healthy milk-fed calves. Additional studies investigating whether spiramycin and tulathromycin exert a prokinetic effect in adult cattle with abomasal hypomotility appear indicated. PMID:24396182

  2. Effect of spiramycin and tulathromycin on abomasal emptying rate in milk-fed calves.

    PubMed

    Rashnavadi, Mehdi; Nouri, Mohammad; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad R; Najafzadeh, Housain; Constable, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Impaired abomasal motility is common in cattle with abomasal disorders. The macrolide erythromycin has been demonstrated to be an effective prokinetic agent in healthy calves and in adult cattle with abomasal volvulus or left displaced abomasum. We hypothesized that 2 structurally related macrolides, spiramycin and tulathromycin, would also be effective prokinetic agents in cattle. Six milk-fed, male, Holstein-Friesian calves were administered each of the following 4 treatments: spiramycin, 75 000 IU/kg BW, IM, this dose approximates 25 mg/kg BW, IM; tulathromycin, 2.5 mg/kg BW, SC; 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl (negative control); and erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg BW, IM (positive control). Calves were fed 2 L of cow's milk containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg body weight) 30 min after each treatment was administered and jugular venous blood samples were obtained periodically after the start of sucking. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed by the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Spiramycin, tulathromycin, and the positive control erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate compared to the negative control. We conclude that the labeled antimicrobial dose of spiramycin and tulathromycin increases the abomasal emptying rate in healthy milk-fed calves. Additional studies investigating whether spiramycin and tulathromycin exert a prokinetic effect in adult cattle with abomasal hypomotility appear indicated.

  3. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  4. Normal rate of ventricular emptying in valvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, S M; Gash, A K; Bove, A A; Spann, J F

    1981-01-01

    The delayed upstroke of the arterial pulse in valvular aortic stenosis has been attributed, in part, to prolonged left ventricular emptying. Left ventricular emptying rate, however, has not been measured in aortic stenosis. We assessed the rate of left ventricular emptying by computer analysis of biplane cineangiograms in seven normal subjects, six patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, and 12 patients with severe aortic stenosis. As an indicator of delayed arterial pulse rise, T time index (time to half maximum aortic pressure corrected for heart rate) was measured in each group. T time index averaged 0.07 +/- 0.01 units in normal subjects, 0.14 +/- 0.04 units in the patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, and 0.13 +/- 0.05 units in those with severe aortic stenosis. Patients with mild to moderate and severe aortic stenosis differed significantly from normal subjects. Relative emptying rates were defined as the percentage of initial systolic volume ejected divided by the percentage of systole elapsed. These relative emptying rates were determined during the first, second, and third thirds of systole in all three groups. No significant decrease in the relative rate of left ventricular emptying was noted when each group of patients with aortic stenosis was compared with the normal subjects. Neither was there slowing in the actual rate of ejection of blood in ml per second throughout systole. We conclude that the rate of ventricular emptying is normal in aortic stenosis and does not explain the arterial pulse delay in this disease. PMID:7295438

  5. Mechanism‐Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, DP; Hansen, M; Bagger, JI; Lund, A; Rehfeld, JF; Alskär, O; Karlsson, MO; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, FK; Bergstrand, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism‐based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin concentrations were not predictive of GBE, and an alternative model linking the nutrients amount in the upper intestine to GBE was preferred. Relative to fats, the potency on GBE was 68% for proteins and 2.3% for carbohydrates. The model predictions were robust across a broad range of nutritional content and may potentially be used to predict postprandial changes in drug absorption. PMID:28028939

  6. [Abomasal ulcers in cattle].

    PubMed

    Hund, Alexandra; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-03-29

    Abomasal ulcers lead to several problems. They cause pain resulting in a decrease in productivity and even the possible loss of the animal. Because they are frequently difficult to diagnose, information on their prevalence is variable. Additionally, therapeutic options are limited. Abomasal ulcers are graded as type 1 through 4, type 1 being a superficial defect and type 2 an ulcer where a large blood vessel has been eroded, leading to substantial blood loss. Types 3 and 4 are perforated abomasal ulcers leading to local and diffuse peritonitis, respectively. Causes of abomasal ulcers are multifactorial, for example, mistakes in feeding that lead to gastrointestinal disturbances or other diseases that induce stress. Ulcers can also result from side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In principal, the pathophysiological cause is the disturbance of the balance between protective and aggressive mechanisms at the abomasal mucosa due to stress. Clinical symptoms vary and are mostly non-specific. Fecal occult blood tests, hematology and blood chemistry as well as ultrasonographic examination and abdominocentesis can help to establish the diagnosis. Ulcers can be treated symptomatically, surgically and medically. To prevent abomasal ulcers, animals should be kept healthy by providing adequate nutrition and housing as well as early and effective medical care. Stressful management practices, including transport and commingling, should be avoided.

  7. Specific food structures supress appetite through reduced gastric emptying rate.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Alan R; Rafiee, Hameed; Malcolm, Paul; Salt, Louise; van Aken, George

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which gastric layering and retention of a meal could be used to reduce appetite using the same caloric load. Liquid (control) and semi-solid (active) meals were produced with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate, and mass. These were fed to 10 volunteers on separate days in a crossover study, and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents, and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) were assessed over a period of 3 h. The active meal showed food boluses in the stomach persisting for ~45 min, slower emptying rates, and lower plasma CCK levels over the first hour. After the first hour, both gastric emptying rates and plasma CCK levels were similar for both systems and slightly increased compared with the unfed situation. Despite the lower plasma CCK levels for the active meal over the first hour, this meal reduced appetite more than the control meal over the 3 h of the study. For a moderately increased plasma CCK level in the fed state, appetite was correlated with the volume of gastric contents rather than gastric emptying rates or plasma CCK. This suggests that enhanced gastric retention was the key factor in decreasing appetite and was probably mediated by a combination of intestinal nutrient sensing and increased viscosity in the stomach.

  8. Observations on the relation between alcohol absorption and the rate of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S

    1981-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is absorbed slowly from the stomach and rapidly from the small intestine, and the rate of its absorption depends on the rate of gastric emptying. When gastric emptying is fast, the absorption of alcohol is fast. When gastric emptying is slow the absorption of alcohol is delayed and peak blood alcohol concentrations are reduced. Alterations of the gastric emptying rate, which may have a physiologic, pharmacologic or pathologic cause, markedly influence the rate of alcohol absorption. The gastric emptying rate makes an important contribution to inter- and intraindividual variations in the rate of alcohol absorption and therefore the timing and magnitude of the acute intoxicating effect of an oral dose of alcohol. PMID:7459787

  9. Relation between gastric emptying rate and energy intake in children compared with adults.

    PubMed Central

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Geypens, B J; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids in children is difficult because the available methods are either invasive or induce a substantial radiation burden. In this study the newly developed 13C octanoic acid breath test was used to examine the gastric emptying rate of solids and milk in healthy children and to compare gastric emptying in children and adults. Fifteen healthy children and three groups of nine healthy adults were studied, using three different test meals labelled with 50 mg of 13C octanoic acid: a low caloric pancake (150 kcal), a high caloric pancake (250 kcal), and 210 ml of milk (134 kcal). Breath samples were taken before and at regular intervals after ingestion of the test meal, and analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The gastric emptying parameters were derived from the 13CO2 excretion curves by non-linear regression analysis. No significant difference was found between children and adults in the emptying rate of the low caloric solid test meal. In children as well as in adults, increasing the energy content of the solid meal resulted in a significantly slower emptying rate. The milk test meal, however, was emptied at a faster rate in adults and at slower rate in children compared with the low caloric solid test meal. Moreover, the emptying rate of milk in children was significantly slower than in adults. In conclusion, a similar gastric emptying rate of solids but a slower emptying of full cream milk was shown in children of school age compared with adults, using the non-radioactive 13C octanoic acid breath test. PMID:7883214

  10. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Subsequent Gastric Emptying Rate in Humans.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gethin H; Watson, Phillip; Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2016-04-01

    Previous investigations have suggested that exercise at intensities greater than 70% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) reduces gastric emptying rate during exercise, but little is known about the effect of exercise intensity on gastric emptying in the postexercise period. To examine this, 8 healthy participants completed 3 experimental trials that included 30 min of rest (R), low-intensity (L; 33% of peak power output) exercise, or high-intensity (H; 10 × 1 min at peak power output followed by 2 min rest) exercise. Thirty minutes after completion of exercise, participants ingested 595 ml of a 5% glucose solution, and gastric emptying rate was assessed via the double-sampling gastric aspiration method for 60 min. No differences (p > .05) were observed in emptying characteristics for total stomach volume or test meal volume between the trials, and the quantity of glucose delivered to the intestine did not differ between trials (p > .05). Half-emptying times did not differ (p = .902) between trials and amounted to 22 ± 9, 22 ± 9, and 22 ± 7 min (M ± SD) during the R, L, and H trials, respectively. These results suggest that exercise has little effect on postexercise gastric emptying rate of a glucose solution.

  11. The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

  12. A review of methods for assessment of the rate of gastric emptying in the dog and cat: 1898-2002.

    PubMed

    Wyse, C A; McLellan, J; Dickie, A M; Sutton, D G M; Preston, T; Yam, P S

    2003-01-01

    Gastric emptying is the process by which food is delivered to the small intestine at a rate and in a form that optimizes intestinal absorption of nutrients. The rate of gastric emptying is subject to alteration by physiological, pharmacological, and pathological conditions. Gastric emptying of solids is of greater clinical significance because disordered gastric emptying rarely is detectable in the liquid phase. Imaging techniques have the disadvantage of requiring restraint of the animal and access to expensive equipment. Radiographic methods require administration of test meals that are not similar to food. Scintigraphy is the gold standard method for assessment of gastric emptying but requires administration of a radioisotope. Magnetic resonance imaging has not yet been applied for assessment of gastric emptying in small animals. Ultrasonography is a potentially useful, but subjective, method for assessment of gastric emptying in dogs. Gastric tracer methods require insertion of gastric or intestinal cannulae and are rarely applied outside of the research laboratory. The paracetamol absorption test has been applied for assessment of liquid phase gastric emptying in the dog, but requires IV cannulation. The gastric emptying breath test is a noninvasive method for assessment of gastric emptying that has been applied in dogs and cats. This method can be carried out away from the veterinary hospital, but the effects of physiological and pathological abnormalities on the test are not known. Advances in technology will facilitate the development of reliable methods for assessment of gastric emptying in small animals.

  13. The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Adora M. W.; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J.; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the 13C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in accelerated gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. No differences in GIP, GLP-1, or insulin incremental area under curve (iAUC) were found between control and supplement trials for either fructose or glucose ingestion. However, a trend for lower ghrelin iAUC was observed for FS compared to FC. In addition, a trend of lower GHR concentration was observed at 45 min for FS compared to FC and GHR concentration for GS was greater than GC at 10 min. The accelerated gastric emptying rate of fructose following short-term supplementation with fructose may be partially explained by subtle changes in delayed postprandial ghrelin suppression. PMID:28287413

  14. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  15. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a /sup 99m/technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it.

  16. Effects of aeration rate on degradation process of oil palm empty fruit bunch with kinetic-dynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of different aeration rates on the organic matter (OM) degradation during the active phase of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)-rabbit manure co-composting process under constant forced-aeration system has been studied. Four different aeration rates, 0.13 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.49 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) and 0.74 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) were applied. 0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) provided enough oxygen level (10%) for the rest of composting period, showing 40.5% of OM reduction that is better than other aeration rates. A dynamic mathematical model describing OM degradation, based on the ratio between OM content and initial OM content with correction functions of moisture content, free air space, oxygen and temperature has been proposed.

  17. Regulation of gastric emptying rate and its role in nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion in rats after vertical sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Adam P; Smith, Eric P; Begg, Denovan P; Grayson, Bernadette E; Sisley, Stephanie; Greer, Todd; Sorrell, Joyce; Lemmen, Lisa; LaSance, Kati; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J; D'Alessio, David A; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2014-02-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are effective weight loss surgeries that also improve glucose metabolism. Rapid, early rises of circulating insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations following food ingestion are characteristic of these procedures. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that postprandial hormone release is due to increased nutrient emptying from the stomach. Radioscintigraphy and chemical and radiolabeled tracers were used to examine gastric emptying in rat models of VSG and RYGB surgery. Intraduodenal nutrient infusions were used to assess intestinal GLP-1 secretion and nutrient sensitivity in VSG rats compared with shams. Five minutes after a nutrient gavage, the stomachs of RYGB and VSG rats were completely emptied, whereas only 6.1% of the nutrient mixture had emptied from sham animals. Gastric pressure was increased in VSG animals, and rats with this procedure did not inhibit gastric emptying normally in response to increasing caloric loads of dextrose or corn oil, and they did not respond to neural or endocrine effectors of gastric motility. Finally, direct infusion of liquid nutrients into the duodenum caused significantly greater GLP-1 release in VSG compared with shams, indicating that increases in GLP-1 secretion after VSG are the result of both greater gastric emptying rates and altered responses at the level of the intestine. These findings demonstrate greatly accelerated gastric emptying in rat models of RYGB and VSG. In VSG this is likely due to increased gastric pressure and reduced responses to inhibitory feedback from the intestine.

  18. Estimation of calcium and phosphorus content in growing and finishing pigs: whole empty body components and relative accretion rates.

    PubMed

    Pettey, L A; Cromwell, G L; Jang, Y D; Lindemann, M D

    2015-01-01

    Two comparative serial-slaughter experiments were conducted to determine whole empty body (WEB) composition and accretion rates of Ca and P in 18 to 109 kg BW pigs to provide information for modeling of these nutrients for growth. Both studies were conducted with 5 sets of 5 littermate barrows which were allotted to 5 slaughter groups in each study (Exp. 1: 18, 27, 36, 45, and 54 kg BW; Exp. 2: 36, 54, 73, 91, and 109 kg BW). Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets fortified with minerals and vitamins in 2 dietary phases in Exp. 1 (Phase 1: 18 to 36 kg BW; Phase 2: 36 to 54 kg BW) and 3 dietary phases in Exp. 2 (Phase 2: 36 to 54 kg BW; Phase 3: 54 to 78 kg BW; and Phase 4: 78 to 109 kg BW). At the predetermined BW, pigs were slaughtered and separated into body components of hair, hooves, blood, head, viscera, and carcass. The carcass was split along the dorsal midline and the left carcass side was ground for chemical analysis. Whole empty body weight averaged 93.6% and 94.0% of live BW in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. As WEB weight increased in both experiments, the percentage carcass of the WEB linearly (P < 0.05) increased, the percentage viscera linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, and the mass (g) of N, ash, Ca, and P in the WEB increased linearly (R(2) = 0.98). The concentration (g/kg) of P in the WEB of 18 to 54 kg pigs increased from 4.30 to 4.57 (linear; P < 0.05) and for Ca increased from 5.13 to 5.66 (linear; P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, P concentration was not related to WEB weight and Ca concentration increased quadratically (P < 0.05). The relative accretion rate of N to P was 1.00 (R(2) = 0.99) in the pigs from 18 to 54 kg. In conclusion, these results indicate that compositional changes as BW increases are strongly related to P retention and that the quantification of WEB P and relationships of WEB P to other chemical components in the body may be useful for modeling purposes in growing and finishing pigs.

  19. Crop-emptying rate and the design of pesticide risk assessment schemes in the honey bee and wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Alice; Rollin, Orianne; Le Féon, Violette; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël

    2014-02-01

    Recent scientific literature and reports from official sanitary agencies have pointed out the deficiency of current pesticide risk assessment processes regarding sublethal effects on pollinators. Sublethal effects include troubles in learning performance, orientation skills, or mobility, with possible contribution to substantial dysfunction at population scale. However, the study of sublethal effects is currently limited by considerable knowledge gaps, particularly for the numerous pollinators other than the honey bee Apis mellifera L.--the traditional model for pesticide risk assessment in pollinators. Here, we propose to use the crop-emptying time as a rule of thumb to guide the design of oral exposure experiments in the honey bee and wild bees. The administration of contaminated sucrose solutions is typically followed by a fasting time lapse to allow complete assimilation before the behavioral tests. The fasting duration should at least encompass the crop-emptying time, because no absorption takes place in the crop. We assessed crop-emptying rate in fasted bees and how it relates 1) with sucrose solution concentration in the honey bee and 2) with body mass in wild bees. Fasting duration required for complete crop emptying in honey bees fed 20 microl of a 50% sucrose solution was nearly 2 h. Actual fasting durations are usually shorter in toxicological studies, suggesting incomplete crop emptying, and therefore partial assimilation of experimental solutions that could imply underestimation of sublethal effects. We also found faster crop-emptying rates in large wild bees compared with smaller wild bees, and suggest operative rules to adapt sublethal assessment schemes accordingly.

  20. Fitting Emptying Rates of Conservative Contaminants in a Two-Storage Model of a Lateral Cavity in a Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    August, O. K.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Bolster, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recirculating in-stream regions in river flows play a significant role in many physical and biogeochemical processes that control the water quality and fate of contaminants, producing surface storage zones with lower velocities and stresses in the stream. Understanding the behavior of contaminants in these regions of recirculation can provide insight on the impact of lateral cavities on transport in the entire stream. In this investigation, we develop an upscaled, effective model to describe the emptying rate of a contaminant inside a lateral cavity in a channel flow and apply it to data from 3D numerical simulations, based on a DES approach, coupled with an advection-diffusion model to simulate the transport of a passive scalar. Current models of contaminants exiting recirculation zones usually consist of an equation with a first-order mass exchange process between the open channel and the lateral cavity, where the contaminant transfer is modeled as proportional to the mean concentration difference between the cavity and the main channel. Our three-dimensional simulations show that such a model does not work, as the cavity does not appear to be well mixed at all times, but rather is made up of two distinct regions - a central recirculating core and an outer flow. We improve upon the first-order model, by including both storage zones and accounting for exchanges between them. By including these additional exchange processes we are able to successfully reproduce numerical observations over the full range of observed timescales. This research has been supported by Fondecyt grant 1130940 and the Notre Dame Department of Engineering.

  1. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.

  2. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  3. Experimental induction of abdominal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration by intraruminal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens type A in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A

    1988-02-01

    The etiologic role of Clostridum perfringens type A in the acute abdominal syndrome characterized by abomasal and rumen tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration was investigated in neonatal calves. Eight calves, 4 to 12 days old, were inoculated intraruminally with toxigenic C perfringens type A. Before and after C perfringens inoculation, blood samples were collected from all calves for blood gas and serum biochemical analysis and for determination of serum copper concentration; ruminal fluid was obtained for isolation of C perfringens. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of the syndrome and, depending on the severity of clinical signs, they were either euthanatized or redosed within 4 to 7 days. After necropsy, specimens obtained from the abomasum and rumen for macroscopic and microscopic examination and for anaerobic bacteriologic culture were processed in routine manner. Intraruminal inoculation of C perfringens type A into healthy calves induced anorexia, depression, bloat, diarrhea, and in some calves, death. Serum copper concentration was within normal range. Necropsy revealed variable degrees of abomasitis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and ulcers (ranging from pinpoint to nearly perforate) in the abomasum. Seven of those calves also had multiple trichobezoars in the rumen. These necropsy findings were not seen in calves (controls) given distilled H2O only. In affected calves, acute abdominal syndrome was unrelated to copper deficiency, and C perfringens type A given intraruminally was able to induce clinical signs similar to those of the naturally acquired disease.

  4. Effect of dietary or abomasal supplementation of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; McAllister, T A; Cheng, K J

    1998-12-01

    The effect of site of supplementation of a mixture of two crude preparations (Enzyme C and Enzyme X) of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (EPDE) was studied in vivo using four ruminally and duodenally cannulated heifers (Exp. 1). The treatments were as follows: control (no EPDE), EPDE supplied through the diet (EF, 47.0 g/d), and EPDE infused continuously into the abomasum (EA, 41.6 g/d). Enzyme treatment increased the concentration of soluble reducing sugars (P < .05) and decreased NDF content (P < .05) in the treated feed, but this did not increase the rate or extent of in sacco disappearance of DM from the feed. Compared with control, ruminal fermentation was not affected by EF, but abomasal infusion increased (P < .05) rumen ammonia levels and shifted ruminal VFA patterns. Ruminal carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase activities were not affected by treatment. Abomasal infusion increased (P < .05) duodenal xylanase activity as compared with control and EF, but apparent digestion of DM, NDF, and CP were not affected by treatment. Negligible levels of CMCase and amylase reached the duodenum. During an in vitro experiment (Exp. 2), abomasal stability of the two EPDE was studied over a range of pH from 3.39 to .85, with or without pepsin. Carboxymethylcellulase activity (in Enzymes C and X) and beta-glucanase activity (in Enzyme C) were largely unstable against pepsin proteolysis (P < .001) and low pH (P < .001). Xylanase and amylase activities were resistant to pepsin but irreversibly inactivated at low pH. These two experiments showed that abomasal supplementation of EPDE did not successfully supply cellulases and amylases to the intestine, due partially to their limited resistance to low pH and pepsin proteolysis. Although EPDE significantly increased the level of xylanase activity at the duodenum, this did not significantly improve total tract digestion.

  5. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P< 0·05): the half gastric emptying time of DM was 137 v. 172 min ( ± 7·4 min pooled standard error) for the diets with and without actinidin, respectively. The presence of dietary actinidin in the stomach chyme increased the digestion of beef muscle protein (P< 0·05) and, more specifically, those proteins with a high molecular weight (>34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins.

  6. Effects of abomasal oligofructose on blood and feces of Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Mainardi, S R; Hengst, B A; Nebzydoski, S J; Nemec, L M; Gressley, T F

    2011-08-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis can result in increased flow of fermentable substrates to the hindgut, which can negatively affect animal health and productivity. However, animal responses to increased hindgut fermentation independent of subacute ruminal acidosis have rarely been evaluated. This study determined the impact of abomasal dosage of a fermentable carbohydrate on animal performance and blood and fecal variables. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers fed a lactating dairy cow ration were used in a crossover design study with 14-d periods. On d 13 of each period, steers were infused abomasally with a pulse dose of 0 (control) or 1 (Oligo) g of oligofructose/kg of BW. Blood samples collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h after abomasal oligofructose dose were evaluated for metabolites (blood urea N, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and NEFA) and systemic inflammatory markers (Cu, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin). Fecal samples, rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h after abomasal dosage. Fecal samples were assayed for pH, DM percentage, consistency score (1=liquid to 5=coarse), and organic acid concentrations. Data were evaluated using a model including the fixed effects of treatment, time after dosage, and their interaction. Effects of treatment or treatment × time were not significant for DMI, blood variables, rectal temperature, or respiratory rate. Fecal pH was slightly reduced for Oligo compared with control steers (6.76 vs. 7.02; P=0.04). A treatment × time interaction occurred for fecal DM (P < 0.001). Compared with control steers, DM content of feces was reduced in Oligo steers at 6 h (12.6 vs. 15.2%) but increased at 9 h (16.3 vs. 15.0%) and 12 h (16.5 vs. 15.0). Fecal consistency score was reduced by the Oligo treatment at 6 h (1.44 vs. 2.83; P < 0.001) and 9 h (1.83 vs. 2.67; P=0.005). A treatment × time interaction was detected for fecal concentrations of lactate and acetate (P < 0.05) and tended

  7. [Nasal, pulmonary, and abomasal aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) in a calf].

    PubMed

    Breuer, W; Stoll, A; Hörmansdorfer, S; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Hafner-Marx, A; Deischl, K

    2015-07-01

    This study presents a case of nasal aspergillosis in a 17-days old calf (German Fleckvieh): it had been admitted moribund to the Clinic for Ruminants of the University of Munich, and died after a short time. Pathologically, the calf was diagnosed with purulent-necrotizing rhinitis, necrotizing pneumonia, and diphtheroid-necrotizing abomasitis. Histologically, fungal elements were found in all the localizations mentioned before, and mycologically, Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from nasal cavity. Pathogenesis is discussed.

  8. Studies on the pH value of abomasal contents in dairy cows during the first 3 weeks after calving.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, S C L; Müller, K E; Kuiper, R; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2002-04-01

    The pH value of the abomasal contents in adult cattle is normally constant and has a value of 2. Abomasal contents with pH values of 5.5 and higher could give rise to bacterial fermentation with subsequent gas production. The accumulation of gas is thought to form a key event in the pathogenesis of abomasal displacement. The aim of the present study was to determine the pH values of abomasal contents of dairy cows in the first 3 weeks after calving. The pH of the abomasal contents was, over several days. higher than the pH value of the abomasal juice in mid-lactation cows. The highest pH values were measured on day 14 after calving, thereafter the pH declined. Possible explanations for the rise in the pH value of the abomasal contents are discussed.

  9. [The therapy of hypovolemic shock in cows with right-sided abomasal displacement].

    PubMed

    Goetze, L; Müller, M

    1990-05-01

    In this trial, the effect of supplementary administration of the opioid antagonist Naloxone was tested, in comparison to infusion of Ringer's-solution only, in the treatment of hypovolemic shock in cows suffering from right-sided abomasal displacement. Twenty cows were selected by several criteria (pulse rate greater than 95/min; plasma chloride content less than 90 mmol/l; body temperature less than 39.5 degrees C) and alternatively assigned to the Naloxone group and the control group. All animals were treated surgically by the usual clinical method. After opening the abdominal cavity paralumbally from the right, intravenous administration of 13 l of Ringer's-solution was started and continued for about 5 hours. In addition, the cows of the experimental group received 0.75 g Naloxone as an intravenous bolus before, and 1 g Naloxone dissolved in 7 l fluid during the first hour of the permanent drip infusion. Further treatments (additional fluid therapy or administration of purgatives and ruminomotorics on the following days) were given according to the condition of the animal. The evaluation of efficacy was done in regard to the clinical (course of disease), and clinicochemical (e.g. hemogram, blood gas analysis, plasma chloride, plasma lactate) parameters as well as to blood pressure. No statistically significant differences were found between both groups. Only nine of the twenty cows were sent home cured, one patient of each group died one day after surgery, and the remaining 9 animals had to be sent to the slaughterhouse within 3 to 22 days after surgery after only transient improvement. These results suggest, that under the conditions described, conventional fluid therapy is equivalent to fluid therapy with addition of Naloxone. Hypoxic damage of the abomasum caused by its displacement and the subsequent hypovolemic shock are discussed as main causes for the poor postsurgical prognosis of right-sided abomasal displacement.

  10. Towards sustainable sanitation management: Establishing the costs and willingness to pay for emptying and transporting sludge in rural districts with high rates of access to latrines

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Richard; Ahmed, Rizwan; Habib, Ahasan; Asad, N. S. M.; Rahman, Mominur; Hasan, M.; Dey, Digbijoy; Fletcher, Louise; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Chaitanya Rao, Krishna; Fernando, Sudarshana

    2017-01-01

    Motivation Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood. Methods In this paper we calculate the actual cost of sludge management from onsite latrines, and identify the contributions that latrine owners are willing to make to finance the costs. A spreadsheet-based model is used to identify a cost-effective transport option, and to calculate the cost per household. Then a double-bound contingent valuation method is used to elicit from pit-latrine owners their willingness-to-pay to have sludge transported away. This methodology is employed for the case of a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh called Bhaluka, a unit of administration at which sludge management services are being piloted by the Government of Bangladesh. Results The typical sludge accumulation rate in Bhaluka is calculated at 0.11 liters/person/day and a typical latrine will need to be emptied approximately once every 3 to 4 years. The costs of emptying and transport are high; approximately USD 13 per emptying event (circa 14% of average monthly income); household contributions could cover around 47% of this cost. However, if costs were spread over time, the service would cost USD 4 per year per household, or USD 0.31 per month per household—comparable to current expenditures of rural households on telecommunications. Conclusion This is one of few research papers that brings the costs of waste management together with financing of that cost, to provide evidence for an implementable solution. This framework can be used to identify cost effective sludge management options and private

  11. Effect of abomasal infusion of aspartate on nitrogen balance and plasma amino acids in Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Wessels, R H; Titgemeyer, E C

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of abomasally infused aspartate (Asp) on N balance and plasma amino acids in steers. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (180 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in an experiment designed as a 4 x 3 Youden square. Steers received continuous abomasal infusions of water or water containing 40 or 80 g Asp/d. Steers were fed twice daily a diet containing 473 g/kg corn, 463 g/kg alfalfa hay and 52 g/kg soybean meal at levels near ad libitum intake. Abomasally infused Asp had no effect on N balance. Infusion of 80 g Asp/d increased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of Asp, glutamate and alanine. Metabolism of Asp by gut tissues probably prevented the large change in plasma concentration of Asp that seems necessary to trigger hormonal responses. We conclude that abomasal supplementation of steers with up to 80 g/d of Asp does not enhance performance.

  12. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  13. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on alanine metabolism and urea production in sheep.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, T; Bremner, D; Milne, E; Lobley, G E

    2000-08-01

    The effect of abomasal infusion of glucose (120 kJ/d per kg body weight (BW)0.75, 758 mmol/d) on urea production, plasma alanine-N flux rate and the conversion of alanine-N to urea was studied in sheep offered a low-N diet at limited energy intake (500 kJ/d per kg BW0.75), based on hay and grass pellets. Glucose provision reduced urinary N (P = 0.040) and urea (P = 0.009) elimination but this was offset by poorer N digestibility. Urea-N production was significantly reduced (822 v. 619 mmol/d, P = 0.024) by glucose while plasma alanine-N flux rate was elevated (295 v. 342 mmol/d, P = 0.011). The quantity of urea-N derived from alanine tended to be decreased by glucose (127 v. 95 mmol/d) but the fraction of urea production from alanine was unaltered (15%). Plasma urea and alanine concentrations (plus those of the branched chain amino acids) decreased in response to exogenous glucose, an effect probably related to enhanced anabolic usage of amino acids and lowered urea production.

  14. [Short communication: ultrasonographic examination of the abomasal position in dairy cows during the peripartal period].

    PubMed

    Sendag, S; Seeger, T; Wehrend, A

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to document the abomasal position during the peripartal period by ultrasonographic measurement to get more data about the topographic dynamic. In 12 dairy cows the abomasal position was measured daily from the 5th day before calving up to the 5th day after calving by a transabdominal ultrasonographic examination (5 MHz convex transducer). The abomasal position was described by means of 3 measured distances: (a) the distance between the cranial margin of the abomasum and the xiphoid cartilage, (b) the distance between the right margin of the abomasum and the median line and (c) the distance between the left margin of the abomasum and the median line. Prepartal the abomasal position was different from the position during the postpartal period. Its position was more cranially (p < 0.05) and more right laterally (p < 0.05). The left margin was not detectable at the left side of the mid-line ante partum. Directly after calving the left margin of the abomasum was found left of the linea alba (p < 0.05). These results show that there is a great influence of the gravid uterus on the abomasal position. The abomasum is positioned more cranially and more right lateral during the end of pregnancy. This position changes immediately after calving.

  15. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  16. Morbid obesity treated by gastroplasty: radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Arnstein, N.B.; Shapiro, B.; Eckhauser, F.E.; Dmuchowski, C.F.; Knol, J.A.; Strodel, W.E.; Nakajo, M.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-08-01

    Mechanisms by which gastroplasty for morbid obesity causes weight loss are poorly understood. The authors studied the role of altered gastric emptying in 50 patients before surgery, 1-4 weeks after surgery, and 2-24 months after surgery using technetium-99m pentetate in water for liquid meals and a Tc-99m styrene divinylbenzene copolymer resin in oatmeal for semisolid meals. They determined the emptying half-times of the stomach before and after surgery in the proximal and distal compartments. The proximal compartment emptied promptly in the early and late postoperative periods. The distal compartment emptied liquid at rates similar to those before surgery, while the late postoperative emptying of semisolids was significantly faster. No correlation was seen between the emptying half-times or changes thereof and eventual weight loss. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore not the mechanism for satiety and weight loss after gastroplasty has been performed.

  17. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abomasal transcriptome of Angus cattle in response to parasitic infection was characterized at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample using RNA-seq. These cattle displayed a distinctly separate resistance phenotype in terms of fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23,633 bovine gene...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOOL TO INSERT ABOMASAL INFUSION LINES INTO DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tool was developed to aid in ruminal insertion of abomasal infusion lines into dairy cows. The tool consisted of two pieces cut from polyvinyl chloride pipe. The first piece of pipe, the insertion tool, contained a groove that held the flexible plastic flange that was on the end of the infusion ...

  19. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most important helminth parasite for small ruminants. Here we characterized the impact of helminth infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were exposed to 5,000 H. contortus L3 larvae for 50 days. Six age-matched goats served a...

  20. Psychoanalytic perspectives on emptiness.

    PubMed

    Levy, S T

    1984-01-01

    A clinical example illustrates the thesis that the experience of feeling empty, like any other mental event, can be understood in terms of the conflicting wishes, prohibitions , compromises, and gratifications that color any experience in ways that clarify its meaning. Theoretical hypotheses which explain mental events and experiences as the result of deficiencies of structures are difficult to translate into therapeutic practices. This is especially true in the case of the experience of emptiness which, in and of itself and often vigorously, asserts an absence of content. The equating of deficiencies of structures, however formulated, with deficiencies in mental content or activity can result in unconsciously joining the empty patient in repudiating important aspects of internal life, maintaining ultimately pathological gratifications , and often contributing to treatment stalemates in which the "absence of content" is often preferred to the presence of frightening wishes, fantasies, and memories.

  1. Gastric Emptying and Vagus Nerve Function After Laparoscopic Partial Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, Maud Y. A.; Ringers, Jan; van Rijn, Pieter J. J.; Neijenhuis, Peter; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.; Masclee, Ad A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the relation between vagus nerve dysfunction, gastric emptying, and antireflux surgery. Summary Background Data: Delayed gastric emptying occurs in up to 40% of reflux patients. After antireflux surgery, gastric emptying becomes normal or is even accelerated. Occasionally, severe gastric stasis is found and is associated with a negative outcome of the antireflux procedure. It has been suggested that injury to the vagus nerve could be the cause of this delayed emptying. Methods: We evaluated in a prospective study gastric emptying of solids and vagus nerve function (pancreatic polypeptide response to hypoglycemia) before and after surgery in 41 patients (22 women; age 43 ± 1.6 years) who underwent laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Results: All patients had relief of reflux symptoms varying from adequate (n = 8) to complete relief (n = 33). Gastric emptying of solids increased significantly (P < 0.001) after operation: lag phase from 19 ± 2 to 10 ± 1 minute, emptying rate (%/h) from 37 ± 2 to 48 ± 5 and half emptying time from 110 ± 8 to 81 ± 4 minutes. Gastric emptying improved to a similar extent in patients with delayed and normal preoperative gastric emptying. Postoperative signs of vagus nerve damage (PP peak < 47pmol/L) were present in 4 patients (10%). In these 4 patients gastric emptying both before and after operation did not differ from patients with normal vagus nerve function. In fact, none of the 41 patients had severely delayed emptying after laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Conclusions: Laparoscopic hemifundoplication affects vagus nerve integrity in 10% of patients, but this does not lead to a delay in gastric emptying. In fact, gastric emptying improved significantly after fundoplication. PMID:15492559

  2. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  3. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  4. Age distribution and seasonal dynamics of abomasal helminths in wild red deer from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Santín-Durán, Mónica; Alunda, José M; Hoberg, Eric P; de la Fuente, Concepción

    2008-10-01

    A study on age distribution and seasonal dynamics of abomasal helminths in wild red deer was conducted in central Spain, by monthly samplings of fawns (<1 yr), subadult (1-2 yr), and adult (>2 yr) animals. Both intensity and prevalence of abomasal parasitism were higher in older animals, particularly in males. A bimodal pattern for intensity of infection by gastrointestinal parasites was observed. Maximum values attained in winter and summer may be related to variation in climate and the shifting availability of forage resources. The pattern was largely due to the contribution of Spiculopteragia asymmetrica/Spiculopteragia quadrispiculata, whereas the other species found (Ostertagia leptospicularis/Ostertagia kolchida and Ostertagia drozdzi/Ostertagia ryjikovi) occurred with lower prevalence and intensity of infection. Among these ostertagiines, the ratio for major and minor morphotypes of males of respective species and the relative abundance of males and females were stable through the annual cycle.

  5. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  6. Diabetic gastroparesis: an abnormality of gastric emptying of solids.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Clemente, R; Wathen, R

    1985-06-01

    Gastric emptying is delayed in subjects with gastroparesis diabeticorum. To ascertain whether solid or fluid gastric emptying is affected by visceral autonomic neuropathy, ten severe diabetics with gastroparesis and ten nondiabetic disease matched controls were studied. Subjects were screened to identify the presence or absence of autonomic neuropathy. The gastric emptying of fluids and solids was assessed by standard methodology utilizing a simultaneous dual radionuclide technique. If delayed gastric emptying was present on the initial study, metoclopramide (10mg IV bolus) was administered in a repeat study on a separate day. Screening modalities for autonomic neuropathy were markedly positive for the diabetic group, and were negative in the control group. The gastric emptying rate of fluids was normal in both groups and was not statistically different from previous standards developed using the same methodology (p = 0.53, analysis of covariance). The gastric emptying of solids was markedly delayed in the diabetic group in relation to the control group (p = .0035, analysis of covariance). Metoclopramide normalized delayed solid emptying rates without affecting fluid emptying rates.

  7. Emptiness in agoraphobia patients.

    PubMed

    Milrod, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In light of new research findings about the efficacy of psychodynamic treatment for panic disorder and agoraphobia, it seems a prudent time to carefully address psychoanalytic thinking about the treatment of agoraphobia. The literature has highlighted oedipal contributions to its genesis and clinical unraveling in psychoanalysis. While those contributions are indeed central to the disorder, structural deficits in the self-representation often become a central focus of treatment once symptomatic remission has been achieved in psychoanalytic treatment. This aspect of the clinical presentation of agoraphobia has not yet been specifically addressed in the psychiatric literature. Some aspects of the phenomenon have been described by psychoanalysts. It is more difficult to treat this "emptiness" than the overt symptoms of agoraphobia, as described in DSM-IV. Nonetheless, this phenomenon may be one of the contributors to the chronicity of the disorder. Two clinical cases illustrate these points.

  8. Vagal and splanchnic afferent nerves are not essential for anorexia associated with abomasal parasitism in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fox, M T; Reynolds, G W; Scott, I; Simcock, D C; Simpson, H V

    2006-02-18

    Heavy burdens of the abomasal nematode, Ostertagia (Telodorsagia) circumcincta, in growing lambs result in a reduction in liveweight gain due largely to a drop in voluntary feed intake. The present study investigated: (1) the role of subdiaphragmatic vagal and non-vagal visceral afferent nerves in mediating a reduction in voluntary feed intake, using subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (vagotomy) either alone or in combination with coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy (vagotomy and sympathectomy); and (2) the association between appetite, abomasal pH, selected blood values (amidated gastrin (G-17-amide), glycine-extended gastrin (G-17-Gly), pepsinogen and leptin) and worm burden, in sheep experimentally infected with 100,000 O. circumcincta infective larvae per os. Neither vagotomy alone nor vagotomy and sympathectomy in combination adversely affected the establishment or course of development of the parasite burden, when compared with a control group subject to sham surgery. Furthermore, neither surgical procedure prevented the drop in appetite seen 5-10 days post-infection, although combined vagotomy and sympathectomy did reduce voluntary feed intake prior to the start of the study. Ostertagia infection resulted in a significant increase in abomasal pH in all three groups, which was accompanied by an increase in blood G-17-amide and in G-17-Gly, the latter reported for the first time in parasitized ruminants. There were no significant differences in blood leptin, also reported for the first time in parasitized sheep, either between groups or in comparison with pre-infection levels, though weak negative correlations were established between blood leptin and appetite from day 5 to the end of the study in all three groups and a positive correlation with blood G-17-amide in the control group over the same period. These data suggest that neither intact subdiaphragmatic vagal afferent nerves or coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion fibres, nor changes in

  9. Hyperprolactinaemia and the empty sella.

    PubMed

    Thwin, M; Brophy, B P

    2012-04-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is an endocrine abnormality seen not infrequently in the population with empty sella; a radiological and anatomical diagnosis of a deformed and enlarged sella turcica. Often there is no associated pathology within the pituitary gland itself, lending to the hypothesis that the empty sella syndrome per se has a yet-to-be defined role in hyperprolactinemia. We report a patient who presented initially with non-specific symptoms of meningeal irritation and viral illness on a long background of galactorrhoea. The patient demonstrated elevated serum prolactin, and a diagnosis of empty sella was made on the basis of MRI findings.

  10. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  11. Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes in lambs in a steppe environment (North-Eastern Algeria)

    PubMed Central

    Meradi, Salah; Cabaret, Jacques; Bentounsi, Bourhane

    2016-01-01

    Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes was studied in 30 permanent grazing lambs on a large farm in the North-East of Algeria. The steppe climate has cold winters and hot and dry summers. The lambs were monitored monthly for gastrointestinal nematodes using nematode faecal egg counts, from February 2008 to February 2009. Every 2 months, two of the original 30 permanent lambs were necropsied after being held in pens for three weeks so that recently ingested infective larvae could develop into adults. The highest percentage of fourth stage larvae (L4), reaching 48% of the total worm burden, was recorded in abomasal contents in June. Teladorsagia and other Ostertagiinae constituted the highest percentage of L4 larvae (71%), whereas the percentage of Trichostrongylus (17.4%) or Haemonchus (11.6%) remained low. The dynamics of infection observed here (highest faecal egg count in August) and the stage composition of worm burden (highest percentage of L4 in June) provide strong evidence that arrested development had occurred. PMID:27608531

  12. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E. R.; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml−1 ± 0.13 µg ml−1) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

  13. Promotion of gallbladder emptying by intravenous aminoacids.

    PubMed

    Zoli, G; Ballinger, A; Healy, J; O'Donnell, L J; Clark, M; Farthing, M J

    1993-05-15

    Patients receiving total intravenous nutrition have inert gallbladders; gallbladder sludge and gallstones often develop, but are preventable if gallbladder emptying can be improved. We measured the effect of giving rapid intravenous infusions of aminoacid solutions in eight normal subjects. Four regimens were tested (250 mL over 30 min, 250 mL over 10 min, 125 mL over 5 min, and 50 mL over 5 min). Gallbladder emptying, as measured by ultrasound and cholecystokinin release, depended on both the amount and the rate of aminoacid infusion. Rapid infusion of 125 mL of an aminoacid mixture (Synthamin 14 without electrolytes) over 5 min (2.1 g per min) produced a 64% reduction in gallbladder volume within 30 min, whereas a 50 mL infusion over 5 min produced only a 22% reduction. Intermittent rapid infusion of small amounts of aminoacids may prevent gallstones in patients receiving intravenous nutrition.

  14. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    SciTech Connect

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; Roca-Chiapas, J. M. de ls; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-11

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t{sub 1/2}). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography.

  15. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Rinaldi, Manuela; Capuco, Anthony V

    2011-11-30

    The response of the abomasal transcriptome to gastrointestinal parasites was evaluated in parasite-susceptible and parasite-resistant Angus cattle using RNA-seq at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample. These cattle displayed distinctly separate resistance phenotypes as assessed by fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23,632 bovine genes were expressed in the fundic abomasum. Of these, 13,758 genes were expressed in all samples tested and likely represent core components of the bovine abomasal transcriptome. The gene (BT14427) with the most abundant transcript, accounting for 10.4% of sequences in the transcriptome, is located on chromosome 29 and has unknown functions. Additionally, PIGR (1.6%), Complement C3 (0.7%), and Immunoglobulin J chain (0.5%) were among the most abundant transcripts in the transcriptome. Among the 203 genes impacted, 64 were significantly over-expressed in resistant animals at a stringent cutoff (FDR < 5%). Among the 94 224 splice junctions identified, 133 were uniquely present: 90 were observed only in resistant animals, and 43 were present only in susceptible animals. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment of the genes under study uncovered an association with lipid metabolism, which was confirmed by an independent pathway analysis. Several pathways, such as FXR/RXR activation, LXR/RXR activation, LPS/IL-1 mediated inhibition of RXR function, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were impacted in resistant animals, which are potentially involved in the development of parasite resistance in cattle. Our results provide insights into the development of host immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infection and will facilitate understanding of mechanism underlying host resistance.

  16. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The response of the abomasal transcriptome to gastrointestinal parasites was evaluated in parasite-susceptible and parasite-resistant Angus cattle using RNA-seq at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample. These cattle displayed distinctly separate resistance phenotypes as assessed by fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23 632 bovine genes were expressed in the fundic abomasum. Of these, 13 758 genes were expressed in all samples tested and likely represent core components of the bovine abomasal transcriptome. The gene (BT14427) with the most abundant transcript, accounting for 10.4% of sequences in the transcriptome, is located on chromosome 29 and has unknown functions. Additionally, PIGR (1.6%), Complement C3 (0.7%), and Immunoglobulin J chain (0.5%) were among the most abundant transcripts in the transcriptome. Among the 203 genes impacted, 64 were significantly over-expressed in resistant animals at a stringent cutoff (FDR < 5%). Among the 94 224 splice junctions identified, 133 were uniquely present: 90 were observed only in resistant animals, and 43 were present only in susceptible animals. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment of the genes under study uncovered an association with lipid metabolism, which was confirmed by an independent pathway analysis. Several pathways, such as FXR/RXR activation, LXR/RXR activation, LPS/IL-1 mediated inhibition of RXR function, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were impacted in resistant animals, which are potentially involved in the development of parasite resistance in cattle. Our results provide insights into the development of host immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infection and will facilitate understanding of mechanism underlying host resistance. PMID:22129081

  17. Spatial games with cyclic interactions: the response of empty sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bart; Pleimling, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Predator-prey models of the May-Leonard family employ empty sites in a spatial setting as an intermediate step in the reproduction process. This requirement makes the number and arrangement of empty sites important to the formation of space-time patterns. We study the density of empty sites in a stochastic predator-prey model in which the species compete in a cyclic way in two dimensions. In some cases systems of this type quickly form domains of neutral species after which all predation, and therefore, reproduction occur near the interface of competing domains. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate the relationship of this density of empty sites to the time-dependent domain length. We further explore the dynamics by introducing perturbations to the interaction rates of the system after which we measure the perturbed density, i.e. the response of empty sites, as the system relaxes. A dynamical scaling behavior is observed in the response of empty sites. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1205309.

  18. Sentence Processing with Empty Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Edward; Hickok, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    Pickering and Barry's recent argument against the existence of empty categories (ECs) in human sentence processing is disputed. It is argued here that ECs may still play a linking role between thematic role assigners and wh-phrases. One possible parsing algorithm is given that accounts for Pickering and Barry's data. (28 references) (Author/LB)

  19. Empty Signifiers, Education and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The paper assumes that education is part of the process of discursive construction of society. The theoretical framework on which this argument is based includes Ernesto Laclau's theory of the "ontological impossibility and political necessity of society", and the role discourse and empty signifiers play in the establishment of political…

  20. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  1. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  2. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  3. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  4. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  5. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  6. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  7. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  8. The empty forest revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.

  9. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  10. Effects of abomasal infusion of tallow or camelina oil on responses to glucose and insulin in dairy cows during late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Salin, S; Taponen, J; Elo, K; Simpura, I; Vanhatalo, A; Boston, R; Kokkonen, T

    2012-07-01

    Late pregnancy is associated with moderate insulin resistance in ruminants. Reduced suppression of lipolysis by insulin facilitates mobilization of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from adipose tissue, resulting in elevated plasma NEFA concentrations. Decrease in dry matter intake (DMI) before parturition leads to accelerated lipomobilization and increases plasma NEFA, which may further impair insulin sensitivity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of elevation of plasma NEFA concentration by abomasal infusions tallow (TAL) or camelina oil (CAM) on whole-body responses to exogenous glucose and insulin. We further assessed whether CAM, rich in C18:3n-3, enhances whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with TAL. Six late-pregnant, second-parity, rumen-cannulated dry Ayrshire dairy cows fed grass silage to meet 95% of metabolizable energy requirements were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 5-d periods and 5 recovery days between each period. Treatments consisted of abomasal infusion of 500 mL/d (430 g of lipids/d) of water (control), TAL, or CAM administered in 10 equal doses daily. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and i.v. insulin challenge (IC) were performed on d 5 after 98 and 108 h of treatment infusions, respectively. Infusion of lipids increased basal plasma NEFA concentrations on d 5 (CAM: 0.25; TAL: 0.28; control: 0.17 mmol/L). Following glucose injection, the rate of glucose clearance (CR) was lower in lipid-treated cows (CAM: 1.34; TAL: 1.48; control: 1.74%/min) and time to reach half-maximal glucose concentration (T(1/2)) was longer (CAM: 54; TAL: 47; control: 42 min). Similar responses were observed after insulin injection. Increased plasma NEFA concentration tended to decrease insulin secretion in IVGTT. Infusion of CAM increased plasma C18:3n-3 content (CAM: 26.4; TAL: 16.1; control: 20.9 g/100g of fatty acids). Data suggest that CAM had an insulin-sensitizing effect, because the disposition index and insulin

  11. Development and availability of the free-living stages of Ostertagia gruehneri, an abomasal parasite of barrenground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus), on the Canadian tundra.

    PubMed

    Hoar, Bryanne M; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Kutz, Susan

    2012-07-01

    Climate change in the Arctic is anticipated to alter the ecology of northern ecosystems, including the transmission dynamics of many parasite species. One parasite of concern is Ostertagia gruehneri, an abomasal nematode of Rangifer ssp. that causes reduced food intake, weight loss, and decreased pregnancy rates in reindeer. We investigated the development, availability, and overwinter survival of the free-living stages of O. gruehneri on the tundra. Fecal plots containing O. gruehneri eggs were established in the Northwest Territories, Canada under natural and artificially warmed conditions and sampled throughout the growing season of 2008 and the spring of 2009. Infective L3 were present 3-4 weeks post-establishment from all trials under both treatments, except for the trial established 4 July 2008 under warmed conditions wherein the first L3 was recovered 7 weeks post-establishment. These plots were exposed to significantly more time above 30°C than the natural plots established on the same date, suggesting a maximum temperature threshold for development. There was high overwinter survival of L2 and L3 across treatments and overwintering L2 appeared to develop to L3 the following spring. The impact of climate change on O. gruehneri is expected to be dynamic throughout the year with extreme maximum temperatures negatively impacting development rates.

  12. Effect of solids, caloric content on dual-phase gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Maegdenbergh, V.; Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Mortelmans, L.; De Roo, M. Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA )

    1990-03-01

    The dual-phase gastric emptying technique is routinely employed to determine the differential emptying of solids and liquids in a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases. Composition, acidity, volume, caloric density, physical form and viscosity of the test means have been shown to be important determinants for the quantitative evaluation of gastric emptying. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of increasing the caloric content of the solid portion of a physiologic test mean on both solid and liquid emptying kinetics in health male volunteers. They observed that increasing solid caloric content delayed emptying of both solids and liquids. For the solid phase, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and decrease in emptying rate; for liquids a longer emptying rate was also obtained. They conclude that modification of the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only affects the emptying of the solid phase but also alters the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  13. Preoperative cow-side lactatemia measurement predicts negative outcome in Holstein dairy cattle with right abomasal disorders.

    PubMed

    Boulay, G; Francoz, D; Doré, E; Dufour, S; Veillette, M; Badillo, M; Bélanger, A-M; Buczinski, S

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were (1) to determine the gain in prognostic accuracy of preoperative l-lactate concentration (LAC) measured on farm on cows with right displaced abomasum (RDA) or abomasal volvulus (AV) for predicting negative outcome; and (2) to suggest clinically relevant thresholds for such use. A cohort of 102 cows with on-farm surgical diagnostic of RDA or AV was obtained from June 2009 through December 2011. Blood was drawn from coccygeal vessels before surgery and plasma LAC was immediately measured by using a portable clinical analyzer. Dairy producers were interviewed by phone 30 d following surgery and the outcome was determined: a positive outcome if the owner was satisfied of the overall evolution 30 d postoperatively, and a negative outcome if the cow was culled, died, or if the owner reported being unsatisfied 30 d postoperatively. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for LAC was 0.92 and was significantly greater than the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of heart rate (HR; 0.77), indicating that LAC, in general, performed better than HR to predict a negative outcome. Furthermore, the ability to predict a negative outcome was significantly improved when LAC measurement was considered in addition to the already available HR data (area under the curve: 0.93 and 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 0.99). Important inflection points of the misclassification cost term function were noted at thresholds of 2 and 6 mmol/L, suggesting the potential utility of these cut-points. The 2 and 6 mmol/L thresholds had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for predicting a negative outcome of 76.2, 82.7, 53.3, and 93.1%, and of 28.6, 97.5, 75, and 84%, respectively. In terms of clinical interpretation, LAC ≤2 mmol/L appeared to be a good indicator of positive outcome and could be used to support a surgical treatment decision. The

  14. Climate influences assemblages of abomasal nematodes of sheep on steppe pastures in the east of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zouyed, I; Cabaret, J; Bentounsi, B

    2016-12-01

    It is a common view that assemblages of parasitic nematodes are influenced by climatic conditions; however, there are only a few articles available regarding those that infect farm animals. We investigated the relationship between climate variables and infection with abomasal trichostrongyles in 335 1-year-old rams grazed on steppe pastures in Eastern Algeria. Abomasa were collected from 12 local slaughterhouses located in four climatic areas (from humid to arid) and the worms extracted, identified and counted. The abundance was low and the fauna composed primarily of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli and Trichostrongylus sp. The high percentage of M. marshalli is typical of steppe areas. Ostertagia ostertagi and Haemonchus contortus were present in low numbers. Rainfall was the most important climatic variable related to the main species. This relationship was not linear for M. marshalli but an optimal rainfall was detected (350-400 mm/year). The more complex climatic indicators used in the study did not demonstrate a more significant correlation than rainfall. The predictive value of rainfall on the abundance or proportion of species in the assemblage was modest but highly significant. The seasonality of assemblages was different between the two main sub-climates (sub-humid and semi-arid).

  15. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-02-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health.

  16. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  17. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig M; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2014-11-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum trigonocephalum; in sheep, Teladorsagia circumcincta/Teladorsagia trifurcata, O. gruehneri/O. arctica, Nematodirus filicollis and N. spathiger. In the sheep sharing corral with reindeer, the only abomasal nematode species found was O. gruehneri, a reindeer parasite. The generation interval of O. gruehneri in Finnish reindeer appears to be shorter than in Canadian Arctic caribou, where complete larval inhibition leading to only one generation yearly has been reported.

  18. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  19. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  20. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  1. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  2. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  3. Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lecaroz, R; Warnick, L D; Guard, C L; Smith, M C; Barry, D A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. PMID:10769767

  4. Effect of L-Tryptophan and L-Leucine on Gut Hormone Secretion, Appetite Feelings and Gastric Emptying Rates in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Participants: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Häfliger, Simon; Meili, Julian; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion. Participants/Methods The study was conducted as a randomized (balanced), double-blind, parallel-group trial. A total of 10 lean and 10 non-diabetic obese participants were included. Participants received intragastric loads of L-trp (0.52 g and 1.56 g) and L-leu (1.56 g), dissolved in 300 mL tap water; 75 g glucose and 300 mL tap water served as control treatments. Results Results of the study are: i) L-trp at the higher dose stimulates CCK release (p = 0.0018), and induces a significant retardation in gastric emptying (p = 0.0033); ii) L-trp at the higher dose induced a small increase in GLP-1 secretion (p = 0.0257); iii) neither of the amino acids modulated subjective appetite feelings; and iv) the two amino acids did not alter insulin or glucose concentrations. Conclusions L-trp is a luminal regulator of CCK release with effects on gastric emptying, an effect that could be mediated by CCK. L-trp’s effect on GLP-1 secretion is only minor. At the doses given, the two amino acids did not affect subjective appetite feelings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02563847 PMID:27875537

  5. Are empty methadone bottles empty? An analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely prescribed treatment for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients. In naïve users or in case of recreational misuse, methadone can be a source of potentially lethal intoxications, resulting in fatal overdoses. A few cases of infantile intoxications have been described in the literature, some of which resulted in death. Nowadays, more than 50,000 bottles are used every day in France, most of which are thrown away in the bin. Relatives at home, especially children, can have access to these empty bottles. This study aims to determine whether the residual quantity of methadone in the bottles is associated with a risk of intoxication for someone who has a low tolerance to opiates, such as a child. Methods The methadone dosage left in a sample of 175 bottles recapped after use by the patients taking their maintenance treatment in an addiction treatment program centre was analysed during a 2-week period in March 2013. Results The mean residual quantity of methadone left in each bottle after use is 1.9 ± 1.8 mg and 3.3 ± 2.4 mg in the sample of 60 mg bottles. Conclusions There is a potential danger of accidental overdose with empty bottles of methadone syrup, especially for children. To take into account this hazard, several harm reduction strategies can be proposed, such as favouring the taking of the treatment within the delivery centres rather than the ‘take home’ doses, asking methadone users to bring back their used bottles, and raising patients’ awareness of the intoxication risks and the necessary everyday precautions. For stable patients with take home methadone, the use of capsules could be considered. PMID:24990630

  6. Alcohol breeds empty goal commitments.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    According to alcohol-myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), alcohol leads individuals to disproportionally focus on the most salient aspects of a situation and to ignore peripheral information. The authors hypothesized that alcohol leads individuals to strongly commit to their goals without considering information about the probability of goal attainment. In Study 1, participants named their most important interpersonal goal, indicated their expectations of successfully attaining it, and then consumed either alcohol or a placebo. In contrast to participants who consumed a placebo, intoxicated participants felt strongly committed to their goals despite low expectations of attaining them. In Study 2, goal-directed actions were measured over time. Once sober again, intoxicated participants with low expectations did not follow up on their strong commitments. Apparently, when prospects are bleak, alcohol produces empty goal commitments, as commitments are not based on individuals' expectations of attaining their goals and do not foster goal striving over time.

  7. Applied potential tomography in the measurement of gastric emptying in infants.

    PubMed

    Nour, S; Mangnall, Y F; Dickson, J A; Johnson, A G; Pearse, R G

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using applied potential tomography (APT), a noninvasive and nonradioactive method, to measure the rate of gastric emptying in preterm babies and infants < 3 months old. APT, a form of electrical impedance tomography, creates tomographic images of tissue resistivity to a small electrical current and has been used to study gastric emptying in adults. The rate of gastric emptying of 53 preterm infants and 29 term infants was measured. The test feed was either milk (formula milk or expressed breast milk) or Dioralyte (a commercial rehydration solution). When a nasogastric tube was present, the results obtained by APT were validated by comparing the volume of feed estimated to be present with the volume that could be aspirated. All infants completed the investigation without any problems. APT demonstrated a slower rate of emptying of milk feeds than Dioralyte and showed that milk and Dioralyte feeds in preterm babies emptied at a similar rate to feeds in term infants. In validation studies, gastric emptying has been observed in 44 of 47 studies, and this finding was confirmed by aspiration of the nasogastric tube. Applied potential tomography is a safe, noninvasive method for measuring gastric emptying in small infants.

  8. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  9. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  10. The effect of filled and empty intervals on clock and memory processes in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Price, Elizabeth; Santi, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    According to the mixed memory model (Penney, Gibbon, & Meck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 1770-1787, 2000), different clock rates for stimuli with different nontemporal properties must be stored within a single reference memory distribution in order to detect a difference between the clock rates of the different signals. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained in a between-subjects design to discriminate empty intervals (bound by two 1-s visual markers) and filled intervals (a continuous visual signal). The intervals were signaled by different visual stimuli, and they required responses to different sets of comparison stimuli. Empty intervals were judged as being longer than filled intervals. The difference between the point of subjective equality (PSE) for the empty intervals and the PSE for the filled intervals increased proportionally as the magnitudes of the anchor duration pairs were increased from 2 and 8 s to 4 and 16 s. In Experiment 2, the pigeons were trained to discriminate intervals signaled by the absence of houselight illumination (Group Empty) or the presence of houselight illumination (Group Filled). The psychophysical timing functions for these intervals were identical to each other. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that memory mixing is not necessary for detecting a timing difference between empty and filled intervals in pigeons. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that the nature of the stimuli that signal the empty and filled intervals impacts how pigeons judge the durations of empty and filled intervals.

  11. Rumen and post abomasal disappearance of amino acids and some nutrients of barley grain treated with sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde or urea in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Nikkhah, A; Amanlo, H; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Mansori, H

    2007-05-01

    Four rumen and duodenum cannulated, Holstein lactating cows were used in a change-over design to determine the effects of NaOH, Formaldehyde or Urea treated barley on disappearance of Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Amino Acids (AA), NDF, ADF, hemicelluloses and starch in rumen, Post Abomasal Tract (PAT) and total tract by mobile nylon bag technique. Experimental treatments were coarse milled barley, barley treated with 3.5% NaOH, barley treated with 0.4% formaldehyde and barley treated with 3.5% urea that all chemical treated barley milled coarse before feeding. NaOH Treatment reduced concentrations of Lysine and Cystine in the barley grain. All chemical treatments decreased rumen disappearances of barley CP but only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments also decrease total AA and some of the AA disappearances in the rumen. All chemical treatments increased DM, OM, CP, starch, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose disappearance of barley in the PAT. But only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments increased total AA and most of AA disappearances in the PAT. Effect of chemical treatments on increase of disappearance of starch, Met and Gly in the total tract was significant (p < 0.05). Rumen disappearance of TAA was lower than CP but PAT disappearance of TAA was more than CP and finally total tract disappearance of TAA was more than CP. Individual AA in barley disappeared at different rates in the rumen and PAT. Consequently, the proportion of digesta CP and AA entering the intestine must be considered.

  12. Dry matter intake is decreased more by abomasal infusion of unsaturated free fatty acids than by unsaturated triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Thire, S; Beaulieu, A D; Reynolds, C K; Benson, J A; Drackley, J K

    2005-02-01

    Previous experiments from our group have demonstrated that abomasal infusion of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) markedly decreases dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows. In contrast, experiments from other groups have noted smaller decreases in DMI when unsaturated triglycerides (TG) were infused postruminally. Our hypothesis was that unsaturated FFA would be more potent inhibitors of DMI than an equivalent amount of unsaturated TG. Four Holstein cows in late lactation were used in a single reversal design. Cows were fed a total mixed ration containing (DM basis) 23% alfalfa silage, 23% corn silage, 40.3% ground shelled corn, and 10.5% soybean meal. Two cows received soy FFA (UFA; 0, 200, 400, 600 g/d) and 2 received soy oil (TG) in the same amounts; cows then were switched to the other lipid source. Cows were abomasally infused with each amount for 5-d periods. The daily amount of lipid was pulse-dosed in 4 equal portions at 0600, 1000, 1700, and 2200 h; no emulsifiers were used and there was no sign of digestive disturbance. Both lipid sources linearly decreased DMI, with a significant interaction between lipid source and amount. Slope-ratio analysis indicated that UFA were about 2 times more potent in decreasing DMI than were TG. Decreased DMI led to decreased milk production. Milk fat content was increased linearly by lipid infusion. Milk fat yield decreased markedly for UFA infusion but was relatively unaffected by infusion of TG. Contents of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in milk fat decreased as the amount of either infusate increased. Contents of C(18:2) and C(18:3) in milk fat were increased linearly by abomasal infusion of either fat source; cis-9 C(18:1) was unaffected. Transfer of infused C(18:2) to milk fat was 35.6, 42.5, and 27.8% for 200, 400, and 600 g/d of UFA, and 34.3, 39.6, and 34.0% for respective amounts of TG. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) concentration in plasma significantly increased as DMI decreased with increasing

  13. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcoholism, identity crisis and marital conflicts. However, recent studies suggest that an empty nest might reduce work and family conflicts, and can provide parents with many other benefits. When the last child leaves home, parents have ...

  14. How often do fishes "run on empty"?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arrington, D.A.; Winemiller, K.O.; Loftus, W.F.; Akin, S.

    2002-01-01

    We used a large data set of African, Neotropical, and North American fishes to examine the frequency with which fishes have empty stomachs (nspecies = 254; nindividuals = 36875). Mean percentage of empty stomachs was low across all fishes (16.2 ?? 1.2%) but varied from 0% to 79.4% among individual species. Nocturnal fishes had empty stomachs more frequently than diurnal fishes. Trophic classification was strongly associated with the percentage of empty stomachs, a pattern also revealed from an intraspecific analysis. Fishes appear to adjust their feeding intervals relative to the energy density, conversion efficiency, and particle size of their food. Piscivorous fishes seem to be the only trophic group that regularly experience long periods of empty stomachs, with species that consume prey whole and those that provide extended parental care having the highest proportions of empty stomachs. Activity patterns and life histories of some piscivorous species probably have evolved in partial response to energetic benefits of large, energy-rich food resources.

  15. A Simple, Realistic Stochastic Model of Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Yokrattanasak, Jiraphat; De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Satiracoo, Pairote; Lawton, Wayne M.; Lenbury, Yongwimon

    2016-01-01

    Several models of Gastric Emptying (GE) have been employed in the past to represent the rate of delivery of stomach contents to the duodenum and jejunum. These models have all used a deterministic form (algebraic equations or ordinary differential equations), considering GE as a continuous, smooth process in time. However, GE is known to occur as a sequence of spurts, irregular both in size and in timing. Hence, we formulate a simple stochastic process model, able to represent the irregular decrements of gastric contents after a meal. The model is calibrated on existing literature data and provides consistent predictions of the observed variability in the emptying trajectories. This approach may be useful in metabolic modeling, since it describes well and explains the apparently heterogeneous GE experimental results in situations where common gastric mechanics across subjects would be expected. PMID:27057750

  16. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of a Type A Clostridium perfringens Isolate from a Case of Bovine Clostridial Abomasitis

    PubMed Central

    Nowell, Victoria J.; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Songer, J. Glenn; MacInnes, Janet I.; Parreira, Valeria R.; Prescott, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a common inhabitant of the avian and mammalian gastrointestinal tracts and can behave commensally or pathogenically. Some enteric diseases caused by type A C. perfringens, including bovine clostridial abomasitis, remain poorly understood. To investigate the potential basis of virulence in strains causing this disease, we sequenced the genome of a type A C. perfringens isolate (strain F262) from a case of bovine clostridial abomasitis. The ∼3.34 Mbp chromosome of C. perfringens F262 is predicted to contain 3163 protein-coding genes, 76 tRNA genes, and an integrated plasmid sequence, Cfrag (∼18 kb). In addition, sequences of two complete circular plasmids, pF262C (4.8 kb) and pF262D (9.1 kb), and two incomplete plasmid fragments, pF262A (48.5 kb) and pF262B (50.0 kb), were identified. Comparison of the chromosome sequence of C. perfringens F262 to complete C. perfringens chromosomes, plasmids and phages revealed 261 unique genes. No novel toxin genes related to previously described clostridial toxins were identified: 60% of the 261 unique genes were hypothetical proteins. There was a two base pair deletion in virS, a gene reported to encode the main sensor kinase involved in virulence gene activation. Despite this frameshift mutation, C. perfringens F262 expressed perfringolysin O, alpha-toxin and the beta2-toxin, suggesting that another regulation system might contribute to the pathogenicity of this strain. Two complete plasmids, pF262C (4.8 kb) and pF262D (9.1 kb), unique to this strain of C. perfringens were identified. PMID:22412860

  17. Variation in the Ovine Abomasal Lymph Node Transcriptome between Breeds Known to Differ in Resistance to the Gastrointestinal Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Albin M.; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P.; McGettigan, Paul; Browne, John; Keane, Orla M.; Bahar, Bojlul; Mehta, Jai; Markey, Bryan; Lohan, Amanda; Sweeney, Torres

    2015-01-01

    Texel lambs are known to be more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection than Suffolk lambs, with a greater ability to limit infection. The objectives of this study were to: 1) profile the whole transcriptome of abomasal lymph node tissue of GIN-free Texel and Suffolk lambs; 2) identify differentially expressed genes and characterize the immune-related biological pathways and networks associated with these genes. Abomasal lymph nodes were collected from Texel (n = 6) and Suffolk (n = 4) lambs aged 19 weeks that had been GIN-free since 6 weeks of age. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed using RNA-seq on the Illumina platform. At the time of conducting this study, a well annotated Ovine genome was not available and hence the sequence reads were aligned with the Bovine (UMD3.1) genome. Identification of differentially expressed genes was followed by pathway and network analysis. The Suffolk breed accounted for significantly more of the differentially expressed genes, (276 more highly expressed in Suffolk v 162 in Texel; P < 0.001). The four most significant differentially expressed pathways were all related to immunity and were classified as: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Recognition of Bacteria and Viruses, Activation of IRF by Cytosolic Pattern Recognition Receptors, Role of RIG-I-like Receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity, and Interferon Signaling. Of significance is the fact that all of these four pathways were more highly expressed in the Suffolk. These data suggest that in a GIN-free environment, Suffolk lambs have a more active immune profile relative to the Texel: this immune profile may contribute to the poorer efficiency of response to a GIN challenge in the Suffolk breed compared to the Texel breed. PMID:25978040

  18. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    PubMed Central

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  19. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  20. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  1. Highly variable gastric emptying in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, T V; Johnson, C P; Kalbfleisch, J H; Roza, A M; Wood, C M; Weisbruch, J P; Soergel, K H

    1995-01-01

    Some diabetic patients--particularly those with nausea and vomiting--frequently have evidence of delayed gastric emptying while other diabetic patients may in fact exhibit accelerated gastric emptying. Whether the presence or absence of symptoms of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction correlated with objective measures of gastric emptying in insulin dependent diabetic subjects was investigated. Twenty one insulin dependent diabetic patients underwent a solid phase gastric emptying scintiscan using in vivo labelled chicken liver. Thirteen patients had symptoms suggestive of gastrointestinal dysfunction (nausea, vomiting, early satiety, or constipation), while eight patients had no gastrointestinal symptoms. Eleven patients had orthostatic hypotension. All patients had been diabetic since childhood or adolescence. As a group, the diabetic patients showed a half time (T50) of gastric emptying (mean (SD) 150.0 min (163.7) that was not significantly different from that of 12 healthy control subjects (148.1 min (62.4)). Those diabetic patients without gastrointestinal symptoms and without orthostatic hypotension, however, showed a gastric emptying half time (70.1 min (41.6)) that was significantly faster than that of the control subjects. Conversely, those diabetic patients with nausea, vomiting, and early satiety (or early satiety alone) showed T50 values that were significantly greater than those of the diabetic patients without these symptoms. No correlation was found between the T50 value and the duration of diabetes, the fasting blood glucose at the time of study, or the respiratory variation in heart rate (E:I ratio). These observations indicate that highly variable rates of gastric emptying occur in insulin dependent diabetic patients, and that accelerated gastric emptying may occur in diabetic patients who have no symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:7672674

  2. Gastric emptying, postprandial blood pressure, glycaemia and splanchnic flow in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Trahair, Laurence G; Kimber, Thomas E; Flabouris, Katerina; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine gastric emptying, blood pressure, mesenteric artery blood flow, and blood glucose responses to oral glucose in Parkinson’s disease. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (13 M, 8 F; age 64.2 ± 1.6 years) with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ± 0.1, duration of known disease 6.3 ± 0.9 years) consumed a 75 g glucose drink, labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Gastric emptying was quantified with scintigraphy, blood pressure and heart rate with an automated device, superior mesenteric artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and blood glucose by glucometer for 180 min. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated with cardiovascular reflex tests and upper gastrointestinal symptoms by questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time was 106 ± 9.1 min, gastric emptying was abnormally delayed in 3 subjects (14%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell (P < 0.001) and mesenteric blood flow and blood glucose (P < 0.001 for both) increased, following the drink. Three subjects (14%) had definite autonomic neuropathy and 8 (38%) had postprandial hypotension. There were no significant relationships between changes in blood pressure, heart rate or mesenteric artery blood flow with gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was related to the score for autonomic nerve function (R = 0.55, P < 0.01). There was an inverse relationship between the blood glucose at t = 30 min (R = -0.52, P < 0.05), while the blood glucose at t = 180 min was related directly (R = 0.49, P < 0.05), with gastric emptying. CONCLUSION: In mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease, gastric emptying is related to autonomic dysfunction and a determinant of the glycaemic response to oral glucose. PMID:27239112

  3. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

  4. Novel method to assess gastric emptying in humans: the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, S. Y.; Neudeck, B. L.; Welage, L. S.; Amidon, G. E.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    To further validate the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test (PGET) as a marker of gastric emptying, a randomized, four-way crossover study was conducted with 12 healthy subjects. The study consisted of oral co-administration of enteric coated caffeine (CAFF) and acetaminophen (APAP) pellets in four treatment phases: Same Size (100 kcal), Fasted, Small Liquid Meal (100 kcal), and Standard Meal (847 kcal). The time of first appearance of measurable drug marker in plasma, t(initial), was taken as the emptying time for the markers. Co-administration of same size enteric coated pellets of CAFF and APAP (0.7 mm in diameter) revealed no statistically significant differences in t(initial) values indicating that emptying was dependent only on size and not on chemical make-up of the pellets. Co-administration of different size pellets indicated that the smaller 0.7-mm diameter (CAFF) pellets were emptied and absorbed significantly earlier than the larger 3.6-mm diameter (APAP) pellets with both the Small Liquid Meal (by 35 min) and the Standard Meal (by 33 min) (P<0.05). The differences in emptying of the pellets were not significant in the Fasted Phase. The results suggest that the pellet gastric emptying test could prove useful in monitoring changes in transit times in the fasted and fed states and their impact on drug absorption.

  5. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marion W.; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:25734790

  6. Pit latrine emptying behavior and demand for sanitation services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Marion W; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-02-27

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  7. Ectopic jejunal pacemakers and gastric emptying after Roux gastrectomy: Effect of intestinal pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, L.; Kelly, K.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether ectopic pacemakers are present after meals in the Roux limbs of dogs after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy, whether these pacemakers slow gastric emptying of liquids or solids, and whether abolishing the pacemakers with electric pacing might speed any slow emptying that occurs. In six dogs that underwent vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy and in four dogs that underwent vagotomy and Billroth gastrectomy (controls), myoelectric activity of the Roux limb or duodenum was measured during gastric emptying of a 500 kcal mixed meal of 99mTc-labeled cooked egg and 111In-labeled milk. Roux dogs were tested with and without pacing of the Roux limb. Roux dogs showed ectopic pacemaker in the Roux limb that drove the pacesetter potentials of the limb in a reverse, or orad, direction during 57% of the postprandial recordings. Billroth dogs had no ectopic pacemakers (p less than 0.05). Liquids emptied more slowly in Roux dogs (half-life (t1/2) = 121 +/- 15 minutes) than in Billroth dogs (t1/2 = 43 +/- 9 minutes; p less than 0.05), but solids emptied similarly in both groups of dogs (t1/2 approximately 8 hours). Pacing the Roux limb abolished the ectopic pacemakers, restored the slow emptying of liquids to the more rapid rate found in the Billroth dogs (t1/2: paced Roux, 72 +/- 15 minutes; Billroth, 43 +/- 9 minutes; p greater than 0.05) and did not change emptying of solids. The conclusion was that ectopic pacemakers present in the Roux limb after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy drove the limb in a reverse direction and slowed emptying of liquids after the operation. The defect was corrected by pacing the Roux limb in a forward direction.

  8. The volume and energy content of meals as determinants of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J N; Stubbs, D F

    1975-01-01

    1. Results were collected from thirty-three published and unpublished studies of gastric emptying. The volumes of the meals ranged from 50 to 1250 ml., and composition varied from pure carbohydrates to ordinary food. 2. From the published composition of the meals, their nutritive density, as kcal/ml. (4-18 KJ/ml.) was computed: it ranged from zero to 2-3 kcal/ml. 3. The volume of each meal, or test meal, delivered to the duodenum in 30 min was determined, assuming that gastric emptying was exponential. 4. The greater the nutritive density of a meal, the less was the volume transferred to the duodenum in 30 min. The original volume of meal given was not a determinant of the rate of emptying (ml./min). 5. The slowing of gastric emptying with a meal of high nutritive density was not sufficient to prevent an increased rate of delivery of energy to the duodenum (nutritive density times volume delivered in unit time) with a meal of high nutritive density. 6. Assuming an appropriate relationship for the interaction of a stimulus (kcal/ml.) and duodenal receptors, it was possible to predict a rate of gastric emptying for each meal, given its nutritive density. Knowing the initial volume of the meal, it was possible to predict the mean half time for its emptying. 7. There were eight sets of anomalous results: in four the volumes of meal given were less than 200 ml.; explanations of the anomalies in the other four results could not be provided. 8. The results are consistent with equal slowing of gastric emptying by the duodenal action of the products of digestion of isocaloric amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrate, for example, 4 g fat or 9 g carbohydrate, both 36 kcal, taking carbohydrate and protein as 4 kcal/g and fat as 9 kcal/g. PMID:1127608

  9. Technical considerations in radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1987-12-01

    This is the final article in a four-part Continuing Education series on quantitative imaging techniques. After studying this article, the reader should be able to: 1) identify proper use of radiopharmaceuticals and meal composition for gastric emptying studies; 2) discuss appropriate imaging techniques; and 3) discuss methods of data analysis.

  10. Encouraging Classroom Participation with Empty Extrinsic Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinee, William

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to encourage classroom participation with empty extrinsic rewards. He uses "bonus points" in awarding students for particularly interesting or well thought-out contributions to the class discussion. These bonus points have absolutely no effect on the student's course grade. But the students respond…

  11. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... definitions in § 171.8 of this subchapter for a hazardous substance, a hazardous waste, or a marine pollutant... in Column 10a of the § 172.101 table for transportation by vessel, an empty drum or cylinder may...

  12. Delayed gastric emptying does not normalize after gluten withdrawal in adult celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Oppia, Francesco; Scarpa, Mariella; Giannetti, Cristiana; Cabras, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying has been frequently detected in patients with untreated celiac disease. According to several studies, gluten withdrawal showed to be effective in normalizing the gastric emptying rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying rate of solids in patients with celiac disease before and after a gluten-free diet. Methods Twelve adult patients with celiac disease (age range 20-57 years) and 30 healthy controls (age range 30-54 years) underwent a (13)C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying. Half emptying time (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were calculated. After at least 12 months of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients underwent a new (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. A symptom score was utilized to detect dyspeptic and malabsorption symptoms in all the patients. Results The gastric motility parameters, t1/2 and tlag, were significantly longer in patients than in controls. On a gluten-free diet, surprisingly, the gastric emptying did not normalize despite an improvement of symptom score. No significant correlation between abnormal gastric emptying and specific symptom patterns, anthropometric parameters or severity of histological damage was found. Conclusions This finding supports the hypothesis that gluten-driven mucosal inflammation might determine motor abnormalities by affecting smooth muscle contractility or impairing gut hormone function. The persistence of these abnormalities on a gluten free diet suggests the presence of a persistent low-grade mucosal inflammation with a permanent perturbation of the neuro-immunomodulatory regulation.

  13. Plasma catecholamines and postoperative gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A; Henry, D P; Kopin, I J

    1975-03-01

    The role of adrenal medullary discharge of catecholamines on inhibition of gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion after laparotomy was examined in rats. The rate of movement of a 51Cr-labeled liquid test meal, which had been introduced by gastric intubation, out of the stomach and through the small intestine, was retarded 12 hr after laparotomy. Adrenal demedullation produced a striking decrease in plasma catecholamines and abolished surgically induced elevation of the catecholamines, but had no significant effect on gastric emptying or intestinal propulsion in rats subjected to laparotomy or in the unoperated control animals. Thus circulating catecholamines play little if any role in controlling normal gastroinestinal motility or in the postoperative decrease in rate of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility.

  14. Running on empty: does mitochondrial DNA mutation limit replicative lifespan in yeast?: Mutations that increase the division rate of cells lacking mitochondrial DNA also extend replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Cory D

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations escalate with increasing age in higher organisms. However, it has so far been difficult to experimentally determine whether mtDNA mutation merely correlates with age or directly limits lifespan. A recent study shows that budding yeast can also lose functional mtDNA late in life. Interestingly, independent studies of replicative lifespan (RLS) and of mtDNA-deficient cells show that the same mutations can increase both RLS and the division rate of yeast lacking the mitochondrial genome. These exciting, parallel findings imply a potential causal relationship between mtDNA mutation and replicative senescence. Furthermore, these results suggest more efficient methods for discovering genes that determine lifespan.

  15. Enigmatic electrons, photons, and ``empty`` waves

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, M.H.

    1995-08-22

    A spectroscopic analysis is made of electrons and photons from the standpoint of physical realism. In this conceptual framework, moving particles are portrayed as localized entities which are surrounded by ``empty`` waves. A spectroscopic model for the electron Stands as a guide for a somewhat similar, but in essential respects radically different, model for the photon. This leads in turn to a model for the ``zeron``. the quantum of the empty wave. The properties of these quanta mandate new basis states, and hence an extension of our customary framework for dealing with them. The zeron wave field of a photon differs in one important respect from the standard formalism for an electromagnetic wave. The vacuum state emerges as more than just a passive bystander. Its polarization properties provide wave stabilization, particle probability distributions, and orbit quantization. Questions with regard to special relativity are discussed.

  16. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar, K.; Magyar, L.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role.

  17. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Ziehlke, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  18. Natural sweetener agave inhibits gastric emptying in rats by a cholecystokinin-2- and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bihter Gürler, E; Özbeyli, Dilek; Buzcu, Hülya; Bayraktar, Sezin; Carus, İrem; Dağ, Beyza; Geriş, Yasemin; Jeral, Seda; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2017-02-22

    Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12.5%, 15% or 50% concentrations were measured and compared with that of saline. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin fragment 9-39 (30 μg kg(-1)), CCK-1 receptor antagonist devazepide (1 mg kg(-1)) or gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022 (1 mg kg(-1)) was injected subcutaneously 1 min before the emptying of glucose, fructose or agave at their 50% concentrations. When compared with saline emptying, gastric emptying of glucose was significantly delayed at its 25% and 50% concentrations, but the emptying of 12.5% glucose was not different from that of saline. Agave emptying, which was delayed with respect to saline emptying, was not altered by CCK-1 receptor blockade; but agave emptied from the stomach as rapidly as saline following the blockade of either CCK-2 or GLP-1 receptors. The findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of agave on gastric emptying is mediated by both CCK-2 and GLP-1 receptors, suggesting that natural sweeteners including agave may have satiating effects through the inhibition of gastric motility via enteroendocrine mechanisms.

  19. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Røjen, B A; Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH(3) absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH(3) absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration. Subsequently, hepatic NH(3) uptake and urea-N production also decreased with oligofructose infusion. Additionally, urea-N concentration in milk and urinary N excretion decreased with oligofructose treatment. The oligofructose infusion did not affect ruminal NH(3) concentrations or any other ruminal variables, nor did it affect ruminal venous - arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH(3). The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the present data suggest that increased hindgut fermentation did not upregulate urea-N transfer to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake by the rumen, and the observed reduction

  20. Interspecies differences in the empty body chemical composition of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Maeno, H; Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2013-07-01

    Domestication of animals has resulted in phenotypic changes by means of natural and human-directed selection. Body composition is important for farm animals because it reflects the status of energy reserves. Thus, there is the possibility that farm animals as providers of food have been more affected by human-directed selection for body composition than laboratory animals. In this study, an analysis was conducted to determine what similarities and differences in body composition occur between farm and laboratory animals using literature data obtained from seven comparative slaughter studies (n = 136 observations). Farm animals from four species (cattle, goats, pigs and sheep) were all castrated males, whereas laboratory animals from three species (dogs, mice and rats) comprised males and/or females. All animals were fed ad libitum. The allometric equation, Y = aX b , was used to determine the influence of species on the accretion rates of chemical components (Y, kg) relative to the growth of the empty body, fat-free empty body or protein weights (X, kg). There were differences between farm and laboratory animals in terms of the allometric growth coefficients for chemical components relative to the empty BW and fat-free empty BW (P < 0.01); farm animals had more rapid accretion rates of fat (P < 0.01) but laboratory animals had more rapid accretion rates of protein, water and ash (P < 0.01). In contrast, there was no difference in terms of the allometric growth coefficients for protein and water within farm animals (P > 0.2). The allometric growth coefficients for ash weight relative to protein weight for six species except sheep were not different from a value of 1 (P > 0.1), whereas that of sheep was smaller than 1 (P < 0.01). When compared at the same fat content of the empty body, the rate of change in water content (%) per unit change in fat content (%) was not different (P > 0.05) across farm animal species and similar ash-to-protein ratios were obtained

  1. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.J.; Pitman, K.; Starr, G.; Wood, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon.

  2. Gastric emptying for solids in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after highly selective vagotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mistiaen, W.; Van Hee, R.; Blockx, P.; Hubens, A. )

    1990-03-01

    In a series of 31 duodenal ulcer patients (23 males and 8 females), who underwent a highly selective vagotomy, gastric emptying characteristics of a solid meal, labeled with (99mTc)stannous colloid, were assessed before, two weeks and six months after operation. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy and x-ray; failure of treatment with H2 antagonists or antacids during 1-18 (mean 5) years was the direct indication for operative treatment. A temporary delay in gastric emptying is noted two weeks after operation (T1/2: 124 vs 57 min). After six months, gastric emptying time has practically normalized. It appears that this is the result of the preservation of the antropyloric vagal nerve supply. In these patients, a 10% recurrence rate is noted, comparable to the results in the literature. Highly selective vagotomy proves to be a safe and effective procedure with few side effects. It does not impair gastric motility.

  3. Effects of cisapride on gastric emptying of oil and aqueous meal components, hunger, and fullness.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K L; Horowitz, M; Carney, B I; Sun, W M; Chatterton, B E

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cisapride on gastric emptying of extracellular fat and hunger and fullness 10 volunteers consumed a meal consisting of 60 ml technectium-99m (99mTc)-V-thiocyanate labelled olive oil and 290 ml indium-113m (113mIn) labelled soup after taking cisapride (10 mg four times daily orally) and placebo, each for four days, in randomised, double blind fashion. Gastric emptying was quantified scintigraphically. Hunger and fullness before and after the meal were evaluated using visual analogue scales. Cisapride accelerated gastric emptying of oil and aqueous components by reducing the lag phase mean (SEM) (20.3 (7.0) min v 40.7 (4.1) min (p < 0.05) for oil and 4.1 (2.5) min v 10.0 (3.1) min (p < 0.05) for aqueous). Cisapride had no effect on the post-lag emptying rate of oil. Treatment with cisapride was associated with reduced retention of oil in the proximal stomach (p < 0.05). Subjects were more hungry before ingestion of the meal while receiving cisapride (6.7 (0.9) v 3.9 (0.7), p < 0.001). The scores for hunger at 120 and 180 minutes were inversely related to gastric emptying of oil on both cisapride (r > -0.62, p < 0.05) and placebo (r > -0.86, p < 0.001). Fullness increased after the meal while receiving placebo (p < 0.01), but not cisapride and postprandial fullness was less with cisapride at (30 min; 0.4 (0.3) v 3.3 (1.0), p < 0.05). With placebo, but not cisapride, the score for fullness at 15 minutes was inversely related to emptying of the aqueous phase (r = 0.68, p < 0.05). These results show that in normal volunteers after ingestion of an oil/aqueous meal: (a) postprandial hunger is inversely related to gastric emptying of oil, while fullness is inversely related to gastric emptying of the aqueous phase, (b) cisapride affects the intragastric distribution and accelerates gastric emptying of both oil and aqueous meal components, and (c) cisapride increases preprandial hunger and reduces postprandial fullness. PMID:8675080

  4. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Jayden A. R.; Berends, Harma; Steele, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components. PMID:27253712

  5. Secure quantum bit commitment against empty promises

    SciTech Connect

    He Guangping

    2006-08-15

    The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.

  6. Schizophernia and empty sella - casual or correlated?

    PubMed

    Wix-Ramos, Richard Joseph; Capote, Eduardo; Mendoza, Milet; Garcia, Margreth; Ezequiel, Uribe

    2011-04-01

    A male patient, 44 years old, with schizophrenia which started at the age of 18. At his last follow-up visit, laboratory tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed, revealing the presence of a sellar arachnoidocele. To our knowledge, there is only one similar case report of a set of male monozygotic triplets with schizophrenia and empty sella syndrome. High-resolution chromosome analysis found an extra band at chromosome 15p in all the triplets and their father. We performed a similar evaluation in our patient and his family to compare the results and identify new information on neuroanatomical abnormalities, hormonal alterations or genetic origins of schizophrenia.

  7. Response to abomasal infusion of methionine of weaned dairy calves fed a complete pelleted starter ration based on by-product feeds.

    PubMed

    Schwab, C G; Muise, S J; Hylton, W E; Moore, J J

    1982-10-01

    Three abomasal infusion trials were to determine the first-limiting amino acid for nitrogen retention of postweaned Holstein bull calves fed a starter ration based on cereal by-product feeds. Ration ingredients contributed the following percentages of total amino acids: wheat middlings 38, brewer's grains 24, hominy feed 21, oat hulls 10, distiller's grains 6, and molasses 1. Dry matter of the pelleted ration contained 13 to 14% crude protein and .23 to .26% sulfur. Each trial was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 9-day periods. Calves were weaned at 4 wk and infusions initiated at 5 to 6 wk of age. Abomasal infusion of the 10 essential amino acids, an isonitrogenous quantity of an equimolar mixture of alanine, asparagine, glutamate, glycine, and serine, or an isocaloric quantity of glucose indicated that essential amino acid(s) rather than nonspecific nitrogen or energy was limiting protein synthesis. Quadratic responses in urine nitrogen excretion and retained nitrogen occurred when 0, .3, .6, and 1.2 g L-methionine/kg starter ration were infused. Greatest responses occurred with .6 g methionine, which increased retained nitrogen 11 and 19% and decreased urine nitrogen 7 and 10%. The relationship between infused methionine and plasma methionine was linear. Infusions in all trials had no effect on digestibility of energy and nitrogen.

  8. Specific adaptation of gastric emptying to diets with differing protein content in the rat: is endogenous cholecystokinin implicated?

    PubMed Central

    Shi, G; Leray, V; Scarpignato, C; Bentouimou, N; Varannes, S; Cherbut, C; Galmiche, J

    1997-01-01

    Background—Recent studies indicate that gastric emptying may be influenced by patterns of previous nutrient intake. Endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK), whose synthesis and release can be affected by dietary intake, has a major role in the regulation of gastric emptying. 
Aims—To evaluate the influence of diets with differing protein content on gastric emptying of differing liquid test meals and plasma CCK levels in the rat and to check whether the inhibitory effect of exogenous CCK on gastric emptying is modified after long term intake of diets with differing protein content. 
Methods—Rats were fed for three weeks with high protein, medium protein (regular), or low protein diet. On day 22 gastric emptying of a peptone meal was studied. In addition, basal and postprandial CCK levels after the different dietary regimens were measured by bioassay. The time course of dietary adaptation was studied and its specificity assessed through the use of different (peptone, glucose, and methylcellulose) test meals. The effect of exogenous CCK-8 on gastric emptying was studied at the end of the adaptation period (three weeks).
Results—Feeding the animals with a high protein diet for three weeks resulted in a significant (p<0.05) acceleration (by 21.2(8.2)%) of gastric emptying while feeding with a low protein diet was followed by a significant (p<0.05) delay (by 24.0 (6.2)%) in the emptying rate. When the time course of the effect of dietary adaptation on gastric emptying was studied, it appeared that at least two weeks are required for dietary protein to be effective. The regulatory effect of dietary protein on gastric emptying proved to be dependent on meal composition. Only the emptying rate of a protein containing meal (40% peptone) was significantly modified by previous dietary intake. No significant (p>0.05) changes were observed with glucose and methylcellulose meals whose emptying rates were similar in rats receiving a high protein or low protein diet. A

  9. Agoraphobia and Melancholia: Thoughts on Milrod's "Emptiness in Agoraphobia Patients".

    PubMed

    Yates, Sheena

    2015-08-01

    Milrod (2007) identifies persistent emptiness in agoraphobic patients whose symptoms of anxiety and avoidance have remitted. To this important identification, a number of critical considerations may be raised regarding the meanings of emptiness in the psychoanalytic clinic. Milrod's admonishment to distinguish between an emptiness that indicates a deficit in the structure and stability of self-representation, and an emptiness that is strictly defensive, is a case in point. While much of the literature supports an interpretation of emptiness as a defense against overwhelming rage, these patients' assertions and experiences of emptiness can be better explained by the presence of traumatic, unmourned losses. Several explanations are offered as to why agoraphobic patients, in particular, defend unconsciously against mourning.

  10. Gastric emptying in patients with supraventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanasescu, D.E.; Hamer, A.W.; Marks, J.W.; Mandel, W.J.; Brown, D.E.; Chappel, M.E.; Chapman, D.R.; Waxman, A.D.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) on gastric emptying (GE). Six patients (pts) with episodic SVT had electrophysiological evaluation while a Swan-Ganz catheter was in place. Liquid GE was determined during SVT and twice in sinus rhythm (SR). All studies were done at least 24 hours apart and were analyzed blindly. Serial Anger camera images were obtained over the anterior abdomen after ingestion of 500 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m S.C. mixed with one ounce of beverage and at 5 minute intervals for 90 minutes. Results are shown in this paper. There were no significant differences in GE between SR on two occasions. Simultaneous hemodynamic measurement during SR and SVT suggested impairment of gastric emptying was related to the extent of hemodynamic change during SVT. The clinical importance of establishing impaired GE in pts with SVT is that reduced GE may delay or prevent absorption of anti-arrhythmic drugs, as the medication will tend to remain in the stomach and not reach the small intestine. This may prevent the use of intermittent outpatient oral drug therapy to terminate episodic SVT.

  11. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M; Galindo, C; Ouellet, D R; Maxin, G; Kristensen, N B; Lapierre, H

    2015-11-01

    Nine Holstein cows with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used in a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures to study the effect of increased early postpartum AA supply on splanchnic and mammary AA metabolism. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (CTRL; n=4) or free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to a basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half of the maximal dose at the calving day (1 d in milk; DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d until 29 DIM. On 5, 15, and 29 DIM, 6 sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary blood were taken at 45-min intervals. Over the whole period, increasing AA supply increased milk (+7.8 ± 1.3 kg/d) and milk protein yields (+220 ± 65 g/d) substantially. The increased milk yield was not supported by greater dry matter intake (DMI) as, overall, DMI decreased with AA-CN (-1.6 ± 0.6 kg/d). Arterial concentrations of essential AA were greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL. The net portal-drained viscera (PDV) release of His, Met, and Phe was greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 72 to 102% once changes in DMI were accounted for. The hepatic removal of these AA was increased equivalently to the increased net PDV release, resulting in an unaltered net splanchnic release. The net PDV release of Ile, Leu, Val, and Lys tended to be greater for AA-CN, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 69 to 73%, indicating increased PDV metabolism with AA-CN. The fractional hepatic removal of these AA did not differ from zero and was unaffected by the increased supply. Consequently, the splanchnic release of these AA was approximately equivalent to their net PDV release for both CTRL and AA-CN. Overall, greater early postpartum AA supply increased milk and milk protein

  12. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. Results The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. Trial registration number ISRCTN33841495. PMID:18093343

  13. 27 CFR 25.36 - Empty container storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Empty container storage. 25.36 Section 25.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.36 Empty container...

  14. 27 CFR 25.36 - Empty container storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Empty container storage. 25.36 Section 25.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.36 Empty container...

  15. Excretory/secretory products of sheep abomasal nematode parasites cause vacuolation and increased neutral red uptake by HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Przemeck, Sabine; Huber, Alexandra; Brown, Simon; Pedley, Kevin C; Simpson, Heather V

    2005-02-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products of Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus have been implicated in the inhibition of gastric acid secretion and vacuolation, and the loss of parietal cells associated with abomasal parasitism. Vacuolation of epithelial (HeLa) cells caused by adult O. circumcincta or L3 O. circumcincta or H. contortus ES products have been examined by differential interference contrast microscopy and by the neutral red uptake assay. ES products caused visible vacuolation of HeLa cells, and this effect was enhanced by 8 mM NH4Cl. Some parasite ES products caused a marked detachment of cells from the coverslip. At lower concentrations of ES products, neutral red uptake was usually increased above the control, but at higher concentrations of ES products, uptake was often decreased, probably because of cell detachment. Although generally consistent with direct observations of HeLa cell vacuolation by parasite chemicals, neutral red uptake was not a satisfactory quantitative assay.

  16. Effects of forage intake level on nitrogen net flux by portal-drained viscera of mature sheep with abomasal infusion of an amino acid mixture.

    PubMed

    EL-Sabagh, M; Sugino, T; Obitsu, T; Taniguchi, K

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pattern of nitrogen (N) metabolites flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) of mature sheep over a wide range of forage intake, and to determine the effect of dry matter intake (DMI) on the PDV recovery of an abomasally infused amino acids (AA) mixture. Four Suffolk mature sheep (61.4 ± 3.6 kg BW) surgically fitted with abomasal cannulae and multi-catheters were fed four levels of DMI of lucerne hay cubes ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 fold the metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance. Each period lasted for 17 days: 7 days for diet adaptation, 5 days for measurement of N balance and N metabolites flux under basal pre-infusion conditions (basal phase) and 5 days for determining the recovery of the infused AA (584 mmol/day) across the PDV (infusion phase). Six sets of blood samples were collected on the last day of both basal and infusion phases. Increasing DMI increased portal release of AA and enhanced N retention. At 0.4 M and as a proportion of digested N, there was a marked drop in total AA-N release accompanied by greater ammonia-N release and urea-N uptake across the PDV. The incremental recovery ratio of infused AA across the PDV was altered with increasing DMI accounting for 0.88, 1.12, 1.23 and 1.31 at 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 M, respectively. In addition, across the individual AA, the net portal recovery ratio of infused methionine and valine increased linearly (P < 0.05) while that of phenylalanine, branched-chain AA and total essential AA tended to increase linearly (P < 0.10) with increasing DMI. These results indicated that DMI affects the net portal recovery of AA available in the small intestine of mature sheep.

  17. Toxin-associated and other genes in Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS).

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Benjamin J; Nowell, Victoria J; Parreira, Valeria R; Soltes, Glenn; Prescott, John F

    2012-10-01

    This study examined known or possible virulence-associated genes in type A Clostridium perfringens from cases of both bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) and compared these to isolates from calves that were healthy or had undifferentiated diarrheal illness. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to genotype the 218 C. perfringens isolates. Isolates were sourced from healthy and diarrheic young and mature cattle (n = 191), from calves with confirmed or suspected BCA (n = 22), and from mature cattle with JHS (n = 5). Of 216 isolates (96%), 208 were positive for the cpa gene and 13% (29/218) were positive for atypical cpb2. Three of 8 (37.5%) confirmed BCA isolates, 2 of 13 (15.4%) suspected BCA isolates, and no JHS isolates tested positive for atypical cpb2. As all isolates were negative for cpb, cpb2, cpe, etx, netB, and tpeL, the results of the present study do not support a role for these genes in BCA or JHS. A subset of unique genes identified in 1 bovine clostridial abomasitis isolate (F262), for which a genome sequence is available, was searched for in 8 BCA isolates by PCR. None of the 10 genes was consistently present in all or even in a majority of BCA isolates. Many of these genes were also variably and inconsistently present in type A isolates from calves that did not have BCA. Although a virulence signature to aid in the diagnosis of BCA caused by C. perfringens type A was not identified, further work may discover a gene or group of genes that would constitute such a signature.

  18. An implant to empty the bladder or close the urethra.

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, G S

    1977-01-01

    An implant has been designed which, in the baboon, will empty the bladder almost completely, or close the urethra so that urine does not leak out despite a contraction of the detrusor muscle. Electrodes on the 1st and 2nd sacral anterior nerve roots (corresponding roughly to the 3rd and 4th sacral in man) suffice for both actions. Closing the urethra or emptying the bladder artificially in this way seems to cause conscious, neurologically intact, baboons no discomfort. Implants have remained in place for over two years, and have emptied the bladder artificially 12 times a day for many weeks, without deterioration of function. Images PMID:406364

  19. Gastric Emptying during Walking and Running: Effects of Varied Exercise Intensity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    running at the same metabolic rate would result in different gastric emptying responses due to variations in stomach movements. Thus, we studied the...during moderate intensity (40-70% ?02 max) cycling exercise is similar to the responses observed during seated rest, conditions in which abdominal...echanism(s) of this response is not clear, the reduction in stonach secretions appears to be a function of the exercise mode, i.e., walking versus running

  20. The caprine abomasal microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitism is considered the number one health problem in small ruminants. The barber's pole worm Haemonchus contortus infection in goats elicits a strong host immune response. However, the effect of the parasitic infection on the structure and function of the gut microbiome remains largely unknown....

  1. Delayed Gastric Emptying after Living Donor Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Griesemer, Adam D.; Parsons, Ronald F.; Graham, Jay A.; Emond, Jean C.; Samstein, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy. PMID:25610698

  2. 8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS CENTER (LEFT) AND LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE ON NORTH BANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  3. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Impaired Bladder Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael B

    2004-01-01

    Although much attention is paid to urinary incontinence, the condition of incomplete bladder emptying is becoming more common with the aging of the US population and the widespread use of anticholinergic drugs to treat overactive bladder. This disorder can often be silent until end-stage presentation of overflow incontinence. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic conditions of the bladder and urethra that can cause impaired bladder emptying and discuss how to evaluate and screen the patient with a bladder that does not empty. In addition, we provide an overview of treatment options available for impaired bladder emptying and consider the research that is under way to find the best therapies for the failing bladder. PMID:16985851

  4. Here's How to Prevent Closed Schools from Becoming Empty Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Ways of preventing school buildings from standing empty include finding alternative uses within the school system, leasing the buildings, and selling the buildings. All uses should be measured by their impact on the community around the school. (Author/IRT)

  5. Interior view to the east of an empty computer room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view to the east of an empty computer room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  6. Overview of buildings from empty lot north of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of buildings from empty lot north of Building No. 901, looking 238 degrees west-southwest - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: influence of psyllium.

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Petit, A; Triki, R; Caulin, C; Segrestaa, J M

    1992-01-01

    The correlation between ultrasonographic gastric emptying and appetite was studied. Echographic evaluation of gastric emptying by measurement of the antral vertical diameter and assessment of sensations of hunger and satiety using analogue visual scales were performed simultaneously in 12 healthy volunteers. Measurements were carried out after the intake of 10.8 g psyllium or placebo in a randomised, crossover, double blind trial. The correlation between echographic gastric emptying and sensations of hunger and satiety was excellent (p < 0.001) after the intake of either psyllium or placebo. Psyllium significantly delayed gastric emptying from the third hour after a meal. It increased the sensation of satiety and decreased hunger at the sixth hour after the meal. The association between echographic measurement and visual scales is a simple method of evaluating the relationship between the stomach and appetite. The pharmacodynamic effect of psyllium should be confirmed by longterm therapeutic trials. PMID:1398229

  8. 125. Credit JTL. 'Saxophone', detail showing water emptying out of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. Credit JTL. 'Saxophone', detail showing water emptying out of pipe, crashing into concrete wall and falling into flume. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  9. 61. View of bellmouth which empties into Printz Basin, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. View of bellmouth which empties into Printz Basin, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  10. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  11. 28. EXTERIOR CAN CONVEYOR Exterior section of empty can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. EXTERIOR - CAN CONVEYOR Exterior section of empty can conveyor which transported cans from the third floor of the main warehouse (right) to the canning area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  12. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  13. Impaired gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with Parkinson's disease using 13C-sodium octanoate breath test.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Oliver; Wieczorek, Joerg; Mueller, Thomas; Przuntek, Horst; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Woitalla, Dirk

    2005-03-03

    Up to now gastric emptying in patients with Parkinson's disease was determined by radioscintigraphy. The 13C-sodium octanoate breath test (OBT) has been established for the non-invasive evaluation of gastric emptying with a solid test meal. The aim of the study was to evaluate the OBT in patients with Parkinson's disease and to investigate the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying for solids in PD and the relationship to clinical staging patterns. Twenty-two healthy subjects and 36 patients with different clinical stages of PD classified using Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were studied. Each fasting control and patient received a solid test meal (241 kcal) labelled with 100 mg of 13C-sodium octanoate. Breath samples were obtained before substrate administration and then in 15-min intervals over 4 h. The 13CO2/12CO2 ratio was determined in each breath sample as delta over baseline. Time to peak (t(peak)), gastric half emptying time (t1/2b), lag phase (t(lagb)) and gastric emptying coefficient (GEC) were calculated. Significant differences in t(peak), t1/2b, t(lagb) and GEC were found between patients and healthy volunteers (p<0.0001), with a 60% delay in gastric half emptying time in the patient group. Gastric half emptying time was different between clinical disease groups (H&Y 0-2 versus H&Y 2.5-5, p=0.001; UPDRS 0-30 versus UPDRS 61-92, p<0.05). The OBT detects a significant delay in gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with PD. Delayed gastric emptying for solids is associated with disease severity.

  14. Na+/glucose co-transporter abundance and activity in the small intestine of lambs: enhancement by abomasal infusion of casein.

    PubMed

    Mabjeesh, Sameer J; Guy, Dafna; Sklan, David

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of abomasal casein infusion on glucose uptake and abundance of the Na+/glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) 1 in the ovine small intestine. Lambs (body weight 35 (sem 1.0) kg) were surgically fitted with abomasal infusion catheters and were fed diets containing equal portions of wheat hay and cracked maize. Lambs were infused with either 500 g water/d or with 500 g water containing 35 g casein/d. The infusion period lasted 10 d, after which lambs were killed, exsanguinated and eviscerated. Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared using mucosa from different small intestinal regions. Intake and total tract digestibility of nutrients were similar between treatments and averaged 1134, 1142 and 486 g/d and 67, 70, and 94 % for DM, organic matter and non-structural carbohydrates respectively. Crude protein (Nx6.25) digestibility was 15 % greater in the casein-infused than control lambs. Glucose uptake to BBMV ranged from 101 to 337 pmol/mg protein per s along the small intestine and was greatest in the mid-section of the small intestine. In the mid-jejunum, glucose uptake was greater (P<0.07) in lambs infused with casein and averaged 120 pmol/mg protein per s compared with 68 pmol/mg protein per s in the control group. SGLT1 affinity was similar between treatments and averaged 104 microm in the different segments of the small intestine of lambs. However, lambs infused with casein exhibited similar values along the small intestine and affinity averaged 106 microm, while in the control group a greater affinity (85 microm) was measured in the mid-jejunum. SGLT1 protein abundance was correlated with glucose uptake in the BBMV in the casein-treated lambs, but not in the control group. These results suggest that glucose uptake along the small intestine of lambs is influenced by casein or its derivatives in the small intestine via SGLT1 affinity and activity at the brush border membrane, and that SGLT1 activity

  15. Gastric emptying is involved in Lactobacillus colonisation in mouse stomach.

    PubMed

    Sahasakul, Yuraporn; Takemura, Naoki; Sonoyama, Kei

    2014-08-14

    Lactobacilli are indigenous microbes of the stomach of rodents, with much lower numbers being present in mice fed a purified diet than in those fed a non-purified diet. We postulated that gastric emptying (GE) is responsible for the different colonisation levels of lactobacilli and tested this hypothesis in the present study. BALB/cCr Slc mice were fed either a non-purified diet or a purified diet for 2 weeks. The number of gastric tissue-associated lactobacilli was lower in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet. GE, estimated by measuring the food recovered from the stomach, was higher in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet and correlated negatively with the number of lactobacilli. Mice fed the non-purified diet exhibited lower GE rates even when lactobacilli were eliminated by ampicillin administration through the drinking-water, suggesting that GE is the cause but not the consequence of different Lactobacillus colonisation levels. The plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, a gastric hormone that promotes GE, were higher in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet. There was a negative correlation between GE and the number of lactobacilli in mice fed the non-purified diet, the purified diet, and the purified diet supplemented with sugarbeet fibre (200 g/kg diet) or carboxymethyl cellulose (40 g/kg diet). We propose that a higher GE rate contributes, at least in part, to lower gastric colonisation levels of lactobacilli in mice fed a purified diet.

  16. Effect of 50% distal small bowel resection on gastric emptying in Rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A W; Moossa, A R; Skinner, D B

    1977-01-01

    The effect of bowel resection, sufficient to cause gastric secretory changes, on gastric emptying is unknown. Gastric evacuation was characterized in 8 Rhesus monkeys by a modification of George's double sampling test meal. Fifty per cent distal small bowel resection was then performed. Gastric emptying was again studied at 6 weeks and 6 months. The rate constant fell from -0.00289 +/- 0.000467 (+/-1 SEM) to -0.00232 +/- 0.00106 during the early phase, but role to -0.00308 +/- 0.00186 by 6 months, neither value being statistically different from the preoperative values. T1/2 rose from 125.2 +/- 19.2 mins to 367 +/- 173.4 mins by 6 weeks and to 380.9 +/- 161.6 mins by the end of the experiments. Corresponding values for T were: control period 425.8 +/- 63.2 mins, early phase 1223 +/- 589 mins and late phase 1245.9 +/- 529.6 mins. None of these changes were statistically significant. Alterations in emptying time within each animal were consistent at the two postoperative phases. Although the two animals showing acceleration of evacuation were those with least change in secretion, compensation for the observed increase in output of gastric juice did not materially alter the results. PMID:402124

  17. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice

    PubMed Central

    TERASHI, MUTSUMI; ASAKAWA, AKIHIRO; CHENG, KAI-CHUN; KOYAMA, KEN-ICHIRO; CHAOLU, HUKE; USHIKAI, MIHARU; INUI, AKIO

    2011-01-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Ucn3, food intake was measured in the light and dark phases, and the rate of gastric emptying was determined. We found that i.p. administration of Ucn3 significantly inhibited feeding behavior in mice, and significantly delayed gastric emptying 1–2 h after administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Ucn3 contributes to the modulation of feeding behavior and gut motility. Thus, Ucn3 and CRF-R2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal and eating disorders. PMID:22977506

  18. Jaw-movement smoothness during empty chewing and gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Minami, Ichiro; Akhter, Rahena; Luraschi, Julien; Oogai, Kazuhiro; Nemoto, Tetsu; Peck, Christopher C; Murray, Gregory M

    2012-06-01

    A major goal of motor coordination is the production of a smooth movement. Jerk-cost, which is an inverse measure of movement smoothness, has been evaluated during gum chewing in previous studies. However, the effect of the gum bolus is still unclear. The aims of this study were to compare the jerk-cost values of normal gum chewing with those of empty chewing. Thirteen subjects undertook, empty chewing, then chewing of gum, and then a second empty chewing. Jerk-cost was calculated from an accelerometer attached to the skin of the mentum. There was a significantly higher smoothness (i.e. lower jerk-cost, P < 0.05) during the opening and second-half closing phases in empty chewing compared with gum chewing. There were no significant differences in jerk-costs (i.e. opening or closing) between the first and the second empty-chewing sequences. These results suggest that the influence of the mechanical effects of tooth contact on jerk-cost is not restricted just to the occlusal phase of chewing, but rather the effect influences the entire opening and closing phases of chewing.

  19. Gastric emptying of multi-particulate dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Newton, J Michael

    2010-08-16

    The evidence in the literature for the concept that multi-particulate dosage forms below a specific size empty from the stomach as if they were liquids and hence have the potential to provide the best solution to the formulation of controlled release oral dosage forms, has been considered. There is some evidence that particles less than 1.0mm provide a more rapid response than larger size particles but there is also evidence that this is not always the case and that rapid and reproducible gastric emptying of small particles does not always occur when they are administered. There is strong evidence that food can delay the gastric emptying of multi-particulate systems. Some of the misconception for gastric emptying performance of multi-particulate system is shown to be related to the limitation of the study design and limitation of the way the data is processed. Nevertheless, there is clear evidence that multi-particulate systems can provide effective oral controlled release dosage forms. There is still some way to go with experimental techniques which would allow a definitive answer to the issue of how the variability of the gastric emptying of multi-particulate systems of less than 2.0mm arises.

  20. Oral versus intubated feeding and the effect on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, gastric emptying and satiety.

    PubMed

    Morey, S; Shafat, A; Clegg, M E

    2016-01-01

    Cephalic phase responses (CPR) are important in early initiation of digestion and maximal absorption of nutrients prior to ingestion. Bypassing CPR has been shown to have consequences on metabolic responses that may influence satiety. The aim of this study was to investigate if using gastric intubation to bypass oro-pharyngeal and oesophageal exposure would reduce CPR including insulin and blood glucose and whether these impact on gastric emptying and satiety. Ten male subjects were tested on 2 occasions, 3-7 days apart after an overnight fast, in randomized order. Subjects were cannulated and intubated with a gastric tube for both tests. For test one, subjects ate 400 ml soup with a spoon and for test two the soup was infused into the stomach at an equivalent rate. Subsequently measurements of glycaemic (GR) and insulinaemic responses (IR) from cannula samples, breath samples for measurement of gastric emptying using the [(13)C] sodium acetate breath test and visual analogue scales (VAS) for satiety were taken over 180 min. There were differences in IR over the first 15 min (Oral: 169.0 ± 22.1; Gastric 124.1 ± 18.8; t(9) = 2.67; p = 0.028) but no difference in GR. There were differences in gastric emptying half time (Oral: 85.0 ± 2.7; Gastric 79.4 ± 3.3; t(9) = 2.40; p = 0.04) and ascension time (Oral: 68.2 ± 2.2; Gastric 64.0 ± 2.2; t(9) = 2.57; p = 0.03) with food taking longer to empty from the stomach on the Oral test day than on the Gastric test day. There was no significant difference in the satiety ratings. This study demonstrated that bypassing oro-pharyngeal and oesophageal exposure decreases the normal physiological CPR with detriment to IR and gastric emptying.

  1. The gastric emptying of food as measured by gamma-scintigraphy and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and its influence on the gastric emptying of tablets of different dimensions.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Mitchell, Catherine L; Newton, J Michael; Evans, David; Short, Michael B

    2007-11-01

    A study in human volunteers has been designed to evaluate the influence of different food regimes on the gastric emptying of 3 mm and 10 mm diameter tablets. Dextrose and beef drinks were used as liquid food; a mixture of minced beef and mashed potato (shepherd's pie) was used as a solid meal. The gastric emptying of these foods was monitored simultaneously with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and gamma-scintigraphy (GS), and was quantified in terms of the time before gastric emptying started, the lag time, the mean gastric residence time (MGRT) and its variance (VGRT), and the time for complete emptying. The gastric emptying time of the tablets was established by monitoring the position of the tablets, which had been labelled with suitable radio isotopes, by GS. The two systems for monitoring gastric emptying of the foods did not provide equivalent results: times obtained with EIT were generally shorter than those obtained with GS for the liquid foods, but were longer for the solid meal. There was only a slight difference in the emptying times of the two liquid foods, whereas values for MGRT, VGRT and the time for complete emptying were considerably longer for the solid meal. In nearly all instances the tablets emptied after the foods had emptied completely from the stomach. Gastric emptying times were longer for the 3 mm tablets than the 10 mm tablets, whatever food they were taken with. The difference between the median emptying times was significant when the meal was either a dextrose solution or a beef drink, but not when the meal was shepherd's pie. The increase in gastric emptying time of tablets induced by solid food was greater than that associated with the differences in tablet size. By providing a protocol that did not allow the administration of further food until after the tablets had emptied from the stomach, no tablet emptying times exceeded 6 h.

  2. Empty versus filled polyhedra: 11 vertex bare germanium clusters.

    PubMed

    Uţă, Matei-Maria; King, Robert Bruce

    2014-04-01

    The structures and energetics of centered 10-vertex Ge@Ge₁₀(z) (z = -4, -2, 0, +2, +4) clusters have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) for comparison with the previously studied isomeric empty 11-vertex Ge₁₁(z) clusters. For the cationic species (z = +2, +4) such centered Ge@Ge₁₀(z) structures are shown to be energetically competitive (within ∼1 kcal mol⁻¹) to the lowest energy isomeric empty Ge₁₁(z) structures. These Ge@Ge₁₀(z) structures can be derived from the lowest energy empty 10-vertex Ge₁₀(z-4) structures by inserting a Ge⁴⁺ ion in the center. The outer 10-vertex polyhedron in the lowest energy Ge@Ge₁₀²⁺ dication structure is the most spherical D(4d) bicapped square antiprism, which is also the lowest energy structure of the empty Ge₁₀²⁻ dianion, as expected from the Wade-Mingos skeletal electron counting rules. For the tetracationic Ge₁₁⁴⁺ /Ge@Ge₁₀⁴⁺ system the lowest energy centered Ge@Ge₁₀⁴⁺ structure can be obtained by inserting a Ge⁴⁺ ion in the center of a C(3v) deltahedral empty Ge10 cluster. Centered 10-vertex polyhedral Ge@Ge₁₀(z) structures were also found for the neutral (z = 0) and dianionic (z = -2) systems but at significantly higher energies than the lowest energy isomeric empty Ge₁₁(z) structures.

  3. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  4. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  5. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  6. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an “empty forest” loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance. PMID:27757421

  7. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    SciTech Connect

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  8. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  9. The Empty Nest Syndrome: Ways to Enhance Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dianbing; Yang, Xinxiao; Aagard, Steve Dale

    2012-01-01

    Empty nest syndrome occurs as a result of urbanization and loosened relationships among family members. It may threaten the life quality of older adults and stability of society as a whole. This survey was designed to investigate the situation and factors that influence the life quality of a sample of older adults in a western state. Thirty-five…

  10. SIRT1 regulates the mouse gastric emptying and intestinal growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study addressed physiological significance of SIRT1 gene on mouse gastrointestinal growth and function (gastric emptying and intestinal growth). SIRT1 (a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase) is a key cellular energy sensor, and involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including energy me...

  11. 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, second floor above canning area. The belt has been removed from the conveyor, but sections of can conveyor tracks are visible on the floor. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  12. Canine gastric emptying of polycarbophil: an indigestible, particulate substance.

    PubMed

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1985-08-01

    We tested whether indigestible solids could empty from the canine stomach independently of gastric burst motor activity. Test meals contained polycarbophil, an indigestible particulate (1-3 mm diameter) substance. Test meals were slurries of 30 or 90 g of radiolabeled polycarbophil particles in saline. Meals were administered via an oral gastric tube. After 4 h, the stomach was drained via a gastric cannula, and the percentage of meal that had emptied into the duodenum was calculated. Antroduodenal motor responses to the meals were monitored with strain-gage force transducers. The motor responses to polycarbophil meals were compared with those after canned food and saline meals. Fifty percent of the 90-g polycarbophil meal emptied by 4 h; this occurred independently of gastric burst motor activity. Both polycarbophil and canned food elicited similar indexed motor responses and both delayed the postprandial reappearance of gastric burst motor activity. We conclude that small indigestible particles can stimulate fed state-like motility and empty from the stomach independently of gastric burst activity.

  13. 19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER TRIANGULATED CHANNELS AND OUT THE RAISED DUCTS TO FILTRATION PLANT. MOVEABLE BOARDS ON BOTTOM ASSIST IN REMOVING SLUDGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. FILTER CONTROL BUILDING AT REAR. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING EMPTY NAVIGATION LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING EMPTY NAVIGATION LOCK #1 WITH DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES OPEN; PHOTO TAKEN FROM MIDDLE OF SWING BRIDGE DOWNSTREAM FROM LOCK. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. Spirit and Its Now-Empty Mother Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead polar image was captured after the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took a few baby rolls away from the spacecraft that bore it millions of miles to Mars. The empty lander, now named the Columbia Memorial Station, can be seen to the right of the rover. This image was taken by Spirit's navigation camera.

  16. EmptyHeaded: A Relational Engine for Graph Processing.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Christopher R; Tu, Susan; Olukotun, Kunle; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of high-performance graph processing engines: low- and high-level engines. Low-level engines (Galois, PowerGraph, Snap) provide optimized data structures and computation models but require users to write low-level imperative code, hence ensuring that efficiency is the burden of the user. In high-level engines, users write in query languages like datalog (SociaLite) or SQL (Grail). High-level engines are easier to use but are orders of magnitude slower than the low-level graph engines. We present EmptyHeaded, a high-level engine that supports a rich datalog-like query language and achieves performance comparable to that of low-level engines. At the core of EmptyHeaded's design is a new class of join algorithms that satisfy strong theoretical guarantees but have thus far not achieved performance comparable to that of specialized graph processing engines. To achieve high performance, EmptyHeaded introduces a new join engine architecture, including a novel query optimizer and data layouts that leverage single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) parallelism. With this architecture, EmptyHeaded outperforms high-level approaches by up to three orders of magnitude on graph pattern queries, PageRank, and Single-Source Shortest Paths (SSSP) and is an order of magnitude faster than many low-level baselines. We validate that EmptyHeaded competes with the best-of-breed low-level engine (Galois), achieving comparable performance on PageRank and at most 3× worse performance on SSSP.

  17. EmptyHeaded: A Relational Engine for Graph Processing

    PubMed Central

    Aberger, Christopher R.; Tu, Susan; Olukotun, Kunle; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of high-performance graph processing engines: low- and high-level engines. Low-level engines (Galois, PowerGraph, Snap) provide optimized data structures and computation models but require users to write low-level imperative code, hence ensuring that efficiency is the burden of the user. In high-level engines, users write in query languages like datalog (SociaLite) or SQL (Grail). High-level engines are easier to use but are orders of magnitude slower than the low-level graph engines. We present EmptyHeaded, a high-level engine that supports a rich datalog-like query language and achieves performance comparable to that of low-level engines. At the core of EmptyHeaded’s design is a new class of join algorithms that satisfy strong theoretical guarantees but have thus far not achieved performance comparable to that of specialized graph processing engines. To achieve high performance, EmptyHeaded introduces a new join engine architecture, including a novel query optimizer and data layouts that leverage single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) parallelism. With this architecture, EmptyHeaded outperforms high-level approaches by up to three orders of magnitude on graph pattern queries, PageRank, and Single-Source Shortest Paths (SSSP) and is an order of magnitude faster than many low-level baselines. We validate that EmptyHeaded competes with the best-of-breed low-level engine (Galois), achieving comparable performance on PageRank and at most 3× worse performance on SSSP. PMID:28077912

  18. Diunsaturated Aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal in the Intestinal Lumen Suppresses Gastric Emptying through Serotonin Signaling in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hira, Tohru; Yahagi, Asuka; Nishimura, Saki; Sakaino, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-09-23

    We recently demonstrated that a diunsaturated aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (2,4-decadienal), potently stimulated secretion of cholecystokinin in the enteroendocrine cell line. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin and serotonin play critical roles in reducing postprandial gastric emptying. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of 2,4-decadienal (50-100 mg/kg) reduced gastric emptying rate in rats, assessed by both the acetaminophen absorption test and the phenol red recovery method. In contrast, saturated aldehyde, alcohol, and fatty acids having the same chain length as 2,4-decadienal did not affect the gastric emptying rate. Duodenal administration of 2,4-decadienal potently reduced gastric emptying rate, but intraperitoneal administration did not. Furthermore, the gastric inhibitory effect of 2,4-decadienal was attenuated by treatment with a serotonin receptor antagonist. These results demonstrated that 2,4-decadienal in the small intestinal lumen has a potent inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, possibly through stimulation of the serotonin-producing enteroendocrine cells.

  19. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  20. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in empty... WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.7 Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers. (a)(1) Any hazardous waste remaining in either: an empty container; or...

  1. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs(1-3).

    PubMed

    Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G

    2013-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5-8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and (13)C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath (13)CO2 enrichments, (13)CO2 production, percentage of (13)CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of (13)C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2.

  2. The Effect on Moderate Altitude UPON Human Gastric Emptying Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-03-01

    MARGARET M. JACKSON EVERETT SHOCKET , CAPT, USAF (MC) HARRY C. DYME AERO MEDICAL LAB CRATORY MARCH 1952 Reproduced From Best Available Copy WRIGHT AIR...EMPTYING TIME Margaret M. Jackson Everett Shocket , Capt, USAF(MC) Harry C. Dyme Aero Medical Laboratory March 1952 RDO No. 696-80 Wright Air Development...Flight Ration Requirements, with Everett Shocket , Captain, USAF (MC), and Miss Margaret M. Jackson acting as project engineers. This work would have

  3. An ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder emptying in patients with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, M; Agarwal, A K; Singh, S; Shukla, V K

    2000-12-01

    Impaired gallbladder emptying producing biliary stasis may provide potent carcinogen, which comes in contact with gallbladder mucosa for a prolonged period, inducing carcinogenesis. The aim was to study gallbladder emptying pattern in cholelithiasis. Postprandial gallbladder emptying was measured ultrasonographically in terms of fasting volume (FV), postprandial residual volume at 30 minutes (PP30), 60 minutes (PP60), and 90 minutes (PP90), residual fraction, and ejection volume (EV) in 58 patients with gallstones. Patients were divided into two groups of poor and good contractors on the basis of 50% maximal postprandial gallbladder emptying. Malonaldehyde level was estimated in 15 patients with cholelithiasis. Twenty-nine patients (50%) were poor contractors. The FV in patients with cholelithiasis (mean, 30.08 mL) was larger than the controls (mean, 17.55 mL) and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.02). The FV in the cholelithiasis group correlated significantly with the PP30 (r = 0.85, p < 0.001), PP60 (r = 0.85, p < 0.001), PP90 (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), and EV (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). Ejection volume was significantly less in poor contractors (p <0.001). Residual fraction was significantly higher in poor contractors (p < 0.001). The biliary malonaldehyde in poor contractors (2.27 micromol/mL) was higher than in good contractors (1.78 micromol/mL), but the difference was statistically not significant. Significantly larger volumes of PP30, PP60, PP90, and residual fraction and a low EV indicate poor contraction leading to biliary stasis.

  4. [Scintigraphic study of gallbladder emptying in chronic Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Troncon, L E; Rezende Filho, J; Iazigi, N

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies on gallbladder motility in Chagas' disease, which is known to be associated with diffuse destruction of intramural neurons, have produced conflicting results. In the present study we reevaluated this question by submitting chronic chagasic patients (n = 18) and controls (n = 12) to a cholescintigraphic study of gallbladder emptying in response to a single intra-venous injection of 60 ng/kg cerulein 90 min after administration of 99mTC-HIDA. Five min. before and immediately before carulein injection, as well as every 5 min. up to 45 min. after the stimulus, images of the gallbladder were obtained with a gamma-camera coupled to a computer. The counts obtained for regions of interest corresponding to the gallbladder, permitted the calculation of the ejection fraction of the organ and the construction of individual gallbladder emptying curves. The ejection fractions values for the total sample of chagasic patients (median 67.8%; variation, 4.0 to 99.0%), although higher than those for the control group (median: 34.2% variation, 13.1 to 88.0%), were not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). However, analysis of the individual curves for the chagasics permitted identifying 2 subgroups, one of which (n = 9) showed values very similar to those for the controls, whereas the other (n = 9) showed a very rapid and intense gallbladder emptying. It is concluded that impairment of the gallbladder innervation in Chagas' disease may lead to heterogeneous patterns of gallbladder emptying, with some patients being definitely hypersensitive to an exogenous cholecystokinetic agent.

  5. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  6. Empty Flux Tubes and Plasmasphere Refilling as Seen by IMAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Green, J. L.; Reinish, B.; Goldstein, J.; Huegrich, T.

    2002-01-01

    When a plasmaspheric flux tube is empty, what plasma is actually missing? When a flux tube refills, where does the plasma accumulate first? How long does it take to refill a flux tube to a level that is essentially saturated? Owing to the observational difficulties of measuring the distribution of plasmaspheric plasma along a flux tube, these questions have remained unanswered over many decades of study since discovery of the plasmasphere. They are important questions, because of the role that plasmaspheric plasma plays in collisional losses of higher energy populations, in modifying instabilities for wave-particle interactions, and in influencing the transport of energy through plasma waves. The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager and the Radio Plasma Imager on the IMAGE Mission are providing new, critical observations of the dynamic outer plasmasphere where convective erosion and refilling dominate. Latitudinal density profiles along a single L-shell from BPI confirm earlier indications of a mid-latitude transition between the altitude organized structure of the ionosphere and L-shell organized plasmasphere. Emptied flux tubes often mean empty only above about 1 Re in altitude or below plus or minus 40 degrees in magnetic latitude. Refilling to nearly saturated levels is found to take much less than that previously found necessary to complete the process. The observations behind these conclusions and the new light brought to plasmaspheric refilling will be discussed.

  7. Interdependent regional lung emptying during forced expiration: a transistor model.

    PubMed

    Solway, J; Fredberg, J J; Ingram, R H; Pedersen, O F; Drazen, J M

    1987-05-01

    We recognized similarities between isovolume pressure-flow curves of the lung and emitter-collector voltage-current characteristics of bipolar transistors, and used this analogy to model expiratory flow limitation in a two-generation branching network with parallel nonhomogeneity. In this model, each of two bronchi empty parenchymal compliances through a common trachea, and each branch includes resistances upstream and downstream of a flow-limiting site. Properties of each airway are specified independently, allowing simulation of differences between the tracheal and bronchial generations and between the parallel bronchial paths. Simulations of four types of parallel asymmetry were performed: unilateral peripheral bronchoconstriction; unilateral central bronchoconstriction; asymmetric redistribution of parenchymal compliance; and unilateral alteration of the bronchial area-transmural pressure characteristic. Our results indicate that multiple axial choke points can exist simultaneously in a symmetric lung when large airway opening-pleural pressure gradients exist; despite severe nonhomogeneity of regional lung emptying, flow interdependence among parallel branches tends to maintain a near normal configuration of the overall maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve throughout a large fraction of the vital capacity; and sudden changes of slope of the MEFV curve ("knees" or "bumps") may reflect choking in one branch in a nonuniform lung, but need not be obvious even when severe heterogeneity of lung emptying exists.

  8. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.M.; Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100..mu..Ci of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU.

  9. Silage or limit-fed grain growing diets for steers: II. Empty body and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Gallavan, R H; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Rodriguez, S

    1995-09-01

    The influence of energy source (silage- or grain-based) on empty body and carcass composition and adipocyte cellularity independent of rate of gain was tested. Sixty-four Angus steers were allotted to either a forage (ad libitum) or grain (limit-fed) diet for a growing phase (145 d) followed by 45, 75, or 105 d of ad libitum access to a grain-based diet. Eight steers were slaughtered initially and eight from each treatment were slaughtered at the end of the growing phase, and at each of the termination dates. The silage growing diet consisted (DM basis) of 55% sorghum silage (approximately 24% dry matter), 22% alfalfa hay, 11% ground shelled corn, and 11% soybean meal. The grain-based growing diet was composed of 77% ground shelled corn, 5% soybean meal, 14% cottonseed hulls, 3% molasses, and 1% salt and mineral; it was limit-fed to produce the same rate of gain as the silage diet. No implants or ionophores were used. At the end of the growing phase, the steers fed grain were heavier and had a higher percentage of fat in the empty body (24 vs 19% fat) and the carcass (26 vs 21% fat) than did steers fed forage. Rate of gain during the growth phase was related positively to percentage of carcass fat; when corrected for fill, data for both diets fit one regression line for fat vs rate of gain. When adjusted for gain during the growing phase, fat content was not different in empty body or carcass, but internal fat was higher (P < .10) for steers fed grain. After 45 d on the finishing diet, carcass fat remained low (23%), but after 75 and 105 d, fat content reached 27%. Source of energy did not detectably affect carcass composition independent of rate of gain. Cell size of adipocytes from four adipose depots increased with time on feed but were not affected by diet during the growing phase. Lean Choice beef can be produced in only 45 d in the feedlot with medium-framed Angus cattle.

  10. Early identification of drug-induced impairment of gastric emptying through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) simulation of plasma concentration-time profiles in rat.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sheila Annie; Hultin, Leif

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of gastric emptying rate can have adverse effects on the absorption of food and nutrients. The absorption phase of the plasma concentration-time profile of a compound administered orally to pre-clinical species reflects among others, the gastric and intestinal transit kinetics, and can thus assist in the early identification of delayed gastric emptying. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the value of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling in the early identification of drug induced impairment of gastric emptying from pharmacokinetic profiles. To our knowledge, this is first time that the value of a generic PBPK model for hypothesis testing has been demonstrated with examples. A PBPK model built in-house using MATLAB package and incorporating absorption, metabolism, distribution, biliary and renal elimination models has been employed for the simulation of concentration-time profiles. PBPK simulations of a few compounds that are currently in drug discovery projects show that the observed initial absorption phase of their concentration-time profiles in rat were consistent with reduced gastric emptying rates. The slow uptake of these compounds into the systemic circulation is reflected in their pharmacokinetic profiles but it is not obvious until PBPK simulations are done. Delayed gastric emptying rates of these compounds in rats were also independently observed in x-ray imaging. PBPK simulations can provide early alerts to drug discovery projects, besides aiding the understanding of complex mechanisms that determine the lineshapes of pharmacokinetic profiles. The application of PBPK simulations in the early detection of gastric emptying problems with existing data and without the need to resort to additional animal studies, is appealing both from an economic and ethical standpoint.

  11. Histamine delays gastric emptying of solid food in man through histamine, receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar, K.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have shown that histamine (H) contracts the cat pylorus and duodenum through H/sub 1/ receptor mechanisms. The authors investigated the effect of H infusion on gastric emptying (GE) and the role of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor blockade in healthy volunteers. Radionuclide GE studies were performed using chicken liver labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Technetium-sulfur colloid as a marker of solid food. Study days were as follows: a baseline GE study (Day 1); H infused continuously IV at a rate of 40 ..mu..g/kg/hr during the GE study (Day 2); an IV bolus of 50 mg of diphenhydramine (Day 3), or 300 mg cimetidine (Day 4) given just prior to the continuous infusion of H; a final day when cimetidine was given alone (Day 5). GE was monitored for 2 hours on each day. The results of days 1, 2 and 3 are summarized below (+p<0.05 vs baseline or Day 1). Pretreatment with cimetidine (Day 4) augmented the delay in GE induced by H infusion, while cimetidine without H (Day 5) had no effect on GE. The authors conclude that: 1) H given at a dose which elicits maximal acid secretory response in man significantly delays GE; and 2) H/sub 1/ receptor blockade but not H/sub 2/ blockade prevented this effect. Histamine may play a modulatory role in human gastric emptying through an H/sub 1/ receptor mechanism.

  12. Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of ingested water and saline by hypovolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Edward M; Bykowski, Michael R; Hossler, Carrie A Smith; Curtis, Kathleen S; Smith, James C

    2009-12-07

    Recent experiments showed that in a one-bottle test conducted 16h after sc injection of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, hypovolemic rats consumed water or 0.30 M NaCl in an initial drinking episode but did not empty the ingested fluid from the stomach or absorb it from the small intestine very rapidly, certainly not as rapidly as when 0.15M NaCl was consumed (Smith et al., Am J Physiol 292: R2089-R2099, 2007). The present experiments examined the patterns of water and 0.30 M NaCl ingestion and the movement of consumed fluid through the gastrointestinal tract when PEG-treated rats were given a two-bottle delayed-access test. We found that both fluids always were consumed in the first drinking episode, that the fluid mixture ingested was equivalent to 0.10-0.15M NaCl, and that gastric emptying rate and net fluid absorption from the small intestine usually were much faster than when PEG-treated rats drank either water or hypertonic saline alone. Thus, ingestion of water and 0.30 M NaCl by hypovolemic rats in the same episode adaptively facilitated the movement into the circulation of a near-isotonic fluid that is ideal for restoring plasma volume deficits.

  13. Comprehensive Comparison between Empty Nest and Non-Empty Nest Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study among Rural Populations in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ye; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Li, Zhao; Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively compare the general characteristics, lifestyles, serum parameters, ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) parameters, depression, quality of life, and various comorbidities between empty nest and non-empty nest elderly among rural populations in northeast China. This analysis was based on our previous study which was conducted from January 2012 to August 2013, using a multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling scheme. The final analyzed sample consisted of 3208 participants aged no less than 60 years, which was further classified into three groups: non-empty nest group, empty nest group (living as a couple), and empty nest group (living alone). More than half of the participants were empty nest elderly (60.5%). There were no significant statistical differences for serum parameters, UCG parameters, lifestyles, dietary pattern, and scores of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF) among the three groups. Empty nest elderly showed no more risk for comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, left atrial enlargement (LAE), and stroke. Our study indicated that empty nest elderly showed no more risk for depression, low quality of life and comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, LAE, and stroke among rural populations in northeast China. PMID:27618905

  14. Structural identifiability analysis of pharmacokinetic models using DAISY: semi-mechanistic gastric emptying models for 13C-octanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2011-04-01

    Structural identifiability analysis is necessary for efficient parameter estimation and it is concerned with determination of whether the parameters in a model can be identified from specified experiments with perfect input-output data. Structural identifiability analysis is very important in mathematical modelling of biological and biomedical experiments and should be considered at the design stage of these experiments. There are three possible outcomes from a structural identifiability analysis; globally/uniquely identifiable, locally/non-uniquely identifiable or non-identifiable/unidentifiable. An ideal outcome is a globally/uniquely identifiable model, however a locally/non-uniquely identifiable outcome can help to identify areas of the model or experiment that need improvement. Despite the importance of structural identifiability analysis, it is still not widely used due to the heavy computational burden involved and the lack of software. A new software package, DAISY, that implemented differential algebra for identifiability analysis was recently released. DAISY is freely available, easy to use and does not require any high-level programming skill. The (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is now widely used for assessing the rate of gastric emptying in patients. Unlike scintigraphy, which is the gold standard and is a direct measure of the rate of gastric emptying, the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is an indirect method for assessing the rate of gastric emptying. However the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is cheaper, safer and easy to perform. Because the rate of excretion of (13)CO(2) in breath does not only reflect the rate of gastric emptying but other processes involved between the ingestion of (13)C-octanoic acid and elimination of (13)CO(2) in breath, the parameters commonly derived from the excretion data are not direct measures of gastric emptying. The aim of this paper was to propose a new semi-mechanistic model for the analysis of (13)C-octanoic acid

  15. Effects of abomasal infusions of histidine, glucose, and leucine on milk production and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed grass silage diets.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Vanhatalo, A; Varvikko, T

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study showed that His was the first-limiting amino acid (AA) for milk protein production in cows fed grass silage and cereal-based supplement. The aim of this study was to identify the second-limiting AA and determine whether glucose was limiting responses to His. Abomasal infusion of His (6.5 g/d), glucose (250 g/d), His (6.5 g/d) + glucose (250 g/d), His 6.5 g/d) + Leu (12 g/d) and His (6.5 g/d) + Leu (12 g/d) + glucose (250 g/d) on milk production and utilization of amino acids by mammary gland was in an incomplete 5 x 6 Latin square design with 14-d periods. The diet was based on restrictively fermented grass silage fed ad libitum and 8 kg/d of concentrate comprised of barley, oats, unmolassed sugar beet pulp, urea, and minerals. The infusions did not affect feed intake, diet digestibility, or rumen fermentation pattern. The molar proportion of propionate in rumen VFA was low (15.5%), suggesting that glucose supply from the basal diet could be limiting. Milk and milk protein yields were increased by His infusion. Infusion of His increased plasma His concentration from 19 to 52 microM but decreased extraction efficiency of His. Infusion of glucose increased plasma glucose concentration, milk lactose concentration, and yield and tended to increase milk protein yield. Responses in milk protein yield to combined infusions of His and glucose were additive, suggesting that the utilization of the first-limiting AA His was limited by glucose supply. Infusion of Leu increased plasma Leu concentration but did not produce any further milk protein yield response compared with the infusions without Leu. It was concluded that the efficiency of utilization of the first-limiting AA His could be improved by increasing the supply of glucose, when the basal diet produces a rumen fermentation pattern low in propionate. Leu was not the second-limiting AA in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

  16. Impact of intracerebroventricular obestatin on plasma acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 levels, and on gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lee, Wei-Jei; Chong, Keong; Lee, Shou-Dong; Liao, You-Di

    2012-07-01

    Obestatin, which is a putative 23-amino-acid peptide, is derived from the C-terminal part of the mammalian preproghrelin gene. Nesfatin-1 mRNA is co-expressed with ghrelin in gastric endocrine X/A-like cells; therefore, nesfatin-1 may also interact with preproghrelin gene products in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the impact of obestatin on the plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, and on the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal 2 h after an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in conscious, fasted rats. The rats were implanted with ICV catheters. Plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, expected to be co-expressed with obestatin, were measured, whereas the human/rat corticotropin-releasing factor (h/rCRF) was applied as an inhibitor of gastric emptying. The ICV administration of obestatin (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/rat) did not modify the plasma acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels, the acyl ghrelin/des-acyl ghrelin ratio and nesfatin-1 concentrations. The ICV acute administration of obestatin had no influence on the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal, but the ICV h/rCRF injection delayed it. The weight of food ingested 1 h before ICV injection significantly, but negatively correlated with the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal. Our study indicates that the ICV injection of obestatin does not change the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal and the relatively weak interrelationships between ghrelin gene products and nesfatin-1. However, the weight of the ingested food negatively affects the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal in conscious, fasted rats.

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses inhibition of gastric emptying by cholecystokinin (CCK) in mice.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Joanne; Kenny, Susan; Dockray, Graham J

    2013-08-10

    The intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) delays gastric emptying and inhibits food intake by actions on vagal afferent neurons. Recent studies suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses the effect of CCK on food intake. In this study we asked whether PAI-1 also modulated CCK effects on gastric emptying. Five minute gastric emptying of liquid test meals was studied in conscious wild type mice (C57BL/6) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAI-1 in gastric parietal cells (PAI-1H/Kβ mice), or null for PAI-1. The effects of exogenous PAI-1 and CCK8s on gastric emptying were studied after ip administration. Intragastric peptone delayed gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice by a mechanism sensitive to the CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide. Peptone did not delay gastric emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Exogenous CCK delayed gastric emptying of a control test meal in C57BL/6 mice and this was attenuated by administration of PAI-1; exogenous CCK had no effect on emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Prior administration of gastrin to increase gastric PAI-1 inhibited CCK-dependent effects on gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice but not in PAI-1 null mice. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous PAI-1 inhibit the effects of CCK (whether exogenous or endogenous) on gastric emptying. The data are compatible with emerging evidence that gastric PAI-1 modulates vagal effects of CCK.

  18. Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Hoad, C L; Totman, J J; Costigan, C; Singh, G; Shepherd, V; Chalkley, L; Robinson, M; Ison, R; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is pivotal for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. We hypothesized that different food ingredients, when consumed, will have a different effect on stimulating gall bladder emptying. To investigate this we designed two randomized, investigator-blind, cross-over studies in healthy subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gall bladder volumes serially and non-invasively. Subjects/methods: Study 1: exploratory study evaluating the effects of 10 different food ingredients on gall bladder emptying in eight healthy subjects. The choice of ingredients varied from common items like coffee, tea and milk to actives like curcumin and potato protease inhibitor. Study 2: mechanistic study investigating the cholecystokinin (CCK) dose response to the best performer ingredient from Study 1 in 21 healthy subjects four ways. Results: The largest gall bladder volume change in Study 1 was observed with fat, which therefore became the dose-response ingredient in Study 2, where the maximum % gall bladder volume change correlated well with CCK. Conclusions: These serial test-retest studies showed that the fasted gall bladder volume varied remarkably between individuals and that individual day-to-day variability had wide coefficients of variation. Improved knowledge of how to stimulate bile release using food ingredients will be useful to improve in vitro–in vivo correlation of bioavailability testing of hydrophobic drugs. It could improve performance of cholesterol-lowering plant stanol and sterol products and possibly aid understanding of some cholesterol gallstone disease. PMID:24045793

  19. Liquid inflow to initially empty cylindrical tanks in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuckler, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to determine the characteristics of liquid inflow to initially empty cylindrical tanks in a low gravity environment. The acceleration was varied so that Bond numbers based on the inlet radius varied from 0.059 to 2.80. The liquid entered the tank as a jet that grew to a maximum height and then decreased in height with respect to the bottom of the tank, with the liquid from the jet collecting in the bottom of the tank. The maximum jet heights were correlated in terms of the Weber number and the Bond number.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  1. The empty carriage: lessons in leadership from Florence Nightingale.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Marge

    2011-01-01

    Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today's nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning.

  2. Xenin-25 delays gastric emptying and reduces postprandial glucose levels in humans with and without Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sara; Reeds, Dominic N.; Crimmins, Dan L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Laciny, Erin; Wang, Songyan; Tran, Hung D.; Griest, Terry A.; Rometo, David A.; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Xenin-25 (Xen) is a neurotensin-related peptide secreted by a subset of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing enteroendocrine cells. In animals, Xen regulates gastrointestinal function and glucose homeostasis, typically by initiating neural relays. However, little is known about Xen action in humans. This study determines whether exogenously administered Xen modulates gastric emptying and/or insulin secretion rates (ISRs) following meal ingestion. Fasted subjects with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 10–14 per group) ingested a liquid mixed meal plus acetaminophen (ACM; to assess gastric emptying) at time zero. On separate occasions, a primed-constant intravenous infusion of vehicle or Xen at 4 (Lo-Xen) or 12 (Hi-Xen) pmol·kg−1·min−1 was administered from zero until 300 min. Some subjects with NGT received 30- and 90-min Hi-Xen infusions. Plasma ACM, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, Xen, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured and ISRs calculated. Areas under the curves were compared for treatment effects. Infusion with Hi-Xen, but not Lo-Xen, similarly delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial glucose levels in all groups. Infusions for 90 or 300 min, but not 30 min, were equally effective. Hi-Xen reduced plasma GLP-1, but not GIP, levels without altering the insulin secretory response to glucose. Intense staining for Xen receptors was detected on PGP9.5-positive nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle of the human stomach. Thus Xen reduces gastric emptying in humans with and without T2DM, probably via a neural relay. Moreover, endogenous GLP-1 may not be a major enhancer of insulin secretion in healthy humans under physiological conditions. PMID:24356886

  3. Surgery of the turbinates and “empty nose” syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Surgical therapy of the inferior and/or middle turbinate is indicated when conservative treatment options have failed. The desired goal is a reduction of the soft tissue volume of the turbinates regarding the individual anatomic findings, whilst simultaneously conserving as much mucosa as possible. As the turbinates serve as a functional entity within the nose, they ensure climatisation, humidification and cleaning of the inhaled air. Thus free nasal breathing means a decent quality of life, as well. Regarding the multitude of different surgical techniques, we confirm that no ideal standard technique for turbinate reduction has been developed so far. Moreover, there is a lack of prospective and comparable long-term studies, which makes it difficult to recommend evidence-based surgical techniques. However, the anterior turbinoplasty seems to fulfil the preconditions of limited tissue reduction and mucosa-preservation, and therefore it is the method of choice today. Radical resection of the turbinates may lead to severe functional disturbances developing a secondary atrophic rhinitis. The “empty nose” syndrome is a specific entity within the secondary atrophic rhinitis where intranasal changes in airflow result in disturbed climatisation and also interfere with pulmonary function. Results deriving from an actual in vivo study of climatisation and airflow in “empty nose” patients are presented. PMID:22073107

  4. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have struggled with RCRA's empty container requirements when it comes to disposing of visually empty warfarin and nicotine containers, and this issue is in need of investigation. For example, nicotine gums, patches and lozenges are hazardous wastes because nicotine and its salts are listed as P075, and Coumadin (also known as warfarin) is hazardous because warfarin and its salts are listed as P001 (when warfarin is present at concentrations greater than 0.3%). Therefore, when unused nicotine-based smoking cessation products (e.g., patches, gum and lozenges) and Coumadin are discarded, they are acute hazardous wastes and must be managed in accordance with all applicable RCRA regulations. Furthermore, due to additional management requirements for P-listed wastes, any acute hazardous water residues remaining in containers (and therefore the container itself) must be managed as hazardous unless the container has been rendered

  5. Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250μm). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

  6. Effect of meal volume and calorie load on postprandial gastric function and emptying: studies under physiological conditions by combined fiber-optic pressure measurement and MRI.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Monika A; Menne, Dieter; Steingoetter, Andreas; Goetze, Oliver; Forras-Kaufman, Zsofia; Kaufman, Elad; Fruehauf, Heiko; Boesiger, Peter; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark R

    2009-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of meal volume (MV) and calorie load (CL) on gastric function. MRI and a minimally invasive fiber-optic recording system (FORS) provided simultaneous measurement of gastric volume and pressure changes during gastric filling and emptying of a liquid nutrient meal in physiological conditions. The gastric response to 12 iso-osmolar MV-CL combinations of a multinutrient drink (MV: 200, 400, 600, 800 ml; CL: 200, 300, 400 kcal) was tested in 16 healthy subjects according to a factorial design. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV = MV + secretion) were measured by MRI during nasogastric meal infusion and gastric emptying over 60 min. Intragastric pressure was assessed at 1 Hz by FORS. The dynamic change in postprandial gastric volumes was described by a validated three-component linear exponential model. The stomach expanded with MV, but the ratio of GCV:MV at t(0) diminished with increasing MV (P < 0.01). Postprandial changes in TGV followed those of GCV. Intragastric pressure increased with MV, and this effect was augmented further by CL (P = 0.02); however, the absolute pressure rise was <4 mmHg. A further postprandial increase of gastric volumes was observed early on before any subsequent volume decrease. This "early" increase in GCV was greater for smaller than larger MV (P < 0.01), indicating faster initial gastric emptying of larger MV. In contrast, volume change during filling and in the early postprandial period were unaffected by CL. In the later postprandial period, gastric emptying rate continued to be more rapid with high MVs (P < 0.001); however, at any given volume, gastric emptying was slowed by higher CL (P < 0.001). GCV half-emptying time decreased with CL at 18 +/- 6 min for each additional 100-kcal load (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that gastric wall stress (passive strain and active tone) provides the driving force for gastric emptying, but distal resistance to gastric outflow regulates

  7. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    SciTech Connect

    Shockley, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  8. Paradoxical form of filled/empty optical illusion.

    PubMed

    Wackermann, Jiri; Kastner, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The filled/empty illusion (Oppel-Kundt) is one of the oldest geometrical-optical illusions, but the determinants of the illusion are not yet sufficiently understood. We studied magnitude of the illusory effect as a function of the height of vertical strokes subdividing a spatial extension of fixed length, using the psychophysical standard-variable matching paradigm. For vertical strokes shorter than, or of the same height as strokes delimiting the standard, the length was over-reproduced consistently with earlier studies of the illusion. However, for vertical strokes three times longer than the delimiters, the illusory effect paradoxically decreased, and attained negative values in two of six subjects. The magnitude of the effect thus depends on the patterning of the space between the delimiters, not merely on the number of subdividing elements.

  9. Hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Nurhakim, Boby; Agustin, Astrid; Rinaldi, Nino; Muryanto, Fitriady, Muhammad Ariffudin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment methods in 2nd generation bioethanol production more profitable to be developed, since the conventional pretreatment, by using acids or alkalis, is associated with the serious economic and environmental constraints. The current studies investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 160 to 240 C and 15 to 30 min, respectively. The EFB were grinded and separated into 3 different particles sizes i.e. 10 mesh, 18 mesh and 40 mesh, prior to hydrothermal pretreatment. Solid yield and pH of the treated EFB slurries changed over treatment severities. The chemical composition of EFB was greatly affected by the hydrothermal pretreatment especially hemicellulose which decreased at higher severity factor as determined by HPLC. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused negatively affect for enzymatic hydrolysis. This studies provided important factors for maximizing hydrothermal pretreatment of EFB.

  10. Colon emptying induced by sequential electrical stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sevcencu, Cristian; Rijkhoff, Nico J M; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Electrical stimulation could be used to induce colon emptying. The present experiments were performed to establish a stimulation pattern to optimize the stimulation parameters and to test neural involvement in propulsion induced by electrical stimulation. Colon segments were sequentially stimulated using rectangular pulses. The resulting propulsive activity displaced intraluminal content in consecutive propulsion steps. The propulsion steps differed in displacement latency, distance, and velocity along the stimulated colon. Increasing the pulse duration or amplitude resulted in a decrease of the latency. Increasing the stimulation amplitude doubled the displacement distance. The frequencies tested in the present study did not affect propulsion. Inhibition of cholinergic and nitrergic pathways inhibited propulsion. Electrical stimulation can induce colonic propulsion. Motor differences are present along the descending colon. The most suitable combination of pulse parameters regarding colon stimulation is 0.3 ms, 5 mA, 10 Hz. Neural circuits are involved in propulsion when using these values.

  11. A benchmark study of controlled emptying of equalization basins.

    PubMed

    Bolmstedt, J; Olsson, G

    2005-01-01

    Storm tanks, or equalization basins, have been used for many years in sewer or wastewater treatment systems to reduce the amount of combined sewer overflows. In this paper, a systematic control of an equalization basin is used not only to dampen or reduce the hydraulic load, but also to systematically improve the effluent quality in a nitrogen removal plant. It is demonstrated that the effluent ammonia concentration is the key component. The Benchmark Simulation Model 1, implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, has been used to perform the evaluations. It has been extended with systematic rainfall generations. Intuitively, it is apparent that the equalization basin should be emptied before a rainfall. This requires a prediction capacity. It is shown that the choice of prediction time is by no means trivial and it is not true that a long prediction horizon is always advantageous.

  12. Summertime blues: August foraging leaves honey bees empty-handed.

    PubMed

    Couvillon, Margaret J; Fensome, Katherine A; Quah, Shaun Kl; Schürch, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A successful honey bee forager tells her nestmates the location of good nectar and pollen with the waggle dance, a symbolic language that communicates a distance and direction. Because bees are adept at scouting out profitable forage and are very sensitive to energetic reward, we can use the distance that bees communicate via waggle dances as a proxy for forage availability, where the further the bees fly, the less forage can be found locally. Previously we demonstrated that bees fly furthest in the summer compared with spring or autumn to bring back forage that is not necessarily of better quality. Here we show that August is also the month when significantly more foragers return with empty crops (P = 7.63e-06). This provides additional support that summer may represent a seasonal foraging challenge for honey bees.

  13. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  14. Schizophernia and empty sella – casual or correlated?

    PubMed Central

    Wix-Ramos, Richard Joseph; Capote, Eduardo; Mendoza, Milet; Garcia, Margreth; Ezequiel, Uribe

    2011-01-01

    Summary A male patient, 44 years old, with schizophrenia which started at the age of 18. At his last follow-up visit, laboratory tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed, revealing the presence of a sellar arachnoidocele. To our knowledge, there is only one similar case report of a set of male monozygotic triplets with schizophrenia and empty sella syndrome. High-resolution chromosome analysis found an extra band at chromosome 15p in all the triplets and their father. We performed a similar evaluation in our patient and his family to compare the results and identify new information on neuroanatomical abnormalities, hormonal alterations or genetic origins of schizophrenia. PMID:22802833

  15. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  16. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch.

  17. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  18. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  19. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  20. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  1. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  2. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  3. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  4. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  5. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  6. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  7. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  8. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  9. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  10. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  11. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  12. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  13. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  14. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  15. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  16. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  17. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  18. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  19. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  20. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  1. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  2. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  3. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  4. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  5. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  6. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  7. Differing Interpretations of Empty Categories in English and Japanese VP Ellipsis Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Ayumi

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how English and Japanese children interpret empty categories in Verb Phrase Ellipsis contexts as in (1):(1) The penguin [sat on his chair] and the robot did [delta], too. To obtain an adultlike interpretation of (1), English children have to do two things. First, they need to find a suitable antecedent for the empty verb…

  8. Botulinum toxin A as a treatment for delayed gastric emptying in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Max L.; Fransson, Boel A.; Barry, Sabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    A toy Australian shepherd dog was referred for bile peritonitis following excision of a biliary mucocele. Subsequent delayed gastric emptying was refractory to prokinetic therapy but responded to injection of botulinum toxin A into the muscularis layer of the pylorus; a novel therapy for delayed gastric emptying in dogs. PMID:24982520

  9. The pattern of gastric emptying: a new view of old results

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    1. Gastric emptying has until now been regarded as exponential in form, but this pattern does not account for all phases of a meal. 2. A pattern of emptying in which the square root of the volume of meal remaining declines linearly with time has been shown to account for the experimental results with less error. PMID:5937408

  10. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-08-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with /sup 51/Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK.

  11. Expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in olfactory sense organ development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sonia; Hartmann, Beate; Reichert, Heinrich; Rodrigues, Veronica

    2010-11-01

    In Drosophila, the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles plays key roles in embryonic patterning of the peripheral and central nervous system. During postembryonic development, it is involved in the development of central olfactory circuitry in the antennal lobe of the adult. However, its possible role in the postembryonic development of peripheral olfactory sense organs has not been investigated. Here, we show that empty spiracles acts in a subset of precursors that generate the olfactory sense organs of the adult antenna. All empty spiracles-expressing precursor cells co-express the proneural gene amos and the early patterning gene lozenge. Moreover, the expression of empty spiracles in these precursor cells is dependent on both amos and lozenge. Functional analysis reveals two distinct roles of empty spiracles in the development of olfactory sense organs. Genetic interaction studies in a lozenge-sensitized background uncover a requirement of empty spiracles in the formation of trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla. MARCM-based clonal mutant analysis reveals an additional role during axonal targeting of olfactory sensory neurons to glomeruli within the antennal lobe. Our findings on empty spiracles action in olfactory sense organ development complement previous studies that demonstrate its requirement in olfactory interneurons and, taken together with studies on the murine homologs of empty spiracles, suggest that conserved molecular genetic programs might be responsible for the formation of both peripheral and central olfactory circuitry in insects and mammals.

  12. Botulinum toxin A as a treatment for delayed gastric emptying in a dog.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Max L; Fransson, Boel A; Barry, Sabrina L

    2014-07-01

    A toy Australian shepherd dog was referred for bile peritonitis following excision of a biliary mucocele. Subsequent delayed gastric emptying was refractory to prokinetic therapy but responded to injection of botulinum toxin A into the muscularis layer of the pylorus; a novel therapy for delayed gastric emptying in dogs.

  13. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  14. Acetaminophen absorption kinetics in altered gastric emptying: establishing a relevant pharmacokinetic surrogate using published data.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2015-06-01

    Acetaminophen has been used as a tool for clinical and nonclinical experimental designs that evaluate gastric emptying because acetaminophen is not absorbed in stomach but efficiently absorbed from the small intestine. Published pharmacokinetic data of acetaminophen in subjects with normal gastric emptying vs. impaired gastric emptying (i.e., morphine treatment) were evaluated to select a key surrogate. Using Caverage (average concentration), computed from the exposure within the first hour, individual rank distribution was plotted across different studies. Caverage was highly correlated with Cmax (maximum concentration) in subjects with normal gastric emptying (R(2) = .7532) but not in those where gastric emptying was impaired (R(2) = .0213). The 50th percentile value of the distribution pattern of 1/Caverage in acetaminophen+morphine-treated group (coincided with the first shift in the slope) was considered as the cutoff point to figure out the impaired gastric emptying. The individual rank distribution plots for 1/Caverage across different studies supported similar trends in subjects with normal gastric emptying but showed a distinct distribution pattern in the cohort of impaired gastric emptying. Caverage, calculated within the first hour of dosing of acetaminophen (average concentration at 0-1 hour, C0-1havg), can be used as a key surrogate to distinguish the effects of gastric emptying on the absorption of acetaminophen. A 4 μg/mL C0-1havg of acetaminophen (dose: 1.5 g) may be used as cutoff point in future clinical investigations of acetaminophen to clarify the role of gastric emptying.

  15. Large Voids in the Universe are Really Empty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-07-01

    Motions of Nearby Galaxies Reveal No Invisible Matter Using telescopes in Chile, Europe, Australia and the USA, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered large empty regions (`holes') in what they refer to as the `local Universe'. These regions, as well as others with excess mass density are revealed by a study of the motions in space of more than 2000 galaxies. They are among the largest structures ever seen in the Universe and have diameters of up to 100 million light years. Large empty regions in the nearby Universe Astronomers have known for a number of years that there are regions in the Universe where no galaxies, stars or gas can be seen by optical telescopes. In professional language, such `holes' are commonly referred to as `voids' . For some time, astronomers around the world have tried to detect at least some galaxies in these voids by using larger and more sensitive telescopes. Amazingly, only few such galaxies have ever been found, even by use of the best available equipment. The failure to detect anything in these voids has led to speculations about the nature of the matter in voids. Could it be that it is there, but not in the form astronomers are best familiar with, namely stars and galaxies which can be detected with modern telescopes? Is it perhaps in some kind of exotic, invisible state? The new study now gives a surprisingly simple answer to that question: There just is no matter in the voids! How to detect the `voids' Astronomers can easily detect normal galaxies at very large distances with the help of technologically advanced optical telescopes, like the ones operated by the European Southern Observatory at La Silla in Chile. It was during such investigations in the 1980's, at ESO and elsewhere, that some `voids' were first found as regions of space where few galaxies could be seen. However, it is very difficult to prove that there is `nothing', i.e. absence of visible as well as invisible matter, in some region of the Universe

  16. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  17. [A clinical analysis of 123 cases of primary empty sella].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Jia, H W; Wang, C L; Zhang, R; Qu, M Y; Li, W; Yuan, M H; Cui, J; He, Q; Wei, H Y; Zhu, T H; Ma, Z S; Liu, W; Dong, Z L; Gao, Z G

    2017-04-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to analyze the clinical characteristics and pituitary function of patients with primary empty sella (PES). Methods: The clinical data from 123 hospitalized adult patients with PES from January 2010 to May 2016 were retrospectively studied. Results: (1) The average age of the 123 (male 43, female 80) PES patients was (59.2±13.6) years (ranging 24-92 years), among whom 61% patients were in the age group between 50-69 years. (2) The symptoms of the patients included fatigue (56.1%), headache (34.1%), nausea and vomiting (17.9%), gonadal dysfunction (17.1%), visual disturbance (5.7%) and hypopituitarism crisis (3.3%). (3) Hypopituitarism was found in 66 of the 123 patients. Among them, 36.6%, 31.7% and 17.1% were central hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism, respectively.The percentage of hypopituitarism in complete PES was significantly higher than that in partial PES (P<0.05). (4) Sixteen patients were concomitant with other autoimmune diseases including 11 patients with Graves' disease and 2 with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenoma. Conclusions: The incidence of hypopituitarism in PES was 53.7%, in which the pituitary-adrenal axis hypofunction was more common. An overall evaluation of the pituitary function was essential for the patients who had headache and fatigue, or with suspected PES. The patients with hypopituitarism should be given hormone replacement therapy in time and followed up afterword.

  18. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  19. Full and empty spaces in the analytic process.

    PubMed

    Perelberg, Rosine Jozef

    2003-06-01

    In this paper the author discusses two categories of patients which differ in terms of the impact they have in the countertransference. On the one hand, there are patients who create an empty space in the analyst's mind. The response they provoke is a kind of depressive feeling that remains after they leave. The patient may bring dreams and associations, but they do not reverberate in the analyst's mind. The experience is of dryness, a dearth of memory, which may--at times--leave the analyst with a sense of exclusion from the patient's internal world. At the other extreme, there are patients who fill the consulting room. They do that with their words, dreams and associations but also with their emotions and their actions. The experience is that the analyst is over-included in the patient's world. They have dreams that directly refer to the analyst and the analyst feels consistently involved in the patient's analysis. The pathway through which the analyst can understand both these types of patients is via the countertransference or, to put it another way, the analyst's passion. In 'Analysis terminable and interminable' Freud suggested that the bedrock of any analysis is the repudiation of femininity. The author believes this statement may be viewed as lying at the crossroads of the discussion about the limits of the theoretical and clinical psychoanalytic formulations which she refers to. In the examples presented the author relates the repudiation of femininity in its connections to the gaps implicit in psychoanalytic understanding.

  20. Checking Timed Büchi Automata Emptiness Using LU-Abstractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangyuan

    This paper shows that the zone-based LU-extrapolation of Behrmann et al, that preserves reachability of timed automata, also preserves emptiness of timed Büchi automata. This improves the previous results by Tripakis et al who showed that the k-extrapolation preserves timed Büchi automata emptiness. The LU-extrapolation is coarser than k-extrapolation, allowing better state space reductions. A tool with LU-extrapolation for emptiness checking of timed Büchi automata has been implemented, and some experiments are reported.

  1. Mesophilic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent and empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Choi, Seon-Mi; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Jung, Jin-Young

    2013-01-01

    The palm oil mill industry generates palm oil mill effluent (POME) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) as by-products. This study reports the mesophilic co-digestion of POME with EFB. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of POME and EFB was 0.397 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) and 0.264 L CH4/g VS, respectively. In a series of batch tests at various EFB to POME ratios, the maximum methane production rate was achieved at an EFB:POME ratio of 0.25-0.31:1. Performance data from lab-scale digesters confirmed the positive synergism by the addition of EFB to POME, which was attributed to the balanced chemical composition, for example the chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio. The EFB addition enhanced the acceptable organic loading rate, methane production, COD removal, and microbial activity. The mesophilic co-digestion of POME and EFB promises to be a viable recycling method to alleviate pollution problems and recover renewable energy in the palm oil mill industry.

  2. Effect of drink carbohydrate content on postexercise gastric emptying, rehydration, and the calculation of net fluid balance.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David J; Evans, Gethin H; James, Lewis J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the gastric emptying and rehydration effects of hypotonic and hypertonic glucose-electrolyte drinks after exercise-induced dehydration. Eight healthy males lost ~1.8% body mass by intermittent cycling and rehydrated (150% of body mass loss) with a hypotonic 2% (2% trial) or a hypertonic 10% (10% trial) glucose-electrolyte drink over 60 min. Blood and urine samples were taken at preexercise, postexercise, and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min postexercise. Gastric and test drink volume were determined 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min postexercise. At the end of the gastric sampling period 0.3% (2% trial) and 42.1% (10% trial; p < .001) of the drinks remained in the stomach. Plasma volume was lower (p < .01) and serum osmolality was greater (p < .001) at 60 and 120 min during the 10% trial. At 240 min, 52% (2% trial) and 64% (10% trial; p < .001) of the drinks were retained. Net fluid balance was greater from 120 min during the 10% trial (p < .001). When net fluid balance was corrected for the volume of fluid in the stomach, it was greater at 60 and 120 min during the 2% trial (p < .001). These results suggest that the reduced urine output following ingestion of a hypertonic rehydration drink might be mediated by a slower rate of gastric emptying, but the slow gastric emptying of such solutions makes rehydration efficiency difficult to determine in the hours immediately after drinking, compromising the calculation of net fluid balance.

  3. Impaired cholecystokinin-induced gallbladder emptying incriminated in spontaneous "black" pigment gallstone formation in germfree Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie E; Leonard, Monika R; Hayden, Joshua A; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Bernert, Kara R; Lavoie, Brigitte; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Whary, Mark T; Mawe, Gary M; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Carey, Martin C; Fox, James G

    2015-02-15

    "Black" pigment gallstones form in sterile gallbladder bile in the presence of excess bilirubin conjugates ("hyperbilirubinbilia") from ineffective erythropoiesis, hemolysis, or induced enterohepatic cycling (EHC) of unconjugated bilirubin. Impaired gallbladder motility is a less well-studied risk factor. We evaluated the spontaneous occurrence of gallstones in adult germfree (GF) and conventionally housed specific pathogen-free (SPF) Swiss Webster (SW) mice. GF SW mice were more likely to have gallstones than SPF SW mice, with 75% and 23% prevalence, respectively. In GF SW mice, gallstones were observed predominately in heavier, older females. Gallbladders of GF SW mice were markedly enlarged, contained sterile black gallstones composed of calcium bilirubinate and <1% cholesterol, and had low-grade inflammation, edema, and epithelial hyperplasia. Hemograms were normal, but serum cholesterol was elevated in GF compared with SPF SW mice, and serum glucose levels were positively related to increasing age. Aged GF and SPF SW mice had deficits in gallbladder smooth muscle activity. In response to cholecystokinin (CCK), gallbladders of fasted GF SW mice showed impaired emptying (females: 29%; males: 1% emptying), whereas SPF SW females and males emptied 89% and 53% of volume, respectively. Bilirubin secretion rates of GF SW mice were not greater than SPF SW mice, repudiating an induced EHC. Gallstones likely developed in GF SW mice because of gallbladder hypomotility, enabled by features of GF physiology, including decreased intestinal CCK concentration and delayed intestinal transit, as well as an apparent genetic predisposition of the SW stock. GF SW mice may provide a valuable model to study gallbladder stasis as a cause of black pigment gallstones.

  4. Antidiabetic and gastric emptying inhibitory effect of herbal Melia azedarach leaf extract in rodent models of diabetes type 2 mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Seifu, Daniel; Gustafsson, Lars E; Chawla, Rajinder; Genet, Solomon; Debella, Asfaw; Holst, Mikael; Hellström, Per M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is associated with impaired insulin production and increased insulin resistance. Treatment with antidiabetic drugs and insulin strives for normalizing glucose homeostasis. In Ethiopian traditional medicine, plant extracts of Melia azedarach are used to control diabetes mellitus and various gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to clarify the antidiabetic effects of M. azedarach leaf extracts in diabetic type 2 experimental animals. In this study, mice were injected with Melia extract intraperitoneally. Plasma glucose was studied by using tail vein sampling in acute experiments over 4 h and chronic experiments over 21 days with concurrent insulin and body weight assessments. Glucose tolerance was studied by using intraperitoneal glucose (2 mg/g) tolerance test over 120 min. Gastric emptying of a metabolically inert meal was studied by the gastric retention of a radioactive marker over 20 min. Melia extracts displayed acute, dose-dependent antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice similar to glibenclamide (p<0.05–0.001). Long-term administration of Melia extract reduced plasma glucose (p<0.001) and insulin (p<0.01–0.001) levels over 21 days, concurrent with body weight loss. Glucose tolerance test showed reduced basal glucose levels (p<0.05–0.01), but no difference was found in glucose disposal after long-term treatment with Melia extract. In addition, the Melia extract at 400 mg/kg slowed gastric emptying rate of normal Sprague-Dawley (p<0.001) and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats (p<0.001) compared with controls. It is concluded that the M. azedarach leaf extract elicits diabetic activity through a multitargeted action. Primarily an increased insulin-sensitizing effect is at hand, resulting in blood glucose reduction and improved peripheral glucose disposal, but also through reduced gastric emptying and decreased insulin demand. PMID:28360538

  5. Influence of hippophae rhamnoides on two appetite factors, gastric emptying and metabolic parameters, in children with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mantian; Qiu, Xiaoshan; Yue, Dianchao; Cai, Yongyi; Mo, Qingping

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore in children with functional dyspepsia the effect of hippophae rhamnoides on the levels of plasma appetite factors and on their gastrointestinal motility. A hundred and twenty children with functional dyspepsia were randomly divided into three groups: Group I (treated with hippophae rhamnoides), Group II (treated with domperidone), and Group III (treated with hippophae rhamnoides plus domperidone). The treatment lasted for eight weeks. The levels of plasma leptin (LP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured before and after treatment. All patients underwent a gastric emptying (GE) test by ultrasound (US) to measure the rate of postprandial gastric antrum residual, at 30min, 60min, 90min and 120min. The average value of subcutaneous fat, body fat percentage, upper arm girth and body mass index (BMI) were also measured. To compare the US with the radionuclide GE test 14 healthy adults volunteers were tested by both GE techniques. We found that the levels of LP and NPY in plasma were markedly higher after treatment in Groups I and III than in Group II. The postprandial gastric antrum remains at 60min, 90min and 120min in Groups I and III fell greatly and the thickness of skin fold (SF), body fat percentage and arm girth increased (P<0.05). The GE half emptying time of a mixed liquid-solid food measured by B US and by the radionuclide technique in the same individuals was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, in children's functional dyspepsia, our study showed that hippophae rhamnoides increases the levels of appetite factors, leptin and neuropeptide Y, increases gastric emptying and gastrointestinal digestive function, children's growth and development.

  6. Effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying and intragastric meal distribution.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Friedman, N; Shirazi, P; Ringelstein, J G; Keshavarzian, A

    1997-01-01

    Carbonated water has long been advocated to relieve dyspeptic symptoms, suggesting that it may alter gastric motility via gastric distension. This study aimed to determine the effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying of a radiolabeled mixed meal in eight healthy volunteers. Meal emptying and its distribution within the stomach were assessed with carbonated and still water in a crossover study. Emptying of both solid and liquid, including the duration of the lag phase, was identical for both drinks. However, the proximal stomach contained a greater proportion of solids (74 +/- 7% vs 56 +/- 8%, P < 0.05) and liquids (43 +/- 5% vs 27 +/- 4%, P < 0.05) with carbonated water as opposed to still water. Retention of the meal within the proximal stomach ended with the lag phase and was likely related to proximal distension. In conclusion, carbonated water did not alter overall gastric emptying but profoundly modified intragastric distribution of the meal.

  7. Influence of SDZ RAD vs. MMF on gastric emptying in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Maes, Bart D; Evenepoel, Pieter; Kuypers, Dirk; Geypens, Benny; Ghoos, Yvo; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2003-06-01

    SDZ RAD and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are increasingly used in the prevention of renal allograft rejection. SDZ RAD, having a macrolide structure, and MMF, known with gastrointestinal side-effects, may have gastric motility modifying properties. Gastric emptying was examined 1 yr after renal transplantation in eight patients taking corticosteroids (CS), cyclosporin A (CsA) and SDZ RAD and six patients treated with CS, CsA and MMF. Comparing the two groups, no significant differences in gastric emptying of solids and liquids were noted. Compared with normal volunteers, solid gastric emptying was faster in the SDZ RAD group and similar in the MMF group. It is concluded that in stable renal transplant recipients treated with MMF, gastric emptying was normal. Because of the impact on drug absorption and gastrointestinal symptoms, further studies are indicated to corroborate the potential prokinetic properties of SDZ RAD.

  8. Spherical nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp via ultrasound assisted hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zianor Azrina, Z A; Beg, M Dalour H; Rosli, M Y; Ramli, Ridzuan; Junadi, Norhafzan; Alam, A K M Moshiul

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.

  9. Isolated ACTH deficiency in a patient with empty sella as revealed by severe hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Doroftei, Nicoleta Alina; de Rudder, Catherine; de Visscher, Nathalie; Hanon, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Hyponatremia due to isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency is difficult to diagnose as it is usually indistinguishable from non-endocrine syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). We present a case secondary to empty sella. Most patients with empty sella remain asymptomatic throughout life and require no treatment; however, in cases involving the development of isolated ACTH deficiency, corticosteroid treatment should be enforced to avoid fatal consequences.

  10. The Dynamics of Gastric Emptying and Self-Reported Feelings of Satiation Are Better Predictors than Gastrointestinal Hormones of the Effects of Lipid Emulsion Structure on Fat Digestion in Healthy Adults-a Bayesian Inference Approach.

    PubMed

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Buetikofer, Simon; Curcic, Jelena; Menne, Dieter; Rehfeld, Jens F; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Wooster, Tim J

    2017-02-22

    Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation.Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions. Iterative Bayesian model averaging variable selection was used to investigate the influence of hormone profiles in controlling fat emulsion emptying and satiation.Results: The emulsion structure had a distinct effect on the gastric emptying (primary outcome), gastrointestinal hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation (secondary outcomes). Gravitational and acid stability were stronger modulators of fat emptying and hormone profiles than were emulsion droplet size or redispersibility. Cholecystokinin and PYY were most strongly affected by fat emulsion instability and droplet size. Although both hormones were relevant predictors of gastric emptying, only PYY was identified as a relevant predictor of satiation.Conclusions: This work indicates that evenly dispersed, stable, small-emulsion droplets within the stomach lead to prolonged gastric distension, longer ghrelin suppression, and accelerated fat sensing (cholecystokinin and PPY), triggering prolonged feelings of satiation. It suggests that the effects of emulsion instability and droplet size on energy consumption are best studied by assessing changes in gastric

  11. Gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease: patients with and without response fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Djaldetti, R; Baron, J; Ziv, I; Melamed, E

    1996-04-01

    Delayed gastric emptying may be an important pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying some of the response fluctuations that develop after long-term levodopa therapy. We performed a radionuclide gastric emptying study using a standard Tc-99m colloid-labeled solid meal in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 fluctuators with "delayed-on" and "no-on" phenomena, and 15 nonfluctuators. Fasting patients were given the standard meal, and gastric emptying was monitored with a gamma camera positioned over the stomach, recording data for 1 hour. PD patients had prolonged gastric emptying measured after 60 minutes compared with the normal control subjects (70.7 +/- 16% versus < 60%). Gastric retention measured after 1 hour was increased in patients with fluctuations compared with patients without fluctuations (77.4 +/- 15.5% versus 64.0 +/- 14.3%; p < 0.05). Half-time emptying was significantly delayed in patients with, as compared with those without, response fluctuations (221 +/- 202 minutes versus 85 +/- 31 minutes; p < 0.05). This demonstrates that delayed gastric emptying is common in PD patients and is more marked in those with response fluctuations. The stomach is an important target organ in PD, affected either by the basic PD pathology, chronic drug administration, or both.

  12. A conserved leucine occupies the empty substrate site of LeuT in the Na+-free return state

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskaite, Lina; Said, Saida; Sahin, Caglanur; Grouleff, Julie; Shahsavar, Azadeh; Bjerregaard, Henriette; Noer, Pernille; Severinsen, Kasper; Boesen, Thomas; Schiøtt, Birgit; Sinning, Steffen; Nissen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial members of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family perform Na+-dependent amino-acid uptake and extrude H+ in return. Previous NSS structures represent intermediates of Na+/substrate binding or intracellular release, but not the inward-to-outward return transition. Here we report crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus LeuT in an outward-oriented, Na+- and substrate-free state likely to be H+-occluded. We find a remarkable rotation of the conserved Leu25 into the empty substrate-binding pocket and rearrangements of the empty Na+ sites. Mutational studies of the equivalent Leu99 in the human serotonin transporter show a critical role of this residue on the transport rate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that extracellular Na+ is blocked unless Leu25 is rotated out of the substrate-binding pocket. We propose that Leu25 facilitates the inward-to-outward transition by compensating a Na+- and substrate-free state and acts as the gatekeeper for Na+ binding that prevents leak in inward-outward return transitions. PMID:27221344

  13. A conserved leucine occupies the empty substrate site of LeuT in the Na(+)-free return state.

    PubMed

    Malinauskaite, Lina; Said, Saida; Sahin, Caglanur; Grouleff, Julie; Shahsavar, Azadeh; Bjerregaard, Henriette; Noer, Pernille; Severinsen, Kasper; Boesen, Thomas; Schiøtt, Birgit; Sinning, Steffen; Nissen, Poul

    2016-05-25

    Bacterial members of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family perform Na(+)-dependent amino-acid uptake and extrude H(+) in return. Previous NSS structures represent intermediates of Na(+)/substrate binding or intracellular release, but not the inward-to-outward return transition. Here we report crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus LeuT in an outward-oriented, Na(+)- and substrate-free state likely to be H(+)-occluded. We find a remarkable rotation of the conserved Leu25 into the empty substrate-binding pocket and rearrangements of the empty Na(+) sites. Mutational studies of the equivalent Leu99 in the human serotonin transporter show a critical role of this residue on the transport rate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that extracellular Na(+) is blocked unless Leu25 is rotated out of the substrate-binding pocket. We propose that Leu25 facilitates the inward-to-outward transition by compensating a Na(+)- and substrate-free state and acts as the gatekeeper for Na(+) binding that prevents leak in inward-outward return transitions.

  14. Effect of Turning Frequency on Composting of Empty Fruit Bunches Mixed with Activated Liquid Organic Fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisakti, B.; Lubis, J.; Husaini, T.; Irvan

    2017-03-01

    Composting of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) by mixing it with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative way in the utilization of solid waste produced from the palm oil mill (POM). This research was to determine the effect of turning frequency on the rate of composting of EFB mixed with ALOF in a basket composter. The composting process was started with cutting the EFB into pieces with size 1-3 cm, inserting the EFB pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding ALOF until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The turning frequency on each composter was varied i.e. once in every 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The parameters analysed during composting were temperature, pH, MC, compost weight, water holding capacity (WHC), CN ratio, and the quality of the final compost. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the best result obtained at turning frequency was 3 days. The best compost characteristic was pH 9.0; MC 57.24%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15%; P 0.58%; and K 0. 95%.

  15. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  16. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: application to environmental problems.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Mansor, Mariatul F; Wahid, Radziah

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800 degrees C and physical activation at 150 degrees C (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800 degrees C showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800 degrees C. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of activated carbon) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes.

  17. Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Unexplained Nausea and Vomiting and Normal Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Colvin, Ryan; Yates, Katherine; Hasler, William L.; Abell, Thomas L.; Ünalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Farrugia, Gianrico; Koch, Kenneth L.; Parkman, Henry P.; Snape, William J.; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying is a poorly understood syndrome; we analyzed its characteristics. Methods We collected and analyzed data from 425 patients with chronic nausea and vomiting, enrolled at 6 centers by the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Registry. Results Among the patients, 319 (75%) had delayed emptying, defined by the results of a standardized, low-fat meal, and 106 had normal gastric emptying. Patients with or without delayed emptying did not differ in age, sex, or race, although those with normal gastric emptying were less likely to be diabetic. Symptom severity indices were similar between groups for nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach fullness, inability to complete a meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite, bloating, and visibly larger stomach. There were no differences in health care utilization, quality of life indices, depression, or trait anxiety scores. However, state anxiety scores were slightly higher among patients with delayed gastric emptying. Total gastroparesis cardinal symptom index scores were not correlated with gastric retention after 2 or 4 hours in either group. Patients with the syndrome were not adequately captured by the stand-alone criteria for the Rome III diagnoses of chronic idiopathic nausea and functional vomiting. With rare exceptions, the diagnosis remained stable after a 48-weeks follow-up period. Conclusions Patients with nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying represent a significant medical problem and are, for the most part, indistinguishable from those with gastroparesis. This syndrome is not categorized in the medical literature—it might be a separate clinical entity. PMID:21397732

  18. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  19. Assessment of gastric emptying in normal subjects with sucralfate (Carafate) and Amphojel

    SciTech Connect

    Marano, A.R.; Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum-containing antacids (e.g Amphojel) and aluminum-containing compounds such as sucralfate (Carafate) have been shown in animal and human studies to delay gastric emptying, and are one proposed mechanism of action for healing of duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the authors designed a study to study the effects of Carafate and Amphojel on gastric emptying. Ten normal volunteers of mean age 27 years with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal diseases were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of 30gm of cooked chicken liver injected with lmCi of 99m-Tc-S-C, mixed with 7.5 oz. of beef stew, and eaten with 4 oz. of water labeled with 100..mu..Ci of 111-In-DTPA. Immediately after ingestion of the meal, the subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. Gastric emptying (GE) was expressed as percent emptied. On separate days the subject was given either lgm of Carafate (190mg Al/gm) or placebo in a double blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. On the third day, each subject was given 30cc of Amphojel (105mg Al/5cc) followed 30 minutes later by the test meal. GE at 2 hours for the solid meal was 60%, 69%, and 54% and 79%, 86% and 68% at 3 hours for placebo, Carafate, and Amphojel respectively. A small but not significant difference in gastric emptying between Amphojel and placebo was seen from 2 to 3 hours. For the liquid meal approximately 90% emptying was present at 1 hour for all three studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether these medications administered in the standard doses given here may affect gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients.

  20. Assessment of the Prevalence of Diabetic Gastroparesis and Validation of Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Zeinab; Khatib, Foad; Tabib, Seyed Masoud; Javadi, Hamid; Jafari, Esmail; Aghaghazvini, Leila; Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Ali; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gastroparesis is defined as delayed gastric emptying and is a common medical condition in diabetic patients. Scintigraphy is commonly used as a standard diagnostic procedure for the quantitative assessment of gastroparesis. The aims of this study were to determine an optimum imaging time for the diagnosis of gastroparesis, to assess the prevalence of gastroparesis, to evaluate the correlation between endoscopy and scintigraphy findings as well as the correlation between gastric emptying with patient genders, blood glucose concentration, and functional dyspepsia. Methods: Gastric emptying was assessed in 50 diabetic patients with a mean age of 50.16 years. For evaluation of gastric emptying, a test meal containing 2 pieces of toast, 120 cc non-labeled water and fried egg labeled with 1 mCi of 99mTc was given to each patient. The scintigraphy was performed immediately after ingestion and was repeated at 1, 1.5, 2 and 4 hours after ingestion. In some patients, an additional 90-minute dynamic scan was also acquired. Results: The prevalence of gastroparesis in this study population was determined as 64%. Also, the results of this study revealed that a 4-hour scan after ingestion is more relevant than a 90-minute dynamic scan for the evaluation of delayed gastric emptying. There was no statistically significant difference between 1-hour and 2-hour scans, 1-hour and 90-minute scans, 2-hour and 90-minute scans, 2-hour and 4-hour scans. Likewise there was no significant correlation between blood glucose levels, gender and calculated values of gastric emptying time in all groups. Conclusion: According to our findings, it can be suggested that the prevalence of gastroparesis is higher than that mentioned in some previous studies. Also, this study indicates that a gastric emptying scintigraphy at 2 and 4 hours after meal ingestion might provide the anticipated clinical information in diabetic patients with dyspepsia without other evident reasons. PMID:28291006

  1. Subtotal nephrectomy inhibits the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    da Graça, José Ronaldo Vasconcelos; Parente, Cynara Carvalho; Fiúza, Robério Ferreira; da Silva, Pedro Alberto Freitas; Mota, Bruno Teixeira; Salles, Luiz Derwal; Silva, Camila Meirelles de Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of blood volume (BV) is attained through a functional interaction between the cardiovascular and renal systems. The gastrointestinal tract also adjusts its permeability and motor behavior after acute BV imbalances. We evaluated the effect of progressive nephron loss on gut motility. Male Wistar rats were subjected or not (sham) to 5/6 partial nephrectomy (PNX) in two steps (0 and 7th day). After further 3, 7, or 14 days, PNX and sham operation (control) rats were instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), and blood collection for biochemical analysis. The next day, they were gavage fed with a liquid test meal (phenol red in glucose solution), and fractional dye recovery determined 10, 20, or 30 min later. The effect of nonhypotensive hypovolemia and the role of neuroautonomic pathways on PNX-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay were also evaluated. Compared with the sham-operated group, PNX rats exhibited higher (P < 0.05) MAP and CVP values as well as increased values of gastric dye recovery, phenomenon proportional to the BV values. Gastric retention was prevented by prior hypovolemia, bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, coelic ganglionectomy + splanchnicectomy, guanethidine, or atropine pretreatment. PNX also inhibited (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, PNX increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. In conclusion, the progressive loss of kidney function delayed the GE rate, which may contribute to gut dysmotility complaints associated with severe renal failure. PMID:25677547

  2. In Vitro Assembly of an Empty Picornavirus Capsid follows a Dodecahedral Path

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenglei; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Taylor, Milton W.

    2012-01-01

    The Picornaviridae are a large family of small, spherical RNA viruses that includes numerous pathogens. The picornavirus structural proteins VP0, VP1, and VP3 are believed to first form protomers, which then form 14S particles and subsequently assemble to form empty and RNA-filled particles. 14S particles have long been presumed to be pentamers. However, the structure of the 14S particles, their mechanism of assembly, and the role of empty particles during infection are all unknown. We established an in vitro assembly system for bovine enterovirus (BEV) by using purified baculovirus-expressed proteins. By Rayleigh scattering, we determined that 14S particles are 488 kDa, confirming they are pentamers. Image reconstructions based on negative-stain electron microscopy showed that 14S particles have 5-fold symmetry, and their structures correlate extremely well with the corresponding pentamer from crystal structures of mature BEV. Purified 14S particles readily assemble in response to increasing ionic strength or temperature to form 5.8-MDa 12-pentamer particles, indistinguishable from native empty particles. Surprisingly, empty particles were sufficiently stable that, under physiological conditions, dissociation is unlikely to be a biologically relevant reaction. This suggests that empty particles are not a storage form of 14S particles, at least for bovine enterovirus, but are either a dead-end product or direct precursor into which viral RNA is packaged by as-yet-unidentified machinery. PMID:23015694

  3. Applied potential tomography. A new noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Avill, R; Mangnall, Y F; Bird, N C; Brown, B H; Barber, D C; Seagar, A D; Johnson, A G; Read, N W

    1987-04-01

    Applied potential tomography is a new, noninvasive technique that yields sequential images of the resistivity of gastric contents after subjects have ingested a liquid or semisolid meal. This study validates the technique as a means of measuring gastric emptying. Experiments in vitro showed an excellent correlation between measurements of resistivity and either the square of the radius of a glass rod or the volume of water in a spherical balloon when both were placed in an oval tank containing saline. Altering the lateral position of the rod in the tank did not alter the values obtained. Images of abdominal resistivity were also directly correlated with the volume of air in a gastric balloon. Profiles of gastric emptying of liquid meals obtained using applied potential tomography were very similar to those obtained using scintigraphy or dye dilution techniques, provided that acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Profiles of emptying of a mashed potato meal using applied potential tomography were also very similar to those obtained by scintigraphy. Measurements of the emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach were reproducible if acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Thus, applied potential tomography is an accurate and reproducible method of measuring gastric emptying of liquids and particulate food. It is inexpensive, well tolerated, easy to use, and ideally suited for multiple studies in patients, even those who are pregnant.

  4. Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs. [Cobalt 60 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Jacobus, J.P.; Grissom, M.P.; Eng, R.R.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-03-01

    The relation between radiation-induced vomiting and gastric emptying is unclear and the treatment of this condition is not established. We explored, therefore, (a) the effect of cobalt 60 irradiation on gastric emptying of solids and liquids and (b) the possibility of preventing radiation-induced vomiting with the dopamine antagonist, domperidone. Twenty dogs were studied on two separate days, blindly and in random order, after i.v. injection of either a placebo or 0.06 mg/kg domperidone. On a third day, they received 8 Gy (800 rads) whole body irradiation with cobalt 60 gamma-rays after either placebo (n . 10) or domperidone (n . 10). Before each study, each dog was fed chicken liver tagged in vivo with 99mTc-sulfur colloid (solid marker), and water containing 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (liquid marker). Dogs were placed in a Pavlov stand for the subsequent 3 h and radionuclide imaging was performed at 10-min intervals. Irradiation produced vomiting in 9 of 10 dogs given placebo but only in 1 of 10 dogs pretreated with domperidone (p less than 0.01). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids was significantly suppressed by irradiation (p less than 0.01) after both placebo and domperidone. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced vomiting is accompanied by suppression of gastric emptying. Furthermore, domperidone prevents vomiting produced by ionizing radiation but does not alter the accompanying delay of gastric emptying.

  5. Gastric emptying of indigestible tablets in relation to composition and time of ingestion of meals studied by metal detector.

    PubMed

    Ewe, K; Press, A G; Bollen, S; Schuhn, I

    1991-02-01

    Enteric-coated tablets leave the stomach mainly during the interdigestive phase. Composition as well as time of ingestion of meals may influence their gastric emptying considerably. In 12 normal volunteers gastric emptying of a plastic tablet with a metal core was followed by a metal detector in relation to different compositions and various times of ingestion of meals. With an empty stomach and after ingestion of 250 ml water, the mean time for gastric emptying of the tablet was 38 +/- 11 min (mean +/- SEM) and 38 +/- 8 min. Two hundred fifty milliliters of milk (652 kJ) and a formula diet (1000 kJ) delayed gastric emptying time to 128 +/- 14 and 152 +/- 6 min, respectively (P less than 0.05). Breakfast (2200 kJ) further retarded gastric emptying compared with both liquids to 249 +/- 24 min (P less than 0.05). There was a close correlation between nutritive density and gastric emptying of the tablet (r = 0.92; P less than 0.001). Main meals also delayed gastric emptying of tablets when compared to empty stomach (P less than 0.05). A snack after breakfast further delayed gastric emptying from 201 +/- 10 to 278 +/- 19 min (P less than 0.05). The largest delay was observed following ingestion of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and additional snacks (509 +/- 220 min). We conclude that the delay of gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets by food is related to its nutritive density and eating habits. The gastric emptying of an enteric coated tablet that is ingested early in the morning may be delayed until late at night when several meals and snacks are ingested during the day, leading to unwanted alterations in bioavailability and to possible adverse effects.

  6. Characterisation of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB) and pinewood bio-oils and kinetics of their thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Pimenidou, P; Dupont, V

    2012-04-01

    Ultimate and proximate analyses and thermal degradation of bio-oils from pinewood and palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB) were carried out to evaluate the oils' potential for production of fuels for transport, heat and power generation, and of hydrogen via the calculation of performance indicators. The pinewood and PEFB oils indicated good theoretical hydrogen yields of 13.7 and 15.9 wt.% via steam reforming, but their hydrogen to carbon effective ratios were close to zero, and their propensity for fouling and slagging heat exchanger surfaces via combustion was high. Both oils exhibited two phases during mass loss under nitrogen flow at heating rates of 3-9 Kmin(-1), but the kinetics of their thermal degradation from TGA-FTIR analysis indicated different degradation mechanisms that were well reproduced by a nth order reaction model for pinewood and Jander's 3D-diffusion model for PEFB. These findings lead to recommendations on pretreatments prior to the oils' utilisation.

  7. Empty Sets as Part of the Numerical Continuum: Conceptual Precursors to the Zero Concept in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Rugani, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current research was to explore whether monkeys possess conceptual precursors necessary for understanding zero. We trained rhesus monkeys on a nonsymbolic numerical matching-to-sample task, and on a numerical ordering task. We then introduced nondifferentially reinforced trials that contained empty sets to determine whether monkeys would treat empty sets as numerical values. All monkeys successfully matched and ordered the empty sets without any training. Accuracy showed distance effects, indicating that they treated empty sets as values on a numerical continuum. PMID:19397383

  8. Effects of abomasal infusion of conjugated linoleic acids, Sterculia foetida oil, and fish oil on production performance and the extent of fatty acid Δ⁹-desaturation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, M P; Taga, H; Ma, L; Corl, B A; Gervais, R; Lebeuf, Y; Richard, F J; Chouinard, P Y

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Sterculia foetida oil (STO), and fish oil (FO) on milk yield and composition, milk FA profile, Δ(9)-desaturation activity, and mammary expression of 2 isoforms of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD-1 and SCD-5) in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (69 ± 13 d postpartum) were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. For the first 14 d of each period, cows received an abomasal infusion of (1) 406 g of a saturated fatty acid (SFA) supplement (112 g of 16:0 + 230 g of 18:0) used as a control (CTL), (2) 36 g of a CLA supplement (13.9 g of trans-10,cis-12 18:2) + 370 g of SFA, (3) 7 g of STO (3.1g of 19:1 cyclo) + 399 g of SFA, or (4) 406 g of FO (55.2 g of cis-5,-8,-11,-14,-17 20:5 + 59.3 g of cis-4,-7,-10,-13,-16,-19 22:6). Infusions were followed by a 14-d washout interval. Compared with CTL, STO decreased milk yield from 38.0 to 33.0 kg/d, and increased milk fat concentration from 3.79 to 4.45%. Milk fat concentration was also decreased by CLA (2.23%) and FO (3.34%). Milk fat yield was not affected by STO (1,475 g/d) compared with CTL (1,431 g/d), but was decreased by CLA (774 g/d) and FO (1,186 g/d). Desaturase indices for 10:0, 12:0, and 20:0 were decreased, whereas the extent of desaturation of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, and 18:0 was not affected by CLA treatment compared with CTL. Infusion of STO significantly decreased all calculated desaturase indices compared with CTL; the 14:0 index was reduced by 80.7%. Infusion of FO decreased the desaturase indices for 10:0, 14:0, 20:0, trans-11 18:1, and 18:0. The effect of FO on the 14:0 index indicates a decrease in apparent Δ(9)-desaturase activity of 30.2%. Compared with CTL, mammary mRNA abundance of SCD-1 was increased by STO (+30%) and decreased by CLA (-24%), whereas FO had no effect. No effect was observed on mRNA abundance of SCD-5. In conclusion, abomasal infusion of CLA, STO, and FO

  9. Raman-based Oxygen and Nitrogen Sensor for Monitoring Empty Airplane Fuel Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a Raman-based method for detecting oxygen and nitrogen in empty fuel tanks. The need for such a method comes from the potential danger of allowing explosive oxygen-fuel mixtures to accumulate in empty airplane fuel tanks. An explosion resulting from such a mixture is believed to have caused the Flight TWA 800 disaster in 1996. Recently, (e.g., February 17,2004 press release) the FAA announced its intentions to make fuel tank inerting mandatory. One potential solution to this problem is to use an inert gas such as nitrogen to flood the empty fue1 tanks in order to reduce the concentration of oxygen.

  10. Misleading inferences from discretization of empty spacetime: Snyder-noncommutativity case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Astuti, Valerio

    2015-06-01

    Alternative approaches to the study of the quantum gravity problem are handling the role of spacetime very differently. Some are focusing on the analysis of one or another novel formulation of "empty spacetime", postponing to later stages the introduction of particles and fields, while other approaches assume that spacetime should only be an emergent entity. We here argue that recent progress in the covariant formulation of quantum mechanics, suggests that empty spacetime is not physically meaningful. We illustrate our general thesis in the specific context of the noncommutative Snyder spacetime, which is also of some intrinsic interest, since hundreds of studies were devoted to its analysis. We show that empty Snyder spacetime, described in terms of a suitable kinematical Hilbert space, is discrete, but this is only a formal artifact: the discreteness leaves no trace on the observable properties of particles on the physical Hilbert space.

  11. Effect of surfactants, gastric emptying, and dosage form on supersaturation of dipyridamole in an in vitro model simulating the stomach and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Fadda, H M

    2014-08-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gastric emptying patterns, surfactants, and dosage form on the supersaturation of a poorly soluble weakly basic drug, dipyridamole, using an in vitro model mimicking the dynamic environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and, furthermore, to evaluate the usefulness of this model in establishing correlations to in vivo bioavailability for drugs with solubility/dissolution limited absorption. A simulated stomach duodenum model comprising four compartments was used to assess supersaturation and precipitation kinetics as a function of time. It integrates physiologically relevant fluid volumes, fluid transfer rates, and pH changes of the upper GI tract. Monoexponential gastric emptying patterns simulating the fasted state were compared to linear gastric emptying patterns simulating the fed state. The effect of different surfactants commonly used in oral preparations, specifically, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), poloxamer-188, and polysorbate-80, on dipyridamole supersaturation was investigated while maintaining surface tension of the simulated gastric fluids at physiological levels and without obtaining artificial micellar solubilization of the drug. The supersaturation behavior of different dose strengths of dipyridamole was explored. Significant levels of dipyridamole supersaturation were observed in the duodenal compartment under all the different in vivo relevant conditions explored. Dipyridamole supersaturation ratios of up to 11-fold have been observed, and supersaturation has been maintained for up to 120 min. Lower duodenal concentrations of dipyridamole were observed under linear gastric emptying patterns compared to mononexponential gastric emptying. The mean duodenal area under concentration-time curves (AUC60min) for the dipyridamole concentration profile in the duodenal compartment is significantly different for all the surfactants explored (P < 0.05). Our investigations with the different

  12. Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying and ultrasonographic assessment of antral area: relation to appetite.

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, K; Jones, K L; Chatterton, B E; Horowitz, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound measurement of gastric emptying has potential advantages over scintigraphy, but there is little information about its accuracy. AIMS: The relation between ultrasonographic measurements of antral area and (a) scintigraphic measurements of gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of liquids (b) postprandial satiation, were evaluated. SUBJECTS: Seven normal volunteers were studied. METHOD: Each subject drank 75 g dextrose dissolved in 350 ml of water (300 kcal) or beef soup (20 kcal), both labelled with technetium-99m sulphur colloid on separate days and had measurement of gastric emptying by scintigraphy and ultrasound. RESULTS: Scintigraphic and ultrasound 50% emptying times (T50s) were comparable and longer (p < 0.001) for dextrose than soup mean (SEM) (dextrose 107 (16) min v 108 (18) min, soup 24 (4) min v 23 (5) min). There were close correlations between scintigraphic and ultrasound T50s (dextrose r = 0.94, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and between the time at which the distal stomach content decreased from its maximum value by 50% (measured scintigraphically) and the ultrasound T50 (dextrose r = 0.95, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). In contrast, there was no significant relation between the distal stomach content when expressed as a percentage of the maximum content in the total stomach and the ultrasound T50. After dextrose, fullness was related (r = 0.92, p < 0.01) to the postprandial increase in antral area measured by ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound measurements of gastric emptying are: (a) of comparable sensitivity to scintigraphy in quantifying emptying of both low and high nutrient liquids (b) correlate with postprandial satiation, suggesting that the latter may be mediated by antral distension. PMID:8984016

  13. Effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on gastric emptying in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Huang, Wei-Ju; Tseng, Wen-Min; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Liu, Yu-Wen; Doong, Ming-Long; Wang, Paulus S

    2004-12-31

    The effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma level of cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats were studied. Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 ml/kg once per day for one or 7 days. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the experimental group were fasted overnight before measurement of gastrointestinal motility. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed in rats 15 min after intragastric instillation of a test meal containing charcoal (10%) and Na251CrO4 (0.5 microCi/ml). Gastric emptying was determined by measuring the amount of radiolabeled chromium contained in the small intestine as a percentage of the initial amount received. Then, gastrointestinal transit was evaluated by calculating the geometric center of distribution of the radiolabeled marker. Finally, blood samples were collected for measurement of CCK by radioimmunoassay. The administration of noni at 0.25 ml/kg, but not at 1 ml/kg and 4 ml/kg, for 1 day significantly inhibited gastric emptying. In contrast, gastric emptying was significantly inhibited by oral noni (0.25, 1, or 4 ml/kg) for 7 days. Intraperitoneal injection of lorglumide (5 or 10 mg/kg), a selective CCK1 receptor antagonist, effectively attenuated the noni-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. The intestinal transit and body weight, food intake, water intake, urine volume as well as feces weight were not altered by the administration of noni either acutely or chronically, but the administration of oral noni (1 ml/kg) for 7 days increased the level of plasma CCK in male rats. These results suggest that oral noni inhibits gastric emptying in male rats via a mechanism involving stimulation of CCK secretion and CCK1 receptor activation.

  14. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. RESULTS Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach (P = 0.14), at 20 min (P = 0.38), 30 min (P = 0.30), 40 min (P = 0.43), 50 min (P = 0.50), 60 min (P = 0.81), 90 min (P = 0.25) and 120 min (P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample (n = 11) showed no significant difference (P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo (P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score (P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). CONCLUSION Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD. PMID:28217377

  15. Oral clarithromycin enhances gallbladder emptying induced by a mixed meal in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Acalovschi, Monica; Dumitrascu, Dan L.; Hagiu, Claudia

    2002-03-01

    Background: In humans, erythromycin has been demonstrated to accelerate gallbladder emptying due to its motilin-like effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, it was shown that clarithromycin, another macrolide, used for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, also stimulated gastrointestinal motility in the fasting state. We conducted a comparative study on the effects of a single oral dose of clarithromycin and of erythromycin on gallbladder emptying in healthy subjects. Methods: Gallbladder emptying variables (residual volume, ejection fraction, area under emptying curve) were measured by ultrasound in 21 healthy subjects (11 males, 10 females, mean age 42.5+/-10.6 years). A test meal (14 g fat, 425 kcal) was ingested 30 min after a single oral dose (500 mg) of either clarithromycin or erythromycin, and the measurements were repeated the following day with the other drug (cross-over double-blind study). A control group consisting of 12 subjects (seven males, five females, mean age 50.7+/-8.2 years) was used to evaluate gallbladder emptying following the same test meal without drug administration. Differences between groups were analyzed using two-tailed Student's t-test for unpaired observations. Results: Gallbladder emptying at 60, 75, and 90 min was greater after erythromycin (P<0.05 at 90 min) and clarithromycin than it was in controls. The ejection fraction was significantly greater after clarithromycin (76.5%) and erythromycin (79.7%) than it was in controls. Gallbladder refilling occurred earlier after clarithromycin than after erythromycin. Conclusions: The prokinetic effect of clarithromycin on the gallbladder appears to be of similar amplitude but of shorter duration than that of erythromycin.

  16. Research requirements to reduce empty weight of helicopters by use of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffstedt, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Utilization of the new, lightweight, high-strength, aerospace structural-composite (filament/matrix) materials, when specifically designed into a new aircraft, promises reductions in structural empty weight of 12 percent at recurring costs competive with metals. A program of basic and applied research and demonstration is identified with the objective of advancing the state of the art to the point where civil helicopters are confidently designed, produced, certified, and marketed by 1985. A structural empty-weight reduction of 12 percent was shown to significantly reduce energy consumption in modern high-performance helicopters.

  17. Airway structure and alveolar emptying in the lungs of sea lions and dogs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denison, D. M.; Warrell, D. A.; West, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of various cycles of compression and decompression on the alveolar volumes of the excised lungs of sea lions and dogs. The results obtained include the finding that, in comparison to dog lungs, sea lion lungs empty more completely on mild compression and much more completely on severe compression. These findings support Scholander's (1940) hypothesis that some marine mammals are protected from decompression sickness by cartilaginous reinforcement of the small airways which permits alveolar emptying during a dive, so isolating compressed gas from pulmonary capillary blood.

  18. Towards reduction of maternal and perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: communities are not empty vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen; Byass, Peter; Brahima, Bassane

    2009-01-01

    Background Reducing maternal and perinatal mortality in sub Saharan Africa remains challenging and requires effective and context specific interventions. Objective The aims of this paper were to demonstrate the impact of the community mobilisation of the Skilled Care Initiative (SCI) in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality and to describe the concept and implementation in order to guide replication and scaling up. Designs A quasi experimental design was used to assess the extent to which the SCI was associated with increased institutional births, maternal and perinatal mortality reduction in an intervention (Ouargaye) versus a comparison (Diapaga) district. A geo-referenced census was conducted to retrospectively assess changes in outcomes and process measures. A detailed description of activities, rationale and timing of implementation were gathered from the SCI project officers and summarised. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses. Results At macro level, the main significant difference between Ouargaye and Diapaga districts was the scope and intensity of the community-based interventions implemented in Ouargaye. There was a temporal association relationship before and after the implementation of the demand-driven interventions and a remarkable 30% increase in institutional births in the intervention district compared to 10% increase in comparison district. There was a significant reduction of perinatal mortality rates (OR =0.75, CI 0.70–0.80) in intervention district and a larger decrease in maternal mortality ratios in intervention district, although statistical significance was not reached. A comprehensive framework of community mobilisation strategy is proposed to improve maternal and child health in poorest communities. Conclusion Controlling for the availability and quality of health services, working in partnership and effectively with communities, and not for them – hence characterising communities as not being

  19. Degradation of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) into bio-oil in sub-and supercritical solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwono, Rakhman; Pusfitasari, Eka Dian

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothemal Liquefaction (HTL) of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil in different solvents (water, ethanol and hexane) were comparatively investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave in different EFB loading of 9%, 11%, and 13%. The temperature operation was 350 oC, without any catalysts and reaction time of 5 hours. The efficiency of above solvents in terms of conversion rate, soluble liquid and carbon products were found in this experiments. The water solvent gave higher conversion rate of 35 - 36.5 %, while hexane gave conversion of 17 - 25.25 %, and ethanol gave the lower conversion rate of 12.65 - 30.3%, respectively. Increasing the EFB load decreased the conversion rate for ethanol and hexane solvents, for water there are no significant change in the conversion rate. The bio-oil as soluble liquid produced were in order of water, ethanol, and hexane solvents, respectively. The chemical properties of bio-oil products were significantly affected by the type of liquefaction solvent. The compositional of bio-oil consists of mostly of a mixture of organic acids, ketones, and esters. The hexane and ethanol solvents resulted mostly organic acids. In water solvent resulted 2-pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl and others substances. According to the bio-oil results, organic solvents resulted higher HHV compared to water solvent. The higher heating value (HHV) of the carbon products were also comparatively, ethanol solvent resulted soluble liquid with higher HHV compared to the water solvent.

  20. Don't Let Teacher Evaluation Become an Empty Ritual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Donald E.; Colarusso, Mary Rita

    1988-01-01

    Superlative performance ratings for the vast majority of teachers may indicate a problem, not a solution, to the quest for educational excellence. This article suggests ways to discourage overrating teachers and playing "pass the turkey." Successful teacher evaluation involves a team approach and a shift in principals' priorities. (MLH)

  1. The Empty Nest Syndrome in Midlife Families: A Multimethod Exploration of Parental Gender Differences and Cultural Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Barbara A.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores parental health and well-being in relation to "empty nest" transitions. Focus is placed on the purported empty nest syndrome (i.e., self-reported experiences of depression and emotional distress when children leave home) and variations by parental gender and cultural background. This study is primarily based on…

  2. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  7. Socratic Knowledge, Christian Love, Confucian Virtue and Buddhist Emptiness: Guiding Principles for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    Socrates' view of knowledge, Jesus' conception of love, Confucius' idea of virtue and Buddha's path of emptiness provide valuable insights and guiding principles to help us achieve a well-rounded education. Each of these individuals caused a transformation in the individual and collective lives of their followers and their respective societies…

  8. Imparting small vorticity to a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batakis, Nikos A.

    1981-04-01

    We present and briefly discuss a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime. The field equations have been solved after being linearized with respect to a parameter which imparts vorticity to the model. The limit of zero vorticity is an already known solution.

  9. DNA degradation and genetic analysis of empty puparia: genetic identification limits in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Morena; Alessandrini, Federica; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Wells, Jeffrey D; Campobasso, Carlo P

    2010-02-25

    Puparial cases are common remnants of necrophagous flies in crime investigations. They usually represent the longest developmental time and, therefore, they can be very useful for the estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI). However, before any PMI estimate, it is crucial to identify the species of fly eclosed from each puparium associated with the corpse. Morphological characteristics of the puparium are often distinctive enough to permit a species identification. But, even an accurate morphological analysis of empty puparia cannot discriminate among different species of closely related flies. Furthermore, morphological identification may be impossible if the fly puparia are poorly preserved or in fragments. This study explores the applicability of biomolecular techniques on empty puparia and their fragments for identification purposes. A total of 63 empty puparia of necrophagous Diptera resulting from forensic casework were examined. Samples were divided into three groups according to size, type and time of eclosion in order to verify whether the physical characteristics and puparia weathering can influence the amount of DNA extraction. The results suggest that a reliable genetic identification of forensically important flies may also be performed from empty puparia and/or their fragments. However, DNA degradation can deeply compromise the genetic analysis since the older the fly puparia, the smaller are the amplified fragments.

  10. Emptying the Nest: Launching Your Young Adult toward Success and Self-Reliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Brad E.

    2010-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world and challenging economy, young adults increasingly find themselves at a crossroads between financial and emotional dependence and autonomy. Drawing on Dr. Sachs' extensive clinical experience and his illuminating discussion of the latest psychological research, "Emptying the Nest" will support parents in their…

  11. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  12. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  13. Commognitive Analysis of Undergraduate Mathematics Students' Responses in Proving Subgroup's Non-Emptiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Proving that a given set is indeed a subgroup, one needs to show that it is non-empty, and closed under operation and inverses. This study focuses on the first condition, analysing students' responses to this task. Results suggest that there are three distinct problematic responses: the total absence of proving this condition, the problematic…

  14. The Empty-Pot Healing Approach: Its Origins, Nature, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshodi, John Egbeazien

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Oshodi (J. Oshodi) Empty-Pot Healing Approach (OEPHA), an African-based psychotherapeutic approach that aims to create balance and foster achievement motivation. Illustrates the 11 phases of the OEPHA through the case study of an adult psychotherapeutic client. (SLD)

  15. Effect of carob bean on gastric emptying time in Thai infants.

    PubMed

    Vivatvakin, Boosba; Buachum, Vacharee

    2003-01-01

    Thickening agents, such as carob bean gum or galactomannan, have been successfully administered for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. To study the effect of carob bean gum on gastric emptying and to symptoms of regurgitation, we recruited 20 full term Thai infants (mean age=13.4+/-7 week; mean body weight=4943+/-1272gm) without pathological gastroesophageal reflux. Initially, we determined half time gastric emptying (T 1/2 GET) by Tc99m radioscintigraphy method (mean T 1/2 GET=116.1+/-72 min) in infants consuming standard infant cow's milk formula for 2 weeks. Afterwards, carob bean infant formula was given for 2-4 weeks and weight gain, vomiting symptoms, night cough, colic, flatus, defaecation character and T 1/2 GET were assessed. There were statistically significant improvements in symptoms of vomiting (a smaller quantity P<0.001 and frequency of vomiting P<0.0001) and improvements in weight gain per week (W1=121.2+106.9gm, W2=221.3+136.1gm; P=0.005) when infants consumed the carob bean formula. However, there was no significance difference in gastric emptying half time (GET1=116.1+72, GET2=148.5+130.9; P=0.154). In conclusion, carob bean gum, as a thickening agent, improves the clinical symptoms of regurgitating infants, but does not significantly alter the gastric emptying physiology.

  16. Study of gastrointestinal opiate receptors: the role of the mu receptor on gastric emptying: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.; Sullivan, S.

    1983-08-01

    Animal and in vitro experiments suggest that opiates exert their actions by interaction with possibly five different subtypes of opiate receptors, identified as mu, kappa, sigma, delta, and epsilon. As yet there is no conclusive evidence for their existence in man. Our experiments on morphine and the enkephalin analog DAMME have suggested at least two types of opiate receptors involved in gastric secretion. In this study we have used the very powerful and nonselective opiate agonist etorphine to stimulate as many of the different opiate receptors as possible. We have then attempted to block selectively the ..mu.. receptor by administering a small dose of naloxone. Etorphine delayed gastric emptying whereas naloxone alone had no effect. In combination, the inhibitory effect of etorphine on gastric emptying was incompletely prevented while the subjective effects of etorphoine were completely abolished. These results may indicate that ..mu.. receptors are important in the regulation of gastric emptying, but that other (non-..mu..) receptors are also involved. The radionuclide study of gastric emptying, as used here, is a potentially powerful tool in physiological research on the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. 7. TYPICAL INTERIOR AND BOTTOM OF EMPTY 14.5FOOTDIAMETER RIVETED STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. TYPICAL INTERIOR AND BOTTOM OF EMPTY 14.5-FOOT-DIAMETER RIVETED STEEL SOAP KETTLE, WITH STEAM COILS; VIEW DOWN FROM KETTLE TOP, FIFTH FLOOR, EAST BAY, THIRD KETTLE FROM SOUTH - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-13, 48-50 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. Hydraulic Evaluation of Marmet Lock Filling and Emptying System, Kanawha River, West Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    sufficiently low enough to indicate cavitation , and the pressures downstream of the valves were never adverse. ERDC/CHL TR-15-2 17 3 Field Data Two...or single-valve filling operations were not sufficiently low to indicate that separation or cavitation could be a problem. 6.2 Emptying Operation

  19. The Empty Cup: "Teaching for Understanding" at 21st Century Edward Waters College. Occasional Paper #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    What happens in a final project that fosters teaching for understanding? That inquiry calls to mind the Taoist belief that emptiness makes a cup useful. In the context of this paper, the inquiry organizes a narrative about how teaching for understanding surfaced in a "Theories of Learning" course at Edward Waters College. At a deeper…

  20. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers. 261.7 Section 261.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.7 Residues of...

  1. The Empty Cup (Power Teaching in a Digital Age). Occasional Paper #9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    What might count as a world class, national public education system in 2020? That empty cup took the floor at the 2010 Future of Learning (FoL) Summer Institute at Harvard University. It traveled from Longfellow Hall's lecture room on Appian Way to several learning groups scattered around campus. Though not deliberately created to think about…

  2. Comparing the Use of the Empty Number Line in England and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to meet the needs of children's learning in arithmetic has led to an increased emphasis on the teaching of mental calculation strategies in England. This has included the adoption of didactical tools such as the empty number line (ENL) that was developed as part of the realistic mathematics movement in the Netherlands. It has been claimed…

  3. Gastric emptying and postprandial glucose excursions in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because amylin is co-secreted with insulin from beta cells, patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are deficient in both insulin and amylin. Amylin delays gastric emptying and suppresses glucagon in the postprandial period. Hence, we hypothesized that children with complication-naive T1DM have acceler...

  4. Zur Besetzung der Leerstellen von Valenztragern (The Occupation of the Empty Spaces of Valence Bearers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeldt, Karl-Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Study of the linguistic means related to the occupation and non-occupation of Leerstellen'' (empty spaces) initiated by semantic and syntactic valence, as in the elliptical usage: Die Henne legt wieder. (Eier)'' (The hen is laying again. YeggsI). (RS)

  5. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  6. Delayed gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of malrotation.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Savaş; Karaman, Abdurrahman; Gürünlüoğlu, Kubilay; Akin, Melih; Taş, Erkan; Aksoy, Rauf Tuğrul; Kekilli, Ersoy

    2005-06-01

    The association between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and intestinal malrotation (IM) has been well described. Delayed or impaired gastric emptying in IM is thought to be a contributing factor in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The current study assessed the role of malrotation in delayed gastric emptying in children with GERD. We also evaluated the interactions between GERD, malrotation, gastric pH abnormalities, and gastric dysmotility. Sixty-seven patients between 1 and 5 years of age (mean 3.08+/-1.2) and with symptoms of GER, such as emesis, reactive or recurrent lung disease, and/or growth retardation, were studied in 2001-2005. Upper and lower gastrointestinal contrast studies were performed for the diagnosis of malrotation. Gastric motility was evaluated with a liquid gastric emptying protocol. GER was documented by upper gastrointestinal studies, scintigraphy, and/or 24-h pH monitoring. In our series of 44 children with GERD, there was an unexpectedly high incidence of IM: 54.5% (24/44). IM has previously been known to occur in 25% of patients with GERD. GERD was found in 24 (82.7%) of 29 patients with IM. Mean nuclear gastric emptying (MNGE) was 51.6+/-8.04 min in patients with isolated GERD and 96.6+/-20.5 min in children with IM and GERD. There was a statistically significant difference in MNGE time (p<0.05) between children with primary GERD and in those with GERD and IM. Esophageal pH monitoring showed that mean fraction time below pH 4 was 7.06+/-1.1% in patients with isolated GERD and 14.7+/-4.1% in patients with IM and GERD. GERD is common in children between 1 and 5 years old. Using gastric emptying studies and esophageal pH monitoring, we have shown that gastric dysmotility and esophageal pH abnormalities are highly prevalent, especially in children with malrotation compared with children with isolated GERD. These findings suggest that malrotation is an important factor responsible for delayed gastric emptying in GERD

  7. Improved bladder emptying in urinary retention by electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Cheng, Chen-Li; Grill, Warren M.

    2008-06-01

    Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder completely, and may result from bladder hypocontractility, increases in outlet resistance or both. Chronic urinary retention can lead to several urological complications and is often refractory to pharmacologic, behavioral and surgical treatments. We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve could engage an augmenting reflex and thereby improve bladder emptying in an animal model of urinary retention. We measured the efficiency of bladder emptying with and without concomitant electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents in urethane-anesthetized rats. Voiding efficiency (VE = voided volume/initial volume) was reduced from 72 ± 7% to 29 ± 7% following unilateral transection of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve (UST) and from 70 ± 5% to 18 ± 4% following bilateral transection (BST). Unilateral electrical stimulation of the proximal transected sensory pudendal nerve during distention-evoked voiding contractions significantly improved VE. Low-intensity stimulation at frequencies of 1-50 Hz increased VE to 40-51% following UST and to 39-49% following BST, while high-intensity stimulation was ineffective at increasing VE. The increase in VE was mediated by increases in the duration of distention-evoked voiding bladder contractions, rather than increases in contraction amplitude. These results are consistent with an essential role for pudendal sensory feedback in efficient bladder emptying, and raise the possibility that electrical activation of pudendal nerve afferents may provide a new approach to restore efficient bladder emptying in persons with urinary retention.

  8. IMPROVED BLADDER EMPTYING IN URINARY RETENTION BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF PUDENDAL AFFERENTS

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Cheng, Chen-Li; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder completely, and may result from bladder hypocontractility, increases in outlet resistance, or both. Chronic urinary retention can lead to several urological complications and is often refractory to pharmacologic, behavioral, and surgical treatments. We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve could engage an augmenting reflex and thereby improve bladder emptying in an animal model of urinary retention. We measured the efficiency of bladder emptying with and without concomitant electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents in urethane anesthetized rats. Voiding efficiency (VE=voided volume/initial volume) was reduced from 72±7% to 29±7% following unilateral transection of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve (UST) and from 70±5% to 18±4% following bilateral transection (BST). Unilateral electrical stimulation of the proximal transected sensory pudendal nerve during distention-evoked voiding contractions significantly improved VE. Low intensity stimulation at frequencies of 1–50 Hz increased VE to 40–51% following UST and to 39–49% following BST, while high intensity stimulation was ineffective at increasing VE. The increase in VE was mediated by increases in the duration of distention-evoked voiding bladder contractions, rather than increases in contraction amplitude. These results are consistent with an essential role for pudendal sensory feedback in efficient bladder emptying, and raise the possibility that electrical activation of pudendal nerve afferents may provide a new approach to restore efficient bladder emptying in persons with urinary retention. PMID:18430976

  9. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2014-12-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials.

  10. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C; Kuhs, Werner F

    2014-12-11

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials.

  11. Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Babygirija, R; Zheng, J; Bülbül, M; Cerjak, D; Ludwig, K; Takahashi, T

    2010-11-01

    We have recently shown that impaired gastric motility observed in acute restraint stress was restored following repeated restraint stress in mice. Repeated restraint stress up-regulates oxytocin mRNA expression and down-regulates corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression at the hypothalamus. Oxytocin knockout mice (OXT-KO) have been widely used to study the central oxytocin signalling pathways in response to various stressors. We studied the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on solid gastric emptying and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild-type (WT) and OXT-KO mice. Heterozygous (HZ) parents (B6; 129S-Oxt(tm1Wsy)/J mice) were bred in our animal facility. Male OXT-KO, WT and HZ littermates were used for the study. Solid gastric emptying was measured following acute restraint stress (for 90 min) or repeated restraint stress (for five consecutive days). Expression of CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences of gastric emptying in WT (68.4 ± 4.1%, n = 6), HZ (71.8 ± 3.1%, n = 6) and OXT-KO (70.6 ± 3.1%, n = 6) mice in nonstressed conditions. Acute stress significantly delayed gastric emptying in OXT-KO mice (33.10 ± 2.5%, n = 6) WT (39.1 ± 1.1%, n = 6) and HZ mice (35.8 ± 1.2%, n = 6). Following repeated restraint stress loading, gastric emptying was significantly restored in WT (68.3 ± 4.5%, n = 6) and HZ mice (63.1 ± 2.6%, n = 6). By contrast, gastric emptying was still delayed in OXT-KO mice (34.7 ± 1.3%, n = 6) following repeated restraint stress. The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the PVN was much pronounced in OXT-KO mice compared to WT or HZ mice following repeated restraint stress. These findings suggest that central oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following repeated restraint stress in mice.

  12. The Heel Pad in Congenital Idiopathic Clubfoot: Implications of Empty Heel for Clinical Severity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O.; Asuquo, J. E.; Joseph, Mejabi O.; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clubfoot has been evaluated in many ways, including the most common classifications of clubfoot, described by Caterrall and Piraniis based on six clinical signs. The purpose of this study was to gain better understanding of the heel pad in relation to the term “empty heel”, and to propose modification of clubfoot severity scoring system based on “empty heel”. Methods A combination of prospective study of 79 clubfoot patients treated with Ponseti method and literature review of heel pad anatomy and biomechanics. The setting was a university teaching hospital. The ethical research committee approved study protocol and informed consent of patients' parent obtained. The selection criteria included patients' diagnosed congenital idiopathic clubfoot, age < 2years, no history of previous treatment and tenotomy indicated. An evaluation of patient was assessed by orthopaedic surgeons trained on Ponseti method and has above 5 years experience. Data analysis performed on the age, sex, Pirani scores at onset of treatment, tenotomy, and 6 month after initial full correction. Results One hundred and thirty-two clubfeet in 79 patients (56 males, 23 females) completed Ponseti protocol. The median age at presentation was 5.2 months (range 0.1–23.7 months). The mean right foot abduction after correction 57.30(S.D. 9.20), and for the left foot, was 56.30 (S.D. 9.40). The mean right foot dorsiflexion was −13.70 (S.D. 18.40) before correction while after correction, it was 20.00 (S.D. 4.50) and for the left, the mean was −8.50 (S.D. 9.60) before correction and 21.00 (S.D. 4.30) after correction. Eighteen (22.8%) patients (10 bilateral, 9 unilateral) had clubfeet with empty heel score above zero point at initial full correction (p<0.001). Clinic anatomy shows the heel pad is a solid complex structure existing in normal, moderate and severe atrophied form. Heel pad is attached tightly to calcaneus without a cavity for the calcaneus to drop. Conclusions Heel pad

  13. Gastric emptying of oil and aqueous meal components in pancreatic insufficiency: effects of posture and on appetite.

    PubMed

    Carney, B I; Jones, K L; Horowitz, M; Sun, W M; Penagini, R; Meyer, J H

    1995-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of posture on gastric emptying, intragastric distribution, and satiation after a meal containing oil and aqueous phases in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Five patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) consumed 60 ml 99mTc-labeled (V)-thiocyanate olive oil and 290 ml 113mIn-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid soup while sitting and while lying in the left lateral decubitus position. Hunger and fullness before and after the meal were recorded. Results were compared with those obtained in 11 normal volunteers. In both postures emptying of oil was faster (P < 0.01) in CF patients. Emptying of the aqueous phase was faster (P < 0.01) in CF patients in the decubitus position. In normal subjects there was no overall difference in emptying of oil between the two postures, whereas emptying of the aqueous phase was delayed (P < 0.01) in the decubitus position. In CF patients emptying of oil was faster (P < 0.01) in the decubitus position, and emptying of the aqueous phase was only slightly faster (P < 0.05) in the sitting position. For both postures there was greater retention (P < 0.05) of oil in the proximal stomach in normal subjects than CF patients. Hunger decreased (P < 0.05) after the meal in the control subjects, but there was no change in CF patients. These results indicate that in CF patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency 1) gastric emptying of nonhomogenized fat is faster than normal, 2) gravity affects gastric emptying of oil, and 3) effects of a fatty meal on hunger are reduced.

  14. Coulomb-hole summations and energies for GW calculations with limited number of empty orbitals: A modified static remainder approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deslippe, Jack; Samsonidze, Georgy; Jain, Manish; Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2013-04-01

    Ab initio GW calculations are a standard method for computing the spectroscopic properties of many materials. The most computationally expensive part in conventional implementations of the method is the generation and summation over the large number of empty orbitals required to converge the electron self-energy. We propose a scheme to reduce the summation over empty states by the use of a modified static remainder approximation, which is simple to implement and yields accurate self-energies for both bulk and molecular systems requiring a small fraction of the typical number of empty orbitals.

  15. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  16. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  17. New porous water ice metastable at atmospheric pressure obtained by emptying a hydrogen-filled ice.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, Leonardo; Celli, Milva; Ulivi, Lorenzo

    2016-11-07

    The properties of some forms of water ice reserve still intriguing surprises. Besides the several stable or metastable phases of pure ice, solid mixtures of water with gases are precursors of other ices, as in some cases they may be emptied, leaving a metastable hydrogen-bound water structure. We present here the first characterization of a new form of ice, obtained from the crystalline solid compound of water and molecular hydrogen called C0-structure filled ice. By means of Raman spectroscopy, we measure the hydrogen release at different temperatures and succeed in rapidly removing all the hydrogen molecules, obtaining a new form of ice (ice XVII). Its structure is determined by means of neutron diffraction measurements. Of paramount interest is that the emptied crystal can adsorb again hydrogen and release it repeatedly, showing a temperature-dependent hysteresis.

  18. Strategies for reaching by individuals with mental retardation: empty and filled glasses.

    PubMed

    Ushiyama, M; Hosokawa, T; Tanaka, A; Okuzumi, H

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reaching strategies of individuals with mental retardation under different conditions. Much about reaching has been studied from the points of view of the optimization of the reading performance and the adaptation to the object's attributes. Few studies, however, have concerned reaching among individuals with mental retardation. Eight right-handed individuals with mental retardation reached for two types of glasses, one empty and the other filled with water. We translated the position of the index finger into X-Y-Z coordinate values and examined movement time, length of trajectory, and tangential velocity under the empty and filled conditions. There was no difference between conditions on any of the variables thought in many studies for individuals without mental retardation to indicate differences between attributes. This suggests that the present individuals with mental retardation might have difficulty in using information or context for planning movement and in optimizing their reaching movement for different conditions.

  19. New porous water ice metastable at atmospheric pressure obtained by emptying a hydrogen-filled ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rosso, Leonardo; Celli, Milva; Ulivi, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    The properties of some forms of water ice reserve still intriguing surprises. Besides the several stable or metastable phases of pure ice, solid mixtures of water with gases are precursors of other ices, as in some cases they may be emptied, leaving a metastable hydrogen-bound water structure. We present here the first characterization of a new form of ice, obtained from the crystalline solid compound of water and molecular hydrogen called C0-structure filled ice. By means of Raman spectroscopy, we measure the hydrogen release at different temperatures and succeed in rapidly removing all the hydrogen molecules, obtaining a new form of ice (ice XVII). Its structure is determined by means of neutron diffraction measurements. Of paramount interest is that the emptied crystal can adsorb again hydrogen and release it repeatedly, showing a temperature-dependent hysteresis.

  20. New porous water ice metastable at atmospheric pressure obtained by emptying a hydrogen-filled ice

    PubMed Central

    del Rosso, Leonardo; Celli, Milva; Ulivi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The properties of some forms of water ice reserve still intriguing surprises. Besides the several stable or metastable phases of pure ice, solid mixtures of water with gases are precursors of other ices, as in some cases they may be emptied, leaving a metastable hydrogen-bound water structure. We present here the first characterization of a new form of ice, obtained from the crystalline solid compound of water and molecular hydrogen called C0-structure filled ice. By means of Raman spectroscopy, we measure the hydrogen release at different temperatures and succeed in rapidly removing all the hydrogen molecules, obtaining a new form of ice (ice XVII). Its structure is determined by means of neutron diffraction measurements. Of paramount interest is that the emptied crystal can adsorb again hydrogen and release it repeatedly, showing a temperature-dependent hysteresis. PMID:27819265

  1. Preparation of activated carbon by microwave heating of langsat (Lansium domesticum) empty fruit bunch waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.

  2. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P < 0.001), whereas higher casein, whey, and lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P < 0.006). Curding did not affect emptying. Influences of fortification, pasteurization, and differing breast milk compositions are small and unlikely implicated in preterm feeding intolerance.

  3. Evidence of large empty lava tubes on the Moon using GRAIL gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappaz, Loic; Sood, Rohan; Melosh, Henry J.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Blair, David M.; Milbury, Colleen; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's GRAIL mission employed twin spacecraft in polar orbits around the Moon to measure the lunar gravity field at unprecedentedly high accuracy and resolution. The low spacecraft altitude in the extended mission enables the detection of small-scale surface or subsurface features. We analyzed these data for evidence of empty lava tubes beneath the lunar maria. We developed two methods, gradiometry and cross correlation, to isolate the target signal of long, narrow, sinuous mass deficits from a host of other features present in the GRAIL data. Here we report the discovery of several strong candidates that are either extensions of known lunar rilles, collocated with the recently discovered "skylight" caverns, or underlying otherwise unremarkable surfaces. Owing to the spacecraft polar orbits, our techniques are most sensitive to east-west trending near-surface structures and empty lava tubes with minimum widths of several kilometers, heights of hundreds of meters, and lengths of tens of kilometers.

  4. [Usefulness of gastric emptying scintigraphy for the evaluation and management of scleroderma related gastroparesis].

    PubMed

    Piskorz, María M; Rank, Gerardo; Velázquez Espeche, María; García Cainzo, Analisa; Pisarevsky, Andrea; Sorda, Juan A; Olmos, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown cause characterized by fibrotic skin and multiple organs involvement, including the gastrointestinal tract. It occurs mainly in women between 35 and 65 years of age. It is classified as limited or diffuse based on the extent of skin involvement. Gastrointestinal dysmotility is observed in up to 90% of patients with a diffuse and limited scleroderma. It may involve any segment of the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the anus and is related to collagen deposition at the level of enteric and vascular smooth muscle. Gastroparesis is a condition characterized by abnormal gastric motility, delay gastric emptying, in the absence of a mechanical obstruction to outflow. Gastric scintigraphy with radiolabeled solid food is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gastroparesis. Two cases of patients with systemic scleroderma and severe gastroparesis are presented in order to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach, emphasizing the utility of gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  5. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  6. Accelerated Gastric Emptying but No Carbohydrate Malabsorption 1 Year After Gastric Bypass Surgery (GBP)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gary; Agenor, Keesandra; Pizot, Justine; Kotler, Donald P.; Harel, Yaniv; Van Der Schueren, Bart J.; Quercia, Iliana; McGinty, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Following gastric bypass surgery (GBP), there is a post-prandial rise of incretin and satiety gut peptides. The mechanisms of enhanced incretin release in response to nutrients after GBP is not elucidated and may be in relation to altered nutrient transit time and/or malabsorption. Methods Seven morbidly obese subjects (BMI=44.5±2.8 kg/m2) were studied before and 1 year after GBP with a d-xylose test. After ingestion of 25 g of d-xylose in 200 mL of non-carbonated water, blood samples were collected at frequent time intervals to determine gastric emptying (time to appearance of d-xylose) and carbohydrate absorption using standard criteria. Results One year after GBP, subjects lost 45.0±9.7 kg and had a BMI of 27.1±4.7 kg/m2. Gastric emptying was more rapid after GBP. The mean time to appearance of d-xylose in serum decreased from 18.6±6.9 min prior to GBP to 7.9±2.7 min after GBP (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in absorption before (serum d-xylose concentrations=35.6±12.6 mg/dL at 60 min and 33.9±9.1 mg/dL at 180 min) or 1 year after GBP (serum d-xylose=31.5± 18.1 mg/dL at 60 min and 27.2±11.9 mg/dL at 180 min). Conclusions These data confirm the acceleration of gastric emptying for liquid and the absence of carbohydrate malabsorption 1 year after GBP. Rapid gastric emptying may play a role in incretin response after GBP and the resulting improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:22527599

  7. Density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles motion in human gastric emptying studied using computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou

    2015-04-05

    Density-dependent gastroretentive drug delivery systems have been used to prolong the gastric retention time of drugs since the 1960s. The design of density-dependent gastroretentive dosage forms, however, usually focuses on specific parameters rather than combines with the fluid dynamics of dosage form in the gastric emptying. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a 2-D model of multiple-phase flows for the simulation of gastric emptying and gastroretentive microparticles motion, and the influence of microparticle density, microparticle viscosity, and gastric juice viscosity on the gastric retention were studied. The recirculating flows, formed in the gastric emptying, could mix the conventional-density microparticles and transport them to the pylorus. However, the low-density microparticles remained floating on the surface of gastric juice, while the high-density microparticles could sink and deposit in the bottom of the stomach. The remaining integral area of microparticles was higher than 90% after 18.33min of simulation when the density of microparticles was lower than 550kg/m(3) or higher than 2500kg/m(3), which was higher compared to conventional-density microparticles (67.05%). These results are in good agreement with experimental data previously reported. In addition, the viscosity of microparticle and gastric juice also influenced the remaining integral area of gastroretentive microparticles. This study shows that the multiple-phase computational fluid dynamics models could provide detailed insights into the fluid dynamics of density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles in gastric emptying, which offers a powerful tool to further understand the mechanism of gastric retention for gastroretentive dosage forms and study the influence of different parameters on their ability for gastric retention.

  8. Abnormally rapid gastric emptying of an isosmotic liquid meal in patients with megaduodenum.

    PubMed

    Troncon, L E; Aprile, L R; Oliveira, R B; Iazigi, N

    2000-11-01

    Duodenal resistance to gastric outflow is known to participate in the regulation of gastric emptying of liquids in animals, but the role of this mechanism in humans has not been extensively investigated. In this work we studied the gastric emptying of liquids in patients with megaduodenum, who putatively have increased duodenal receptivity to gastroduodenal transfer of liquids. Subjects included eight patients with megaduodenum and eight healthy volunteers. Since megaduodenum in all cases was associated with Chagas' disease, a further reference group consisting of 11 chagasic patients without megaduodenum was also studied. Fasted subjects ingested 200 ml of an isotonic dextrose solution labeled with 15 MBq of technetium-99m coupled to sulfur colloid, as an unabsorbable marker. Images of the anterior aspect of the stomach were taken immediately after test meal ingestion and thereafter up to 1 hr. Decay-corrected counts over the gastric region along time yield the calculation of early (5 min) and late (60 min) gastric retention as well as gastric emptying half-times (T1/2). Early gastric retention in patients with megaduodenum (median; range: 48%; 18-64%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in both patients without megaduodenum (59%; 40-86%) and controls (82%; 68-99%). T1/2 values in patients with megaduodenum (5 min; 3-17 min) were also significantly lower (P < 0.01) than in patients without megaduodenum (23 min; 4 to >60 min) and controls (29 min; 13-60 min). There were no significant differences between the three groups concerning late gastric retention. We conclude that the early phase of gastric emptying of liquids is abnormally accelerated in patients with megaduodenum, which suggests that increased duodenal receptivity may have a significant effect on the gastroduodenal transfer of liquids in humans.

  9. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-03-05

    Inhibitory effects of the saponin fraction and its principal constituents, escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb, from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying were investigated in mice loaded with a non-nutrient or nutrient meal. The saponin fraction and escins Ia-IIb inhibited gastric emptying of a 1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) meal by 11.1-54.2% (12.5-200 mg/kg). Escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) also inhibited gastric emptying of a 40% glucose meal by 21.1-23.5% except for escin Ia, a milk meal by 18.4-33.1%, and a 30% ethanol meal by 13.5-15.9%. The effects of escins Ia-IIb on gastric emptying of the CMC-Na meal were attenuated by pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.v.), capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, s.c.), or insulin (1 U/kg, s.c.). The effect of insulin was reduced by glucose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which can directly nourish the brain, but not by fructose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which cannot be utilized by the brain. The effects of escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) were overridden in 60% ethanol-loaded mice, in which the central nervous system was suppressed by ethanol. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and central nervous system partly participate in the effects of escins Ia-IIb.

  10. U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Africa: Commitment or Empty Rhetoric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Africa: Commitment or Empty Rhetoric by Lieutenant Colonel Jacqueline E. Cumbo United ...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS U.S. Army War College Carlisle Barracks Carlisle, PA17013-5050 8. PERFORMING...with corruption. The United States has maintained a strategy of engagement in Africa since the end of the Cold War. Each change in the United

  11. Pretreatment of empty fruit bunch from oil palm for fuel ethanol production and proposed biorefinery process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Yongcheng; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of some pretreatment processes to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) for ethanol production. The experimental results show that the bisulfite pretreatment was practical for EFB pretreatment. Moreover, the optimum pretreatment conditions of the bisulfite pretreatment (180 °C, 30 min, 8% NaHSO3, 1% H2SO4) were identified. In the experiments, a biorefinery process of EFB was proposed to produce ethanol, xylose products, and lignosulfonates.

  12. The Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel: Tunnel Empty Flow Calibration Results and Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.; Banducci, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    An empty test section flow calibration of the refurbished NASA Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel was recently completed. Distributions of total pressure, dynamic pressure, Mach number, flow angularity temperature, and turbulence are presented along with results obtained prior to facility demolition. Axial static pressure distributions along tunnel centerline are also compared. Test section model support geometric configurations will be presented along with a discussion of the issues involved with different model mounting schemes.

  13. NERP-2 regulates gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying via the orexin pathway.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Cherl; Toshinai, Koji; Waise, T M Zaved; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ueta, Yoichi; Kim, Min-Seon; Minamino, Naoto; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-02-16

    Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of NERP-2 to rats increased gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying, whereas peripheral administration did not affect gastric function. NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying were blocked by an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB334867. NERP-2 also induced Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus and the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus X, which are key sites in the central nervous system for regulation of gastric function. Atropine, a blocker of vagal efferent signal transduction, completely blocked NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion. These results demonstrate that central administration of NERP-2 activates the orexin pathway, resulting in elevated gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying.

  14. Effect of the spatial autocorrelation of empty sites on the evolution of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Hou, Dongshuang

    2016-02-01

    An evolutionary game model is constructed to investigate the spatial autocorrelation of empty sites on the evolution of cooperation. Each individual is assumed to imitate the strategy of the one who scores the highest in its neighborhood including itself. Simulation results illustrate that the evolutionary dynamics based on the Prisoner's Dilemma game (PD) depends severely on the initial conditions, while the Snowdrift game (SD) is hardly affected by that. A high degree of autocorrelation of empty sites is beneficial for the evolution of cooperation in the PD, whereas it shows diversification effects depending on the parameter of temptation to defect in the SD. Moreover, for the repeated game with three strategies, 'always defect' (ALLD), 'tit-for-tat' (TFT), and 'always cooperate' (ALLC), simulations reveal that an amazing evolutionary diversity appears for varying of parameters of the temptation to defect and the probability of playing in the next round of the game. The spatial autocorrelation of empty sites can have profound effects on evolutionary dynamics (equilibrium and oscillation) and spatial distribution.

  15. Evaluation of gastric emptying in diabetic gastropathy by an ultrasonic whole stomach cylinder method.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hao-Lin; Yang, Shu-Ping; Hong, Li-Wei; Lin, Li-Qing; Wang, Kang-Jian; Cai, Xiao-Han; Lv, Guo-Rong

    2014-09-01

    In order to explore the accuracy of ultrasonic whole stomach cylinder measurement (UWSCM) in the evaluation of gastric emptying, we measured the gastric emptying times (ET) at 25% (T1), 50% (T2) and 75% (T3) of healthy subjects and patients with diabetic gastropathy by UWSCM and scintigraphy. The ET of patients were compared with their clinical symptom scores. We found that the ET measured by UWSCM showed no significant difference with scintigraphy (p > 0.05). The correlation between them was good, and the correlation coefficient of T3 reached 0.744 (p < 0.05). All emptying times in the diabetic patients were longer than those in the healthy subjects (p < 0.05). The T3 in the diabetic group measured by UWSCM had the best correlation with the symptom index (r = 0.469, p < 0.05). We conclude that ET measured by UWSCM is accurate and T3 combining the symptoms index provides an accurate clinical basis for gastropathy.

  16. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants each played an important role in empty calorie intake among US children during 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2 to 18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast-food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar-sweetened beverages, grain desserts, and high-fat milk∗ from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and sugar-sweetened beverages, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast-food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. These findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast-food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to implementation of these changes, schools resembled fast-food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake.

  17. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2-18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), grain desserts, and high-fat milk from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and SSBs, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. In conclusion, these findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to their implementation, schools resembled fast food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. PMID:24200654

  18. Measuring of Gastric Emptying in Egyptian Pediatric Patients with Portal Hypertension by Using Real-time Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Mona E.; Osman, Mahmoud A.; Mahmoud, Rehab A.; Mohamed, Lamiaa K.; Seif-elnasr, Khaled I.; Eskander, Ayman E.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Among the various methods for evaluating gastric emptying, the real-time ultrasound is safe, does not require intubation, or rely on either radiologic or radionuclide technique. The aim of our work was to measure the gastric emptying in pediatric patients with portal hypertension by using the real-time ultrasound. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with portal hypertension with mean age 7 ± 2.8 years and 20 healthy children as a control group underwent gastric emptying study by using real-time ultrasound. The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured in the fasting state and then each subject was allowed to drink tap water then calculated by using formula area (π longitudinal × anteroposterior diameter/4). The intragastric volume was assumed to be directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the antrum. Results: The mean gastric emptying half-time volume was significantly delayed in portal hypertension patients (40 ± 6.8 min) compared with the control subjects (27.1 ± 3.6) min (P<0.05). Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction had significant delayed gastric emptying in comparison to patients with portal hypertension due to other etiologies (36.14 ± 4.9 vs 44.41 ± 6.04 min; P<0.01). Conclusion: Ultrasound is a noninvasive and a reliable method for measuring gastric emptying in pediatric patients. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in patients with portal hypertension. Etiology of portal hypertension may influence gastric emptying time in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:22249091

  19. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ

  20. Disintegration kinetics of food gels during gastric digestion and its role on gastric emptying: an in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Ye, Aiqian; Lad, Mita; Ferrua, Maria; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the disintegration and gastric emptying of foods in the stomach is important for designing functional foods. In this study, a dynamic stomach model (human gastric simulator, HGS) was employed to investigate the disintegration and subsequent emptying of two differently structured whey protein emulsion gels (soft and hard gels).The gels were mechanically ground into fragments to reproduce the particle size distribution of an in vivo gel bolus. The simulated gel bolus was prepared by mixing gel fragments and artificial saliva, and exposed to 5 hours of simulated gastric digestion in the presence and absence of pepsin. Results showed that regardless of pepsin, the soft gel always disintegrated faster than the hard gel. The presence of pepsin significantly accelerated the disintegration of both gels. In particular, it enhanced abrasion of the soft gel into fine particles (<0.425 mm) after 180 min of processing. The emptying of the gels was influenced by the combined effects of the original particle size of the gel boluses and their disintegration kinetics in the HGS. In the presence or absence of pepsin, the larger particles of the soft gel emptied slower than the hard one during the first 120 min of process. However, in the presence of pepsin, the soft gel emptied faster than the hard one after 120 min because of a higher level of disintegration. These findings highlight the role of food structure, bolus properties and biochemical effects on the disintegration and gastric emptying patterns of gels during gastric digestion.

  1. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors by extrinsic duodenal afferents contribute to intestinal inhibition of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Helen E; Glatzle, Jorg; Robin, Carla; Meyer, James H; Phan, Thomas; Wong, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2003-03-01

    Intestinal perfusion with carbohydrates inhibits gastric emptying via vagal and spinal capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathways. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of 1) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors (5-HT(3)R) in mediating glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and 2) 5-HT(3)R expression in vagal and spinal afferents in innervating the duodenum. In awake rats fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulas, perfusion of the duodenum with glucose (50 and 100 mg) inhibited gastric emptying. Intestinal perfusion of mannitol inhibited gastric emptying only at the highest concentration (990 mosm/kgH(2)O). Pretreatment with the 5-HT(3)R antagonist tropisetron abolished both glucose- and mannitol-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. Retrograde labeling of visceral afferents by injection of dextran-conjugated Texas Red into the duodenal wall was used to identify extrinsic primary afferents. Immunoreactivity for 5-HT(3)R, visualized with an antibody directed to the COOH terminus of the rat 5-HT(3)R, was found in >80% of duodenal vagal and spinal afferents. These results show that duodenal extrinsic afferents express 5-HT(3)R and that the receptor mediates specific glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. These findings support the hypothesis that enterochromaffin cells in the intestinal mucosa release 5-HT in response to glucose, which activates 5-HT(3)R on afferent nerve terminals to evoke reflex changes in gastric motility. The primary glucose sensors of the intestine may be mucosal enterochromaffin cells.

  2. The effect of macronutrients on gastric volume responses and gastric emptying in humans: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Oliver; Steingoetter, Andreas; Menne, Dieter; van der Voort, Ivo R; Kwiatek, Monika A; Boesiger, Peter; Weishaupt, Dominik; Thumshirn, Miriam; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner

    2007-01-01

    The effects of macronutrients on gastric volume changes, emptying, and gastrointestinal symptoms are incompletely understood. Three liquid meals of 500 ml (fat emulsion, 375 kcal; protein solution, 375 kcal; glucose solution, 400 kcal) were infused into the stomach of 12 healthy volunteers on three occasions. Studies were performed in seated body position using an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. MRI imaging sequences, assessing stomach and meal volumes, were performed prior to and at times t = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min after meal administration. Areas under the curve for the early emptying phase (0-15 and 0-45 min) were calculated, and characteristics of the volume curves were analyzed by a gastric emptying model. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-report scale. Initial (t = 0 min) and early postprandial gastric volumes were highest for glucose because of lower initial emptying. However, in the early emptying phase the characteristics of the volume curves for stomach and meal were uniform for all macronutrients. Perceptions of fullness and satiety were linearly associated with postprandial gastric volumes, but not with macronutrient composition. Isovolumic macronutrient meals modulate gastric volume response by initial meal emptying patterns. Macronutrient specific accommodation responses, as shown in barostat studies, are not reflected as gastric volume responses under noninvasive conditions.

  3. A gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential is a better fit for gastric emptying data from mice

    PubMed Central

    Bajzer, Željko; Gibbons, Simon J.; Coleman, Heidi D.; Linden, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive breath tests for gastric emptying are important techniques for understanding the changes in gastric motility that occur in disease or in response to drugs. Mice are often used as an animal model; however, the gamma variate model currently used for data analysis does not always fit the data appropriately. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate mathematical models to better fit mouse gastric emptying data including when two peaks are present in the gastric emptying curve. We fitted 175 gastric emptying data sets with two standard models (gamma variate and power exponential), with a gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential and with a proposed two-component model. The appropriateness of the fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion. We found that extension of the gamma variate model to include a stretched exponential improves the fit, which allows for a better estimation of T1/2 and Tlag. When two distinct peaks in gastric emptying are present, a two-component model is required for the most appropriate fit. We conclude that use of a stretched exponential gamma variate model and when appropriate a two-component model will result in a better estimate of physiologically relevant parameters when analyzing mouse gastric emptying data. PMID:26045615

  4. Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's landing site, the Columbia Memorial Station, at Gusev Crater, Mars. This spectacular view may encapsulate Spirit's entire journey, from lander to its possible final destination toward the east hills. On its way, the rover will travel 250 meters (820 feet) northeast to a large crater approximately 200 meters (660 feet) across, the ridge of which can be seen to the left of this image. To the right are the east hills, about 3 kilometers (2 miles) away from the lander. The picture was taken on the 16th martian day, or sol, of the mission (Jan. 18/19, 2004). A portion of Spirit's solar panels appear in the foreground. Data from the panoramic camera's green, blue and infrared filters were combined to create this approximate true color image.

  5. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on low temperature acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Robiah; Salleh, Shanti Faridah; Abdullah, Nurhafizah; Biak, Dyg Radiah Awg

    2010-12-01

    Various pre-treatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre prior to acid hydrolysis has been evaluated. The main objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonic pre-treatment could function as a pre-treatment method for the acid hydrolysis of OPEFB fibre at a low temperature and pressure. Hydrolysis at a low temperature was studied using 2% sulphuric acid; 1:25 solid liquid ratio and 100 degrees C operating temperature. A maximum xylose yield of 58% was achieved when the OPEFB fibre was ultrasonicated at 90% amplitude for 45min. In the absence of ultrasonic pre-treatment only 22% of xylose was obtained. However, no substantial increase of xylose formation was observed for acid hydrolysis at higher temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C on ultrasonicated OPEFB fibre. The samples were then analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to describe the morphological changes of the OPEFB fibre. The SEM observations show interesting morphological changes within the OPEFB fibre for different acid hydrolysis conditions.

  6. Ash of palm empty fruit bunch as a natural catalyst for promoting the CO₂ gasification reactivity of biomass char.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-03-01

    Palm empty fruit bunch ash (EFB-ash) was used as a natural catalyst, rich in potassium to enhance the CO2 gasification reactivity of palm shell char (PS-char). Various EFB-ash loadings (ranging from 0 to 12.5wt.%) were implemented to improve the reactivity of PS-char during CO2 gasification studies using thermogravimetric analysis. The achieved results explored that the highest gasification reactivity was devoted to 10% EFB-ash loaded char. The SEM-EDS and XRD analyses further confirmed the successful loading of EFB-ash on PS-char which contributed to promoting the gasification reactivity of char. Random pore model was applied to determine the kinetic parameters in catalytic gasification of char at various temperatures of 800-900°C. The dependence of char reaction rate on gasification temperature resulted in a straight line in Arrhenius-type plot, from which the activation energy of 158.75kJ/mol was obtained for the catalytic char gasification.

  7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) into bio-oil in different organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwono, Rakhman; Pusfitasari, Eka Dian; Ghozali, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    Thermochemical Liquefaction of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil in different organic solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene and hexane) were comparatively investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave at different temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C with a fixed solid/liquid rasio of 3 gram in 50 ml solvent, without catalysts and reaction time of 5 hours. The efficiency of above solvents in terms of conversion rate, soluble liquid and carbon products were investigated in the experiments. Increasing the reaction temperature increased the conversion rate in all organic solvents and water, but gaseous products also increased using a reaction temperature of 400 oC. The water solvent gave higher conversion rate of 49.14%, while toluene, acetone, methanol, hexane and ethanol gave conversion of 35.76%, 26.5%, 25.98%, 24.26 %, and 22.24%, respectively. The bio-oil produced in order of the largest amount were using methanol, water, ethanol, toluene, acetone, and hexane solvents. The chemical properties of bio-oil products were significantly affected by the type of liquefaction solvent. The composition of bio-oil consisted of mostly of a mixture of organic acids, ketones, and esters. The methanol and ethanol solvents resulted in mostly esters, while toluene and hexane resulted in mostly organic acids. Acetone solvent resulted in the same amount of organic acid and esters. In water as a solvent resulted in 2-pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl. The bio-oil consisted of a range of carbon C6 - C20 fragments.

  8. Empty sella’ on routine MRI studies: An incidental finding or otherwise?

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Jyotindu; Ravikumar, R.; Sharma, Vivek; Senger, K.P.S.; Maurya, Vinay; Singh, Giriraj; Sharma, Pankaj; Khera, A.; Singh, Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Background Empty sella (ES) has been regarded as an incidental finding. Recently, there have been studies documenting association of ES with hormonal and non-hormonal abnormalities. To detect the prevalence of empty sella in routine MRI brain study and to find associations with other diseases. Methods A retrospective study was carried out for patients undergoing MRI brain studies in the radiology department of a teaching institution. Patients with ES formed the study group. The rest formed the baseline population. Presence of nine select variables, viz. hormonal disturbances, headache, sensorineural hearing loss, seizures, vertigo, psychiatric disorders, visual disturbances, ataxia and raised intracranial tension, was analyzed amongst the study group, as well as the baseline population. Association of ES and the select variables was analyzed by determining means and proportions and using Chi-square test. Results During the study period, a total of 12,414 patients underwent MRI brain studies at our centre. ES was found in 241 (1.94%) patients. The proportion of patients in the ES and non-empty sella groups for each of the variables were as follows: hormonal disturbances (3.31% vs 0.56%, P = .000), headache (8.3% vs 7.4%, P = .596), SNHL (3.7% vs 1.3%, P = .0010), seizure (6.2% vs 13%, P = .002), vertigo (4.6% vs 1.6%, P = .000), psychiatric disorders (4.6% vs 1.3%, P = .000), visual disturbances (2% vs 1.1%, P = .166), ataxia (1.7% vs 1.2%, P = .519) and raised ICT (2% vs 0.5%, P = .002). Conclusion Hormonal disturbances, psychiatric disorders, raised ICT and SNHL have been found to be more often associated with ES as compared to general population. PMID:26900220

  9. A numerical analysis of empty and foam-filled aluminium conical tubes under oblique impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Fauziah; Ismail, Khairul Azwan; Yaacob, Sazali

    2015-05-01

    In real impact applications, an energy absorber rarely sustains dynamic loading either axial or oblique but a combination of both. Established studies have proved that thin-walled tube is an excellent energy absorber under dynamic loading. Furthermore, the introduction of foam filling successfully enhanced the energy absorption capacity of thin-walled tube. However, the understanding of its response under oblique loading has yet been fully explored. Moreover, emerging in automotive industry has lead to increase interests on lightweight materials such as aluminium alloy. As such, this paper presents the crushing behaviour of empty and foam-filled aluminium alloy (AA6061-T6) conical tubes under oblique impact loading using a validated nonlinear finite element (FE) code, LS-DYNA. The study aims to assess the effect of foam filling on the energy absorption of AA6061-T6 tubes for variations in filler density. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to evaluate a response of empty and foam-filled aluminum conical tube by using an experimentally validated model under oblique dynamic loading conditions. Good correlations between the numerical and experimental results were observed. The study show that initial peak force and the energy absorption increase with increasing filler density under axial and oblique loading. On the other hand, the effect of foam filling (0.534 g/cm3 aluminium foam filler) is less pronounced for the initial peak force under axial impact loading. Furthermore, the initial peak force and dynamic force of empty and foam-filled AA6061-T6 conical tubes decrease as the load angle increases from 0 deg to 20 deg hence reduces the energy absorption capacity.

  10. A new flexible plug and play scheme for modeling, simulating, and predicting gastric emptying

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In-silico models that attempt to capture and describe the physiological behavior of biological organisms, including humans, are intrinsically complex and time consuming to build and simulate in a computing environment. The level of detail of description incorporated in the model depends on the knowledge of the system’s behavior at that level. This knowledge is gathered from the literature and/or improved by knowledge obtained from new experiments. Thus model development is an iterative developmental procedure. The objective of this paper is to describe a new plug and play scheme that offers increased flexibility and ease-of-use for modeling and simulating physiological behavior of biological organisms. Methods This scheme requires the modeler (user) first to supply the structure of the interacting components and experimental data in a tabular format. The behavior of the components described in a mathematical form, also provided by the modeler, is externally linked during simulation. The advantage of the plug and play scheme for modeling is that it requires less programming effort and can be quickly adapted to newer modeling requirements while also paving the way for dynamic model building. Results As an illustration, the paper models the dynamics of gastric emptying behavior experienced by humans. The flexibility to adapt the model to predict the gastric emptying behavior under varying types of nutrient infusion in the intestine (ileum) is demonstrated. The predictions were verified with a human intervention study. The error in predicting the half emptying time was found to be less than 6%. Conclusions A new plug-and-play scheme for biological systems modeling was developed that allows changes to the modeled structure and behavior with reduced programming effort, by abstracting the biological system into a network of smaller sub-systems with independent behavior. In the new scheme, the modeling and simulation becomes an automatic machine readable and

  11. Gastric emptying, intestinal absorption of electrolytes and exercise performance in electrolyte-supplemented horses.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Michael I; Ecker, Gayle L

    2013-01-01

    Horses lose considerably more electrolytes through sweating during prolonged exercise than can be readily replaced through feeds. The present study tested an oral electrolyte supplement (ES) designed to replace sweat electrolyte losses. We measured gastric emptying of 3 litres of ES (using gamma imaging of (99)Tc-sulfide colloid), the absorption of Na(+) and K(+) from the gastrointestinal tract using (24)Na(+) and (42)K(+), and the distribution of these ions in the body by measuring radioactivity within plasma and sweat during exercise. Three litres of ES emptied from the stomach as fast as water, with a half-time of 47 min, and appeared in plasma by 10 min after administration (n = 4 horses). Peak values of plasma (24)Na(+) and (42)K(+) radioactivity occurred at 20-40 min, and a more rapid disappearance of K(+) radioactivity from plasma was indicative of movement of K(+) into cells (n = 3 horses). In a randomized crossover experiment (n = 4 horses), 1 h after administration of placebo (water), 1 or 3 litres of ES containing (24)Na(+), horses exercised on a treadmill at 30% of peak oxygen uptake until voluntary fatigue. The (24)Na(+) appeared in sweat at 10 min of exercise, and when horses received 3 litres of ES the duration to voluntary fatigue was increased in all horses by 33 ± 10%. It is concluded that an oral ES designed to replace sweat ion losses was rapidly emptied from the gastrointestinal tract, rapidly absorbed in the upper intestinal tract and rapidly distributed within the body. The ES clearly served as a reservoir to replace sweat ion losses during exercise, and administration of ES prior to exercise resulted in increased duration of submaximal exercise.

  12. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, C A; Ryan, T; Broderick, W; Way, L W

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with 99mTc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestine varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed.

  13. Altered Gastric Emptying and Prevention of Radiation-Induced Vomiting in Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    nausea and vomiting is common10ily oh- of 10 dog$ pt’etrtolted wvith domperidone (p) < 0.01). served. These symptoms can occur after total body Gastric...Gastroenterol of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting . Postgrad Med 1981;16(Suppl 67):33-6. 1979;55(Suppl 1):50-4. V.a, ...00_© 000 ’-- Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs A. Dubois cc I J. P. Jacobus M. P. Grissom R.R. Eng J. J

  14. The Empty Gallbladder Syndrome—Results of Operation for Noncalculous Biliary Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Ltc Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    Based on results of long-term follow-up and pathophysiologic considerations in 38 consecutive patients, it was possible to speculate on the frequencies of the various causes of the empty gallbladder syndrome. In approximate percentages, these are as follows: bile stasis causing chronic acalculous cholecystitis, 47%; physiologic dysfunction of the gallbladder, 24%; psychogenic illness, 16%; sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, 13%; ulcerative colitis, 3%. Because as many as 30% to 35% of these patients will not benefit from cholecystectomy, I feel that it should be undertaken with caution in cases of this syndrome. PMID:3716403

  15. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  16. Filled and Empty Orbital Interactions in a Planar Covalent Organic Framework on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Gunasinghe, Rosi N; Reuven, Darkeyah G; Suggs, Kelvin; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2012-10-18

    The electronic characteristics of a planar covalent organic framework (COF) on graphene are investigated by means of dispersion-corrected density functional theory. The aromatic central molecule of the COF acts as an electron donor to graphene, while the linker of the COF acts as an electron acceptor. The concerted interaction between the filled orbitals of the central molecule and empty orbitals of the linker promotes the formation of planar COF networks on graphene. The calculation results are in very good agreement with experimental findings of an ordered hexagonal and square COF planar on graphene, which sheds light on the supermolecular assembly mechanism.

  17. Drying Pre-treatment on Empty Fruit Whole Bunches of Oil Palm Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalib, N. Che; Abdullah, N.; Sulaiman, F.

    2010-07-01

    This study is focused on the drying pre-treatment on whole empty fruit bunches [EFB] oil palm wastes. The drying process of whole EFB wastes by conventional method is investigated using the conventional oven in order to obtain less than 10 mf wt % moisture content. Normally, the biomass is dried to less than 10 mf wt % in most laboratory experiments and commercial processes for thermal conversion technologies such as pyrolysis. The result shows that the moisture content of EFB of less than 10 mf wt % is achieved after 29 hours of drying process.

  18. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil.

    PubMed

    Yaakob, Zahira; Sukarman, Irwan Sukma Bin; Narayanan, Binitha; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Ismail, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of ash generated from Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a heterogeneous catalyzed process. The ash was doped with KOH by impregnation to achieve a potassium level of 20 wt.%. Under optimum conditions for the EFB-catalyzed (65 °C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 90 min, 20 wt.% EFB ash catalyst) and the KOH-EFB-catalyzed reactions (65 °C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 45 min, 15 wt.% of KOH doped EFB ash), biodiesel (>98%) with specifications higher than those stipulated by European biodiesel quality standard EN 14214 was obtained.

  19. Structure of Aichi Virus 1 and Its Empty Particle: Clues to Kobuvirus Genome Release Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sabin, Charles; Füzik, Tibor; Škubník, Karel; Pálková, Lenka; Lindberg, A. Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) is a human pathogen from the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. Worldwide, 80 to 95% of adults have antibodies against the virus. AiV-1 infections are associated with nausea, gastroenteritis, and fever. Unlike most picornaviruses, kobuvirus capsids are composed of only three types of subunits: VP0, VP1, and VP3. We present here the structure of the AiV-1 virion determined to a resolution of 2.1 Å using X-ray crystallography. The surface loop puff of VP0 and knob of VP3 in AiV-1 are shorter than those in other picornaviruses. Instead, the 42-residue BC loop of VP0 forms the most prominent surface feature of the AiV-1 virion. We determined the structure of AiV-1 empty particle to a resolution of 4.2 Å using cryo-electron microscopy. The empty capsids are expanded relative to the native virus. The N-terminal arms of capsid proteins VP0, which mediate contacts between the pentamers of capsid protein protomers in the native AiV-1 virion, are disordered in the empty capsid. Nevertheless, the empty particles are stable, at least in vitro, and do not contain pores that might serve as channels for genome release. Therefore, extensive and probably reversible local reorganization of AiV-1 capsid is required for its genome release. IMPORTANCE Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) is a human pathogen that can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. AiV-1 is identified in environmental screening studies with higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. Accordingly, 80 to 95% of adults worldwide have suffered from AiV-1 infections. We determined the structure of the AiV-1 virion. Based on the structure, we show that antiviral compounds that were developed against related enteroviruses are unlikely to be effective against AiV-1. The surface of the AiV-1 virion has a unique topology distinct from other related viruses from the Picornaviridae family. We also determined that AiV-1 capsids form compact shells

  20. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  1. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  2. Psychosis in Secondary Empty Sella Syndrome following a Russell's Viper Bite

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, Badr; Punnoose, Varghese P.; Das, Soumitra; Kartha, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can present with psychiatric symptoms. We report a unique case of psychosis in clear consciousness in a case of hypopituitarism due to the secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite which was untreated and presented with psychotic symptoms for past 13 years following the snake bite. After the diagnosis of psychosis due to hypopituitarism was made, the patient was treated with levothyroxine and prednisolone supplements and his psychotic symptoms subsided without any psychotropic drugs. Vasculotoxic snake bites can cause hypopituitarism and can present with psychosis. Further research will be needed into the prevalence of this phenomenon. PMID:27335524

  3. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawken, A. J.; Michelett, D.; Granett, B.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.

    2016-10-01

    Using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres we identified 245 voids in the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We show how by modelling the anisotropic void-galaxy cross correlation function we can probe the growth rate of structure.

  4. Synthesis optimization of oil palm empty fruit bunch and rice husk biochars for removal of imazapic and imazapyr herbicides.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Saba; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Sapari, Nasiman B; Yavari, Sara

    2017-05-15

    Imidazolinones are a family of herbicides that are used to control a broad range of weeds. Their high persistence and leaching potential make them probable risk to the ecosystems. In this study, biochar, the biomass-derived solid material, was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and rice husk (RH) through pyrolysis process. Feedstock and pyrolysis variables can control biochar sorption capacity. Therefore, the present study attempts to evaluate effects of three pyrolysis variables (temperature, heating rate and retention time) on abilities of biochars for removal of imazapic and imazapyr herbicides from soil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing the variables to achieve maximum sorption performance of the biochars. Experimental data were interpreted accurately by quadratic models. Based on the results, sorption capacities of both biochars raised when temperature decreased to 300 °C, mainly because of increased biochars effective functionality in sorption of polar molecules. Heating rate of 3°C/min provided optimum conditions to maximize the sorption capacities of both biochars. Retention time of about 1 h and 3 h were found to be the best for EFB and RH biochars, respectively. EFB biochar was more efficient in removal of the herbicides, especially imazapyr due to its chemical composition and higher polarity index (0.42) rather than RH biochar (0.39). Besides, higher cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of EFB biochar (83.90 cmolc/kg) in comparison with RH biochar (70.73 cmolc/kg) represented its higher surface polarity effective in sorption of the polar herbicides.

  5. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M; Knop, Filip K; Karlsson, Mats O; Vilsbøll, Tina; Kjellsson, Maria C

    2016-03-01

    The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption and gastric emptying after tests with varying glucose doses. The developed model's performance was compared to empirical models. To develop our model, data from oral and intravenous glucose challenges in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects were used together with present knowledge of small intestinal transit time, glucose inhibition of gastric emptying, and saturable absorption of glucose over the epithelium to improve the description of gastric emptying and glucose absorption in the IGI model. Duodenal glucose was found to inhibit gastric emptying. The performance of the saturable glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new model provides a better description and improves the understanding of dynamic glucose tests involving oral glucose.

  6. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam; Shafat, Amir

    2010-06-01

    Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content of breakfast. Nine male volunteers consumed either (1) a HF breakfast, (2) a LF breakfast isoenergetic to HF (LFE) or (3) a LF breakfast of equal mass to HF (LFM). Gastric emptying half time measured using the sodium [(13)C] acetate breath test was delayed after HF compared to LF meals (HF: 102 + or - 11, LFE: 96 + or - 13, LFM: 95 + or - 13 min, mean + or - SD). Fullness increased and desire to eat decreased following the LFE breakfast measured using visual analogue scales. Eating a HF breakfast increased the energy, fat and protein from an ad libitum buffet meal given 4h after lunch. In conclusion, eating a HF breakfast delayed gastric emptying of lunch and increased food intake 7 h later compared to a LFM breakfast. These data suggest both mass and energy content of food regulate subsequent appetite and feeding and demonstrate the hyperphagic effect of a single HF meal.

  7. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Moore, J.G.; Datz, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. The stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled pureed meat (liver pate) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice have been compared. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver pate were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. In vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver pate. The pate labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its prepartion was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver pate. Labeled liver pate is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying.

  8. Physicochemical profile of microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches of oil palm trees.

    PubMed

    Lim, Li Yee; Bong, Cassendra Phun Chien; Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Chew Tin

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) inoculated with effective microorganisms (EM∙1™). The duration of microbial-assisted composting was shorter (∼7 days) than control samples (2 months) in a laboratory scale (2 kg) experiment. The temperature profile of EFB compost fluctuated between 26 and 52 °C without the presence of consistent thermophilic phase. The pH of compost changed from weak acidic (pH ∼5) to mild alkaline (pH ∼8) because of the formation of nitrogenous ions such as ammonium (NH4 (+)), nitrite (NO2 (-)), and nitrate (NO3 (-)) from organic substances during mineralization. The pH of the microbial-treated compost was less than 8.5 which is important to prevent the loss of nitrogen as ammonia gas in a strong alkaline condition. Similarly, carbon mineralization could be determined by measuring CO2 emission. The microbial-treated compost could maintain longer period (∼13 days) of high CO2 emission resulted from high microbial activity and reached the threshold value (120 mg CO2-C kg(-1) day(-1)) for compost maturity earlier (7 days). Microbial-treated compost slightly improved the content of minerals such as Mg, K, Ca, and B, as well as key metabolite, 5-aminolevulinic acid for plant growth at the maturity stage of compost. Graphical Abstract Microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches.

  9. Genetically Thermo-Stabilised, Immunogenic Poliovirus Empty Capsids; a Strategy for Non-replicating Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen; Minor, Philip D.

    2017-01-01

    While wild type polio has been nearly eradicated there will be a need to continue immunisation programmes for some time because of the possibility of re-emergence and the existence of long term excreters of poliovirus. All vaccines in current use depend on growth of virus and most of the non-replicating (inactivated) vaccines involve wild type viruses known to cause poliomyelitis. The attenuated vaccine strains involved in the eradication programme have been used to develop new inactivated vaccines as production is thought safer. However it is known that the Sabin vaccine strains are genetically unstable and can revert to a virulent transmissible form. A possible solution to the need for virus growth would be to generate empty viral capsids by recombinant technology, but hitherto such particles are so unstable as to be unusable. We report here the genetic manipulation of the virus to generate stable empty capsids for all three serotypes. The particles are shown to be extremely stable and to generate high levels of protective antibodies in animal models. PMID:28103317

  10. Bio-composite Nonwoven Media Based on Chitosan and Empty Fruit Bunches for Wastewater Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadikin, Aziatul Niza; Nawawi, Mohd Ghazali Mohd; Othman, Norasikin

    2011-01-01

    Fibrous filter media in the form of non-woven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Lignocellulosic such as empty fruit bunches have potential to be used as a low cost filter media as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly. Laboratory filtration tests were performed to investigate the potential application of empty fruit bunches that enriched with chitosan as a fiber filter media to remove suspended solids, oil and grease, and organics in terms of chemical oxygen demand from palm oil mill effluent. The present paper studies the effect of chitosan concentration on the filter media performance. Bench-scaled experiment results indicated that pre-treatment using the fiber filtration system removed up to 67.3% of total suspended solid, 65.1% of oil and grease and 46.1% of chemical oxygen demand. The results show that the lignocellulosic fiber filter could be a potential technology for primary wastewater treatment.

  11. Reconfiguring the empty center: drinking, sobriety, and identity in Native American women's narratives.

    PubMed

    Prussing, Erica

    2007-12-01

    Although anthropologists have paid little attention to popular American psychological discourse about addiction and recovery, the cultural politics of its engagement by Native North American communities warrant closer examination. By ethnographically contextualizing personal narratives, this paper describes how addiction/recovery discourse has been selectively engaged by younger generations of women in a northern Plains reservation community. Sobriety is not only a therapeutic transformation but also a socially negotiated identity change in this community and, therefore, engages ongoing local identity politics. Many community members evaluate the legitimacy of claims to Native identity by essentializing boundaries between Native and non-Native, as well as between past and present-a discursive convention that O'Nell has called "the rhetoric of the empty center" (Disciplined Hearts: History, Identity and Depression in an American Indian Community. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996, p. 55). Yet by selectively appropriating elements of addiction/recovery discourse, younger women in the 1990s increasingly positioned emotional experience and expression as central arbiters of the legitimacy of Native identity. In so doing, they reconfigured the rhetoric of the empty center, eliciting both controversy and support from the larger community. This analysis highlights new dimensions of the social life of addiction/recovery discourse in contemporary Native North America, and calls for increased ethnographic attention to how localized cultural politics can orient the ways in which communities engage therapeutic discourses.

  12. Determinants of filled/empty optical illusion: Search for the locus of maximal effect.

    PubMed

    Wackermann, Jiri; Kastner, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    A subdivided path in the visual field usually appears longer than an empty path of the same length. This phenomenon, known as the filled/empty or Oppel-Kundt illusion, depends on multiple properties of the visual stimulus, but the functional dependences have not been yet precisely characterized. We studied the illusory effect as a function of its two main determinants, the height of vertical strokes subdividing a spatial interval of a fixed length (visual angle 2.8 degree) and the number of the filling strokes, using the standard-variable distance matching paradigm. Non-monotonic dependence of the effect (over-reproduction of the spatial extension) on the varied parameters was observed in two experimental series. In the first series, the maximum effect was obtained for the fillers height roughly equal to the delimiters height (visual angle 0.25 degree); in the second series, the maximum effect was obtained for 11-13 equispaced fillers, and more accurately estimated to 15-16 as a result of a functional fit. Both data series were successfully modeled by curves generated by a single two-parametric system of form functions. Problems of determination of the maximum effect are discussed, and arguments for a genuinely multivariate approach are presented.

  13. Cellular response to empty and palladium-conjugated amino-polystyrene nanospheres uptake: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Pietrovito, Laura; Cano-Cortés, Victoria; Gamberi, Tania; Magherini, Francesca; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M; Fasano, Mauro; Modesti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Amino polystyrene nanospheres are shown to be efficient and controllable delivery devices, capable of transporting several bioactive cargoes. Recently, the design of a new device for prodrug activation, using these nanospheres with palladium encapsulated onto them, has been developed successfully. To study the influence of the cellular uptake of these nanodevices, we investigated the cellular response of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T) and murine fibroblasts (L929) treated with empty or palladium-conjugated amino polystyrene nanospheres. To identify differentially expressed proteins, we performed an exhaustive proteomic analysis. In accordance with genomic data previously obtained, the uptake of the empty nanospheres did not induce significant variation in protein expression levels. Following the treatment with palladium-conjugated nanospheres, some changes in protein profiles in both cell lines were observed; these alterations affect proteins involved in cell metabolism and intracellular transport. No key regulator of the cell cycle result was differentially expressed after the treatment, confirming that these innovative drug delivery systems are harmless and well tolerated by the cells.

  14. Formation of Bragg band gaps in anisotropic phononic crystals analyzed with the empty lattice model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yan -Feng; Maznev, Alexei; Laude, Vincent

    2016-05-11

    Bragg band gaps of phononic crystals generally, but not always, open at Brillouin zone boundaries. The commonly accepted explanation stems from the empty lattice model: assuming a small material contrast between the constituents of the unit cell, avoided crossings in the phononic band structure appear at frequencies and wavenumbers corresponding to band intersections; for scalar waves the lowest intersections coincide with boundaries of the first Brillouin zone. However, if a phononic crystal contains elastically anisotropic materials, its overall symmetry is not dictated solely by the lattice symmetry. We construct an empty lattice model for phononic crystals made of isotropic and anisotropic materials, based on their slowness curves. We find that, in the anisotropic case, avoided crossings generally do not appear at the boundaries of traditionally defined Brillouin zones. Furthermore, the Bragg "planes" which give rise to phononic band gaps, are generally not flat planes but curved surfaces. Lastly, the same is found to be the case for avoided crossings between shear (transverse) and longitudinal bands in the isotropic case.

  15. Effects of bisacodyl on ascending colon emptying and overall colonic transit in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    MANABE, N.; CREMONINI, F.; CAMILLERI, M.; SANDBORN, W. J.; BURTON, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim The mechanism of action of bisacodyl in the unprepared human colon is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of oral bisacodyl on the overall and regional colonic transit in humans. \\ Methods In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 25 healthy participants, effects of oral bisacodyl (5mg p.o. per day) and placebo on colonic transit were compared. Validated scintigraphy using 111In-charcoal delivered to the ileocolonic region in a delayed-release capsule was used to measure colonic transit. The primary transit endpoints, ascending colon emptying (AC) t1/2 and geometric center (GC) of colon isotope at 24 hours (overall transit), were compared (Wilcoxon rank sum test). Results There were significant treatment effects on AC t1/2, with the bisacodyl group demonstrating accelerated emptying [median 6.5 h, interquartile range (IQR) 5.0 – 8.0 h] relative to the placebo group [11.0 h (7.0 – 17.1)], P=0.03]. Numerical differences in colonic GC 24 hours [bisacodyl median 3.0 (2.2 – 3.8), placebo 4.0 (3.1 – 4.6)] were not significant (P=0.19). There were no significant differences observed in GC 4 hours. Conclusion Oral 5mg bisacodyl accelerates AC in the unprepared colon in healthy adults; this action may contribute to the drug’s efficacy in constipation. PMID:19678812

  16. Emptying the gallbladder prior to intravenous cholangiography: effect on gallbladder visualization.

    PubMed

    Martinez, C R; Fara, J W; Donner, M W

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were done to test the hypothesis that emptying the gallbladder prior to intravenous cholangiography (IVC) would result in earler and better opacification of the gallbladder. Five dogs were studied on two separate days in a crossover experiment. Each dog had a standard IVC (15-minute infusion of meglumine iodipamide) 2.5 cc/kg of following a 14-16-hour fasting period. On one of the days, 0.3 mcg/kg of Ceruletide was intramuscularly administered to each dog 30 to 45 minutes prior to the iodipamide infusion. Films obtained at the end of infusion and at 20, 40, 60, and 90 minutes were evaluated independently by three radiologists. The results indicate that pretreatment with Ceruletide produces a significant (p less than 0.05) improvement in the quality of gallbladder opacification during the first 90 minutes following iodipamide infusion. We conclude that earlier and better opacification of the gallbladder during IVC can be obtained by prior emptying of the gallbladder with a cholecystokinetic agent.

  17. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.

  18. Bio-composite Nonwoven Media Based on Chitosan and Empty Fruit Bunches for Wastewater Application

    SciTech Connect

    Sadikin, Aziatul Niza; Nawawi, Mohd Ghazali Mohd; Othman, Norasikin

    2011-01-17

    Fibrous filter media in the form of non-woven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Lignocellulosic such as empty fruit bunches have potential to be used as a low cost filter media as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly. Laboratory filtration tests were performed to investigate the potential application of empty fruit bunches that enriched with chitosan as a fiber filter media to remove suspended solids, oil and grease, and organics in terms of chemical oxygen demand from palm oil mill effluent. The present paper studies the effect of chitosan concentration on the filter media performance. Bench-scaled experiment results indicated that pre-treatment using the fiber filtration system removed up to 67.3% of total suspended solid, 65.1% of oil and grease and 46.1% of chemical oxygen demand. The results show that the lignocellulosic fiber filter could be a potential technology for primary wastewater treatment.

  19. Formation of Bragg band gaps in anisotropic phononic crystals analyzed with the empty lattice model

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yan -Feng; Maznev, Alexei; Laude, Vincent

    2016-05-11

    Bragg band gaps of phononic crystals generally, but not always, open at Brillouin zone boundaries. The commonly accepted explanation stems from the empty lattice model: assuming a small material contrast between the constituents of the unit cell, avoided crossings in the phononic band structure appear at frequencies and wavenumbers corresponding to band intersections; for scalar waves the lowest intersections coincide with boundaries of the first Brillouin zone. However, if a phononic crystal contains elastically anisotropic materials, its overall symmetry is not dictated solely by the lattice symmetry. We construct an empty lattice model for phononic crystals made of isotropic andmore » anisotropic materials, based on their slowness curves. We find that, in the anisotropic case, avoided crossings generally do not appear at the boundaries of traditionally defined Brillouin zones. Furthermore, the Bragg "planes" which give rise to phononic band gaps, are generally not flat planes but curved surfaces. Lastly, the same is found to be the case for avoided crossings between shear (transverse) and longitudinal bands in the isotropic case.« less

  20. Statistical optimization of adsorption processes for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Alam, M Zahangir; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Toramae, Juria

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of activated carbon produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches through removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solution was carried out in the laboratory. The activated carbon was produced by thermal activation of activation time with 30 min at 800 degrees C. The adsorption process conditions were determined with the statistical optimization followed by central composite design. A developed polynomial model for operating conditions of adsorption process indicated that the optimum conditions for maximum adsorption of phenolic compound were: agitation rate of 100 r/min, contact time of 8 h, initial adsorbate concentration of 250 mg/L and pH 4. Adsorption isotherms were conducted to evaluate biosorption process. Langmuir isotherm was more favorable (R2 = 0.93) for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by the activated carbon rather than Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.88).

  1. To determine the effect of metoclopramide on gastric emptying in severe head injuries: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Marino, L V; Kiratu, E M; French, S; Nathoo, N

    2003-02-01

    To determine the effect of 8-hourly administration of 10 mg intravenous metoclopramide, over a 48-h period on gastric emptying in severe head injury (SHI), 22 patients were prospectively randomized (Glasgow Coma Score of 3-8) to receive 2 ml of intravenous metoclopramide or 2 ml of 5% saline 8-hourly for 48 h. Baseline and serial blood paracetamol absorption assays were performed at time (t) = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min on day 0 and day 2. The area under the curve between the day 0 and day 2 was used to measure the degree of gastric emptying. In SHI, sequential doses of metoclopramide did not appear to improve gastric motility within subject comparisons (p = 0.65) and between subject comparisons (placebo p = 0.4 and drug p = 0.12). Metoclopramide has no significant prokinetic effect on gastric emptying in SHI patients when given in the early postinjury period.

  2. A Case Report of Late Onset Mania Caused by Hyponatremia in a Patient With Empty Sella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Hao; Lin, Yu-Chen; Chou, Po-Han; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Chan, Chin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent manic-like episodes can be induced by hyponatremia possibly due to empty sella syndrome. In the present case, the patient was proven to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion with manic symptoms that resolved after the normalization of the plasma sodium level. To our knowledge, this is the first case of hyponatremia-induced manic symptoms in a patient with empty sella syndrome. More attention should be paid to late-onset mania, because it may be the sign of a more serious medical problem. PMID:26871784

  3. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-04-01

    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass.

  4. A Cell-Permeable Inhibitor to Trap Gαq Proteins in the Empty Pocket Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anna-Lena; Schrage, Ramona; Gaffal, Evelyn; Charpentier, Thomas H.; Wiest, Johannes; Hiltensperger, Georg; Morschel, Julia; Hennen, Stephanie; Häußler, Daniela; Horn, Velten; Wenzel, Daniela; Grundmann, Manuel; Büllesbach, Katrin M.; Schröder, Ralf; Brewitz, H. Henning; Schmidt, Johannes; Gomeza, Jesús; Galés, Céline; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Tüting, Thomas; Imhof, Diana; Tietze, Daniel; Gütschow, Michael; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sondek, John; Harden, T. Kendall; Mohr, Klaus; Kostenis, Evi

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In spite of the crucial role of heterotrimeric G proteins as molecular switches transmitting signals from G protein-coupled receptors, their selective manipulation with small molecule, cell-permeable inhibitors still remains an unmet challenge. Here, we report that the small molecule BIM-46187, previously classified as pan-G protein inhibitor, preferentially silences Gαq signaling in a cellular context-dependent manner. Investigations into its mode of action reveal that BIM traps Gαq in the empty pocket conformation by permitting GDP exit but interdicting GTP entry, a molecular mechanism not yet assigned to any other small molecule Gα inhibitor to date. Our data show that Gα proteins may be “frozen” pharmacologically in an intermediate conformation along their activation pathway and propose a pharmacological strategy to specifically silence Gα subclasses with cell-permeable inhibitors. PMID:25036778

  5. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-03

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  6. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO4). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  7. Discontinued Splenogonadal Fusion and Bilateral Empty Scrotum in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Abokrecha, Ahmed; Almatrfi, Ameera

    2017-01-01

    Splenogonadal fusion is a rare benign congenital anomaly defined as the presence of splenic tissue adherent to gonads. It was first described in 1883 by Bostroem, a German pathologist. We present a case of an 18-month-old boy who was referred as a case of bilateral empty scrotum since birth. During routine laparoscopic exploration, right vas deferens and testicular vessels were entering the right internal inguinal ring so right inguinal exploration was done, which revealed blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels and the left testis was found intra-abdominally near the left internal ring with a mass on its upper pole. Wedge biopsy was taken from the upper pole of the testicle (site of the mass) for tissue diagnosis followed by orchidopexy. Histology showed splenic tissue. Although splenogonadal fusion is a rare condition, surgeons should be aware of this rare disease entity to avoid unnecessary aggressive interventions such as orchiectomy. PMID:28265530

  8. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch biomass pellets using multimode microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch pellets were subjected to pyrolysis in a multimode microwave (MW) system (1 kW and 2.45 GHz frequency) with and without the MW absorber, activated carbon. The ratio of biomass to MW absorber not only affected the temperature profiles of the EFB but also pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas. The highest bio-oil yield of about 21 wt.% was obtained with 25% MW absorber. The bio-oil consisted of phenolic compounds of about 60-70 area% as detected by GC-MS and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Ball lightning (plasma arc) occurred due to residual palm oil in the EFB biomass without using an MW absorber. The bio-char can be utilized as potential alternative fuel because of its heating value (25 MJ/kg).

  9. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from oil palm empty fruit bunch using Bacillus megaterium R11.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youhong; Sun, Wandong; Wang, Hengwei; Geng, Anli

    2013-11-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), contains abundant cellulose and hemicelluloses and can be used as a renewable resource for fuel and chemical production. This study, as the first attempt, aims to convert OPEFB derived sugars to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). OPEFB collected from a Malaysia palm oil refinery plant was chemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed by an in-house prepared cellulase cocktail. The PHB producer, Bacillus megaterium R11, was isolated in Singapore and could accumulate PHB up to 51.3% of its cell dry weight (CDW) from both glucose and xylose. Tryptone was identified as its best nitrogen source. PHB content and production reached 58.5% and 9.32 g/L, respectively, for an overall OPEFB sugar concentration of 45 g/L. These respectively reached 51.6% and 12.48 g/L for OPEFB hydrolysate containing 60 g/L sugar with a productivity of 0.260 g/L/h.

  10. Determinants of filled/empty optical illusion: differential effects of patterning.

    PubMed

    Wackermann, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    A subdivided path in the visual field appears longer than an empty path of the same length. This effect may be attributed to the division of the path into multiple segments, or to an influence of the visual elements used to mark the subdivision, and thus filling-up the estimated space. To address this question, we used two series of stimuli, in which the spatial distribution of the filling optical mater, or the form of the dividers, was varied while the relative coverage of the filled space was kept constant. We found significant dependence of the effect magnitude on a number of filling elements as well as on their form. These results indicate that the illusory space expansion is not merely an effect of 'filling-up' the space, but it also depends on the filling pattern. Consequences of these findings for the theory of the Oppel-Kundt phenomenon are briefly discussed.

  11. Determinants of filled/empty optical illusion: Influence of luminance contrast and polarity.

    PubMed

    Wackermann, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Subjective estimates of lengths or areas in the visual field depend on the visual contents of the estimated space (filled/empty or Oppel-Kundt illusion). We studied the dependence of this phenomenon on the presentation mode (white on black vs. black on white background), and on the figure/ground contrast. We found, as expected, overestimation of the filled part of the figure for both contrast polarities. The expansion effect was found to be an increasing function of the absolute luminance contrast, and was consistently higher for the negative (luminant figures on a dark background) than for the positive polarity. The contrast factor contributes from one-fifth to one-third of the total effect. Possible interpretations in terms of known sensory phenomena (irradiation, lateral interactions) or higher, integrative functions are discussed.

  12. Looking for empty topological wormhole spacetimes in F(R)-modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, R.; Myrzakulov, R.; Sebastiani, L.

    2013-12-01

    Much attention has been recently devoted to modified theories of gravity, the simplest models of which overcome General Relativity simply by replacing R with F(R) in the Einstein-Hilbert action. Unfortunately, such models typically lack most of the beautiful solutions discovered in Einstein’s gravity. Nonetheless, in F(R) gravity, it has been possible to get at least few black holes, but still we do not know any empty wormhole-like spacetime solution. This paper aims to explain why it is so hard to get such solutions (given that they exist!). Few solutions are derived in the simplest cases, while only an implicit form has been obtained in the non-trivial case.

  13. Benign emptying of the post-pneumonectomy space: recognizing this rare complication retrospectively.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Meletios A; Misthos, Panagiotis A; Tsimpinos, Michalis D; Rapti, Nicoletta G; Chatzis, Andrew C; Lioulias, Achilleas G

    2015-11-01

    Patients presenting with a sudden drop in the pleural fluid level after a pneumonectomy in the absence of a recognizable bronchopleural fistula (BPF) have been classified as cases of benign emptying of the post-pneumonectomy space (BEPS). A retrospective study of 1378 pneumonectomies identified 4 cases of BEPS (0.29%). The patients were men; median age 64 years and all had undergone a right pneumonectomy. The median time at diagnosis was 31 days postoperatively and the median follow-up time was 31 months. None of the patients experienced a documented BPF or empyema. Although BEPS is an extremely rare complication, early recognition and close patient monitoring will prevent unnecessary interventional strategies.

  14. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Dasan, Y. K. Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-22

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  15. Enzyme feeding strategies for better fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, Yohanes Eko Chandra; Harimawan, Ardiyan; Kresnowati, Made Tri Ari Penia; Purwadi, Ronny; Mariyana, Rina; Andry; Fitriana, Hana Nur; Hosen, Hauna Fathmadinda

    2016-05-01

    Lignin inhibitory becomes a major obstacle for enzymatic hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch conducted in high solid loading. Since current technology required high enzyme loading, surfactant application could not effectively used since it is only efficient in low enzyme loading. In addition, it will increase final operation cost. Hence, another method namely "proportional enzyme feeding" was investigated in this paper. In this method, enzyme was added to reactor proportionally to substrate addition, different from conventional method ("whole enzyme feeding") where whole enzyme was added prior to hydrolysis process started. Proportional enzyme feeding could increase enzymatic digestibility and glucose concentration up to 26% and 12% respectively, compared to whole enzyme feeding for hydrolysis duration more than 40h. If enzymatic hydrolysis was run less than 40h (25% solid loading), whole enzyme feeding is preferable.

  16. Ghrelin and obestatin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Igor A; Koebnick, Corinna; Tasi, Atingwa M; Hahn, Eckhart Georg; Konturek, Peter C

    2009-10-01

    Alterations in the neurohumoral regulation of the upper intestine may change rhythmicity and pattern of ghrelin and obestatin, the latter presumably antagonizing ghrelin effects. Five nongastroparetic diabetic patients and five with gastroparesis were investigated. Over 390 min including breakfast and lunch, ghrelin was significantly lower in patients with gastroparesis compared with in those without (P = 0.015). Ghrelin subsequent to lunch decreased significantly (P = 0.011) in patients without gastroparesis, but not in gastroparetic patients (P = 0.669). Obestatin was similar in both groups and unchanged. No significant differences in ghrelin-to-obestatin ratio were observed (P = 0.530). Loss of rhythmicity in the ghrelin levels of gastroparetic diabetics highlights the importance of integrity of the neurohumoral-intestinal axis. Stable diurnal obestatin levels do not support the concept of interaction between ghrelin and obestatin in terms of regulation of food intake and gastric emptying.

  17. Steam explosion pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) using autocatalytic hydrolysis: A biorefinery approach.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jesus David Coral; Woiciechowski, Adenise; Zandona Filho, Arion; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are an attractive source of carbon for the production of biochemical products, therefore, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the steam explosion (SE) pretreatment under autocatalytic conditions on EFB using a full experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the operational variables studied. The EFB treated at 195°C for 6 min showed an increase of 34.69% in glycan (mostly cellulose), and a reduction of 68.12% in hemicelluloses, with increased enzymatic digestibility to 33% producing 4.2 g L(-1) of glucose. Scanning electron micrographs of the steam treated EFB exhibited surface erosion and an increased fiber porosity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the solubilization of hemicellulose and modification of cellulose in treated EFB.

  18. Letting the Air Out: Aire as an Empty Signifier in Oaxacan Understandings of Illness.

    PubMed

    Gross, Toomas

    2016-12-01

    "Air (aire, also aigre) in the body" is a frequent explanation of illness according to the traditional medical beliefs in Mexico. Anthropologists have generally scrutinized aire in the context of other common folk illnesses treated by traditional healers (curanderas). However, drawing on my research in the communities of Northern Oaxaca I suggest that aire occupies a more distinct position in the folk medical cosmology than it has usually been credited with. This distinction rests on the notion's exceptional ambivalence and openness to multiple interpretations. "Air" is recurred to as the cause of illness mainly in situations where every other explanation, either "traditional" or "biomedical," seems to be inadequate. The physical properties of air-its transparency, invisibility, apparent immateriality, near omnipresence, and virtual "nothingness"-render it a suitable explanation of the last resort. Local understandings of what aire "is" are often vague and elusive, and in many respects the term functions in folk medical discourse as an "empty signifier."

  19. Empty liquid phase of colloidal ellipsoids: the role of shape and interaction anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Varga, Szabolcs; Meneses-Júarez, Efrain; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2014-04-07

    We study the effect of anisotropic excluded volume and attractive interactions on the vapor-liquid phase transition of colloidal ellipsoids. In our model, the hard ellipsoid is embedded into an ellipsoidal well, where both the shape of the hard ellipsoid and that of the added enclosing ellipsoidal well can be varied independently. The bulk properties of these particles are examined by means of a van der Waals type perturbation theory and validated with replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that both the critical volume fraction (ηc) and the critical temperature (Tc) of the vapor-liquid phase transition vanish with increasing shape anisotropy for oblate shapes, while ηc → 0 and Tc ≠ 0 are obtained for very elongated prolate shapes. These results suggest that the chance to stabilize empty liquids (a liquid phase with vanishing density) is higher in suspensions of rod-like colloidal ellipsoids than in those of plate-like ones.

  20. Empty smectic liquid crystals of hard nanorings: Insights from a second-virial theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensink, H. H.; Avendaño, C.

    2016-12-01

    Inspired by recent simulations on highly open liquid crystalline structures formed by rigid planar nanorings, we present a simple theoretical framework explaining the prevalence of smectic over nematic ordering in systems of ring-shaped objects. The key part of our study is a calculation of the excluded volume of such nonconvex particles in the limit of vanishing thickness to diameter ratio. Using a simple stability analysis we then show that dilute systems of ring-shaped particles have a strong propensity to order into smectic structures with an unusual antinematic order while solid disks of the same dimensions exhibit nematic order. Since our model rings have zero internal volume, these smectic structures are essentially empty, resembling the strongly porous structures found in simulation. We argue that the antinematic intralamellar order of the rings plays an essential role in stabilizing these smectic structures.

  1. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC's were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC's are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  2. Micromechanical modelling of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies.

    PubMed

    Omar, Farah Nadia; Hanipah, Suhaiza Hanim; Xiang, Loo Yu; Mohammed, Mohd Afandi P; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2016-09-01

    Experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to study the micromechanics of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies. The finite viscoelastic-plastic material model called Parallel Rheological Network model was proposed, that fitted well with cyclic and stress relaxation tensile tests of the fibres. Representative volume element and microstructure models were developed using finite element method, where the models information was obtained from microscopy and X-ray micro-tomography analyses. Simulation results showed that difference of the fibres model with silica bodies and those without ones is larger under shear than compression and tension. However, in comparison to geometrical effect (i.e. silica bodies), it is suggested that ultrastructure components of the fibres (modelled using finite viscoelastic-plastic model) is responsible for the complex mechanical behaviour of oil palm fibres. This can be due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components and the interface behaviour, as reported on other lignocellulosic materials.

  3. Pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch for production of chemicals via catalytic pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Misson, Mailin; Haron, Roslindawati; Kamaroddin, Mohd Fadhzir Ahmad; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2009-06-01

    The effect of chemical pretreatments using NaOH, H(2)O(2), and Ca(OH)(2) on Empty Palm Fruit Bunches (EPFB) to degrade EPFB lignin before pyrolysis was investigated. Spectrophotometer analysis proved consecutive addition of NaOH and H(2)O(2) decomposed almost 100% of EPFB lignin compared to 44% for the Ca(OH)(2), H(2)O(2) system while NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) used exclusively could not alter lignin much. Next, the pretreated EPFB was catalytically pyrolyzed. Experimental results indicated the phenolic yields over Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5 catalysts were 90 wt% and 80 wt%, respectively compared to 67 wt% yield for the untreated sample under the same set of conditions. Meanwhile, the experiments with HY zeolite yielded 70 wt% phenols.

  4. Purification of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf soda lignin with acidified water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Sharifah Nurul Ain Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Hua, Chia Chin

    2014-09-01

    In this current study, the soda lignins from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf core were recovered by two step precipitation method. The objective of this research is to study the purity of lignin by washing the lignins with acidified water. The purified lignins were undergone characterization by FT-IR, Uv-Vis and XRD. The FT-IR analysis shows that kenaf core has Guaiacyl(G) and Syringyl(S) unit meanwhile EFB has Hydroxyphenyl(H), Guaiacyl(G) and Syringyl(S) unit of lignin. As for XRD analysis, the non-purified shows that the existence of impurities which is salt (NaCl). The UV analysis shows the higher absorbance which lead to the purity of lignin.

  5. Optimization of lignin production from empty fruit bunch via liquefaction with ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Dilaeleyana Abu Bakar; Ngadi, Norzita; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2013-05-01

    The production of lignin from empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been carried out using liquefaction method with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) ionic liquid (IL), in presence of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to identify the optimum condition for lignin yield. The result indicated that the second order model was adequate for all the independent variables on the response with R(2)=0.8609. The optimum temperature, time, ionic liquid to EFB ratio, and catalyst concentration were 150.5 °C, 151 min, 3:1 wt/wt and 4.73 wt%, respectively for lignin yield=26.6%. The presence of lignin liquefied product was confirmed by UV-Vis and FTIR analysis. It was also demonstrated lignin extraction from lignocellulosic using recycled IL gave sufficient performance.

  6. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan.

  7. Sorption of Pb(ll) by poly(hydroxamic acid) grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Haron, M J; Tiansin, M; Ibrahim, N A; Kassim, A; Wan Yunus, W M Z; Talebi, S M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the sorption of Pb(ll) from aqueous solution. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber was first grafted with poly(methylacrylate) and then treated with hydroxylammonium chloride in alkaline medium to produce hydroxamic acid (PHA) grafted OPEFB. Sorption of Pb(ll) by PHA-OPEFB was maximum at pH 5. The sorption followed the Langmuir model with maximum capacityof 125.0 mg g-1 at 25 degrees C. The sorption process was exothermic, as shown by the negative value of enthalpy change, Delta H0. The free energy change (DeltaG0) for the sorption was negative, showing that the sorption process was spontaneous. A kinetic study showed that the Pb(ll) sorption followed a second order kinetic model.

  8. Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunch via a one step heterogeneous acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan Daud, Wan Rosli; Djuned, Fauzi Muhammad

    2015-11-05

    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA.

  9. Tensile and characterization properties of regenerated cellulose empty fruit bunch biocomposite films using ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husseinsyah, Salmah; Zailuddin, Nur Liyana Izyan; Li, Chew Li; Mostapha @ Zakaria, Marliza

    2016-07-01

    The regenerated cellulose (RC) empty fruit bunch (EFB) biocomposite films were prepared using ionic liquid. The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of regenerated cellulose biocomposite films achieved maximum value at 2 wt% of EFB contents while at 3 and 4 wt% of EFB the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity tend to decreased. The elongation at break tends to decreased at 2 wt% of EFB content but increased at 3 and 4 wt% of EFB contents. The crystallinity index reaches maximum at 2 wt% EFB content, followed by declination with further addition of EFB content. The morphology study illustrated that regenerated cellulose biocomposite films at 2 wt% of EFB contents exhibit a smooth surface that suggested the reinforcement was surrounded by the regenerated cellulose matrix, while at 4 wt% EFB content shows a rough morphology.

  10. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; de Almeida, Eros Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. PMID:25494017

  11. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P < 0.05). There was no additional effect of the sweeter glucose + saccharin solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  12. Gall bladder emptying in patients with corrosive-induced esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Bilal A; Kochhar, Rakesh; Nagi, Birender; Raja, Kaiser; Singh, Kartar

    2005-01-01

    Ingestion of corrosive substances can lead to strictures of the esophagus and stomach. Cicatrization of the lower part of the esophagus can entrap vagal fibers in the process of fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gallbladder dysfunction as a sequel to vagal damage in patients with corrosive-induced esophageal strictures. The cephalic phase of gallbladder emptying was stimulated by modified sham feeding according to the chew-and-spit method. Gallbladder volume was measured by ultrasonography using the ellipsoid method after an overnight fast and every 15 min for a period of 90 min after sham feeding in 22 patients and 10 controls. Mean fasting gallbladder volume was significantly greater in patients than in controls (22.09 +/- 9.78 vs. 14.61 +/- 4.42 ml; P = 0.025). After sham feeding the gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly lower in patients than in controls (32.86 +/- 17.21 vs. 49.40 +/- 7.86%; P = 0.007). Patients with cicatrization in the distal one-third of the esophagus had a greater basal gallbladder volume (24.57 +/- 9.2 ml) and significantly lower ejection fraction (20.47 +/- 8.9%) than patients with strictures at other sites (gallbladder volume, 18.50 +/- 10.69 ml; ejection fraction, 47.48 +/- 13.3%; P = 0.001). In conclusion, patients with corrosive-induced esophageal strictures, especially those in the distal one-third, had an increased fasting gallbladder volume and decreased cephalic phase of gallbladder emptying, pointing to impaired vagal cholinergic transmission, possibly due to vagal entrapment in the cicatrization process.

  13. Shoulder Coordination During Full-Can and Empty-Can Rehabilitation Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Allard, Paul; Gobout, Veronique; Begon, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Context Supraspinatus tear is a common rotator cuff injury. During rehabilitation, debate persists regarding the most appropriate exercises. Whereas shoulder coordination is part of normal arm function, it has been infrequently considered in the context of exercise selection. Objective To assess shoulder-motion coordination during 2 common supraspinatus rehabilitation exercises and to characterize load and motion-direction influences on shoulder coordination. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting Motion-analysis laboratory. Patient or Other Participants Fifteen asymptomatic right-hand–dominant men (age = 26 ± 4 years, height = 1.77 ± 0.06 m, mass = 74.3 ± 7.7 kg). Intervention(s) Full-can and empty-can exercises with and without a 2.27-kg load. Main Outcome Measure(s) We recorded motion with an optoelectronic system. Scapulohumeral rhythm and complete shoulder joint kinematics were calculated to quantify shoulder coordination. The effects of exercise type, load, motion direction, and humerothoracic-elevation angle on the scapulohumeral rhythm and shoulder-joint angles were assessed. Results We observed multivariate interactions between exercise type and humerothoracic elevation and between load and humerothoracic elevation. Scapulohumeral rhythm increased by a mean ratio of 0.44 ± 0.22 during the full-can exercise, whereas the addition of load increased mean glenohumeral elevation by 4° ± 1°. Conclusions The full-can exercise increased the glenohumeral contribution, as hypothesized, and showed normal shoulder coordination. During the empty-can exercise, the increased scapulothoracic contribution was associated with a compensatory pattern that limits the glenohumeral contribution. Using loads during shoulder rehabilitation seems justified because the scapulohumeral rhythm is similar to that of unloaded arm elevation. Finally, motion direction showed a limited effect during the exercises in healthy individuals. PMID:26451620

  14. Dual targeting of Angiopoetin-2 and VEGF potentiates effective vascular normalisation without inducing empty basement membrane sleeves in xenograft tumours

    PubMed Central

    Coutelle, O; Schiffmann, L M; Liwschitz, M; Brunold, M; Goede, V; Hallek, M; Kashkar, H; Hacker, U T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Effective vascular normalisation following vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition is associated with endothelial cell regression leaving empty basement membrane sleeves (BMS). These long-lived BMS permit the rapid regrowth of tumour vasculature upon treatment cessation and promote resistance to VEGF-targeting drugs. Previous attempts at removing BMS have failed. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is a vascular destabilizing factor that antagonises normalisation. We hypothesised that Ang2 inhibition could permit vascular normalisation at significantly reduced doses of VEGF inhibition, avoiding excessive vessel regression and the formation of empty BMS. Methods: Mice xenografted with human colorectal cancer cells (LS174T) were treated with low (0.5 mg kg−1) or high (5 mg kg−1) doses of the VEGF-targeting antibody bevacizumab with or without an Ang2 blocking peptibody L1-10. Tumour growth, BMS formation and normalisation parameters were examined including vessel density, pericyte coverage, adherence junctions, leakiness, perfusion, hypoxia and proliferation. Results: Dual targeting of VEGF and Ang2 achieved effective normalisation at only one-tenth of the dose required with bevacizumab alone. Pericyte coverage, vascular integrity, adherence junctions and perfusion as prerequisites for improved access of chemotherapy were improved without inducing empty BMS that facilitate rapid vascular regrowth. Conclusions: Dual targeting of VEGF and Ang2 can potentiate the effectiveness of VEGF inhibitors and avoid the formation of empty BMS. PMID:25562438

  15. Diabetes Insipidus and Polydipsia in a Patient with Asperger's Disorder and an Empty Sella: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Giammarco, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Italian patient with Asperger disorders, Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, and Primary Empty Sella. His response to vasopressin treatment suggested a concomitant presence of primary polydipsia. Implications of the observed concurrence of these rare disorders are discussed in relation to diagnosis and pathogenesis. (Author/CR)

  16. 19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.93 Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks... the coastwise trade and vessels of nations found to grant reciprocal privileges to vessels of the... handling his cargo in foreign trade. (2) Stevedoring equipment and material, if such equipment and...

  17. 19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.93 Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks... the coastwise trade and vessels of nations found to grant reciprocal privileges to vessels of the... handling his cargo in foreign trade. (2) Stevedoring equipment and material, if such equipment and...

  18. 19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.93 Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks... the coastwise trade and vessels of nations found to grant reciprocal privileges to vessels of the... handling his cargo in foreign trade. (2) Stevedoring equipment and material, if such equipment and...

  19. Empty Bowls Feed the Hungry: Service Learning across the Curriculum with the Visual Arts at the Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namnoun, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Describes a school-wide, cross-curricular project called, "Empty Bowls", at Hall High School (West Hartford, Connecticut). Explains that students created ceramic bowls and made soup to fill the bowls to raise money to fight hunger. Provides a description of how the school became involved and raised the money. (CMK)

  20. Empty Sets as Part of the Numerical Continuum: Conceptual Precursors to the Zero Concept in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Rugani, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current research was to explore whether monkeys possess conceptual precursors necessary for understanding zero. We trained rhesus monkeys on a nonsymbolic numerical matching-to-sample task, and on a numerical ordering task. We then introduced nondifferentially reinforced trials that contained empty sets to determine whether monkeys…

  1. Nanoindentation studies of full and empty viral capsids and the effects of capsid protein mutations on elasticity and strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J. P.; Ivanovska, I. L.; Gibbons, M. M.; Klug, W. S.; Knobler, C. M.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Schmidt, C. F.

    2006-04-01

    The elastic properties of capsids of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have been examined at pH 4.8 by nanoindentation measurements with an atomic force microscope. Studies have been carried out on WT capsids, both empty and containing the RNA genome, and on full capsids of a salt-stable mutant and empty capsids of the subE mutant. Full capsids resisted indentation more than empty capsids, but all of the capsids were highly elastic. There was an initial reversible linear regime that persisted up to indentations varying between 20% and 30% of the diameter and applied forces of 0.6-1.0 nN; it was followed by a steep drop in force that is associated with irreversible deformation. A single point mutation in the capsid protein increased the capsid stiffness. The experiments are compared with calculations by finite element analysis of the deformation of a homogeneous elastic thick shell. These calculations capture the features of the reversible indentation region and allow Young's moduli and relative strengths to be estimated for the empty capsids. atomic force microscopy | cowpea chlorotic mottle virus | finite element analysis | biomechanics

  2. Comparison of technetium-99m sulfur colloid and technetium-99m albumin colloid labeled solid meals for gastric emptying studies.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, R; Douesnard, J M; Beauchamp, G; Guimond, J

    1987-08-01

    A Tc-99m albumin colloid (Tc-AC) kit has been introduced as an alternative to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) for liver-spleen imaging. Since there is no need for boiling, the use of Tc-AC reduces preparation time and manipulation. Tc-SC is one of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for the labeling of solid-phase markers in gastric emptying studies. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability in hydrochloric acid and in human gastric juice of intracellularly labeled chicken liver and scrambled eggs labeled with Tc-SC and Tc-AC. Gastric emptying studies also were performed on 20 healthy volunteers with both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled egg sandwiches. There was no significant difference between Tc-SC and Tc-AC in the labeling efficiency of chicken liver (98% +/- 1% for Tc-SC, 96% +/- 2% for Tc-AC) and scrambled eggs (92% +/- 2% for Tc-SC, 91% +/- 3% for Tc-AC). However, both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled eggs showed a lower stability than chicken liver, particularly in human gastric juice. Gastric emptying curves from both meals in 20 normal subjects were also similar, with a mean half-emptying time of 85 +/- 13 minutes and 87 +/- 16 minutes for the meals containing Tc-SC and Tc-AC respectively. Tc-AC is a reliable alternative to Tc-SC as a radiotracer for solid-phase gastric emptying studies.

  3. Enhancement of intragastric acid stability of a fat emulsion meal delays gastric emptying and increases cholecystokinin release and gallbladder contraction.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Luca; Wickham, Martin; Singh, Gulzar; Bush, Debbie; Pick, Barbara; Cox, Eleanor; Fillery-Travis, Annette; Faulks, Richard; Marsden, Charles; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2007-06-01

    Preprocessed fatty foods often contain calories added as a fat emulsion stabilized by emulsifiers. Emulsion stability in the acidic gastric environment can readily be manipulated by altering emulsifier chemistry. We tested the hypothesis that it would be possible to control gastric emptying, CCK release, and satiety by varying intragastric fat emulsion stability. Nine healthy volunteers received a test meal on two occasions, comprising a 500-ml 15% oil emulsion with 2.5% of one of two emulsifiers that produced emulsions that were either stable (meal A) or unstable (meal B) in the acid gastric environment. Gastric emptying and gallbladder volume changes were assessed by MRI. CCK plasma levels were measured and satiety scores were recorded. Meal B layered rapidly owing to fat emulsion breakdown. The gastric half-emptying time of the aqueous phase was faster for meal B (72 +/- 13 min) than for meal A (171 +/- 35 min, P < 0.008). Meal A released more CCK than meal B (integrated areas, respectively 1,095 +/- 244 and 531 +/- 111 pmol.min.l(-1), P < 0.02), induced a greater gallbladder contraction (P < 0.02), and decreased postprandial appetite (P < 0.05), although no significant differences were observed in fullness and hunger. We conclude that acid-stable emulsions delayed gastric emptying and increased postprandial CCK levels and gallbladder contraction, whereas acid-instability led to rapid layering of fat in the gastric lumen with accelerated gastric emptying, lower CCK levels, and reduced gallbladder contraction. Manipulation of the acid stability of fat emulsion added to preprocessed foods could maximize satiety signaling and, in turn, help to reduce overconsumption of calories.

  4. The glycemic response to fibre rich foods and their relationship with gastric emptying and motor functions: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Gopirajah, R; Raichurkar, Keshav Prakash; Wadhwa, Rajkumar; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2016-09-14

    The chief motor functions of human stomach, namely receiving, storing, mixing and emptying, influence the absorption of ingested food and hence determine the glycemic response to the meal. However, among these functions, the gastric emptying pattern of the stomach is essentially regulated by the meal characteristics such as particle size, volume, nutrient composition and viscosity. Understanding the complex relationship between the stomach motor functions and the physicochemical characteristics of meal on glycemic control needs more attention in the formulation of functional foods. Hence, the objective of this study is to employ the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique in ten healthy human volunteers to elucidate the relationship between the motor functions of the stomach and the glycemic response to fibre rich foods. For this, wheat and oat based breakfast meals were selected as fibre rich foods with low (0.042 Pa s) and high (0.266 Pa s) viscosity, respectively. Although wheat meal had a lower viscosity compared to oatmeal, the gastric emptying was found to be delayed for the former due to its high caloric density. This was reflected in the glycemic response as well, with wheat meal having a lower area under the curve (AUC) value than oatmeal. The antral contraction frequency is significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with delayed gastric emptying in the case of high nutrient wheat meal. Overall, the study demonstrated the synergistic effect of gastric emptying, stomach motor functions and physicochemical characteristics of food on the glycemic response to a meal. This information will aid in the development of functional foods with specific end applications.

  5. Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food.

    PubMed Central

    Benini, L; Castellani, G; Brighenti, F; Heaton, K W; Brentegani, M T; Casiraghi, M C; Sembenini, C; Pellegrini, N; Fioretta, A; Minniti, G

    1995-01-01

    Exogenous fibre added to liquid meals delays gastric emptying. Its effect on solid meals is uncertain, and nothing is known of the effect on gastric emptying of fibre naturally present in food. This study therefore looked at gastric emptying of two different solid meals in eight healthy subjects and their blood glucose responses. The meals were exactly equivalent except for the total dietary fibre content (high fibre 20 g, low fibre 4 g of dietary fibre per 1000 kcal) and supplied 870 kcal (700 kcal women), 47% of which was from carbohydrates, 36% from fats, and 17% from proteins. Ultrasonography was used to measure antral diameters before the meal (basal), immediately after it (time 0), and at 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes. In addition, subjects filled in a questionnaire on their feelings of hunger, epigastric fullness, and satiety before the meal and at hourly intervals after it. Basal and maximal postprandial antral sections were similar for the two meals (basal section: 283.9 (29.5) v 340.9 (44.7) mm2 for the low and the high fibre meal, NS; maximal postprandial section: 1726 (101.9) v 1593 (120.4) mm2, NS). Total gastric emptying time was significantly reduced by fibre removal (186.0 (15.6) v 231.7 (17.3) minutes after the low and the high fibre meal, p < 0.05). Blood glucose was higher after the low fibre meal, and the area under the glycaemic curve significantly greater (226 (23.1) v 160 (20.0) mmol/min/dl-1, p < 0.05). No difference was found in satiety or fullness feelings, but hunger returned more rapidly after the low fibre meal. In conclusion, fibre naturally present in food delays gastric emptying of a solid meal, reduces the glycaemic response, and delays the return of hunger. PMID:7615267

  6. Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of right atrial emptying volume: a noninvasive index in quantifying the degree of tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S; Kimbiris, D; Kalman, P

    1983-09-01

    Contrast echocardiography and inferior vena cava ultrasonography are useful techniques in diagnosing tricuspid regurgitation (TR) but are not helpful in estimating the severity. Using a computerized light-pen method for tracing the right atrial (RA) border during systole and diastole in the apical 4-chamber view, single-plane volume determinations were calculated in 10 normal subjects (Group I), 18 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and no TR (Group II), 14 patients with mitral stenosis and mild TR (Group IIIa), and 8 patients with mitral stenosis and severe TR (Group IIIb). TR was quantitated as absent, mild or severe by contrast right ventriculography. The RA end-systolic volume was 36.4 +/- 13.1 ml in Group I patients, 59.1 +/- 16.8 ml in Group II patients, 76.9 +/- 55.4 ml in Group IIIa patients, and 154.6 +/- 57.3 ml in Group IIIb patients (all Groups versus Group I, p less than 0.001). The mean RA emptying volume, which equals RA end-systolic volume--RA end-diastolic volume, was 15.3 +/- 5.0 for Group I, 17.7 +/- 3.0 for Group II, 30.4 +/- 8.0 for Group IIIa, and 71.6 +/- 25.4 for Group IIIb. All 8 patients with severe TR but none of the 14 patients with mild TR had an RA emptying volume greater than 40 ml (p less than 0.001). In addition, all 28 patients in Groups I and II but only 4 of 14 patients in Group III had an RA emptying volume less than 26 ml (p less than 0.01). The mean RA pressure measured at cardiac catheterization correlated with RA emptying volume (r = 0.71, p less than 0.001). Thus, RA emptying volume is useful for separating severe TR from mild TR in patients with mitral stenosis.

  7. The effect of short-term dietary supplementation with glucose on gastric emptying of glucose and fructose and oral glucose tolerance in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M; Cunningham, K M; Wishart, J M; Jones, K L; Read, N W

    1996-04-01

    Recent observations indicate that gastric emptying may be influenced by patterns of previous nutrient intake. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of a high glucose diet on gastric emptying of glucose and fructose, and the impact of any changes in gastric emptying on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in response to glucose and fructose loads. Gastric emptying of glucose and fructose (both 75 g dissolved in 350 ml water) were measured in seven normal volunteers on separate days while each was on a "standard' diet and an identical diet supplemented with 440 g/day of glucose for 4-7 days. Venous blood samples for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels were taken immediately before and for 180 min after ingestion of glucose and fructose loads. Dietary glucose supplementation accelerated gastric emptying of glucose (50% emptying time 82 +/- 8 vs 106 +/- 10 min, p = 0.004) and fructose (73 +/- 9 vs 106 +/- 9 min, p = 0.001). After ingestion of glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin (p < 0.05) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (p < 0.05) were higher during the glucose-supplemented diet. In contrast, plasma glucose concentrations at 60 min and 75 min were lower (p < 0.05) on the glucose-supplemented diet. We conclude that short-term supplementation of the diet with glucose accelerates gastric emptying of glucose and fructose, presumably as a result of reduced feedback inhibition of gastric emptying from small intestinal luminal receptors. More rapid gastric emptying of glucose has a significant impact on glucose tolerance.

  8. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties of empty fruit bunch and rice husk biochars.

    PubMed

    Claoston, N; Samsuri, A W; Ahmad Husni, M H; Mohd Amran, M S

    2014-04-01

    Biochar has received great attention recently due to its potential to improve soil fertility and immobilize contaminants as well as serving as a way of carbon sequestration and therefore a possible carbon sink. In this work, a series of biochars were produced from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and rice husk (RH) by slow pyrolysis at different temperatures (350, 500, and 650°C) and their physicochemical properties were analysed. The results indicate that porosity, ash content, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH value of both EFB and RH biochars were increased with temperature; however, yield, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and H, C, and N content were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The Fourier transform IR spectra were similar for both RH and EFB biochars but the functional groups were more distinct in the EFB biochar spectra. There were reductions in the amount of functional groups as pyrolysis temperature increased especially for the EFB biochar. However, total acidity of the functional groups increased with pyrolysis temperature for both biochars.

  9. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother’s liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor’s biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor. PMID:20677347

  10. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-08-07

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor's biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor.

  11. Role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiber, Antonio; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    We examine the role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids. The charges on the protein subunits that make the viral capsid mutually interact and are expected to yield electrostatic repulsion acting against the assembly of capsids. Thus, attractive protein-protein interactions of nonelectrostatic origin must act to enable the capsid formation. We investigate whether the interplay of repulsive electrostatic and attractive interactions between the protein subunits can result in the formation of spherical viral capsids of a preferred radius. For this to be the case, we find that the attractive interactions must depend on the angle between the neighboring protein subunits (i.e., on the mean curvature of the viral capsid) so that a particular angle(s) is (are) preferred energywise. Our results for the electrostatic contributions to energetics of viral capsids nicely correlate with recent experimental determinations of the energetics of protein-protein contacts in the hepatitis B virus [P. Ceres A. Zlotnick, Biochemistry 41, 11525 (2002)].

  12. Nanoporous separators for supercapacitor using activated carbon monolith electrode from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Nor, N. S. M. Deraman, M. Omar, R. Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.

    2014-02-24

    Activated porous carbon electrode prepared from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches was used for preparing the carbon based supercapacitor cells. The symmetrical supercapacitor cells were fabricated using carbon electrodes, stainless steel current collector, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, and three types of nanoporous separators. Cells A, B and C were fabricated using polypropylene, eggshell membrane, and filter paper, respectively. Electrochemical characterizations data from Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, and Galvanic Charge Discharge techniques showed that specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy for cell A were 122 F g{sup −1}, 177 W kg{sup −1}, 3.42 Wh kg{sup −1}, cell B; 125 F g{sup −1}, 179 W kg{sup −1}, and 3.64 Wh kg{sup −1}, and cell C; 180 F g{sup −1}, 178 W kg{sup −1}, 4.27 Wh kg{sup −1}. All the micrographs from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that the different in nanoporous structure of the separators lead to a significant different in influencing the values of specific capacitance, power and energy of supercapacitors, which is associated with the mobility of ion into the pore network. These results indicated that the filter paper was superior than the eggshell membrane and polypropylene nanoporous separators. However, we found that in terms of acidic resistance, polypropylene was the best nanoporous separator for acidic medium.

  13. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Microcrystalline (MCC) from Fiber of Empty Fruit Bunch Palm Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, H.; Yurnaliza; Veronicha; Irmadani; Sitompul, S.

    2017-03-01

    Alpha cellulose which was isolated from cellulose of fiber empty fruit bunch palm oil was hidrolized with hydrochloric acid (2,5N) at 80°C to produce microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Microcrystalline cellulose is an important additional ingredient in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, and structural composites. In this study, MCC, alpha cellulose, and cellulose were characterized and thereafter were compared. Characterizations were made using some equipment such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy were studied to determine crystallinity and molecular structure of MCC, where scanning electron microscopy images were conducted for information about morfology of MCC. Meanwhile, thermal resistance of MCC was determined using thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). From XRD and FTIR, the obtained results showed that the crystalline part was traced on MCC, where the –OH and C-O groups tended to reduced as alpha cellulose has changed to MCC. From SEM the image showed the reduction of particle size of MCC, while the thermal resistance of MCC was found lower as compared with cellulose and alpha cellulose as well, which was attributed to the lower molecular weight of MCC.

  15. Emptying patterns of the lung studied by multiple-breath N2 washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the nitrogen concentration seen during the single-breath nitrogen washout reflect changes in relative flow (ventilation) from units with differing ventilation/volume ratios. The multiple-breath washout provides sufficient data on ventilation for units with varying ventilation/volume ratios to be plotted as a function of the volume expired. Flow from the dead space may also be determined. In young normals the emptying patterns are narrow and unimodal throughout the alveolar plateau with little or no flow from the dead space at the end of the breath. Older normals show more flow from the dead space, particularly toward the end of the breath, and some show a high ventilation/volume ratio mode early in the breath. Patients with obstructive lung disease have a high flow from the dead space which is present throughout the breath. A well ventilated mode at the end of the breath is seen in some obstructed subjects. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed a poorly ventilated mode appearing at the end of the breath as well as a very high dead space.

  16. Production of cellulose phosphate from oil palm empty fruit bunch: Effect of chemical ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohaizu, R.; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose phosphate was synthesized from oil palm biomass residue that has the potential to represent a considerable added value product for the oil palm biomass utilization. Cellulose phosphate (CP) is prepared viaa phosphorylation process using the H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4/hexanol sequence using oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) as the starting material. Various factors affect its synthesis; one of them which is the subject of this investigation is the orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) to triethylphosphate(Et3PO4) ratio which have the capability to increase the phosphorus content of CP. It is believed that during this reaction, the esterification of the free hydroxyl groups of the cellulose occurred. The H3PO4/Et3PO4 ratios applied were 0.16, 1.00, and 1.84. The effect of the H3PO4/Et3PO4 ratio on phosphorus content, yield, water swelling and molecular structure of CP are discussed.

  17. Pretreatment of aqueous ammonia on oil palm empty fruit fiber (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkiple, Nursyafiqah; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) is an agricultural residue that has the potential to become a good source for renewable feedstock for production of sugar. This work evaluated the effectiveness of aqueous ammonia as pretreatment at low (soaking, SAA) and elevated temperature (pressurized chamber) to deconstruct the lignocellulosic feedstock, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The ammonia pretreatments were compared against the standard NaOH method. The best tested pressurized chamber method conditions were at 100°C with 3 hour retention time, 12.5% ammonium hydroxide and 1:30 solid loading. The digestibility of the feedstock is determined with enzymatic hydrolysis using Cellic Ctech2 and Cellic Htech2. The sugars produced by pressurized chamber method within 24 hour of enzyme hydrolysis are similar to that produced by NaOH method which is 439.90 mg/ml and 351.61 mg/ml, respectively. Compared with optimum SAA method (24 hour, 6.25% of ammonium hydroxide at room temperature), pressurized chamber method was capable of producing enhanced delignification and higher production of sugar upon hydrolysis. These findings were supported by the disappearance peak at 1732, 1512 and 1243 on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectrum) of treated OPEFB by pressurized chamber method. XRD determination showed reduced crystallinity of OPEFB (37.23%) after treatment by pressurized chamber, suggesting higher accessibility toward enzyme hydrolysis. The data obtained suggest that the pressurized chamber pre-treatment method are suitable for OPEFB deconstruction to produce high yield of sugar.

  18. Alkaline peroxide pulping of oil palm empty fruit bunch by variation of chemical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermawan, Yunita Megasari; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    Papers produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) via Alkaline Peroxide Pulping (APP) was preceded by three main steps; dewaxing of EFB, alkaline peroxide (AP) impregnation into EFB and refining of biomass to generate pulp. The experiment was carried by varying chemical level and number of impregnation stages. For 2:2.5% AP level, two-stage impregnation improved hand sheets tear index by 45%, 164% boost in tensile index, 26% enhancement in zero span index and more than 5% in burst index. By applying 8:10% AP level, significant improvements were gained at the third and fourth stages of AP impregnation. Although there was no significant change in hand sheet strength with multiple impregnation for 4:5% AP level, improvement in brightness of hand sheets was apparent, analogous to the effect of increasing AP level. The found paper properties development show that alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB could be adapted to various targeted properties by adjustment of AP level and impregnation stages.

  19. Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-12-17

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  20. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Perkel, M.S.; Fajman, W.A.; Hersh, T.

    1981-09-01

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T 1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T 1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T 1/2 (r = 0.076) or the GC6 (r = 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P < .01), the T 1/2 (P < .01), and the GC6 (P < .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug.

  1. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Perkel, M.S.; Fajman, W.A.; Hersh, T.; Moore, C.; Davidson, E.D.; Haun, C.

    1981-09-01

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T1/2 (r . 0.076) or the GC6 (r. 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P less than .01), the T1/2 (P less than .01), and the GC6 (P less than .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug.

  2. Effects of electroacupuncture on recent stroke inpatients with incomplete bladder emptying: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Chien-Lin; Hung, Chun-Chuang; Chou, Eric Chieh-Lung; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Li, Te-Mao; Chou, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Incomplete bladder emptying (IBE) is defined as having a postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume greater than 100 mL for 2 consecutive days. IBE is common in stroke patients and could necessitate indwelling or intermittent catheterization. The condition is correlated with urinary tract infections, which could impede rehabilitation progress and increase medical costs. Treatment for patients with IBE includes bladder retraining, biofeedback, medication, and botulinum toxin injection, but none of these interventions are completely effective. Methods All patients with acute stroke who were admitted to the rehabilitation ward between August 2010 and April 2011 were included in the study and their PVR urine volume was checked. Electroacupuncture (EA; 1 Hz, 15 minutes) was performed on the acupoints Sanyinjiao (SP6), Ciliao (BL32), and Pangguangshu (BL28) of stroke patients with IBE for a total of ten treatments (five times a week for 2 weeks). Bladder diaries, which included the spontaneous voiding and PVR urine volumes, were recorded during the course of treatment. Results The presence of IBE was not related to sex, history of diabetes mellitus, stroke type (hemorrhagic or ischemic), or stroke location (P > 0.05). Among the 49 patients in the study, nine (18%) had IBE, and seven of the stroke patients with IBE were treated with EA. Increased spontaneous voiding volume and decreased PVR urine volume were noted after ten sessions of EA. Conclusion EA may have beneficial effects on stroke survivors with IBE, thereby making it a potential safe modality with which to improve urinary function. PMID:23152677

  3. Discrimination of two neighboring intra- and intermodal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Hasuo, Emi; Labonté, Katherine; Laflamme, Vincent; Grondin, Simon

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the discrimination of two neighboring intra- or inter-modal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli. Each of the three markers was a flash (visual-V) or a sound (auditory-A). The first and last markers were of the same modality, while the second one was either A or V, resulting in four conditions: VVV, VAV, AVA and AAA. Participants judged whether the second interval, whose duration was systematically varied, was shorter or longer than the 500-ms first interval. Compared with VVV and AAA, discrimination was impaired with VAV, but not so much with AVA (in Experiment 1). Whereas VAV and AVA consisted of the same set of single intermodal intervals (VA and AV), discrimination was impaired in the VAV compared to the AVA condition. This difference between VAV and AVA could not be attributed to the participants' strategy to perform the discrimination task, e.g., ignoring the standard interval or replacing the visual stimuli with sounds in their mind (in Experiment 2). These results are discussed in terms of sequential grouping according to sensory similarity.

  4. Optimization studies on acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber for production of xylose.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S H A; Choudhury, J P; Ahmad, A L; Kamaruddin, A H

    2007-02-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber is a lignocellulosic waste from palm oil mills. It is a potential source of xylose which can be used as a raw material for production of xylitol, a high value product. The increasing interest on use of lignocellulosic waste for bioconversion to fuels and chemicals is justifiable as these materials are low cost, renewable and widespread sources of sugars. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of H(2)SO(4) concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time for production of xylose. Batch reactions were carried out under various reaction temperature, reaction time and acid concentrations and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was followed to optimize the hydrolysis process in order to obtain high xylose yield. The optimum reaction temperature, reaction time and acid concentration found were 119 degrees C, 60 min and 2%, respectively. Under these conditions xylose yield and selectivity were found to be 91.27% and 17.97 g/g, respectively.

  5. Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch in a bubbling fluidized bed: a performance and agglomeration study.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin

    2011-01-01

    Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was investigated in a pilot-scale air-blown fluidized bed. The effect of bed temperature (650-1050 °C) on gasification performance was studied. To explore the potential of EFB, the gasification results were compared to that of sawdust. Results showed that maximum heating values (HHV) of 5.37 and 5.88 (MJ/Nm3), dry gas yield of 2.04 and 2.0 (Nm3/kg), carbon conversion of 93% and 85 % and cold gas efficiency of 72% and 71 % were obtained for EFB and sawdust at the temperature of 1050 °C and ER of 0.25. However, it was realized that agglomeration was the major issue in EFB gasification at high temperatures. To prevent the bed agglomeration, EFB gasification was performed at temperature of 770±20 °C while the ER was varied from 0.17 to 0.32. Maximum HHV of 4.53 was obtained at ER of 0.21 where no agglomeration was observed.

  6. Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

    2013-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4.

  7. Commercial cellulases and hemicellulase performance towards oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Fattah, S. S.; Mohamed, R.; Jahim, J. M.; Illias, R. M.; Abu Bakar, F. D.; Murad, A. M. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, commercial cellulases and hemicellulases were evaluated for their hydrolytic activity towards pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB). A total of three commercial cellulase preparations, Novozyme Celluclast®, Novozyme Cellic®Ctec, Dupont Accellerase®1500, and a commercial hemicellulase preparation, Novozyme Cellic®Htec, were evaluated. The assays were performed either using the cellulase alone or cellulase in combination with the hemicellulase, formulated at different enzyme activity ratios. Among the three cellulases, the Novozyme Cellic®Ctec yielded the highest reducing sugars, whereby 32.9% hydrolysis yield of OPEFB was achieved. The addition of the commercial hemicellulase to Celluclast® and Accellerase®1500 enhanced OPEFB hydrolysis. However, the addition of the hemicellulase to Cellic®Ctec, failed to enhance the production of the reducing sugars. Nevertheless, the amount of reducing sugars produced using Cellic®Ctec alone was the highest when compared to other enzyme combinations. It can be concluded that among the three commercial cellulases evaluated, the Novozyme Cellic®Ctec is the best enzyme for OPEFB hydrolysis.

  8. Hydrothermal pre-treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch into fermentable sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhd Ali, M. D.; Tamunaidu, P.; Nor Aslan, A. K. H.; Morad, N. A.; Sugiura, N.; Goto, M.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Presently oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is one of the solid waste which is produced daily whereby it is usually left at plantation site to act as organic fertilizer for the plants to ensure the sustainability of fresh fruit bunch. The major drawback in biomass conversion technology is the difficulty of degrading the material in a short period of time. A pre-treatment step is required to break the lignocellulosic biomass to easily accessible carbon sources for further use in the production of fuels and fine chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment under different reaction temperatures (100 - 250°C), reaction time (10 - 40 min), solid to solvent ratio of (1:10 - 1:20 w/v) and particle size (0.15 - 1.00 mm) on the solubilization of OPEFB to produce soluble fermentable sugars. The maximum soluble sugars of 68.18 mg glucose per gram of OPEFB were achieved at 175°C of reaction temperature, 20 min of reaction time, 1:15 w/v of solid to solvent ratio for 30 mm of particle size. Results suggest that reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of solid to solvent ratio and size of the particle are crucial parameters for hydrothermal pretreatment, in achieving a high yield of soluble fermentable sugars.

  9. Crystal Structure and Proteomics Analysis of Empty Virus-like Particles of Cowpea Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nhung T; Hesketh, Emma L; Saxena, Pooja; Meshcheriakova, Yulia; Ku, You-Chan; Hoang, Linh T; Johnson, John E; Ranson, Neil A; Lomonossoff, George P; Reddy, Vijay S

    2016-04-05

    Empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) are currently being utilized as reagents in various biomedical and nanotechnology applications. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMV eVLPs determined using X-ray crystallography at 2.3 Å resolution and compare it with previously reported cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of eVLPs and virion crystal structures. Although the X-ray and cryo-EM structures of eVLPs are mostly similar, there exist significant differences at the C terminus of the small (S) subunit. The intact C terminus of the S subunit plays a critical role in enabling the efficient assembly of CPMV virions and eVLPs, but undergoes proteolysis after particle formation. In addition, we report the results of mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of coat protein subunits from CPMV eVLPs and virions that identify the C termini of S subunits undergo proteolytic cleavages at multiple sites instead of a single cleavage site as previously observed.

  10. Aerodynamic Improvements of an Empty Timber Truck can Have the Potential of Significantly Reducing Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Marashi, Seyedeh Sepideh; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, aerodynamic drag (AD) has been estimated for an empty and a fully loaded conceptual timber truck (TT) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The increasing fuel prices have challenged heavy duty vehicle (HDV) manufactures to strive for better fuel economy, by e.g. utilizing drag reducing external devices. Despite this knowledge, the TT fleets seem to be left in the dark. Like HDV aerodynamics, similarities can be observed as a large low pressure wake is formed behind the tractor (unloaded) and downstream of the trailer (full load) thus generating AD. As TTs travel half the time without any cargo, focus on drag reduction is important. The full scaled TTs where simulated using the realizable k-epsilon model with grid adaption techniques for mesh independence. Our results indicate that a loaded TT reduces the AD significantly as both wake size and turbulence kinetic energy are lowered. In contrast to HDV the unloaded TTs have a much larger design space available for possible drag reducing devices, e.g. plastic wrapping and/or flaps. This conceptual CFD study has given an indication of the large AD difference between the unloaded and fully loaded TT, showing the potential for significant AD improvements.

  11. Soda-anthraquinone pulping of palm oil empty fruit bunches and beating of the resulting pulp.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, L; Serrano, L; Rodríguez, A; Sánchez, R

    2009-02-01

    The influence of soda-anthraquinone pulping variables (temperature, time and soda concentration) and beating (number of PFI beating revolution) of palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) on the resulting paper sheets was studied, with a view to identifying the optimum operating conditions. Equations were derived that reproduced the properties of the paper sheets with errors less than 10-12% in 90-95% of cases. An optimum compromise was found as regards operating conditions (15% soda, 170 degrees C, 70 min and 2400 number of PFI beating revolutions) that provided paper properties departing by less than 12% from their optimum values (59.63 Nm/g tensile index, 4.48% stretch, 4.17 kN/g burst index and 7.20 m Nm(2)/g tear index), and a beating grade of 47.5 degrees SR, acceptable to obtain paper sheets. Because these conditions involve a lower soda, temperature, time and beating than those required to maximize the studied paper properties, they can save chemical reagents, energy and immobilized capital for industrial facilities. On the other hand, the stretch properties of these pulp beaten are higher than those of others non-wood pulps, as wheat straw and olive wood.

  12. Transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophage populations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, Munmun; Golbar, Hossain M.; Bondoc, Alexandra; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes have been used as a vehicle for encapsulating chemicals or toxins in toxicological studies. We investigated the transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophages by applying a single intravenous injection at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight in 6-week-old male F344 rats. One day after injection, the numbers of hepatic macrophages reacting to CD163, CD68, Iba-1, MHC class II, Gal-3 and CD204 were significantly increased in liposome-treated rats. CD163+ Kupffer cells and CD68+ macrophages with increased phagocytic activity in hepatic lobules were most sensitive. The histological architecture of the liver was not changed following liposome injection; however, hepatocytes showed increased proliferating activity, demonstrable with proliferation marker immunostaining and by an increase in gene profiles related to the cell cycle. In the liposome-treated rats, interestingly, AST and ALT values were significantly decreased, and MCP-1, IL-1β and TGF-β1 mRNAs were significantly increased. Collectively, the present study found that hepatic macrophages activated by liposomes can influence liver homeostasis. This information would be useful for background studies on liposomes. PMID:27182120

  13. Production of cellulase enzymes during the solid-state fermentation of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    Penicillium verruculosum COKE4E is a fungal strain isolated from bituminous coal. The microorganism cultivated in a minimal medium supplemented with Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, and oat spelt xylan produced cellulase enzymes as exhibiting carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), Avicelase, xylanase, and cellobiosidase activities. In this study, the productivity of the extracellular enzymes in the strain was evaluated by using empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a lignocellulosic biomass, as a substrate for solid-state bioconversion. The highest cellulase activities were observed after 6 days of fermentation at pH 6.0 and 30 °C. The enzymes were secreted as cellulosomes for the degradation of EPFBF as a sole carbon source. Focused ion beam analysis showed that P. verruculosum COKE4E produced cellulolytic enzymes that were able to effectively biodegrade EPFBF during solid-state fermentation. In this process, 6.5 U of CMCase, 6.8 U of Avicelase, and 8.8 U of xylanase per gram of dry solid EPFBF were produced. These results demonstrate that EPFBF may be a potential raw material in solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulase enzymes to be used for biofuel production.

  14. Thermal Analysis for Improving Fuel Characteristics of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. S.; Horst, K.; Ariffin, M. A. Md.

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture waste is well known with low melting ashes. This is due to the large quantities of alkali metals are required as nutrients. Potassium is the one of the alkali metal that contributes to the low melting ash of empty fruit bunch biomass fuel. Thermal analysis was conducted in order to determine the increasing of ash fusion temperature of EFB fiber. Ash fusion temperature has four type of shape which is initial deformation, softening temperature, hemispherical temperature and fluidization temperature. EFB fiber has melting temperature 1061°C in average. To solve low melting ashes, Ca(OH)2 was added with EFB fiber in order to increase the ash melting point. 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by dry weight was added to EFB fiber. From the experiment by adding 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of Ca(OH)2, the melting temperature was increase to 1114°C, 1239°C, 1277 °C and 1315 °C respectively. As conclusion this lab scale thermal analysis test was conducted in order to allow the determination of additive percentage for larger scale in order to adapt with biomass gasifiers.

  15. Production of bacterial endoglucanase from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by bacillus pumilus EB3.

    PubMed

    Ariffin, Hidayah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2008-09-01

    In this study, endoglucanase was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by a locally isolated aerobic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus EB3. The effects of the fermentation parameters such as initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source on the endoglucanase production were studied using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the carbon source. Endoglucanase from B. pumilus EB3 was maximally secreted at 37 degrees C, initial pH 7.0 with 10 g/l of CMC as carbon source, and 2 g/l of yeast extract as organic nitrogen source. The activity recorded during the fermentation was 0.076 U/ml. The productivity of the enzyme increased twofold when 2 g/l of yeast extract was used as the organic nitrogen supplement as compared to the non-supplemented medium. An interesting finding from this study is that pretreated OPEFB medium showed comparable results to CMC medium in terms of enzyme production with an activity of 0.063 U/ml. As OPEFB is an abundant solid waste at palm oil mills, it has the potential of acting as a substrate in cellulase production.

  16. Kinetic study of empty fruit bunch using hot liquid water and dilute acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Seok; Choi, Won Il; Kang, Minsu; Park, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2012-07-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB), a residual product of the palm plantation, is an attractive biomass for biorefinery. As xylan is susceptible to high temperature pretreatment, it is important to setup a proper pretreatment condition to maximize the sugar recovery from EFB. Kinetic parameters of mathematical models were obtained in order to predict the concentration of xylose, glucose, furfural, and acetic acid in the hydrolysate and to find production conditions of xylose. We investigated the kinetics of hot liquid water and dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis over a 40-min period using a self-designed setup by measuring the concentrations of released sugars (xylose, glucose) and degradation products (acetic acid and furfural). The reaction was performed within the range 160∼180 °C, under reaction conditions of various concentration of sulfuric acid (0.1∼0.2%) and 1:7 solid-liquid ratio in a batch reactor. The kinetic constants can be expressed by the Arrhenius equation with the activation energy for the hydrolysis of sugar and decomposition of sugar. The activation energy of xylose was determined to be 136.2187 kJ mol(-1).

  17. Biobutanediol-mediated liquefaction of empty fruit bunch saccharification residues to prepare lignin biopolyols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2016-05-01

    Saccharification residue from empty fruit bunch (EFB) was liquefied with bio-butanediol to produce lignin biopolyols for the preparation of biopolyurethane. To substitute petroleum-derived polyhydric alcohols, butanediol isomers (1,4-butanediol, levo-2,3-bio-butanediol, and meso-2,3-bio-butanediol) or PEG#400-blended butanediol isomers were used as liquefaction solvents in the presence of sulfuric acid catalyst. Lignin biopolyols with a conversion of 63.3%, a hydroxyl number of 582.7 mg KOH/g and an acid number of 21.7 mg KOH/g were obtained under the optimal condition consisting of 25% biomass loading, 3% acid loading, and a temperature of 150°C for 120 min when liquefied with 1,4-butanediol/PEG#400 blended solvent (9/1, w/w). When the levo-2,3-bio-butanediol solvent was used in the absence of PEG#400, the highest conversion, 68.9%, was obtained. Lignin biopolyol-based biopolyurethanes were synthesized with toluene diisocyanate. FT-IR analysis revealed that EFB lignin biopolyols liquefied with bio-butanediols were suitable monomers for the preparation of biopolyurethane.

  18. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to examine airflow characteristics in Empty Nose Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Tim; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Thamboo, Andrew; Velasquez, Nathalia; Nayak, Jayakar V.; Sellier, Mathieu; Moin, Parviz

    2016-11-01

    The enigmatic disorder, empty nose syndrome (ENS), presents with a complex subjective symptom profile despite objectively patent nasal airways, and recent reports suggest that surgical augmentation of the nasal airway can improve quality of life and ENS-related complaints. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed both prior to, and following, inferior turbinate augmentation to model the resultant changes in airflow patterns and better understand the pathophysiology of ENS. An ENS patient with marked reduction in ENS symptoms following turbinate augmentation was identified, and pre- and post-operative CT imaging was collected. A Finite element framework with the variational multiscale method (Esmaily-Moghadam, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 2015) was used to compute the airflow, temperature, and moisture transport through the nasal cavity. Comparison of the CFD results following corrective surgery showed higher levels of airflow turbulence. Augmentation produced 50%, 25%, and 25% increases in root mean square pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux respectively. These results provide insight into the changes in nasal airflow characteristics attainable through surgical augmentation, and by extension, how nasal airflow patterns may be distorted in the 'overly patent' airway of ENS patients. Supported by Stanford University CTR and Fulbright New Zealand.

  19. Acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal fractionation of empty fruit bunches for high hemicellulosic sugar recovery with low byproducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Um, Byung Hwan; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2015-07-01

    Xylose, mannose, and galactose (xmg) recovery from empty fruit bunches using acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal (AAH) fractionation method was investigated. Acetic acid has been demonstrated to be effective in xmg recovery in comparison with the liquid hot-water (LHW) fractionation. The maximum xmg recovery yield (50.7 %) from the empty fruit bunch (EFB) was obtained using AAH fractionation at optimum conditions (6.9 wt.% acetic acid at 170 °C and for 18 min); whereas, only 16.2 % of xmg recovery was obtained from the LHW fractionation at the same reaction conditions (170 °C and 18 min). Releasing out the glucose from EFB was kept at low level (<1.0 %) through all tested conditions and consequently negligible 5-HMF and formic acid were analyzed in the hydrolyzate. The production of furfural was also resulted with extremely low level (1.0 g/L).

  20. [Gallbladder emptying evaluation in chronic calcifying pancreatitis, by means of a scintilographic study with Tc-99m DISIDA].

    PubMed

    Pedroso, M R; Cunha, R M; Guarita, D R; Buchpieguel, C A; Mott, C B; Laudanna, A T

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the gallbladder motor function in chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients. Gallbladder emptying was evaluated in 11 patients, without and with addition of pancreatic extract and in ten controls. The results were compared and analyzed statistically. The ejection fraction (EF) of the gallbladder (GB) at 30, 45 and 60 minutes were calculated by using Tc-99m DISIDA scintigraphy. The EF of GB at 60 minutes was significantly higher in the controls when compared to patients, although the results between patients were similar without and with addition of pancreatic extract. The results suggest that the delay in the GB emptying does not depend on the eventual alteration in the intestinal phase of the vesicular stimulation, but it probably results from a mechanic factor, which depends on the chronic pathological process located in the head of the pancreas.

  1. Double unification of particles with fields and electricity with gravity in non-empty space of continuous complex energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyzhenkov, Igor E.

    2016-11-01

    Non-empty space reading of Maxwell equations as local energy identities explains why a Coulomb field is carried rigidly by electrons in experiments. The analytical solution of the Poisson equation defines the sharp radial shape of charged elementary densities which are proportional to continuous densities of electric self-energy. Both Coulomb field and radial charge densities are free from energy divergences. Non-empty space of electrically charged mass-energy can be described by complex analytical densities resulting in real values for volume mass integrals and in imaginary values for volume charge integrals. Imaginary electric charges in the Newton gravitational law comply with real Coulomb forces. Unification of forces through complex charges rids them of radiation self-acceleration. Strong gravitational fields repeal probe bodies that might explainthe accelerated expansion of the dense Metagalaxy. Outward and inward spherical waves form the standing wave process within the radial carrier of complex energy.

  2. Roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall bladder stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Veysey, M J; Kennedy, C; Jenkins, P; Murphy, G M; Wass, J A; Dowling, R H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Octreotide treatment of acromegalic patients increases the % deoxycholic acid conjugates and the cholesterol saturation of gall bladder bile, and induces gall stone formation. AIMS--To study the roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in these phenomena. METHODS AND PATIENTS--Gall bladder emptying and mouth to caecum transit was measured in (a) control subjects and acromegalic patients given saline or 50 micrograms of octreotide, and (b) acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide. In the second group, large bowel transit was also measured. RESULTS--A single dose of octreotide inhibited meal stimulated gall bladder emptying, the ejection fraction falling from mean (SEM) 66.0 (2.3)% to 7.0 (5.3)% in controls (p < 0.001); from 72.5 (2.1) to 16.6 (5.1)% in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 30.4 (9.5)% in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic group). Octreotide prolonged mouth to caecum transit time, from 112 (15) min to 237 (13) min in controls (p < 0.001), from 170 (13) min to 282 (11) min in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 247 (10) min in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic patients). The mean large bowel transit in octreotide untreated compared with treated acromegalic patients remained unchanged (40 (6) h v 47 (6) h). CONCLUSIONS--Prolongation of intestinal transit and impaired gall bladder emptying may contribute to lithogenic changes in bile composition and gall stone formation in patients receiving long term octreotide. PMID:8707128

  3. Filled and empty states of Zn-TPP films deposited on Fe(001)-p(1×1)O

    PubMed Central

    Calloni, Alberto; Yivlialin, Rossella; Picone, Andrea; Bottegoni, Federico; Finazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Zn-tetraphenylporphyrin (Zn-TPP) was deposited on a single layer of metal oxide, namely an Fe(001)-p(1×1)O surface. The filled and empty electronic states were measured by means of UV photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy on a single monolayer and a 20 monolayer thick film. The ionization energy and the electron affinity of the organic film were deduced and the interface dipole was determined and compared with data available in the literature. PMID:28144503

  4. X-ray structure of Triatoma virus empty capsid: insights into the mechanism of uncoating and RNA release in dicistroviruses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Eugenia, Rubén; Durana, Aritz; López-Marijuan, Ibai; Marti, Gerardo A; Guérin, Diego M A

    2016-10-01

    In viruses, uncoating and RNA release are two key steps of successfully infecting a target cell. During these steps, the capsid must undergo the necessary conformational changes to allow RNA egress. Despite their importance, these processes are poorly understood in the family Dicistroviridae. Here, we used X-ray crystallography to solve the atomic structure of a Triatoma virus(TrV) empty particle (Protein Data Bank ID 5L7O), which is the resulting capsid after RNA release. It is observed that the overall shape of the capsid and of the three individual proteins is maintained in comparison with the mature virion. Furthermore, no channels indicative of RNA release are formed in the TrV empty particle. However, the most prominent change in the empty particle when compared with the mature virion is the loss of order in the N-terminal domain of the VP2 protein. In mature virions, the VP2 N-terminal domain of one pentamer is swapped with its twofold related copy in an adjacent pentamer, thereby stabilizing the binding between the pentamers. The loss of these interactions allows us to propose that RNA release may take place through transient flipping-out of pentameric subunits. The lower number of stabilizing interactions between the pentamers and the lack of formation of new holes support this model. This model differs from the currently accepted model for rhinoviruses and enteroviruses, in which genome externalization occurs by extrusion of the RNA through capsid channels.

  5. KDR-5169, a new gastrointestinal prokinetic agent, enhances gastric contractile and emptying activities in dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigeki; Masuda, Naoyuki; Koizumi, Takashi; Kitazawa, Makio; Nakane, Tokio; Miyata, Hiroshi

    2002-01-11

    KDR-5169, 4-amino-5-chloro-N-[1-(3-fluoro-4-methoxybenzyl)piperidin-4-yl]-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzamide hydrochloride dihydrate, is a new prokinetic with a dual action, i.e., stimulation of the 5-HT4 receptor and antagonism of the dopamine D2 receptor. In this study, we determined in vitro activities of KDR-5169 towards both receptors and demonstrated the effect of the compound on gastrointestinal motor activity in conscious dogs and rats. In dogs, intravenous KDR-5169 stimulated upper gastrointestinal motility in the fasting state and also eliminated the depressive effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) on this motility in the postprandial state. The effect of KDR-5169 on gastric emptying was further characterized by the use of three rat gastroparesis models (dopamine D2 receptor agonist (quinpirol)-, abdominal surgery-, or combined-situation-induced). Domperidone (a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist) was effective in the quinpirol-delay and combination-delay models, and cisapride and mosapride (5-HT4 receptor agonists) were effective in the surgery-delay model. Only KDR-5169 eliminated the delay of gastric emptying in all three models. In addition, KDR-5169 accelerated emptying to above the normal level in the combination-delay model. These results suggest that KDR-5169 would be effective in various types of gastric ileus caused by different mechanisms.

  6. Effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract on cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Ambreena; Nazir, Shahid; Khushtar, Mohammad; Mishra, Anuradha; Jahan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Asad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract against cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying, in a rat model. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups as follows: Group I or control group, Group II (cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p at day 5), Group III (N. sativa L. 250 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5), Group IV (N. sativa L. 500 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5) and Group V (ondansetron 3 mg/kg/day, per os + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5). Phenol red meal was adopted to estimate gastric emptying in different groups of the rats. Gastric emptying was significantly increased (p < 0.01) in N. sativa L. seed extract-pretreated rats (Group III and Group IV) when compared to cisplatin treatment alone (Group II). However, ondansetron produced significantly (p < 0.01) better reversal than N. sativa L. seed extract.

  7. Characterization of the potential impact of retention tank emptying on wastewater primary treatment: a new element for CSO management.

    PubMed

    Maruejouls, T; Lessard, P; Wipliez, B; Pelletier, G; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical studies have shown that discharges from retention tanks could have a negative impact on the WWTP's (Wastewater Treatment Plant) effluent. Characterization of such discharges is necessary to better understand these impacts. This study aims at: (1) characterizing water quality during emptying of a tank; and (2) characterizing the temporal variation of settling velocities of the waters released to the WWTP. Two full-scale sampling campaigns (18 rain events) have been realized in Quebec City and laboratory analyses have shown a wide variability of total suspended solids (TSS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations in the water released from the tank. Suspended solids seem to settle quickly because they are only found in large amounts during the first 15 min of pumping to the WWTP. These solids are hypothesized to come from the pumping in which solids remained after a previous event. When these solids are evacuated, low TSS containing waters are pumped from the retention tank. A second concentration peak occurs at the end of the emptying period when the tank is cleaned with wash water. Finally, settling velocity studies allowed characterizing combined sewer wastewaters by separating three main fractions of pollutants which correspond to the beginning, middle and end of emptying. In most cases, it is noticed that particle settling velocities increase as the pollutant load increases.

  8. Decreased electrophysiological activity represents the conscious state of emptiness in meditation.

    PubMed

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stephanie; Kamei, Tsutomu; Walach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Many neuroscientific theories explain consciousness with higher order information processing corresponding to an activation of specific brain areas and processes. In contrast, most forms of meditation ask for a down-regulation of certain mental processing activities while remaining fully conscious. To identify the physiological properties of conscious states with decreased mental and cognitive processing, the electrical brain activity (64 channels of EEG) of 50 participants of various meditation proficiencies was measured during distinct and idiosyncratic meditative tasks. The tasks comprised a wakeful "thoughtless emptiness (TE)," a "focused attention," and an "open monitoring" task asking for mindful presence in the moment and in the environment without attachment to distracting thoughts. Our analysis mainly focused on 30 highly experienced meditators with at least 5 years and 1000 h of meditation experience. Spectral EEG power comparisons of the TE state with the resting state or other forms of meditation showed decreased activities in specific frequency bands. In contrast to a focused attention task the TE task showed significant central and parietal gamma decreases (p < 0.05). Compared to open monitoring TE expressed decreased alpha and beta amplitudes, mainly in parietal areas (p < 0.01). TE presented significantly less delta (p < 0.001) and theta (p < 0.05) waves than a wakeful closed eyes resting condition. A group of participants with none or little meditation practice did not present those differences significantly. Our findings indicate that a conscious state of TE reached by experienced meditators is characterized by reduced high-frequency brain processing with simultaneous reduction of the low frequencies. This suggests that such a state of meditative conscious awareness might be different from higher cognitive and mentally focused states but also from states of sleep and drowsiness.

  9. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts from oil palm empty fruit bunches ash and alum for biodiesel synthesis simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astar, Ismail; Usman, Thamrin; Wahyuni, Nelly; Rudiyansyah, Alimuddin, Andi Hairil

    2017-03-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) contained in crude palm oil (CPO) and sludge oil has been used as the base material of biodiesel with the aid of a catalyst in the transesterification and esterification reactions. This study aims to synthesize and characterize bifunctional catalysts were synthesized from the ashes of palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and alum based on the analysis of XRD, XRF and acidity test. Bifunctional catalyst obtained was used as a catalyst to production of biodiesel with different levels of FFA. The optimum ratio alum added was 0.2 mol at 3 hours of reaction time and 3% of catalyst by the FFA samples were used 67,40%. The catalyst with optimum alum mole variations subsequently used on samples with varying levels of FFA, namely 1.29%, 4.98%, 29.21%, 67.40% and 74.47%. Optimum conversion of methyl ester in the esterification reaction occurs in the sample with 67.40% FFA content, which reached 86.17%, while the conversion of methyl ester transesterification process optimum amounted to 45.70% in the samples with 4.98% FFA content. Methyl ester produced has a refractive index of 1.448 (29.8 ° C), density of 0.883 g / mL (25 °C) and a viscosity of 8.933 cSt (25 ° C). The results of GC-MS analysis showed that the main composition of methyl ester result of esterification of sludge oil methyl palmitate (36.84%), while the CPO transesterification shows the main composition of methyl ester is methyl oleic (38.87%). Based on the research results, the catalyst synthesized from alum and EFB ash can be used as a Bifunctional catalysts for biodiesel synthesis.

  10. Empty spiracles, a gap gene containing a homeobox involved in Drosophila head development.

    PubMed Central

    Walldorf, U; Gehring, W J

    1992-01-01

    The empty spiracles (ems) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is necessary for proper head formation and the development of the posterior spiracles. We have isolated a homeobox-containing gene, W13, by cross-homology using the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene (msh) as a probe. The W13 gene maps at 88A, where the ems locus has been previously localized genetically. The sequence alterations found in the W13 coding region from two mutant ems alleles show that W13 is the ems gene. A 2.4 kb RNA corresponding to the ems transcript is expressed from cellular blastoderm throughout all embryonic and larval stages. In situ hybridization to whole mount embryos reveals two domains of expression. During the cellular blastoderm stage ems is expressed in the developing head in a single anterior band. This is correlated with its possible function as an anterior gap gene that is expressed in the preantennal, antennal and intercalary segments and is required for the development of the antennal sense organ, the optic lobe and parts of the head skeleton. The early expression of the ems gene is controlled by the anterior morphogen bicoid (bcd). Using a gene fusion we identified a cis-acting element which is a target for the bcd gene product. Later during embryogenesis ems is expressed in lateral regions of each segment, where the tracheal pits form and lateral neuroblasts originate, as well as in the posterior spiracles. This late expression partially correlates with defects seen in the tracheal tree of ems embryos. In addition to a homeodomain, the N-terminal portion of the predicted protein sequence is very proline-rich, whereas the C-terminus has an acidic profile consistent with the role of the ems gene product as a transcription factor. Images PMID:1376248

  11. Delayed gastric emptying following pancreaticoduodenectomy: Incidence, risk factors, and healthcare utilization

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Somala; Van Buren II, George; McElhany, Amy; Silberfein, Eric J; Fisher, William E

    2017-01-01

    AIM To characterize incidence and risk factors for delayed gastric emptying (DGE) following pancreaticoduodenectomy and examine its implications on healthcare utilization. METHODS A prospectively-maintained database was reviewed. DGE was classified using International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery criteria. Patients who developed DGE and those who did not were compared. RESULTS Two hundred and seventy-six patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) (> 80% pylorus-preserving, antecolic-reconstruction). DGE developed in 49 patients (17.8%): 5.1% grade B, 3.6% grade C. Demographic, clinical, and operative variables were similar between patients with DGE and those without. DGE patients were more likely to present multiple complications (32.6% vs 4.4%, ≥ 3 complications, P < 0.001), including postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) (42.9% vs 18.9%, P = 0.001) and intra-abdominal abscess (IAA) (16.3% vs 4.0%, P = 0.012). Patients with DGE had longer hospital stay (median, 12 d vs 7 d, P < 0.001) and were more likely to require transitional care upon discharge (24.5% vs 6.6%, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, predictors for DGE included POPF [OR = 3.39 (1.35-8.52), P = 0.009] and IAA [OR = 1.51 (1.03-2.22), P = 0.035]. CONCLUSION Although DGE occurred in < 20% of patients after PD, it was associated with increased healthcare utilization. Patients with POPF and IAA were at risk for DGE. Anticipating DGE can help individualize care and allocate resources to high-risk patients.

  12. Optimization of NaOH-catalyzed steam pretreatment of empty fruit bunch

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empty fruit bunch (EFB) has many advantages, including its abundance, the fact that it does not require collection, and its year-round availability as a feedstock for bioethanol production. But before the significant costs incurred in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can be reduced, an efficient sugar fractionation technology has to be developed. To that end, in the present study, an NaOH-catalyzed steam pretreatment process was applied in order to produce ethanol from EFB more efficiently. Results The EFB pretreatment conditions were optimized by application of certain pretreatment variables such as, the NaOH concentrations in the soaking step and, in the steam step, the temperature and time. The optimal conditions were determined by response surface methodology (RSM) to be 3% NaOH for soaking and 160°C, 11 min 20 sec for steam pretreatment. Under these conditions, the overall glucan recovery and enzymatic digestibility were both high: the glucan and xylan yields were 93% and 78%, respectively, and the enzymatic digestibility was 88.8% for 72 h using 40 FPU/g glucan. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the maximum ethanol yield and concentration were 0.88 and 29.4 g/l respectively. Conclusions Delignification (>85%) of EFB was an important factor in enzymatic hydrolysis using CTec2. NaOH-catalyzed steam pretreatment, which can remove lignin efficiently and requires only a short reaction time, was proven to be an effective pretreatment technology for EFB. The ethanol yield obtained by SSF, the key parameter determining the economics of ethanol, was 18% (w/w), equivalent to 88% of the theoretical maximum yield, which is a better result than have been reported in the relevant previous studies. PMID:24286374

  13. Characterization of the internal surfaces of two emptied 30A UF{sub 6} storage cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Ellis, A.; Freels, D.

    1993-12-31

    Before any cylinders used for storage of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) can be decommissioned, all chemical and metallurgical changes in the cylinder walls during storage need to be known. This study was conducted to obtain initial data on changes that may have occurred in cylinders because of long-term contact with UF{sub 6}. Two 2.5-ton cylinders, emptied of UF{sub 6} and rinsed, were selected based on the extent of residual radioactivity, as judged from sweeps of a field survey meter over the outside surfaces of a batch of cylinders. A videoprobe was used to record the appearance of the internal surface of the selected cylinder. Sections of the cylinders representing various levels of residual radioactivity were cut out using a 6 in. diameter hole saw. These sections were further characterized by nuclear spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present. Pieces were cut from the sections, mounted in taper section, and metallographically examined to characterize near-surface changes, including those resulting from surface corrosion from the moisture present in the washed cylinders. X-ray diffraction was used to further identify the various phases present, both in the corroded surface layers and in the immediate subsurface areas. Samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis to examine the morphology and chemical nature of surface residues relative to the various levels of residual radioactivity measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to examine the very-near surface layers. Results from the various techniques are discussed and compared and are interpreted in terms of overall impact on decommissioning.

  14. Decreased electrophysiological activity represents the conscious state of emptiness in meditation

    PubMed Central

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stephanie; Kamei, Tsutomu; Walach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Many neuroscientific theories explain consciousness with higher order information processing corresponding to an activation of specific brain areas and processes. In contrast, most forms of meditation ask for a down-regulation of certain mental processing activities while remaining fully conscious. To identify the physiological properties of conscious states with decreased mental and cognitive processing, the electrical brain activity (64 channels of EEG) of 50 participants of various meditation proficiencies was measured during distinct and idiosyncratic meditative tasks. The tasks comprised a wakeful “thoughtless emptiness (TE),” a “focused attention,” and an “open monitoring” task asking for mindful presence in the moment and in the environment without attachment to distracting thoughts. Our analysis mainly focused on 30 highly experienced meditators with at least 5 years and 1000 h of meditation experience. Spectral EEG power comparisons of the TE state with the resting state or other forms of meditation showed decreased activities in specific frequency bands. In contrast to a focused attention task the TE task showed significant central and parietal gamma decreases (p < 0.05). Compared to open monitoring TE expressed decreased alpha and beta amplitudes, mainly in parietal areas (p < 0.01). TE presented significantly less delta (p < 0.001) and theta (p < 0.05) waves than a wakeful closed eyes resting condition. A group of participants with none or little meditation practice did not present those differences significantly. Our findings indicate that a conscious state of TE reached by experienced meditators is characterized by reduced high-frequency brain processing with simultaneous reduction of the low frequencies. This suggests that such a state of meditative conscious awareness might be different from higher cognitive and mentally focused states but also from states of sleep and drowsiness. PMID:24596562

  15. Effects of straight alkyl chain, extra hydroxylated alkyl chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric emptying evaluated using a non-invasive breath test in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Orie; Iwasawa, Kaori; Shimizu, Kimiko

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Some amino acids been known to influence gastric emptying. Thus we have evaluated the effects of straight alkyl chain, extra hydroxylated alkyl chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric emptying. Materials and Methods: Gastric emptying was evaluated in rats after feeding with Racol (nutrient formulae) containing [1-13C] acetic acid. Using a breath test, the content of 13CO2 in their expired air was measured by infrared analyzers. Rats were orally administered with test amino acids, while control rats were administered orally with distilled water. Results: The expired 13CO2 content in the expired air increased with time, peaked after about 30 min and decreased thereafter. Among the amino acids having an alkyl chain, l-serine, l-alanine and l-glycine, significantly decreased the 13CO2 content and Cmax, and delayed Tmax, suggesting inhibition and delay of gastric emptying. AUC120 min values of l-alanine and l-glycine also decreased significantly. l-Threonine significantly decreased 13CO2 content and delayed Tmax, but had no influence on Cmax and AUC120 min values, suggesting a delay of gastric emptying. l-Isoleucine and l-leucine and l-valine significantly decreased 13CO2 content, suggesting inhibition of the gastric emptying, but Cmax, Tmax and AUC120 min values were not significantly affected. Conclusion: The results show that the amino acids used in the present study had different effects on gastric emptying. Moreover, it was found that inhibition and delay of gastric emptying were clearly classifiable by analyzing the change in 13CO2 content of the expired air and the Cmax, Tmax and AUC120 min values. PMID:27169776

  16. Effects of production conditions on yield and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from rice husk and oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Saba; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Sapari, Nasiman B

    2016-09-01

    Biochar is the bio-solid material produced by pyrolysis. The biochar properties are controlled by feedstock and pyrolysis variables. In this study, the impacts of these production variables on biochar yield and physicochemical properties including pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) content, surface area, and pore volume and size were investigated. Rice husk (RH) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were used as biomass. The biochars were produced at temperature range of 300 to 700 °C, heating rate of 3 to 10 °C/min and retention time of 1 to 3 h. The pyrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) technique to maximize the values of the responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results demonstrated that the data fitted well to the linear and quadratic equations. Temperature was found to be the most effective parameter on the responses followed by retention time and heating rate, sequentially. CEC, TOC, surface area, and pore characteristics were evaluated as biochar properties determining their sorption potential. The optimum conditions for the maximum values of the properties were temperatures of 700 and 493.44 °C and time of 3 and 1 h for RH and EFB biochars, respectively. Heating rate at 3 °C/min was found to be the best rate for both biochars. The structure of EFB biomass was more sensitive to heating than rice husk. The biomass type and the production variables were demonstrated as the direct effective factors on biochar yield and physicochemical properties.

  17. Empty-nest-related psychological distress is associated with progression of brain white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dandan; Dong, Yuanli; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yingxin; Diao, Yutao; Cui, Yi; Wang, Juan; Chai, Qiang; Liu, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between empty-nest-related psychological distress and the progression of white matter lesions (WMLs) and cognitive impairment in 219 elderly subjects aged 60 years or over. Psychological distress was assessed using the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) Short-Form. Cognitive function was evaluated using the MMSE and MoCA. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. After 5.2-year follow-up, the reductions in MMSE and MoCA scores and the increases in periventricular (P)WMH, deep (D)WMH, and total WMH volumes in the empty-nest elderly were greater than those in the non-empty-nest elderly (P < 0.05). The reduced MMSE and MoCA scores and increased volumes of PWMH and total WMH in the empty-nest elderly living alone were greater than those in the empty-nest elderly living with a spouse (P < 0.05). UCLA-LS and GDS scores were significantly and independently associated with reduced MMSE and MoCA scores and the increased volumes of PWMH, DWMH, and total WMH. The results indicate that empty-nest-related psychological distress is associated with progression of WMLs and cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:28256594

  18. Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of cinnamaldehyde via altered ghrelin secretion and functional impact on food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-21

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Cinnamaldehyde via altered Ghrelin Secretion and Functional impact on Food Intake and Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25605129

  20. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in the new solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)/Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride (TBAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliza, M. Y.; Shahruddin, M.; Noormaziah, J.; Rosli, W. D. Wan

    2015-06-01

    The surplus of Oil Palm is the most galore wastes in Malaysia because it produced about half of the world palm oil production, which contributes a major disposal problem Synthesis from an empty fruit bunch produced products such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC), could apply in diverse application such as for paper coating, food packaging and most recently, the potential as biomaterials has been revealed. In this study, CMC was prepared by firstly dissolved the bleached pulp from OPEFB in mixture solution of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without any prior chemical modification. It took only 30 minutes to fully dissolve at temperature 60°C before sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added for activation and monochloroacetateas terrifying agent. The final product is appeared in white powder, which is then will be analyzedby FTIR analysis. FTIR results show peaks appeared at wavenumber between 1609 cm-1 to 1614 cm-1 proved the existence of carboxymethyl groups which substitute OH groups at anhydroglucose(AGU) unit. As a conclusion, mixture solution of DMSO/TBAF is the suitable solvent used for dissolved cellulose before modifying it into CMC with higher Degree of Substitution (DS). Furthermore, the dissolution of the OPEFB bleached pulp was easy, simple and at a faster rate without prior chemical modification at temperature as low as 60°C.