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Sample records for abomasum duodenum jejunum

  1. Pseudomelanosis of stomach, duodenum, and jejunum.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Mansoor, Muhammad S; Gibson, Joanna A; Kapadia, Cyrus R

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomelanosis is a rare finding during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and is most commonly seen in the duodenum. Involvement of other organs in the upper gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, with only 1 reported case involving the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with mild anemia and hematemesis, who was found to have characteristic speckled pattern of gray-black pigmentation on endoscopic examination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case of pseudomelanosis involving the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum.

  2. Simultaneous Clear Cell Sarcomas of the Duodenum and Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Cruise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is an uncommon tumor that usually presents as an extremity mass but can rarely manifest as a gastrointestinal tumor with a diverse spectrum of symptoms, most commonly related to a mass effect or ulceration. Herein we report a case in which two separate tumors, one in the duodenum and the other in the jejunum, present concurrently. The subject presented with symptomatic anemia and underwent imaging and endoscopic studies that culminated in the discovery of the two lesions. He subsequently underwent operative treatment with resection of both tumors and made an unremarkable recovery. The resection specimen consisted of two separate clear cell sarcomas with negative margins. Under microscopic evaluation, they demonstrated nested growths of epithelioid cells with scattered spindled cells infiltrating the enteric wall. The neoplastic cells were positive for S100 with scattered expression of Melan A. Florescence in situ hybridization revealed a translocation at the EWRS1 locus. He was disease-free for 30 months following the procedure; then he developed a rapidly progressing metastatic disease with subsequent death 4 months later. PMID:27375743

  3. [Mega-duodenum and constipation after surgery for congenital atresia of the jejunum].

    PubMed

    Karstensen, John; Raahave, Dennis; Kirkegaard, Preben

    2011-06-20

    A 33 year-old female presented with constipation and a right-sided palpable abdominal mass, suspected to be the colon. The colonic transit time was prolonged, but the dilated organ was a mega duodenum that had developed after surgery for three jejunal atresies performed one day after birth. The colon was malrotated, being situated to the left of the columna. Renewed resection surgery was uneventful, and after such surgery the constipation receded and the colonic transit time returned to normal.

  4. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Butler, A R; Kern, R J; Hill, R; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E; Oliver, W T; Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-08-01

    Small intestine mass and cellularity were previously associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for the digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates, and it contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptome differences among the small intestine from cattle with divergent gain and feed intake. Animals most divergent from the bivariate mean in each of the four phenotypic Cartesian quadrants for gain × intake were selected, and the transcriptomes of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were evaluated. Gene expression analyses were performed comparing high gain vs. low gain animals, high intake vs. low intake animals and each of the phenotypic quadrants to all other groups. Genes differentially expressed within the high gain-low intake and low gain-high intake groups of animals included those involved in immune function and inflammation in all small intestine sections. The high gain-high intake group differed from the high gain-low intake group by immune response genes in all sections of the small intestine. In all sections of small intestine, animals with low gain-low intake displayed greater abundance of heat-shock genes compared to other groups. Several over-represented pathways were identified. These include the antigen-processing/presentation pathway in high gain animals and PPAR signaling, starch/sucrose metabolism, retinol metabolism and melatonin degradation pathways in the high intake animals. Genes with functions in immune response, inflammation, stress response, influenza pathogenesis and melatonin degradation pathways may have a relationship with gain and intake in beef steers. PMID:27226174

  5. Laparoscopic partial resection for hemangioma in the third portion of the duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Kanaji, Shingo; Nakamura, Tetsu; Nishi, Masayasu; Yamamoto, Masashi; Kanemitu, Kiyonori; Yamashiita, Kimihiro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Sumi, Yasuo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Benign duodenal tumors are rare and less common than malignant tumors. Furthermore, vascular lesions of the duodenum, including hemangiomas, are rare causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. This report describes a case with bleeding hemangiomas in the third portion of the duodenum and jejunum and their successful treatment using a laparoscopic approach. There is no report of totally laparoscopic resection for tumor in the third portion of duodenum. After performing a laparoscopic Kocher maneuver, the location of the duodenal hemangioma was confirmed by endoscopic and laparoscopic observation. The lesion was excised using ultrasonic coagulating shears and the defect in the duodenal wall was sutured laparoscopically. The hemangioma of the jejunum was treated extracorporeally through a 3.0 cm umbilical incision. The operating time was 241 min and blood loss was negligible. The postoperative course was uneventful. For benign duodenal tumors in the third portion, if endoscopic resection is not adapted, this less invasive technique may be a standard treatment. PMID:25232270

  6. Vascular compression of the duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Moskovich, R; Cheong-Leen, P

    1986-01-01

    Compression of the third or fourth part of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery or one of its branches is the anatomic basis for some cases of duodenal obstruction. Two cases of vascular obstruction of the duodenum after surgical correction of scoliosis are presented. The embryologic and pathoanatomic bases for this condition, and the rationale for treatment, are described. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:3761291

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth portions of the duodenum: The capsule endoscopy value

    PubMed Central

    Paquissi, Feliciano Chanana; Lima, Ana Henriqueta Filipe Bunga Pimentel; Lopes, Maria de Fátima do Nascimento Vieira; Diaz, Francisco Viamontes

    2015-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine occurs in over 50% of cases in the duodenum. However, its location in the third and fourth duodenal portions occurs rarely and is a diagnostic challenge. The aim of this work is to report an adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth duodenal portions, emphasizing its diagnostic difficulty and the value of video capsule endoscopy. A man, 40 years old, with no medical history, with abdominal discomfort and progressive fatigue, presented four months ago with one episode of moderate melena. The physical examination was normal, except for mucosal pallor. Blood tests were consistent with microcytic, hypochromic iron deficiency anemia with 7.8 g/dL hemoglobin. The upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Additional work-up with video capsule endoscopy showed a polypoid lesion involving the third and fourth portions of the duodenum. Biopsy showed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed a wall thickening from the third duodenal portion to the proximal jejunum, without distant metastasis. The patient underwent segmental resection (distal duodenum and proximal jejunum) with duodenojejunostomy. The surgical specimen histology confirmed the biopsy diagnosis, with transmural infiltration, without nodal involvement. Conclusion: Adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth portions of the duodenum is difficult to diagnose and capsule endoscopy is of great value. PMID:26309371

  8. Malignant tumours of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Ryska, M; Hrabal, P

    2015-12-01

    No comprehensive knowledge of duodenal tumours exists in the current literature; individual types of malignant tumours may be described within malignancies of the small bowel, sets of case reports, or individual cases. Ampullary carcinomas are the exception and they are detailed in the current WHO histological classification of tumours of digestive system. Neither national nor international literature sources provide a comprehensive review of their therapy. The situation is similar when searching for surgical procedures. Resection procedures on the duodenum should thus be performed in specialized centres with sufficient experience with hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery. PMID:26767899

  9. Mucin profiles of the abomasum in bulls and rams: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Karakoç, Zelal; Sağsöz, Hakan; Ketani, Muzaffer Aydın

    2016-09-01

    Many pathogens require direct binding to mucosal cells to cause an infection. The mucosal epithelium of the digestive tract, which is covered by a mucin layer, fulfills several protective functions that are essential to maintaining the health of the digestive tract. Mucins are glycoproteins, which are found on membranes and in mucus gels and protect the underlying mucosal cells. Both membrane-associated mucins and secreted mucins are critical components of mucosal defense. The aim of this study was to determine the localization and expression of mucin profile of the abomasum via histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The abomasums of 20 bulls and 20 rams were evaluated. Histochemical examination showed that neutral and acidic mucins were present in the mucosa and the glands of the pars cardiaca, fundus, and pars pylorica of the abomasums of both bulls and rams. However, the expression of acidic mucins was weak in the superficial glands and strong in the deep glands of the abomasum of rams. In both bulls and rams, MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were expressed in the glandular epithelial cells in all regions of the abomasum. Interestingly, while MUC2 was not expressed in the pars cardiaca and fundus, it was weakly expressed in the parietal cells of the pars pylorica in both species. In conclusion, the presence of neutral and acidic mucins and MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 proteins in luminal epithelial and glandular cells of abomasum in the bulls and rams support the hypothesis that mucins play a key role in the protection of the abomasal mucosa against infectious agents. PMID:27338724

  10. Role of the jejunum versus ileum on intestinal gas dynamics during a balanced meal in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Harder, Hermann; Hernando-Harder, Ana C; Franke, Andreas; Krammer, Heinz-Juergen; Singer, Manfred V

    2006-05-01

    Under physiological conditions, the human gut adapts intestinal gas propulsion and evacuation to prevent intestinal gaseous complaints In this study we aimed to determine influences of the jejunum versus ileum on intestinal gas dynamics during a balanced meal. Paired studies were randomly performed with seven women and three men, ages 28-42. A mixed liquid meal was infused (1 kcal/min) into the duodenum. After 30 min, gas was infused (12 ml/min) into the jejunum or ileum for 150 min. Gas expulsion was measured, and perception and girth changes were assessed. Postprandial intestinal gas propulsion was uneventful and recovery complete, with -7+/- 58 and -92+/- 44 ml final intestinal gas retention for jejunal and ileal gas infusion, respectively. Neither significant differences in abdominal perception nor changes in abdominal girth were seen. During a balanced meal, intestinal gas is effectively propulsed aborally, and this does not depend on the site of the small intestinal stimulation.

  11. Severe stricturing Crohn's disease of the duodenum: A case report and review of surgical options

    PubMed Central

    Racz, Jennifer M.; Davies, Ward

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Duodenal Crohn's disease is a rare clinical entity that occurs in 0.5–4.0% of patients with Crohn's disease. A unique case of Crohn's disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract characterized by multiple strictures within the duodenum and jejunum is described in our review. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 41-year-old male presented with a 2-month history of intermittent, crampy abdominal pain accompanied by nausea, bilious emesis, early satiety, anorexia and weight loss. Physical examination revealed fullness in the epigastric region. Imaging demonstrated strictures in the proximal and distal duodenum with dilatation of the intervening segments. There was also gross dilatation of the proximal jejunum, which was followed by a 9 cm strictured segment. There was no evidence of acute Crohn's disease. Although a Whipple's resection was initially considered as a form of operative intervention given the extent of disease within the duodenum, the discovery of unexpected disease intra-operatively presented a surgical dilemma. In this case, strictureplasty, surgical resection and bypass were used to treat the patient. DISCUSSION Diffuse stricturing of the proximal gastrointestinal tract is a rare manifestation of Crohn's disease. Although imaging can aid in surgical planning, intra-operative decision-making to deal with unexpected findings will remain an important aspect of the management of this entity. CONCLUSION The fundamental goal of the surgical management of strictures secondary to Crohn's disease is to relieve obstruction while maximizing bowel conservation. A variety of operative techniques are currently described for the management of duodenal Crohn's disease and are reviewed in this case report. PMID:22503915

  12. [Effect of polypeptides isolated from cattle abomasum on stomach regenerative processes in rats].

    PubMed

    Chernukha, I M; Bogatyrev, A N; Dydykin, A S; Aslanova, M A; Fedulova, L V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of polypeptides isolated from cattle abomasum on regenerative processes of rat stomach upon simulating stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin was studied. Experimental research was carried out on male Wistar rats with initial body weight of 230±20 g. The duration of the experiment was 22 days. The rats were divided into 4 equal groups (n=11). The first (control) group-consisted of the intact animals; animals from experimental groups 2-4 were intragastrically administered acetylsalicylic acid from the 1st to the 7th day for simulating stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin (300 mg/100 g body weight). From day 8 to day 22, the animals were intragastrically adminitered the tested samples in the quantity of 2 ml per animal according tothe scheme: the 2nd group - distilled water, the 3d group - native abomasum extract; the 4 th group - thermally treated abomasum extract. Abomasum extract was obtained by extraction with 0,87% aqueous sodium chloride crushed abomasum and represented a liquid of cream color with protein mass content of 1,3 g/100 g of the product with high content of glutamic acid (15,5 g/100 g protein) and B-group vitamins. Electrophoretic analysis of the extract revealed several high molecular weight fractions in the range of 72 to 55 kDa. The bands with molecular masses 52, 43, 40, 37, 34, 26, 17 kDa were most pronounced; the intensive bands in the area 12 kDa and in the range lower than 10 kDa were revealed. The results of the conducted study show that the abomasum extracts both in the native and thermally treated form exert therapeutic action on animal with stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin, have good antiulcer and gastroprotective activities upon stomach mucosa exposure to chemical damaging agents. The analysis of the hematological indices of the animals from the 3rd and 4th groups, which received the test samples after simulation, revealed the normalization of leukocyte, lymphocyte, granulocyte and monocyte content. This

  13. MDCT and MR imaging of the jejunum.

    PubMed

    El Fattach, H; Dohan, A; Guerrache, Y; Dautry, R; Eveno, C; Boudiaf, M; Hoeffel, C; Soyer, P

    2015-03-01

    Recent refinements in cross-sectional imaging have dramatically modified the investigation of the jejunum. Improvements in multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology have made detection and characterization of jejunal abnormalities easier. Current options include MDCT and MR imaging using either enterography or enteroclysis. The goal of this pictorial review is to outline the current imaging techniques that are used to investigate the jejunum and illustrate the most common conditions that affect this small bowel segment with a specific focus on MDCT and MR imaging using enterography or enteroclysis. MR imaging used in conjunction with optimal jejunal distension appears as the modality of choice for the diagnosis of a wide range of jejunal abnormalities. MDCT remains the first line imaging modalities because of an acute presentation in a substantial number of patients. PMID:25482665

  14. Perforation of the Peptic Ulcer Localized in the Proximal Jejunum - Case Report.

    PubMed

    Żyluk, Andrzej Ż; Szlosser, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Non-traumatic perforation of the digestive tract occurs most often in the duodenum and stomach (peptic ulcer), as well as the colon (diverticulitis, cancer or ischemic lesions). Perforation of the small bowel is very rare. The Authors of the study presented a case of proximal jejunum perforation, which occurred in a patient with a history of duodenal peptic ulcer disease. Diagnosis posed no difficulties, and treatment included the excision of the ulceration and suturing of the bowel. The patient recovered without complications and the histological examination failed to reveal the nature of the ulcer. However, based on the medical history, one may suppose that it might be of peptic etiology, which makes this case exceptional. PMID:27648623

  15. Perforation of the Peptic Ulcer Localized in the Proximal Jejunum - Case Report.

    PubMed

    Żyluk, Andrzej Ż; Szlosser, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Non-traumatic perforation of the digestive tract occurs most often in the duodenum and stomach (peptic ulcer), as well as the colon (diverticulitis, cancer or ischemic lesions). Perforation of the small bowel is very rare. The Authors of the study presented a case of proximal jejunum perforation, which occurred in a patient with a history of duodenal peptic ulcer disease. Diagnosis posed no difficulties, and treatment included the excision of the ulceration and suturing of the bowel. The patient recovered without complications and the histological examination failed to reveal the nature of the ulcer. However, based on the medical history, one may suppose that it might be of peptic etiology, which makes this case exceptional.

  16. Characteristics of fluid composition of left displaced abomasum in beef cattle fed high-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid.

  17. Modification of abomasum contractility by flavonoids present in ruminants diet: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoid supplementation is likely to be beneficial in improving rumen fermentation and in reducing the incidence of rumen acidosis and bloat. Flavonoids are also said to increase the metabolic performance during the peripartum period. Ruminants are constantly exposed to flavonoids present in feed. However, it is not clear if these phytochemicals can affect the activity of the gut smooth muscle. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of three flavonoids on bovine isolated abomasum smooth muscle. The study was carried out on bovine isolated circular and longitudinal abomasal smooth muscle specimens. All experiments were conducted under isometric conditions. The effect of apigenin, luteolin and quercetin (0.001 to 100 µM) was evaluated on acetylcholine-precontracted preparations. The effect of multiple, but not cumulative, treatment and single treatment with each flavonoid on abomasum strips was compared. Apigenin (0.1 to 100 µM) dose-dependently showed myorelaxation effects. Luteolin and quercetin applied in low doses increased the force of the ACh-evoked reaction. However, if used in high doses in experiments testing a wide range of concentrations, their contractile effect either declined (luteolin) or was replaced by an antispasmodic effect (quercetin). Surprisingly, the reaction induced by flavonoids after repeated exposure to the same phytochemical was not reproducible in experiments testing only single exposure of abomasum strips to the same flavonoid used in a high concentration. Taking into account the physicochemical properties of flavonoids, this data suggests the ability of flavonoids to interfere with cell membranes and, subsequently, to modify their responsiveness. Assuming ruminant supplementation with luteolin or quercetin or their presence in daily pasture, a reduction of the likelihood of abomasum dysmotility should be expected. PMID:27534882

  18. Modification of abomasum contractility by flavonoids present in ruminants diet: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoid supplementation is likely to be beneficial in improving rumen fermentation and in reducing the incidence of rumen acidosis and bloat. Flavonoids are also said to increase the metabolic performance during the peripartum period. Ruminants are constantly exposed to flavonoids present in feed. However, it is not clear if these phytochemicals can affect the activity of the gut smooth muscle. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of three flavonoids on bovine isolated abomasum smooth muscle. The study was carried out on bovine isolated circular and longitudinal abomasal smooth muscle specimens. All experiments were conducted under isometric conditions. The effect of apigenin, luteolin and quercetin (0.001 to 100 µM) was evaluated on acetylcholine-precontracted preparations. The effect of multiple, but not cumulative, treatment and single treatment with each flavonoid on abomasum strips was compared. Apigenin (0.1 to 100 µM) dose-dependently showed myorelaxation effects. Luteolin and quercetin applied in low doses increased the force of the ACh-evoked reaction. However, if used in high doses in experiments testing a wide range of concentrations, their contractile effect either declined (luteolin) or was replaced by an antispasmodic effect (quercetin). Surprisingly, the reaction induced by flavonoids after repeated exposure to the same phytochemical was not reproducible in experiments testing only single exposure of abomasum strips to the same flavonoid used in a high concentration. Taking into account the physicochemical properties of flavonoids, this data suggests the ability of flavonoids to interfere with cell membranes and, subsequently, to modify their responsiveness. Assuming ruminant supplementation with luteolin or quercetin or their presence in daily pasture, a reduction of the likelihood of abomasum dysmotility should be expected.

  19. Ultrasonographic examination of the forestomachs and the abomasum in ruminal drinker calves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study investigated the ultrasonographic appearance of the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum of calves with ruminal drinking syndrome. Methods In ten milk-fed calves with ruminal drinking syndrome the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum were examined by ultrasonography using a 5-MHz linear transducer before, during and after the ingestion of milk. Results The reticulum could be imaged in eight of ten calves before feeding. The reticular wall appeared as an echoic line, similar to mature cattle, and reticular folds were seen in eight calves. The reticular content appeared as echoic heterogeneous fluid. Reticular contractions were biphasic with 1.0 ± 0.38 contractions per minute. The rumen had a mean wall thickness of 2.1 mm dorsally, 3.5 mm at the level of the longitudinal groove, and 3.2 mm ventrally. The ventral sac of the rumen of all calves contained echoic heterogeneous liquid. During feeding the milk entering the rumen could be seen as hyperechoic liquid in five calves. The omasum was seen on the right side as a crescent-shaped line medial to the liver in seven calves. Only the omasal wall closest to the transducer was seen as an echoic line with a mean thickness of 2.7 mm. The ultrasonographic appearance of the omasum did not change during or after feeding. The abomasum was seen immediately caudal to the xyphoid on both sides of the midline before feeding. The mean length at the ventral midline was 22.2 cm. The ingesta were heterogeneous in all calves and the abomasal folds were distinct in eight. The mean lateral expansion of the abomasum from the ventral midline to the left and right varied from 8.7 to 13.8 cm and from 4.3 to 11.3 cm. The milk entering the abomasum was observed in all calves, and signs of milk clotting were seen in all calves 15 minutes after feeding. Conclusion This study showed that ultrasonography is useful for detecting milk in the reticulum and rumen of calves with ruminal drinking syndrome. PMID:23298472

  20. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small intestine mass and cellularity have previously been associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and sugars and contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study ...

  1. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen.

  2. Prognostic judgment at post-surgery by biochemical parameters in beef cattle with left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Taguchi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery. PMID:24998331

  3. Prognostic judgment at post-surgery by biochemical parameters in beef cattle with left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Taguchi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery.

  4. Prognostic Judgment at Post-Surgery by Biochemical Parameters in Beef Cattle with Left Displaced Abomasum

    PubMed Central

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; TAGUCHI, Kiyoshi; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery. PMID:24998331

  5. Intestinal surgery of adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David E; Ewoldt, Jennifer M Ivany

    2005-03-01

    Surgical disorders of the gastrointestinal tract of cattle occur occasionally, and veterinarians are challenged to determine an accurate diagnosis and treatment for these conditions. Although surgical diseases most commonly occur in the forestomachs (dislocated abomasum, reticuloperitonitis) and the colons (cecal dilation), this article focuses n lesions in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum).

  6. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota between German Holstein Dairy Cows with and without Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun-Sik; Jung, Sang Il; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Son, Jeong-Hoon; Hong, Sanghyun; Shim, Minkyung

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common diseases in high-performance German Holstein dairy cows is left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Hypomotility of the abomasum is detrimental during the pathogenesis of LDA. It is known that improper interactions between the gut microbiota and the enteric nervous system contribute to dysfunctions of gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut microbial composition will be different between German Holstein dairy cows with and without LDA. We used 16S rRNA gene analysis to evaluate whether there are any differences in bacterial composition between German Holstein dairy cows with and without LDA. Even though our data are limited to being used to correlate compositional changes with corresponding functional aspects in the pathogenesis of LDA, results from this study show that the fecal microbial compositions of German Holstein dairy cows with LDA shifted and were less diverse than those in normal cows. In particular, Spirochaetes were absent in cows with LDA. PMID:26842700

  7. Free jejunum interposition as salvage surgery after cervical esophagus injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenrong; Guo, Yongqing; Liang, Chaoyang; Feng, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    In rare cases when stomach could not be suitable for esophageal replacement, the jejunum should probably be suitable for esophageal reconstruction. However, the widespread prevalence of jejunal interposition is precluded because of its complexity. Here we present a case of a 74-year-old female who underwent free jejunal interposition as salvage surgery. In this case, cervical esophagus was injured during thyroidectomy. Nine months later, replacement of injured part of esophagus with free jejunum was performed. End-to-end and end-to-side anastomosis were used for esophagus-jejunum and vascular-to-vascular anastomosis respectively. This patient was discharged from hospital 15 days postoperatively. No severe postoperative complication happened. Only minor late operation complication (anastomotic stricture) occurred during 13 years of annual follow-up. PMID:27499985

  8. Free jejunum interposition as salvage surgery after cervical esophagus injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenrong; Guo, Yongqing; Liang, Chaoyang; Feng, Hongxiang; Liu, Deruo

    2016-07-01

    In rare cases when stomach could not be suitable for esophageal replacement, the jejunum should probably be suitable for esophageal reconstruction. However, the widespread prevalence of jejunal interposition is precluded because of its complexity. Here we present a case of a 74-year-old female who underwent free jejunal interposition as salvage surgery. In this case, cervical esophagus was injured during thyroidectomy. Nine months later, replacement of injured part of esophagus with free jejunum was performed. End-to-end and end-to-side anastomosis were used for esophagus-jejunum and vascular-to-vascular anastomosis respectively. This patient was discharged from hospital 15 days postoperatively. No severe postoperative complication happened. Only minor late operation complication (anastomotic stricture) occurred during 13 years of annual follow-up. PMID:27499985

  9. Laparoscopic duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiayu; Zhou, Yucheng; Mou, Yiping; Xia, Tao; Xu, Xiaowu; Jin, Weiwei; Zhang, Renchao; Lu, Chao; Chen, Ronggao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) of the pancreas are uncommon neoplasms and are potentially malignant. Complete resection is advised due to rare recurrence and metastasis. Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) is indicated for SPNs located in the pancreatic head and is only performed using the open approach. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports describing laparoscopic DPPHR (LDPPHR) for SPNs. Methods: Herein, we report a case of 41-year-old female presented with a 1-week history of epigastric abdominal discomfort, and founded an SPN of the pancreatic head by abdominal computed tomography/magnetic resonance, who was treated by radical LDPPHR without complications, such as pancreatic fistula and bile leakage. Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of SPN. Results: The patient was discharged 1 week after surgery following an uneventful postoperative period. She was followed up 3 months without readmission and local recurrence according to abdominal ultrasound. Conclusion: LDPPHR is a safe, feasible, and effective surgical procedure for SPNs. PMID:27512859

  10. Reflux of bile acids from the duodenum into the rumen of cows with a reduced intestinal passage.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Hausammann, K; Forrer, R

    1989-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether the concentration of bile acids in the rumen of healthy cows differs from that of cows with a reduced gastrointestinal passage. The investigations were performed on 277 heifers and cows of the Swiss Braunvieh, Simmental and Swiss Holstein breeds. Forty of these had traumatic reticuloperitonitis, 30 had right or left abomasal displacement, 14 had an ileus of the duodenum, 36 had an ileus of the jejunum and 54 had a caecal dilatation. The other 103 animals had disorders which did not affect the digestive system and were used as controls. The mean (+/- se) bile acid concentration in the rumen fluid of the control animals was 1.0 +/- 0.30 mumol/litre. The bile acid concentrations in the rumen fluid of the cows with a duodenal or jejunal ileus were significantly higher than those of the other groups, demonstrating that bile acids may reflux from the duodenum into the rumen of cows with an ileus in the small intestine.

  11. Genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Koeck, A; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Kelton, D F; Schenkel, F S

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins. Health data recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yields were obtained from the routine milk recoding scheme. Ketosis and displaced abomasum were defined as binary traits (0 = healthy; 1 = sick) based on whether or not the cow had at least 1 case of the respective disease in the period from calving to 100 d after calving. Mean frequencies of ketosis and displaced abomasum were 4.1 and 2.7%, respectively. The following milk production traits were considered: milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), fat-to-protein (F:P) ratio, and F:P ratio >1.5. The trait F:P ratio >1.5 was scored as 1 or 0, based on whether or not the cow had an F:P ratio >1.5. For milk production traits, the first (5-30 d in milk) and the second (31-60 d in milk) test days were considered. Data were analyzed using bivariate linear animal models. Average heritabilities of 0.02 and 0.04 were obtained for ketosis and displaced abomasum, respectively. For milk production traits, the lowest heritabilities were obtained for F:P >1.5 (0.04 to 0.08), whereas the highest estimates were found for Prot% (0.27 to 0.38). Ketosis and displaced abomasum were genetically uncorrelated with milk yield in early lactation. Moderate favorable correlations were found between metabolic diseases and milk composition traits. Ketosis was significantly correlated with Fat% (0.33), F:P ratio (0.30), and F:P ratio >1.5 (0.35) at the first test day, whereas all genetic correlations with milk composition traits at the second test day were not significant and close to zero. Significant favorable genetic correlations were also found between displaced abomasum and F:P ratio (0.26), F:P ratio >1.5 (0.25) and Prot% (-0.19) at the first test

  12. Genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Koeck, A; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Kelton, D F; Schenkel, F S

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins. Health data recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yields were obtained from the routine milk recoding scheme. Ketosis and displaced abomasum were defined as binary traits (0 = healthy; 1 = sick) based on whether or not the cow had at least 1 case of the respective disease in the period from calving to 100 d after calving. Mean frequencies of ketosis and displaced abomasum were 4.1 and 2.7%, respectively. The following milk production traits were considered: milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), fat-to-protein (F:P) ratio, and F:P ratio >1.5. The trait F:P ratio >1.5 was scored as 1 or 0, based on whether or not the cow had an F:P ratio >1.5. For milk production traits, the first (5-30 d in milk) and the second (31-60 d in milk) test days were considered. Data were analyzed using bivariate linear animal models. Average heritabilities of 0.02 and 0.04 were obtained for ketosis and displaced abomasum, respectively. For milk production traits, the lowest heritabilities were obtained for F:P >1.5 (0.04 to 0.08), whereas the highest estimates were found for Prot% (0.27 to 0.38). Ketosis and displaced abomasum were genetically uncorrelated with milk yield in early lactation. Moderate favorable correlations were found between metabolic diseases and milk composition traits. Ketosis was significantly correlated with Fat% (0.33), F:P ratio (0.30), and F:P ratio >1.5 (0.35) at the first test day, whereas all genetic correlations with milk composition traits at the second test day were not significant and close to zero. Significant favorable genetic correlations were also found between displaced abomasum and F:P ratio (0.26), F:P ratio >1.5 (0.25) and Prot% (-0.19) at the first test

  13. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (p<0.01). Keeping cows in only one group in the dry period increased the odds of having a high incidence herd eightfold (p=0.03). Herd size was confounded with housing system. Housing system was therefore added to the final logistic regression model. In conclusion, a large herd size, a high maximum daily milk yield, keeping dry cows in one group, and not cleaning the feeding platform daily appear to be important risk factors for a high incidence of DA or clinical ketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early

  14. Peripartum back fat thickness of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with displacement of the abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Takahiro; Matsui, Motozumi; Yamada, Kazutaka; Ishii, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    To establish a method to predict postpartum diseases using prepartum back fat thickness (BFT), the peripartum BFTs of 54 healthy multiparous cows before calving, which were diagnosed with postpartum displacement of the abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis or subclinical ketosis were compared with those of healthy cows from 8 weeks before the expected calving date to 8 weeks after calving. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with DA or clinical ketosis were significantly higher than those of healthy cows. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with subclinical ketosis were not significantly higher than those of the healthy cows.

  15. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  16. Carcinoma of the duodenum after trauma, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bayens, Y C; Wiggers, T; Meerwaldt, J H; Vroom, T M; Van Geel, A N

    1991-10-01

    The case history is reported of a patient with a carcinoma of the duodenum 30 years after blunt abdominal trauma at the site of the 'scar' in the duodenum. Thirteen years after the trauma the patient was treated with chemotherapy and abdominal irradiation for a relapse of Hodgkin's disease. At follow-up, 25 months after the operation, he had no local recurrence of Hodgkin's disease or duodenal cancer. The possible relation between the cancer and the abdominal trauma, chemotherapy and abdominal irradiation is discussed. PMID:1787905

  17. Carcinoma of the duodenum after trauma, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bayens, Y C; Wiggers, T; Meerwaldt, J H; Vroom, T M; Van Geel, A N

    1991-10-01

    The case history is reported of a patient with a carcinoma of the duodenum 30 years after blunt abdominal trauma at the site of the 'scar' in the duodenum. Thirteen years after the trauma the patient was treated with chemotherapy and abdominal irradiation for a relapse of Hodgkin's disease. At follow-up, 25 months after the operation, he had no local recurrence of Hodgkin's disease or duodenal cancer. The possible relation between the cancer and the abdominal trauma, chemotherapy and abdominal irradiation is discussed.

  18. Cross-Platform Microarray Meta-Analysis for the Mouse Jejunum Selects Novel Reference Genes with Highly Uniform Levels of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Florian R. L.; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Binter, Claudia; Mair, Georg E.; Guelly, Christian; Vogl, Claus; Steinborn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Reference genes (RGs) with uniform expression are used for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data. Their optimization for a specific biological context, e.g. a specific tissue, has been increasingly considered. In this article, we compare RGs identified by expression data meta-analysis restricted to the context tissue, the jejunum of Mus musculus domesticus, i) to traditional RGs, ii) to expressed interspersed repeated DNA elements, and iii) to RGs identified by meta-analysis of expression data from diverse tissues and conditions. To select the set of candidate RGs, we developed a novel protocol for the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data. The expression stability of twenty-four putative RGs was analysed by RT-qPCR in at least 14 jejunum samples of the mouse strains C57Bl/6N, CD1, and OF1. Across strains, the levels of expression of the novel RGs Plekha7, Zfx, and Ube2v1 as well as of Oaz1 varied less than two-fold irrespective of genotype, sex or their combination. The gene set consisting of Plekha7 and Oaz1 showed superior expression stability analysed with the tool RefFinder. The novel RGs are functionally diverse. This facilitates expression studies over a wide range of conditions. The highly uniform expression of the optimized RGs in the jejunum points towards their involvement in tightly regulated pathways in this tissue. We also applied our novel protocol of cross-microarray platform meta-analysis to the identification of RGs in the duodenum, the ileum and the entire small intestine. The selection of RGs with improved expression stability in a specific biological context can reduce the number of RGs for the normalization step of RT-qPCR expression analysis, thus reducing the number of samples and experimental costs. PMID:23671661

  19. Norepinephrine uptake by rat jejunum: Modulation by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Suvannapura, A.; Levens, N.R. )

    1988-02-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is believed to stimulate sodium and water absorption from the small intestine by enhancing sympathetic nerve transmission. This study is designed to determine whether ANG II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission within the small intestine by inhibition norepinephrine (NE) uptake. Intracellular NE accumulation by rat jejunum was concentration dependent and resolved into high- and low-affinity components. The high-affinity component (uptake 1) exhibited a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 1.72 {mu}M and a maximum velocity (V{sub max}) of 1.19 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. The low-affinity component (uptake 2) exhibited a K{sub m} of 111.1 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 37.1 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. Cocaine, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake, inhibited the intracellular accumulation of label by 80%. Treatment of animals with 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals, also attenuated NE uptake by 60%. Thus accumulation within sympathetic nerves constitutes the major form of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake into rat jejunum. ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. At a dose of 1 mM, ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation by 60%. Cocaine failed to potentiate the inhibition of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake produced by ANG II. Thus ANG II appears to prevent ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation within rat jejunum by inhibiting neuronal uptake.

  20. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the duodenum. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, A; de la Cruz, E; Sanchez, M J; Ortiz, S; Lobato, A; Merino, E

    1993-05-01

    A rare adenosquamous carcinoma of the duodenum occurred in an 84-year-old woman. Histologically the neoplasm showed evidence of glandular and squamous differentiation, and both components showed malignant characteristics. Intermediate elements sharing squamous and glandular features, were found and were immunoreactive for carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratins of both low and high molecular weight. A review of the literature and discussion about the histogenesis is included.

  1. Secondary Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Duodenum: An Unusual Endoscopic Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gravina, Antonietta Gerarda; Federico, Alessandro; Sica, Antonello; D’Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Ferrara, Maria Giovanna; Falcone, Umberto; Dallio, Marcello; Cozzolino, Domenico; Guastafierro, Salvatore; Loguercio, Carmela; Romano, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We describe an unusual case (a 79-year-old woman) of secondary extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) involving the duodenum. While all the previously reported cases of duodenal involvement by EMP (namely 20 cases) were characterized by the presence of ulcerative masses or ischemic necrotic lesions, in our case EMP led to the unusual finding of several non-polypoid lesions with a depressed central area. The final diagnosis was multiple myeloma IgA lambda, stage II A, with secondary duodenal EMP. To our knowledge this is the first report showing duodenal involvement by EMP with the aspect of multiple non-polypoid lesions.

  2. Large gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alejandra Gordillo; Lanuza, Eduardo Dominguez-Adame; Matias, Auxiliadora Cano; Huertas, Rosario Perez; Rodriguez, Katherine Maria Gallardo; Perez, Purificacion Gallinato; Mompean, Fernando Oliva

    2015-01-01

    Gangliocytic paragangliomas are rare tumors that almost exclusively occur within the second portion of the duodenum. Although these tumors generally have a benign clinical course, they have the potential to recur or metastasize to regional lymph nodes. The case report presented here describes a 57-year-old female patient with melena, progressive asthenia, anemia, and a mass in the second-third portion of the duodenum that was treated by local excision. The patient was diagnosed with a friable bleeding tumor. The histologic analysis showed that the tumor was a 4 cm gangliocytic paraganglioma without a malignant cell pattern. In the absence of local invasion or distant metastasis, endoscopic resection represents a feasible, curative therapy. Although endoscopic polypectomy is currently considered the treatment of choice, it is not recommended if the size of the tumor is > 3 cm and/or there is active or recent bleeding. Patients diagnosed with a gangliocytic paraganglioma should be closely followed-up for possible local recurrence. PMID:26328037

  3. Protection of mouse jejunum against lethal irradiation by Podophyllum hexandrum.

    PubMed

    Salin, C A; Samanta, N; Goel, H C

    2001-11-01

    Radiation induced gastrointestinal damage occurs due to the destruction of the clonogenic crypt cells and eventual depopulation and denudation of the villi. P. hexandrum, a plant, known for its antitumour activity, has been shown to protect the mice against whole body lethal (10 Gy) irradiation. Present study was undertaken to investigate the radioprotective effect of P. hexandrum on jejunal villi cells, crypt cells, their proliferative capacity and mitigation of apoptosis. In an in vivo micro colony survival assay, pre-irradiation administration of P. hexandrum (-2 h) increased the number of surviving crypts in the jejunum by a factor of 3.0 (P < 0.05) and villi cellularity by 2.7 (P < 0.05) fold in comparison to irradiated control. Pre-irradiation administration of P. hexandrum reduced the incidence of apoptotic bodies in the crypts (P < 0.05) in a time dependent manner and depicted a mitotic arrest till the 24 h. However, after 84 h the percentage of mitosis was observed to be nearly similar to that of unirradiated control. This study suggests that arrest of cell division may help in protecting the clonogenic cells against radiation. It would be interesting to investigate further the role of P hexandrum in influencing various cell cycle regulators like bcl-2, TGF-beta, Cyclin-E etc.

  4. Effects of a hydrogen sulfide donor on spontaneous contractile activity of rat stomach and jejunum.

    PubMed

    Shafigullin, M Y; Zefirov, R A; Sabirullina, G I; Zefirov, A L; Sitdikova, G F

    2014-07-01

    We studied the effect of sodium hydrosulfite (NaHS), a donor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), on spontaneous contractive activity of isolated preparations of rat stomach and jejunum under isometric conditions. NaHS in concentrations of 10-200 μM reduced the amplitude, tonic tension, and frequency of contractions of the preparations. Blockade of K(+) channels with a non-specific antagonist tetraethylammonium (10 mM) increased contraction amplitude in the stomach strip and jejunum segment. The effects of NaHS on all parameters of contractile activity of the stomach and jejunum were fully preserved against the background of tetraethylammonium application. These data suggest that H2S in physiologically relevant concentrations inhibited spontaneous contractile activity of smooth muscle cells in rat stomach and jejunum by reducing the amplitude and frequency of contractions and decreased tonic tension without affecting the function of voltage- and calcium-dependent K(+) channels.

  5. Reversal of Folate Malabsorption in Tropical and Non-tropical Sprue by Calf Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Baker, H.; Frank, O.; Ziffer, H.; Feingold, S.; Cintron-Rivera, A. A.

    1968-01-01

    In eight patients with folic acid malabsorption the malabsorption was reversed only when a combination of either 250 mg. of lyophilized human jejunal juice or 5 g. of lyophilized calf jejunum with 5 mg. of synthetic folic acid was fed; calf liver was ineffective. The factors in calf jejunum that re-established folic acid absorption were heat-stable and did not form polyglutamyl folates on previous incubation with folic acid. Imagesp474-a PMID:5691146

  6. Evaluation of the Kinematic Responses and Potential Injury Mechanisms of the Jejunum during Seatbelt Loading.

    PubMed

    Howes, Meghan K; Hardy, Warren N; Agnew, Amanda M; Hallman, Jason J

    2015-11-01

    High-speed biplane x-ray was used to research the kinematics of the small intestine in response to seatbelt loading. Six driver-side 3-point seatbelt simulations were conducted with the lap belt routed superior to the pelvis of six unembalmed human cadavers. Testing was conducted with each cadaver perfused, ventilated, and positioned in a fixed-back configuration with the spine angled 30° from the vertical axis. Four tests were conducted with the cadavers in an inverted position, and two tests were conducted with the cadavers upright. The jejunum was instrumented with radiopaque markers using a minimally-invasive, intraluminal approach without inducing preparation-related damage to the small intestine. Tests were conducted at a target peak lap belt speed of 3 m/s, resulting in peak lap belt loads ranging from 5.4-7.9 kN. Displacement of the radiopaque markers was recorded using high-speed x-ray from two perspectives. Marker trajectories were tracked using motion analysis software and projected into calibrated three-dimensional coordinates to quantify the seatbelt and jejunum kinematics for each test. Five of the six tests resulted in jejunum damage. Based on the autopsy findings and the assessment of the belt and jejunum kinematics, it is likely that direct abdominal interactions with the seatbelt resulting in compression and stretch of the jejunum are components of the mechanisms of crash-induced jejunum injuries. In addition, the presence of fluid or air in the portion of the jejunum in the load path appears to be necessary to create jejunum damage in the cadaver model. Overall, the kinematics and damage data generated in this study may be useful for future restraint system development.

  7. Factors associated with survival in the herd for dairy cows following surgery to correct left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Reynen, Jennifer L; Kelton, David F; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Newby, Nathalie C; Duffield, Todd F

    2015-06-01

    Left displaced abomasum (LDA) is a common problem in dairy cows. There have been numerous studies focused on predicting prognosis for right displaced abomasal corrective surgery, but a paucity of studies exist focused on more common LDA surgeries. Our objective was to determine if survival to 60 d or 1 yr after surgery could be predicted from the physical exam findings, periparturient disease status, and a biochemical profile from a blood sample obtained at the time of LDA diagnosis. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured immediately using a hand-held meter. Data obtained from CanWest DHI (Guelph, ON, Canada) for all of the study subjects (n=179 cases, by 24 veterinarians from 4 clinics), including cull date, cull reason, and test-day milk production. Cows were classified based on whether or not they were culled within 60 d or 1 yr of surgery. Based on logistic regression, cows that had dystocia [odds ratio (OR)=13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=7-26] or were not ketotic (blood BHBA<1.2 mmol/L; OR=3, 95% CI=1.03-9) at the time of corrective surgery were more likely to be culled within 60 d. Higher serum concentrations of BHBA (OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92-0.98), nonesterified fatty acids (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.75-0.88), and Mg (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.35-0.68) all had a protective effect against culling within 1 yr of LDA surgery. Based on survival analysis, longevity in the herd for 365 d following corrective surgery was associated with higher BHBA and Mg at the time of LDA diagnosis before surgery, as well as milk production following surgery. PMID:25892696

  8. Decrease of lactase activity in the small intestine of jejunum-bypassed rats.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, H; Goda, T; Takase, S

    1992-08-01

    The effect of jejunum-bypass operation on lactase in rat small intestine was examined. Three groups of four or five rats were designated as jejunum-bypassed, sham-operated and normal rats. All animals including normal rats received by pair-feeding 5% glucose/1% NaCl for 5 days following the operation; thereafter they were fed ad libitum the laboratory chow diet. Three weeks after the jejunal bypass operation, the proximal ileum exhibited a hyperplasia as evidenced by a concomitant increase in mucosal contents of both total proteins and DNA. The specific activity of lactase in this segment was significantly lower in the operated rats than sham-operated controls, whereas the specific activity of sucrase in this segment was significantly elevated. The reduction of lactase activity was also evident in the proximal jejunal segment as well as in the distal jejunum which was deprived of luminal nutrition, suggesting that some hormonal factor(s) might be involved in the decrease of lactase activity in jejunum-bypassed animals. Electroimmunoassay revealed that the amount of immunoreactive lactase also declined in the operated rats relative to the sham-operated controls. Our results thus suggest that lactase activity in residual ileum is not only unable to compensate for the loss of digestive-absorptive surface of jejunum, but lactase activity even decreases following jejunum-bypass operation.

  9. [Clinical-epidemiological aspects of gastric and duodenum ulcer].

    PubMed

    Larichev, A B; Maĭorov, M I; Favstov, S V; Shalop'ev, A G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of reporting and statistical data showed the considerable changes in clinical-epidemiological indices of gastric and duodenum ulcer at the period from 1998 to 2012. The prevalence of the disease and the number of primary patients decreased in 2-3 times. The reduction of the rate of perforations and ulcerous bleeding had been observed. However, the authors noted, that a tendency of frequency of occurrence increased and efficacy indices reduced in the last years. The rate of postoperative lethality raised in the cases of perforated ulcer. On this basis, the authors recommend to reconsider the existing opinion about further extension of out-patient treatment of patients with given pathology.

  10. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador. PMID:27275596

  11. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador.

  12. Adenocarcinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas at the third portion of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Fukino, Nobutada; Oida, Takatsugu; Mimatsu, Kenji; Kuboi, Youichi; Kida, Kazutoshi

    2015-04-01

    A 62-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of weight loss of 6 kg in 4 mo. Imaging examinations revealed a tumor located on the third portion of the duodenum with stenosis. We suspected duodenal carcinoma and performed pancreas-preserving segmental duodenectomy. Adenocarcinoma arising from a heterotopic pancreas at the third portion of the duodenum was finally diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Malignant transformation in the duodenum arising from a heterotopic pancreas is extremely rare; to our knowledge, only 13 cases have been reported worldwide, including the present case. The most common location of malignancy is the proximal duodenum at the first and descending portion. Herein, we describe the first case of adenocarcinoma arising from a heterotopic pancreas, which was located in the third portion of the duodenum, with a review of the literature.

  13. Adenocarcinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas at the third portion of the duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Fukino, Nobutada; Oida, Takatsugu; Mimatsu, Kenji; Kuboi, Youichi; Kida, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of weight loss of 6 kg in 4 mo. Imaging examinations revealed a tumor located on the third portion of the duodenum with stenosis. We suspected duodenal carcinoma and performed pancreas-preserving segmental duodenectomy. Adenocarcinoma arising from a heterotopic pancreas at the third portion of the duodenum was finally diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Malignant transformation in the duodenum arising from a heterotopic pancreas is extremely rare; to our knowledge, only 13 cases have been reported worldwide, including the present case. The most common location of malignancy is the proximal duodenum at the first and descending portion. Herein, we describe the first case of adenocarcinoma arising from a heterotopic pancreas, which was located in the third portion of the duodenum, with a review of the literature. PMID:25852297

  14. Strangulation of the duodenum by the uterus during late pregnancy in two cows.

    PubMed

    Koller, U; Lischer, C; Geyer, H; Dressel, C; Braun, U

    2001-07-01

    Two Swiss Braunvieh cows in late pregnancy underwent surgery because of a rare form of ileus due to strangulation of the duodenum at its caudal flexure by the gravid uterus. The whole uterus had passed through a gap between the mesoduodenum and duodenum and with increasing weight had led to strangulation of the duodenum. This was possible since the mesoduodenum and both walls of the greater omentum adjacent to its caudal edge were not connected with the duodenum, probably due to a congenital inhibitory malformation. A transsection and an end-to-end anastomosis of the duodenum were necessary in both cases since it was impossible to retract the gravid uterus through the defect. Postoperative recovering was uneventful in both cows, which were discharged after seven and five days respectively and calved normally about two months later.

  15. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide regulates dipeptide absorption in mouse jejunum.

    PubMed

    Coon, Steven D; Schwartz, John H; Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M; Jepeal, Lisa; Singh, Satish K

    2013-11-15

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secreted from jejunal mucosal K cells augments insulin secretion and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent studies, we have shown GIP directly activates Na-glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1) and enhances glucose absorption in mouse jejunum. It is not known whether GIP would also regulate other intestinal nutrient absorptive processes. The present study investigated the effect of GIP on proton-peptide cotransporter-1 (PepT1) that mediates di- and tripeptide absorption as well as peptidomimetic drugs. Immunohistochemistry studies localized both GIP receptor (GIPR) and PepT1 proteins on the basolateral and apical membranes of normal mouse jejunum, respectively. Anti-GIPR antibody detected 50-, 55-, 65-, and 70-kDa proteins, whereas anti-PepT1 detected a 70-kDa proteins in mucosal homogenates of mouse jejunum. RT-PCR analyses established the expression of GIPR- and PepT1-specific mRNA in mucosal cells of mouse jejunum. Absorption of Gly-Sar (a nondigestible dipeptide) measured under voltage-clamp conditions revealed that the imposed mucosal H(+) gradient-enhanced Gly-Sar absorption as an evidence for the presence of PepT1-mediated H(+):Gly-Sar cotransport on the apical membranes of mouse jejunum. H(+):Gly-Sar absorption was completely inhibited by cephalexin (a competitive inhibitor of PepT1) and was activated by GIP. The GIP-activated Gly-Sar absorption was completely inhibited by RP-cAMP (a cAMP antagonist). In contrast to GIP, the ileal L cell secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) did not affect the H(+):Gly-Sar absorption in mouse jejunum. We conclude from these observations that GIP, but not GLP-1, directly activates PepT1 activity by a cAMP-dependent signaling pathway in jejunum.

  16. In vivo transport kinetics and distribution of taurocholate by rat ileum and jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.C.; Root, C. )

    1990-08-01

    The transport kinetics and distribution of taurocholate (TC) from the ileum and jejunum were evaluated in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Uptake and transport kinetics were determined after simultaneous administration of equimolar solutions of ({sup 3}H)taurocholic acid (({sup 3}H)TC) in the ileum and (24-{sup 14}C)taurocholic acid (({sup 14}C)TC) in the jejunum of anesthetized rats. At TC concentrations between 0.3 and 15 mM, total ileal absorption exceeded jejunal absorption 15- to 25-fold. The apparent Km and Vmax for ileal absorption of TC were 5.6 mM and 65.5 nmol.min-1.cm-1, respectively. Tissue distribution studies following uptake from the ileum and jejunum were done with {sup 75}Se-labeled homocholic acid taurine ({sup 75}Se-HCAT). In the ileum, 82% of the {sup 75}Se-HCAT removed from the lumen was found in the bile, 10.6% was found in the ileal wall, and 7.3% was found in the liver. In the jejunum, 24.1% was found in bile, 0.6% was found in the liver, and 75.3% remained in the jejunal wall. These data show that the ileum is much more efficient and better equipped than the jejunum to take up and transport TC at concentrations up to 15 mM.

  17. Hemostasis Achieved Endoscopically for Diverticular Bleeding from the Horizontal Portion of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Matuso, Yasumasa; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Midori; Ishigooka, Shinya; Ozawa, Shun-ichiro; Yamashita, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Diverticulum of the horizontal portion of the duodenum is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Since it is difficult to access the horizontal portion of the duodenum by standard upper GI endoscopy, only a very few cases of endoscopic hemostasis have been reported. Herein, we report a case of diverticular bleeding from the horizontal portion of the duodenum for which hemostasis was achieved using a small-caliber colonoscope, which has an insertion part designed with a passive-bending function/high-force transmission and a transparent tip hood. PMID:26692767

  18. Retroperitoneal perforation of the duodenum from biliary stent erosion.

    PubMed

    Miller, George; Yim, Duke; Macari, Michael; Harris, Marsha; Shamamian, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Endoscopically placed biliary stents have supplanted surgical decompression as the preferred treatment option for patients with obstructive jaundice from advanced pancreatic cancer. An unusual complication of indewelling biliary stents is duodenal perforation into the retroperitoneum. We describe the case of a patient with end-stage pancreatic cancer who presented with an acute abdomen from erosion of a previously placed bile duct stent through the wall of the second portion of the duodenum. Although our patient presented with advanced symptoms, clinical presentations can vary from mild abdominal discomfort and general malaise to overt septic shock. Definitive diagnosis is best made with computed tomography (CT) imaging, which can detect traces of retroperitoneal air and fluid. Treatment options vary from nonoperative management with antibiotics, bowel rest, and parenteral alimentation in the most stable patients to definitive surgery with complete diversion of gastric contents and biliary flow from the affected area in patients with clinical symptoms or radiologic evidence suggesting extensive contamination. Complications of management can include duodenal fistulization, residual retroperitoneal or intrabdominal abscess, and ongoing sepsis. This report highlights the salient issues in the presentation, diagnosis, and modern management of patients with this rare complication of indwelling biliary stents.

  19. Acquired constricting and restricting lesions of the descending duodenum.

    PubMed

    Carbo, Alberto I; Sangster, Guillermo P; Caraway, Jessica; Heldmann, Maureen G; Thomas, Jaiyeola; Takalkar, Amol

    2014-01-01

    The descending duodenum is a structure with distinct pathologic processes and anatomic relationships that requires a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis. Because of its tubular shape and fixed position in the retroperitoneum, both intrinsic duodenal and juxtaduodenal diseases are capable of producing luminal narrowing and obstruction. Duodenal lesions may be located in the mucosa or submucosa. Extraduodenal lesions may originate in adjacent structures--such as the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, colon, and lymph nodes--or from other retroperitoneal structures. Causes of duodenal obstruction include intraluminal masses, such as bezoars; duodenal inflammation, such as as peptic ulcers and Crohn disease; hematomas; and benign or malignant mucosal and intramural tumors. Pancreatic inflammation; tumors; and extrinsic compression caused by gallbladder processes, hepatic masses, retroperitoneal fluid collections, and tumors, including lymphoma, may produce duodenal obstruction. Abdominal radiography, barium studies, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography may be used to depict and characterize duodenal strictures. Integration of imaging, clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic findings plays a major role in establishing a diagnosis of obstructive duodenal strictures. PMID:25208276

  20. Single Jejunum Metastasis from Breast Cancer Arising Twelve Years after the Initial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Cláudia; Garcia, José; Araújo, Alexandra; Araújo, António

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic involvement of gastrointestinal tract from breast cancer is a rare event. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman presenting with bowel obstruction, related to metastasis of a primary breast cancer she had 12 years earlier (a triple-negative invasive ductal carcinoma treated with surgery and chemotherapy). Bowel obstruction was caused by a 20-centimeter tumor in the jejunum, involving also the transverse colon. The patient underwent en bloc resection of tumor with jejunum and transverse bowel segment and received adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Twenty months later, she was alive without disease recurrence. PMID:27781130

  1. Use of water ingestion to distinguish the gallbladder and duodenum on cholescintigrams

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, I.A.; Weissmann, H.S.; Kaplun, L.L.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-09-01

    Cholescintigraphic diagnosis of acute cholecystitis requires accurate assessment of gallbladder nonvisualization. Confusion may occur when the gallbladder overlies the duodenal sweep or when labeled bile pools in the duodenum. Gallbladder activity could not be differentiated from duodenal activity in 21 patients. The oral ingestion of 225 ml of water permitted successful differentiation of the gallbladder from the duodenum. In 25 control subjects, it was demonstrated that that volume of water did not have a cholecystokinetic effect.

  2. Intra Luminal Metastasis to Duodenum: A Histological Surprise

    PubMed Central

    Aroul, Tirou; Kuppusamy, Sasikumar; Gunashekaran, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma cervix is one of the most common malignancies seen in women worldwide and more so in the Indian subcontinent. Carcinoma cervix is known for its orderly lymphatic spread. Skip metastasis or intraluminal metastasis is not a frequent occurrence. A 50-year-old diabetic and hypertensive female patient who was diagnosed to have carcinoma cervix (stage II A 2) Grade II to III and post radiotherapy (3 years back) presented to the surgical outpatient with dyspeptic symptoms and vague abdominal pain. On examination she was found to have a 1x1cm hard, fixed, left supraclavicular node and a palpable liver. Ultrasound abdomen revealed multiple retro peritoneal lymphadenopathy and Contrast Enhanced Computerised Tomography (CECT) abdomen revealed secondary deposits in the pancreatico-duodenal groove infiltrating the duodenal C-loop and pancreatic head, with multiple retroperitoneal nodes with necrosis. Fine needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) from left supraclavicular node revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed 2 sessile lesions in the anterior wall of duodenum with mucosa stretched and central umbilication with almost complete luminal obstruction. Biopsy from the duodenal lesion also turned out positive for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Gynaecological examination was negative for any local recurrence. Patient was managed symptomatically for dyspepsia and is currently undergoing chemotherapy. She is at present on regular follow-up and is asymptomatic for the bowel metastasis. Given the frequency of cancer cervix and the rarity of intra luminal metastasis, this case report serves to reiterate the fact that the abdomen is truly a pandora’s box. PMID:27790514

  3. [Intramural nervous apparatus of jejunum and rectum in experimental portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Gaĭvoronskiĭ, I V; Tikhonova, L P; Chepur, S V; Nichiporuk, G I

    2004-01-01

    Using histological and electron microscopical methods, the state of intramural nervous structures of jejunum and rectum was studied in 92 dogs with experimental portal hypertension. Three phases of changes of portal pressure were detected and its influence upon the intramural nervous apparatus was observed. In phase 1 (first 4-5 days after the surgery) the reactive changes of the nervous apparatus were shown that were more pronounced in jejunum. In phase 2 (day 5 to 2.5 months) the portal pressure was shown to drop; this was accompanied by some signs of regeneration in jejunum and by an aggravation of destructive processes in rectum. In phase 3 of the repeated rise of portal pressure (2.5 to 6.5 months after the surgery), destructive changes in the nervous apparatus were demonstrated that were similar to those found in phase 1. However, the differences in the reaction of nervous structures in different layers of intestinal tube and the heterogeneity of the changes of the nervous apparatus in jejunum and rectum were absent. The association of time of appearance and of severity of structural changes with the elevation of portal pressure suggests the significant role of vascular factor in the morphogenesis of alterations observed in phase 3 of hemodynamic changes.

  4. [A Case of Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Carcinoma, Penetrating the Stomach, Colon, and Jejunum].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tadahiro; Toyama, Hirochika; Asari, Sadaki; Terai, Sachio; Kinoshita, Hisoka; Matsumoto, Taku; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Tanaka, Motofumi; Takebe, Atsushi; Kido, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to a nearby clinic complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal CT showed a 10 cm diameter huge cystic lesion in the body and tail of the pancreas. The patient was referred to our institution for treatment. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a cystic mass with a solid lesion. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP) demonstrated mucous at the opening of the papilla of Vater and dilatation of the pancreatic duct with a solid nodule. Contrast radiography revealed a fistula from the tumor to the jejunum. A biopsy specimen from the lesion showed adenocarcinoma. Intraoperative findings showed a tumor occupying the pancreas body and tail with suspected invasion to the stomach, jejunum, and transverse colon. We performed distal pancreatectomy with partial resection of stomach, jejunum, and colon. Pathological findings showed an invasive type of IPMC, with invasion to the subserosal layer of the stomach and colon and the mucous layer of the jejunum. While IPMC is recognized as a slow growing malignancy, some cases of invasive carcinoma with fistulation into adjacent organs have been reported. To our knowledge, a case of IPMC penetrating to 3 adjacent organs is rare.

  5. Variant arterial supply to the lesser curvature of the stomach and duodenum from double inferior phrenic arteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rongyao; Yao, Zhihua; Chen, Yihui; Xu, Zheng; Chen, Yongyi; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    A rare case of the left accessory inferior phrenic artery (IPA) supplying the lesser curvature of the stomach and the right accessory IPA supplying the duodenum was observed during interventional radiography. To our knowledge, variation arteries supplying the stomach and duodenum have never been reported in English literature; herein, we report the first case of variant arterial supply to the lesser curvature of the stomach and duodenum from double IPAs.

  6. Afterhyperpolarization current in myenteric neurons of the guinea pig duodenum.

    PubMed

    Vogalis, F; Furness, J B; Kunze, W A

    2001-05-01

    Whole cell patch and cell-attached recordings were obtained from neurons in intact ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig duodenum. Two classes of neuron were identified electrophysiologically: phasically firing AH neurons that had a pronounced slow afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and tonically firing S neurons that lacked a slow AHP. We investigated the properties of the slow AHP and the underlying current (I(AHP)) to address the roles of Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+) release in the AHP and the characteristics of the K(+) channels that are activated. AH neurons had a resting potential of -54 mV and the AHP, which followed a volley of three suprathreshold depolarizing current pulses delivered at 50 Hz through the pipette, averaged 11 mV at its peak, which occurred 0.5-1 s following the stimulus. The duration of these AHPs averaged 7 s. Under voltage-clamp conditions, I(AHP)'s were recorded at holding potentials of -50 to -65 mV, following brief depolarization of AH neurons (20-100 ms) to positive potentials (+35 to +50 mV). The null potential of the I(AHP) at its peak was -89 mV. The AHP and I(AHP) were largely blocked by omega-conotoxin GVIA (0.6-1 microM). Both events were markedly decreased by caffeine (2-5 mM) and by ryanodine (10-20 microM) added to the bathing solution. Pharmacological suppression of the I(AHP) with TEA (20 mM) or charybdotoxin (50-100 nM) unmasked an early transient inward current at -55 mV following step depolarization that reversed at -34 mV and was inhibited by niflumic acid (50-100 microM). Mean-variance analysis performed on the decay of the I(AHP) revealed that the AHP K(+) channels have a mean chord conductance of ~10 pS, and there are ~4,000 per AH neuron. Spectral analysis showed that the AHP channels have a mean open dwell time of 2.8 ms. Cell-attached patch recordings from AH neurons confirmed that the channels that open following action currents have a small unitary conductance (10-17 pS) and open with a high probability (

  7. Impact of Ileocecal Resection and Concomitant Antibiotics on the Microbiome of the Murine Jejunum and Colon

    PubMed Central

    Speck, K. Elizabeth; Knight, Rob; Helmrath, Michael; Lund, P. Kay; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ileocecal resection (ICR) is a commonly required surgical intervention in unmanageable Crohn’s disease and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the impact of ICR, and the concomitant doses of antibiotic routinely given with ICR, on the intestinal commensal microbiota has not been determined. In this study, wild-type C57BL6 mice were subjected to ICR and concomitant single intraperitoneal antibiotic injection. Intestinal lumen contents were collected from jejunum and colon at 7, 14, and 28 days after resection and compared to non-ICR controls. Samples were analyzed by16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. The intestinal microbiota was altered by 7 days after ICR and accompanying antibiotic treatment, with decreased diversity in the colon. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) decreased from 11.8 ± 1.8 in non-ICR controls to 5.9 ± 0.5 in 7-day post-ICR samples. There were also minor effects in the jejunum where PD values decreased from 8.3 ± 0.4 to 7.5 ± 1.4. PCoA analysis indicated that bacterial populations 28 days post-ICR differed significantly from non-ICR controls. Moreover, colon and jejunum bacterial populations were remarkably similar 28 days after resection, whereas the initial communities differed markedly. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in jejunum and colon before ICR; however, Firmicutes became the vastly predominant phylum in jejunum and colon 28 days after ICR. Although the microbiota returned towards a homeostatic state, with re-establishment of Firmicutes as the predominant phylum, we did not detect Bacteroidetes in the colon 28 days after ICR. In the jejunum Bacteroidetes was detected at a 0.01% abundance after this time period. The changes in jejunal and colonic microbiota induced by ICR and concomitant antibiotic injection may therefore be considered as potential regulators of post-surgical adaptive growth or function, and in a setting of active IBD, potential contributors to post-surgical pathophysiology of disease

  8. Impact of ileocecal resection and concomitant antibiotics on the microbiome of the murine jejunum and colon.

    PubMed

    Devine, Anthony A; Gonzalez, Antonio; Speck, K Elizabeth; Knight, Rob; Helmrath, Michael; Lund, P Kay; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ileocecal resection (ICR) is a commonly required surgical intervention in unmanageable Crohn's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the impact of ICR, and the concomitant doses of antibiotic routinely given with ICR, on the intestinal commensal microbiota has not been determined. In this study, wild-type C57BL6 mice were subjected to ICR and concomitant single intraperitoneal antibiotic injection. Intestinal lumen contents were collected from jejunum and colon at 7, 14, and 28 days after resection and compared to non-ICR controls. Samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. The intestinal microbiota was altered by 7 days after ICR and accompanying antibiotic treatment, with decreased diversity in the colon. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) decreased from 11.8 ± 1.8 in non-ICR controls to 5.9 ± 0.5 in 7-day post-ICR samples. There were also minor effects in the jejunum where PD values decreased from 8.3 ± 0.4 to 7.5 ± 1.4. PCoA analysis indicated that bacterial populations 28 days post-ICR differed significantly from non-ICR controls. Moreover, colon and jejunum bacterial populations were remarkably similar 28 days after resection, whereas the initial communities differed markedly. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in jejunum and colon before ICR; however, Firmicutes became the vastly predominant phylum in jejunum and colon 28 days after ICR. Although the microbiota returned towards a homeostatic state, with re-establishment of Firmicutes as the predominant phylum, we did not detect Bacteroidetes in the colon 28 days after ICR. In the jejunum Bacteroidetes was detected at a 0.01% abundance after this time period. The changes in jejunal and colonic microbiota induced by ICR and concomitant antibiotic injection may therefore be considered as potential regulators of post-surgical adaptive growth or function, and in a setting of active IBD, potential contributors to post-surgical pathophysiology of disease

  9. Age-dependent expression of forkhead box O proteins in the duodenum of rats*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Zhen-qi; Huang, Rui-hua; Zhou, Bo; Wei, Quan-wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2011-01-01

    The O subfamily of forkhead box (FoxO) proteins is the downstream effector of the insulin-like growth factor-1/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/PKB) signal pathway. The objective of the present study was to examine the expressions of three members of FoxO proteins, FoxO1, FoxO3a, and FoxO4 in the duodenum of Sprague-Dawley rats at different ages. The result demonstrated that the expression of FoxO4 in rat duodenum showed an age-dependent manner. At Day 21, there were no detectable localization and expression of FoxO4 in the duodenum, while, at Months 2 and 6, localization and expression of FoxO4 were distinct. In addition, FoxO4 staining was primarily concentrated in the cell nuclei of the lamina propria around the intestinal gland of the duodenum in 2-month-old rats, but was not detectable in the same area in 6-month-old rats. Our results showed also that although FoxO3a existed in the cytoplasm of the lamina propria at a low level at the 2- and 6-month marks, it was still not detectable at Day 21. Besides, FoxO1 was not detectable in all parts and stages. Taken together, our findings suggested that the cell-specific and age-dependent expressional patterns of FoxO4 and FoxO3a proteins in the duodenum play some roles in the development and growth performance of the rat duodenum. PMID:21887848

  10. Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy for the Management of Localized Crohn's Disease of the Duodenum.

    PubMed

    Xingjun, Guo; Feng, Zhu; Min, Wang; Renyi, Qin

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease of the duodenum is an uncommon condition. Our case was an extremely rare manifestation of Crohn's disease, who presented with obstruction of the pylorus and the first and the second parts of the duodenum. Because of the severity of the obstruction, he underwent laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. Postoperative pancreatic leakage and bowel fistula were not observed, and there was no morbidity during the follow-up period. There was also no disturbance in digestive function, postoperatively. This is the first case employing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy to cure benign lesions leading to duodenal obstruction. Minimally invasive laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy technology shows a very big advantage in treating this rare benign Crohn's disease.

  11. Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy for the Management of Localized Crohn's Disease of the Duodenum.

    PubMed

    Xingjun, Guo; Feng, Zhu; Min, Wang; Renyi, Qin

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease of the duodenum is an uncommon condition. Our case was an extremely rare manifestation of Crohn's disease, who presented with obstruction of the pylorus and the first and the second parts of the duodenum. Because of the severity of the obstruction, he underwent laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. Postoperative pancreatic leakage and bowel fistula were not observed, and there was no morbidity during the follow-up period. There was also no disturbance in digestive function, postoperatively. This is the first case employing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy to cure benign lesions leading to duodenal obstruction. Minimally invasive laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy technology shows a very big advantage in treating this rare benign Crohn's disease. PMID:27574357

  12. Regression of follicular lymphoma of the duodenum following eradication of H. pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroki; Onishi, Yutaka; Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Ogura, Takeshi; Maeda, Mitsuo; Nishigami, Takashi; Harada, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman was referred for an examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Endoscopy showed an elevated lesion in the duodenum with central depression and multiple white granules. Biopsy specimens revealed lymphoid follicles composed predominantly of centrocytes with scattered centroblasts. The tumor cells were positive for bcl-2. The patient was diagnosed with follicular lymphoma and underwent antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The regression of the lesion was obvious. After 5.5 years of follow-up, there has been no evidence of recurrence. This case suggests that H. pylori eradication therapy is effective for treating follicular lymphoma in the duodenum. PMID:24292749

  13. Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Invading the Duodenum and Presenting as Idiopathic Gastroparesis with Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Cengia, Brent T.; Stuart, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Prior esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed retained food and delayed gastric emptying, but abdominal computed tomography was normal. The working diagnosis was idiopathic gastroparesis. Subsequently, an electrogastrogram test showed normal 3-cycle-per-minute activity, although it was suggestive of obstructive gastroparesis. Repeat esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed obstruction at the postbulbar duodenum. Repeat abdominal computed tomography revealed a 2.2 x 1.6-cm mass in the pancreaticoduodenal groove narrowing the descending duodenum and aspiration of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma. PMID:27807571

  14. Induction of histone acetylation on the sucrase-isomaltase gene in the postnatal rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Yorita, Satoko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2009-04-23

    The rapid induction of the sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene in rat jejunum from the onset to final period of weaning was associated with increases of the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 on the promoter/transcriptional region of the gene, suggesting that an abrupt jejunal induction of histone acetylation changes on the SI gene during this period may be concerned with the expression of the gene.

  15. Microbial community profiles of the jejunum from steers differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Myer, P R; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding the association between the microbial community and host feed efficiency in cattle has primarily focused on the rumen. However, the various microbial populations within the gastrointestinal tract as a whole are critical to the overall well-being of the host and need to be examined when determining the interplay between host and nonhost factors affecting feed efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial communities of the jejunum among steers differing in feed efficiency. Within 2 contemporary groups of steers, individual ADFI and ADG were determined from animals fed the same diet. At the end of each feeding period, steers were ranked based on their standardized distance from the bivariate mean (ADG and ADFI). Four steers with the greatest deviation within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled ( = 16/group; 2 groups). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the jejunum content using next-generation sequencing technology. The phylum Firmicutes accounted for up to 90% of the populations within all samples and was dominated by the families Clostridiaceae and Ruminococcaceae. UniFrac principal coordinate analyses did not indicate any separation of microbial communities within the jejunum based on feed efficiency phenotype, and no significant changes were indicated by bacterial diversity or richness metrics. The relative abundances of microbial populations and operational taxonomic units did reveal significant differences between feed efficiency groups ( < 0.05), including the phylum Proteobacteria ( = 0.030); the families Lachnospiraceae ( = 0.035), Coriobacteriaceae ( = 0.012), and Sphingomonadaceae ( = 0.035); and the genera ( = 0.019), ( = 0.018), and ( = 0.022). The study identified jejunal microbial associations with feed efficiency, ADG, and ADFI. This study suggests the association of the jejunum microbial community as a factor influencing feed efficiency at the 16S level.

  16. Bleeding peptic ulcer caused by ectopic gastric mucosa in a duplicated segment of jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.

    1981-02-01

    The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described.

  17. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  18. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  19. [Morphological changes in the stomach and duodenum in chronic liver diseases of HB viral etiology].

    PubMed

    Alekseevskikh, Iu G; Klochkov, S A; Nazarov, Kh T; Potapov, A S; Pelikh, S T

    1994-01-01

    Morphologic investigation of 72 gastroduodenal biopsy samples from 29 children with chronic persistent and chronic active hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, revealed signs of chronic gastroduodenitis. The degree of the gastroduodenal zone lesion was directly related to severity of the primary condition. Comparative data on histopathological changes in the stomach and duodenum in concurrent pathologies suggest that chronic duodenitis may be the primary condition. PMID:7831915

  20. [A case of tuberculous lymphadenitis found as an abdominal mass penetrating the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Kayoko; Hozawa, Shigenari; Kojima, Seiichirou; Kobayashi, Keinji; Watanabe, Kenichi; Mine, Tetsuya; Kijima, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka; Miyachi, Hayato

    2006-08-01

    A 42-year-old woman who complained of epigastralgia was referred to our hospital because of an abdominal mass found by ultrasonography. CT and MRI scans revealed that the abdominal mass, 4 cm in diameter, located on the left side of the right kidney. Gastroduodenoscopy detected a deep ulcerative lesion covered with a yellowish coat in the second portion of duodenum. A sonolucent area at the bottom of the ulcerative lesion seemed to expand to the abdominal mass on ultrasonic endoscopy. Tuberculosis was one possible differential diagnosis. Pathological examination including Ziehl-Neelsen staining using biopsy specimens taken from the bottom of the ulcerative lesion did not show tuberculosis infection. However, polymerase chain reaction analysis using the biopsy specimens revealed that gene expression of tuberculosis was positive. We determined that tuberculous lymphadenitis penetrated the duodenum forming an ulcerative lesion in the duodenum. The administration of anti-tubercular medicine for 6 months male the abdominal mass disappeared and the duodenal ulcerative lesion formed an ulcer scar. We report here a case of tuberculous lymphadenitis penetrating the duodenum which was successfully treated by conservative therapy without surgical treatment.

  1. An evaluation of protein/fat ratio in first DHI test milk for prediction of subsequent displaced abomasum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T D; Leslie, K E; Duffield, T F; Edge, V L

    1998-04-01

    First DHI test milk that was sampled prior to displaced abomasum (DA) diagnosis was used to evaluate milk protein/fat ratio (PFR) for prediction of subsequent DA in dairy cows. Odds ratio, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio were determined. Twenty-seven DA cases were matched to 3 controls per case by herd and calving date. Milk was tested at a median of 19 d after calving, which was 8 d prior to the median time of DA diagnosis. Adjusted for parity and days in milk, a protein/fat ratio < or = 0.72 was 8.2 times more likely to come from a cow subsequently diagnosed with DA than a protein/fat ratio > 0.72. Using the cut off value of 0.72, the sensitivity of PFR for DA was 80% and the specificity was 68%. A receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the minimum sum of false negative and false positive results was at a PFR cut off value of 0.72. The likelihood ratio indicated that protein/fat ratios < or = 0.62 are 3.8 times more likely to come from cows that are diagnosed subsequently with DA than from cows without DA. The protein/fat ratio in 1st DHI test milk may predict subsequent DA in dairy cows.

  2. [Total laryngopharyngectomy and reconstruction with a jejunum speech siphon : A case report].

    PubMed

    Seidel, D U; Sheppard, K; Dogan, Z A; Remmert, S

    2014-06-01

    Advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis and a pronounced loss of quality of life due to impairment of the swallowing and voice function. The fundamental therapeutic challenge is successful tumor control with concomitant rehabilitation of swallowing and voice functions. Further objectives are a low complications rate (fistula, aspiration) and prompt transfer to the adjuvant radio-oncologic therapy. With these factors in mind, the microvascular anastomosed jejunum speech siphon with a biventer rein has proven to be an effective method of reconstruction following extensive circular laryngopharyngeal resections. In this case report, a typical operative and postoperative course is presented, as are the functional results.

  3. High-Level Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Transgenic Pigs Can Inhibit the Growth of Escherichia coli in the Duodenum and Influence Intestinal Morphology of Sucking Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dan; Li, Qiuyan; Wu, Zhibin; Shang, Shengzhe; Liu, Shen; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Wu, Fangfang; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme is often used as a feed additive and acts as an antimicrobial protein that enhances immune function and defends against pathogenic bacteria in pigs. In this study, we genetically added recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) to sow milk by somatic cell nuclear transfer and investigated whether the presence of recombinant human lysozyme can influence intestinal microbiota and mophology in sucking pigs. We generated transgenic cloned pigs and the first-generation hybrids (F1) produced high levels of rhLZ in milk. The average concentration of rhLZ was 116.34±24.46 mg/L in the milk of F1 sows, which was 1500-fold higher than that of the native pig lysozyme. In vitro, it was demonstrated that rhLZ in milk of transgenic pigs had enzyme levels at 92,272±26,413 U/mL. In a feeding experiment, a total of 40 newborn piglets were nursed by four transgenic sows and four sibling non-transgenic sows (F1), with five piglets per gilt. The piglets were allowed to nurse for 21 days and the sow milk was the only source of nutrition for the piglets. All piglets were slaughtered on postnatal day 22. Six types of bacteria were cultured and analyzed to detect the impact of rhLZ on gut microbiota. The number of Escherichia coli in the duodenum of piglets reared by transgenic sows was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and their villus height to crypt depth ratio in the intestine were increased due to the significant decrease of crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (p<0.001). Together, we successfully generated rhLZ transgenic cloned pigs and elevated lysozyme level in nuring piglets. The results of the feeding experiments demonstrated that rhLZ-enhanced milk can inhibit the growth of E. coli in the duodenum and positively influence intestinal morphology without adversely affecting weight gain or piglet growth. PMID:24586544

  4. High-level recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of transgenic pigs can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli in the duodenum and influence intestinal morphology of sucking pigs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Li, Qiuyan; Wu, Zhibin; Shang, Shengzhe; Liu, Shen; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Wu, Fangfang; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme is often used as a feed additive and acts as an antimicrobial protein that enhances immune function and defends against pathogenic bacteria in pigs. In this study, we genetically added recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) to sow milk by somatic cell nuclear transfer and investigated whether the presence of recombinant human lysozyme can influence intestinal microbiota and morphology in sucking pigs. We generated transgenic cloned pigs and the first-generation hybrids (F1) produced high levels of rhLZ in milk. The average concentration of rhLZ was 116.34 ± 24.46 mg/L in the milk of F1 sows, which was 1500-fold higher than that of the native pig lysozyme. In vitro, it was demonstrated that rhLZ in milk of transgenic pigs had enzyme levels at 92,272 ± 26,413 U/mL. In a feeding experiment, a total of 40 newborn piglets were nursed by four transgenic sows and four sibling non-transgenic sows (F1), with five piglets per gilt. The piglets were allowed to nurse for 21 days and the sow milk was the only source of nutrition for the piglets. All piglets were slaughtered on postnatal day 22. Six types of bacteria were cultured and analyzed to detect the impact of rhLZ on gut microbiota. The number of Escherichia coli in the duodenum of piglets reared by transgenic sows was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and their villus height to crypt depth ratio in the intestine were increased due to the significant decrease of crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (p<0.001). Together, we successfully generated rhLZ transgenic cloned pigs and elevated lysozyme level in nuring piglets. The results of the feeding experiments demonstrated that rhLZ-enhanced milk can inhibit the growth of E. coli in the duodenum and positively influence intestinal morphology without adversely affecting weight gain or piglet growth.

  5. [Duodenojejunostomy in the symptomatic treatment of neoplastic obstruction of the duodenum--clinical observations].

    PubMed

    Górka, Z; Lesiecka, M; Kuśnierz, K; Mrowiec, S; Leidgens, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of duodenojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy in the treatment of neoplastic obstruction in the distal part of the duodenum. From 1992-1996, 37 patients (15 women, 22 men, aged 31-76 years) underwent a palliative operation for pancreatic cancer infiltrating the distal part of duodenum. Roux-en-Y procedure was used to create anastomoses between the duodenal bulb and jejunal loop. In 13 patients only alimentary by-pass was made whereas in the remaining 24 biliary decompression was also performed. The results were compared with the outcome in 26 patients in whom gastrojejunal side-to-side anastomosis been made. The advantage of Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy is that it does not interfere with gastric emptying and thus prevents jejuno biliary reflux and the consequent complications. Improvement of nutrition and quality of life in patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer, were noticed with this method.

  6. Stomach and duodenum ulcer: comparing the efficiency of three laser therapeutic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myslovich, L. V.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of how effective various therapeutic techniques are in treating stomach and duodenum ulcers. The investigation was made on 105 patients (70 patients were affected by duodenum ulcer and 25 patients suffered from stomach ulcer). Three different complex laser therapeutic techniques were compared with each other and with a generally accepted drug treatment. It was found that the most pronounced therapeutic effect was observed in patients administered a complex laser technique that included drug therapy, the intravenous laser irradiation of blood, and the focal-segmental laser therapy. This complex laser therapy enabled ulcer scarring within 8 to 15 days after the beginning of the treatment (with the average scarring term of 9 days).

  7. Endoscopic Resection of a Pedunculated Brunner's Gland Hamartoma of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takehiro; Ando, Satoko; Gotoda, Tatsuhiro; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old Japanese woman presented with a solitary pedunculated polyp in the duodenum. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed multiple cystic structures in the polyp. The polyp was successfully resected by endoscopic snare polypectomy and pathologically diagnosed as Brunner's gland hamartoma. Because hamartomatous components were not identified in the stalk of the polyp, we speculate that the stalk developed from traction of the normal duodenal mucosa. When a solitary, pedunculated polyp with cystic structure within the submucosa is found in the duodenum, Brunner's gland hamartoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis, despite the rarity of the disease. This case underscores the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography for the diagnosis of duodenal subepithelial tumors. PMID:27579190

  8. [An unusual complication after the partial resection of the ascending duodenum of a cow].

    PubMed

    Steiner, A; Müller, L; Pabst, B

    1989-01-01

    In a heifer portions of the ascending duodenum, which had been perforated by an obstructing phytobezoar, were resected. This resulted in an unexpected complication. The shortened ligamentum duodenocolicum exerted steady traction on the descending colon. This traction caused a kink and finally resulted in a total obstruction of the colon. The pathogenesis of this complication is illustrated. Surgical--possibly preventive--procedures are discussed.

  9. Intramural hematoma of duodenum: An unusual complication after endoscopic therapy for a bleeding peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Bhatia, Vikram; Garg, Hitendra Kumar; Sundar, Shyam

    2011-01-01

    Intramural hematoma of duodenum (IDH) is a relatively unusual complication associated with endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer. This unusual condition is usually seen in children following blunt trauma to the abdomen. We describe here a case of IDH occurring following endoscopic therapy for bleeding duodenal ulcer in an adult patient with end-stage renal disease. The hematomas appeared on the second day of endoscopic intervention, caused transient duodenal obstruction and resolved spontaneously with conservative treatment in a week. PMID:21814382

  10. On the mechanism of the relaxing adrenaline effect on cat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Petkov, V; Radomirov, R

    1975-01-01

    The effect of propranolol, phentolamine, papaverine, theophyline and Ca++, administered in different combinations of their threshold doses, on the relaxing effect of adrenaline was studied on an isolated segment of proximal jejunum of male cats. It was established that phentolamine weakened the relaxing effect of adrenaline, while propranolol had no effect on it. Papaverine potentiated the relaxinf effects of adrenaline both when administered alone and in combination with propranolol or with phentolamine. Theophylline weakened the relaxing effect of adfrenaline and of the combination phentolamine-adrenaline. Ca++ increased the smooth-muscle tone. The interpretation of the results obtained leads to the fundamental conclusions that the relaxing effect of adrenaline on cat jejunum is more alpha- than beta-adrenergically determined and that the system of the cyclic AMP participates in its realization. At the smae time, however, the possibility of participation of other mechanisms is not excluded. The smooth-muscle effect of papaverine and theophylline is not determined only by their inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase.

  11. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive enteroglial cells in the jejunum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Anna

    2015-07-01

    Enteroglial cells (EGCs) play critical roles in human health and disease, however, EGC-dependent neuropathies also affect commercially important animal species. Due to the lack of data on the distribution and phenotypic characterization of the EGCs throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract, in this study the topographic localization of EGCs in the jejunum of healthy cattle was investigated by immunofluorescence using the glial specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the panneuronal marker PGP 9.5. This analysis was conducted on both cryosections and whole mount preparations including the myenteric and the submucous plexuses of the bovine jejunum. The results obtained showed the presence of a large subpopulation of GFAP-expressing EGCs in the main plexuses and within the muscle layers, whereas only few GFAP-positive glial processes were found within the deeper layer of the mucosa, and they never reached the mucosal epithelium. Three different EGC subtypes, namely I, III and IV types were recognized in the examined tract of the bovine intestine. Overall, our results provide the basis for future investigations aimed at elucidating the functional role of the GFAP-containing EGCs which is crucial for a better understanding of the physio-pathology of the bovine intestine.

  12. Handling of psilocybin and psilocin by everted sacs of rat jejunum and colon.

    PubMed

    Eivindvik, K; Rasmussen, K E; Sund, R B

    1989-01-01

    Psilocybin and psilocin at luminal concentrations of about 20 nmol/ml were incubated aerobically with everted sacs from rat jejunum and colon. When incubation was terminated, samples of the lumen and blood side solutions and of the intestinal tissue were analyzed for parent drug and metabolites by HPLC using a multidetector system. Both sacs caused hydrolysis of psilocybin to psilocin, but the rate was much faster in the jejunum than in the colon. Tissue uptake of intact psilocybin was negligible or absent, and no transfer to the contraside of the parent drug could be demonstrated. In contrast, psilocin, whether formed by hydrolysis or added as a substrate, was well taken up by both intestinal segments and transferred to the blood side. In the colonic psilocybin experiments, this uptake and transfer was limited by a low hydrolytic rate. The results indicate that psilocybin under in vivo conditions is absorbed predominantly as psilocin. No further metabolism of either drug was observed, as opposed to the complex metabolism pattern that has been reported for serotonin, a close chemical relative to psilocin.

  13. Effect of Imperatorin on the Spontaneous Motor Activity of Rat Isolated Jejunum Strips

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Marta; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Chłopecka, Magdalena; Dziekan, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Imperatorin, a psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent acting as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle. Its effects on other types of smooth muscle remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesized myorelaxant effect of imperatorin on gut motor activity and, possibly, to define the underlying mechanism of action. Imperatorin was made available for pharmacological studies from the fruits of the widely available Angelica officinalis through the application of high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). Imperatorin generated reversible relaxation of jejunum strips dose-dependently (1–100 μM). At 25 and 50 μM, imperatorin caused relaxation comparable to the strength of the reaction induced by isoproterenol (Isop) at 0.1 μM. The observed response resulted neither from the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, nor from β-adrenoreceptor involvement, nor from Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Imperatorin relaxed intestine strips precontracted with high potassium concentration, attenuated the force and duration of K+-induced contractions, and modulated the response of jejunum strips to acetylcholine. The results suggest that imperatorin probably interacts with various Ca2+ influx pathways in intestine smooth muscle. The types of some calcium channels involved in the activity of imperatorin will be examined in a subsequent study. PMID:26236380

  14. Effect of Imperatorin on the Spontaneous Motor Activity of Rat Isolated Jejunum Strips.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Marta; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Chłopecka, Magdalena; Dziekan, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Imperatorin, a psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent acting as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle. Its effects on other types of smooth muscle remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesized myorelaxant effect of imperatorin on gut motor activity and, possibly, to define the underlying mechanism of action. Imperatorin was made available for pharmacological studies from the fruits of the widely available Angelica officinalis through the application of high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). Imperatorin generated reversible relaxation of jejunum strips dose-dependently (1-100 μM). At 25 and 50 μM, imperatorin caused relaxation comparable to the strength of the reaction induced by isoproterenol (Isop) at 0.1 μM. The observed response resulted neither from the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, nor from β-adrenoreceptor involvement, nor from Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels. Imperatorin relaxed intestine strips precontracted with high potassium concentration, attenuated the force and duration of K(+)-induced contractions, and modulated the response of jejunum strips to acetylcholine. The results suggest that imperatorin probably interacts with various Ca(2+) influx pathways in intestine smooth muscle. The types of some calcium channels involved in the activity of imperatorin will be examined in a subsequent study.

  15. Pdx-1 is required for activation in vivo from a duodenum-specific enhancer.

    PubMed

    Dusing, M R; Florence, E A; Wiginton, D A

    2001-04-27

    The purine metabolic gene adenosine deaminase (ADA) is expressed along a defined spatiotemporal pattern in the developing mammalian small intestine, where high-level expression is limited to the villous epithelium of the duodenum. This activation is observed in rodents as the intestine completes the final maturation resulting in adult crypt-villus structures at 2-3 weeks postpartum. A regulatory module responsible for this pattern of expression has been identified in the second intron of the human ADA gene. Of the multiple duodenal proteins that can interact with this small duodenal enhancer region, the studies contained in this work describe the identification of five of these proteins as the dispersed homeobox protein PDX-1. This transcription factor exhibits a profile of expression in the small intestine similar to that observed for ADA, making it an ideal candidate factor for the duodenum-specific ADA enhancer. Loss of PDX-1 binding, via a PDX-1 mutated enhancer transgenic construction, resulted in complete loss of high-level activation in the duodenum, demonstrating the absolute requirement for this factor in vivo. However, co-transfection experiments suggest that other proteins that bind the enhancer are also required for enhancer function because PDX-1 alone was incapable of significant transactivation.

  16. Developmental expression of STATs, nuclear factor-κB and inflammatory genes in the jejunum of piglets during weaning.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongbo; Jiang, Denghu; Zhang, Lin; Xiong, Haitao; Han, Feifei; Wang, Yizhen

    2016-07-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins play essential roles in apoptosis, proliferation and survival. However, the role of STATs in intestinal inflammation during weaning is unclear. This study aimed to investigate developmental expression of STATs, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inflammatory genes in the jejunum of piglets during weaning. Thirty-two piglets were weaned at 21d and sacrificed at 0, 1, 7, or 14d (n=8) after weaning. Villus height and the villus height/crypt depth ratio were decreased, whereas crypt depth was increased in the jejunum at 7 and 14d after weaning. In addition, the mRNA levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and IL-22 were increased in the jejunum at 7 and 14d after weaning, whereas transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SCOS3) and arginase-1 was decreased. Neutrophil infiltration was increased in the mucosa of the jejunum after weaning. Moreover, phosphorylation of IκB-α, NF-κB, AKT and STAT-3 was increased. However, the phosphorylation of STAT-1 (at 7 and 14d) and STAT-6 (at 1 and 7d) was suppressed in the jejunum after weaning. Treatment of porcine jejunal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells with the STAT inhibitors fludarabine, niclosamide and teriflunomide, which inhibit the phosphorylation of STAT-1, STAT-3 and STAT-6, respectively, weakened the defense capacity of these cells against bacterial infection. In conclusion, weaning caused severe inflammation associated with activation of the NF-κB and STAT-3 pathways and suppression of STAT-1 and STAT-6 in the jejunum of piglets.

  17. Developmental expression of STATs, nuclear factor-κB and inflammatory genes in the jejunum of piglets during weaning.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongbo; Jiang, Denghu; Zhang, Lin; Xiong, Haitao; Han, Feifei; Wang, Yizhen

    2016-07-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins play essential roles in apoptosis, proliferation and survival. However, the role of STATs in intestinal inflammation during weaning is unclear. This study aimed to investigate developmental expression of STATs, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inflammatory genes in the jejunum of piglets during weaning. Thirty-two piglets were weaned at 21d and sacrificed at 0, 1, 7, or 14d (n=8) after weaning. Villus height and the villus height/crypt depth ratio were decreased, whereas crypt depth was increased in the jejunum at 7 and 14d after weaning. In addition, the mRNA levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and IL-22 were increased in the jejunum at 7 and 14d after weaning, whereas transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SCOS3) and arginase-1 was decreased. Neutrophil infiltration was increased in the mucosa of the jejunum after weaning. Moreover, phosphorylation of IκB-α, NF-κB, AKT and STAT-3 was increased. However, the phosphorylation of STAT-1 (at 7 and 14d) and STAT-6 (at 1 and 7d) was suppressed in the jejunum after weaning. Treatment of porcine jejunal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells with the STAT inhibitors fludarabine, niclosamide and teriflunomide, which inhibit the phosphorylation of STAT-1, STAT-3 and STAT-6, respectively, weakened the defense capacity of these cells against bacterial infection. In conclusion, weaning caused severe inflammation associated with activation of the NF-κB and STAT-3 pathways and suppression of STAT-1 and STAT-6 in the jejunum of piglets. PMID:27160867

  18. Short communication: Difructose anhydride III promotes calcium absorption from the duodenum in cattle.

    PubMed

    Teramura, M; Nakai, T; Itoh, M; Sato, T; Ohtani, M; Kawashima, C; Hanada, M

    2015-04-01

    Difructose anhydride (DFA) III promotes the intestinal absorption of calcium via a paracellular pathway in rats. In dairy cows, DFA III reaches the duodenum without being degraded by ruminal bacteria and hence could be used to control hypocalcemia. The aims of the present study were to investigate the percentage of DFA III that appears in the duodenum of cows and to determine the effect of DFA III on calcium absorption from duodenal fluid. The first experiment was performed in 3 ruminally and duodenally cannulated dry Holstein cows in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 7 d. On the first day, the cows were ruminally fed one of the following treatments: 0 (DFA0), 50 (DFA50), or 100 (DFA100) g/d of DFA III, using cobalt-EDTA as a liquid phase marker. Difructose anhydride III was detected in duodenal fluid 1 h after feeding, and its concentration peaked 4 h after feeding, in a dose-dependent manner. The percentages of DFA III that appeared in the duodenum after the DFA50 and DFA100 treatments were 69.1 ± 7.0% and 67.9 ± 5.6%, respectively. The second experiment used the everted duodenal sacs of cattle (n = 7 in each group). Sacs were incubated in artificial mucosal fluid containing 1 mM DFA III or no DFA III (control) for 60 min with 100% O2 in a water bath at 37 °C. After incubation, the calcium concentration of the artificial serosal fluid in the everted sacs was measured. Calcium absorption was higher in the DFA III-treated group than in the control group (803 ± 161 and 456 ± 74 nmol/cm of sac, respectively). The above results demonstrate that approximately 70% of administered DFA III reached the duodenum of cows intact. Moreover, similar to its effects on calcium absorption in rats, DFA III promoted calcium absorption via a paracellular pathway in the duodenum of cows. PMID:25648815

  19. mRNA Expression of lipogenic enzymes in mammary tissue and fatty acid profile in milk of dairy cows fed flax hulls and infused with flax oil in the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Palin, Marie-France; Côrtes, Cristiano; Benchaar, Chaouki; Lacasse, Pierre; Petit, Hélène V

    2014-03-28

    In the present study, the effect of flax hulls with or without flax oil bypassing the rumen on the expression of lipogenic genes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows was investigated. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four periods of 21 d each and four treatments: control diet with no flax hulls (CONT); diet with 9·88 % flax hulls in the DM (HULL); control diet with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO); diet with 9·88 % flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). A higher mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor, fatty acid (FA) synthase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), PPARγ1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α was observed in cows fed HULL than in those fed CONT, and HUFO had the opposite effect. Compared with CONT, COFO and HUFO lowered the mRNA abundance of SCD, which may explain the lower proportions of MUFA in milk fat with flax oil infusion. The mRNA abundance of LPL in mammary tissue and proportions of long-chain FA in milk fat were higher in cows fed COFO than in those fed CONT. The highest proportions of trans FA were observed when cows were fed HULL. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls with or without flax oil infusion in the abomasum can affect the expression of lipogenic genes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows, which may contribute to the improvement of milk FA profile.

  20. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection evokes neuronal abnormalities and alterations in neurally regulated electrolyte transport in rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Masson, S D; McKay, D M; Stead, R H; Agro, A; Stanisz, A; Perdue, M H

    1996-08-01

    Neuronal abnormalities have been described in the intestine of helminth-infected rats. However, the physiological ramifications of these changes have not been determined. Here, we examined epithelial ion secretion, indicated by increases in short-circuit current (Isc), evoked by electrical transmural stimulation (TS) of enteric nerves in Ussing-chambered jejunal tissues from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats. Rats were examined at 10 and 35 days post-infection (p.i.); non-infected rats served as controls. TS resulted in significantly reduced ion secretion in jejunum from 10 day p.i. rats compared to controls or jejunum from 35 day p.i. rats. The TS response in tissue from infected rats had, unlike controls, no cholinergic component. Tissues from both non-infected and infected rats were equally responsive to the muscarinic agonist bethanechol, suggesting that the cholinergic defect was neuronal and not an inability of the epithelium to respond to cholinergic stimulation. However, increases in Isc evoked by exogenous substance P (SP) in tissue from rats 10 day p.i. were reduced in magnitude to approximately 25% of control values. Concomitant with these physiological changes, tissue from infected rats contained increased amounts of substance P immunoreactivity and intestinal sections displayed increased numbers of substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibre profiles at both 10 and 35 days p.i. Thus, following N. brasiliensis infection there is a shift in the enteric nervous system away from cholinergic to non-cholinergic regulation, associated with increased amounts of the pro-inflammatory neuropeptide, substance P. We speculate that changes in neuronal structure and function are intimately involved in the co-ordinated multicellular response to intestinal parasitic infection and subsequent gut recovery.

  1. The association between acidification and electrogenic events in the rat proximal jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    1. Simultaneous measurement of hydrogen ion production, transmural potential difference and intermittent short-circuit current (SCC) was made in the rat proximal jejunum in vitro: similarly, potassium and sodium ion movements were measured to investigate the relationship of acidification to electrogenic events and associated ion movements in the jejunum. 2. Acidification correlated significantly with the short-circuit current and both were inhibited by 10 mM serosal ouabain or 10 mM mucosal aminophylline. Both inhibitors had effects on net potassium movement but not on net sodium movement. Moreover, in isotope studies whereas 10 mM serosal ouabain reduced the Jms sodium flux, 10 mM mucosal aminophylline had no effect, i.e. aminophylline can reduce both short-circuit current and acidification without perceptibly altering the serosally directed sodium flux. 3. In low-sodium buffers in which acidification still occurs although reduced, transmural potential differences occur of reversed polarity that are apparently unrelated to sodium diffusion potential differences (as evidenced by isotopic sodium efflux experiments) and which could be caused by hydrogen ion production. In low sodium buffers however the inhibitors have opposing effects, ouabain causing an increase and aminophylline a decrease in the reversed potential differences. 4. A model for acidification (that of potassium rather than sodium ion exchange for the hydrogen ion and hydroxyl for chloride ion exchange) is proposed to explain the present experimental findings and other diverse observations in the literature: although either step might be the electrogenic step, acidification must be also considered as a component of the jejunal short-circuit current. PMID:7670

  2. Reduced parenteral nutrition requirements following anastomosis of a short residual colonic segment to a short jejunum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine H; Saunders, John A; Nugent, Karen P; Jackson, Alan A; Stroud, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    A 22-year-old man suffered an acute small bowel infarct leading to extensive bowel resection, resulting in only 20 cm of jejunum to a jejunostomy, although he also had 50 cm of residual colon with a mucous fistula. The patient was out on long-term home parenteral nutrition (PN) but endured high stomal losses of 5-6 L per day and, despite all conventional measures, required 6.1 L of fluid (including PN) and 555 mmol sodium per day. Although body mass index was maintained, he suffered debilitating malaise and recurrent episodes of catheter-related sepsis and also developed persistently abnormal liver function tests. He was considered a potential intestinal transplant patient, but before taking that step, he opted for reanastomosis of his residual colon to his jejunum, ending in a colostomy. At surgery, only 30 cm of additional bowel lengthening could be achieved, but despite this, the patient's stomal losses reduced to 2.5 L per day, intravenous fluid requirements reduced to 4.1 L per day, and liver function normalized. The patient also gained 7.5 kg despite no change in PN caloric prescription, and his quality of life was dramatically enhanced. The case illustrates that even a small length of colon can grant significant improvements, probably via improvements in small bowel transit and adaptive changes, better sodium and water resorption with decreased hyperaldosteronism, and enhanced energy and nitrogen recovery. Reanastomosis of defunctioned colon should therefore always be considered a management option in short bowel syndrome. PMID:22042049

  3. Dietary carbohydrates enhance lactase/phlorizin hydrolase gene expression at a transcription level in rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Kishi, K; Igawa, M; Takase, S; Goda, T

    1998-04-01

    We have previously shown that dietary sucrose stimulates the lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) mRNA accumulation along with a rise in lactase activity in rat jejunum [Goda, Yasutake, Suzuki, Takase and Koldovský (1995) Am. J. Physiol. 268, G1066-G1073]. To elucidate the mechanisms whereby dietary carbohydrates enhance the LPH mRNA expression, 7-week-old rats that had been fed a low-carbohydrate diet (5.5% of energy as starch) were given diets containing various monosaccharides or sucrose for 12h. Among carbohydrates examined, fructose, sucrose, galactose and glycerol elicited an increase in LPH mRNA accumulation along with a rise in lactase activity in the jejunum. By contrast, glucose and alpha-methylglucoside were unable to elicit a significant increase in LPH mRNA levels. To explore a transcriptional mechanism for the carbohydrate-induced increases in LPH mRNA levels, we employed two techniques currently available to estimate transcriptional rate, i.e. RNA protection assays of pre-mRNA using an intron probe, and nuclear run-on assays. Both assays revealed that fructose elicited an increase in transcription of the LPH gene, and that the transcription of LPH was influenced only slightly, if at all, by glucose intake. These results suggest that certain monosaccharides such as fructose or their metabolite(s) are capable of enhancing LPH mRNA levels in the small intestine, and that transcriptional control might play a major role in the carbohydrate-induced increase of LPH mRNA expression.

  4. Protective roles of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis of jejunum in broilers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler's jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  5. Protective roles of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis of jejunum in broilers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-12-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler's jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25590100

  6. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  7. Villous Adenocarcinoma of the Duodenum Invading the Ampulla of Vater: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cardi, Francesco; Migliore, Marcello; Romeo, Gaetano

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of villous adenocarcinoma of duodenum arising from the ampulla of Vater with a review of the literature. Although preoperative endoscopic biopsies were performed, no malignancy was identified. Because of the pathological uncertainty we decided to perform a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Microscopic examination demonstrated glandular dysplasia with aspects of villous adenoma and well differentiated adenocarcinoma. We conclude that both in malignant cases and in cases with uncertain diagnosis a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy is the best surgical treatment because it results in better 5 year survival. PMID:9184865

  8. The electrical and motor actions of gastrointestinal hormones on the duodenum in man

    PubMed Central

    Waterfall, W. E.; Duthie, H. L.; Brown, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The electrical and motor activity was recorded from the duodenum in 16 conscious human subjects in resting conditions. The main electrical wave form variously known as the pace-setter potential or slow wave was constantly present and periodically accompanied by a second electrical trace consisting of rapid bursts of fast waves or action potentials which were related to motor waves. Secretin and the synthetic analogue of gastrin, pentagastrin, were given in separate tests and their complementary actions on myoelectrical activity are reported. In general, secretin (in six subjects) depressed and pentagastrin (in eight subjects) enhanced motor activity and bursts of action potentials. PMID:4752032

  9. [Lipid peroxidation in patients with multiple peptic ulcers in the stomach and duodenum].

    PubMed

    Ioffe, I V

    2004-08-01

    Under the observation there were 62 patients with multiple ulcers of a stomach and duodenum from 23 till 65 years old, randomized under the sex, age and character of pathological process (sizes and localization of peptical ulcers). In all patients the parameters of lipids peroxidation were studied. The increase of intensity the peroxidation of lipids were revealed, at the expense of augmentation in a peripheric blood of the patients of concentration of a final metabolite peroxidation of lipids--malon's dialdehyde and intermediate products--dien's conjugates. The rising of a parameter hemolysis peroxidation of erythrocytes is marked also.

  10. Surgical approach for tumours of the third and fourth part of the duodenum. Distal pancreas-sparing duodenectomy.

    PubMed

    García-Molina, Francisco J; Mateo-Vallejo, Francisco; Franco-Osorio, Juan de Dios; Esteban-Ramos, Juan L; Rivero-Henández, Iosvany

    2015-06-01

    The anatomic complexity of the duodenum makes surgical resection challenging. We describe our experience with distal pancreas-sparing duodenectomy (PSD) for tumours that arise in the third and fourth parts of the duodenum. Between July 2008 and January 2012 eight patients underwent surgical resection for tumours in the distal parts of the duodenum. Short and long-term outcomes of treatment are retrospectively analyzed. We used the Cattell and Braash surgical approach in six patients. Seven patients underwent a segmental resection of the distal duodenum with a duodenojejunal anastomosis and in one case we performed a wedge local excision with primary closure. There were 5 gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), 1 primary duodenal adenocarcinoma, 1 metastasis of a lung adenocarcinoma and 1 patient with malignant duodenocolic fistula caused by advanced sigmoid colon carcinoma. Median operating time was 200 min and median intraoperatory blood loss 162 mL. Three patients showed postoperative complications and one of them died. There was no reoperation. Median hospital stay was 10 days (range, 7-28 days). The patient with primary adenocarcinoma died after 12 months due to hepatic metastases. All of five patients with GIST are alive without recurrence (mean follow up of 65.6 months), as well as the patient with metastatic duodenal infiltration (45 months after surgery). Segmental resection of the third and fourth portions of the duodenum is reliable and feasible. The Cattell and Braash manoeuvre provides a good exposure and makes this kind of resection easier.

  11. [Frequency dynamics of stomach and duodenum ulcer found in liquidators of consequence of Chernobyl accident (according to the data of long-term observation)].

    PubMed

    Gasanova, E V; Kovalenko, A N

    2004-01-01

    The authors have studied the frequency dynamics of stomach and duodenum ulcer occurrence revealed in liquidators of consequence of Chernobyl accident (1986-1987) after long-term medical observation with age and radiation absorbed dose variations. According to the findings, duodenum ulcer incidence prevails over stomach ulcer in all scale of age. The connection between the frequency dynamics of duodenum ulcer and age of the patients wasn't found.

  12. Bile exclusion from the duodenum. Its effect on gastric and pancreatic function in the dog.

    PubMed

    Davies, H A; Wheeler, M H; Psaila, J; Rhodes, J; Newcombe, R G; Jones, J M; Procter, D; Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R

    1985-10-01

    The effect of diverting bile from the duodenum in four dogs with cholecystojejunostomy was studied using a double-marker perfusion technique. After the diversion procedure, a liquid meal increased acid secretion from 0.8 mmol H+/min to 1.48 mmol H+/min (P less than 0.05, paired t test); there was an associated rise in serum levels of gastrin 120 min after feeding (P less than 0.001, paired t test). Pancreatic secretion of trypsin decreased from 3.91 IU/min to 2.66 IU/min after bile diversion (P less than 0.01, paired t test), and the level of CCK was significantly lower 60 min after feeding (P less than 0.05, paired t test). There was no significant change in the rate of gastric emptying after bile diversion, but the pH of duodenal contents was lower in the later stages of digestion. These changes may explain the reported increase of peptic ulcer after diverting bile from the duodenum, and the procedure should not be considered unless the consequences of acid hypersecretion and pancreatic inhibition have been anticipated.

  13. Plexiform schwannoma of the duodenum accompanying pyloric stenosis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Aktekın, Ali; Özkara, Selvinaz; Merıç, Kaan; Günay Gürleyık, Meryem; Aker, Fügen; Sağlam, Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Plexiform schwannoma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor and is composed of Schwann cells arranged in a plexiform pattern. Most plexiform schwannomas are skin tumors, and there has been no case report of this tumor originating in the duodenum. We describe the first known case of plexiform schwannoma of the duodenum. A 60-year-old man presented with a short history of food intolerance, epigastric discomfort, fullness and bloatedness, sometimes vomiting, and weight loss, without any clinical picture of neurofibromatosis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed pyloric stenosis with normal mucosal lining. The computed tomography demonstrated circumferentially and concentrically thickened pylorus up to 18 mm with narrowed lumen and limited contrast passage. Antrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were performed due to unknown etiology of the obstruction. The cut surface of the lesion revealed thickened pylorus up to 15 mm in a circumferential manner. It contained a 5 mm tumor consisted of multiple white nodules in the submucosal and subserosal layers with overlying duodenal mucosa. Microscopic examination revealed nodular structures composed of spindle cells within fascicular pattern without any atypia or mitosis. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the cells diffusely and strongly expressed S100 proteins in a nuclear and cytoplasmic pattern, but not CD117, smooth muscle actin, desmin, or CD34, confirming plexiform schwannoma. PMID:22965512

  14. Pathologic effects of fractionated fast neutrons or photons on the pancreas, pylorus and duodenum of dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Zook, B.C.; Bradley, E.W.; Casarett, G.W.; Rogers, C.C.

    1983-10-01

    Thirty-nine adult male Beagles received either fast neutron or photon irradiation to the right thorax to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons on normal pulmonary tissue. The right anterior abdomen was included in the field of radiation. Twenty-four dogs (six/group) received fast neutrons with an average energy of 15 MeV to total doses of 1000, 1500, 2250 or 3375 rad in four fractions per week for six weeks. Fifteen dogs received 3000, 4500, or 6750 rad of photons (five/group) in an identical fractionation pattern. All neutron irradiated dogs receiving 3375 and 2250 rad and one receiving 1500 rad developed clinical signs of pancreatic, hepatic and gastrointestinal disturbances. The liver enzymes of these dogs became elevated and they died or were euthanized in extremis 47-367 days after irradiation. Only one 6750 rad photon dog developed similar signs and died 708 days post-irradiation. Five neutron and 10 photon exposed dogs died of other causes. Neutron-induced lesions in the stomach and duodenum included hemorrhages, erosions, ulcerations and fibrosis. Ulcers perforated the GI tract of five dogs. Pancreatic lesions included degranulation and necrosis of acinar cells, fibrosis and atrophy. Islet cells were not obviously damaged. All lesions were associated with degenerative and occlusive vascular changes. The RBE of fast neutrons, assessed by clinical signs, gross and microscopic pathology, is approximately 3-4.5 for pancreas and about 4.5 for pylorus and duodenum.

  15. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on displaced abomasum, removal from herd, and reproduction in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-05-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Measured outcomes were development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 d in milk (DIM), conception to first service, and time to conception within 150 DIM. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Cows with SCK were randomized to treatment group (oral PG) or untreated control group (no PG); treatment cows were orally drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. Mixed effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of PG on DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service; a semiparametric proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the days-to-conception outcome. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least 1 β-hydroxybutyrate test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Of these, 372 were assigned to the PG treatment group and 369 to the control group. Thirty-nine cows (5.3%) developed a DA after testing positive for SCK and 30 cows (4.0%) died or were sold within the first 30 DIM. Based on risk ratios, control cows were 1.6 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3 to 2.0] to develop a DA and 2.1 times more likely (95% CI=1.2 to 3.6) to die or be sold than cows treated with PG. In addition, PG-treated cows were 1.3 times more likely (risk ratio 95% CI=1.1 to 1.5) to conceive at first insemination than control cows in 3 of the herds. No difference was observed in days to conception within 150 DIM between treatment groups (hazard ratio for PG cows=1.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 1.4), with a median time to

  16. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis due to Actinomyces Mimicking a Perforation of the Proximal Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Eenhuis, Louise L.; de Lange, Marleen E.; Samson, Anda D.; Busch, Olivier R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 42 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis due to actinomyces Symptoms: Abdominal distension • abdominal pain • acute abdomen • fever • intermenstrual bleeding • nausea • sepsis • septic shock Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pelvic-abdominal actinomycosis is a rare chronic condition caused by an anaerobic, gram-negative rod-shaped commensal bacterium of the Actinomyces species. When Actinomyces becomes pathogenic, it frequently causes a chronic infection with granulomatous abscess formation with pus. Due to diversity in clinical and radiological presentation, actinomycosis can easily be mistaken for several other conditions. Peritonitis without preceding abscess formation caused by Actinomyces species has been described in only few cases before in literature. Case report: We report a case of spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis with presence of pneumoperitoneum and absence of preceding abscesses due to acute actinomycosis mimicking a perforation of the proximal jejunum in a 42-year-old female with an intra-uterine contraceptive device in place. Explorative laparotomy revealed 2 liters of odorless pus but no etiological explanation for the peritonitis. The intra-uterine contraceptive device was removed. Cultivation showed growth of Actinomyces turicensis. The patient was successfully treated with penicillin. Conclusions: In the case of primary bacterial peritonitis or lower abdominal pain without focus in a patient with an intrauterine device in situ, Actinomyces should be considered as a pathogen. PMID:27561364

  17. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis due to Actinomyces Mimicking a Perforation of the Proximal Jejunum.

    PubMed

    Eenhuis, Louise L; de Lange, Marleen E; Samson, Anda D; Busch, Olivier R C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pelvic-abdominal actinomycosis is a rare chronic condition caused by an anaerobic, gram-negative rod-shaped commensal bacterium of the Actinomyces species. When Actinomyces becomes pathogenic, it frequently causes a chronic infection with granulomatous abscess formation with pus. Due to diversity in clinical and radiological presentation, actinomycosis can easily be mistaken for several other conditions. Peritonitis without preceding abscess formation caused by Actinomyces species has been described in only few cases before in literature. CASE REPORT We report a case of spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis with presence of pneumoperitoneum and absence of preceding abscesses due to acute actinomycosis mimicking a perforation of the proximal jejunum in a 42-year-old female with an intra-uterine contraceptive device in place. Explorative laparotomy revealed 2 liters of odorless pus but no etiological explanation for the peritonitis. The intra-uterine contraceptive device was removed. Cultivation showed growth of Actinomyces turicensis. The patient was successfully treated with penicillin. CONCLUSIONS In the case of primary bacterial peritonitis or lower abdominal pain without focus in a patient with an intra-uterine device in situ, Actinomyces should be considered as a pathogen. PMID:27561364

  18. Immediate free jejunum transfer for salvage surgery of gastric tube necrosis.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Hiroki; Matsutani, Takeshi; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-01-01

    Gastric tube necrosis after esophagus cancer surgery is a rare but critical situation. Salvage reconstruction of the esophagus remains a challenging procedure for head and neck surgeons. Historically, surgeons have employed a two-stage salvage surgery consisting of debridement followed by reconstruction. While this procedure generates good results, the time to restart oral alimentation is long. The present report describes the case of a 62-year-old male who developed gastric tube necrosis 3 days after undergoing surgery for thoracic-cervical esophageal cancer and immediate reconstruction with the retrosternal gastric pullup technique. He was treated with debridement and simultaneous free jejunum transfer 4 days after the primary surgery. He was able to restart oral alimentation 10 days after the salvage surgery. This rapid return to oral alimentation is a major advantage of the one-stage immediate esophagus salvage reconstruction. Another advantage is the ease of the reconstructive procedure: the absence of scarring and prolonged inflammation, which are disadvantages of the two-stage procedure, meant that recipient vessel selection and anastomosis were uncomplicated. The one-step procedure may be particularly useful in cases where the inflammation is discovered early.

  19. Responses of the Smooth Muscle Membrane of Guinea Pig Jejunum Elicited by Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, T.; Kuriyama, H.

    1969-01-01

    Field stimulation of the jejunum elicited successively an action potential of spike form, a slow excitatory depolarization, a slow inhibitory hyperpolarization, and a postinhibitory depolarization as a rebound excitation. The slow depolarization often triggered the spike. The inhibitory potential showed lower threshold than did the excitatory potential. Both the excitatory potentials were abolished by atropine and tetrodotoxin. Effective membrane resistance measured by the intracellular polarizing method was reduced during the peak of the excitatory potential, but the degree of reduction was smaller than that evoked by iontophoretic application of acetylcholine. Conditioning hyperpolarization of the muscle membrane modified the amplitude of the excitatory potential. The estimated reversal potential level for the excitatory potenialt was about 0 mv. No changes could be observed in the amplitude of the inhibitory potential when hyperpolarization was induced with intracellularly applied current. Low [K]o and [Ca]o blocked the generation of the excitatory potential but the amplitude of the inhibitory potential was enhanced in low [K]o. Low [Ca]o and high [Mg]o had no effect on the inhibitory potential. PMID:5778319

  20. Eimeria papillata: upregulation of specific miRNA-species in the mouse jejunum.

    PubMed

    Dkhil, Mohamed; Abdel-Baki, Abdel Azeem; Delić, Denis; Wunderlich, Frank; Sies, Helmut; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2011-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates miRNAs as critical regulators of gene expression, but little information is available for miRNAs in intestinal diseases. Here, we investigated intestinal infections of male Balb/c mice with the coccidian parasite Eimeria papillata. On day 4 after oral infection, mice were shedding 3150 ± 430 oocysts per gram feces. This was associated with a low inflammatory response of the jejunum of mice evidenced by histology, non-response of IL-1β mRNA, even slight downregulation of IL-6 mRNA, only slight increases in iNOS mRNA, nitrate/nitrate, malondialdehyde, and a small decrease in glutathione, respectively. Only IFNγ mRNA was strongly induced. Using miRNA microarray technology, there were significantly upregulated the four miRNA species miR-1959, MCMV-miR-M23-1-5P, miR-203, and miR-21 out of 634 miRNAs, which was also confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Our data provide evidence that E. papillata parasites are able to induce specific miRNA species in their host target organ.

  1. [Sex differences in neuromodulation of mucosal mast cells in the rat jejunum].

    PubMed

    Gottwald, T; Becker, H D; Stead, R H

    1997-01-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation of both cervical vagal nerves on mucosal mast cells in the jejunum was investigated in an in vivo animal model with rats of both sexes. Males showed a significant increase of mast cell densities after electrical stimulation (1.0 mA, 5 Hz, 5 ms, 12 min) in the lamina propria. Simultaneously, we observed a significant increase of tissue histamine levels (ANOVA: P < 0.05), whereas serum levels remained unchanged. However, even though females had significantly higher levels throughout compared to males (ANOVA: P < 0.05), they did not show any significant reaction to electrical stimulation. These in vivo data support morphological and in vitro data from other investigators, who hypothesized a functional interaction between mucosal mast cells and nerves. However, degranulation seems to be a poor in situ indicator for mast-cell stimulation, as mast-cell densities increased in males, while the percentage of degranulated cells remained the same in all groups (about 40%). Instead, electrical stimulation of the vagal nerve seems to trigger histamine synthesis, or simply stabilization of mast cells. Interestingly, this phenomenon seems to be sex-dependent, suggesting a regulatory role for sex hormones in this scenario.

  2. Trimethylation of histone H3K4 is associated with the induction of fructose-inducible genes in rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Yumiko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2012-03-23

    We previously reported that fructose force-feeding rapidly induces jejunal Slc2a5 gene expression in rats. In this study, we conducted microarray analyses using total RNA to identify genes upregulated in rat jejunum by fructose force-feeding. Rats were force-fed fructose, glucose or distilled water for 6h. Genes such as Slc2a5, Cdkn1c, Cabp2, Ranbp3, Vwce and Gcgr were induced by force-feeding with fructose compared with glucose or distilled water. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that trimethylation of histone H3K4, and acetylation of histones H3 and H4, on the transcribed region of these fructose-inducible genes were enhanced by force-feeding of fructose, but not glucose or distilled water. These results suggest that the induction of genes in the rat jejunum by fructose force-feeding is coordinately regulated by histone modifications, particularly trimethylation of histone H3K4.

  3. Increased Intraepithelial Vα24 Invariant NKT Cells in the Celiac Duodenum.

    PubMed

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Bernardo, David; Martínez-Abad, Beatriz; Allegretti, Yessica; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Calvo, Carmen; Chirdo, Fernando G; Garrote, José A; Arranz, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is an interferon (IFN)γ-mediated duodenal hypersensitivity to wheat gluten occurring in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten-free diet (GFD) leads to a complete remission of the disease. Vα24-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are important to maintain immune homeostasis in the gut mucosa because of their unique capacity to rapidly produce large quantities of both T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 cytokines upon stimulation. We studied the presence of these cells in the CD duodenum. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from 45 untreated-CD patients (uCD), 15 Gluten Free Diet-CD patients (GFD-CD), 44 non-inflamed non-CD controls (C-controls) and 15 inflamed non-CD controls (I-controls). Two populations from Spain and Argentina were recruited. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Vα24-Jα18 (invariant TCRα chain of human iNKT cells), IFNγ and intracellular transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (Foxp3), and flow cytometry intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) profile were determined. Both uCD and GFD-CD patients had higher Vα24-Jα18 mRNA levels than non-CD controls (I and C-controls). The expression of Vα24-Jα18 correlated with Marsh score for the severity of mucosal lesion and also with increased mRNA IFNγ levels. uCD and GFD-CD patients had decreased mRNA expression of FoxP3 but increased expression of Vα24-Jα18, which revealed a CD-like molecular profile. Increased numbers of iNKT cells were confirmed by flow cytometry within the intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment of uCD and GFD-CD patients and correlated with Vα24-Jα18 mRNA expression. In conclusion, we have found an increased number of iNKT cells in the duodenum from both uCD and GFD-CD patients, irrespective of the mucosal status. A CD-like molecular profile, defined by an increased mRNA expression of Vα24-Jα18 together with a decreased expression of FoxP3, may represent a pro-inflammatory signature of the CD duodenum. PMID:26529008

  4. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  5. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  6. Transmission electron microscopy of jejunum, ileum, and caecum tissues from rats fed with gums arabic, karaya and tragacanth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Busuttil, A; Kempson, S A; Penman, D W

    1986-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the ultrastructure of rat jejunum, ileum and caecum after dietary supplementation with 10% (w/w) gum arabic, 7% (w/w) gum karaya, 4% (w/w) gum tragacanth for 45 days. Scrutiny of 65 micrographs, undertaken independently by 2 specialists, revealed no abnormalities in any of the organelles in any of the micrographs. Twelve representative micrographs are reproduced here.

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Glycosylation Pattern of the Jejunum and Ileum of the Wild Rodent Lagostomus maximus.

    PubMed

    Tano De La Hoz, María Florencia; Flamini, Mirta Alicia; Díaz, Alcira Ofelia

    2016-05-01

    Morphological and histochemical analyses were performed to characterize the histology, ultrastructure, and glycosylation pattern of the jejunum and ileum of the wild rodent Lagostomus maximus. Enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells were identified in both intestinal epithelia. Two morphological types of enterocytes were identified only in the ileum based on their cytoplasm electron density. Although the histological and ultrastructural examination showed that the epithelia of both anatomical regions were morphologically similar, a certain specialization in their secretory products was evident. The glycosylation pattern of the jejunum and ileum was characterized in situ by histochemical and lectin histochemical methods. Histochemical results revealed the presence of carboxylated and sulfated gycoconjugates in both regions, although sulfomucins were clearly prevalent in the ileum. Sialic acid was highly O-acetylated and particularly abundant in the jejunum. The KOH/PA*/Bh/PAS technique evidenced a more intense histochemical reaction in the jejunal than in the ileum goblet cells, demonstrating a reduction of neutral mucin secretion in the distal small intestine. Further specific differences were revealed by lectin histochemistry. These data evidenced that the nature of mucus varies at different anatomical regions, probably adapted to physiological requirements.

  8. Application of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ri-Xing; Yan, Wen-Mao; Li, You-Guo; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the feasibility of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS Seventy-seven patients received side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum by utilization of linear stapler in LRYGB from April 2012 to July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS All patients were successfully completed laparoscopic gastric bypass with the side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum. No patient was switched to laparotomy during operation. No early complications including gastrointestinal anastomotic bleeding, fistula, obstruction, deep vein thrombosis, incision infections, intra-abdominal hernia complications were found. One patient complicated with stricture of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1.3%) and six patients complicated with incomplete intestinal obstruction (7.8%). BMI and HbA1c determined at 3, 6, 12, 24 mo during follow up period were significantly reduced compared with preoperative baselines respectively. The percentage of patients who maintain HbA1c (%) < 6.5% without taking antidiabetic drugs reached to 61.0%, 63.6%, 75.0%, and 63.6% respectively. The outcome parameters of concomitant diseases were significantly improved too. CONCLUSION Present surgery is a safety and feasibility procedure. It is effective to lighten the body weight of patients and improve type 2 diabetes and related complications. PMID:27729746

  9. The role of mast cell in tissue morphogenesis. Thymus, duodenum, and mammary gland as examples.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are strategically located at host/environment interfaces like skin, airways, and gastro-intestinal and uro-genital tracts. MCs also populate connective tissues in association with blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves. MCs are absent in avascular tissues, such as mineralized bone, cartilage, and cornea. MCs have various functions and different functional subsets of MCs are encountered in different tissues. However, we do not' know exactly what is the physiological function of MC. Most of these functions are not essential for life, as various MC-deficient strains of mice and rats seems to have normal life spans. In this review article, we have reported and discussed the literature data concerning the role of MCs in tissue morphogenesis, and in particular their role in the development of thymus, duodenum, and mammary gland. PMID:26615957

  10. The role of mast cell in tissue morphogenesis. Thymus, duodenum, and mammary gland as examples.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are strategically located at host/environment interfaces like skin, airways, and gastro-intestinal and uro-genital tracts. MCs also populate connective tissues in association with blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves. MCs are absent in avascular tissues, such as mineralized bone, cartilage, and cornea. MCs have various functions and different functional subsets of MCs are encountered in different tissues. However, we do not' know exactly what is the physiological function of MC. Most of these functions are not essential for life, as various MC-deficient strains of mice and rats seems to have normal life spans. In this review article, we have reported and discussed the literature data concerning the role of MCs in tissue morphogenesis, and in particular their role in the development of thymus, duodenum, and mammary gland.

  11. Effect of chronic intake of liquid nutrition on stomach and duodenum morphology.

    PubMed

    Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Vazan, Rastislav; Miko, Michal; Varga, Ivan; Mravec, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of food intake have been shown to be associated with morphological and functional alterations of the gastrointestinal system. To examine this, we investigated the effect of chronic liquid nutrition intake (Fresubin) on stomach and duodenum morphology in Wistar rats fed liquid nutrition during different developmental periods. We used four groups of rats: a) control group (CON) fed pelleted chow for 130days; b) liquid nutrition group (LN) fed liquid nutrition for 130days; c) liquid nutrition juvenile group (LNJ) fed liquid nutrition for 70days and then pelleted food for 60days; d) liquid nutrition adult group (LNA) fed pelleted chow for 70days and then liquid nutrition for 60days. We found that LN and LNA rats showed a significant reduction of empty stomach mass compared to CON animals, while stomach and duodenal longitudinal muscle layer thickness did not differ between groups. Villus height was increased only in LNA animals, while villus width was increased in both LN and LNA rats. Crypt depth was reduced in LNJ. However, liquid nutrition intake did not affect villus height/crypt depth ratio, nor number of goblet cells. We found that chronic intake of liquid nutrition affects some morphological parameters of the stomach and duodenum but these changes were not homogenous between experimental groups. Interestingly, transition from liquid nutrition to solid food reversed the alterations of stomach weight as well as villus width induced by intake of liquid nutrition in LNA rats. Our data indicate that morphological and functional changes in the gastrointestinal system induced by qualitative and quantitative changes in food intake are at least partially reversible. Therefore, specific diets may be used potentially as adjuvant treatment for modulating the progression of gastrointestinal diseases by affecting stomach and small intestine morphology.

  12. Feeding rats dietary resistant starch shifts the peak of SGLT1 gene expression and histone H3 acetylation on the gene from the upper jejunum toward the ileum.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaya; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2009-09-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) participates in the incorporation of glucose from the lumen to enterocytes in the small intestine. We examined whether dietary resistant starch (RS), an autoclaved high amylose starch that is digested more slowly than regular cornstarch in the small intestine, alters SGLT1 mRNA levels along the jejunum-ileum of rats. The SGLT1 mRNA level was lower in the upper jejunum in rats fed an RS diet than in those fed a regular cornstarch diet, whereas it was higher in the lower jejunum/upper ileum. Furthermore, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we demonstrated that histone H3 acetylation on the promoter/enhancer and transcriptional regions was reduced in the upper jejunum and elevated in the lower jejunum/upper ileum by feeding rats an RS diet. On the other hand, HNF-1 binding on the region around transcription start site of the SGLT1 gene was not altered in each jejunoileal segment by feeding rats an RS diet. Our results suggest that a shift of the expressional peak of the SGLT1 gene from the upper jejunum toward the ileum by dietary RS is associated with a change of histone H3 acetylation rather than that of HNF-1 binding on the gene.

  13. Intestinal adaptation after extensive small bowel resection: differential changes in growth and insulin-like growth factor system messenger ribonucleic acids in jejunum and ileum.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, T R; Mantell, M P; Chow, J C; Rombeau, J L; Smith, R J

    1998-07-01

    The distal small bowel exhibits greater adaptive growth than proximal segments after partial small intestine resection. To explore this process, we evaluated adaptive cellularity, intestinal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts, and effects of recombinant IGF-I treatment in jejunum and ileum of adult rats. Gastrostomy-fed animals underwent 80% jejuno-ileal resection or intestinal transection and reanastomosis without resection, followed by infusion of human recombinant IGF-I (2.4 mg/kgXday) or vehicle. After 7 days, resected rats demonstrated modest adaptive growth in jejunum and marked cell proliferation in ileum. Resection increased IGF-I mRNA in both jejunum (183%) and ileum (249%) and up-regulated IGFBP-4 mRNA levels in both tissues. IGFBP-3 mRNA fell significantly in ileum after resection. IGF-I infusion modestly increased ileal cellularity after resection, but had no effect in jejunum. IGF-I markedly increased IGFBP-3 mRNA levels in jejunum after both transection and resection. These data confirm that bowel resection induces greater adaptive growth in ileum than jejunum. IGF-I administration modestly increases ileal, but not jejunal, growth after resection. Increased levels of intestinal IGF-I and IGFBP-4 mRNA suggest roles for IGF-I and IGFBP-4 in mediating small bowel adaptation. Higher levels of jejunal IGFBP-3 mRNA may be related to limited jejunal vs. ileal growth after extensive jejuno-ileal resection.

  14. Mammary gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes and concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in milk and plasma of dairy cows fed flax lignans and infused with flax oil in the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, Cristiano; Palin, Marie-France; Gagnon, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Lacasse, Pierre; Petit, Hélène V

    2012-10-28

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of flax hulls and/or flax oil on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) in plasma and the mammary gland and the relative mRNA abundance of antioxidant genes in the mammary gland of dairy cows. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four treatments: control with no flax hulls (CONT), 9·88% flax hulls in the DM (HULL), control with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO), 9·88% flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). Plasma GPX activity tended to decrease with flax oil supplementation. Cows fed HULL had higher levels of CAT, GPX1 and SOD1 mRNA in the mammary gland and lower mRNA abundance of GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 compared with those fed CONT. Abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 mRNA was down-regulated in the mammary gland of cows fed HUFO compared to those fed CONT. The mRNA abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3 and SOD3 was lower in the mammary gland of cows fed COFO than in the mammary gland of cows fed CONT. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls contribute to increasing the abundance of some antioxidant genes, which can contribute to protecting against oxidative stress damage occurring in the mammary gland and other tissues of dairy cows.

  15. Unstirred layer and kinetics of electrogenic glucose absorption in the human jejunum in situ

    PubMed Central

    Read, N. W.; Barber, D. C.; Levin, R. J.; Holdsworth, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    Using an electrical technique we estimated the thickness of the unstirred layer in the human jejunum during kinetic studies of electrogenic glucose absorption. The unstirred layer in seven healthy volunteers (632 ± 24 μm: mean ± SEM) was significantly thicker than in 10 patients with active coeliac disease (442 ± 23 μm) but not significantly different in seven patients who had responded to treatment by gluten withdrawal (585 ± 49 μm). There were similar differences in the values of `Apparent Km' for electrogenic glucose absorption between healthy control subjects (36 ± 6 mM) active coeliac patients (11 ± 1 mM) and treated coeliac patients (31 ± 5 mM). The changes in PDmax however, showed a different pattern. The PDmax in the active coeliac group (6·8 ± 0·7 mV) was lower than in controls (7·6 ± 0·6 mV) but not significantly so, while the PDmax in the treated coeliac group (10·6 ± 0·9 mV) was significantly higher than in both the active coeliac and control groups. It should be noted that both operational kinetic parameters obtained in the present study are much lower than those obtained previously (Read et al., 1976b) because of the use of siphonage. Analysis of the results using a computer simulation indicates that the reduction in Apparent Km in active coeliac disease can be caused by the interaction of the decreased maximal absorption rate for glucose (Jmax) with the attenuated unstirred layer. In these circumstances it is not necessary to postulate any change in the affinity of the transport mechanism for glucose (`Real Km'). It is remarkable that the disease process produces an Apparent Km which is much closer to the Real Km than that found in health. PMID:590846

  16. Fasting and refeeding: cell kinetic response of jejunum, ileum and colon.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, R F; Stragand, J J

    1977-01-01

    Following a period of fasting, feeding a normal diet results in a burst of DNA synthesis in the crypts of the colonic epithelium. This is due largely to a prompt entry of cells, blocked in G1, into S. Peak levels of S cellularity exceed 4 times the fasting, and 2 times the normal fed control values. Refeeding a low residue diet (soluble casien, glucose and corn oil) results in a return to control levels of proliferative activity, but no hyperplasia. However, in jejunum and ileum, refeeding is followed by a return to near control levels of proliferation with only a slight overshoot in S phase cellularity. During the fasting period, the ileal crypt proliferative compartment (Pc-zone) and total crypt cellularity decline significantly. These changes are accompanied by an increase in the total cycle time, due to an equivalent lengthening of the G1 and S phase. Following refeeding, there is a reduction in the cycle time and a gradual return to the control values for the Pc-zone size and cellularity. In the colon, fasting has no effect on the Pc-zone size or total crypt cellularity. There is an approximate doubling of the cycle time due solely to an increase in G1. Following refeeding there is an increase in the Pc-zone size and crypt cellularity and a marked shortening of the cycle time. Evidence that a G1 cycle blockade is induced in the colon by fasting is given by a lenghening of the G1 period and by stathmokinetic studies employing vincristine.

  17. Enhanced mucosal permeability and nitric oxide synthase activity in jejunum of mast cell deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, S; Grisham, M; Russell, J; Granger, D

    1997-01-01

    Background—Recent reports have described a modulating influence of nitric oxide (NO) on intestinal mucosal permeability and have implicated a role for mast cells in this NO mediated process. 
Aims—To assess further the contribution of mast cells to the mucosal permeability changes elicited by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), using mast cell deficient (W/WV) and mast cell replete mice (+/+). 
Methods—Chromium-51 EDTA clearance (from blood to jejunal lumen), jejunal NOS and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and plasma nitrate/nitrite levels were monitored. 
Results—The increased EDTA clearance elicited by intraluminal L-NAME in W/WV mice (4.4-fold) was significantly greater than the response observed in control (+/+) mice (1.8-fold). The exacerbated response in W/Wv mice was greatly attenuated by pretreatment with either dexamethasone (1.3-fold) or the selective inducible NOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine (1.4-fold), and partially attenuated by the mast cell stabiliser, lodoxamide (2.9-fold). Jejunal inducible NOS activity was significantly higher in W/WV than in +/+ mice, while jejunal MPO was lower in W/WV mice than in +/+ mice, suggesting that the higher inducible NOS in W/WV does not result from the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the gut. The higher inducible NOS activity in the jejunum of W/WV was significantly reduced by dexamethasone treatment. 
Conclusions—Our results suggest that mast cells normally serve to inhibit inducible NOS activity tonically in the gut and that inhibitors of NOS elicit a larger permeability response when this tonic inhibitory influence is released by mast cell depletion. 

 Keywords: aminoguanidine; c-kit; dexamethasone; epithelium; neutrophils PMID:9414970

  18. Diet-induced changes in gene expression of lactase in rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Goda, T; Yasutake, H; Suzuki, Y; Takase, S; Koldovský, O

    1995-06-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which jejunal lactase activity is modified by carbohydrate and/or fat intake, mRNA levels and the absolute synthesis rate of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) were determined in 6-wk-old rats that were fed either low-starch diets containing long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT, 73% energy as corn oil) or medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT, 66% energy as MCT, 7% energy as corn oil), or a high-starch diet (70% energy as cornstarch) for 7 days. LPH mRNA levels in the jejunum were similar between LCT-fed and MCT-fed rats, but animals fed the high-starch diet exhibited a greater (2x) LPH mRNA level than other groups. The absolute synthesis rate of LPH, estimated by the flooding dose technique using [3H]phenylalanine, was greater (2.4x) in rats fed the high-starch diet than in other groups. A short-term force-feeding experiment revealed that sucrose was able to evoke LPH mRNA levels within 12 h but that a nonmetabolizable sugar (alpha-methylglucoside) was unable to enhance it. By contrast, animals fed the high-LCT diet showed a lower (by 30%) lactase activity than rats fed the low-starch, high-MCT diet, which was accompanied by not only a reduction of immunoreactive LPH in brush-border membranes but also a reduction in lactase activity per unit weight of immunoreactive LPH. These results suggest that both gene expression and posttranslational events of LPH might be influenced by dietary manipulations; carbohydrate intake primarily increases LPH mRNA levels, and LCT accelerates inactivation and/or degradation of lactase.

  19. Duodenum has the greatest potential to absorb soluble non-ammonia nitrogen in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying-ming; Xu, Qing-biao; Wu, Yue-ming; Huang, Xin-bei; Liu, Jian-xin

    2015-06-01

    In cattle, dietary protein is gradually degraded into peptide-bound amino acids (PBAAs), free amino acids (FAAs), and ultimately into ammonia by the rumen microbes. Both PBAA and FAA are milk protein precursors, and the rumen and small intestines are the main sites where such precursors are produced and absorbed. This work was designed to investigate the expression of the peptide transporter PepT1 and the AA transporters ASCT2, y(+)LAT1, and ATB(0,+), and the concentrations of PBAA, FAA, and soluble protein in the rumen, omasum, and duodenum of dairy cows. Tissues and digesta were collected from six healthy Chinese Holstein dairy cows immediately after the animals were slaughtered. The expression of transporters was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The FAA concentration was assessed using an amino acid (AA) analyzer, PBAA concentration by quantification of AA before and after acid-hydrolysis by 6 mol/L HCl, and soluble protein concentration by quantification of the bicinchoninic acid content. The results showed that the relative abundance of mRNA of the transporters and the soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) concentration of each fraction were greater in the duodenum than in the rumen or omasum. These results indicate that the duodenum is the predominant location within the nonmesenteric digestive tract for producing milk protein precursors. In addition, PBAA was the largest component of SNAN in the digesta from the rumen, omasum, and duodenum. In conclusion, the duodenum has the greatest concentrations of SNAN and PBAA, and the greatest potential for absorption of SNAN in the form of PBAA in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows.

  20. Duodenum has the greatest potential to absorb soluble non-ammonia nitrogen in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ying-ming; Xu, Qing-biao; Wu, Yue-ming; Huang, Xin-bei; Liu, Jian-xin

    2015-01-01

    In cattle, dietary protein is gradually degraded into peptide-bound amino acids (PBAAs), free amino acids (FAAs), and ultimately into ammonia by the rumen microbes. Both PBAA and FAA are milk protein precursors, and the rumen and small intestines are the main sites where such precursors are produced and absorbed. This work was designed to investigate the expression of the peptide transporter PepT1 and the AA transporters ASCT2, y+LAT1, and ATB0,+, and the concentrations of PBAA, FAA, and soluble protein in the rumen, omasum, and duodenum of dairy cows. Tissues and digesta were collected from six healthy Chinese Holstein dairy cows immediately after the animals were slaughtered. The expression of transporters was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The FAA concentration was assessed using an amino acid (AA) analyzer, PBAA concentration by quantification of AA before and after acid-hydrolysis by 6 mol/L HCl, and soluble protein concentration by quantification of the bicinchoninic acid content. The results showed that the relative abundance of mRNA of the transporters and the soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) concentration of each fraction were greater in the duodenum than in the rumen or omasum. These results indicate that the duodenum is the predominant location within the nonmesenteric digestive tract for producing milk protein precursors. In addition, PBAA was the largest component of SNAN in the digesta from the rumen, omasum, and duodenum. In conclusion, the duodenum has the greatest concentrations of SNAN and PBAA, and the greatest potential for absorption of SNAN in the form of PBAA in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows. PMID:26055912

  1. Multiple giant diverticula of the jejunum causing intestinal obstruction: report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Multiple diverticulosis of jejunum represents an uncommon pathology of the small bowel. The disease is usually asymptomatic and must be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained malabsorption, anemia, chronic abdominal pain or discomfort. Related complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, bleeding or intestinal obstruction appear in 10-30% of the patients increasing morbidity and mortality rates. We herein report a case of a 55 year-old man presented at the emergency department with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. Preoperative radiological examination followed by laparotomy revealed multiple giant jejunal diverticula causing intestinal obstruction. We also review the literature for this uncommon disease. PMID:21385440

  2. Treatment of gastric and duodenum ulcers by means of copper laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbush, G. I.; Beliy, K. P.; Berezin, J. D.; Gidkov, B. N.; Solovjov, A. F.

    1996-04-01

    One of the leading problems of gastroenterology of our country is the task of ulcerative disease of the stomach treatment, duodenum treatment and diseases of large intestinal treatment. In spite of introduction of clinical practice the new anti-ulcerous preparations, the process of ulcerative disease of the stomach treatment remains a long process and makes in average about 2 - 4 weeks for acute ulcers and 2 - 3 months for chronic ulcers. In accordance with a world statistics an ulcerative disease of the stomach remains a very spread sickness (on the average 5 cases on 1 thousand persons), and even in the majority of countries at the last decade an increase of number of illness, stipulated by breach of ecology, stress, general worsening of human living conditions took place. Notice that the growth of exposure of morbidity in the area of alimentary tract to a certain extent is connected with introduction into diagnostics practice the endoscopical methods during a checkup of patients. Within Russia the statistics data give the following picture: (1) 500 - 700 persons per 100 thousand of inhabitants have an ulcerative disease and 15 - 20 persons from them have a steady resistance to an anti- ulcerative medicamental therapy. (2) At complex and electoral treatment of ulcerative disease patients with various preparations an epithelization have 60 - 94% of patients in the time of 20 - 48 days. (3) Insufficient efficiency of means of a conservative treatment results in that 50% of the sicks need urgent operations, sometimes at complicated for them conditions.

  3. Perinatal administration of a bitter tastant influences gene expression in chicken palate and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Niv, Masha Y; Uni, Zehava

    2014-12-31

    Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) and downstream effectors are responsible for mediating bitterness perception and regulation of food choice in mammals. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated the expression of three Tas2rs and taste signal transduction molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5, in the palate, tongue, and gastrointestinal tract sections in chicken. The bitter tastant quinine activates all three chicken Tas2rs in vitro as shown using calcium-imaging assays of transfected cells. Administration of quinine postnatally or perinatally (both pre- and posthatch) to chickens increased the expression of Tas2r genes in the palate by 6.45-fold (ggTas2r1 postnatal treatment), 4.86-fold (ggTas2r1 perinatal treatment), and 4.48-fold (ggTas2r7 postnatal treatment) compared to the genes' expression in the naı̈ve group respectively, and affected taste related gene expression in the duodenum. Whereas no-choice intake of quinine solution was not significantly lower than that of water in naı̈ve chicks, the treatment groups postnatal, prenatal, and perinatal showed significantly lower intake of quinine by 56.1, 47.7, and 50.2%, respectively, suggesting a possible trend toward sensitization. These results open new venues toward unraveling the formative stages shaping food intake and nutrition in chicken.

  4. A Rare Case of an Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas Fistulizing Into Duodenum With Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Rathi, Chetan; Parikh, Pathik; Patel, Ruchir; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) accounts for 20-50% of all cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. Rarely, IPMN, whether benign or malignant, can fistulize into adjacent organs like duodenum, stomach or common bile duct. IPMN can be associated with other diseases like Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis. Association with adult polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is extremely rare. We report a case of a 60-year-old male with a large IPMN in the head of the pancreas diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and cyst fluid analysis. It was complicated by fistula formation into the second part of the duodenum. Patient was simultaneously having adult polycystic kidney disease. There is only one case report of uncomplicated IPMN with ADPKD in the literature so far. And even rarer, there is no any case report of fistulizing IPMN with ADPKD reported so far, to the best of our knowledge.

  5. Activation of epithelial proliferation induced by Eimeria acervulina infection in the duodenum may be associated with cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lili; Dong, Haibo; Zhang, Zhenchao; Liu, Jie; Hu, Yun; Ni, Yingdong; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation in the intestine is commonly occurred during infection and inflammation to replace damaged enterocytes, and cholesterol as an essential constituent of cell membrane, is required for cell proliferation and growth. Here we found that coccidium-challenged (CC) chickens showed severe damages in intestinal structure, a significant increase of cell proliferation, and an activation of genes expression involved in the innate immune response. Compared to control (CON), CC chickens showed a marked decrease of cholesterol (Tch) level in the circulating system, but a significant increase in local duodenum epithelium. Increase of LDLR protein combined with a significant decrease of CYP27A1 protein expression in duodenum epithelium may contribute to intestinal cholesterol accumulation in CC chickens. Moreover, we found miRNAs targeting to CYP27A1 gene participating in post-transcriptional regulation. Hence, these results provide a new insight for the intervention of epithelial proliferation and cholesterol metabolism in the gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:27050279

  6. Intractable duodenal ulcer caused by transmural migration of gossypiboma into the duodenum - a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gossypiboma is a term used to describe a mass that forms around a cotton sponge or abdominal compress accidentally left in a patient during surgery. Transmural migration of an intra-abdominal gossypiboma has been reported to occur in the digestive tract, bladder, vagina and diaphragm. Open surgery is the most common approach in the treatment of gossypiboma. However, gossypibomas can be extracted by endoscopy while migrating into the digestive tract. We report a case of intractable duodenal ulcer caused by transmural migration of gossypiboma successfully treated by duodenorrhaphy. A systemic literature review is provided and a scheme of the therapeutic approach is proposed. Case presentation A 61-year-old Han Chinese man presented with intermittent epigastric pain for the last 10 months. He had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy conversion to open cholecystectomy for acute gangrenous cholecystitis 10 months ago at another hospital. Transmural migration of gossypiboma into the duodenum was found. Endoscopic intervention failed to remove the entire gauze, and duodenal ulcer caused by the gauze persisted. Surgical intervention was performed and the gauze was removed successfully. The penetrated ulcer was repaired with duodenorrhaphy. The postoperative period was uneventful. We systematically reviewed the literature on transmural migration of gossypiboma into duodenum and present an overview of published cases. Our PubMed search yielded seven reports of transmural migration of retained surgical sponge into the duodenum. Surgical interventions were necessary in two patients. Conclusion Transmural migration of gossypiboma into the duodenum is a rare surgical complication. The treatment strategies include endoscopic extraction and surgical intervention. Prompt surgical intervention should be considered for emergent conditions such as active bleeding, gastrointestinal obstruction, or intra-abdominal sepsis. For non-emergent conditions, surgical intervention

  7. Mechanism for enhanced absorption of a solid dispersion formulation of LY2300559 using the artificial stomach duodenum model.

    PubMed

    Polster, Christopher S; Wu, Sy-Juen; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Sperry, David C

    2015-04-01

    An artificial stomach duodenum (ASD) model has been used to demonstrate the performance difference between two formulations of LY2300559, a low-solubility acidic developmental drug. The two formulations investigated were a conventional high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) formulation and a solid dispersion formulation. A pharmacokinetic study in humans demonstrated the enhanced performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation. The Cmax and AUC of the solid dispersion was 2.6 and 1.9 times greater, respectively, compared to the HSWG formulation. In the ASD, the solid dispersion formulation performance was characterized by three main phases: (1) rapid release in the stomach, creating a supersaturated concentration of drug, (2) precipitation in the stomach, and (3) rapid redissolution of the precipitate in the duodenum to concentration levels that are supersaturated relative to crystalline drug. A series of complementary experiments were employed to describe this performance behavior mechanistically. Imaging experiments with a pH indicating dye showed that local pH gradients from meglumine in the solid dispersion formulation were responsible for creating a high initial supersaturation concentration in the stomach. Upon dissipation of meglumine, the drug precipitated in the stomach as an amorphous solid. Because the precipitated drug is in an amorphous form, it can then rapidly redissolve as it transits to the more neutral environment of the duodenum. This unexpected sequence of physical state changes gives a mechanistic explanation for the enhanced in vivo performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation. PMID:25723790

  8. Intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with transhiatal herniation of the pancreas and duodenum: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Tarkan; Neureiter, Daniel; Nawara, Clemens; Dinnewitzer, Adam; Öfner, Dietmar; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Transhiatal herniation of the pancreas is an extremely rare condition. In the published literature we found only eleven cases reported in the period of 1958 to 2011. A coincidental hiatal herniation of the duodenum is described in two cases only. To our knowledge, we report the first case with a hiatal herniation of the complete duodenum and proximal pancreas presenting an intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with consecutive intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis. A 72-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our department with a hiatal hernia grade IV for further evaluation. According to our recommendation of surgical hernia repair soon after the diagnosis of a transhiatal herniation of the proximal pancreas and entire duodenum, we had to respect the declared intention of the patient for a conservative procedure. So we were forced to wait for surgical repair within an emergency situation complicated by a myocardial infarction and reduced general condition. We discuss the therapeutic decision making process and a complete literature review of this rare entity. PMID:23805366

  9. IDX-1: a new homeodomain transcription factor expressed in rat pancreatic islets and duodenum that transactivates the somatostatin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C P; McGehee, R E; Habener, J F

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning from a rat islet somatostatin-producing cell line of a 1.4 kb cDNA encoding a new homeoprotein, IDX-1 (islet/duodenum homeobox-1), with close sequence similarity to the Drosophila melanogaster homeobox protein Antennapedia (Antp) and the Xenopus laevis endoderm-specific homeoprotein XlHbox8. Analyses of IDX-1 mRNA and protein in rat tissues show that IDX-1 is expressed in pancreatic islets and ducts and in the duodenum. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays IDX-1 binds to three sites in the 5' flanking region of the rat somatostatin gene. In co-transfection experiments IDX-1 transactivates reporter constructs containing somatostatin promoter sequences, and mutation of the IDX-1 binding sites attenuates transactivation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of islet RNA using degenerate amplimers for mRNAs encoding homeoproteins indicates that IDX-1 is the most abundant of 12 different Antp-like homeodomain mRNAs expressed in adult rat islets. The pattern of expression, relative abundance and transcriptional regulatory activity suggests that IDX-1 may be involved in the regulation of islet hormone genes and in cellular differentiation in the endocrine pancreas and the duodenum. Images PMID:7907546

  10. An immunocytochemical study of the endocrine cells in the stomach and duodenum of Zonotrichia capensis subtorquata (Passeriformes, Emberizidae).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rosa Maria Marcos; do Nascimento, Aparecida Alves; Dos Santos, Clarice Machado; Cardoso, Tânia Regina Dantas; Pinheiro, Nadja Lima; Sales, Armando

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the regional distribution pattern and relative frequency of some endocrine cells in the three portions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)--the proventriculus, gizzard and duodenum- of the rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis subtorquata), by immunohistochemical methods using six types of polyclonal antisera, specific for serotonin (5-HT), somatostatin (D cells), glucagon, motilin, polypeptide YY (PYY) and insulin. In the proventriculus, endocrine cells immunoreactive for all of these markers were observed. The somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were found with greater frequency, with the presence of cytoplasmic processes. In the gizzard, endocrine cells secreting somatostatin, 5-HT and PYY were detected, while those secreting glucagon and insulin were not. In the final part of the gizzard, endocrine cells secreting 5-HT were more frequent, and cells secreting somatostatin and insulin were not detected. All of the cell types studied were observed in the duodenum in different frequencies, except for cells immunoreactive for glucagon and insulin. The somatostatin-positive (D cells) were the most numerous, being more prevalent in the intestinal glands. The other endocrine cells were identified in smaller numbers, some of them located in the intestinal villi and Lieberkuhn glands. The finding of these cell types in the duodenum confirms their preferential location in the final portions of the principal segments of the digestive system and suggests control by feedback of its functions. In conclusion, some interesting distributional patterns of gastrointestinal endocrine cells were found in this species of sparrow.

  11. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the third portion of the duodenum treated by wedge resection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Fahrettin; Sahin, Mustafa; Ugras, Serdar; Calisir, Akın

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year old woman was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed a tumor measuring about 3 cm in diameter with no metastatic lesion or signs of local infiltration. Gastroduodenal endoscopy revealed the presence of a submucosal tumor in the third portion of the duodenum and biopsy revealed tumor cells stained positive for c-kit. These findings were consistent with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and we performed a wedge resection of the duodenum, sparing the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on day 6. Surgical margins were negative. Histology revealed a GIST with a diameter of 3.2 cm and < 5 mitoses/50 high power fields, indicating a low risk of malignancy. Therefore, adjuvant therapy with imatinib was not initiated. Wedge resection with primary closure is a surgical procedure that can be used to treat low malignant potential neoplasms of the duodenum and avoid extensive surgery, with significant morbidity and possible mortality, such as pancreatoduodenectomy. PMID:24392185

  12. Mechanism for enhanced absorption of a solid dispersion formulation of LY2300559 using the artificial stomach duodenum model.

    PubMed

    Polster, Christopher S; Wu, Sy-Juen; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Sperry, David C

    2015-04-01

    An artificial stomach duodenum (ASD) model has been used to demonstrate the performance difference between two formulations of LY2300559, a low-solubility acidic developmental drug. The two formulations investigated were a conventional high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) formulation and a solid dispersion formulation. A pharmacokinetic study in humans demonstrated the enhanced performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation. The Cmax and AUC of the solid dispersion was 2.6 and 1.9 times greater, respectively, compared to the HSWG formulation. In the ASD, the solid dispersion formulation performance was characterized by three main phases: (1) rapid release in the stomach, creating a supersaturated concentration of drug, (2) precipitation in the stomach, and (3) rapid redissolution of the precipitate in the duodenum to concentration levels that are supersaturated relative to crystalline drug. A series of complementary experiments were employed to describe this performance behavior mechanistically. Imaging experiments with a pH indicating dye showed that local pH gradients from meglumine in the solid dispersion formulation were responsible for creating a high initial supersaturation concentration in the stomach. Upon dissipation of meglumine, the drug precipitated in the stomach as an amorphous solid. Because the precipitated drug is in an amorphous form, it can then rapidly redissolve as it transits to the more neutral environment of the duodenum. This unexpected sequence of physical state changes gives a mechanistic explanation for the enhanced in vivo performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation.

  13. Synbiotics suppress the release of lactate dehydrogenase, promote non-specific immunity and integrity of jejunum mucosa in piglets.

    PubMed

    Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Sopková, Drahomíra; Vlčková, Radoslava; Kulichová, Lucia; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Petrilla, Vladimír; Krešáková, Lenka

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our experiment was to study how synbiotics are able to deal with the problems of post-weaning piglets. Lactobacillus plantarum - Biocenol(TM) LP96 (CCM 7512), Lactobacillus fermentum - Biocenol(TM) LF99 (CCM 7514) and flaxseed (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were administered to 36 conventional piglets from a problematic breed with confirmed presence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Coronavirus. The experimental piglets were supplied with probiotic cheeses and crushed flax-seed in the period starting 10 days before weaning and lasting up to 14 days post-weaning. Piglets in the control group were supplied only control cheese. The impact of such additives on the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; spectroscopic and electrophoretic assay), alteration of immunity (index of metabolic activity), jejunum histology (light microscopy), and health of conventional piglets from a problematic breed (monitoring of hematology, consistency and moisture of feces and body temperature) were examined. We found significant decrease in LDH leakage in the blood serum and tissue extracts, indicating better cell membrane integrity in the individual organs of animals. Probiotics and flaxseed applied together seem to be a good source of nutrients to improve the immune status and the integrity of jejunum mucosa during infection. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:27581561

  14. [Population characteristics of mucous tissue basocytes in the Mongolian gerbil's jejunum following the 12-day orbital flight onboard space platform "Foton-M3"].

    PubMed

    Atyakshin, D A; Bykov, E G

    2013-01-01

    Optical (light) microscopy and histochemical techniques were used for the first-ever studies of the population characteristics of tissue basocytes in the jejunum mucous membrane in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: flown over 12 days aboard space platform Foton-M3, subjected to spaceflight factors simulation (SFS) in dedicated system Kontur-L (2) and maintained in standard vivarium conditions (control). Space flight was shown to induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the population of jejunum mucus labrocytes. Reduction of the basocytes population, alterations in age composition and ratio of the morphofunctional cell types in microgravity were indicative of cytoplasmic aggregation intensity, paths of biosynthesis products release into the intersticium, and their tinctorial properties. Also, heparin maturation and liberalization into the extracellular space in support of the jejunum mucus adaptive functions progressed with greater intensity. SFS did not affect size of the basocytes population significantly although it did cause qualitative rearrangements in the population structure.

  15. Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the spontaneous contraction of isolated duodenum and ileum in both guinea pigs and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, H; Magaribuchi, T; Tamaki, H

    1986-01-01

    Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the spontaneous contraction of isolated duodenum and ileum were studied in both guinea pigs and rabbits. In the duodenum and ileum of both guinea pigs and rabbits, TM-906 (10(-6) g/ml, 10(-5) g/ml) produced a potentiation of the spontaneous contraction in preparations with low contractile activity (low tone or small contraction), while it caused an inhibition of the spontaneous contraction in preparations with high contractile activity (high tone or large contraction). The potentiation of spontaneous contraction by TM-906 was more pronounced in the ileum than in the duodenum of both guinea pigs and rabbits. When the spontaneous contraction of duodenum and ileum was decreased by atropine, the potentiation of spontaneous contraction by TM-906 was further augmented and was more pronounced in the ileum than in the duodenum. When the spontaneous contraction was remarkably potentiated by physostigmine or acetylcholine, TM-906 markedly inhibited the potentiated spontaneous contraction, and the potentiation by TM-906 seen in preparations with low contractile activity disappeared. From these results, it is concluded that TM-906 produces, depending on the contractile activity of the preparations, a potentiation or an inhibition of the spontaneous contraction of duodenum and ileum in both guinea pigs and rabbits and that the potentiation by TM-906 is more pronounced in the ileum than in the duodenum. It is suggested that the endogenous acetylcholine partly modifies the effects of TM-906, but that it does not relate to the more pronounced potentiation by TM-906 in the ileum than in the duodenum. PMID:3959348

  16. Metagenomics Reveals Dysbiosis and a Potentially Pathogenic N. flavescens Strain in Duodenum of Adult Celiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    D'Argenio, Valeria; Casaburi, Giorgio; Precone, Vincenza; Pagliuca, Chiara; Colicchio, Roberta; Sarnataro, Daniela; Discepolo, Valentina; Kim, Sangman M; Russo, Ilaria; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Horner, David S; Chiara, Matteo; Pesole, Graziano; Salvatore, Paola; Monteleone, Giovanni; Ciacci, Carolina; Caporaso, Gregory J; Jabrì, Bana; Salvatore, Francesco; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD)-associated duodenal dysbiosis has not yet been clearly defined, and the mechanisms by which CD-associated dysbiosis could concur to CD development or exacerbation are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the duodenal microbiome of CD patients. METHODS: The microbiome was evaluated in duodenal biopsy samples of 20 adult patients with active CD, 6 CD patients on a gluten-free diet, and 15 controls by DNA sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA libraries. Bacterial species were cultured, isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. Isolated bacterial species were used to infect CaCo-2 cells, and to stimulate normal duodenal explants and cultured human and murine dendritic cells (DCs). Inflammatory markers and cytokines were evaluated by immunofluorescence and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Proteobacteria was the most abundant and Firmicutes and Actinobacteria the least abundant phyla in the microbiome profiles of active CD patients. Members of the Neisseria genus (Betaproteobacteria class) were significantly more abundant in active CD patients than in the other two groups (P=0.03). Neisseria flavescens (CD-Nf) was the most abundant Neisseria species in active CD duodenum. Whole-genome sequencing of CD-Nf and control-Nf showed genetic diversity of the iron acquisition systems and of some hemoglobin-related genes. CD-Nf was able to escape the lysosomal compartment in CaCo-2 cells and to induce an inflammatory response in DCs and in ex-vivo mucosal explants. CONCLUSIONS: Marked dysbiosis and an abundance of a peculiar CD-Nf strain characterize the duodenal microbiome in active CD patients thus suggesting that the CD-associated microbiota could contribute to the many inflammatory signals in this disorder. PMID:27045926

  17. Effect of neonatal MSG treatment on day-night alkaline phosphatase activity in the rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Martinková, A; Lenhardt, L; Mozes, S

    2000-01-01

    The day-night variation of food intake and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was studied in the duodenum of rats neonatally treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) and saline-treated (control) rats. The animals were kept under light-dark conditions (light phase from 09:00 h to 21:00 h) with free access to food. AP activity was cytophotometrically analyzed in the brush-border of enterocytes separated from the tip, middle and cryptal part of the villi every 6 h over a 24-hour period. In comparison with the controls, MSG-treated rats consumed about 40% less food during the dark period and their 24-hour food intake was thus significantly lowered (P<0.001). On the other hand, the nocturnal feeding habit showed a similar pattern: food consumption was high during the night (65% vs. 75%) and the lowest consumption was found during the light phase (35% vs. 25%) in MSG-treated and control rats, respectively. In agreement with the rhythm of food intake, the highest AP activity was observed during the dark phase and was lowest during the light phase in both groups of animals. These significant day-night variations showed nearly the same pattern in the enterocytes of all observed parts along the villus axis. In comparison with the controls, a permanent increase of AP activity was observed in neonatal MSG-treated rats. This increase was more expressive during the dark phase of the day in the cryptal (P<0.001) and middle part of the villus (P<0.01). From the viewpoint of feeding, this enzyme in MSG-treated rats was enhanced in an inverse relation to the amount of food eaten i.e. despite sustained hypophagia the mean AP activity in the enterocytes along the villus axis was higher than in the control animals during all investigated periods. The present results suggest that the increased AP activity in MSG-treated rats is probably not a consequence of actual day-night eating perturbations but could be a component of a more general effect of MSG. This information contributes to

  18. Change of genes in calcium transport channels caused by hypoxic stress in the placenta, duodenum, and kidney of pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; An, Beum-Soo; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by concurrent development of hypertension, proteinuria, and oxidative stress in the placenta. In this study, we induced hypoxic stress in rats during pregnancy to reproduce physiological conditions associated with preeclampsia. The maternal weight of hypoxic pregnant rats was lower than that of normoxic animals. The level of calcium ions were also increased in urine collected from the hypoxic animals. In contrast, urinary concentrations of sodium, chloride, and potassium ions declined in hypoxic rats, and developed to proteinuria. The expression of genes known as two biomarkers, sFLT1 (for preeclampsia) and HIF-1alpha (for hypoxia), were highly induced in the placenta, duodenum, and kidney by hypoxic stress. The overexpression of sFLT1 and HIF-1alpha demonstrated that our experimental conditions closely mimicked ones that are associated with preeclampsia. In the present study, we measured the expression of calcium transporters (TRPV5, TRPV6, PMCA1, NCKX3, NCX1, and CaBP-9k) in the placenta, duodenum, and kidney under hypoxic conditions on Gestational Day 19.5 in rats. Placental TRPV5, TRPV6, and PMCA1 expression was up-regulated in the hypoxic rats, whereas the levels of NCX1 and CaBP-9k were unchanged. In addition, NCKX3 expression was increased in the placenta of hypoxic rats. Duodenal expression of CaBP-9k, TRPV5, TRPV 6, and PMCA1 was decreased in the hypoxic rats, whereas levels of NCXs were not altered. Renal expression of NCKX3 and TRPV6 was increased, whereas NCX1 was decreased in the hypoxic rats compared to the normoxic controls. Taken together, these results indicate that physiological changes observed in the hypoxic rats were similar to ones associated with preeclampsia. Expression of calcium transport genes in the placenta, duodenum, and kidney perturbed by hypoxic stress during pregnancy may cause calcium loss in the urine, and thereby induce calcium-deficient characteristics of preeclampsia.

  19. Retrospective evaluation of endoscopic stenting of combined malignant common bile duct and gastric outlet-duodenum obstructions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianfeng; Hao, Jianyu; Wu, Dongfang; Lang, Haibo

    2014-10-01

    Malignant dual obstruction in the common bile duct and gastric outlet-duodenum can cause difficulties in palliative treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize our successful experience with the endoscopic stenting procedure for the palliative treatment of malignant biliary and gastric outlet-duodenum obstruction. Seventeen patients who underwent dual stenting procedures for the common bile duct and duodenum were retrospectively reviewed. The success rate of placement, palliative effect for biliary and duodenal obstruction, incidence of complication and restricture and stent patency were analyzed. Stent placement achieved a 100% success rate. Total bilirubin decreased from 263.4±62.5 to 157.6±25.1 μmol/l, direct bilirubin decreased from 233.2±66.5 to 130.9±27.7 μmol/l and alkaline phosphatase from 534.2±78.7 to 216.3±23.3 IU/l. The differences between the preoperative and postoperative results were statistically significant (P<0.01). The gastric outlet obstruction score increased significantly from 0.9±1.1 to 2.1±0.7 points (P<0.01). The general nutritional status of the patients was improved. No serious complications occurred in any of the patients, and the survival time of patients following stenting ranged between 70 and 332 days with a mean survival time of 192 days. In conclusion, our methodology for combined biliary and enteral stenting is highly effective for the palliation of malignant biliary and gastric outlet-duodenal obstruction.

  20. Distribution and chemical coding of calretinin- and calbindin-expressing enteric neurons in the duodenum of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Arciszewski, M B; Całka, J; Wasowicz, K; Majewski, M

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades has brought significant advances in our knowledge of the chemical coding and function of enteric neurons. Calcium ions are important second messenger involved in many aspects of neuron physiology. In the present study, we analyzed immunohistochemically the presence of calcium binding proteins (calretinin and calbindin) in various subpopulations of enteric neurons from the ovine duodenum. Ten percent of submucous neurons were immunoreactive (IR) to calretinin. The presence of calretinin was not detected in myenteric neurons. Calretinin-expressing nerve fibres were found in both myenteric and submucous ganglia, between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers and in the lamina muscularis mucosae. Calretinin-IR submucous neurons did not exhibit the presence of SP, NPY and VIP. Co-localization of calretinin and serotonin was found only in a small number of submucous neurons. Calbindin was expressed in 35% of myenteric neurons and in 60% of submucous neurons. Nerve fibres containing calbindin were localized in myenteric and submucous ganglia where they frequently formed basket-like formations. Calbindin-positive nerve fibres emerging from myenteric ganglia ran between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers. Immunoreactivity to calbindin was also visualized in the lamina muscularis mucosae, around mucosal glands and blood vessels. None of calbindin-IR myenteric neurons revealed immunoreactivity to SP, NPY, VIP and serotonin. Virtually all calbindin-expressing submucous neurons were SP-positive. In moderate numbers of submucous perikarya, co-incidence of calbindin and NPY, calbindin and VIP or calbindin and serotonin was observed. We conclude that in the ovine duodenum, the expression of calretinin and calbindin is species specific. Co-localization studies and distribution patterns indicate that in the duodenum of the sheep, calretinin and calbindin may be present in several functional subclasses of enteric neurons. PMID:20169914

  1. Postruminal synthesis modifies the odd- and branched-chain fatty acid profile from the duodenum to milk.

    PubMed

    Vlaeminck, B; Gervais, R; Rahman, M M; Gadeyne, F; Gorniak, M; Doreau, M; Fievez, V

    2015-07-01

    Milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) have been suggested as potential biomarkers for rumen function. The potential of milk OBCFA as a biomarker depends on whether their profile reflects the profile observed in the duodenum. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the OBCFA profile in duodenum samples is reflected in plasma and milk. For this, 2 dairy cattle experiments were used. In experiment 1, 4 Holstein cows fitted with rumen and proximal duodenum cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of 2 nitrogen levels (143 vs. 110g of crude protein/kg of dry matter for high and low N, respectively) combined with either 1 of the 2 energy sources (i.e., starch from barley, corn, and wheat or fiber from soybean hulls and dehydrated beet pulp). In experiment 2, 4 Holstein cows fitted with rumen and proximal duodenum cannulas were used in a 3×3 Latin square design, with the treatments consisting of 3 diets: (1) RNB-, a diet with a crude protein content of 122g/kg of dry matter, predicted to provide protein digested in the small intestine according to the requirement of the animals, but with a shortage of rumen degradable protein; (2) RNB- to which 6g/d of niacin was added through inclusion in the mineral and vitamin premix, and (3) RNB- to which urea was added to balance rumen degradable N supply resulting in a CP content of 156g/kg of dry matter. In both experiments, samples of duodenal digesta, plasma, and milk were collected and analyzed for fatty acids. Additionally, lipids in plasma samples were separated in lipid classes and analyzed for fatty acids. The OBCFA profile in milk was enriched in 15:0, iso-17:0, anteiso-17:0, and cis-9-17:1 as compared with duodenal samples, and milk secretions even exceeded duodenal flows, which suggests occurrence of postruminal synthesis, such as de novo synthesis, desaturation, and elongation. The postruminal modification of the OBCFA profile might hamper the application of OBCFA

  2. Use of artificial stomach-duodenum model for investigation of dosing fluid effect on clinical trial variability.

    PubMed

    Polster, Christopher S; Atassi, Faraj; Wu, Sy-Juen; Sperry, David C

    2010-10-01

    Lilly Compound X (LCX) is an oncology drug that was tested in a phase I clinical study using starch blend capsules. The drug was given to a small patient population (4 patients) and showed large inter- and intra-patient variability. In order to evaluate the possible effect of stomach pH on exposure and ways to mitigate the variability issue, artificial stomach-duodenum (ASD) experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that carefully selected dosing fluids would have an impact in minimizing exposure variability caused by the formulation, which could lead to more consistent evaluation of drug absorption in patients. The ASD data corroborates the observed variability, and was a good tool to investigate the effect of stomach pH and potential dosing solutions on duodenal concentrations. Administering capsules co-formulated with Captisol (10% drug load) along with Sprite was shown by the ASD to be an effective way to increase duodenal concentrations as well as to reduce the difference between duodenal concentrations for different gastric pH. The reduction in variability of duodenum AUC (in ASD) is expected to correlate well with a reduction of variability in patient exposure. The dosing regimen of Sprite/Captisol is therefore suggested for future clinical trials involving LCX. Furthermore, for design of early phase clinical trials, ASD technology can be used to assist in choosing the proper dosing solution to mitigate absorption and exposure variability issues. PMID:20669969

  3. A case of primary adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum resected by laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperating surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Ichiro; Obama, Kazutaka; Matsuo, Koichi; Kami, Kazuhiro; Uemoto, Yusuke; Sato, Teruyuki; Ito, Tetsuo; Tamaki, Nobuyuki; Kubota, Keiko; Inoue, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morimoto, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report a case of primary adenocarcinoma in the third portion of the duodenum (D3) curatively resected by laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperating surgery (LECS). Presentation of case A 65-year-old woman had a routine visit to our hospital for a follow-up of rectal cancer resected curatively 2 years ago. A routine screening gastroduodenal endoscopy revealed an elevated lesion of 20 mm in diameter in the D3. The preoperative diagnosis was adenoma with high-grade dysplasia; however, suspicion about potential adenocarcinoma was undeniable. Curative resection was performed by LECS. Pathological examination revealed intramucosal adenocarcinoma arising from normal duodenal mucosa. The tumor was stage I (T1/N0/M0) in terms of the tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) classification. LECS for duodenal tumor has seldom been reported previously, and this is the first report of LECS for primary adenocarcinoma in the D3. The transverse mesocolon was removed from the head of pancreas to expose the duodenum, and the accessory right colic vein was cut; this was followed by the Kocher maneuver for mobilization of the lesion site. Discussion LECS enabled en bloc resection with adequate surgical margins and secure intra-abdominal suturing. Thorough mobilization of the mesocolon and pancreas head is essential for this procedure because it facilitates correct resection and suturing. Conclusion LECS is a feasible treatment option for duodenal neoplasms, including intramucosal adenocarcinoma, even though it exists in the D3. PMID:25723745

  4. Motilin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of caimans (Caiman latirostris and Caiman crocodilus, alligatorinae): a further comparison using region-specific motilin antisera.

    PubMed

    Yamada, J; Rodrigues, M A; Kitamura, N; Pai, V D; Yamashita, T; Motizuki, T; Yanaihara, N

    1991-07-01

    Motilin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of Caiman latirostris and Caiman crocodilus were investigated using region specific antisera for porcine and canine motilin molecules. Motilin-immunoreactive cells were found in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of both caiman species. These cells were primarily open-type endocrine ones in the epithelium of the duodenum and pyloric stomach. Motilin-immunoreactive cells were observed in both the exocrine and endocrine portions of the pancreas, and frequently exhibited one or more cytoplasmic processes of variable length. Since motilin-immunoreactive cells do not cross-react with serotonin or any of the other pancreatic and gut hormones, they are considered to be cell type independent from any of the other known pancreatic or gut endocrine cells. The molecular similarity between caiman motilin and porcine and canine motilins and the heterogeneity of the motilin molecule in the caiman digestive system is discussed.

  5. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  6. Wound healing potential of scaffolds prepared from porcine jejunum and urinary bladder by a non-detergent/enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Revi, Deepa; Vineetha, Vadavanath P; Muhamed, Jaseer; Surendran, Geetha C; Rajan, Akhila; Kumary, T V; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu V

    2015-04-01

    Scaffolds prepared using extracellular matrices of mammalian organs/tissues, when used as grafts, have wound healing potential. This paper evaluated the physical properties and in vivo wound healing potential of jejunum-derived scaffold (JDS) and urinary bladder-derived scaffold (UDS) of porcine origin prepared by a non-detergent/enzymatic method. The former had higher flexural rigidity and suture retention strength compared to the latter, but both of them had the essential flexural rigidity and suture retention strength required for skin grafts. Full thickness skin-wounds on rabbit dorsum were treated with these scaffolds and the wound healing ability was compared by studying histomorphology parameters such as re-epithelialisation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, proliferation of cells, mesenchymal cell infiltration and myofibroblast response. The extent of these reactions was assessed using histomorphometry. The results indicated that both grafts initiated healing faster than those wounds without any graft, as evidenced by the extent of cell proliferation and mesenchymal cell infiltration. The myofibroblast response persisted longer in the non-graft assisted wound healing reaction compared to the healing in the graft assisted wounds. Moreover, the JDS induced higher cell proliferation and greater angiogenesis than UDS probably indicating better healing by the former. The results suggested that JDS and UDS prepared by non-detergent/enzymatic method have potential clinical applications.

  7. Bispyridinium non-oximes: An evaluation of cardiac effects in isolated hearts and smooth muscle relaxing effects in jejunum.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, Katharina; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-09-01

    Bispyridinium non-oximes seem to be promising candidates for the generic treatment of nerve agent poisoning as they interact with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The lead compound MB327 showed therapeutic effectiveness in vitro and in vivo but was toxic at higher doses. In the present study, the effect of various bispyridinium non-oximes on isolated heart and small intestine function was investigated. Bispyridinium non-oximes and oximes were tested in at least seven different concentrations in rat jejunum preparations pre-treated with carbachol. All bispyridinium non-oximes showed classical dose response curves with MB327 being the most effective (EC50=6.6μM) and MB782 being slightly less effective (EC50=10.4μM). Neither the bispyridinium non-oximes nor the oximes showed cardiotoxic effects in the isolated Langendorff heart. The tested bispyridinum compounds showed no direct cardiac effect but had variable smooth muscle relaxing effects. Further in vivo studies are required to get more insight into potential toxic mechanisms of these promising nerve agent antidotes. PMID:27184650

  8. Anticoccidial and antioxidant activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Eimeria papillata-induced infection in the jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Wahab, Rizwan

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine has recently emerged as a better option for the treatment of various diseases. Here, we investigated the in vivo anticoccidial properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs). ZNPs were crystalline in nature, with a smooth and spherical surface and a diameter in the range of ~10–15 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern was utilized to identify the crystalline property of the grown ZNPs, whereas field emission scanning electron microscopy was employed to check the size and morphology of the ZNPs. The data showed that mice infected with Eimeria papillata produced 29.7×103±1,500 oocysts/g feces on day 5 postinfection. This output was significantly decreased, to 12.5×103±1,000 oocysts, in mice treated with ZNPs. Infection also induced inflammation and injury of the jejunum. This was evidenced (1) through an increase in the inflammatory histological score, (2) through increased production of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, and (3) through a decrease in both the glutathione level and goblet cell number in mice jejuna. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during treatment with ZNPs. Our results indicate, therefore, that ZNPs have protective effects against E. papillata-induced coccidiosis. PMID:25792829

  9. Intussusception causing postoperative intestinal obstruction following free jejunum transfer in adults: two case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akira; Watanabe, Masayuki; Shigaki, Hironobu; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Koujiro; Mine, Shinji; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Sano, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Intussusception is a rare cause of postoperative intestinal obstruction in adults. We experienced two cases of bowel obstruction due to the jejuno-jejunal intussusception after harvest of a free jejunum graft for reconstruction after cervical esophagectomy. Bowel obstruction occurred early in the postoperative course, and reoperations were needed in both cases. In both case, the anastomotic site was resected and re-anastomosed in a side-to-side fashion. Recurrence of intussusception has not been observed. In the literature, such a complication has been documented in two case series and a case report. The reported incidence of postoperative intussusception of the case series was 2.8% and 7.4%, respectively. The jejuno-jejunal anastomoses were performed with end-to-end fashion by two layered hand-sewn suture (Albert-Lembert method) in all cases reported. In order to prevent the occurrence of postoperative intussusception, we recommend to harvest a free jejunal graft as far from the Treitz ligament as possible and to avoid reconstruction by an Albert-Lembert end-to-end anastomosis. PMID:26943396

  10. Method for the preparation of mucosal flaps from the jejunum of laying hens for transporter studies in Ussing chambers.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Meyer, Wilfried; Kröger, Susan; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Ussing chambers are frequently used for in vitro evaluation of intestinal transport physiology. The current study describes investigating the jejunal tissue from laying hens using a specific preparation method and evaluates the effect of glutamine in the maintenance buffer. Tunica mucosa was stripped from 104 jejunal samples from 10 hens and stabilised by a net device. Fifty samples were maintained with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (Control), 54 samples with additional 5 mM glutamine (Group Gln). The percentage of responding samples varied between 87 and 100%. Mean short circuit current (ΔI sc,) [µA/cm(2)] of samples exposed to 10 mM glucose in the Control group and Group Gln was 17.0 and 14.6 (p = 0.836), respectively, of samples exposed to 100 µM phloridzin -13.3 and -11.8 (p = 0.712), respectively, and of samples exposed to 100 µM carbachol 4.7 and 3.7 (p = 0.450), respectively. In conclusion, the net-supported method enabled a reliable investigation of jejunum from laying hens. Glutamine in the maintenance buffer was of no significant benefit.

  11. Differential expression of calcium transport genes caused by COMT inhibition in the duodenum, kidney and placenta of pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Ahn, Changhwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by concurrent development of hypertension, proteinuria, and oxidative stress in the placenta. Preeclampsia-like genetic models were also developed by modification of preeclampsia-related genes, such as catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT). In this study, we induced COMT inhibition in mice during pregnancy in order to reproduce physiological conditions associated with preeclampsia. Expression of the gene known as hypoxia biomarker, HIF-1α, was highly induced in the placenta of this model. The over-expression of HIF-1α demonstrates that our experimental conditions were similar to those of preeclampsia. We measured the expression of several calcium transport genes (CTGs; TRPV5, TRPV6, PMCA1 and CaBP-9k) in the placenta, duodenum and kidney after COMT inhibition on gestation day 17.5 (GD 17.5). In addition, we evaluated the calcium transporters in the kidney, duodenum of non-pregnant female mice. Placental TRPV5, TRPV6 and PMCA1 expressions were down-regulated by COMT inhibitor (ro41-0960). In addition, the reduced PMCA1 expression in the placenta was reversed by calcium supplementation. Duodenal expressions of TRPV5, TRPV6, and PMCA1 were decreased in COMT-inhibited mice, and recovered slightly after calcium supplementation. Renal expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, and PMCA1 was also decreased by COMT inhibition, while it was reversed by calcium supplementation to the level of control. Duodenal- and renal calcium transporting genes, TRPV5, TPRV6, PMCA1 and CaBP-9k, were down-regulated by COMT treatment in female mice. Taken together, these results indicate that physiological changes observed in COMT inhibition were similar to symptoms of preeclampsia, which may be related to disturbance of calcium metabolism during pregnancy.

  12. Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

    This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

  13. Effects of supplemental β-carotene on mucosal IgA induction in the jejunum and ileum of mice after weaning.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Keita; Sugimoto, Miki; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Kume, Shinichi

    2014-01-28

    An adequate immune system is required to prevent diarrhoea in neonates, and IgA provides protection against microbial antigens on mucosal surfaces. Although β-carotene supplementation has been expected to enhance the retinoic acid (RA)-mediated immune response in neonates, the exact mechanism of the enhancement of mucosal IgA production in the small intestine by β-carotene is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of supplemental β-carotene on the concentrations of IgA, the numbers of IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and the mRNA expressions of IgA C-region, CCL25, retinoid X receptor (RXR) α, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α and RARγ in the jejunum and ileum of weanling mice. Weanling mice were fed rodent feed or 50 mg/kg β-carotene-supplemented rodent feed for 7, 14 or 21 d. The concentrations of IgA and the numbers of IgA ASC in the jejunum and ileum of mice increased markedly with age, and supplemental β-carotene increased the concentrations of IgA, the numbers of IgA ASC and the mRNA expressions of IgA C-region, CCL25 and RARγ in the jejunum after 14 and 21 d of treatment. Supplemental β-carotene increased the numbers of IgA ASC in the ileum after 14 and 21 d of treatment, but the concentrations of IgA in the ileum were not affected by β-carotene supplementation. The mRNA expressions of RXRα and RARα in the jejunum and those of RXRα and RARγ in the ileum after 21 d of treatment were enhanced by β-carotene supplementation. These results indicate that β-carotene supplementation in weanling mice is effective to enhance mucosal IgA induction in the jejunum or ileum and that the effects are mainly due to the RA-mediated immune response. PMID:23830034

  14. Intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells and VIP-IR submucosal neurons of jejunum rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Ana, Débora M G; Góis, Marcelo B; Zanoni, Jacqueline N; da Silva, Aristeu V; da Silva, Cleverton J T; Araújo, Eduardo J A

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) crosses the intestinal barrier in oral infections and can lead to changes in different cell types, including the neurons located there. In the gastrointestinal system, the autonomous nervous system component that regulate blood flow and mucous secretion is the submucosal plexus. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of T. gondii infection on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and submucosal neurons that are immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP-IR) of rat jejunum. Twenty male rats distributed as a control group (CG) and an infected group (IG), which received a suspension with 500 parasite oocysts (strain ME-49, genotype II) orally, were assessed. Routine histological sections were used to quantify IELs and to detect mucins secreted by goblet cells. Whole mounts including the submucosal layer were examined using immunofluorescence to detect the VIP neurotransmitter. Quantitative alterations in IELs were not observed. However, the reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of goblet cells that produce neutral mucins (PAS+) and sulphomucins (AB pH 1.0) and the maintenance of sialomucin-secreting cells (AB pH 2.5) resulting in a more fluid mucous were observed. Concerning the VIP-IR submucosal neurons, an increase in fluorescence on IG animals was observed. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of VIP-IR submucosal neurons and atrophy of their cell bodies in IG rats. Infection with T. gondii caused alterations in the chemical composition of the intestinal mucous and reduction in the neuron number and atrophy of the remaining neurons in this cell subpopulation. PMID:22804764

  15. VPAC1 receptors regulate intestinal secretion and muscle contractility by activating cholinergic neurons in guinea pig jejunum.

    PubMed

    Fung, Candice; Unterweger, Petra; Parry, Laura J; Bornstein, Joel C; Foong, Jaime P P

    2014-05-01

    In the gastrointestinal tract, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is found exclusively within neurons. VIP regulates intestinal motility via neurally mediated and direct actions on smooth muscle and secretion by a direct mucosal action, and via actions on submucosal neurons. VIP acts via VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors; however, the subtype involved in its neural actions is unclear. The neural roles of VIP and VPAC1 receptors (VPAC1R) were investigated in intestinal motility and secretion in guinea pig jejunum. Expression of VIP receptors across the jejunal layers was examined using RT-PCR. Submucosal and myenteric neurons expressing VIP receptor subtype VPAC1 and/or various neurochemical markers were identified immunohistochemically. Isotonic muscle contraction was measured in longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations. Electrogenic secretion across mucosa-submucosa preparations was measured in Ussing chambers by monitoring short-circuit current. Calretinin(+) excitatory longitudinal muscle motor neurons expressed VPAC1R. Most cholinergic submucosal neurons, notably NPY(+) secretomotor neurons, expressed VPAC1R. VIP (100 nM) induced longitudinal muscle contraction that was inhibited by TTX (1 μM), PG97-269 (VPAC1 antagonist; 1 μM), and hyoscine (10 μM), but not by hexamethonium (200 μM). VIP (50 nM)-evoked secretion was depressed by hyoscine or PG97-269 and involved a small TTX-sensitive component. PG97-269 and TTX combined did not further depress the VIP response observed in the presence of PG97-269 alone. We conclude that VIP stimulates ACh-mediated longitudinal muscle contraction via VPAC1R on cholinergic motor neurons. VIP induces Cl(-) secretion directly via epithelial VPAC1R and indirectly via VPAC1R on cholinergic secretomotor neurons. No evidence was obtained for involvement of other neural VIP receptors.

  16. Inhibitory effect of unconjugated bile acids on the intestinal transport of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in rat jejunum in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Said, H M; Hollander, D; Strum, W B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the unconjugated bile acids, cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and ursodeoxycholic acids, and of the conjugated bile acid taurocholic acid on the mucosal-to-serosal transport and tissue uptake of the naturally occurring folate derivative, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3H4PteGlu) was examined in everted sacs of rat jejunum. Each of the unconjugated bile acids examined inhibited the transport and tissue uptake of 5-CH3H4PteGlu in a concentration dependent manner. At low concentrations (0.01-0.1 mM) of cholic and deoxycholic acids, no structural or functional damage to the intestinal mucosa occurred and the transport of 5-CH3H4PteGlu was inhibited competitively with Ki values of 0.114 mM and 0.055 mM for cholic and deoxycholic acids, respectively. The greater inhibition of 5-CH3H4PteGlu transport by unconjugated bile acids at 1 mM can be attributed to observed structural and functional damage to the intestinal mucosa. The addition of 2 mM lecithin to the mucosal medium failed to prevent the inhibitory effect of 0.1 mM deoxycholic acid on the transport of 0.5 microM 5-CH3H4PteGlu. Compared with the effect of unconjugated bile acids, the conjugated bile acid taurocholic acid (0.01-5 mM) showed no effect on the transport and tissue uptake of 5-CH3H4PteGlu. The results of this study show that intestinal transport and tissue uptake of 5-CH3H4PteGlu are inhibited by unconjugated bile acids in a dose-dependent fashion. The clinical and physiological implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:6510770

  17. Properties of phosphofructokinase from the mucosa of rat jejunum and their relation to the lack of Pasteur effect.

    PubMed

    Tejwani, G A; Ramaiah, A

    1971-11-01

    1. The properties of phosphofructokinase after its slight purification from the mucosa of rat jejunum were studied. 2. The enzyme is inhibited by almost 100% by an excess of ATP (1.6mm), with 0.2mm-fructose 6-phosphate. AMP, ADP, P(i) and NH(4) (+) at 0.2, 0.76, 1.0 and 2mm respectively do not individually prevent the inhibition of phosphofructokinase activity by 1.6mm-ATP with 0.2mm-fructose 6-phosphate to any great extent, but all of them together completely prevent the inhibition of phosphofructokinase by ATP. 3. One of the effects of high concentrations of ATP on the enzyme was to increase enormously the apparent K(m) value for the other substrate fructose 6-phosphate, and this increase is largely counteracted by the presence of AMP, ADP, P(i) and NH(4) (+). At low concentrations of ATP the above effectors individually decrease the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate required for half-maximum velocity and when present together they decrease it further, in a more than additive way. 4. When fructose 6-phosphate is present at a saturating concentration (5mm), 0.3mm-NH(4) (+) increases the maximum velocity of the reaction 3.3-fold; with 0.5mm-fructose 6-phosphate, 4.5mm-NH(4) (+) is required for maximum effect. The other effectors do not change the maximum reaction velocity. 5. The results presented here suggest that NH(4) (+), AMP, ADP and P(i) synergistically decrease the inhibition of phosphofructokinase activity at high concentrations of ATP by decreasing the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate required for half-maximum velocity. Such synergism among the effectors and an observed, low ;energy charge' [(ATP+(1/2)ADP)/(AMP+ADP+ATP)] in conjunction with the possibility of a relatively high NH(4) (+) and fructose 6-phosphate concentration in this tissue, may keep the mucosal phosphofructokinase active and uninhibited by ATP under aerobic conditions, thus explaining the high rate of aerobic glycolysis and the lack of Pasteur effect in this tissue.

  18. Influence of formula versus sow milk feeding on trace element status and expression of zinc-related genes in the jejunum, liver and pancreas of neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, Alina; Pieper, Robert; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Increasing litter sizes in modern swine production have raised an urgent need for artificial rearing strategies and formula feeding. The current experiment was conducted to study the influence of formula trace element concentration according to recommendations for weaned piglets on the mRNA concentration of zinc (Zn)-related genes in the jejunum, liver and pancreas of neonatal piglets. Eight artificially reared piglets were fed a cow-milk-based formula (Group FO) containing 100 mg Zn/kg dry matter. Eight of their sow-reared littermates (Group SM) were used as control. After 14 d, all 16 piglets were killed and the jejunum, liver and pancreas were evaluated for Zn, copper, manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) concentration and mRNA concentration of metal and Zn-specific transporters, metallothioneins (MT) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). In Group FO the Zn concentration in liver tissue was increased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Fe and Mn concentrations in liver and jejunal tissue were higher (p < 0.05) in Group FO, whereas neither Zn transporters nor MT in jejunal and pancreatic tissue showed differences between both groups. In the liver of Group FO, MT mRNA concentration was higher (p < 0.05), whereas Zn transporter protein 1 and divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA concentration was lower (p < 0.05). Besides Zn-induced expression of transporters and MT, the significantly increased IL-6 expression in Group FO suggests the involvement of cytokine-mediated Mn and Fe sequestration in the liver and jejunum. The results revealed that dietary trace element concentration used in the study likely exceeded the requirements of neonatal pigs as reflected by homeostatic counter-regulation in different organs.

  19. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of canine pancreatic and duodenum homeobox 1 (Pdx-1).

    PubMed

    Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Lee, Peter; Ohta, Taizo; Mori, Nobuko; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-10-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx-1) is a critical insulin transcription factor expressed by pancreatic β-cells, and is crucial in the early stage of pancreas development. Unfortunately, nothing concerning Pdx-1 in canine has been elucidated yet. In this study, full length canine Pdx-1 cDNA was cloned and it was 1498 bp in length, consisting of a 99 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 849 bp coding region, and a 550 bp 3'-UTR region. A deduced 282 amino acid sequence of canine PDX-1 displayed high overall sequence identity with human, bovine, and mouse PDX-1. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that a high level of Pdx1 mRNA expression is exists in the duodenum and pancreas of canines. In addition, functional canine insulin promoter-luciferase reporter constructs with various canine insulin promoter region fragments revealed that our Pdx-1 isolated cDNA sequence encodes for a functionally active PDX-1 protein. Significant promoter activity was observed within the -583 bp 5'-upstream region of canine insulin gene with Chinese hamster ovary cells. In addition, Pdx-1 appears to have a synergistic effect with beta cell transactivator 2 (BETA2) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which also have important roles in the activation of the insulin gene promoter. Our results confirm that similar to humans, Pdx1 plays an important role in expression of insulin gene in canines.

  20. Abundance of mRNA encoding for components of the somatotropic axis and insulin receptor in different layers of the jejunum and ileum of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Ontsouka, E C; Philipona, C; Hammon, H M; Blum, J W

    2004-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factors-1 and -2, IGFBP-2 and -3, and receptors for IGF type-1 and type-2 (IGF-1R, IGF-2R), growth hormone (GHR), and insulin (InsR) in neonatal calves are variably expressed among gastrointestinal sites and thought to exert site-specific physiological functions. We studied by real-time reverse-transcription PCR, whether there are differences in the abundance of mRNA coding for IGF-I, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGF-1R, IGF-2R, GHR, and InsR in compartmentalized layers (fractions) of jejunum and ileum of 5-d-old calves fed colostrum. Samples of jejunum consisted primarily of villi and crypts; samples from ileum consisted mainly of villus tips, crypts, and lamina propria (LP; containing mainly Peyer's patches). After slaughter, segments of middle areas of jejunum and ileum were flushed with 154 mM NaCl. Pieces (5 mm x 5 mm) of jejunal (n = 9) and ileal walls (n = 5) were placed on glass slides and snap-frozen in liquid N before being cut horizontally into 10-mum-deep slices using a cryotome at -20 degrees C. Fifteen consecutive and morphologically similar slices were collected as fractions of villus, crypt, and LP layers, respectively. Fractions were characterized by use of 5'-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) that labeled proliferating cells, and by expression of lactase mRNA. The BrdU-labeled cells were present in crypts and LP, but not in tips of villi. Lactase mRNA levels were greater in villus than crypt fractions, but lactase mRNA was absent in LP. In jejunum, mRNA levels, relative to levels of housekeeping genes (sum of levels of mRNA coding for ubiquitin, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, beta-actin, and ribosomal RNA), differed (P < 0.05) between fractions for InsR (crypts > villi), IGFBP-2 (crypts > villi), and IGFBP-3 (crypts > villi), and total RNA levels were greater (P < 0.05) in crypt than villus fractions. In ileum, mRNA levels, expressed relative to housekeeping genes, differed (P < 0.05) between fractions for IGF-I (LP > villi

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Bacillus sp. VT 712 Strain Isolated from the Duodenum of a Patient with Intestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tetz, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the spore-forming Bacillus sp. strain VT 712 isolated from the duodenum of a patient with intestinal cancer. The genome is 3,921,583 bp, with 37.9% G+C content. It contains 3,768 predicted protein-coding genes for multidrug resistance transporters, virulence factors, and daunorubicin resistance. PMID:27491975

  2. In the absence of nutrients, pancreatic-biliary secretions in the jejunum do not exert feedback control of human pancreatic or gastric function.

    PubMed

    Krawisz, B R; Miller, L J; DiMagno, E P; Go, V L

    1980-01-01

    Feedback inhibition of basal pancreatic enzyme secretion by luminal pancreatic enzymes appears to be an important regulator of pancreatic secretion in some laboratory animals. To determine whether pancreatic enzymes in the jejunum influence pancreatic or gastric functions in healthy man, we intubated six subjects with a gastric sump tube and a four-lumen duodenal tube which provided (1) a duodenal perfusion site, (2) a duodenal aspiration site, (3) an inflatable balloon immediately distal to the aspiration site, and (4) a jejunal perfusion site immediately beyond the balloon. In this way, the gastroduodenal segment could be functionally separated from the remainder of the intestine. The jejunum was exposed to normal saline, active pancreatic-biliary secretions, or pancreatic-biliary secretions in which the enzymes had been inactivated by heat. Ten minutes after initiation of each jejunal perfusion, normal saline was instilled into the stomach. No differences in trypsin secretion, gastric acid secretion, or gastric emptying occurred with the different jejunal perfusates. We therefore conclude that normal man, in the absence of intraluminal nutrients, does not exhibit a jejunal pancreatic enzyme-dependent feedback control mechanism for pancreatic enzyme or gastric secretion. However, our study does not exclude the possibility of a duodenal feedback regulatory mechanism.

  3. The inflammatory effect of infection with Hymenolepis diminuta via the increased expression and activity of COX-1 and COX-2 in the rat jejunum and colon.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, D I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, A; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, N; Gutowska, I; Korbecki, J; Namięta, H; Rotter, I

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Hymenolepis diminuta may affect the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), resulting in the altered levels of their main products - prostaglandins (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). The study used the same experimental model as in our previous studies in which we had observed changes in the transepithelial ion transport, tight junctions and in the indicators of oxidative stress, in both small and large intestines of rats infected with H. diminuta. In this paper, we investigated not only the site of immediate presence of the tapeworm (jejunum), but also a distant site (colon). Inflammation related to H. diminuta infection is associated with the increased expression and activation of cyclooxygenase (COX), enzyme responsible for the synthesis of PGE2 and TXB2, local hormones contributing to the enhanced inflammatory reaction in the jejunum and colon in the infected rats. The increased COX expression and activity is probably caused by the increased levels of free radicals and the weakening of the host's antioxidant defense induced by the presence of the parasite. Our immunohistochemical analysis showed that H. diminuta infection affected not only the intensity of the immunodetection of COX but also the enzyme protein localization within intestinal epithelial cells - from the entire cytoplasm to apical/basal regions of cells, or even to the nucleus. PMID:27466058

  4. Lipidomic and Spatio-Temporal Imaging of Fat by Mass Spectrometry in Mice Duodenum during Lipid Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Seyer, Alexandre; Cantiello, Michela; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Nauze, Michel; Bézirard, Valérie; Touboul, David; Coméra, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:23560035

  5. Adenovirus 12 E1A gene detection by polymerase chain reaction in both the normal and coeliac duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, M; Humphries, P; O'Farrelly, C; Hoey, H; Sheils, O; Jeffers, M; O'Briain, D S; Kelleher, D

    1994-01-01

    A 12 amino acid sequence from the adenovirus 12 E1B protein is homologous at the protein level with a similar 12-mer derived from the wheat protein A-gliadin. It has been suggested that exposure to Ad 12 could sensitise individuals to gliadins with resultant gluten sensitive enteropathy. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyse duodenal biopsy tissue from patients with coeliac disease for the presence of Ad 12. The sensitivity of the assay system was at least 1 in 10(5) cells and specificity was confirmed both by probing with an internal oligonucleotide and by direct sequencing. Ad 12 sequences were detected in three of 17 patients with adult coeliac disease and in five of 16 adult controls with normal duodenal biopsies. Since exposure to the virus would be predicted to occur in infancy we also studied patients with childhood coeliac disease diagnosed at less than 1 year of age. Ad 12 was positive in three of 10 childhood coeliac patients and one of seven controls. In addition, we studied a cohort of patients who presented with a diarrhoeal illness and associated anti alpha gliadin antibodies in 1983. These patients had duodenal biopsies performed at this time. One of three patients with abnormal histology had detectable Ad 12 while two of 14 with normal findings were positive for Ad 12. Finally, the potential oncogenic nature of Ad 12 prompted examination of a group of patients with intestinal tumours. Ad 12 DNA was, however, in only two of 19 tumour samples tested. These data indicate that Ad 12 can be successfully detected using PCR on paraffin embedded tissue. Furthermore, Ad 12 was detected at a relatively high level in normal duodenum. The results do not, however, support the hypothesis that prior exposure to Ad 12 is implicated in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7959228

  6. Prolactin stimulates the L-type calcium channel-mediated transepithelial calcium transport in the duodenum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Dorkkam, Nitita; Wongdee, Kannikar; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-01-11

    Elevated plasma levels of prolactin (PRL) have been reported in several physiological and pathological conditions, such as lactation, prolactinoma, and dopaminergic antipsychotic drug uses. Although PRL is a calcium-regulating hormone that stimulates intestinal calcium absorption in lactating rats, whether PRL is capable of stimulating calcium absorption in male rats has been elusive. Herein, the transepithelial calcium transport and electrical characteristics were determined in ex vivo duodenal tissues of male rats by Ussing chamber technique. We found that PRL receptors were abundantly present in the basolateral membrane of the duodenal epithelial cells. PRL (200-800 ng/mL) markedly increased the active duodenal calcium transport in a dose-dependent fashion without effect on the transepithelial resistance. The PRL-enhanced active duodenal calcium transport was completely abolished by L-type calcium channel blocker (nifedipine) as well as inhibitors of the major basolateral calcium transporters, namely plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Several intracellular mediators, such as JAK2, MEK, PI3K and Src kinase, were involved in the PRL-enhanced transcellular calcium transport. Moreover, PRL also stimulated the paracellular calcium transport in the duodenum of male rats in a PI3K-dependent manner. In conclusion, PRL appeared to be a calcium-regulating hormone in male rats by enhancing the L-type calcium channel-mediated transcellular and the paracellular passive duodenal calcium transport. This phenomenon could help restrict or alleviate negative calcium balance and osteoporosis that often accompany hyperprolactinemia in male patients. PMID:23206706

  7. Expression patterns and potential action of the calcium transport genes Trpv5, Trpv6, Ncx1 and Pmca1b in the canine duodenum, kidney and uterus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ah; Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Jung, Eui-Man; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-01-01

    Four membrane calcium (Ca²⁺) channels are known to play an important role in calcium transport: transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V members 5 and 6 (Trpv5/6), Na⁺/Ca²⁺ exchanger 1 (Ncx1) and plasma membrane Ca²⁺-transporting ATPase1 (Pmca1b). These channels have been shown to mediate the transport of Ca²⁺ between the cytosol and bloodstream in multiple tissues, including the duodenum, kidney, and uterus. Trpv5 and Trpv6 are known to selectively import Ca²⁺ into cells, while Ncx1 and Pmca1b function to extrude Ca²⁺. The present study examined and compared expression patterns of these genes in the canine duodenum, kidney and uterus. We confirmed expression of all four genes in this canine model. To collect tissues for analysis, two adult (2.5-year-old) female dogs were euthanized and tissue samples were collected from an abdominal incision. Expression of Trpv5/6, Ncx1 and Pmca1b was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Trpv5, Trpv6 and Ncx1 mRNA were highly expressed in the kidney, while Pmca1b mRNA was primarily detected in the uterus. Protein expression was verified by Western blot analysis and localized by immunohistochemistry. Protein expression showed patterns similar to those of mRNA expression. Taken together, these results indicate that transcriptional and transitional expression of Tprv5, Trpv6, Ncx1 and Pmca1b may play a critical role in calcium transport in the canine duodenum, kidney and uterus.

  8. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  9. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  10. Feeding rats dietary resistant starch reduces both the binding of ChREBP and the acetylation of histones on the Thrsp gene in the jejunum.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaya; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2011-02-23

    We have previously reported that the thyroid hormone-responsive spot 14 protein (Thrsp) gene is expressed in rat jejunum. In this study, we found that jejunal mRNA and protein expressions of Thrsp were markedly reduced in rats fed a diet containing a high amount of resistant starch (RS), which is an indigestible starch, for 7 days, compared with those fed a regular starch diet. Furthermore, we found that the binding of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), which is a key transcription factor for the Thrsp gene, and the acetylation of histones H3 and H4, which is one of the histone modifications for transactivation, on the Thrsp gene were reduced by feeding the RS diet. These results suggest that the reduction of jejunal Thrsp gene expression by feeding a diet rich in less-digestible starch is associated with decreases in the binding of ChREBP and the acetylation of histones on the gene.

  11. Electron microscope studies of the structure of the microvilli on principal epithelial cells of rat jejunum after treatment in hypo- and hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    MILLINGTON, P F; FINEAN, J B

    1962-07-01

    Immersion of the intestinal tissue, from rat jejunum, in hypertonic saline produced very rapid changes in all regions of the epithelial cells, but the apical region was apparently unaffected by hypotonic solutions for at least (1/2) hour. In both cases, blistering of the microvilli was taken as the first sign of degenerative changes which finally resulted in a breakdown to large vesicular particles. Consideration of both normal and modified tissue indicates that the core of the microvillus contains either paired strands or tubular structures. Lateral cross-fibres extended from the core to the microvillus membrane and may be an essential part of the supporting structure of the microvillus. Densitometer traces across the microvillus membrane at various stages of modification indicated that this membrane might include a 75 A unit membrane structure with additional components associated at either surface. Interruptions in the membrane were apparently expanded by the hypotonic solutions and these might possibly be distinguished from preparative artefacts.

  12. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Protects Jejunum and Bone Marrow of 60Cobalt-Gamma-Irradiated Mice by Regulating Apoptosis and Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Madhu; Gupta, Manish; Saini, Manu; Abdin, M. Z.; Prasad, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    A single dose (30 mg/kg body weight) of standardized sea buckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1), administered 30 min before whole body 60Co-gamma-irradiation (lethal dose, 10 Gy), protected >90% of mice population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of SBL-1 on jejunum and bone marrow, quantify key bioactive compounds, and analyze chemical composition of SBL-1. Study with 9-week-old inbred male Swiss albino Strain ‘A' mice demonstrated that SBL-1 treatment before 60Co-gamma-irradiation (10 Gy) significantly (p < 0.05) countered radiation induced decreases in jejunum crypts (1.27-fold), villi number (1.41-fold), villus height (1.25-fold), villus cellularity (2.27-fold), cryptal Paneth cells (1.89-fold), and Bcl2 level (1.54-fold). It countered radiation induced increases in cryptal apoptotic cells (1.64-fold) and Bax levels (1.88-fold). It also countered radiation (2 Gy and 3 Gy) induced bone marrow apoptosis (1.59-fold and 1.85-fold) and micronuclei frequency (1.72-fold and 2.6-fold). SBL-1 rendered radiation protection by promoting cryptal stem cells proliferation, by regulating apoptosis, and by countering radiation induced chromosomal damage. Quercetin, Ellagic acid, Gallic acid, high contents polyphenols, tannins, and thiols detected in SBL-1 may have contributed to radiation protection by neutralization of radiation induced oxidative species, supporting stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. PMID:26421051

  13. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Protects Jejunum and Bone Marrow of (60)Cobalt-Gamma-Irradiated Mice by Regulating Apoptosis and Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bala, Madhu; Gupta, Manish; Saini, Manu; Abdin, M Z; Prasad, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    A single dose (30 mg/kg body weight) of standardized sea buckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1), administered 30 min before whole body (60)Co-gamma-irradiation (lethal dose, 10 Gy), protected >90% of mice population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of SBL-1 on jejunum and bone marrow, quantify key bioactive compounds, and analyze chemical composition of SBL-1. Study with 9-week-old inbred male Swiss albino Strain 'A' mice demonstrated that SBL-1 treatment before (60)Co-gamma-irradiation (10 Gy) significantly (p < 0.05) countered radiation induced decreases in jejunum crypts (1.27-fold), villi number (1.41-fold), villus height (1.25-fold), villus cellularity (2.27-fold), cryptal Paneth cells (1.89-fold), and Bcl2 level (1.54-fold). It countered radiation induced increases in cryptal apoptotic cells (1.64-fold) and Bax levels (1.88-fold). It also countered radiation (2 Gy and 3 Gy) induced bone marrow apoptosis (1.59-fold and 1.85-fold) and micronuclei frequency (1.72-fold and 2.6-fold). SBL-1 rendered radiation protection by promoting cryptal stem cells proliferation, by regulating apoptosis, and by countering radiation induced chromosomal damage. Quercetin, Ellagic acid, Gallic acid, high contents polyphenols, tannins, and thiols detected in SBL-1 may have contributed to radiation protection by neutralization of radiation induced oxidative species, supporting stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. PMID:26421051

  14. Low-methoxyl pectin stimulates small intestinal mucin secretion irrespective of goblet cell proliferation and is characterized by jejunum Muc2 upregulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shingo; Sonoyama, Kei; Bito, Hiroyuki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Aoe, Seiichiro; Morita, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Generally, soluble fibers increase small intestinal mucin secretion by increasing the number of goblet cells in a viscosity-dependent manner. The present study aimed to examine the mechanism by which low-methoxyl pectin (LPC) affects mucin secretion in the small intestine. First, diets containing 50 g/kg of low-viscosity fiber (LPC, gum arabic, guar gum, low-molecular konjac mannan, arabinogalactan, sodium alginate) or high-molecular konjac mannan (KMH) were fed to Wistar rats for 10 d. Luminal mucin was greater in the LPC and KMH groups than in the fiber-free control group, but only the KMH group had more goblet cells in the ileum compared with the other groups. Next, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed LPC, KMH, or high-methoxyl pectin (HPC) diets (50 g/kg) for 10 d. The KMH and LPC groups, but not the HPC group, had greater luminal mucin than the control group, whereas jejunum Muc2 expression was higher only in the LPC group. Sprague-Dawley rats fed the LPC diet for 1 or 3 d had greater luminal mucin and jejunum Muc2 expression than those fed the control diet. In vitro studies using HT-29MTX cells showed that, of the various fibers studied, only LPC and HPC affected mucin secretion. Finally, Wistar rats were fed the LPC diet with or without neomycin in drinking water for 10 d; neomycin treatment did not compromise the effect of LPC on mucin secretion. We conclude that LPC does not affect the number of goblet cells but can interact directly with the epithelium and stimulate small intestinal mucin secretion.

  15. Comparative analysis of the morphology and histochemistry of the duodenum of the coypu (Myocastor coypus bonariensis) during its prenatal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Tano de la Hoz, María Florencia; Eyheramendy, Verónica; Felipe, Antonio Eduardo; Díaz, Alcira Ofelia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study focused on the comparative morphological and histochemical analysis of the duodenum of fetuses, juveniles and adult coypu (Myocastor coypus bonariensis), the major socioeconomic wildlife resource of Argentina. Histological and histochemical procedures for in situ characterization of glycoconjugates (GCs) were used. This study evidenced that fetal mucins differ histochemically in many respects from their adult counterparts. Only in fetuses from 90 days-post coitus (dpc) glycogen-rich sites were observed throughout the duodenal epithelium. The goblet cells appeared from 105 dpc and their secretory content varied considerably after birth. Duodenal glands presented scanty neutral and sulphated GCs in the 30-day juveniles; in adults the proportion of these GCs increased, and carboxylated and sialylated GCs were also observed. The results obtained in this work may be used in future studies to evaluate the effects of diet and intestinal pathologies in the glycosylation pattern of GCs. Also, knowledge of the normal glycoprofile of the duodenum of M. coypus bonariensis during its ontogenetic development may constitute a basis for the study of this organ in other Hystricognathi rodents. PMID:26777308

  16. Inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer for neonatal calves. 2. Effects on volatile fatty acid concentrations, microbial populations, and gastrointestinal tract size.

    PubMed

    Cannon, S J; Fahey, G C; Pope, L L; Bauer, L L; Wallace, R L; Miller, B L; Drackley, J K

    2010-10-01

    Fermentable fibers such as psyllium increase volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in the lower digestive tract and increase the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mass of many mammals. We reasoned that psyllium inclusion in milk replacer might produce similar effects in neonatal dairy calves, which could lead to improved growth and health. Male Holstein calves were fed a milk replacer (22% crude protein, 20% fat) either without or with psyllium (1.1% of dry matter, DM) from 2 d through 28 d of age. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12.5% DM and fed at 12% of calf body weight, adjusted weekly. Water was offered ad libitum but no starter was fed. Three calves per treatment were harvested weekly to sample digesta from the reticulo-rumen, abomasum, jejunum, proximal colon, and distal colon, and to determine length and mass of GIT components. Psyllium in milk replacer increased the proportion of butyrate in reticulo-rumen contents from 2.4 to 3.2% of total but did not affect total VFA concentrations. Total VFA concentrations were very low in the jejunum but psyllium tended to increase total VFA, acetate, and valerate concentrations; valerate accounted for 15.9 and 16.7% of total VFA (molar basis) for control and psyllium calves, respectively. Psyllium increased total VFA concentrations in the proximal and distal colon by 104.4 and 45.6%, respectively, but had little effect on the profile of VFA. Psyllium in milk replacer increased populations of bifidobacteria (from 9.7 to 10.3 log(10) cfu/g of DM) and lactobacilli (from 8.2 to 9.4 log(10) cfu/g of DM) in the reticulo-rumen, but did not affect populations in jejunum or colon. Calves fed psyllium had 12.0% greater total GIT mass and 9.4% greater GIT as a percentage of body weight. Psyllium tended to increase mass of the reticulo-rumen and significantly increased mass of duodenum (34.2%), jejunum (14.5%), and colon (14.6%). Density of intestinal tissues from calves fed psyllium-supplemented milk replacer was 25.9% greater

  17. Characterisation of immune mediator release during the immediate response to segmental mucosal challenge in the jejunum of patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Santos, J; Bayarri, C; Saperas, E; Nogueiras, C; Antolin, M; Mourelle, M; Cadahia, A; Malagelada, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Food allergy is a common complaint among patients with a broad spectrum of abdominal and extra-abdominal symptoms that must be distinguished from other more common non-immunological food intolerances.
AIMS—To investigate whether human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are associated with detectable release of inflammatory mediators from activated cells, which may serve as a biological marker of true allergic reactions.
PATIENTS/METHODS—In eight patients with food allergy and seven healthy volunteers, a closed-segment perfusion technique was used to investigate the effects of jejunal food challenge on luminal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, eosinophil cationic protein, peroxidase activity, and water flux.
RESULTS—Intraluminal administration of food antigens induced a rapid increase in intestinal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and peroxidase activity (p<0.05 v basal period) but not eosinophil cationic protein. The increased release of these mediators was associated with a notable water secretory response.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are characterised by prompt activation of mast cells and other immune cells, with notable and immediate secretion of water and inflammatory mediators into the intestinal lumen. Analysis of the profile of markers released into the jejunum after food provocation may be useful for the objective diagnosis of food allergy.


Keywords: food allergy; intestinal perfusion; mast cells PMID:10486364

  18. Nivalenol Has a Greater Impact than Deoxynivalenol on Pig Jejunum Mucosa in Vitro on Explants and in Vivo on Intestinal Loops

    PubMed Central

    Cheat, Sophal; Gerez, Juliana R.; Cognié, Juliette; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. L.; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment. PMID:26035490

  19. Effects of pinaverium on voltage-activated calcium channel currents of single smooth muscle cells isolated from the longitudinal muscle of the rabbit jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Beech, D. J.; MacKenzie, I.; Bolton, T. B.; Christen, M. O.

    1990-01-01

    1. Smooth muscle cells of the longitudinal muscle of the rabbit jejunum were dispersed by enzyme treatment and recordings of membrane current were made in the whole-cell mode by patch clamp technique. The action of pinaverium bromide on the voltage-dependent inward current of single isolated smooth muscle cells was studied in solutions containing normal concentrations of calcium or high concentrations of barium at room temperature. 2. Pinaverium reduced the voltage-dependent inward current with an IC50 of 1.5 microM. This IC50 is similar to those of verapamil, diltiazem and flunarizine on these cells as described by others. Occasionally evidence of a potentiating action of pinaverium on the inward current was seen. 3. Repetitive stimulation of the cells did not increase blockade of inward current by pinaverium unlike the use-dependent blockade seen with verapamil, methoxyverapamil, and diltiazem in these and in other smooth muscle cells. 4. The inactivation of inward current was studied by holding at various potentials for 2 or 10 s before evoking inward current. The voltage at which current was 50% available was changed very little by pinaverium although other calcium entry blockers, for example the dihydropyridines, have been reported to produce appreciable negative shifts which indicate considerable voltage-dependence of their blockade. This may indicate that pinaverium has similar affinities for the closed available and inactivated calcium channel states so that blockade is not appreciably voltage-dependent. PMID:1691676

  20. Effects of pinaverium on voltage-activated calcium channel currents of single smooth muscle cells isolated from the longitudinal muscle of the rabbit jejunum.

    PubMed

    Beech, D J; MacKenzie, I; Bolton, T B; Christen, M O

    1990-02-01

    1. Smooth muscle cells of the longitudinal muscle of the rabbit jejunum were dispersed by enzyme treatment and recordings of membrane current were made in the whole-cell mode by patch clamp technique. The action of pinaverium bromide on the voltage-dependent inward current of single isolated smooth muscle cells was studied in solutions containing normal concentrations of calcium or high concentrations of barium at room temperature. 2. Pinaverium reduced the voltage-dependent inward current with an IC50 of 1.5 microM. This IC50 is similar to those of verapamil, diltiazem and flunarizine on these cells as described by others. Occasionally evidence of a potentiating action of pinaverium on the inward current was seen. 3. Repetitive stimulation of the cells did not increase blockade of inward current by pinaverium unlike the use-dependent blockade seen with verapamil, methoxyverapamil, and diltiazem in these and in other smooth muscle cells. 4. The inactivation of inward current was studied by holding at various potentials for 2 or 10 s before evoking inward current. The voltage at which current was 50% available was changed very little by pinaverium although other calcium entry blockers, for example the dihydropyridines, have been reported to produce appreciable negative shifts which indicate considerable voltage-dependence of their blockade. This may indicate that pinaverium has similar affinities for the closed available and inactivated calcium channel states so that blockade is not appreciably voltage-dependent. PMID:1691676

  1. Nivalenol has a greater impact than deoxynivalenol on pig jejunum mucosa in vitro on explants and in vivo on intestinal loops.

    PubMed

    Cheat, Sophal; Gerez, Juliana R; Cognié, Juliette; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Bracarense, Ana Paula F L; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2015-05-29

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment.

  2. [REARRANGEMENT OF THE LYMPH TISSUE IN THE MICE SPLEEN AND JEJUNUM WALL DURING THE GROUND-BASED REPRODUCTION OF THE CONDITIONS OF ANIMAL MAINTENANCE IN THE BIOSATTELITE BION-M1 MISSION].

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, D E; Aminova, G G; Erofeeva, L M; Shenkman, B S; Ilyin, E A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was microscopic examination of changes in cyto architectonics of the spleen and jejunum lymph (immune) tissue in 19-20-week C57BL/6N male mice exposed to some conditions their counterparts had lived in during the 30-d Bion-M1 mission (ground experiment). Local deviations in reactions of the morphofunctional zones of these organs were found. In the spleen, reaction in the centers of lymph nodules generation or the B-lymphocytes maturation zone grows strong. Changes in the cell composition of periarterial lymph sheaths that constitute the morphological site of T-lymphocytes accumulation suggest inhibition of its functional activity. Cell composition of the jejunum wall structure implies a decline of the jejunal immune activity. Our investigation of the organs taken from the ground control mice maintained in the flight BIOS-MLZh module evidences that unceasing noise, hypokinesia, isolation, and paste-like feed weaken general immunity of laboratory animals.

  3. [REARRANGEMENT OF THE LYMPH TISSUE IN THE MICE SPLEEN AND JEJUNUM WALL DURING THE GROUND-BASED REPRODUCTION OF THE CONDITIONS OF ANIMAL MAINTENANCE IN THE BIOSATTELITE BION-M1 MISSION].

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, D E; Aminova, G G; Erofeeva, L M; Shenkman, B S; Ilyin, E A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was microscopic examination of changes in cyto architectonics of the spleen and jejunum lymph (immune) tissue in 19-20-week C57BL/6N male mice exposed to some conditions their counterparts had lived in during the 30-d Bion-M1 mission (ground experiment). Local deviations in reactions of the morphofunctional zones of these organs were found. In the spleen, reaction in the centers of lymph nodules generation or the B-lymphocytes maturation zone grows strong. Changes in the cell composition of periarterial lymph sheaths that constitute the morphological site of T-lymphocytes accumulation suggest inhibition of its functional activity. Cell composition of the jejunum wall structure implies a decline of the jejunal immune activity. Our investigation of the organs taken from the ground control mice maintained in the flight BIOS-MLZh module evidences that unceasing noise, hypokinesia, isolation, and paste-like feed weaken general immunity of laboratory animals. PMID:26554130

  4. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows. PMID:22924176

  5. KRAS and GNAS Mutations in Pancreatic Juice Collected From the Duodenum of Patients at High Risk for Neoplasia Undergoing Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, James R.; Norris, Alexis L.; Sadakari, Yoshihiko; Debeljak, Marija; Borges, Michael; Harrington, Colleen; Lin, Elaine; Brant, Aaron; Barkley, Thomas; Almario, J. Alejandro; Topazian, Mark; Farrell, James; Syngal, Sapna; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Yu, Jun; Hruban, Ralph H.; Kanda, Mitsuro; Canto, Marcia Irene; Goggins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Pancreatic imaging can identify neoplastic cysts but not microscopic neoplasms. Mutation analysis of pancreatic fluid following secretin stimulation might identify microscopic neoplasias in the pancreatic duct system. We determined the prevalence of mutations in KRAS and GNAS genes in pancreatic juice from subjects undergoing endoscopic ultrasound for suspected pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, or pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS Secretin-stimulated juice samples were collected from the duodenum of 272 subjects enrolled in Cancer of the Pancreas Screening studies; 194 subjects were screened because of a family history of, or genetic predisposition to, pancreatic cancer and 78 were evaluated for pancreatic cancer (n=30) or other disorders (controls: pancreatic cysts, pancreatitis, or normal pancreata, n=48). Mutations were detected by digital high-resolution melt-curve analysis and pyrosequencing. The number of replicates containing a mutation determined the mutation score. RESULTS KRAS mutations were detected in pancreatic juice from larger percentages of subjects with pancreatic cancer (73%) or undergoing cancer screening (50%) than controls (19%) (P=.0005). A greater proportion of patients with pancreatic cancer had at least 1 KRAS mutation detected 3 or more times (47%) than screened subjects (21%) or controls (6%, P=.002). Among screened subjects, mutations in KRAS (but not GNAS) were found in similar percentages of patients with or without pancreatic cysts. However, a greater proportion of patients over 50 ys old had KRAS mutations (54.6%) than younger patients (36.3%) (P=.032); the older subjects also more mutations in KRAS (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS Mutations in KRAS are detected in pancreatic juice from the duodenum of 73% of patients with pancreatic cancer, and 50% of asymptomatic individuals with a high risk for pancreatic cancer. However, KRAS mutations are detected in pancreatic juice

  6. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  7. Bovine milk-based formula leads to early maturation-like morphological, immunological, and functional changes in the jejunum of neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R; Scharek-Tedin, L; Zetzsche, A; Röhe, I; Kröger, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2016-03-01

    Artificial rearing and formula feeding is coming more into the focus due to increasing litter sizes and limited nursing capacity of sows. The formula composition is important to effectively support the development of the gut and prevent intestinal dysfunction in neonatal piglets. In this study, newborn piglets ( = 8 per group) were fed a bovine milk-based formula (FO), containing skimmed milk and whey as the sole protein and carbohydrate sources, or were suckled by the sow (sow milk [SM]). After 2 wk, tissue from the jejunum was analyzed for structural (i.e., morphometry) and functional (i.e., disaccharidase activity, glucose transport, permeability toward macromolecules, and immune cell presence) changes and concomitant expression of related genes. Formula-fed piglets had more liquid feces ( < 0.05) over the entire experimental period. Although FO contained twice as much lactose (46% on a DM basis) as SM (21%) and no maltose or starch, the lactase activity was lower ( < 0.05) and glucose transport capacity was higher ( < 0.05) in FO-fed pigs. The relative proportion of intraepithelial natural killer cells and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression (, , and ) was higher in FO-fed pigs ( < 0.05). Piglets fed FO had deeper crypts, larger villus area, and higher expression of caspase 3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen ( < 0.05). Epithelial permeability toward fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran was higher and expression of claudin-4 was lower in FO-fed piglets ( < 0.05). The data suggest an early response to bovine milk-based compounds in the FO accompanied with early onset of functional maturation and impaired barrier function. Whether lactose, absence of species-specific protective factors, or antigenicity of foreign proteins lead to to the observed intestinal reactions requires further clarification. PMID:27065261

  8. Supplementation with L-Glutamine and L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters and Jejunum Morphophysiology in Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Carlos Vinicius D.; Azevedo, Silvia C. S. F.; Bazotte, Roberto B.; Peralta, Rosane M.; Buttow, Nilza C.; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat D.; de Godoi, Vilma A. F.; Natali, Maria Raquel M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the supplementation with L-glutamine and glutamine dipeptide (GDP) on biochemical and morphophysiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. For this purpose, thirty animals were distributed into six groups treated orally (gavage) during thirty days: non diabetic rats (Control) + saline, diabetic + saline; Control + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Diabetic + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Control + GDP (400 mg/kg), Diabetic + GDP (400 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and confirmed by fasting glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. Physiological parameters, i.e., body mass, food intake, blood glucose, water intake, urine and faeces were evaluated during supplementation. After the period of supplementation, the animals were euthanized. The blood was collected for biochemical assays (fructosamine, transaminases, lipid profile, total protein, urea, ammonia). Moreover, the jejunum was excised and stored for morphophysiological assays (intestinal enzyme activity, intestinal wall morphology, crypt proliferative index, number of serotoninergic cells from the mucosa, and vipergic neurons from the submucosal tunica). The physiological parameters, protein metabolism and intestinal enzyme activity did not change with the supplementation with L-glutamine or GDP. In diabetic animals, transaminases and fructosamine improved with L-glutamine and GDP supplementations, while the lipid profile improved with L-glutamine. Furthermore, both forms of supplementation promoted changes in jejunal tunicas and wall morphometry of control and diabetic groups, but only L-glutamine promoted maintenance of serotoninergic cells and vipergic neurons populations. On the other hand, control animals showed changes that may indicate negative effects of L-glutamine. Thus, the supplementation with L-glutamine was more efficient for maintaining intestinal morphophysiology and the supplementation with GDP was more efficient to the organism as a

  9. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2015-06-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions.

  10. Effects of octylphenol and bisphenol A on the expression of calcium transport genes in the mouse duodenum and kidney during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; An, Beum-Soo; Yang, Hyun; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-01-01

    Octylphenol (OP) is the degradative product of alkylphenol ethoxylates that are widely used to produce rubber, pesticides, and paints. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound with two functional phenol groups, and used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, as well as other applications. OP and BPA are known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) with estrogenic activities, and may disturb natural calcium (Ca) metabolism. In the present study, the effects of OP and BPA on Ca levels in the serum and expression of Ca transport genes in the duodenum, and kidney were investigated in pregnant mice. Calbindin refers to several Ca-binding proteins originally described as vitamin D-dependent Ca-binding factors in the intestine, and kidney of birds and mammals. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 5 (TRPV5) are Ca entry channels responsible for Ca absorption in the kidney and intestine, respectively. From 6.5 to 16.5 day post coitus (dpc), pregnant mice were given oral doses of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE, 0.2mg/kg/day), BPA (5 or 50mg/kg/day), or OP (3, 12, or 48 mg/kg/day) dissolved in corn oil. Samples of the duodenum, kidney, and blood were obtained from the mice on day 17.5 of pregnancy. Serum Ca levels were decreased in the groups treated with OP and BPA. The expression levels of Ca transport genes, TRPV5 and calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), in the kidney were decreased after treatment with OP and BPA. Duodenal expression of TRPV6 was also reduced by BPA and OP administration. CaBP-9k expression was differentially regulated by BPA and OP. Transcriptional and translational levels of CaBP-9k were decreased by EE and BPA but increased by a high dose of OP. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that OP and BPA regulated the expression of genes associated with Ca transport in the pregnant mice, which may result in the decreased serum Ca levels.

  11. The spasmolytic effect of Aloysia citriodora, Palau (South American cedrón) is partially due to its vitexin but not isovitexin on rat duodenums.

    PubMed

    Ragone, María Inés; Sella, Mariana; Conforti, Paula; Volonté, María G; Consolini, Alicia E

    2007-09-01

    The spasmolytic effects of an acqueous extract of cedrón (AEC) were studied on rat isolated duodenums. This plant (Aloysia citriodora Palau, Verbenaceae) is widely used for gastrointestinal disorders and as eupeptic in South America. AEC non-competitively inhibited the dose-response curve (DRC) of Ach (IC50 of 1.34 +/- 0.49 mg lyophilized/mL) and the DRC of Ca(2+) in high-[K(2-)](o) (IC50 of 2.64 +/- 0.23 mg/mL). AEC potentiated the non-competitive inhibition of either 30 micromol/L W-7 (a calmodulin blocker) and 5-15 micromol/L papaverine on the Ca(2+)-DRC. Also, AEC relaxed the contracture produced by high-[K(+)](o) (IC50 of 2.6 +/- 0.2 mg/mL) until 81.0 +/- 3.2% of the maximal effect of papaverine and 78.1+/- 5.0% of the quercetin, the most selective inhibitor of PDE. The AEC relaxation was non-competitively inhibited by 10-30 micromol/L methylene blue and competitively antagonized by 40 mmol/L TEA. The relaxation of 1mg/mL AEC was inhibited by hypoxia, but not that of 2mg/mL. Two flavonoids were identified by HPLC in the AEC: vitexin and isovitexin. Vitexin non-competitively inhibited the Ach-DRC (pD(2') of 5.7 +/- 0.4) but significantly run leftward the DRC of Ca(2+). Isovitexin did not significantly inhibit the DRC of Ach nor Ca(2+). The results suggest that the spasmolytic effect of AEC could be mostly associated to the increase in cGMP (target shared with the PDE inhibitors) and the activation of K(+)-channels. At low concentrations, AEC also inhibits the aerobic metabolism. The flavonoid vitexin is partially responsible for the effect, since it non-competitively inhibits Ach but not the Ca(2+) influx. Isovitexin was devoid of activity on duodenums. PMID:17640836

  12. The spasmolytic effect of Aloysia citriodora, Palau (South American cedrón) is partially due to its vitexin but not isovitexin on rat duodenums.

    PubMed

    Ragone, María Inés; Sella, Mariana; Conforti, Paula; Volonté, María G; Consolini, Alicia E

    2007-09-01

    The spasmolytic effects of an acqueous extract of cedrón (AEC) were studied on rat isolated duodenums. This plant (Aloysia citriodora Palau, Verbenaceae) is widely used for gastrointestinal disorders and as eupeptic in South America. AEC non-competitively inhibited the dose-response curve (DRC) of Ach (IC50 of 1.34 +/- 0.49 mg lyophilized/mL) and the DRC of Ca(2+) in high-[K(2-)](o) (IC50 of 2.64 +/- 0.23 mg/mL). AEC potentiated the non-competitive inhibition of either 30 micromol/L W-7 (a calmodulin blocker) and 5-15 micromol/L papaverine on the Ca(2+)-DRC. Also, AEC relaxed the contracture produced by high-[K(+)](o) (IC50 of 2.6 +/- 0.2 mg/mL) until 81.0 +/- 3.2% of the maximal effect of papaverine and 78.1+/- 5.0% of the quercetin, the most selective inhibitor of PDE. The AEC relaxation was non-competitively inhibited by 10-30 micromol/L methylene blue and competitively antagonized by 40 mmol/L TEA. The relaxation of 1mg/mL AEC was inhibited by hypoxia, but not that of 2mg/mL. Two flavonoids were identified by HPLC in the AEC: vitexin and isovitexin. Vitexin non-competitively inhibited the Ach-DRC (pD(2') of 5.7 +/- 0.4) but significantly run leftward the DRC of Ca(2+). Isovitexin did not significantly inhibit the DRC of Ach nor Ca(2+). The results suggest that the spasmolytic effect of AEC could be mostly associated to the increase in cGMP (target shared with the PDE inhibitors) and the activation of K(+)-channels. At low concentrations, AEC also inhibits the aerobic metabolism. The flavonoid vitexin is partially responsible for the effect, since it non-competitively inhibits Ach but not the Ca(2+) influx. Isovitexin was devoid of activity on duodenums.

  13. Characterisation of mixing in the proximal duodenum of the rat during longitudinal contractions and comparison with a fluid mechanical model based on spatiotemporal motility data.

    PubMed

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W M; Love, Richard J; Chambers, J Paul

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of mixing and mass transfers of nutrients and drugs in the small intestine is of prime importance in creating formulations that manipulate absorption and digestibility. We characterised mixing using a dye tracer methodology during spontaneous longitudinal contractions, i.e. pendular activity, in 10 cm segments of living proximal duodenum of the rat maintained ex-vivo. The residence time distribution (RTD) of the tracer was equivalent to that generated by a small number (8) of continuous stirred tank reactors in series. Fluid mechanical modelling, that was based on real sequences of longitudinal contractions, predicted that dispersion should occur mainly in the periphery of the lumen. Comparison with the experimental RTD showed that centriluminal dispersion was accurately simulated whilst peripheral dispersion was underestimated. The results therefore highlighted the potential importance of micro-phenomena such as microfolding of the intestinal mucosa in peripheral mixing. We conclude that macro-scale modeling of intestinal flow is useful in simulating centriluminal mixing, whereas multi-scales strategies must be developed to accurately model mixing and mass transfers at the periphery of the lumen. PMID:24747714

  14. [Treatment and prevention of erosive and ulcerative lesions in the stomach and duodenum caused by intake of non-steroidalanti-inflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Luzina, E V

    2014-01-01

    Therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is a diffcult task. Good anti-inflammatory effect increases the risk of gastrointestinal complications with a frequency of 10-50%. The risk further increases with age (above 60-70 yr), the history of ulcer disease concomitant intake of acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulants, and glucocorticosteroids. Long-term antisecretory therapy with proton pump inhibitors, e.g., esomeprazole, was shown to be an effective prophylactic tool. This drug maintains the intragastric pH value above 4 for 15 hr on the average. The risk of erosive and ulceraive lesions in the stomach and duodenum significantly decreases by selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, e.g., coxibs, that however increase the risk of thrombotic cardiovascular complications. The author proposes recommendations on the use of NSAIDs in the patients at risk of serious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular pathology. Naproxen in combination with proton pitmp inhibitors is the drug of choice among NSAIDs. Vimovo is a fixed combination of naproxen and esomeprazole. Results of comparative studies on the efficacy of vimovo and celecoxib are presented along with the data on the safety of this. combination compared with that of naproxen monotherapy

  15. Characterisation of Mixing in the Proximal Duodenum of the Rat during Longitudinal Contractions and Comparison with a Fluid Mechanical Model Based on Spatiotemporal Motility Data

    PubMed Central

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G.; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W. M.; Love, Richard J.; Chambers, J. Paul

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of mixing and mass transfers of nutrients and drugs in the small intestine is of prime importance in creating formulations that manipulate absorption and digestibility. We characterised mixing using a dye tracer methodology during spontaneous longitudinal contractions, i.e. pendular activity, in 10 cm segments of living proximal duodenum of the rat maintained ex-vivo. The residence time distribution (RTD) of the tracer was equivalent to that generated by a small number (8) of continuous stirred tank reactors in series. Fluid mechanical modelling, that was based on real sequences of longitudinal contractions, predicted that dispersion should occur mainly in the periphery of the lumen. Comparison with the experimental RTD showed that centriluminal dispersion was accurately simulated whilst peripheral dispersion was underestimated. The results therefore highlighted the potential importance of micro-phenomena such as microfolding of the intestinal mucosa in peripheral mixing. We conclude that macro-scale modeling of intestinal flow is useful in simulating centriluminal mixing, whereas multi-scales strategies must be developed to accurately model mixing and mass transfers at the periphery of the lumen. PMID:24747714

  16. Olsenella umbonata sp. nov., a microaerotolerant anaerobic lactic acid bacterium from the sheep rumen and pig jejunum, and emended descriptions of Olsenella, Olsenella uli and Olsenella profusa.

    PubMed

    Kraatz, Mareike; Wallace, R John; Svensson, Liselott

    2011-04-01

    Strain A2 is an anaerobic, variably Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, small and irregularly rod-shaped bacterium from the ruminal fluid of a sheep that has been described informally as a representative of 'Olsenella (basonym Atopobium) oviles'. Three phenotypically similar bacterial strains (lac15, lac16 and lac31(T)) were isolated in concert with Veillonella magna lac18(T) from the mucosal jejunum of a pig. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) formed a genetically coherent group (100 % interstrain sequence similarity) within the bigeneric Olsenella-Atopobium branch of the family Coriobacteriaceae, class Actinobacteria. This group was most closely related to the type strains of the two recognized Olsenella species, namely Olsenella uli (sequence similarity of 96.85 %) and Olsenella profusa (sequence similarity of 97.20 %). The sequence similarity to the type strain of Atopobium minutum, the type species of the genus Atopobium, was 92.33 %. Unlike those of O. uli and O. profusa, outgrown colonies of strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) were opaque and greyish-white with an umbonate elevation on solid culture media. The four novel strains were characterized as being well-adapted and presumably indigenous to the gastrointestinal tract of homoeothermic vertebrates: they were mesophilic, microaerotolerant, neutrophilic and acidotolerant, bile-resistant, mucin-utilizing and markedly peptidolytic lactic acid bacteria. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, cellular fatty acid analysis and other differential phenotypic (physiological and biochemical) tests confirmed that strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) represent a novel species of the genus Olsenella. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic results, we therefore describe Olsenella umbonata sp. nov., with lac31(T) ( = CCUG 58604(T)  = DSM 22620(T)  = JCM 16156(T)) as the type strain and A2 ( = CCUG 58212

  17. Addition of charcoals to broilers feeds did not impact Salmonella Typhimurium colonization or persistence, or the pH of the crop or duodenum during a 6 wk growout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3 types of charcoals added to feeds at 0.3% on Salmonella colonization and persistence, and the pH of the crop and duodenum during a 6 wk growout. A total of 1,280 male chicks (32/pen) were placed into 40 pens (10 pens for each of the 4 diet...

  18. Innervation of Extrahepatic Biliary Tract, With Special Reference to the Direct Bidirectional Neural Connections of the Gall Bladder, Sphincter of Oddi and Duodenum in Suncus murinus, in Whole-Mount Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Yi, S-Q; Ren, K; Kinoshita, M; Takano, N; Itoh, M; Ozaki, N

    2016-06-01

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is one of the most important symptoms in post-cholecystectomy syndrome. Using either electrical or mechanical stimulation and retrogradely transported neuronal dyes, it has been demonstrated that there are direct neural pathways connecting gall bladder and the sphincter of Oddi in the Australian opossum and the golden hamster. In the present study, we employed whole-mount immunohistochemistry staining to observe and verify that there are two different plexuses of the extrahepatic biliary tract in Suncus murinus. One, named Pathway One, showed a fine, irregular but dense network plexus that ran adhesively and resided on/in the extrahepatic biliary tract wall, and the plexus extended into the intrahepatic area. On the other hand, named Pathway Two, exhibiting simple, thicker and straight neural bundles, ran parallel to the surface of the extrahepatic biliary tract and passed between the gall bladder and duodenum, but did not give off any branches to the liver. Pathway Two was considered to involve direct bidirectional neural connections between the duodenum and the biliary tract system. For the first time, morphologically, we demonstrated direct neural connections between gall bladder and duodenum in S. murinus. Malfunction of the sphincter of Oddi may be caused by injury of the direct neural pathways between gall bladder and duodenum by cholecystectomy. From the viewpoint of preserving the function of the major duodenal papilla and common bile duct, we emphasize the importance of avoiding kocherization of the common bile duct so as to preserve the direct neural connections between gall bladder and sphincter of Oddi. PMID:26179953

  19. Cysteamine induces cholecystokinin release from the duodenum. Evidence for somatostatin as an inhibitory paracrine regulator of cholecystokinin secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Abucham, J.; Reichlin, S. )

    1990-12-01

    To determine whether cholecystokinin secretion is regulated by endogenous somatostatin, somatostatin deficiency was induced in vivo with cysteamine (250 mg/kg body wt, IV) or anti-somatostatin antiserum in anaesthetized rats and in vitro with cysteamine (30 micrograms/mL) in a rat duodenum-incubation system. Cholecystokinin secretion was assessed in vivo by measuring amylase in duodenal perfusates collected at 10-minute intervals for 1 hour and in vitro by a carboxy-terminal radioimmunoassay. Cysteamine induced a marked decrease in duodenal immunoreactive somatostatin both in vivo (50%) and in vitro (60%). The rate of amylase secretion increased from 9.7 +/- 2.1 U (mean +/- SE) to 28.0 +/- 4.8 U at 20 minutes (P less than 0.001). The cholecystokinin-receptor antagonist CR-1392 abolished amylase response for 30 minutes, whereas the more potent antagonists Asperlicin (18.0 mg/kg body wt, IV) and L-364,718 (0.25 mg/kg body wt, IV) caused prolonged blockade. The rate of amylase secretion in gastrectomized animals increased from 7.2 +/- 2.0 U to 15.0 +/- 2.2 U 20 minutes after cysteamine administration (P less than 0.01), indicating that the effect was not due to the presence of gastrin. In vitro, cysteamine caused a nearly fourfold increase in cholecystokinin secretion compared with controls (63.1 +/- 4.9 vs. 15.2 +/- 3.7, respectively; P less than 0.001). In vivo immunoneutralization of circulating somatostatin with a high-affinity and high-capacity antiserum produced no significant change in the rate of amylase secretion. These results suggest that cholecystokinin secretion is tonically inhibited by somatostatin and that this effect is mediated by locally secreted (paracrine) but not by circulating somatostatin.

  20. Synchrotron-based imaging of chromium and γ-H2AX immunostaining in the duodenum following repeated exposure to Cr(VI) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Seiter, Jennifer; Chappell, Mark A; Tappero, Ryan V; Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Haws, Laurie C; Vitale, Rock; Mittal, Liz; Kirman, Christopher R; Hays, Sean M; Harris, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Current drinking water standards for chromium are for the combined total of both hexavalent and trivalent chromium (Cr(VI) and Cr(III)). However, recent studies have shown that Cr(III) is not carcinogenic to rodents, whereas mice chronically exposed to high levels of Cr(VI) developed duodenal tumors. These findings may suggest the need for environmental standards specific for Cr(VI). Whether the intestinal tumors arose through a mutagenic or non-mutagenic mode of action (MOA) greatly impacts how drinking water standards for Cr(VI) are derived. Herein, X-ray fluorescence (spectro)microscopy (µ-XRF) was used to image the Cr content in the villus and crypt regions of duodena from B6C3F1 mice exposed to 180 mg/l Cr(VI) in drinking water for 13 weeks. DNA damage was also assessed by γ-H2AX immunostaining. Exposure to Cr(VI) induced villus blunting and crypt hyperplasia in the duodenum--the latter evidenced by lengthening of the crypt compartment by ∼2-fold with a concomitant 1.5-fold increase in the number of crypt enterocytes. γ-H2AX immunostaining was elevated in villi, but not in the crypt compartment. µ-XRF maps revealed mean Cr levels >30 times higher in duodenal villi than crypt regions; mean Cr levels in crypt regions were only slightly above background signal. Despite the presence of Cr and elevated γ-H2AX immunoreactivity in villi, no aberrant foci indicative of transformation were evident. These findings do not support a MOA for intestinal carcinogenesis involving direct Cr-DNA interaction in intestinal stem cells, but rather support a non-mutagenic MOA involving chronic wounding of intestinal villi and crypt cell hyperplasia. PMID:25352572

  1. Synchrotron-based imaging of chromium and γ-H2AX immunostaining in the duodenum following repeated exposure to Cr(VI) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Seiter, Jennifer; Chappell, Mark A; Tappero, Ryan V; Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Haws, Laurie C; Vitale, Rock; Mittal, Liz; Kirman, Christopher R; Hays, Sean M; Harris, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Current drinking water standards for chromium are for the combined total of both hexavalent and trivalent chromium (Cr(VI) and Cr(III)). However, recent studies have shown that Cr(III) is not carcinogenic to rodents, whereas mice chronically exposed to high levels of Cr(VI) developed duodenal tumors. These findings may suggest the need for environmental standards specific for Cr(VI). Whether the intestinal tumors arose through a mutagenic or non-mutagenic mode of action (MOA) greatly impacts how drinking water standards for Cr(VI) are derived. Herein, X-ray fluorescence (spectro)microscopy (µ-XRF) was used to image the Cr content in the villus and crypt regions of duodena from B6C3F1 mice exposed to 180 mg/l Cr(VI) in drinking water for 13 weeks. DNA damage was also assessed by γ-H2AX immunostaining. Exposure to Cr(VI) induced villus blunting and crypt hyperplasia in the duodenum--the latter evidenced by lengthening of the crypt compartment by ∼2-fold with a concomitant 1.5-fold increase in the number of crypt enterocytes. γ-H2AX immunostaining was elevated in villi, but not in the crypt compartment. µ-XRF maps revealed mean Cr levels >30 times higher in duodenal villi than crypt regions; mean Cr levels in crypt regions were only slightly above background signal. Despite the presence of Cr and elevated γ-H2AX immunoreactivity in villi, no aberrant foci indicative of transformation were evident. These findings do not support a MOA for intestinal carcinogenesis involving direct Cr-DNA interaction in intestinal stem cells, but rather support a non-mutagenic MOA involving chronic wounding of intestinal villi and crypt cell hyperplasia.

  2. Long-term prolactin exposure differentially stimulated the transcellular and solvent drag-induced calcium transport in the duodenum of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tudpor, Kukiat; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Saengamnart, Wasana; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2005-12-01

    Prolactin, having been shown to stimulate transcellular active and solvent drag-induced calcium transport in the duodenum of female rats, was postulated to improve duodenal calcium transport in estrogen-deficient rats. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to demonstrate the effects of long-term prolactin exposure produced by anterior pituitary (AP) transplantation on the duodenal calcium transport in young (9-week-old) and adult (22-week-old) ovariectomized rats. We found that ovariectomy did not alter the transcellular active duodenal calcium transport in young and adult rats fed normal calcium diet (1.0% w/w Ca) but decreased the solvent drag-induced duodenal calcium transport from 75.50 +/- 10.12 to 55.75 +/- 4.77 nmol.hr(-1).cm(-2) (P < 0.05) only in adult rats. Long-term prolactin exposure stimulated the transcellular active calcium transport in young and adult AP-grafted ovariectomized rats fed with normal calcium diet by more than 2-fold from 7.56 +/- 0.79 to 16.54 +/- 2.05 (P < 0.001) and 9.78 +/- 0.72 to 15.99 +/- 1.75 (P < 0.001) nmol.hr(-1).cm(-2), respectively. However, only the solvent drag-induced duodenal calcium transport in young rats was enhanced by prolactin from 95.51 +/- 10.64 to 163.20 +/- 18.03 nmol.hr(-1).cm(-2) (P < 0.001) whereas that in adult rats still showed a decreased flux from 75.50 +/- 10.12 to 47.77 +/- 5.42 nmol.hr(-1).cm(-2) (P < 0.05). Because oral calcium supplement has been widely used to improve calcium balance in estrogen-deficient animals, the effect of a high-calcium diet (2.0% w/w Ca) was also investigated. The results showed that stimulatory action of long-term prolactin on the transcellular active duodenal calcium transport in both young and adult rats was diminished after being fed a high-calcium diet. The same diet also abolished prolactin-enhanced solvent drag-induced duodenal calcium transport in young and further decreased that in adult AP-grafted ovariectomized rats. We concluded that the solvent drag

  3. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    also attenuated by these agents application (given in the same doses, i.p., 1 h before cysteamine), with only exception to sulphasalazine. Thus, the extended cysteamine specific ulcerogenic effect, cysteamine colon/duodenum lesion-link and an extenuation of agents protection from upper to lower part of gastrointestinal tract (i.e. stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157, standard antiulcer agents, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole) and vice versa (remedies for inflammatory bowel disease) evidenced in the present study may be potentially important for both further experimental and clinical research. PMID:11595448

  4. Expression of genes involved in energy homeostasis in the duodenum and liver of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows and their F(1) hybrid.

    PubMed

    Alam, Tanweer; Kenny, David A; Sweeney, Torres; Buckley, Frank; Prendiville, Robert; McGee, Mark; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-02-01

    Differences in feed intake and production efficiency in lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey (JE), and JE × HF (F(1)) dairy cows have been reported. The liver-gut axis is important in the regulation of energy homeostasis, appetite behaviour, and production efficiency. The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the effect of dairy cow genotype on the expression profiles of genes involved in energy homeostasis in duodenal and hepatic tissue, and 2) the association between the expression of these genes across both tissues and with economically important production efficiency traits. The expression of 27 candidate genes involved in energy homeostasis, feed intake, and energy storage was measured by qPCR. Duodenal expression of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) genes was highest in HF. In contrast, hepatic expression of the leptin receptor (LEPR), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 1 (AMPKB1), and POMC genes was highest in the F(1) cross. In the duodenum, positive correlations were observed between mRNA expression of anorectic peptides (POMC and GLP1R), whereas a negative correlation was detected between orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorectic (peptide YY) gene expression. A negative correlation was observed between duodenal POMC gene expression and both residual feed intake and milk production efficiency traits, while GLP1R gene expression was negatively correlated with milk production efficiency traits. A heterotic effect was observed in hepatic expression of AMKPB1, IGF1R, LEPR, POMC in the F(1) genotype, possibly mediating improved feed efficiency in cross-bred cows. In conclusion, key genes involved in energy homeostasis and appetite behaviour are differentially expressed due to cow genotype in a tissue-dependent fashion. POMC and GLP1R are potential candidate genes for the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms

  5. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-01-01

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system. PMID:27460882

  6. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-07-27

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system.

  7. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  8. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  9. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R.; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-01-01

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R2 of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system. PMID:27460882

  10. [A Case of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease with Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated by Duodenum-Preserving Resection of the Head of the Pancreas and Spleen-Preserving Resection of the Tail of the Pancreas].

    PubMed

    Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Tokura, Tomohisa; Yachi, Takafumi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented to our department with a diagnosis of multiple nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. She had a family history of pheochromocytoma and a medical history of bilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma at the age of 25 years. During follow-up treatment for adrenal insufficiency after the surgery, highly enhanced tumors in the pancreas were detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Other examinations found that the patient did not satisfy the clinical criteria for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Considering her age and risk of developing multiple heterotopic and heterochronous tumors, we performed a duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas and spleen-preserving resection of the tail of the pancreas with informed consent. The histopathological findings revealed that all of the tumors were NET G1. She underwent genetic testing postoperatively and was diagnosed with VHL disease. This diagnosis meant that we were able to create an optimal treatment plan for the patient. If a tumor predisposition syndrome is suspected, VHL disease should be borne in mind and genetic testing after genetic counseling should be duly considered.

  11. The mRNA and Protein Levels of Tubulin and β-Actin Are Greatly Reduced in the Proximal Duodenum of Mice Relative to the Rest of the Small Intestines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sungsook; Hwang, Hyekyung E; Yun, Nakhyeon; Goldenring, James R; Nam, Ki Taek

    2015-09-01

    To accurately quantify mRNA and protein levels, it is critical to choose appropriate internal standards. As the expression of housekeeping genes is assumed to remain constant, they are often employed to normalize signals to correct for sample-to-sample variations. However, recent studies have documented that β-actin and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression levels change in response to various stimuli during proliferation, activation, and differentiation. We investigated levels of α-, β-, γ-tubulin, β-actin, and GAPDH vary across the gastrointestinal tract of mice. We found that different regions of the small intestines had dramatically different expression profiles, as measured by western blot, quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemical staining. These results revealed that the expression levels of tubulins and β-actin were dramatically lower in the proximal duodenum, relative to the rest of the small intestines. These varying levels of housekeeping genes may reflect differences in the activities of specialized tissues and suggest unique requirements for tubulins in these tissue types. We conclude that the use of a single housekeeping gene to normalize gene expression in the gastrointestinal tracts of mice may introduce errors, as measured differences in gene expression may reflect regulation of the internal control rather than the mRNA or protein under investigation.

  12. Burkitt lymphoma involving jejunum in children

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Feng, Jiexiong; Sun, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy presented with 3-month bloody stool from unknown origin and progressive anemia. In this case report, we review the incidence, diagnosis, pathology, treatment and prognosis of Burkitt Lymphoma. PMID:25568790

  13. Pancreas-preserving partial duodenectomy of the distal region for large duodenal adenoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kenji; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Abe, Shinya; Chikamoto, Akira; Baba, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    For neoplasms in the third and fourth parts of the duodenum, a duodenectomy that preserves the pancreas may provide feasible tumor clearance while avoiding the additional dissection and pancreaticoduodenectomy. We herein describe the case of a 40-year-old male patient with an adenoma in the third part of the duodenum. The patient underwent a partial duodenectomy of the distal region, preserving the pancreas and Vater's papilla. The residual duodenum and jejunum were successfully reconstructed by an end-to-side anastomosis. We also present a review of the English literature regarding pancreas-preserving partial duodenectomy of the distal region.

  14. Tubercular duodenal, jejunal and ileocecal stricture in a patient

    PubMed Central

    Sisodiya, Rajesh; Ramachandra, Lingadakai

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is a major health problem in the developing countries. Duodenal involvement is uncommon and can mimic superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Our case presented as proximal intestinal obstruction had tubercular stricture in the third part of the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileocecal region, an uncommon and difficult intraoperative situation. PMID:24334467

  15. Experimental infection with Cryptosporidium parvum IIaA21G1R1 subtype in immunosuppressed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIaA21G1R1 oocysts were used to infect dexamethasone immunosuppressed N: NIH Swiss mice. Histology showed developmental stages in the duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon, with the small intestine remaining infected until day 35 post infection....

  16. Yeast improves resistance to environmental challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, was added at either 1 lb/ton or 2 lb/ton to a turkey starter diet. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamune™ on gut maturation of 7 and 21 day old poults. Sections from the mid-point of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of each ...

  17. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific, for example E. acervulina affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa cause reduced feed effic...

  18. Noncommunicating multiple intra-abdominal enteric duplication cysts.

    PubMed

    Mandhan, Parkash; Ehsan, Toufique M; Al-Sibai, Sareyah; Khan, Ashfaq M; Sankhla, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    A very rare case of noncommunicating multiple intra and retroperitoneal enteric duplication cysts (EDCs) is reported and discussed. Two large noncommunicating EDCs, one within the mesentery of proximal jejunum causing complete luminal obstruction and other isolated cyst in retroperitoneal area displacing duodenum and extrahepatic biliary system, were resected successfully in a 2-day-old neonate along with correction of malrotation.

  19. Lactation-induced cadmium-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Solaiman, D.; Garvey, J.S.; Miyazaki, W.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated an increase during midlactation in /sup 109/Cd adsorption and increased retention by the duodenum, kidney, and mammary tissue of mouse dams receiving environmental levels of cadmium//sup 109/Cd via drinking water, with little change in /sup 109/Cd retention in liver and jejunum compared to nonpregnant controls. Results are reported here of a study of cadmium deposition during midlactation as associated with induction of metallothionein (MT). A cadmium/hemoglobin (Cd/Hb) assay and radioimmunoassay for MT which measures heat-stable cadmium binding capacity in tissues was used to determine MT concentrations in fractions of kidney, liver, duodenum, and jejunum from female mice. Both assays demonstrated clear lactation-induced increases in MT concentrations in liver, kidney, and duodenum, with MT concentrations falling rapidly to control levels after weaning. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Characteristics of Small Intestinal Diseases on Single-Balloon Enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhang; Liu, G.X.; Cai, L.; Yu, H.; Min, X.J.; Gan, H.T.; Yang, K.; SQ, Li; Yan, J.; Chen, L.; Tan, Q.H.; Wu, J.C.; Huang, X.L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The small intestine has been considered inaccessible for a long term. The development of single-balloon endoscopy has greatly improved the diagnosis and treatment possibilities for small intestinal diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore the demographic characteristics and small intestinal diseases of patients who underwent single-balloon enteroscopy between 2009 and 2014 at our endoscopy center. We determined the enteroscopic findings for each small intestinal disease and the most susceptible age groups. In total, 186 patients were included in the study. Their mean age was 45.87 ± 15.77 years. Patients who underwent single-balloon enteroscopy were found to have neoplasms (most common age group: 14–45 years, most common lesion location: jejunum), lymphoma (46–59 and 60–74 years, ileum), protuberant lesions (45–59 years, jejunum), inflammation (14–45 and 46–59 years, ileum), benign ulcers (14–45 years, jejunum), diverticulum (14–45 years, ileum), vascular malformations (60–74 years, jejunum), polyps (14–45 years, jejunum), Crohn's disease (14–45 years, jejunum), hookworm infection (14–45 years, jejunum), lipid pigmentation (14–45 and 46–59 years, jejunum), undetermined bleeding (46–59 years, ileum), or undetermined stenosis (31 years, duodenum). Each small intestinal disease had distinct enteroscopic findings. PMID:26496270

  1. Crohn's disease confined to the duodenum: A case report.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong Jin; Whang, Il Soon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Jeong, Cheol Yun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2016-06-16

    Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to anus. However, gastroduodenal CD is rare with a frequency reported to range between 0.5% and 4.0%. Most patients with gastroduodenal CD have concomitant lesions in the terminal ileum or colon, but isolated gastroduodenal Crohn's disease is an extremely rare presentation of the disease accounting for less than 0.07% of all patients with CD. The symptoms of gastroduodenal CD include epigastric pain, dyspepsia, early satiety, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. The diagnosis of gastroduodenal CD requires a high level of clinical suspicion and can be made by comprehensive clinical evaluation. Here we report a rare case of isolated duodenal CD not confirmed by identification of granuloma on biopsy, but diagnosed by clinical evaluation.

  2. Crohn's disease confined to the duodenum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong Jin; Whang, Il Soon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Jeong, Cheol Yun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to anus. However, gastroduodenal CD is rare with a frequency reported to range between 0.5% and 4.0%. Most patients with gastroduodenal CD have concomitant lesions in the terminal ileum or colon, but isolated gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease is an extremely rare presentation of the disease accounting for less than 0.07% of all patients with CD. The symptoms of gastroduodenal CD include epigastric pain, dyspepsia, early satiety, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. The diagnosis of gastroduodenal CD requires a high level of clinical suspicion and can be made by comprehensive clinical evaluation. Here we report a rare case of isolated duodenal CD not confirmed by identification of granuloma on biopsy, but diagnosed by clinical evaluation. PMID:27326400

  3. Crohn's disease confined to the duodenum: A case report.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong Jin; Whang, Il Soon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Jeong, Cheol Yun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2016-06-16

    Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to anus. However, gastroduodenal CD is rare with a frequency reported to range between 0.5% and 4.0%. Most patients with gastroduodenal CD have concomitant lesions in the terminal ileum or colon, but isolated gastroduodenal Crohn's disease is an extremely rare presentation of the disease accounting for less than 0.07% of all patients with CD. The symptoms of gastroduodenal CD include epigastric pain, dyspepsia, early satiety, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. The diagnosis of gastroduodenal CD requires a high level of clinical suspicion and can be made by comprehensive clinical evaluation. Here we report a rare case of isolated duodenal CD not confirmed by identification of granuloma on biopsy, but diagnosed by clinical evaluation. PMID:27326400

  4. Cadmium-manganese interaction in the rat's duodenum

    SciTech Connect

    Gruden, N.

    1987-06-01

    Five-week-old female albino rats were given different doses of cadmium chloride (0.002-5.0 mg) by gastric intubation daily for 3 or 7 days. Manganese-54 was used as marker to assess manganese transfer through and retention in the duodenal wall by the everted gut sac method. No significant differences were found in these parameters between rats receiving no cadmium and those receiving 0.002 mg cadmium daily, irrespective of the period of treatment. A daily dose of 0.02 mg cadmium decreased manganese transfer significantly but only in animals treated with cadmium for 3 days. Daily doses of 0.2 mg cadmium or higher always decreased manganese transfer and intestinal uptake significantly - an effect which was independent of whether the rats were killed on the 4th or on the 8th days of the experiment. On the whole, the effect of cadmium was much more intense in the 3-day- than in the 7-day-treated animals and it was more pronounced on manganese transfer than on its intestinal uptake.

  5. Responses to increasing amounts of high-oleic sunflower fatty acids infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Overton, T R; Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Beaulieu, A D; Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M; Perkins, E G

    2007-11-01

    Increasing the oleic acid (18:1 cis-9) content of milk fat might be desirable to meet consumer concerns about dietary healthfulness and for certain manufacturing applications. The extent to which milk fat could be enriched with oleic acid is not known. Increasing the intestinal supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases dry matter intake (DMI) in cows, but the effects of oleic acid have not been quantified. In a crossover design, 4 multiparous Holstein cows were abomasally infused with increasing amounts (0, 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 g/d) of free fatty acids from high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFA) or with carrier alone. Continuous infusions (20 to 22 h/d) were for 7 d at each amount. Infusions were homogenates of HOSFA with 240 g/d of meat solubles and 11.2 g/d of Tween 80; controls received carrier only. The HOSFA contained (by wt) 2.4% 16:0, 1.8% 18:0, 91.4% 18:1 cis-9, and 2.4% 18:2. The DMI decreased linearly (range 22.0 to 5.8 kg/d) as the infused amount of HOSFA increased. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy decreased as the infusion increased to 750 g/d and then increased when 1,000 g/d was infused. Digestibility of total fatty acids increased linearly as infused fatty acids increased. Yields of milk, fat, true protein, casein, and total solids decreased quadratically as infused amounts increased; decreases were greatest when 750 or 1,000 g/d of HOSFA were infused. Concentrations of fat and total solids increased at the higher amounts of HOSFA. The volume mean diameter of milk fat droplets and the diameter below which 90% of the volume of milk fat is contained both increased as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 in milk fat decreased linearly as HOSFA increased. The concentration of 18:1 cis-9 (19.4 to 57.4% of total fatty acids) increased linearly as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of 18:1 cis-9 in blood triglyceride-rich lipoproteins increased linearly as infusion increased, whereas contents of 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, total 18:1 trans, and 18:2n-6 decreased linearly. The composition and physical characteristics of milk fat can be altered markedly by an increased intestinal supply of 18:1 cis-9, which could influence processing characteristics and the healthfulness of milk fat. However, an increased supply of free 18:1 cis-9 to the intestine decreased DMI and milk production.

  6. Early IL-4 gene expression in abomasum is associated with resistance to Haemonchus contortus in hair and wool sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J R; Sommers, K N; Zajac, A M; Notter, D R; Bowdridge, S A

    2016-06-01

    Early immune events associated with reduced larval burden remain unclear in parasite-resistant breeds of sheep. Therefore, our objective was to determine breed differences in immune-related gene expression following infection with H. contortus. Gene expression in abomasal tissue and mucosa and in abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) was measured in 24 St. Croix (hair) lambs and 24 Dorset x (Finn-Rambouillet) (wool) lambs at 0 (uninfected), 3, 5 and 7 days after infection with 10 000 L3 H. contortus larvae. Expression of IL-4 in abomasal mucosa was detected on day 3 and increased to day 7 in hair lambs, but was not detectable in wool lambs. Genes that recruit neutrophils (CXCL1) and macrophages (MCP1) were upregulated in abomasal mucosa of hair lambs. Genes associated with alternative macrophage activation (ARG-1) and eosinophil activation (Gal-14) were also upregulated in the abomasal mucosa of hair lambs. Tissue remodeling genes (MMP13, PDGF) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and MCP1 were upregulated in abomasal tissue of wool lambs; these lambs also had greater expression of forkhead box P3 in ALN. These data indicate a role for early IL-4 expression locally and demonstrate potential downregulation of immunity in wool sheep that could facilitate establishment of H. contortus.

  7. Rumenectomy-induced proliferation in duodenal villous epithelium is mechanistically related to the disappearance of statin, a non-proliferation-specific nuclear protein.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S; Mitmaker, B; Gordon, P H; Schipper, H M; Wang, E

    1991-12-01

    We undertook this study to determine the effect of rumenectomy (a known cause of duodenal crypt cell hyperplasia) on the epithelial growth kinetics of the crypt-villus axis in rat duodenum. Ten rats were randomly assigned to control (gastrotomy) and experimental (rumenectomy) groups. After 14 days rats were sacrificed and representative sections were stained with the monoclonal antibody to statin, a non-proliferation-specific protein, by the immunoperoxidase procedure. In the control group, the mean percentages of statin-positive cells in the proximal duodenum, distal duodenum, proximal jejunum, and distal jejunum were 79 +/- 8.5, 79.5 +/- 5.7, 85 +/- 1.4, and 83.5 +/- 0.7, respectively. In the rumenectomy group, statin-positive nuclei were found in the region of the villous apices only, and the corresponding values for the above four areas were 26.2 +/- 4.9, 24.5 +/- 3.5, 31.7 +/- 4.5, and 80.5 +/- 2.1. Except for distal jejunum, the differences in statin expression in the control and experimental groups were significant (p less than 0.001). Rumenectomy leads to the disappearance of statin from the villous column cells of the duodenum and proximal small bowel. The lack of expression of statin in the rumenectomy group documents the potential usefulness of this measure in future studies in neoplasia were understanding of the proliferative status is of crucial importance. PMID:1940316

  8. Regional variation in expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the intestine following a combined insult of alcohol and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Morris, Niya L; Li, Xiaoling; Earley, Zachary M; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-08-01

    The intestine is segmented into functionally discrete compartments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon). The present study examined whether alcohol combined with burn injury differently influences cytokine levels in different parts of the intestine. Male mice were gavaged with alcohol (∼2.9 g/kg) 4 h prior to receiving a ∼12.5% total body surface area full thickness burn. Mice were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after injury. The intestine segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) were harvested, homogenized, and analyzed for inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-18, and KC) using their respective ELISAs. KC levels were significantly increased in the jejunum, ileum, and colon following alcohol and burn injury as compared to shams. The increase in KC was ∼28-fold higher in the colon as compared to the levels observed in duodenum following alcohol and burn injury. Both IL-6 and IL-18 levels were significantly elevated in both the ileum and colon following the combined insult. There was a ∼7-fold increase in IL-6 levels in the colon as compared with the duodenum after the combined insult. Levels of IL-18 were increased by ∼1.5-fold in the colon as compared to the ileum following alcohol and burn injury. The data suggest that pro-inflammatory mediators are differentially expressed in the intestine following alcohol and burn injury.

  9. Coumestrol decreases intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity in post-delivery mice but does not affect vitamin D receptor and calcium channels in post-delivery and neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Kirihata, Yuka; Kawarabayashi, Tetsu; Imanishi, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Miki; Kume, Shin-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of administration of coumestrol during pregnancy on calcium (Ca) metabolism in post-delivery maternal and neonatal mice. From 6.5 to 16.5 days post coitus (dpc), pregnant females were administered daily doses of coumestrol (200 microg/kg body weight/day). One day after parturition, blood samples and the kidneys, liver, jejunum and duodenum were obtained from each of maternal mouse, and blood samples and the kidneys and liver were obtained from neonatal mice. Coumestrol did not have any significant effect on the Ca and inorganic phosphorus concentrations in the sera of the maternal and neonatal mice. No notable effects of coumestrol were observed in relation to Vitamin D receptor expression in the maternal and neonatal mice by immunohistochemical analysis. Coumestrol did not affect the Vitamin D receptor and epithelial calcium channel and 2 mRNA levels in any of the organs investigated. Enzyme histochemical analysis showed that coumestrol decreased intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity in the maternal jejunum and duodenum. In the duodenum, coumestrol decreased expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase, c-fos and vascular endothelial growth factor at the mRNA level. However, we did not observe any significant effects of coumestrol on the expression of these genes. In conclusion, coumestrol decreased intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity in the small intestines of maternal mice at the level used in the present study, and the mechanisms underlying this effect are different for the jejunum and duodenum. PMID:18160770

  10. Influence of age, sex and rearing systems on Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) expression pattern in gut, lung and lymphoid tissues of indigenous ducks.

    PubMed

    Kolluri, Gautham; Ramamurthy, N; Churchil, R R; Dhinakar Raj, G; Kannaki, T R

    2014-02-01

    Abstract 1. The objective of the experiment was to determine the influence of age, sex and rearing system on Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene expression in gut, lung and lymphoid tissues and physiological responses to stress in male and female indigenous ducks of Tamil Nadu, India. 2. A total of 36 ducks (12 males and 24 females) were obtained from local farmers and tissue samples of gut tissues (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum), lymphoid organs (spleen and bursa) and lungs were collected in RNAlater solution followed by RNA extraction. 3. After normalisation to β-actin (endogenous control) qPCR analysis identified a significant effect of age, sex and rearing system on TLR7 expression in the ducks. 4. A significant up-regulation of TLR7 expression was observed in lungs, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum of sexually mature (45 wk) compared with that of immature ducks (16 wk). Among sexes, male ducks had significantly higher TLR7 expression than female ducks. 5. Age and sex interactions were significant in lungs, duodenum, jejunum and caecum. Ducks reared in an extensive housing system showed significantly higher TLR7 expression in bursa, lungs, duodenum, ileum and caecum compared to intensively reared ducks. There were no effects of age, sex and rearing systems on TLR7 expression in the spleen. 6. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and serum corticosterone were higher in ducks reared on an intensive system compared with ducks from an extensive rearing system.

  11. Enumeration of anaerobic bacterial microflora of the equine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mackie, R I; Wilkins, C A

    1988-09-01

    Samples from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, as well as from the cecum and colon, were obtained from 11 mature grass-fed horses. Viable counts of total culturable and proteolytic bacteria were made on habitat-simulating media containing 40% clarified ruminal fluid. The mean pHs in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were 6.32, 7.10, and 7.47, respectively; the mean pH decreased to 6.7 in the hindgut. The acetate concentration increased along the length of the small intestine and was the only volatile fatty acid present in this gut segment. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the hindgut were 85:10:3. Differences in bacterial counts on habitat-simulating media containing equine cecal fluid or clarified ruminal fluid were negligible. Bacterial counts showed a substantial population in the duodenum (ca. 2.9 x 10(6) per g [wet weight] of sample), and this increased to 29.0 x 10(6) in the jejunum and 38.4 x 10(6) in the ileum. Proteolytic bacteria formed a high proportion of the total culturable bacteria, especially in duodenal samples. Counts of proteolytic bacteria per gram (wet weight) of sample were 3.0 x 10(6), 15.6 x 10(6), and 22.0 x 10(6) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively. There was a close relationship between lumenal and mucosal bacterial counts, although actual values were lower in mucosal samples. The mucosal bacterial population in the duodenum was high relative to the lumenal population. Although the comparison of bacterial populations in the hindgut of the horse and white rhino was limited to a single animal, the results were of interest. Counts were higher in the cecum than in the colon for both the horse and the white rhino.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Role of activation of cholinergic influences in recovery of electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine during the early postoperative period in rats.

    PubMed

    Tropskaya, N S; Solov'yova, G I; Popova, T S

    2007-02-01

    The effects of neostigmine and calcium pantothenate on electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine were studied in chronic experiments on rats after laparotomy with implantation of a probe into the jejunum and electrodes into different portions of the gastrointestinal tract. At the early terms after surgery, stimulation of endogenous acetylcholine release intensified electrical activity of the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Treatment with neostigmine and calcium pantothenate did not accelerate the recovery of the migrating myoelectrical complex, but promoted the recovery of the general intensity of action potential generation in the stomach and small intestine. PMID:17970199

  13. [The absorption and metabolism of oxymatrine in rat intestine].

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-yun; Wu, Li-li; Yu, Xiao-ming; Liu, Jun-jin; Han, Wei-chao; Wei, Qiang; Tang, Lan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate the characteristics of absorption and metabolism of oxymatrine (OMT) using rat intestinal perfusion model. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI(+)-Q-TOF-MS) were used to test absorption of OMT in intestine at 100, 200 and 400 µmol · L(-1). The absorption rate and permeability of OMT is not dependent on concentration, but through passive absorption in intestine (P > 0.05). In the rat intestine, the absorbed amount of OMT was significantly different in four sections of the intestine in an order of duodenum > jejunum > ileum > colon (P < 0.05). OMT is metabolized into two metabolites in duodenum and jejunum, and matrine (MT) is the major one.

  14. Black tea may be a prospective adjunct for calcium supplementation to prevent early menopausal bone loss in a rat model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Asankur Sekhar; Banerjee, Maitrayee; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out the ability of black tea extract (BTE) as a suitable alternative of adjunct for calcium supplementation in treating an ovariectomized rat model of early osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-150 g were divided into four groups consisting of six animals in each group: (A) sham-operated control; (B) bilaterally ovariectomized; (C) bilaterally ovariectomized + BTE; (D) bilaterally ovariectomized + 17 β -estradiol. Results suggest that BTE could promote intestinal absorption of calcium significantly (P < 0.01 for duodenum and ileum; and P < 0.05 for jejunum). This was found associated with enhanced activities of two relevant intestinal mucosal enzymes alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.01 for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and Ca(2+) activated ATPase (P < 0.01 for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). Such BTE-mediated promotion of calcium absorption was coupled with increase in serum estrogen titer (P < 0.01) and recovery of all urinary, bone, and serum osteoporotic marker parameters, including bone histological features. Serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was not altered in these animals (P > 0.05). A comparative study with 17 β -estradiol, a well-known adjunct for calcium supplementation, indicated that efficacy of BTE in maintaining skeletal health is close to that of 17 β -estradiol. This study suggests that simultaneous use of BTE is promising as a prospective candidate for adjunctive therapies for calcium supplementation in the early stage of menopausal bone changes.

  15. Meat proteins had different effects on oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 in the small intestine of young rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjie; Li, Chunbao; Song, Shangxin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-12-01

    The peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) in the apical membrane of enterocytes is the central mechanism for regulating the absorption of di- and tripeptides. Dietary proteins may affect PEPT1 abundance and peptide absorption. The present study aimed to characterize changes in PEPT1 mRNA and PEPT1 protein levels in the duodenum and jejunum of young rats after 7-day diet intervention with casein (reference), soy, beef, pork, chicken and fish proteins and further evaluate the impact on the epithelial absorption capacity. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that: (1) PEPT1 protein level in duodenum was higher (p < 0.05) for soy protein group than that for casein group. However, no difference was observed in jejunal PEPT1 protein level between any two diet groups (p > 0.05). The soy protein group had lower crypt depth and higher V/C ratio in the jejunum (p < 0.05). (2) PEPT1 mRNA levels were lower (p < 0.05) in rat duodenum and jejunum in pork, chicken and fish protein groups, whose trend was contrary to the results of jejunual histological observation with lower crypt depth, greater villus height and higher V/C ratio. In conclusion, different meat proteins alter distinct PEPT1 expression level and absorption capacity as reflected by gut morphology in small intestine.

  16. Region-dependent absorption of faropenem shared with foscarnet, a phosphate transporter substrate, in the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Hiroshi; Sawazaki, Rinako; Oda, Masako; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2008-09-01

    Faropenem, a penem antibiotic, is orally active despite its hydrophilic nature. However, its intestinal absorption has not yet been characterised in detail. This study was undertaken to determine the factors regulating faropenem absorption using intestinal loops prepared in the rat duodenum, jejunum and terminal ileum. Faropenem disappearance was much greater than that of cefotaxime and meropenem, and faropenem disappeared more extensively from the terminal ileum than from the jejunum or duodenum. In contrast to faropenem, the disappearance of ceftibuten was much greater from the duodenum and jejunum than from the terminal ileum. As the accumulation and enzymatic degradation of faropenem was minimal in the intestinal mucosa, faropenem was considered to enter the portal vein smoothly after its disappearance from the intestinal loops. Faropenem disappearance was not significantly influenced by the presence of monocarboxylic acids, amino acids or bile acid. Dipeptides such as L-carnosine and glycylglycine slightly but significantly lowered faropenem disappearance from the terminal ileum. On the other hand, foscarnet exerted a marked inhibitory effect on faropenem disappearance, but the antiviral agent did not modulate ceftibuten absorption. The present results suggest that faropenem is in part absorbed via a phosphate transporter present in the rat small intestine. PMID:18614339

  17. Elevated motility-related transmucosal potential difference in the upper small intestine in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M H; Simrén, M; Thomas, E A; Bornstein, J C; Lindström, E; Sjövall, H

    2007-10-01

    The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complex and incompletely known. Very little has been studied regarding the role of submucous neuronal activity. We therefore measured small intestinal transmural potential difference (PD, reflecting mainly electrogenic chloride secretion), and its linkage with fasting motor activity [migrating motor complex (MMC)] in controls (n = 16) and patients with IBS [n = 23, 14 diarrhoea predominant (d-IBS) and nine constipation predominant (c-IBS)]. Transmural-PD and its relation to MMC phase III was measured by modified multilumen manometry for 3 h in the fasting state using one jejunal and one duodenal infusion line as flowing electrodes. The amplitude and duration of motor phase III was similar in controls and IBS patients, but the propagation speed of phase III was higher in IBS patients. In IBS patients, maximal PD during MMC phase III was significantly elevated in both the duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.05) and the PD decline after phase III was significantly prolonged in the jejunum (P < 0.01). The PD elevation was seen in both duodenum and jejunum in d-IBS patients, but only in the jejunum in the c-IBS patients. On the basis of previous modelling studies, we propose that the enhanced secretion may reflect disturbed enteric network behaviour in some patients with IBS.

  18. Mast cell and eosinophils in the wall of the gut and eosinophils in the blood stream during Toxocara vitulorum infection of the water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Neves, Maria F; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A; Castro, Alessandra M M G

    2003-04-01

    Toxocara vitulorum is a pathogenic nematode from the small intestine of very young buffalo calves. To understand the development of the inflammatory responses in the wall of the gut, samples of tissues were removed from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of buffalo calves naturally infected with T. vitulorum during the beginning of the infection, at the peak of egg output, as well as during the periods of rejection of the worms and post-rejection. Two additional control groups of uninfected calves (by anti-helminthic therapy of their mothers and after the birth) were also necropsied on days 30 and 50 after birth. Blood samples were fortnightly collected from birth to 174 days post-birth. Blood smears were prepared and stained with Giemsa for eosinophils. The parasitological status of buffalo calves was evaluated through weekly fecal egg counts (EPG) from 1 to 106 days after birth, which revealed that T. vitulorum egg shedding started on day 11, reached the peak of the infection on day 49 and finally expelled the parasites between days 50 and 85 after birth. In the infected buffalo calves, the mast cell population increased significantly, by two-fold in the mucosa (villus-crypt unit (VCU)) of the duodenum and four-fold in the proximal jejunum; but these increases were statistically significant only at the peak of the infection. Although mast cell numbers increased in the mucosa of the ileum as well as in both the submucosal and muscle tissues of the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileum, the data was not significantly different from the controls. Eosinophil numbers increased in the mucosa of the duodenum (two-five times higher than the control) and proximal jejunum (three-five-fold) during the period of the infection (beginning, peak and rejection). The relative numbers of eosinophils increased in the blood stream from the second to the seventh week. In conclusion, T. vitulorum infection elicited mastocytosis and tissue eosinophilia in the duodenum and proximal jejunum

  19. [The enhancing effect of Angelica dahurica extracts on absorption of baicalin--the active composition of Scutellaria].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-yun; Liang, Xin-li; Wang, Guang-fa; Zhao, Guo-wei; Liao, Zheng-gen; Cao, Yun-chao; Chen, Xu-long; Yang, Ming

    2011-02-01

    To explore the mechanism of the absorption enhancement of Angelica dahurica extract (Ade), the absorption mechanism of baicalin in the Scutcllaria water extraction as well as the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on absorption of baicalin were investigated. In order to determine the main absorption site, everted intestinal sac model was used to study the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on the absorption of baicalin at duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. In situ single pass intestinal perfusion model was performed to study the absorption of various concentrations of baicalin and the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on the absorption of baicalin at the main absorption site. To authenticate the consequence of perfusion by getting the blood from the hepatic portal vein and determine the concentration of the baicalin in the blood. The result showed that baicalin could be absorbed at all of the four intestinal segments with increasing absorption amount per unit as follows: ileum > colon > jejunum > duodenum. The absorption ofbaicalin in the duodenum significantly increased with Angelica dahurica extract, thus, duodenum was chosen to be the studying site. Apparent permeability values (Papp) and absorption rate constant (Ka) of baicalin in the duodenum increased gradually with higher concentrations. When the concentration of baicalin rises to a certain degree, the absorption increase had a saturable process, the absorption of baicalin may be an active transportation. Baicalin may be not a substrate of P-gp as verapamil which had not significantly affected the Papp and Ka of baicalin. The absorption of baicalin in the duodenum significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the two models with Angelica dahurica extract and the concentration of baicalin in the blood from the hepatic portal vein showed that the Angelica dahurica extract can increase the absorption of baicalin.

  20. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on maturation of the small intestine in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR), starter mixture (SM), or both on small intestine maturation in newborn calves was investigated. Twenty-eight male calves with a mean age of 5 (± 1) d were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 groups (7 animals per group) and fed (1) MR and SM, without SB (MR(-) and SM(-), respectively; MR(-)/SM(-)); (2) MR(-) and SM supplemented with SB encapsulated within triglyceride matrix (SM(+), 0.6% as fed; MR(-)/SM(+)); (3) MR supplemented with crystalline SB (MR(+), 0.3% as fed) and SM(-) (MR(+)/SM(-)); or (4) MR(+) and SM(+) (MR(+)/SM(+)). The MR was offered in amounts equal to 10% of initial body weight of the calf. The SM was blended with whole corn grain (50/50; wt/wt) and offered ad libitum as a starter diet. Calves were slaughtered at 26 d (± 1) of age and small intestine development was investigated. Treatment with MR(+) decreased villus height in the proximal jejunum and decreased villus height, crypt depth, and tunica mucosa thickness in the middle jejunum, whereas treatment with SM(+) tended to increase small intestine weight and crypt depth in the proximal jejunum, and increased villus height in the distal jejunum. In the duodenum, crypt depth and tunica mucosa thickness were greater for the MR(-)/SM(+) group compared with MR(-)/SM(-), MR(+)/SM(-), and MR(+)/SM(+) groups. In the ileum, crypt depth was less for MR(-)/SM(+) compared with MR(-)/SM(-). Supplementation with SB in both MR and SM enhanced cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis in the middle jejunum mucosa. Regarding brush border enzyme activities, addition of SB to MR increased lactase activity in the middle jejunum and maltase activity in the distal jejunum, and tended to increase lactase activity in the distal jejunum, aminopeptidase A activity in the middle jejunum and ileum, and aminopeptidase N activity in the ileum. In contrast, SM(+) increased dipeptidylpeptidase IV activity in the distal jejunum and tended to increase

  1. Intestinal adaptation and Reg gene expression induced by antidiabetic duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Lu, Yarong; Srikant, Coimbatore B; Gao, Zu-Hua; Liu, Jun-Li

    2013-04-01

    The antidiabetic mechanism of bariatric surgery includes specific changes in the secretion of incretins. To identify additional players originating from the gut, we evaluated the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) in morbidly obese Zucker fatty rats. A fast relief of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia was achieved even before a significant weight loss occurred. Fourteen days after DJB, we characterized the changes in intestinal histochemistry in the bypassed duodenum and shortcut jejunum that was reanastomosed directly to the starting point of the duodenum and compared with the corresponding regions of sham-operated rats. The bypassed duodenum exhibited mucosal atrophy and apoptosis and decreased proliferative renewal. In shortcut jejunum, DJB resulted in 40% significantly enlarged intestinal circumference and increased epithelial proliferation, especially in putative transit-amplifying (TA) cells and the crypt. Because Reg family proteins promote cell growth and survival, we explored their expression in the intestine. With the use of immunohistochemistry, Reg1, -3α, and -3β were normally expressed in intestinal mucosa. After DJB, the level of Reg1 protein was reduced, whereas Reg3α and -3β were not changed in bypassed duodenum. Downstream in shortcut jejunum, the levels of Reg1 and -3β were greatly induced and especially concentrated in the putative TA cells. Our results revealed significant changes in the integrity and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa as a consequence of DJB, and in cell- and isoform-specific expression of Reg proteins within the replicating mucosal epithelium, and provide evidence indicating that the activation of Reg proteins may contribute to intestinal compensation against increased load and/or to improving insulin sensitivity.

  2. Biopharmaceutics classification and intestinal absorption study of apigenin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Dapeng; Huang, Yanting; Gao, Yuan; Qian, Shuai

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was to characterize the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) category of apigenin (AP) using intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) and rat intestinal permeability, and to investigate the intestinal absorption mechanism of AP in rats. In the present investigation, equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of AP were estimated in phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (P(eff)) of AP was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in four segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) of rat intestine at three concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μg/ml). The aqueous solubility of AP in tested phosphate buffers was very poor with maximum solubility of 2.16 μg/ml at pH 7.5. The IDR of AP was very low with a value of 0.006 mg/min/cm(2). The minimum and maximum P(eff)s determined by SPIP were 0.198×10(-4) and 0.713×10(-4) cm/s at jejunum and duodenum site, respectively. In addition, the concentration-dependent permeability behavior was observed in the duodenum and jejunum, which suggested that AP was transported by both passive and active carrier-mediated saturable mechanism in these two intestinal segments. However, the observed concentration-independent permeability behavior in ileum and colon indicated primarily passive transport mechanism of absorption of AP in the last two intestinal segments. AP was classified as class II drug of the BCS due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. AP could be well absorbed in the whole intestine with the main absorption site at duodenum. The absorption of AP in four intestinal segments exhibited different transport mechanisms.

  3. Effects of met-enkephalin on the mechanical activity and distribution of met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the cat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Radomirov, R; Venkova, K; Davidoff, M; Pencheva, N

    1990-01-01

    Naloxone-dependent effects of Met-enkephalin (10(-8) M) on the spontaneous and electrically induced mechanical activities were studied in longitudinal and circular preparations isolated from the cat duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Met-Enkephalin changed the spontaneous activity of all preparations tested with the exception of the circular preparations from the ileum. Met-Enkephalin-induced responses of the longitudinal preparations from the ileum were abolished by treatment with tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M), while the responses of both longitudinal and circular preparations from the duodenum and jejunum were only partially depressed, being resistant to tetrodotoxin components. The latter were most pronounced in the duodenum. The neurogenic electrically induced (0.5 msec, 5 Hz, 150 pulses) responses of all the preparations consisted mainly of contractile components which were significantly and naloxone-dependently reduced by Met-enkephalin (10(-8) M). The contractile components of the responses, which were reduced by Met-enkephalin, were entirely abolished by atropine (3 x 10(-6) M). Both Met-enkephalin and atropine inhibitory effects on the neurogenic responses were more pronounced in the ileum. Met-Enkephalin was found in nerve fibers of the myenteric plexus distributed mainly among the circular muscle. Single immunoreactive nerve fibers were observed in the longitudinal muscle layer of the duodenum but not in the jejunum and ileum. The distribution of Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity along the small intestine did not show significant differences among the three intestinal regions tested. The results obtained suggest that Met-enkephalin can modulate the mechanical activity of the cat small intestine, inhibiting cholinergic transmission and/or activating smooth muscle opioid receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of intestinal full-thickness biopsy samples from cats with lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Marsilio, S; Kleinschmidt, S; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2014-05-01

    The distribution and numbers of CD3(+) T lymphocytes, immunoglobulin(+) plasma cells and calprotectin (L1)(+) macrophages was analyzed in full-thickness, formalin-fixed biopsy samples from the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and from the colon from nine cats with clinical signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). All animals had lymphoplasmacytic enteritis or lymphoplasmacytic enterocolitis. Equivalent samples from the same intestinal regions from 12 healthy pet cats served as controls. Labelled cells in the lamina propria were counted by computer-aided morphometry. The different cell types were similarly distributed in both groups, but there were differences in their numbers. There were more CD3(+) T cells in the duodenum and jejunum of cats with IBD; however, the difference was only significant for the duodenum. There were significantly more IgA(+) cells in the duodenal crypt region. There were significantly more IgG(+) cells in the lower jejunal crypt region. Plasma cells expressing IgM were decreased in cats with IBD, but the difference was not significant. L1(+) macrophages were significantly decreased in the lower crypt area of the colon in cats with IBD and there was a trend to decreased L1(+) cells in the upper crypt area of the duodenum and jejunum. Comparison of the results of this study with previous findings on endoscopically-obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats with IBD revealed some differences. These discrepancies might relate to differences between control cat populations, types of biopsy samples, methodological factors such as different counting techniques and the activity of the disease at the time of sampling.

  5. Possible Role of Intestinal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Eating-Inhibitory Effect of the PPAR-α Agonist Wy-14643 in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimian Azari, Elnaz; Leitner, Claudia; Jaggi, Thomas; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    PPAR-α plays a key role in lipid metabolism; it enhances fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. Pharmacological PPAR-α activation improves insulin sensitivity and reduces food intake, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We here report that intraperitoneal (IP) administration of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 (40 mg/kg BW) reduced food intake in adult male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 49% of the energy) mainly through an increase in the latency to eat after injection, and without inducing a conditioned taste avoidance. Also, IP administered Wy-14643 caused an acute (the first 60 min) decrease in the respiratory quotient (RQ) and an increase in hepatic portal vein β-hydroxybutyrate level (at 35 min) without affecting plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Given the known stimulatory effect of PPAR-α on FAO and ketogenesis, we measured the protein expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT 1A) and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMG-CoAS2), two key enzymes for FAO and ketogenesis, respectively, in liver, duodenum and jejunum. Wy-14643 induced a significant increase in the expression of CPT 1A in the jejunum and duodenum and of HMG-CoAS2 in the jejunum, but neither CPT 1A nor HMG-CoAS2 expression was increased in the liver. The induction of CPT 1A and HMG-CoAS2 expression was associated with a decrease in the lipid droplet content selectively in the jejunum. Our findings indicate that Wy-14643 stimulates FAO and ketogenesis in the intestine, in particular in the jejunum, rather than in the liver, thus supporting the hypothesis that PPAR-α activation inhibits eating by stimulating intestinal FAO. PMID:24069361

  6. The effect of hyperthermia on the radiation response of crypt cells in mouse jejunum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of hyperthermia and/or gamma-radiation on the survival of intestinal crypt cells was studied in BDF sub 1 mice using a microcolony assay. Hyperthermia treatments, which in themselves caused no detectable cell lethality, inhibited the capacity of crypt cells to repair sublethal radiation damage. In addition, heat applied either before or after single radiation exposures potentiated lethal damage to crypt cells; the degree of enhancement was dependent on the time interval between treatments. At the levels of heating employed, DNA synthesis in the intestinal epithelium was significantly reduced immediately following exposure, but returned rapidly to normal levels. No further disturbances in cellular kinetics were observed for up to 10 days after heating.

  7. Chlorate Concentration in the Jejunum and Cecum in Growing Pigs when Supplemented in Drinking Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research has demonstrated that oral administration of chlorate and nitrate results in reduced risk and / or concentration of Salmonella enterica fecal shedding of infected pigs, poultry and ruminants. The effect of chlorate is concentration dependent in vitro, but the concentrations of chlorat...

  8. Reversed gastric tube (RGT) esophagoplasty for failure of colon, jejunum and prosthetic interpositions.

    PubMed Central

    Heimlich, H J

    1975-01-01

    Reversed gastric tube (RGT) esophagoplasty is preferred by the author as the primary procedure for esophageal replacement. Many patients undergoing RGT esophagoplasty, however, have previously had multiple operative procedures. A particularly challenging problem in esophageal reconstruction is the patient who has already had unsuccessful intestinal or prosthetic interposition operations in attempts to reconstruct the esophagus. In such patients, it has been possible to replace the esophagus by means of the RGT operation. Of 67 RGT esophagoplasties, 9 patients (13.4%) had previous interposition operations that had failed. Six had undergone colon interposition; 2 of these had strictured, 1 had partially sloughed leaving a cervical salivary fistula, and in 1 the proximal end was never patent. In each instance, bypass with RGT was performed without resecting the colon transplant. The colon had necrosed and was removed in 2 patients. Of the remaining 3 patients, in 1 a plastic esophageal prothesis had sloughed and two had free jejunal transplants, 1 of which had impaired vascularity and the other had fibrosed. The specific techniques used to reconstruct the esophagus by reversed gastric tube esophagoplasty, as they relate to this particular group of patients, are described. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b. Fig. 3. Figs. 4a and b. Figs. 5a and b. PMID:1211993

  9. Transcription networks responsible for early regulation of Salmonella-induced inflammation in the jejunum of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify transcription factors/regulators that play a crucial role in steering the (innate) immune response shortly (within a few hours) after the first contact of the intestinal mucosa with an inflammatory mediator, and to test whether the processes regulated by these factors/regulators can be modulated by chemical substances of natural origin. Methods We experimentally induced inflammation by perfusion of surgically applied jejunal loops with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in three pigs. Segments of mock and Salmonella treated loops were dissected after 2, 4 and 8 hours of perfusion. IL8 and IL1-beta mRNA expression levels were measured in mucosal scrapings of all segments. Furthermore, intra-animal microarray comparisons (isogenic) between Salmonella and mock treated segments after 8 hours, and inter-animal comparisons between similar Salmonella-treated loops of each pig at 2 and 4 hours, were performed. Results IL-1beta and IL8 mRNA levels, and intra-animal microarray comparisons at 8 hours between Salmonella and mock treated segments showed that the response-time and type of response to Salmonella was different in all three pigs. This plasticity allowed us to extract a comprehensive set of differentially expressed genes from inter-animal comparisons at 2 and 4 hours. Pathway analysis indicated that many of these genes play a role in induction and/or tempering the inflammatory response in the intestine. Among them a set of transcription factors/regulators known to be involved in regulation of inflammation, but also factors/regulators for which involvement was not expected. Nine out of twenty compounds of natural origin, which according to literature had the potential to modulate the activity of these factors/regulators, were able to stimulate or inhibit a Salmonella-induced mRNA response of inflammatory-reporter genes IL8 and/or nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor alpha in cultured intestinal porcine epithelial cells. Conclusions We describe a set of transcription factors/regulators possibly involved in regulation of “very early” immune mechanism which determines the inflammatory status of the intestine later on. In addition, we show that these mechanisms may be modulated by chemical substances of natural origin. PMID:23590759

  10. Microbial community profiles of the jejunum from steers differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research regarding the association between the microbiome and host feed efficiency in cattle has primarily focused on the rumen. However, the various microbial populations within the gastrointestinal tract as a whole are critical to the overall well-being of the host and need to be examined when de...

  11. Differential expression of genes in the jejunum of steers with feed efficiency phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small intestine is an important site of digestion and absorption of nutrients in cattle, and has the potential to significantly impact feed efficiency. We hypothesized that the differences in feed efficiency phenotypes of beef cattle can be partially explained by the differences in gene expressi...

  12. Malrotation and Midgut Volvulus associated with Asymptomatic Duplication Cyst of Jejunum.

    PubMed

    Rahul, Sandip Kumar; Upadhyaya, Vijai Datta; Kumar, Basant

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal duplications can affect any part of the alimentary tract and are notorious for their variable presentation. Their association with malrotation and midgut volvulus is rare. We describe an 8-year old boy presented with episodes of abdominal pain. Radiological workup showed whirlpool sign and abnormal relationship of mesenteric vessels. At operation, malrotation with chronic volvulus was found. Incidentally, a jejunal communicating duplication cyst was also noted. PMID:27672583

  13. Malrotation and Midgut Volvulus associated with Asymptomatic Duplication Cyst of Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Vijai Datta; Kumar, Basant

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal duplications can affect any part of the alimentary tract and are notorious for their variable presentation. Their association with malrotation and midgut volvulus is rare. We describe an 8-year old boy presented with episodes of abdominal pain. Radiological workup showed whirlpool sign and abnormal relationship of mesenteric vessels. At operation, malrotation with chronic volvulus was found. Incidentally, a jejunal communicating duplication cyst was also noted. PMID:27672583

  14. Influence of restricted diet on epithelial renewal and maturation in the mice jejunum.

    PubMed

    Koga, A; Kimura, S

    1978-01-01

    It has been known that the intestinal epithelial cell is characterized by a rapid cell turnover and by a gradient of differentiation from crypt to villus. The present study was undertaken to clarity the effect of diet on the migration and the maturation of the intestinal epithelial cells. The transit time from the crypt to the extrusion zone at the villus tip was determined with tritiated thymidine. To study the maturation of the cells the distribution of the terminal digestive enzymes, maltase [EC 3.2.1.20] and leucylnaphthylamidase E1EC 3.4.1.1], along the villus and crypt was analyzed quantitatively. And total activities of the same enzymes were assayed also in the mucosal homogenates. It was observed that the decrease in the migrating speed of villus cells was brought by energy restriction and the decrease in the migrating speed was associated with an increase of the enzyme activities in the upper zone of villus. And the result was that the intestinal epithelial cells which decrease in migrating speed by dietary restriction become more mature on the upper villus than those with unrestriced control.

  15. The chicken alimentary tract demarcation of the jejunum and ileum junction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken alimentary tract differs in several ways from other domestic food production animals. Chickens are considered monogastric omnivores although the stomach consists of two adjacent segments; the chemical proventriculus followed by the mechanical ventriculus (gizzard). The names used for the...

  16. The Pasteur effect in rat jejunum and the influence of nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Scofield, A M

    1978-01-01

    1. The Pasteur effect was shown after 15 min but not after 30 min incubation of jejunal rings from normal rats. 2. During 15-30 min incubation, the rate of anaerobic lactate production decreased, while aerobic lactate production remained unchanged. Thus oxygen was necessary to maintain the functional integrity of the tissue during this period. 3. After infection with either Nematospiroides dubius or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, the Pasteur effect could not usually be shown, mainly due to a reduced rate of anaerobic lactate production. 4. The possible relationship of the loss of the Pasteur effect to the immune response is discussed.

  17. Effects of energy and protein restriction, followed by nutritional recovery on morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned kids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H; He, Z X; Zhang, Q L; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Wang, M; Yan, Q X

    2013-09-01

    Effects of energy, protein, or both energy and protein restriction on gastrointestinal morphological development were investigated in 60 Liuyang Black kids, which were sourced from local farms and weaned at 28 d of age. Weaned kids were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 dietary treatments (15 kids per treatment), which consisted of adequate nutrient supply (CON), energy restriction (ER), protein restriction (PR), or energy and protein restriction (EPR). The entire experiment included adaptation period (0 to 6 d), nutritional restriction period (7 to 48 d), and recovery period (49 to 111 d). Three kids from each group were killed at d 48 and 111, and the rumen, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were harvested. On d 48 (end of nutritional restriction), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.005), jejunum (P = 0.003), and ileum (P = 0.003), and weights of the rumen (P = 0.004), duodenum (P = 0.006), jejunum (P = 0.006), and ileum (P = 0.004) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were less than those of kids in CON. Compared with CON, PR decreased papillae width (P = 0.03) and surface area (P = 0.05) of the rumen epithelium, villus surface area (P = 0.05), and N concentration (P = 0.02) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. Compared with CON, EPR decreased papillae height (P = 0.001), width (P = 0.001), and surface area (P = 0.003), N concentration (P = 0.01), and the ratio of N to DNA (P = 0.03) of the rumen epithelium. Compared with CON, EPR also decreased villus height (P = 0.01), width (P = 0.006), and surface area (P = 0.006), N concentration (P < 0.001), and the ratio of N to DNA (P < 0.001) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. On d 111 (end of nutritional recovery), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P = 0.001), and ileum (P = 0.001), weights of the rumen (P < 0.001), duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P < 0.001), and ileum (P < 0.001) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were still less than those of kids in CON; N concentrations of rumen epithelium of kids in PR (P = 0.01) and EPR (P = 0.001), and

  18. Nitrogen partitioning along the equine digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Glade, M J

    1983-10-01

    Twelve adult horses were fed a corn-oats-timothy hay diet containing 2.87% nitrogen (N) for 4 wk and were then killed. Fresh digesta samples were immediately harvested from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, large colon, small colon, rectum and feces. Total N content of the digesta (on a dry matter basis) increased from the stomach (2.74%) to the duodenum (5.58%; P less than .01), decreased in the cecum (3.10%, P less than .01), remained constant through the large intestine and decreased in the feces (2.10%; P less than .01). High-speed centrifugation of wet digesta and low-speed centrifugation following tungstic acid treatment of wet digesta were comparable in their effectiveness in separating water soluble N-containing compounds (S-N) from insoluble N-containing compounds (P-N). The P-N was further partitioned into neutral detergent soluble (NDS-N) and neutral detergent insoluble (NDF-N) fractions. The NDF-N constituted from 6 to 17% of the total digesta N at any location along the digestive tract. The S-N constituted about 20% of the total digesta N in the stomach, increased to about 80% at mid-jejunum (P less than .01), decreased to 30% in the cecum (P less than .01) and increased throughout the large intestine. The calculation of cumulative apparent digestibilities indicated that total digesta N underwent net disappearance along the entire tract, except in the duodenum. Dietary NDF-N underwent net disappearance throughout the digestive tract. The NDS-N portion of the P-N disappeared in the duodenum, jejunum and small colon, but underwent net appearance in the ileum, cecum and large colon. There was a net appearance of S-N in the duodenum and net disappearances in the ileum and cecum. The shifts in N partitioning along the lower digestive tract and the decreases in N concentrations suggest that the jejunum, ileum, cecum and small colon are major sites of the net absorption of N and that much of the N absorbed in the small colon was supplied by the

  19. Morphometric study of the layers of the canine small intestine at five sampling sites.

    PubMed

    Sarriá, R; Latorre, R; Henroteaux, M; Henroteaux, N; Soria, F; Pérez-Cuadrado, E; López Albors, O

    2012-06-01

    The histology of the canine intestine has not been accurately defined. To establish the precise thickness of its different layers, whole wall samples of the small intestine were removed from 41 cadavers at five standardised sampling sites (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum and distal ileum). The total thickness was estimated by morphometry, as was the thickness of the mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosa and muscularis externa. In addition, the size of the lymphoid aggregates in the submucosa and the thickness of the circular and longitudinal layers within both the muscularis mucosae and the muscularis externa were estimated. The total intestinal thickness depended very much upon the thickness of the mucosa and submucosa. The mucosa decreased progressively from proximal to distal parts of the small intestine (47% reduction). The thickness of the submucosa, however, changed little from the duodenum to the distal jejunum, but increased significantly in the ileum; this change was positively correlated with the amount of lymphoid tissue. Sex influenced the thickness of the intestinal wall, with males displaying higher thickness values along the small intestine. Conversely, no correlation between bodyweight and intestinal thickness was found for any of the five sampling sites. This study gives absolute and relative values for the thickness of the layers of the dog intestine which might help in the diagnosis of small intestinal pathology from postmortem samples and/or endoscopic biopsies.

  20. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) During Torpor

    PubMed Central

    Tessier, Shannon N.; Katzenback, Barbara A.; Pifferi, Fabien; Perret, Martine; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2015-01-01

    During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) of Madagascar experiences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The protein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in the duodenum and jejunum during torpor as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF), and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) but an increase in MIP-1α in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others). Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a suppression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine. PMID:26092185

  1. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) During Torpor.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Shannon N; Katzenback, Barbara A; Pifferi, Fabien; Perret, Martine; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-04-01

    During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) of Madagascar experiences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The protein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in the duodenum and jejunum during torpor as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF), and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) but an increase in MIP-1α in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others). Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a suppression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine. PMID:26092185

  2. Arsenic toxicosis and suspected chromium toxicosis in a herd of cattle.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, C D; Meldrum, J B; Wikse, S E; Whittier, W D

    1985-07-15

    Arsenic toxicosis and suspected chromium toxicosis were diagnosed in a herd of cattle that ingested ashes from lumber treated with copper, chromium, and arsenic. Findings included peracute death, depression, ataxia, weakness, recumbency, and watery diarrhea. Chemical analyses of liver, kidney, abomasal contents, rumen contents, and ashes revealed high concentrations of arsenic and chromium. Histologically, specimens of abomasum and duodenum had diffuse mucosal degeneration and engorged capillaries. Epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules and distal collecting tubules of the kidney were swollen and had mild granular cytoplasmic degeneration. Burning lumber treated with copper, chromium, and arsenic does not remove the heavy metals from them, and ingestion of the ashes from the wood constitutes a hazard to livestock health.

  3. Pathological changes in cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron daubneyi adult flukes.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio; González-Lanza, M Camino; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Fernández, Miguel; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Ferreras, M Carmen

    2015-04-30

    Local host response and parasite distribution were studied in the forestomachs, abomasum, duodenum and regional lymph nodes of cattle suffering from bovine paramphistomosis. The parasites were found attached, by its ventral sucker, to small conical papillae of the rumen and reticulum. Affected papillae, showed morphological changes denoted by very narrow stalks and expanded heads. Histologically, these changes were characterized by epithelial acanthosis-hyperkeratosis of the epithelium. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was often related with the epithelial changes, although it was also found in the duodenal mucosa and submucosa. These cells were arranged as aggregates or follicles but sparse infiltration of eosinophils, globule leukocytes, mast cells or macrophages was also observed in the lamina propria. Tissue damage and inflammatory reaction were more severe in the ruminal atrium, where the largest number of flukes and affected papillae were observed. In contrast, lesions in the ruminal dorsal sac were absent or mild. Statistical correlation between lesion severity and parasite burden was confirmed. PMID:25801360

  4. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    SciTech Connect

    Takito, J.; Shinki, T.; Sasaki, T.; Suda, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 alpha,25(OH)2D3). The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane.

  5. Hairy Cell Leukemia Presenting with Duodenal Involvement Duodenum: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Parijat; Shaaban, Hamid; Modi, Tejas; Kumar, Abhishek; Guron, Gunwant

    2015-01-01

    Context: A rare case of adult hairy cell leukemia (HCL) with duodenal involvement is presented. Case Report: The patient was a 48-year-old man, who had a history of hairy cell leukemia. Three days after completion of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CDA) chemotherapy, the patient started experiencing abdominal pain. An extensive gastroenterological workup culminated in the patient getting an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) that revealed duodenal inflammation and biopsies were taken. The duodenal biopsy was positive for chronic inflammatory infiltrate, primarily consisting of atypical lymphocytes and plasma cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positivity, and hence a diagnosis of duodenal involvement with HCL was made. Repeat bone marrow biopsy done 2 weeks after finishing chemotherapy revealed residual disease. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with a normocellular marrow and no residual disease. Repeat abdomen computerized tomography (CT) scan at completion of therapy showed resolution of duodenal thickening and spleen size of 12 cm. Currently, patient is in clinical remission for 6 years with 4-6 monthly follow-up visits and continues to do well. Conclusion: This case is presented to highlight the first case report of HCL with duodenal involvement that was successfully treated with CDA. PMID:26199927

  6. En bloc transplation of kidney and whole pancreas with a segment of duodenum in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiao, H; Jiang, H; Xu, J; Zhu, Y; Xiao, Y; Cong, L; Wang, X

    1997-12-01

    For meeting the clinic needs in simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK), we successfully establish a syngeneic SPK transplatation model in Lewis rats. The results indicate that this model is feasible with a 82.6% successful rate of operation and a 69.6% survival rate in the first postoperative week. In long-term survived rats, the blood supplies are well established, function of the grafts (pancreas and kidney) maintains normal. This model is suitable for theoretical research in SPK transplantation for its reasonable physiology with pancreatic juice drained into intestine and reduced postoperative complications in urinary tract and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:11360553

  7. Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Involving the Duodenum Embolized with Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Luppi, Giacomo; Faiella, Eliodoro; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Giurazza, Francesco; Borzomati, Domenico; Coppola, Roberto; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno

    2012-08-15

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is a rare condition. Most patients are asymptomatic or alternatively may present with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Traditionally, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice; however, alternative approaches, such as transcatheter embolization (TAE), may be proposed. We report a case of a 48-year-old man with a pancreatic head AVM, presenting with upper abdominal pain and slight anemia. The patient refused surgery and underwent TAE by means of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). At 3 months follow-up, the patient was able to eat regularly, with no residual pain and no signs of anemia.

  8. Consecutive en-bloc liver (30%)-pancreas-duodenum-spleen-stomach transplant in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, C H; Hong, I C; Lee, S; Nam, S; Bai, S; Kim, K; Pivetti, C D; Niewiadomski, S T; Wolf, P; Gittes, R F

    2003-01-01

    It is well-known that 30% of the remaining liver mass, following partial hepatectomy, regenerates to full original mass within 2 weeks in rats. In order to carry the transplanted rat liver to repeated transplantation, a technique of combining 30% of the liver with the pancreaticoduodenum and spleen transplantation is performed in this consecutive organ transplantation study. Our laboratory observed several 37-month-old transplanted rats by carrying through 2-3 generations, and histological disclosure were made. Because the partial liver transplants did not regenerate after the transplantation with other splanchnic organs, this technique is not so difficult though subsequent surgical maneuvers are needed and the liver histology proved entirely normal in every aspect when followed beyond the rat's life span of 24 months.

  9. Characterization of calcium binding to brush-border membranes from rat duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A; Li, S T; Bronner, F

    1982-01-01

    The Ca2+-binding properties of isolated brush-border membranes at physiological ionic strength and pH were examined by rapid Millipore filtration. A comprehensive analysis of the binding data suggested the presence of two types of Ca2+-binding sites. The high-affinity sites, Ka = (6.3 +/- 3.3) X 10(5) M-1 (mean +/- S.E.M.), bound 0.8 +/- 0.1 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein and the low-affinity sites, Ka = (2.8 +/- 0.3) X 10(2) M-1, bound 33 +/- 3.5 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. The high-affinity site exhibited a selectivity for Ca2+, since high concentrations of competing bivalent cations were required to inhibit Ca2+ binding. The relative effectiveness of the competing cations (1 and 10 mM) for the high-affinity site was Mn2+ approximately equal to Sr2+ greater than Ba2+ greater than Mg2+. Data from the pH studies, treatment of the membranes with carbodi-imide and extraction of phospholipids with aqueous acetone and NH3 provided evidence that the low-affinity sites were primarily phospholipids and the high-affinity sites were either phosphoprotein or protein with associated phospholipid. Two possible roles for the high-affinity binding sites are suggested. Either high-affinity Ca2+ binding is involved with specific enzyme activities or Ca2+ transport across the luminal membrane occurs via a Ca2+ channel which contains a high-affinity Ca2+-specific binding site that may regulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and gating of the channel. PMID:7165733

  10. Contractions of the stomach and duodenum induced by trimebutine in conscious fasted dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Iizuka, M

    1985-02-01

    Effect of trimebutine on the gastroduodenal motility was studied in conscious fasted dog with chronic implantation of electrodes and force transducers. During motor quiescence, trimebutine at 1.0-2.0 mg/kg i.v. produced action potentials and contractions similar to those developed during phase III (the period of intense action potential and contractile activity), which has been known to be physiologically important. Metoclopramide (1.0-2.0 mg/kg i.v.) induced contractile activity different from that during phase III, and hyoscine-N-butylbromide (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) produced no action potentials and contractions. PMID:4057711

  11. Rapunzel syndrome resulting in gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Parakh, J S; McAvoy, A; Corless, D J

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female patient with no past medical history who presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and vomiting on the background of a long history of ingesting hair (trichophagia). Computed tomography revealed pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in keeping with visceral perforation. In addition, a large hair bolus was seen extending in contiguity from the stomach to the jejunum. A laparotomy was performed, revealing an anterior gastric perforation secondary to a 120cm long trichobezoar, which had formed a cast of the entire stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. The bezoar was removed and an omental patch repair to the anterior ulcer was performed. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery and was discharged home with psychiatric follow-up review.

  12. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  13. Intestinal permeability of metformin using single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nai-Ning; Li, Quan-Sheng; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the intestinal transport and mechanism of metformin in rats and to investigate whether or not metformin is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp). METHODS: The effective intestinal permeability of metformin was investigated using single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in male Waster rats. SPIP was performed in three isolated intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at the same concentration of metformin (50 μg/mL) to test if the intestinal transport of metformin exhibited site-dependent changes, and in a same isolated intestinal segment (duodenal segment) at three different concentrations of metformin (10, 50, 200 μg/mL) to test if the intestinal transport of metformin exhibited concentration-dependent changes. Besides, P-gp inhibitor verapamil (400 μg/mL) was co-perfused with metformin (50 μg/mL) in the duodenum segment to find out if the intestinal absorption of metformin was affected by P-gp exiting along the gastrointestinal track. Stability studies were conducted to ensure that the loss of metformin could be attributed to intestinal absorption. RESULTS: The effective permeability values (Peff) of metformin in the jejunum and ileum at 50 μg/mL were significantly lower than those in the duodenum at the same concentration. Besides, Peff values in the duodenum at high concentration (200 μg/mL) were found to be significantly lower than those at low and medium concentrations (10 and 50 μg/mL). Moreover the co-perfusion with verapamil did not increase the Peff value of metformin at 50 μg/mL in the duodenum. CONCLUSION: Metformin could be absorbed from the whole intestine, with the main absorption site at duodenum. This concentration-dependent permeability behavior in the duodenum indicates that metformin is transported by both passive and active carrier-mediated saturable mechanism. The Peff value can not be increased by co-perfusion with verapamil, indicating that absorption of metformin is not efficiently transported

  14. Properties of Zip4 accumulation during zinc deficiency and its usefulness to evaluate zinc status: a study of the effects of zinc deficiency during lactation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Nakagawa, Miki; Tsujimura, Natsuki; Miyazaki, Shiho; Kizu, Kumiko; Goto, Tomoko; Komatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Ayu; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Komai, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis is elaborately controlled by ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters. Therefore, detailed characterization of their expression properties is of importance. Of these transporter proteins, Zip4 functions as the primarily important transporter to control systemic zinc homeostasis because of its indispensable function of zinc absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we closely investigated Zip4 protein accumulation in the rat small intestine in response to zinc status using an anti-Zip4 monoclonal antibody that we generated and contrasted this with the zinc-responsive activity of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We found that Zip4 accumulation is more rapid in response to zinc deficiency than previously thought. Accumulation increased in the jejunum as early as 1 day following a zinc-deficient diet. In the small intestine, Zip4 protein expression was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum and was accompanied by reduction of ALP activity, suggesting that the jejunum can become zinc deficient more easily. Furthermore, by monitoring Zip4 accumulation levels and ALP activity in the duodenum and jejunum, we reasserted that zinc deficiency during lactation may transiently alter plasma glucose levels in the offspring in a sex-specific manner, without affecting homeostatic control of zinc metabolism. This confirms that zinc nutrition during lactation is extremely important for the health of the offspring. These results reveal that rapid Zip4 accumulation provides a significant conceptual advance in understanding the molecular basis of systemic zinc homeostatic control, and that properties of Zip4 protein accumulation are useful to evaluate zinc status closely. PMID:26702153

  15. Properties of Zip4 accumulation during zinc deficiency and its usefulness to evaluate zinc status: a study of the effects of zinc deficiency during lactation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Nakagawa, Miki; Tsujimura, Natsuki; Miyazaki, Shiho; Kizu, Kumiko; Goto, Tomoko; Komatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Ayu; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Komai, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis is elaborately controlled by ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters. Therefore, detailed characterization of their expression properties is of importance. Of these transporter proteins, Zip4 functions as the primarily important transporter to control systemic zinc homeostasis because of its indispensable function of zinc absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we closely investigated Zip4 protein accumulation in the rat small intestine in response to zinc status using an anti-Zip4 monoclonal antibody that we generated and contrasted this with the zinc-responsive activity of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We found that Zip4 accumulation is more rapid in response to zinc deficiency than previously thought. Accumulation increased in the jejunum as early as 1 day following a zinc-deficient diet. In the small intestine, Zip4 protein expression was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum and was accompanied by reduction of ALP activity, suggesting that the jejunum can become zinc deficient more easily. Furthermore, by monitoring Zip4 accumulation levels and ALP activity in the duodenum and jejunum, we reasserted that zinc deficiency during lactation may transiently alter plasma glucose levels in the offspring in a sex-specific manner, without affecting homeostatic control of zinc metabolism. This confirms that zinc nutrition during lactation is extremely important for the health of the offspring. These results reveal that rapid Zip4 accumulation provides a significant conceptual advance in understanding the molecular basis of systemic zinc homeostatic control, and that properties of Zip4 protein accumulation are useful to evaluate zinc status closely.

  16. Carcinoid of the Appendix During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Unexpected Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Haluck, Randy; Cooney, Robert N.; Minnick, Kathleen E.; Ruggiero, Francesco; Smith, J. Stanley

    1999-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors of the midgut arise from the distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, ascending and right transverse colon. The appendix and terminal ileum are the most common location. The majority of carcinoid tumors originate from neuroendocrine cells along the gastrointestinal tract, but they are also found in the lung, ovary, and biliary tracts. We report the first case of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in which we found a suspicious lesion at the tip of the appendix and proceeded to perform a laparoscopic appendectomy. The lesion revealed a carcinoid tumor of the appendix. PMID:10323177

  17. Novel Use of Endoscopic Clips as Fiducials for Radiotherapy in Small Bowel Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Vanessa; Soriano, Frederick B.; Markoe, Arnold M.; Lossos, Izidore S.; Saigal, Kunal; Sussman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman was diagnosed with duodenal grade 1 follicular lymphoma. The patient underwent radiotherapy and on surveillance enteroscopy, the lymphoma was persistently identified in the duodenum and jejunum. Endoscopic clips were used as fiducials to better localize the tumor during radiotherapy. Endoscopic clips are increasingly used as tumor localization tools because of their favorable risk-benefit ratio. In our case, endoscopic clipping was necessary to properly localize the tumor after prior treatment failure, and the patient now has no evidence of disease. Larger studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of clips in tumor localization and improved disease-related morbidity. PMID:26157870

  18. [Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the gastrointestinal motility in anesthetized dogs].

    PubMed

    Nosaka, K; Takenaga, H; Magaribuchi, T; Tamaki, H

    1984-10-01

    Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the spontaneous motility of the gastrointestinal tracts were investigated in anesthetized dogs by means of force transducers. TM-906, administrated intravenously or intraduodenally, produced an inhibition followed by a potentiation of the spontaneous motility in the stomach, and caused a potentiation of the spontaneous motility in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. These effects of TM-906 were observed also in the vagotomized dogs as in the intact dogs. From these results, it is suggested that TM-906 modulates the spontaneous motility of the gastrointestinal tracts primarily through the peripheral mechanism. PMID:6533390

  19. Transfer of cadmium through the rat's intestinal wall

    SciTech Connect

    Gruden, N.

    1982-08-01

    The transfer of /sup 115//sup m/Cd through the wall of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in 6-week-old male albino rats was studied by the in vitro method of the ''everted gut sac.'' Cadmium transport through the duodenal and jejunal wall was practically the same, but it was significantly lower through the ileum. Although being highest in the duodenal wall, cadmium retention did not depend significantly on any particular intestinal segment. No cadmium transport against a chemical gradient seems to have taken place through the wall of any segment.

  20. Persistent cryptosporidiosis in horses with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Bjorneby, J M; Leach, D R; Perryman, L E

    1991-01-01

    Cryptosporidial infections were established in five young foals with severe combined immunodeficiency following oral administration of 10(8) Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All foals shed oocysts (average of 8 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(8)/g of feces) until death. Inflammation and C. parvum organisms were observed in the common bile duct, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Since foals with severe combined immunodeficiency lack functional T and B lymphocytes and are incapable of antigen-specific immune responses, they are well suited for evaluating the pathogenesis and treatment of persistent cryptosporidiosis. Images PMID:1894380

  1. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  2. Duodenal Lipomatosis as a Curious Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed: A Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Majid; Tiwari, Priyanka; Ramaswamy, Palaniswamy Kalipatti; Kumar, Reddy Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. Duodenal lipomas are incidental and mostly asymptomatic. Tumours may produce symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort or cause bleeding due to ulceration or intestinal obstruction due to intussusception. We describe a 45-year-old man presenting in emergency with 3 days history of melena with normal gastroduodenoscopy and contrast enhanced computed tomography revealing multiple polypoid lesion in duodenum and proximal jejunum suggestive of lipoma. Due to ongoing bleed, he underwent laparotomy with duodenectomy and uneventful postoperative recovery. Our review of cases published in last 67 years indicate that duodenal lipomas are rare to occur but commonly found in second part, they may be seen in third and fourth part of duodenum which may be missed on endoscopy. They can be multiple and may present as severe UGI bleeding which could be managed surgically. Though CT is diagnostic, histopathology confirms the diagnosis which shows lipomatous lesion composed of mature adipose arranged in lobules. PMID:27437304

  3. [Chronic-idiopathic enteropathy in cats--a case control study].

    PubMed

    Meneses, F; Ehinger, B; Gerhardt, A; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Amtsberg, G; Nolte, I

    2003-01-01

    Aim of this study is to clinically, microbiologically and histopathologically characterize inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the cat. Nine cats with chronic persistent or intermitent vomitus and diarrhea were examined between 1998 and 2001. All cats had a thuorough diagnostic workup performed. Full thickness biopsies from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were surgically obtained for histopathological examination. Duodenal juice was obtained by direct aspiration for microbiologic qualitative and semiquantitative examination. Seven cats euthanized for other medical reasons were used as controls. Six cats had a lymphoplasmacytic IBD and three an eosinophilic IBD. Four cats with IBD had additional diseases diagnosed. Three cats with IBD had elevated bacterial counts. Retrospectively no correlation could be found between clinical symptoms and histopathological results. Serum TLI was not able to differentiate chronic pancreatitis and IBD. Serum folic acid and cobalamin did not correlate with the distribution of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Finally, no correlation was found between bacterial counts in the proximal duodenum and IBD.

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics and probiotics on intestinal microarchitecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, S; Zaneb, H; Yousaf, M S; Ijaz, A; Sohail, M U; Muti, S; Usman, M M; Ijaz, S; Rehman, H

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and/or probiotics (LBP) on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count, goblet cells (GC) count and differentiation and intestinal micro-architecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. Day-old broilers (n = 250) were randomly divided into five groups. Fifty birds were reared within the thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Remaining birds were subjected to cyclic heat stress from day 21 to 42 (35° C, 75% RH, 8 h/d). The birds were fed corn-soy-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS), or 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP), or their combination (HS-SYN). The birds were slaughtered on day 42. Tissue samples were collected from mid-duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined Alcian blue and PAS technique. All differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. The IEL count increased in all intestinal segments of the HS group compared with the TNZ group and decreased in all supplemented groups compared with the HS group. Compared with the TNZ, heat stress reduced villus height, crypt depth and surface area in duodenum and ileum, and increased crypt depth in ileum. Villus width decreased in duodenum and jejunum compared with the TNZ group. Supplementation of LBP, MOS and SYN reversed all these changes in duodenum, while only increased villus height and surface area in ileum. In jejunum, the villus height and surface area increased with HS-LBP, and crypt depth increased with HS-MOS. The number of GC containing acid mucins (duodenum and ileum) and mixed mucins (ileum) were increased in the HS compared with the TNZ. Supplementation of MOS, LBP and SYN maintained the enhanced activity of goblet cells. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of MOS and/or LBP may be helpful in alleviating some of the detrimental effects of heat stress on microstructure of the broiler gut.

  5. Immunohistochemical demonstration of vitamin D receptor distribution in goat intestines.

    PubMed

    Boos, Alois; Riner, Katharina; Hässig, Michael; Liesegang, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol modulates gene transcription via nuclear VD receptors (VDR). In the intestines, VD promotes calcium resorption via VDR. VDR has not been systematically assessed within the intestine in any species. We therefore present a semiquantitative immunohistochemical study of the distribution patterns of VDR in goat intestines. Intestinal tissue probes were collected from 5 lambs and 5 non-lactating non-pregnant dams, fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin and assessed for VDR. Nuclear VDR immunoreaction was scored semiquantitatively. VDR exhibited a segment-specific distribution pattern. Goblet cells were always devoid of VDR. Enterocytes within the surface epithelium and the superficial crypts generally demonstrated only a weak immunoreaction along the length of the intestine, while basally and/or intermediately located crypt epithelial cells exhibited strong VDR immunoreactions in the duodenum, jejunum and colon descendens. The difference in VDR staining between deep and superficial locations was most prominent in the duodenum and less evident in the jejunum, ileum and colon descendens. Results demonstrate that VDR distribution exhibits cell type-, segment- and location-specific patterns in the goat. Data may serve as a basis for future experiments on the role of VDR in Ca metabolism.

  6. Hormone-sensitive lipase is a cholesterol esterase of the intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Grober, Jacques; Lucas, Stéphanie; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Zaghini, Isabelle; Mairal, Aline; Contreras, Juan-Antonio; Besnard, Philippe; Holm, Cecilia; Langin, Dominique

    2003-02-21

    The identity of the enzymes responsible for lipase and cholesterol esterase activities in the small intestinal mucosa is not known. Because hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, we sought to determine whether HSL could be involved. HSL mRNA and protein were detected in all segments of the small intestine by Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. Immunocytochemistry experiments revealed that HSL was expressed in the differentiated enterocytes of the villi and was absent in the undifferentiated cells of the crypt. Diacylglycerol lipase and cholesterol esterase activities were found in the different segments. Analysis of gut from HSL-null mice showed that diacylglycerol lipase activity was unchanged in the duodenum and reduced in jejunum. Neutral cholesterol esterase activity was totally abolished in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of HSL-null mice. Analysis of HSL mRNA structure showed two types of transcripts expressed in equal amounts with alternative 5'-ends transcribed from two exons. This work demonstrates that HSL is expressed in the mucosa of the small intestine. The results also reveal that the enzyme participates in acylglycerol hydrolysis in jejunal enterocytes and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis throughout the small intestine. PMID:12482847

  7. PROPOSAL OF A REVISIONAL SURGERY TO TREAT NON-INSULINOMA HYPERINSULINEMIC HYPOGLICEMIA POSTGASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    SAMPAIO-NETO, José; BRANCO-FILHO, Alcides José; NASSIF, Luis Sérgio; NASSIF, André Thá; MASI, Flávia David João De; XIMENEZ, Daniele Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Background : Hyperinsulinemic hypoglicemia with severe neuroglycopenic symptoms has been identified as a late and rare complication in patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, the potential gravity of its manifestations requires effective treatment of this condition. The absence of treatment makes it necessary to develop more effective clinical or surgical methods. Aim : To present one surgical option to revisional surgery in the treatment of hyperinsulinemic hypoglicemia Methods : The procedure consists in reconstituting alimentary transit through the duodenum and proximal jejunum, while keeping the restrictive part of the gastric bypass. As an additional strategy to maintain weight loss, is realized gastric fundus resection, aiming to suppress ghrelin production more effectively. Results : It was used in three patients with successful results in one year of follow-up. Conclusion : The procedure to reconstruct the food transit through the duodenum and proximal jejunum, keeping the restrictive component of gastric bypass in the treatment of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia showed good initial results and validated its application in other cases with this indication. PMID:26734801

  8. Quantitative histo-morphometric analysis of heat-stress-related damage in the small intestines of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Santos, Regiane R; Awati, Ajay; Roubos-van den Hil, Petra J; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H G; Koolmees, Peter A; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research was to present a methodological approach allowing reproducible morphometric and morphological (Chiu/Park scale) analyses of the alterations in the intestines of broilers exposed to heat stress. Ross broilers were exposed over four consecutive days to a high-temperature regime in controlled climate rooms, with a day temperature of 39°C (±1°C) and a night temperature of 25°C (±1°C), respectively. A control group was kept at an ambient temperature of 25°C (±1°C) during the entire experimental period. At the end of the exposure period, the birds were sacrificed and specimens were taken of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum for histology. Blood was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Histo-morphological and morphometric analyses of the intestines indicated that the duodenum and jejunum showed more damage than the ileum. The major alterations in the control intestines were limited to the villus tips, while heat stress led to villus denudation and crypt damage. When compared with morphologically normal villi, heat-stress-associated alterations were also observed in villus height (decreased), villus breadth at base (increased) and epithelial cell area (decreased). Birds exposed to heat stress presented with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity and a decreased antioxidant capacity. It can be concluded that the chosen model allows a reproducible quantification of heat stress effects, which is suitable for the evaluation of dietary intervention strategies to combat heat stress conditions.

  9. Determination of Site of Absorption of Propranolol in Rat Gut Using In Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Nagare, N.; Damre, Anagha; Singh, K. S.; Mallurwar, S. R.; Iyer, Seethalakshmi; Naik, A.; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2010-01-01

    Previously, permeability and site of intestinal absorption of propranolol have been reported using the Ussing chamber. In the present study, the utility of Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion to study permeability and site of intestinal absorption of propranolol was evaluated in rats. Drug permeability in different regions of rat intestine viz. duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was measured. Propranolol (30 μg/ml) solution was perfused in situ in each intestinal segment of rats. Effective permeability (Peff) of propranolol in each segment was calculated and site of absorption was determined. The Peff of propranolol in rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was calculated to be 0.3316×10-4 cm/s, 0.4035×10-4cm/s, 0.5092×10-4 cm/s and 0.7167×10-4 cm/s, respectively. The above results suggest that permeability of propranolol was highest through colon compared to other intestinal sites, which is in close agreement to that reported previously. In conclusion, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion can be used effectively to study intestinal permeability as well as site of intestinal absorption of compounds in rats. PMID:21694996

  10. Determination of site of absorption of propranolol in rat gut using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion.

    PubMed

    Nagare, N; Damre, Anagha; Singh, K S; Mallurwar, S R; Iyer, Seethalakshmi; Naik, A; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2010-09-01

    Previously, permeability and site of intestinal absorption of propranolol have been reported using the Ussing chamber. In the present study, the utility of Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion to study permeability and site of intestinal absorption of propranolol was evaluated in rats. Drug permeability in different regions of rat intestine viz. duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was measured. Propranolol (30 μg/ml) solution was perfused in situ in each intestinal segment of rats. Effective permeability (Peff) of propranolol in each segment was calculated and site of absorption was determined. The Peff of propranolol in rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was calculated to be 0.3316×10(-4) cm/s, 0.4035×10(-4)cm/s, 0.5092×10(-4) cm/s and 0.7167×10(-4) cm/s, respectively. The above results suggest that permeability of propranolol was highest through colon compared to other intestinal sites, which is in close agreement to that reported previously. In conclusion, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion can be used effectively to study intestinal permeability as well as site of intestinal absorption of compounds in rats.

  11. Influence of chlorine added to drinking water during the preslaughter feed withdrawal on microbiology and morphology of the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, F R; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Pinto, F R; Barbosa, M M C; Barbosa, J C; Amaral, L A

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the effects of the addition of chlorine to broiler drinking water during a 12-h preslaughter feed withdrawal period on reduction of the quantities of microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli and enterococci, in broiler crops and ceca. Reduction of these microorganisms would likely also reduce contamination of broiler meat by pathogenic bacteria during processing. It was also investigated if the chlorine caused some intestinal damage that could disseminate the microorganisms to the carcass. A total of 40 Cobb male broilers were used. Samples of crop and cecal content were collected for microbiological analysis, and duodenum and jejunum were used for morphological analysis from 10 birds in each treatment. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and enterococci in the collected samples of crop and ceca and the measure of the free residual chlorine in water were determined. The scanning electron microscopy from duodenum and jejunum was used to illustrate the mucosa integrity. The chlorine added to water was efficient in reducing the quantities of microorganisms in broiler crops and improved the integrity of the mucosa. Therefore, preslaughter feed withdrawal should be coupled with crop disinfection, because preslaughter feed withdrawal increases the MPN of enterococci and E. coli in broiler crops. So, it presents a higher risk for carcass contamination during slaughterhouse processing and, consequently, a higher risk for public health.

  12. Ultrasonographic thickening of the muscularis propria in feline small intestinal small cell T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Daniaux, Lise A; Laurenson, Michele P; Marks, Stanley L; Moore, Peter F; Taylor, Sandra L; Chen, Rachel X; Zwingenberger, Allison L

    2014-02-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common form of lymphoma in the cat. More recently, an ultrasonographic pattern associated with feline small cell T-cell gastrointestinal lymphoma has been recognized as a diffuse thickening of the muscularis propria of the small intestine. This pattern is also described with feline inflammatory bowel disease. To evaluate the similarities between the diseases, we quantified the thickness of the muscularis propria layer in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 14 cats affected by small cell T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 19 healthy cats. We found a significantly increased thickness of the muscularis propria in cats with lymphoma and IBD compared with healthy cats. The mean thickness of the muscularis propria in cats with lymphoma or IBD was twice the thickness of that of healthy cats, and was the major contributor to significant overall bowel wall thickening in the duodenum and jejunum. A muscularis to submucosa ratio >1 is indicative of an abnormal bowel segment. Colic lymph nodes in cats with lymphoma were increased in size compared with healthy cats. In cats with gastrointestinal lymphoma and histologic transmural infiltration of the small intestines, colic or jejunal lymph nodes were rounded, increased in size and hypoechoic.

  13. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum.

  14. An immunohistochemical study on the gastrointestinal endocrine cells of three honeyeaters: singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, N; Yamada, J; Richardson, K C; Kitamura, N; Yamashita, T

    1993-01-01

    The gastrointestinal endocrine cells of the singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta) were studied immunohistochemically with special reference to their degree of dependency upon nectar. The nine types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were detected in their gastrointestinal mucosa. Coexistence of motilin and serotonin in the same cells was confirmed in the pyloric region. In the duodenum and jejunum, a few peptide tyrosin tyrosin (PYY)-immunoreactive cells were detected. The clear difference in the distribution and frequency of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells among three types of honeyeaters, which differ in the degree of dependency upon the nectar, could not be confirmed. However, some differences were found that serotonin-, somatostatin- and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-immunoreactive cells in the gizzard, gastrin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum and jejunum, enteroglucagon-immunoreactive cells in the caeca and in the colon, and pancreatic glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the ileum of brown honeyeaters were more numerous (p < 0.05) than other two species.

  15. An immunohistochemical study on the gastrointestinal endocrine cells of three honeyeaters: singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, N; Yamada, J; Richardson, K C; Kitamura, N; Yamashita, T

    1993-01-01

    The gastrointestinal endocrine cells of the singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta) were studied immunohistochemically with special reference to their degree of dependency upon nectar. The nine types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were detected in their gastrointestinal mucosa. Coexistence of motilin and serotonin in the same cells was confirmed in the pyloric region. In the duodenum and jejunum, a few peptide tyrosin tyrosin (PYY)-immunoreactive cells were detected. The clear difference in the distribution and frequency of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells among three types of honeyeaters, which differ in the degree of dependency upon the nectar, could not be confirmed. However, some differences were found that serotonin-, somatostatin- and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-immunoreactive cells in the gizzard, gastrin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum and jejunum, enteroglucagon-immunoreactive cells in the caeca and in the colon, and pancreatic glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the ileum of brown honeyeaters were more numerous (p < 0.05) than other two species. PMID:7693061

  16. Dosage Effect of Zinc Glycine Chelate on Zinc Metabolism and Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter in Intestinal Segments on Rat.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaoling; Fang, Shenglin; Feng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in various fundamental biological processes. The focus of this research was to investigate the dosage effect of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) on zinc metabolism and the gene expression of zinc transporters in intestinal segments. A total of 30 4-week-old SD rats were randomized into five treatment groups. The basal diets for each group were supplemented with gradient levels of Zn (0, 30, 60, 90, and 180 mg/kg) from Zn-Gly. After 1-week experiment, the results showed that serum and hepatic zinc concentration were elevated linearly with supplemental Zn levels from 0 to 180 mg Zn/kg. Serum Cu-Zn SOD activities resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) quadratic response and reached the peak when fed 60 mg Zn/kg. There were linear responses to the addition of Zn-Gly from 0 to 180 mg Zn/kg on Cu-Zn SOD and AKP activities in the liver. In the duodenum, MT1 mRNA was upregulated with the increasing dietary Zn-Gly levels and reached the peak of 180 mg Zn/kg (P < 0.05). Zip4 mRNA expression was downregulated with the increasing zinc levels (P < 0.05) in both duodenum and jejunum. In the jejunum, Zip5 mRNA expression in 60 mg Zn/kg was higher compared with other groups (P < 0.05). ZnT1 mRNA in duodenum was numerically increased with the rising levels of zinc content and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with 180 mg Zn/kg. In the duodenum, adding 60 or 90 mg Zn/kg increased PepT1 expression, but in the jejunum, 60 mg Zn/kg did not differ from 0 added Zn. In summary, there is a dose-dependent effect of dietary Zn-Gly on serum and hepatic zinc levels and the activities of Cu-Zn SOD and AKP on rats. Dietary Zn-Gly has a certain effect on MT1, Zip4, Zip5, and ZnT1 expression, which expressed differently in intestinal segments with different levels of Zn-Gly load. Besides, Zn-Gly also could regulate PepT1 expression in intestinal segments.

  17. [Gastrointestinal hemorrhage and diverticula of the jejunum--presentation of a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Greco, B; Wettstein, M; Hack, I; Meyer, A; Rosso, R

    1997-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding due to jejunal diverticulosis is an uncommon emergency condition that has been encountered recently in one patient. The case of this patient treated with an emergency laparotomy and a segmentary small bowel resection is here presented. The clinical significance, proper diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of the hemorrhagic complication of jejunal diverticular disease are reviewed.

  18. ClC-2 is required for rapid restoration of epithelial tight junctions in ischemic-injured murine jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Nighot, Prashant K.; Moeser, Adam J.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Ghashghaei, Troy; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims: Involvement of the epithelial chloride channel ClC-2 has been implicated in barrier recovery following ischemic injury, possibly via a mechanism involving ClC-2 localization to the tight junction. The present study investigated mechanisms of intestinal barrier repair following ischemic injury in ClC-2{sup -/-} mice. Methods: Wild type, ClC-2 heterozygous and ClC-2{sup -/-} murine jejunal mucosa was subjected to complete ischemia, after which recovery of barrier function was monitored by measuring in vivo blood-to-lumen clearance of {sup 3}H-mannitol. Tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy. The role of ClC-2 in re-assembly of the tight junction during barrier recovery was studied by immunoblotting, immunolocalization and immunoprecipitation. Results: Following ischemic injury, ClC-2{sup -/-} mice had impaired barrier recovery compared to wild type mice, defined by increases in epithelial paracellular permeability independent of epithelial restitution. The recovering ClC-2{sup -/-} mucosa also had evidence of ultrastructural paracellular defects. The tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-1 shifted significantly to the detergent soluble membrane fraction during post-ischemic recovery in ClC-2{sup -/-} mice whereas wild type mice had a greater proportion of junctional proteins in the detergent insoluble fraction. Occludin was co-immunoprecipitated with ClC-2 in uninjured wild type mucosa, and the association between occludin and ClC-2 was re-established during ischemic recovery. Based on immunofluorescence studies, re-localization of occludin from diffuse sub-apical areas to apical tight junctions was impaired in ClC-2{sup -/-} mice. Conclusions: These data demonstrate a pivotal role of ClC-2 in recovery of the intestinal epithelium barrier by anchoring assembly of tight junctions following ischemic injury.

  19. The effects of neuropeptide Y and its fragments upon basal and electrically stimulated ion secretion in rat jejunum mucosa.

    PubMed

    Cox, H M; Cuthbert, A W

    1990-10-01

    1. The effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and a range of C terminal fragments were investigated both on basal short circuit current (s.c.c.) and electrical field stimulated responses in voltage clamped preparations in rat jejunal mucosa. 2. Most of the NPY fragments tested had direct effects upon the mucosa, reducing baseline s.c.c. with EC50 values of 1 micron or more. NPY was 30 times more effective than any of the fragments tested and the order of potency was: NPY much greater than NPY (11-36) greater than or equal to (12-36) greater than or equal to (13-36) greater than or equal to (14-36). NPY (15-36), (16-36), (20-36) and (22-36) were still less effective and complete concentration-response curves could not be constructed. NPY (26-36), des amido NPY and the C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON) were all inactive and did not significantly alter responses to NPY. 3. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) of mucosal preparations elicited rapid transient secretory responses in the presence of hexamethonium and atropine. NPY and fragments attenuated these secretory responses and where concentration-response relationships could be compared at a given time point the following order of potency was obtained: NPY much greater than NPY (11-36) greater than NPY (13-36). Again NPY (26-36), des amido NPY and CPON were ineffective, while at single concentrations (300 nM) a graded attenuation of EFS responses was obtained with NPY (14-36) greater than or equal to NPY (15-36) greater than NPY (16-36) greater than or equal to NPY (20-36) greater than NPY (22-36). 4. The attenuation of EFS responses by these peptides was not dependent upon the basal secretory state. Pretreatment of tissues with piroxicam reduced s.c.c. and attenuated further reductions in s.c.c. by NPY, but had no effect upon NPY-mediated inhibition of electrically-stimulated secretory responses. 5. NPY fragments attenuated both basal and EFS generated secretion. Since fragments are effective these receptors must, by definition be Y2-like. NPY (11-36) and NPY (13-36) at 300nm and 1 microM did not significantly attenuate secretory responses to either carbachol (CCh) or substance P (SP). A 1 microM concentration of either fragment was equivalent in effect to 30nm NPY upon basal current, but NPY at this concentration significantly reduced both CCh- and SP-induced secretion. The reduced spectrum of fragment activity together with the different order and potency ratios obtained with these three peptides indicates a presynaptic action for NPY and the fragments. PMID:2257432

  20. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Cirilo, Carla Possani; Zapater, Mariana Cristina Vicente Umada; Vicentini, Fernando Augusto; Soares, Andréia Assunção; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar; Buttow, Nilza Cristina; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7), 12 (C12 and CA12), and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23). The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal) via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells. PMID:25960748

  1. Dietary resistant starch reduces histone acetylation on the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide gene in the jejunum.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaya; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2009-12-01

    We have reported that dietary resistant starch (RS) reduces glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) mRNA levels along the jejunoileum in both normal and diabetic rats. In this study, we found that jejunal reduction of the GIP gene by feeding normal rats dietary RS was associated with decreases in histone H3 and H4 acetylation on the promoter/enhancer region of the gene.

  2. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the jejunum presenting as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with a history of gliosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso Puentes, Nidia; Jimenez-Alfaro Larrazabal, Carmen; García Higuera, Maria Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Small bowel malignant tumors are rare and sarcomatoid carcinomas have rarely been reported at this site. We report a 56-year-old woman, with history of an excised gliosarcoma, who presented with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. She underwent endoscopy and colonoscopy, which failed to identify the cause of the bleeding. The abdominal computed tomography scan located a tumor in the small bowel. Pathology revealed a jejunal sarcomatoid carcinoma. She developed tumor recurrence and multiple liver metastases shortly after surgery. Immunohistochemistry is required for accurate diagnosis. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, which is associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:24759341

  3. Dietary inulin affects the morphology but not the sodium-dependent glucose and glutamine transport in the jejunum of broilers.

    PubMed

    Rehman, H; Rosenkranz, C; Böhm, J; Zentek, J

    2007-01-01

    Inulin, a prebiotic, is a fermentable oligosaccharide that may affect the intestinal mucosal architecture and the electrophysiological parameters. The effects of a diet with added inulin were tested on the jejunal morphology and electrogenic transport of Glc and Gln from the jejunal mucosa in broilers. Short-circuit current and transmucosal tissue resistance of jejunal flaps were measured in Ussing chambers. The feeding experiment was carried out in broilers (n = 40) using 1% inulin with an application period of 5 wk. The inulin-containing diet resulted in longer jejunal villi (P < 0.05) and deeper crypts (P < 0.01) than in control birds without affecting villus:crypt depth. Basal short-circuit current value remained unaffected by dietary treatment. Inulin supplementation did not modify the electrogenic transport of Glc and Gln in the jejunal mucosa. The basal value of transmucosal tissue resistance was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the inulin-fed group compared with the control group. In conclusion, inulin supplementation affected the jejunal mucosal architecture but did not modify the electrogenic transport of Glc and amino acid under present experimental condition.

  4. Dietary calcium concentration and cereals differentially affect mineral balance and tight junction proteins expression in jejunum of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Mann, Evelyne; Ertl, Reinhard; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Wagner, Martin; Klein, Dieter; Ritzmann, Mathias; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-04-14

    Ca plays an essential role in bone development; however, little is known about its effect on intestinal gene expression in juvenile animals. In the present study, thirty-two weaned pigs (9·5 (SEM 0·11) kg) were assigned to four diets that differed in Ca concentration (adequate v. high) and cereal composition (wheat-barley v. maize) to assess the jejunal and colonic gene expression of nutrient transporters, tight junction proteins, cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, nutrient digestibility, Ca balance and serum acute-phase response. To estimate the impact of mucosal bacteria on colonic gene expression, Spearman's correlations between colonic gene expression and bacterial abundance were computed. Faecal Ca excretion indicated that more Ca was available along the intestinal tract of the pigs fed high Ca diets as compared to the pigs fed adequate Ca diets (P> 0.05). High Ca diets decreased jejunal zonula occludens 1 (ZO1) and occludin (OCLN) expression, up-regulated jejunal expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and down-regulated colonic GLUT2 expression as compared to the adequate Ca diets (P< 0.05). Dietary cereal composition up-regulated jejunal TLR2 expression and interacted (P= 0.021) with dietary Ca on colonic IL1B expression; high Ca concentration up-regulated IL1B expression with wheat-barley diets and down-regulated it with maize diets. Spearman's correlations (r> 0·35; P< 0·05) indicated an association between operational taxonomic units assigned to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and bacterial metabolites and mucosal gene expression in the colon. The present results indicate that high Ca diets have the potential to modify the jejunal and colonic mucosal gene expression response which, in turn, interacts with the composition of the basal diet and mucosa-associated bacteria in weaned pigs. PMID:25761471

  5. Complementary studies detecting classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction in incubating cattle.

    PubMed

    Fast, Christine; Keller, Markus; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Hills, Bob; Groschup, Martin H

    2013-12-21

    Recently we have described the distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectivity and/or PrPSc in Peyer's patches (PP) of the small intestine of orally BSE infected cattle. In this follow-up study additional jejunal and ileal PP's and ileocaecal-junction tissue samples from 1, 4, and 24 months post infection (mpi) were examined by mouse (Tgbov XV) bioassay. Infectivity was demonstrated in ileal PP's 4 mpi and the distribution/extent of infectivity at 24 mpi was comparable to those seen at earlier time points, revealing no indication for a decline/clearance. These data are relevant for the definition of Specified Risk Materials in the context of the TSE legislation worldwide.

  6. Electrical patterns in the human jejunum with and without vagotomy: migrating myoelectrical complexes and the influence of morphine.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, W E

    1983-08-01

    Postprandial symptoms that occur in some patients following operation for duodenal ulcer are generally attributed to disruption of normal controlled gastric emptying resulting from vagotomy, enterostomy, or pyloroplasty. The notion that disturbances of small bowel motility could be caused by vagotomy and contribute to these symptoms led the author to examine the myoelectrical patterns of the small intestine in duodenal ulcer patients undergoing elective surgery for control of symptoms. These patients underwent either partial interruption of their vagus nerves by proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV) or complete section by truncal vagotomy (TV). Their records were compared with those of an equal number of control subjects with intact vagus nerves undergoing laparotomy for either gallstones or colonic cancer. Postoperative recordings were obtained without sedation via electrodes implanted at laparotomy and led out of the abdomen through a drain in the right upper quadrant. Observations were made on days 6 through 9 after reestablishment of normal gastrointestinal function. Three patterns of electrical activity were recorded--electrical control activity, electrical response activity, and migrating myoelectrical complexes (MMCs). No observable differences were seen among PGV, TV, and control procedure during fasting or fed conditions. A key to an understanding of the origin of the MMCs was provided by the finding of disruption of the normal cycling of the complex by a premature cycle whenever morphine was given. Release of acetylcholine in the myenteric plexus of the intestine by an intrinsic opioid agonist may be the initiating event of the intrinsic MMC. Exogenous morphine may have caused a premature MMC by mimicking the stimulus produced by endogenous opioid. The morphine response was similar in persons with or without vagus nerves, suggesting that the initiation of cycling of the complex is entirely under local control of the intestine and not exercised through the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

  7. Inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer for neonatal calves. 1. Effects on growth, digesta viscosity, rate of passage, nutrient digestibilities, and metabolites in blood.

    PubMed

    Cannon, S J; Fahey, G C; Murphy, M R; Dikeman, C L; Miller, B L; Drackley, J K

    2010-08-01

    Based on research in other species, inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer might improve nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal function in neonatal calves. Male Holstein calves were fed a milk replacer (22% crude protein, 20% fat) either without or with psyllium (1.1% of dry matter) from 2 d through 28 d of age. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12.5% dry matter (DM) and fed at 12% of calf body weight (BW), adjusted weekly. Water was offered ad libitum but no starter was fed. Three calves per treatment were harvested weekly to sample digesta from the rumen, abomasum, jejunum, proximal colon, and distal colon. Mean daily intakes of water, DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy did not differ between treatments. Average daily gain of BW did not differ between treatments. Digesta from the abomasum and colon of calves fed psyllium was more viscous than digesta from control calves. Mean retention time of digesta in the total digestive tract tended to be greater for calves supplemented with psyllium (9.7 vs. 8.4h). Feces and digesta from the proximal and distal colon of calves fed psyllium had lower DM content than feces and digesta from control calves. Total-tract apparent digestibility of DM (92.8 vs. 94.1%) was lower for psyllium-fed calves, likely as an effect of the addition of the more poorly digestible psyllium; digestibilities of energy and ash also tended to be lower. The prefeeding plasma glucose concentration (10h after previous feeding) tended to be greater for psyllium-fed calves but concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, urea N, and total protein did not differ between treatments. Blood components did not differ between treatments at 2h postfeeding. Inclusion of psyllium in the milk replacer of neonatal calves increased digesta viscosity and slowed passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20655435

  8. Low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets for growing pigs: effect on expression of amino acid transporters, serum concentration, performance, and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Buenabad, L; Castillo, G; Arce, N; Araiza, B A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-05-01

    Pigs fed protein-bound AA appear to have a higher abundance of AA transporters for their absorption in the jejunum compared with the duodenum. However, there is limited data about the effect of dietary free AA, readily available in the duodenum, on the duodenal abundance of AA transporters and its impact on pig performance. Forty-eight pigs (24.3 kg initial BW) distributed in 4 treatments were used to evaluate the effect of the CP level and form (free vs. protein bound) in which AA are added to diets on the expression of AA transporters in the 3 small intestine segments, serum concentration of AA, and performance. Dietary treatments based on wheat and soybean meal (SBM) were 1) low-CP (14%) diet supplemented with L-Lys, L-Thr, DL-Met, L-Leu, L-Ile, L-Val, L-His, L-Trp, and L-Phe (LPAA); 2) as in the LPAA but with added L-Gly as a N source (LPAA+N); 3) intermediate CP content (16%) supplemented with L-Lys HCl, L-Thr, and DL-Met (MPAA); and 4) high-CP (22%) diet (HP) without free AA. At the end of the experiment, 8 pigs from LPAA and HP were sacrificed to collect intestinal mucosa and blood samples and to dissect the carcasses. There were no differences in ADG, ADFI, G:F, and weights of carcass components and some visceral organs between treatments. Weights of the large intestine and kidney were higher in HP pigs (P < 0.01). Expression of b(0,+) in the duodenum was higher in pigs fed the LPAA compared with the HP diet (P= 0.036) but there was no difference in the jejunum and ileum. In the ileum, y+ L expression tended to be higher in pigs fed the LPAA diet (P = 0.098). Expression of b(0,+) in LPAA pigs did not differ between the duodenum and the jejunum, but in HP pigs, the expression of all AA transporters was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum or ileum (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Phe, and Val was higher but serum Lys and Met were lower in pigs fed the HP diet (P < 0.05). These results indicate that LPAA can substitute up to 8

  9. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora. PMID:24329503

  10. Effect of the hydrolytic state of dietary protein on post-irradiation morbidity and mucosal cell regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, M.K.; Mahler, P.A.; Yamanaka, W.K.; Guy, D.G.; Hutchinson, M.L.

    1987-03-01

    Diets containing hydrolyzed casein have been observed to enhance post-irradiation intestinal mucosal recovery. The intake and the composition of such diets were not carefully controlled. This study attempted to do so. Male specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either an enzymatically hydrolyzed casein semi-purified diet (EHC), a whole casein semi-purified diet (WC), or powdered lab chow (C). All diets were isonitrogenous, and the WC and C rats were pair-fed to the ad libitum fed EHC rats. Seven days after initiation of feeding, the rats were abdominally irradiated with a single 9.0 Gy dose of 137Cs gamma rays. The rats were continued on the diets for another 5 days. Intestinal mucosa from transverse segments at the duodenum, jejunum, proximal ileum, and distal ileum were measured for incorporation of (/sup 3/H methyl) thymidine 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection. Incorporation reached a maximum by day 4 post-irradiation regardless of diet or segment. Incorporation in the duodenum was enhanced by the EHC diet compared to the C diet, while the incorporation in the jejunum was initially suppressed by the EHC diet compared to the WC diet. In the jejunum, the number of mitoses per crypt of 25 anti-mesenteric crypts post-irradiation was increased by the EHC diet. Prior to irradiation, all groups gained similar amounts of weight. After irradiation, the C rats lost weight, while the EHC and WC rats remained the same or gained weight. Guaiac tests for occult blood were negative prior to irradiation, but positive for all rats on days 1-5 postirradiation. When calorie and protein intakes were controlled, different areas of the small intestine responded differently to EHC.

  11. Effects of Tributyrin on Intestinal Energy Status, Antioxidative Capacity and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaolong; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Hongyi; Ding, Binying; Gong, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB) on the growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, intestinal morphology, energy status, disaccharidase activity, and antioxidative capacity of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, with 4 replicated pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with TB supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg) and LPS challenge (0 or 500 μg/kg body weight [BW]). On days 22, 24, and 26 of the trial, broilers received an intraperitoneal administration of 500 μg/kg BW LPS or saline. Dietary TB showed no effect on growth performance. However, LPS challenge decreased the average daily gain of broilers from day 22 to day 26 of the trial. Dietary TB supplementation inhibited the increase of interleukin-1β (in the jejunum and ileum), interleukin-6 (in the duodenum and jejunum), and prostaglandin E2 (in the duodenum) of LPS-challenged broilers. Similar inhibitory effects of TB in the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (in the ileum) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (in the jejunum) were also observed in birds challenged with LPS. Additionally, TB supplementation mitigated the decrease of ileal adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and total adenine nucleotide and the reduction of jejunal catalase activity induced by LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that the TB supplementation was able to reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improve the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in the small intestine of LPS-challenged broilers. PMID:26580447

  12. Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H.D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. Ar 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

  13. Expression, localization and possible functions of aquaporins 3 and 8 in rat digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G X; Dong, P P; Peng, R; Li, J; Zhang, D Y; Wang, J Y; Shen, X Z; Dong, L; Sun, J Y

    2016-01-01

    Although aquaporins (AQPs) play important roles in transcellular water movement, their precise quantification and localization remains controversial. We investigated expression levels and localizations of AQP3 and AQP8 and their possible functions in the rat digestive system using real-time polymerase chain reactions, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We investigated the expression levels and localizations of AQP3 and AQP8 in esophagus, forestomach, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, proximal and distal colon, and liver. AQP3 was expressed in the basolateral membranes of stratified epithelia (esophagus and forestomach) and simple columnar epithelia (glandular stomach, ileum, and proximal and distal colon). Expression was particularly abundant in the esophagus, and proximal and distal colon. AQP8 was found in the subapical compartment of columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum, ileum, proximal colon and liver; the most intense staining occurred in the jejunum. Our results suggest that AQP3 and AQP8 play significant roles in intestinal function and/or fluid homeostasis and may be an important subject for future investigation of disorders that involve disruption of intestinal fluid homeostasis, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:26983346

  14. A case of lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Ignacio; Latorre, Rafael; Soria, Federico; Carballo, Fernando; Lopez-Albors, Octavio; Buendia, Antonio J; Perez-Cuadrado, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    A 3 yr old male English setter dog was presented for evaluation of a 6-wk history of intermittent diarrhea. After standard gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy showed normal mucosa, double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) was used via both oral and anal approaches. Gross changes consistent with inflammation in the jejunum were seen, and biopsy specimens were obtained. Histologic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis. Clinical remission of the disease occurred after 3 mo of therapy with prednisone, metronidazole, and a novel protein diet. Use of DBE has not been previously reported in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease, and isolated lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis has not been described. The described cases of intestinal inflammatory disease diagnosed by conventional endoscopy were related to pathologic changes in the duodenum, ileum or colon, but not the jejunum. The main advantage of the DBE technique allowed examination of portions of the small intestine (jejunum) that were not commonly accessible by standard endoscopic techniques, and permitted a minimally invasive collection of biopsy samples compared with surgical biopsy. This case highlights the need to consider using DBE in animals with gastrointestinal disorders, whose symptoms are not readily explained by routine tests, conventional endoscopy, and dietary or therapeutic trials.

  15. [The nutritive effect of Bacillus cereus as a probiotic in the raising of piglets. 2. Effect and microbial count, composition and resistance determination of gastrointestinal and fecal microflora].

    PubMed

    Gedek, B; Kirchgessner, M; Wiehler, S; Bott, A; Eidelsburger, U; Roth, F X

    1993-01-01

    After a feeding trial of 42 days with 4 x 12 piglets 4 x 6 piglets were slaughtered and the influence of spores of the Bacillus cereus strain FH 1457 S added to the feed on the microorganism counts of Lactobacillus/Bifidobacterium, Eubacteria, Bacteroidaceae, E. coli, Enterococcus and passants (Bacillus cereus) in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon was investigated. Beside a negative control the feed was supplemented with 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) CFU Bacillus cereus/kg. The feeding trial included two periods each of 21 days. In each period faeces was collected from all animals and the influence on the microorganism counts and also the frequency of resistance of the E. coli and Enterococcus germs against selected antibiotics and chemotherapeutics investigated. The addition of 10(8) CFU Bacillus cereus decreased E. coli counts in duodenum and jejunum, however increased them in ileum, caecum and colon. In the highest dosage the counts of Bacillus cereus in duodenum, caecum, colon and faeces were significantly higher. The addition of Bacillus cereus reduced the counts of E. coli and Enterococcus in faeces in the first period. In the second period the dosage 10(8) CFU showed significant increased counts of E. coli and the sums of microorganisms of the main and satellite flora. The additions had no influence on the frequency of resistance of E. coli and enterococci against the tested antibiotics and synthetic chemotherapeutics. From the addition of Bacillus cereus in this case a selection of factors influencing resistance is not to be expected.

  16. Effects of leu-enkephalin on the mechanical activity of longitudinal and circular muscles of the small intestine of the cat.

    PubMed

    Venkova, K; Radomirov, R; Pencheva, N

    1989-11-01

    The effects of leu-enkephalin on the spontaneous and electrically-evoked activity were studied in the longitudinal and circular strips isolated from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of the cat. Leu-enkephalin affected the spontaneous activity of both longitudinal and circular strips, with the exception of the circular strips from the ileum, in a naloxone-dependent manner. Elimination of the neural input to the smooth muscle cells with tetrodotoxin blocked the effects of leu-enkephalin in the longitudinal and circular strips from the jejunum and in the longitudinal strips from the ileum. In the longitudinal strips from the duodenum the effect was resistant to tetrodotoxin, while in the circular strips a tetrodotoxin-sensitive component of the effect of leu-enkephalin was observed. Since leu-enkephalin evoked opposite effects in the longitudinal and circular layers of one and the same region, it is concluded that leu-enkephalin-induced modulation of the motility of the small intestine in the cat is a physiological phenomenon. Electrical stimulation, at a frequency of 5 Hz, evoked contractile responses in the longitudinal strips and relaxant, as well as low-amplitude, contractile responses in the circular strips. Rebound contractions developed after the end of stimulation in all preparations tested, with the exception of the longitudinal strips from the duodenum. Leu-enkephalin decreased the contractile components and tended to potentiate the relaxant components of the responses in a naloxone-dependent manner. Atropine inhibited the contractile components of the responses and significantly depressed the rebound contractions. Leu-enkephalin, applied after atropine, was ineffective suggesting that leu-enkephalin-induced modulation was mediated mainly through interaction with cholinergic transmission.

  17. Biodistribution and endocytosis of ICAM-1-targeting antibodies versus nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Viraj; Muro, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is key for improving treatment of GI maladies, developing oral vaccines, and facilitating drug transport into circulation. However, delivery of formulations to the GI tract is hindered by pH changes, degradative enzymes, mucus, and peristalsis, leading to poor GI retention. Targeting may prolong residence of therapeutics in the GI tract and enhance their interaction with this tissue, improving such aspects. We evaluated nanocarrier (NC) and ligand-mediated targeting in the GI tract following gastric gavage in mice. We compared GI biodistribution, degradation, and endocytosis between control antibodies and antibodies targeting the cell surface determinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), expressed on GI epithelium and other cell types. These antibodies were administered either as free entities or coated onto polymer NCs. Fluorescence and radioisotope tracing showed proximal accumulation, with preferential retention in the stomach, jejunum, and ileum; and minimal presence in the duodenum, cecum, and colon by 1 hour after administration. Upstream (gastric) retention was enhanced in NC formulations, with decreased downstream (jejunal) accumulation. Of the total dose delivered to the GI tract, ∼60% was susceptible to enzymatic (but not pH-mediated) degradation, verified both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of peristalsis by sedation increased upstream retention (stomach, duodenum, and jejunum). Conversely, alkaline NaHCO3, which enhances GI transit by decreasing mucosal viscosity, favored downstream (ileal) passage. This suggests passive transit through the GI tract, governed by mucoadhesion and peristalsis. In contrast, both free anti-ICAM and anti-ICAM NCs demonstrated significantly enhanced upstream (stomach and duodenum) retention when compared to control IgG counterparts, suggesting GI targeting. This was validated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which

  18. Transcriptional regulation of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase promoter by PDX-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Fang, Rixun; Olds, Lynne C; Sibley, Eric

    2004-09-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase gene expression is spatially restricted along the anterior-posterior gut axis. Lactase gene transcription is maximal in the distal duodenum and jejunum in adult mammals and is barely detectable in the proximal duodenum. By contrast, pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) protein is expressed maximally in the proximal duodenum. This study aimed to determine the role of PDX-1 in regulating lactase gene promoter activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were cotransfected with lactase promoter-reporter constructs in the presence of a PDX-1 expression vector and assayed for luciferase activity. PDX-1 cotransfection results in repression of lactase promoter activity. Sequence analysis of the lactase promoter revealed a putative PDX-1 DNA binding site in the proximal 100-bp lactase gene promoter. EMSAs demonstrated that PDX-1 can interact with the lactase promoter binding site but not with a site in which the core PDX-1 binding sequence TAAT is mutated. Site-directed mutagenesis of the PDX-1 core binding site in the lactase promoter-reporter construct suggests that PDX-1 can function independently of DNA binding to its consensus binding site. Stable overexpression of PDX-1 results in repression of the endogenous human lactase gene in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Given the contrasting spatial expression pattern, PDX-1 may function to specify the anterior boundary of lactase expression in the small intestine and is thus a candidate regulator of anterior spatial restriction in the gut.

  19. A rare case of metastatic germ cell tumor to stomach and duodenum masquerading as signet ring cell adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sridhar; Patil, Prachi; Mehta, Shaesta; Ramadwar, Mukta

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas are the most common cancers affecting stomach. However gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), lymphomas and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can also affect the stomach. But stomach is relatively rare site of involvement by metastasis. In this case report a rare metastasis of germ cell tumor (GCT) into stomach is described which clinically and endoscopically masquerade as primary gastric cancers. But detailed clinical examination and vigilant histopathological reporting proves the origin of tumor distant from stomach and thereby change the whole approach of management. PMID:27668229

  20. Localization of the iron transport proteins Mobilferrin and DMT-1 in the duodenum: the surprising role of mucin.

    PubMed

    Simovich, Marcia; Hainsworth, Lucille N; Fields, P A; Umbreit, Jay N; Conrad, Marcel E

    2003-09-01

    There are two pathways for inorganic iron uptake in the intestine, the ferric pathway, mediated by the key protein mobilferrin, and the ferrous pathway, mediated by DMT-1. Previous studies reported that the amount of DMT-1 increased in the intestinal mucosa in iron deficiency and the increase was seen in the apical portion of the villus of the duodenal mucosa. Mobilferrin did not quantitatively increase but became localized at the cell membrane. However, studies on fresh tissue have not previously been performed and the localization to the microvillae has not been demonstrated. In order to more definitively localize these proteins immunofluorescent and electron microscopic studies were undertaken. Samples were also subjected to biochemical analysis and Western analysis. In iron-deficient animals both DMT-1 and Mobilferrin were concentrated in the apical surface of the villae. Electron microscopy revealed that the majority of this increase in the amount of these proteins near the luminal surface was due to increased binding of the proteins to mucin in vesicles near the surface. A significant portion of the iron transport proteins was localized in the goblet cells and outside the cell in the luminal mucin, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and isolation of the mucin by cesium chloride gradient centrifugation and Western analysis. A new model for the transport of metal ions was suggested. The metal transport proteins travel from vesicles inside the cell out to the lumen mucin. This increases the surface area and allows a greater portion of the lumen contents to be exposed to the binding proteins. Once the metal is bound to the externalized protein it is internalized into the cell. This explains many of the unique properties of the iron-binding proteins and suggests that it may be a more general model for the absorption of other nutrients.

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition potentiates amino acid- and bile acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Wang, Joon-Ho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Rudenkyy, Sergiy; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2012-10-01

    Intestinal endocrine cells release gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptides (GLPs), in response to luminal nutrients. Luminal L-glutamate (L-Glu) and 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP) synergistically increases duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release. Since L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal amino acids or bile acids stimulate duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. We measured HCO3- secretion with pH and CO2 electrodes using a perfused rat duodenal loop under isoflurane anesthesia. L-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally coperfused with or without luminal perfusion (0.1 mM) or intravenous (iv) injection (3 μmol/kg) of the DPPIV inhibitor NVP728. The loop was also perfused with a selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA, 10 μM) or the non-bile acid type TGR5 agonist 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (CCDC; 10 μM). DPPIV activity visualized by use of the fluorogenic substrate was present on the duodenal brush border and submucosal layer, both abolished by the incubation with NVP728 (0.1 mM). An iv injection of NVP728 enhanced L-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3- secretion, whereas luminal perfusion of NVP728 had no effect. BTA or CCDC had little effect on HCO3- secretion, whereas NVP728 iv markedly enhanced BTA- or CCDC-induced HCO3- secretion, the effects inhibited by a GLP-2 receptor antagonist. Coperfusion of the TGR5 agonist enhanced L-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3- secretion with the enhanced GLP-2 release, suggesting that TGR5 activation amplifies nutrient sensing signals. DPPIV inhibition potentiated luminal L-Glu/IMP-induced and TGR5 agonist-induced HCO3- secretion via a GLP-2 pathway, suggesting that the modulation of the local concentration of the endogenous secretagogue GLP-2 by luminal compounds and DPPIV inhibition helps regulate protective duodenal HCO3- secretion.

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition potentiates amino acid- and bile acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takuya; Wang, Joon-Ho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Rudenkyy, Sergiy; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal endocrine cells release gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptides (GLPs), in response to luminal nutrients. Luminal l-glutamate (l-Glu) and 5′-inosine monophosphate (IMP) synergistically increases duodenal HCO3− secretion via GLP-2 release. Since L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal amino acids or bile acids stimulate duodenal HCO3− secretion via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. We measured HCO3− secretion with pH and CO2 electrodes using a perfused rat duodenal loop under isoflurane anesthesia. l-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally coperfused with or without luminal perfusion (0.1 mM) or intravenous (iv) injection (3 μmol/kg) of the DPPIV inhibitor NVP728. The loop was also perfused with a selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA, 10 μM) or the non-bile acid type TGR5 agonist 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (CCDC; 10 μM). DPPIV activity visualized by use of the fluorogenic substrate was present on the duodenal brush border and submucosal layer, both abolished by the incubation with NVP728 (0.1 mM). An iv injection of NVP728 enhanced l-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3− secretion, whereas luminal perfusion of NVP728 had no effect. BTA or CCDC had little effect on HCO3− secretion, whereas NVP728 iv markedly enhanced BTA- or CCDC-induced HCO3− secretion, the effects inhibited by a GLP-2 receptor antagonist. Coperfusion of the TGR5 agonist enhanced l-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3− secretion with the enhanced GLP-2 release, suggesting that TGR5 activation amplifies nutrient sensing signals. DPPIV inhibition potentiated luminal l-Glu/IMP-induced and TGR5 agonist-induced HCO3− secretion via a GLP-2 pathway, suggesting that the modulation of the local concentration of the endogenous secretagogue GLP-2 by luminal compounds and DPPIV inhibition helps regulate protective duodenal HCO3− secretion. PMID:22821947

  3. Bleeding Brunner’s Gland Hyperplasia of the Duodenum: A Case Report With a Review of the Japanese Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Tateki; Ishii, Takayuki; Umeda, Akira; Takagi, Shigeharu; Shimao, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    A man taking antithrombotic agents was admitted because of melena. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a large, pedunculated polyp bleeding from erosions on its top. The polyp was endoscopically resected, and histopathologically diagnosed as Brunner’s gland hyperplasia. It is commonly encountered as a small, raised lesion, but may enlarge or bleed. We report this case, with a review of the Japanese literature and discussion of the mechanism of bleeding.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition potentiates amino acid- and bile acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Wang, Joon-Ho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Rudenkyy, Sergiy; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2012-10-01

    Intestinal endocrine cells release gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptides (GLPs), in response to luminal nutrients. Luminal L-glutamate (L-Glu) and 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP) synergistically increases duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release. Since L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal amino acids or bile acids stimulate duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. We measured HCO3- secretion with pH and CO2 electrodes using a perfused rat duodenal loop under isoflurane anesthesia. L-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally coperfused with or without luminal perfusion (0.1 mM) or intravenous (iv) injection (3 μmol/kg) of the DPPIV inhibitor NVP728. The loop was also perfused with a selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA, 10 μM) or the non-bile acid type TGR5 agonist 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (CCDC; 10 μM). DPPIV activity visualized by use of the fluorogenic substrate was present on the duodenal brush border and submucosal layer, both abolished by the incubation with NVP728 (0.1 mM). An iv injection of NVP728 enhanced L-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3- secretion, whereas luminal perfusion of NVP728 had no effect. BTA or CCDC had little effect on HCO3- secretion, whereas NVP728 iv markedly enhanced BTA- or CCDC-induced HCO3- secretion, the effects inhibited by a GLP-2 receptor antagonist. Coperfusion of the TGR5 agonist enhanced L-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3- secretion with the enhanced GLP-2 release, suggesting that TGR5 activation amplifies nutrient sensing signals. DPPIV inhibition potentiated luminal L-Glu/IMP-induced and TGR5 agonist-induced HCO3- secretion via a GLP-2 pathway, suggesting that the modulation of the local concentration of the endogenous secretagogue GLP-2 by luminal compounds and DPPIV inhibition helps regulate protective duodenal HCO3- secretion. PMID:22821947

  5. A rare case of metastatic germ cell tumor to stomach and duodenum masquerading as signet ring cell adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Srijan; Sundaram, Sridhar; Patil, Prachi; Mehta, Shaesta; Ramadwar, Mukta

    2016-08-01

    Adenocarcinomas are the most common cancers affecting stomach. However gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), lymphomas and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can also affect the stomach. But stomach is relatively rare site of involvement by metastasis. In this case report a rare metastasis of germ cell tumor (GCT) into stomach is described which clinically and endoscopically masquerade as primary gastric cancers. But detailed clinical examination and vigilant histopathological reporting proves the origin of tumor distant from stomach and thereby change the whole approach of management. PMID:27668229

  6. Digestion of phospholipids after secretion of bile into the duodenum changes the phase behavior of bile components.

    PubMed

    Birru, Woldeamanuel A; Warren, Dallas B; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Williams, Hywel D; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Chalmers, David K; Pouton, Colin W

    2014-08-01

    Bile components play a significant role in the absorption of dietary fat, by solubilizing the products of fat digestion. The absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is often enhanced by interaction with the pathways of fat digestion and absorption. These processes can enhance drug absorption. Thus, the phase behavior of bile components and digested lipids is of great interest to pharmaceutical scientists who seek to optimize drug solubilization in the gut lumen. This can be achieved by dosing drugs after food or preferably by formulating the drug in a lipid-based delivery system. Phase diagrams of bile salts, lecithin, and water have been available for many years, but here we investigate the association structures that occur in dilute aqueous solution, in concentrations that are present in the gut lumen. More importantly, we have compared these structures with those that would be expected to be present in the intestine soon after secretion of bile. Phosphatidylcholines are rapidly hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes to yield equimolar mixtures of their monoacyl equivalents and fatty acids. We constructed phase diagrams that model the association structures formed by the products of digestion of biliary phospholipids. The micelle-vesicle phase boundary was clearly identifiable by dynamic light scattering and nephelometry. These data indicate that a significantly higher molar ratio of lipid to bile salt is required to cause a transition to lamellar phase (i.e., liposomes in dilute solution). Mixed micelles of digested bile have a higher capacity for solubilization of lipids and fat digestion products and can be expected to have a different capacity to solubilize lipophilic drugs. We suggest that mixtures of lysolecithin, fatty acid, and bile salts are a better model of molecular associations in the gut lumen, and such mixtures could be used to better understand the interaction of drugs with the fat digestion and absorption pathway.

  7. Uptake of /sup 75/Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

    SciTech Connect

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1989-02-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane.

  8. Seven-year survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for early recurrent renal cell carcinoma involving the duodenum A case report.

    PubMed

    Cannistra', Marco; Ruggiero, Michele; Bonaiuto, Elisabetta; Vaccarisi, Sebastiano; Naso, Agostino; Grande, Raffaele; Nardo, Bruno

    2015-12-29

    Il cancro del rene rappresenta la 13a forma di tumore a livello mondiale e risulta incrementata, dal punto di vista epidemiologico, di circa il 2% annuo nelle ultime due decadi. Studi recenti hanno mostrato un numero complessivo di 65,150 nuovi casi di cancro renale diagnosticato nei paesi occidentali e circa 13.680 morti. Il carcinoma a cellule renali rappresenta approssimativamente il 90% di tutte le forme di cancro renale e presenta un tasso di mortalità di circa 4 soggetti ogni 100000 abitanti per anno. Il carcinoma a cellule renali ha, spesso, un particolare corteo sintomatologico caratterizzato da dolore addominale, masse addominali ed ematuria. Caratteristico è il fatto che circa il 25-30% dei pazienti, all’atto della diagnosi, presentano già metastasti a distanza; un ulteriore 30-50%, inoltre, svilupperanno metastasi nel corso della malattia, anche dopo molti anni dall’operazione chirurgica di nefrectomia radicale. Il Cancro del Rene a Cellule Chiare metastatizza in genere per via linfatica, ematogena, transperitoneale o per invasione diretta, ed i siti di metastasi più comuni sono il polmone ed i linfonodi, seguiti dalle ossa e dal fegato. Tra tutte le possibili localizzazioni ai segmenti addominali, il duodeno rappresenta la sede meno colpita: quando coinvolta, viene, in genere, invasa la regione periampollare ed il bulbo del duodeno. Tali localizzazioni danno segno di sè, spesso tardivamente, con sanguinamenti (ematemesi) o ostruzioni del tratto gastrointestinale superiore (vomito). Il nostro caso clinico descrive un carcinoma a cellule renali che si presentava, dopo soli 5 mesi dalla nefrectomia radicale destra, con sanguinamento del tratto gastrointestinale superiore e metastasi a carico del duodeno, e che è stato trattato chirurgicamente con duodenocefalopancreasectomia. L’intervento chirurgico, noto per essere altamente demolitivo ed associato ad elevata morbilità, applicato a recidiva precoce di cancro, ha garantito un ottimo risultato per il paziente ed una migliore e più duratura sopravvivenza rispetto ai dati attualmente in letteratura.

  9. Enteric, hepatic and muscle tissue development of goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p < 0.05). There were no differences in DNA contents in any intestinal segment (p > 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life. PMID:23432513

  10. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance. PMID:25542197

  11. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  12. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  13. Effect of dietary copper amount and source on copper metabolism and oxidative stress of weanling pigs in short-term feeding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Ashwell, M S; Fry, R S; Lloyd, K E; Flowers, W L; Spears, J W

    2015-06-01

    Forty-eight weanling barrows were used to determine the effects of amount and source of dietary Cu on Cu metabolism, oxidative stress in the duodenum, and VFA ratios in the cecum of weanling pigs in short-term feeding. At 21 d of age, newly weaned pigs were stratified by BW (7.03 ± 1.20 kg) and equally assigned to 1 of the following dietary treatments: 1) control (5 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from CuSO4), 2) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from CuSO4, or 3) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC). Pigs were housed 2 pigs per pen and were fed a complex diet until harvest on d 11 and 12. During harvest, bile and liver were obtained for mineral analysis, and liver samples were obtained for analysis of mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Digesta of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were collected for soluble Cu analysis. Mucosal scrapings of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were obtained for analysis of mucosal Cu concentration and mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Duodenal mucosal scrapings were also collected for analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA). Pigs fed high Cu had markedly greater (P < 0.0001) Cu concentrations in the duodenal, proximal jejunal, and ileal mucosa than controls. Copper in the duodenal mucosa was greater (P = 0.003) in CuSO4 than TBCC pigs. Duodenal MDA concentrations were greater (P = 0.003) in CuSO4 vs. control pigs and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater than in TBCC pigs. Duodenal antioxidant 1 (Atox1) mRNA was downregulated (P < 0.01) in pigs fed high Cu compared to controls and was not affected by Cu source. Compared with control pigs, those fed CuSO4 and TBCC had greater (P < 0.001) liver and bile Cu concentrations. Liver Cu was also greater (P = 0.0007) in TBCC than CuSO4-fed pigs. Hepatic Cu transporting β-polypeptide ATPase (Atp7b) was upregulated (P = 0.02) in the Cu-supplemented pigs compared with controls and did not differ among Cu sources. The acetate:propionate ratio in cecal contents was

  14. Proton therapy for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Romaine C; Huh, Soon; Li, Zuofeng; Rutenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly offered to patients with pancreatic malignancies although its ultimate utility is compromised since the pancreas is surrounded by exquisitely radiosensitive normal tissues, such as the duodenum, stomach, jejunum, liver, and kidneys. Proton radiotherapy can be used to create dose distributions that conform to tumor targets with significant normal tissue sparing. Because of this, protons appear to represent a superior modality for radiotherapy delivery to patients with unresectable tumors and those receiving postoperative radiotherapy. A particularly exciting opportunity for protons also exists for patients with resectable and marginally resectable disease. In this paper, we review the current literature on proton therapy for pancreatic cancer and discuss scenarios wherein the improvement in the therapeutic index with protons may have the potential to change the management paradigm for this malignancy. PMID:26380057

  15. Small intestine diverticula: Is there anything new?

    PubMed Central

    Mantas, Dimitris; Kykalos, Stylianos; Patsouras, Dimitris; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To globally approach the clinical entity of small bowel diverticulosis and, at the same time, set out the treatment options. METHODS: We analysed 77 cases of diverticula located in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum that were treated in our department, evaluating the symptoms, diagnostic approach and offered treatment. RESULTS: Almost half of the diverticula (46.7%) were incidentally discovered and Meckel’s diverticula represented the majority (43%) that were actually the only true diverticula. A high complication rate (53%) which included inflammation with or without perforation (22%), bleeding (10%) or obstructive ileus (12%) due to small bowel diverticulosis was reported. The preoperative diagnosis was often impossible (44% of complicated cases). CONCLUSION: Although small bowel diverticulosis has a low incidence, it should be in the clinician’s mind in order to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:21528094

  16. Small bowel diverticulosis in patient with early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pyeong Su; Jung, Eun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Jejunal and ileal diverticula are rare in adults. Duodenal diverticula are five times more prevalent than jejunoileal diverticula. Most patients are asymptomatic. However, chronic symptoms including intermittent abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea and constipation are seen in 10%-30% of patients. Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer in South Korea and here we report a case of early gastric cancer with multiple duodenal and jejunal diverticula. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to Konkuk University Medical Center with chronic diarrhea and weight loss of 19 kg over 2 months. Following gastroduodenoscopy, we identified adenocarcinoma of the lower body of the stomach. On abdominopelvic computed tomography, diverticula of duodenum and jejunum were found. Patient underwent distal gastrectomy and gastroduodenostomy with lymphadenectomy. She was discharged on the tenth postoperative day without complications. PMID:25317417

  17. Localization of Persistent Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Normal Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Hepatobiliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Keith G.; Carville, Angela; Hebert, Daniel; Chalifoux, Laura; Shvetz, Daniel; Lin, K. C.; Tzipori, S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    1998-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidian parasite recognized in human patients with AIDS. Recently, we identified a virtually identical organism causing a spontaneous infection associated with hepatobiliary and intestinal disease in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques. To examine the natural history of the infection, we examined captive rhesus macaques for E. bieneusi by PCR, in situ hybridization, and cytochemical techniques. PCR performed on fecal DNA detected enterocytozoon infection in 22 (16.7%) of 131 normal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), compared to 18 (33.8%) of 53 rhesus macaques experimentally inoculated with SIV. In normal rhesus macaques, persistence of infection was demonstrated for up to 262 days and was usually not associated with clinical signs. In six of seven normal rhesus animals, E. bieneusi was detected by PCR in bile obtained through percutaneous cholecystocentesis but not by in situ hybridization performed on endoscopic biopsies of duodenum and proximal jejunum. PMID:9666017

  18. Site dependent bioavailability and metabolism of levosimendan in dogs.

    PubMed

    Antila, S; Huuskonen, H; Nevalainen, T; Kanerva, H; Vanninen, P; Lehtonen, L

    1999-10-01

    Site specific bioavailability and metabolism of levosimendan was studied in ten dogs by placing intestinal access port catheters in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 14C-labelled levosimendan (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, by gastric tube and directly through catheters that were placed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Plasma samples were collected and radioactivity in the different organs and tissues was measured. The results of the present study showed that bioavailability of levosimendan was high varying from 71 to 86% after extravascular administration. Metabolite OR-1855 concentrations in the plasma were about 3-4 times higher after administration to the ileum compared to the other administration routes. It can be concluded that the bioavailability of levosimendan is not affected by site specific administration. The bacteria or enzymes responsible for the metabolism of levosimendan are located in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. In situ absorption in rat intestinal tract of solid dispersion of annonaceous acetogenins.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yun-Jie; Feng, Han-Zhou; Zhang, Limei; Hu, Chun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Isolated from Annona squamosa L, Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) exhibit a broad range of biological properties yet absorbed badly due to the low solubility. Solid dispersion in polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) has been developed to increase the solubility and oral absorption of ACGs. The formulation of ACGS-solid dispersion was optimized by a simplex lattice experiment design and carried out by a solvent-fusion method. We studied the absorption property of ACGs in rat's intestine, which showed there was a good absorption and uptake percentages with solid dispersion. The study on uptake percentage in different regions of rat's intestine attested that the duodenum had the best permeability, followed by jejunum, ileum, and colon in order with no significant differences. So the paper drew the conclusion that solid dispersion could improve the solubility and oral absorption of annonaceous acetogenins. PMID:22536222

  20. Impact of the advances in age on the gastrointestinal microflora of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Benno, Y; Nakao, H; Uchida, K; Mitsuoka, T

    1992-08-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora of male beagle dogs in two different age groups; I) less than month 12 of age, and II) more than year 11 of age, was compared. No detectable difference occurred on the microflora of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in both dogs. Large bowel (cecum, colon and rectum) microflora in both dogs yielded the different microbial populations. In all regions of large bowel, the levels of bacteroides, eubacteria, peptostreptococci, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and staphylococci in the elderly dogs were lower than those in the younger animals, whereas the numbers of Clostridium perfringens and streptococci in the elderly animals were higher than those in the youngers. The high incidence of lecithinase-negative clostridia was observed with advances in age, but not that of spiral shaped rods. The result of this study shows that the advances in age of beagle dogs yield some changes in the microbial population of large bowel in the animals.

  1. Modified multivisceral transplantation with splenopancreatic preservation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Cal S; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2007-01-27

    A common requirement of multivisceral transplantation has been removal of the native duodenum, pancreas and spleen in the process of abdominal exenteration. Oftentimes, though, the indication for their removal has not been underlying disease states in those organs. In order to avoid adverse sequelae of pancreas and splenic removal for purely anatomic reasons, we have designed a new approach and have performed a multivisceral transplantation with splenopancreatic preservation. In this modified multivisceral technique, the native spleen and pancreas are preserved with venous outflow through a native portocaval shunt, and native pancreatic exocrine drainage is established to the donor jejunum. Risk of transplant pancreatic insufficiency, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and postsplenectomy sepsis may be avoided utilizing this technique. This new modification of multivisceral transplantation allows pancreaticosplenic preservation while facilitating stomach replacement for those patients requiring intestinal replacement therapy. It represents another step towards minimizing morbidities associated with these lifesaving transplants.

  2. Pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Little, L M; Shadduck, J A

    1982-01-01

    Three parameters of rotavirus infection, i.e., clinical disease, viral antigen in infected intestines, and infectious virus in feces, were assessed in infant mice nursed by mothers with or without preexisting rotavirus antibody. Diarrhea was the only consistent sign of clinical disease, and its course followed that of infection by about 1 day. Infected intestinal epithelial cells, except crypt cells, were observed by immunofluorescence microscopy in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon. Infection progressed in a proximal-to-distal direction with time. Viral antigen appeared in intestinal tissue later, was present in lower amounts, and disappeared sooner from infants nursed by mothers with preexisting rotavirus antibody, indicating that protection was passively transferred to these infants although the course of clinical disease was not changed. Images PMID:6292110

  3. Primary lymphangiectasia in a dingo (Canis familiaris dingo).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Ludlow, Chris; Layton, Candace; Dennis, Jeff; Miller, Margaret

    2004-12-01

    A 3-yr-old intact male dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) presented with a 3-mo history of diarrhea. The diarrhea did not resolve with antibiotics or intestinal protectants. Fecal examination for parasites, fecal cultures, physical examination, and radiographs were unremarkable. Enteroscopic duodenal biopsies showed dilated lacteals without inflammation. Results of serum folate, cobalamin, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were normal. Low serum total protein and albumin combined with increased fecal levels of alpha-1 protease inhibitor suggested the diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum revealed dilated mucosal and submucosal lacteals without associated inflammation, confirming the diagnosis of primary lymphangiectasia. Currently, the dingo is being maintained with nutritional management. PMID:15732606

  4. A Simple, Realistic Stochastic Model of Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Yokrattanasak, Jiraphat; De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Satiracoo, Pairote; Lawton, Wayne M.; Lenbury, Yongwimon

    2016-01-01

    Several models of Gastric Emptying (GE) have been employed in the past to represent the rate of delivery of stomach contents to the duodenum and jejunum. These models have all used a deterministic form (algebraic equations or ordinary differential equations), considering GE as a continuous, smooth process in time. However, GE is known to occur as a sequence of spurts, irregular both in size and in timing. Hence, we formulate a simple stochastic process model, able to represent the irregular decrements of gastric contents after a meal. The model is calibrated on existing literature data and provides consistent predictions of the observed variability in the emptying trajectories. This approach may be useful in metabolic modeling, since it describes well and explains the apparently heterogeneous GE experimental results in situations where common gastric mechanics across subjects would be expected. PMID:27057750

  5. Telocytes in female reproductive system (human and animal).

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovych, Veronika; Walocha, Jerzy A; Gil, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a newly discovered type of cell with numerous functions. They have been found in a large variety of organs: heart (endo-, myo-, epi- and pericardium, myocardial sleeves, heart valves); digestive tract and annex glands (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, liver, gallbladder, salivary gland, exocrine pancreas); respiratory system (trachea and lungs); urinary system (kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra); female reproductive system (uterus, Fallopian tube, placenta, mammary gland); vasculature (blood vessels, thoracic duct); serous membranes (mesentery and pleura); and other organs (skeletal muscle, meninges and choroid plexus, neuromuscular spindles, fascia lata, skin, eye, prostate, bone marrow). Likewise, TCs are widely distributed in vertebrates (fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, including human). This review summarizes particular features of TCs in the female reproductive system, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:27060783

  6. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (2): Protein and starch hydrolyses.

    PubMed

    Villemejane, C; Denis, S; Marsset-Baglieri, A; Alric, M; Aymard, P; Michon, C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of protein and/or fibre enrichment on the nutritional properties of biscuits was studied in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Biscuits were digested using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system that simulates the main physiological digestive functions of the upper tract of healthy adult humans: the TIM-1. A control biscuit and three biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres were digested under the same conditions. Samples were collected in each compartment of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at different times of digestion and analysed in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Results indicate that both formulation and processing impacted the digestive fate of the biscuits. Incorporating proteins or fibres in biscuits lowered or delayed proteolysis. Moreover a protein-plus-fibre additional or synergic effect was observed. Biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres displayed a higher amylolysis degree than the control biscuit, probably due to lower starch amounts and higher gelatinization degrees.

  7. Subchronic centrifugal mechanical assist in an unheparinized calf model.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Mann, C; Curtis, J; Mann, F A; Turk, J; Demmy, T; Turpin, T

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the major centrifugal pumps currently in use in the United States (Medtronic, BioMedicus BioPump and Carmeda-coated BioPump, Sarns 3M centrifugal pump, and St. Jude Medical Lifestream) could function as left mechanical assist devices in the subchronic (72 h) unheparinized calf model. Calves were instrumented for left atrial to aorta ex vivo assist, and the pump flow was set at 3.5 +/- 0.4 L/min. Two calves (Sarns 3M and St. Jude) survived 72 h of pumping without clinical complications. The other 2 calves died at 62 and 66 h (Medtronic BioPump and Carmeda-coated BioPump, respectively); both had pelvic limb paralysis. The seal of the Sarns 3M pump head ruptured after approximately 36 h of pumping and required replacement. On postmortem examination, pump-associated thromboembolic lesions were detected in 3 of the 4 calves in one or more of the following organs: kidneys, pancreas, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, spleen, and lumbar spinal cord. The calf with the Sarns 3M pump had no discernable lesions. Because of the clinical abnormalities and postmortem lesions in the unheparinized calf model, it was suggested that anticoagulation is necessary for conducting centrifugal mechanical assist studies in calves using presently available technology.

  8. Arterial Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-06-01

    Based on gross dissection of fifteen adult animals (11 females, 4 males), we described the arterial supply of the stomach and intestines of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a South American endangered species. The coeliac artery emitted the splenic, left gastric and hepatic arteries. The splenic artery directed towards the spleen, and the right ruminal artery, which is its only collateral directed towards the stomach, being the main artery of the rumen. The left gastric artery gave origin to the left ruminal, the reticular and the left gastroepiploic arteries. The left gastroepiploic artery originated the reticular accessory artery. Both arteries, gastric and left gastroepiploic, anastomosed their right counterparts derived from the hepatic artery on the curvatures of the abomasum. The cranial mesenteric artery irrigated the second half of the duodenum until the beginning of the descending colon. The thickest branch emitted by the cranial mesenteric artery was the ileocolic artery, which was destined to the ascending colon, caecum and ileum. The colic branches and the right colic arteries were irradiated on the right surface of the spiral loop of the ascending colon and distributed to both centripetal and centrifugal coils of the ascending colon; the colic branches were also anastomosed with the last jejunals and ileals and with the right colic arteries. There were no variations in the origin of any of the main branches derived from the coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries. This species had a basic pattern of arterial distribution similar to small domestic ruminants.

  9. The electrical activity of the digestive tract of the sheep as an indication of the mechanical events in various regions

    PubMed Central

    Ruckebusch, Y.

    1970-01-01

    1. A method is described in the conscious sheep for recording oscillographically the electrical potentials led from enamelled stainless-steel wires implanted in the wall of the stomach and intestine. 2. Slow waves characterized by cyclically recurring and rhythmic fluctuation in voltage have been recorded, together with the superimposed fast activity or burst of spikes when the muscle is contracting. The whole activity comprised a distinguishable pattern of grouped discharge which is synchronous with mechanical events within different regions of the alimentary tract. 3. Grouped discharge occurs at a regular frequency of 7/min in the pyloric part of the abomasum and 18/min from the intestine, but 13/min from the middle duodenum and proximal ileum. Only the major grouped discharges of the fore-stomach is correlated with the orderly sequential movements of the reticulum and rumen. 4. The relationship between electrical and mechanical activity of the reticulo-rumenal movements was examined at rest, and during feeding and ruminating. 5. Electrical correlates of motor activity in the small bowel were investigated under different dietary regimens. PMID:5501488

  10. Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus species-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and gut health in nursery pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Indrakumar, S; Kiarie, E; Kim, I H

    2015-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a spp.-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profile, intestinal histomorphology, and fecal gas emission in piglets fed corn and soybean meal-based diets. The DFM product was based on 1 strain of and 2 strains of and formulated to supply 1.5 × 10 cfu/g of feed. A total of 128 piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.6 kg BW; weaning age: 24 d) were housed in groups (4 pigs/pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts) and fed diets ( = 16) without or with DFM in a 2-phase feeding program: d 0 to 14 (phase I) and 15 to 42 (phase II). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly. At the end of each phase, samples for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine, ATTD, and fecal noxious gas emission were taken. At termination, 12 piglets per treatment were killed to access intestinal tissues for histomorphology. Overall, pigs fed DFM had a greater ( < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. In phase I, pigs fed DFM showed a greater ( < 0.05) ADG and lower ( < 0.05) concentration of BUN and fecal ammonia emission than the control group. In phase II, a greater ( < 0.05) ATTD of nitrogen and longer ( < 0.05) duodenum and jejunum villi were observed in pigs fed the DFM diet compared with the control group. In conclusion, inclusion of DFM improved growth performance and villi length of the duodenum and jejunum in nursery pigs. Furthermore, DFM enhanced protein utilization as demonstrated by increased nitrogen digestibility, lower BUN, and lower fecal ammonia release.

  11. Effect of aflatoxin B₁ on IgA⁺ cell number and immunoglobulin mRNA expression in the intestine of broilers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; Yu, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic group of mycotoxins produced by two species of the Aspergillus, common contaminants of food and animal feed. The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of AFB1 on the number of IgA(+) cell and immunoglobulin mRNA expression in the intestine of broilers. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into the control group (the dosage of 0 mg/kg AFB1) and AFB1 group (the dosage of 0.6 mg/kg AFB1) with three replicates per group and 26 birds per replicate for 21 days, respectively. After necropsy at 7, 14 and 21 days of age, duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples were taken for analyzing IgA(+) cell by immunohistochemistry and IgA, pIgR, IgM and IgG mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. IgA(+) cells were mainly distributed in the lamina propria of small intestinal mucosa in both groups at 14 and 21 days of age. A significant decrease in the number of IgA(+) cells in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum was revealed in the AFB1 group compared with that of the control group. The expression levels of IgA, pIgR, IgM and IgG mRNA in the intestinal mucosa were lower in the AFB1 group than those in the control group at 14 and 21 days of age. Our data demonstrated that the dosage of 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 in broiler diet reduced the number of IgA(+) cell and the expression of IgA, pIgR, IgM and IgG mRNA in the small intestine.

  12. Vitamin D receptor distribution in intestines of domesticated sheep Ovis ammon f. aries.

    PubMed

    Riner, Katharina; Boos, Alois; Hässig, Michael; Liesegang, Annette

    2008-02-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol, plays an important role in bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis, which is often disturbed at the onset of lactation in high milk-yielding domestic ruminants. Gene transcription is modulated via vitamin D receptors, but nongenomic effects of vitamin D via membrane receptors have also been described. In the intestines, vitamin D promotes calcium absorption via vitamin D receptors. Vitamin D receptors are of clinical relevance, but have not been systematically assessed within all segments of the intestine in any species. Thus, we present for the first time an immunohistochemical study of the distribution patterns of the vitamin D receptor protein in sheep, which may be the basis for present and future investigations on mineral homeostasis in domestic ruminants. Tissue probes of the intestines were collected from five lambs and five nonlactating and nonpregnant dams, fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and used for the assessment of vitamin D receptor protein. Nuclear vitamin D receptor immunoreaction was scored semiquantitatively and exhibited a segment-specific distribution pattern. Goblet cells always were devoid of any vitamin D receptor immunoreaction. Surface epithelial cells and enterocytes of the crypt openings generally demonstrated only a weak immunoreaction. Basally and/or intermediately located crypt epithelial cells exhibited stronger immunoreactions in duodenum, jejunum, and colon descendens. This basal/intermediate to superficial gradient was most pronounced in the duodenum and less evident in jejunum and colon descendens and not observed in ileum and cecum. There were no age-dependent variations in vitamin D receptor protein expression. Results demonstrate that intestinal vitamin D receptor distribution patterns are segment-specific and strongest immunoreactions correlate with highest intestinal calcium absorptive activities, as reported in literature

  13. Effects of dietary zinc, manganese, and copper on tissue accumulation of cadmium by Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.M.; Jones, A.O.; Fox, M.R.; Lener, J.

    1983-01-01

    The beneficial effects of a combined dietary supplement of Zn, Cu, and Mn in decreasing Cd absorption was previously reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of these three elements. In the first two experiments, day-old Japanese quail were fed basal diets containing either requirement amounts of Zn (30 ppm) and Mn (12 ppm) and slightly above requirement levels of Cu (5 ppm). From Day 7 birds were fed either the basal diet or diets containing combinations at twice these concentrations; a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was used. /sup 109/Cd content and Cd concentration of these diets were 100 ..mu..Ci and 145 ..mu..g/kg, respectively. In the third experiment, day-old birds were fed either the basal diet or a basal diet containing /sup 109/Cd and single additional supplements of either Zn, Cu, or Mn. All birds were killed at 14 days of age. The Cd concentration was determined for the duodenum, jejunum-ileum, liver, and kidney. When the experimental diets were fed for 7 days, only Zn had a protective effect against Cd. Whereas none of the elements reduced the Cd concentration of the duodenum, Zn reduced the Cd in the jejunum-ileum, liver, and kidney by approximately 66, 21, and 11%, respectively. Cu and Mn caused occasional increases of Cd in some tissues. Feeding the experimental diets for 2 weeks resulted in similar responses. Zn nutrition appears to play an important role in protecting against dietary Cd absorption.

  14. Sustained glucagon-like peptide-2 infusion is required for intestinal adaptation, and cessation reverses increased cellularity in rats with intestinal failure

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann, Matthew C.; Chen, Xueyan; Holst, Jens J.

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived hormone that is a proposed treatment for human short bowel syndrome (SBS). The objective was to determine how the timing, duration, and cessation of GLP-2 administration affect intestinal adaptation and enterocyte kinetics in a rat model of human SBS that results in intestinal failure requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Rats underwent 60% jejunoileal resection plus cecectomy and jugular vein cannulation and were maintained exclusively with TPN for 18 days in these treatments: TPN control (no GLP-2); sustained GLP-2 (1–18 days); early GLP-2 (1–7 days, killed at 7 or 18 days); and delayed GLP-2 (12–18 days). Body weight gain was similar across groups, and plasma bioactive GLP-2 was significantly increased with coinfusion of GLP-2 (100 μg·kg−1·day−1) with TPN. GLP-2-treated rats showed significant increases in duodenum and jejunum mucosal dry mass, protein, DNA, and sucrase activity compared with TPN control. The increased jejunum cellularity reflected significantly decreased apoptosis and increased crypt mitosis and crypt fission due to GLP-2. When GLP-2 infusion stopped at 7 days, these effects were reversed at 18 days. Sustained GLP-2 infusion significantly increased duodenum length and decreased 18-day mortality to 0% from 37.5% deaths in TPN control (P = 0.08). Colon proglucagon expression quantified by real-time RT-qPCR was increased in TPN controls and attenuated by GLP-2 infusion; jejunal expression of the GLP-2 receptor did not differ among groups. In summary, early, sustained GLP-2 infusion reduces mortality, induces crypt fission, and is required for intestinal adaptation, whereas cessation of GLP-2 reverses gains in mucosal cellularity in a rat model of intestinal failure. PMID:20864657

  15. Preparation of tripterine nanostructured lipid carriers and their absorption in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zhenhai; He, Junjie; Du, Meng; Wu, Qingqing

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an optimized nanostructured lipid carrier formulation (NLC) for tripterine, and to estimate the potential of NLCs as oral delivery system. Tripterine-loaded NLCs were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. The average drug entrapment efficiency, particle size and zeta potential of the optimized tripterine-loaded NLCs were 78.64 +/- 0.37%, 109.6 +/- 5.8 nm and -29.8 +/- 1.3 mV, respectively. The tripterine-loaded NLCs showed spherical morphology with smooth surface under the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallization of drug in NLC was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The drug was in an amorphous state in the NLC matrix. According to the in vitro release study, the tripterine-loaded NLCs showed a delayed release profile of tripterine. The rat intestinal perfusion model was used to study the absorption of tripterine solution and tripterine-loaded NLCs. The Peff* (effective permeability) of tripterine-loaded NLCs in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was approximately 2.1, 2.7, 1.1, 1.2-fold higher than that of tripterine solution, respectively. The 10% ABS (percent absorption of 10 cm of intestine) of tripterine-loaded NLCs in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was approximately 2.2, 2.3, 1.2, 1.3-fold higher than that of tripterine solution, respectively. The intestinal toxicity of tripterine formulated in the NLCs was investigated and compared with the tripterine solution by the MTT assay with Caco-2 cell models. According to the result, the tripterine-loaded NLCs could greatly decrease the cytotoxicity of the drug. In conclusion, the NLC formulation remarkably improved the absorption of tripterine and showed a better biocompatibility.

  16. RNA Sequencing Quantification of Xenobiotic-Processing Genes in Various Sections of the Intestine in Comparison to the Liver of Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2016-06-01

    Previous reports on tissue distribution of xenobiotic-processing genes (XPGs) have limitations, because many non-cytochrome P450 phase I enzymes have not been investigated, and one cannot compare the real mRNA abundance of multiple XPGs using conventional quantification methods. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify and compare the mRNA abundance of all major XPGs in the liver and intestine using RNA sequencing. The mRNA profiles of 304 XPGs, including phase I, phase II enzymes, phase II cosubstrate synthetic enzymes, xenobiotic transporters, as well as xenobiotic-related transcription factors, were systematically examined in the liver and various sections of the intestine in adult male C57BL/6J mice. By two-way hierarchical clustering, over 80% of the XPGs had tissue-divergent expression, which partitioned into liver-predominant, small intestine-predominant, and large intestine-predominant patterns. Among the genes, 54% were expressed highest in the liver, 21% in the duodenum, 4% in the jejunum, 6% in the ileum, and 15% in the large intestine. The highest-expressed XPG in the liver was Mgst1; in the duodenum, Cyp3a11; in the jejunum and ileum, Ces2e; and in the large intestine, Cyp2c55. Interestingly, XPGs in the same family usually exhibited highly different tissue distribution patterns, and many XPGs were almost exclusively expressed in one tissue and minimally expressed in others. In conclusion, the present study is among the first and the most comprehensive investigations of the real mRNA abundance and tissue-divergent expression of all major XPGs in mouse liver and intestine, which aids in understanding the tissue-specific biotransformation and toxicity of drugs and other xenobiotics.

  17. Relationship between the expression level of SLA-DQA and Escherichia coli F18 infection in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen-bin; Ye, Lan; Zi, Chen; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jing; Pan, Zhang-yuan; Zhu, Guo-qiang; Huang, Xue-gen; Wu, Sheng-long

    2012-02-15

    The expression of SLA-DQA was assayed by Real-time PCR to analyze the differential expression between ETEC F18-resistant and -sensitive post-weaning piglets, and then to compare the expression levels of SLA-DQA in 11 different tissues from 8-, 18-, 30- and 35-day-old ETEC F18-resistant piglets, which aimed at discussing the role of SLA-DQA in resistance to ETEC F18. The results showed that SLA-DQA is broadly expressed in 11 tissues with the highest expression level in lymph nodes, and a relatively higher expression level in lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum. In tissues of lymph node, lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum, the mRNA expression of SLA-DQA in resistant individuals was significantly higher than that in sensitive ones (P<0.05). In most tissues, the expression of SLA-DQA increased from 8 to 18 and 30 days (weaning day), and increased persistently to 35 days of post-weaning. Expression levels of SLA-DQA on 35 days in most tissues were significant higher than that on 8, 18 and 30 days (P<0.05). The results demonstrated that the resistance to ETEC F18 in post-weaning piglets is related to up-regulation of mRNA expression of SLA-DQA to a certain extent. The analysis suggested that SLA-DQA may be not the direct immune factor that resisted the Escherichia coli F18, but perhaps enhanced humoral immunity and cell immunity to reduce the transmembrane signal transduction of ETEC F18 bacterial LPS and then led to the resistance to ETEC F18 in piglets.

  18. The Distribution of SIgA and IgG Antibody-Secreting Cells in the Small Intestine of Bactrian Camels (Camelus bactrianus) of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wang-Dong; Wang, Wen-Hui; Jia, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are two important cell types in the mucosal immune system. This study aimed to explore the distribution of these ASC populations in the small intestine of Bactrian camels of different ages. Twenty-four Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following four age groups: young (1–2 years), pubertal (3–5 years), middle-aged (6–16 years) and old (17–20 years). SIgA and IgG ASCs in the intestinal mucosa lamina propria (LP) were observed and analyzed using immunohistochemcal techniques. The results from all age groups show that both SIgA and IgG ASCs were diffusely distributed in the intestinal LP, and some cells aggregated around the crypts. Moreover, the densities of the two ASC populations gradually increased from the duodenum to the jejunum and then decreased in the ileum. Meanwhile, there were more SIgA ASCs than IgG ASCs in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and these differences were significant in the young and pubertal groups (P<0.05). In addition, the SIgA and IgG ASC densities increased from the young to the pubertal period, peaked at puberty, and then gradually decreased with age. The results demonstrate that the SIgA and IgG ASC distributions help to form two immunoglobulin barriers in the intestinal mucosa to provide full protection, helping to maintain homeostasis. These findings also underscore the importance of researching the development and degeneration of intestinal mucosal immunity in Bactrian camels. PMID:27249417

  19. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 on T-Cell Subsets and mRNA Expression of Cytokines in the Intestine of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Yu, Zhengqiang; Chen, Zhengli

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on T-cell subsets and mRNA expression of cytokines in the small intestine of broilers. One hundred and fifty-six one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into control group (0 mg/kg AFB1) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) with three replicates per group and 26 birds per replicate for 21 days, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of age, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled for analyzing T cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+) by flow cytometry as well as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. The percentages of T-cells in the intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the AFB1 group showed a decreased tendency in comparison to the control group. The mRNA expression of cytokines in the three intestinal segments in the AFB1 group presented a general decline compared with the control groups. Our data demonstrated that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 in the broilers diet could reduce the percentages of T-cell subsets and the expression level of cytokine mRNA in the small intestine, implying that the immune function of the intestinal mucosa might be affected. The reduction of cytokines mRNA expression may be closely associated with the decreased proportions of T cells subsets induced by AFB1. PMID:25826527

  20. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  1. E. coli infection modulates the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin by targeting P-glycoprotein in small intestine and CYP450 3A in liver and kidney of broilers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengjie; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Bughio, Shamsuddin; Dai, Xiaohua; Ren, Weilong; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression determines the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of many drugs in the body. Also, up-regulation of P-gp acts as a defense mechanism against acute inflammation. This study examined expression levels of abcb1 mRNA and localization of P-gp protein in the liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum and ileum in healthy and E. coli infected broilers by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetics of orally administered enrofloxacin was also investigated in healthy and infected broilers by HPLC. The results indicated that E. coli infection up-regulated expression of abcb1 mRNA levels significantly in the kidney, jejunum and ileum (P<0.05), but not significantly in the liver and duodenum (P>0.05). However, the expression level of CYP 3A37 mRNA were observed significantly decreased only in liver and kidney of E. coli infected broilers (P<0.05) compared with healthy birds. Furthermore, the infection reduced absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin, significantly decreased Cmax (0.34 vs 0.98 µg mL(-1), P = 0.000) and AUC0-12h (4.37 vs 8.88 µg mL(-1) h, P = 0.042) of enrofloxacin, but increased Tmax (8.32 vs 3.28 h, P = 0.040), T1/2a(2.66 vs 1.64 h(-1), P = 0.050) and V/F (26.7 vs 5.2 L, P = 0.040). Treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp, significantly improved the absorption of enrofloxacin in both healthy and infected broilers. The results suggest that the E. coli infection induces intestine P-gp expression, altering the absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin in broilers.

  2. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  3. Systematic microRNAome profiling reveals the roles of microRNAs in milk protein metabolism and quality: insights on low-quality forage utilization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Diming; Liang, Guanxiang; Wang, Bing; Sun, Huizeng; Liu, Jianxin; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular regulatory mechanisms of milk protein production in dairy cows by studying the miRNAomes of five key metabolic tissues involved in protein synthesis and metabolism from dairy cows fed high- and low-quality diets. In total, 340, 338, 337, 330, and 328 miRNAs were expressed in the rumen, duodenum, jejunum, liver, and mammary gland tissues, respectively. Some miRNAs were highly correlated with feed and nitrogen efficiency, with target genes involved in transportation and phosphorylation of amino acid (AA). Additionally, low-quality forage diets (corn stover and rice straw) influenced the expression of feed and nitrogen efficiency-associated miRNAs such as miR-99b in rumen, miR-2336 in duodenum, miR-652 in jejunum, miR-1 in liver, and miR-181a in mammary gland. Ruminal miR-21-3p and liver miR-2285f were predicted to regulate AA transportation by targeting ATP1A2 and SLC7A8, respectively. Furthermore, bovine-specific miRNAs regulated the proliferation and morphology of rumen epithelium, as well as the metabolism of liver lipids and branched-chain AAs, revealing bovine-specific mechanisms. Our results suggest that miRNAs expressed in these five tissues play roles in regulating transportation of AA for downstream milk production, which is an important mechanism that may be associated with low milk protein under low-quality forage feed. PMID:26884323

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-2 and mouse intestinal adaptation to a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Baldassano, Sara; Amato, Antonella; Cappello, Francesco; Rappa, Francesca; Mulè, Flavia

    2013-04-01

    Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP2) is a key mediator of refeeding-induced and resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth. This study investigated the potential role of GLP2 in mediating the mucosal responses to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD). In this view, the murine small intestine adaptive response to a HFD was analyzed and a possible involvement of endogenous GLP2 was verified using GLP2 (3-33) as GLP2 receptor (GLP2R) antagonist. In comparison with animals fed a standard diet, mice fed a HFD for 14 weeks exhibited an increase in crypt-villus mean height (duodenum, 27.5±3.0%; jejunum, 36.5±2.9%; P<0.01), in the cell number per villus (duodenum, 28.4±2.2%; jejunum, 32.0±2.9%; P<0.01), and in Ki67-positive cell number per crypt. No change in the percent of caspase-3-positive cell in the villus-crypt was observed. The chronic exposure to a HFD also caused a significant increase in GLP2 plasma levels and in GLP2R intestinal expression. Daily administration of GLP2 (3-33) (30-60  ng) for 4 weeks did not modify the crypt-villus height in control mice. In HFD-fed mice, chronic treatment with GLP2 (3-33) reduced the increase in crypt-villus height and in the cell number per villus through reduction of cell proliferation and increase in apoptosis. This study provides the first experimental evidence for a role of endogenous GLP2 in the intestinal adaptation to HFD in obese mice and for a dysregulation of the GLP2/GLP2R system after a prolonged HFD.

  5. Effect of heat stress on the porcine small intestine: a morphological and gene expression study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Yin, Peng; Liu, Fenghua; Cheng, Guilin; Guo, Kaijun; Lu, An; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Luan, Weili; Xu, Jianqin

    2010-05-01

    With the presence of global warming, the occurrence of extreme heat is becoming more common, especially during the summer, increasing pig susceptibility to severe heat stress. The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in morphology and gene expression in the pig small intestine in response to heat stress. Forty eight Chinese experimental mini pigs (Sus scrofa) were subjected to 40 degrees C for 5h each day for 10 successive days. Pigs were euthanized at 1, 3, 6, and 10 days after heat treatment and sections of the small intestine epithelial tissue were excised for morphological examination and microarray analyses. After heat treatment, the pig rectal temperature, the body surface temperature and serum cortisol levels were all significantly increased. The duodenum and jejunum displayed significant damage, most severe after 3 days of treatment. Microarray analysis found 93 genes to be up-regulated and 110 genes to be down-regulated in response to heat stress. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis (including gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis) revealed the genes altered in response to heat stress related to unfolded protein, regulation of translation initiation, regulation of cell proliferation, cell migration and antioxidant regulation. Heat stress caused significant damage to the pig small intestine and altered gene expression in the pig jejunum. The results of the bioinformatic analysis from the present study will be beneficial to further investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in heat stress-induced damage in the pig small intestine.

  6. Jejunal Cancer with WRN Mutation Identified from Next-Generation Sequencing: A Case Study and Minireview

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christopher; Shiah, Her-Shyong; Hsu, Nan-Yung; Huang, Hsiu-Ying; Chu, Jan-Show; Yen, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Small bowel cancer is a rare, gastrointestinal cancer originating from the small intestines. Carcinogenesis in the jejunum, the middle segment of the small intestines, occurs less commonly than in the duodenum and ileum. Despite the increasing incidences globally, the cancer is still poorly understood, which includes lack of pathological understanding and etiological reasoning, as it seems to exhibit both similarities and differences with other types of cancers. A 76-year-old Asian man was presented with abdominal pain, which was later attributed to an adenocarcinoma in the jejunum. Initial immunoreactive staining results found no connections to colorectal cancer. The microsatellite instability test was further examined by immunohistochemistry which revealed them to be wild-type. From our exome-capture sequencing results, mutations of WRN may be important as they represent the only genetic defect in this jejunal cancer. The patient has since undergone surgical resection of his cancer and is currently being treated with chemotherapy. The pathology, genomic markers, and treatments are described along with literature review. PMID:25018888

  7. Folate-binding protein and the absorption of folic acid in the small intestine of the suckling rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.B.; Selhub, J.

    1988-09-01

    The folate in milk is largely bound to high-affinity folate-binding protein (FBP). With an in vivo intestinal loop technique, we examined the absorption of folic acid bound to FBP (FA-FBP) in the small intestine of the suckling rat. In contrast to unbound folic acid (FA), FA-FBP is absorbed more avidly in the ileum than in the jejunum (p less than 0.025) and its absorption is not inhibited by 1 mmol sulfasalazine/L. Folate-binding activities in the mucosa of the proximal (duodenum and jejunum combined) and distal (ileum) small intestine were also examined and found to be 0.32 and 1.31 pmol/mg protein, respectively (p less than 0.001). A 6-h fast produced a 42% decrease in folate-binding activity in the distal small intestine (p less than 0.01) but did not change activity in the proximal portion. Collectively, these observations suggest that FA-FBP is absorbed by a mechanism that is distinct from that responsible for the absorption of FA and that absorption does not require prior dissociation of the vitamin-binding protein complex.

  8. [Study on intestinal absorption of ingredients from different compatibilities of Shaoyao Gancao decoction].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting-ting; He, Rui; Gong, Mu-xin; Xu, Yong-song; Li, Jing; Zhai, Yong-song; Wan, Guang

    2015-11-01

    To study the compatible mechanisms and compatible proportion of Shaoyao Gancao decoction, the intestinal absorption of main ingredients in Shaoyao Gancao decoction SG11 (Baishao-Zhigancao 1: 1) , SG31 (Baishao-Zhigancao 3: 1), Baishao water decoction S and Zhigancao (G) were investigated and compared using in vitro everted intestinal sac model and in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model. The concentration of paeoniflorin (PF), liquiritin (LQ) and mono-ammonium glycyrrhizinate (GL) in test samples and samples of intestinal sac and intestinal perfusion was determined by HPLC. The intestinal absorptive amount and absorption parameters were calculated. Results showed that in the everted intestinal sac model, three ingredients could be absorbed by duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and the absorption in the jejunum was best for all 3 ingredients. The absorption rate of three ingredients in SG11 was significantly higher than that in single decoction (P < 0.05), but had no significant difference compared with SG31. In SPIP model, the absorption rate constant K(a), the apparent absorption coefficient P(app) and the absorption rate of three ingredients in SG11 were significantly higher than those in single decoction. Parameters of PF and GL in SG11 were significantly higher than those in SG31, but had no differences of LQ. It proved that the compatibility of Baishao and Zhigancao could improve the intestinal absorption of PF, LQ and GL. The absorption of each ingredient in SG11 was better than that in SG31.

  9. Perioperative Evaluation of Patient Outcomes after Severe Acid Corrosive Injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ho; Wu, Han-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed 64 patients with perforation or full-thickness injury of the alimentary tract after acid ingestion. Based on our classification of laparotomy findings, there were class I (n = 15); class II (n = 13); class III (n = 16); and class IV (n = 20). Study parameters were preoperative laboratory data, gastric perforation, associated visceral injury, and extension of the injury. End points of the study were the patients' mortality and length of hospital stay. All these patients underwent esophagogastrectomy with (n = 16) or without (n = 24) concomitant resection, esophagogastroduodenojejunectomy with (n = 4) or without (n = 13) concomitant resection, and laparotomy only (n = 7). Concomitant resections were performed on the spleen (n = 10), colon (n = 2), pancreas (n = 1), gall bladder (n = 1), skipped areas of jejunum (n = 4), and the first portion of the duodenum (n = 4). The study demonstrates five preoperative risk factors, female gender, shock status, shock index, pH value, and base deficit, and four intraoperative risk factors, gastric perforation, associated visceral injury, injury beyond the pylorus, and continuous involvement of the jejunum over a length of 50 cm. The overall mortality rate was 45.3%, which increased significantly with advancing class of corrosive injury. PMID:26582190

  10. Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, S; Bernáth, S; Glávits, R; Medveczky, I

    1988-12-01

    Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells was studied in 23 piglets of four sows (sows A, B, C and D). From the colostrum and blood of the sows the lymphoid cells were isolated with Ficoll-Paque and labelled with technetium (Na99mTcO4). In the 7th hour after birth, 5-ml volumes of the cell suspensions were injected, following laparotomy, directly into the stomach (piglets of sow A) or into the jejunum (piglets of sow B), whereas piglets of sows C and D received the suspensions through a naso-oesophageal tube. Cryostat sections of duodenum, jejunum and lymph node samples of piglets killed by bleeding 8 h after the treatment were examined by autoradiography. It was found that lymphoid cells present in the colostrum of a piglet's own mother were absorbed from the digestive tract and, via the lymphatic vessels, were transported to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Electron microscopy revealed that absorption took place intercellularly. Colostral cells of sows other than a piglet's own mother were observed only in the epithelial layer of the mucous membrane. The lymphoid cells isolated from the sows' blood and heat-treated colostral lymphoid cells were not absorbed. The results indicate that in the pig, an animal having an epitheliochorial placenta, the colostral lymphoid cells are absorbed from the digestive tract and, hence, they can confer an active cellular immunity on the newborn piglets.

  11. Gross anatomy of the intestine in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Lima, M; Clauss, M

    2009-11-01

    We describe the macroscopic anatomy of the intestine of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The caecum was attached to the ileum by a long ileocaecal fold, and to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon by a caecocolic fold. The ascending colon was the most developed portion of the gross intestine and had the most complex arrangement with three ansae: the proximal ansa, the spiral ansa and the distal ansa. The proximal ansa completely encircled the caecum, describing a 360 degrees gyrus, and represented the widest portion of the intestine. The spiral ansa was formed by three and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and three centrifugal gyri. The last centrifugal gyrus left the spiral and described nine flexures of different form and direction over the left side of the mesentery. The two portions that formed each of these flexures ran parallel to each other. The last part of this gyrus ran parallel to the jejunum. When compared with domestic cattle, giraffe had a comparatively short small intestine and a comparatively long large intestine, with a resulting small ratio of small:large intestine. Reasons are presented why this should be considered a peculiarity of cattle-like ruminants rather than a different representative of a browser-grazer dichotomy in general. PMID:19681830

  12. Protein abundance of clinically relevant multidrug transporters along the entire length of the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Drozdzik, Marek; Gröer, Christian; Penski, Jette; Lapczuk, Joanna; Ostrowski, Marek; Lai, Yurong; Prasad, Bhagwat; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Siegmund, Werner; Oswald, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal transporters are crucial determinants in the oral absorption of many drugs. We therefore studied the mRNA expression (N = 33) and absolute protein content (N = 10) of clinically relevant transporters in healthy epithelium of the duodenum, the proximal and distal jejunum and ileum, and the ascending, transversal, descending, and sigmoidal colon of six organ donors (24-54 years). In the small intestine, the abundance of nearly all studied proteins ranged between 0.2 and 1.6 pmol/mg with the exception of those of OCT3 (<0.1 pmol/mg) and PEPT1 (2.6-4.9 pmol/mg) that accounted for ∼50% of all measured transporters. OATP1A2 was not detected in any intestinal segment. ABCB1, ABCG2, PEPT1, and ASBT were significantly more abundant in jejunum and ileum than in colon. In contrast to this, the level of expression of ABCC2, ABCC3, and OCT3 was found to be highest in colon. Site-dependent differences in the levels of gene and protein expression were observed for ABCB1 and ASBT. Significant correlations between mRNA and protein levels have been found for ABCG2, ASBT, OCT3, and PEPT1 in the small intestine. Our data provide further physiological pieces of the puzzle required to predict intestinal drug absorption in humans.

  13. Ontogenic Changes of Villus Growth, Lactase Activity, and Intestinal Glucose Transporters in Preterm and Term Born Calves with or without Prolonged Colostrum Feeding.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Zitnan, Rudolf; Hudakova, Monika; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hammon, Harald M

    2015-01-01

    Oral glucose supply is important for neonatal calves to stabilize postnatal plasma glucose concentration. The objective of this study was to investigate ontogenic development of small intestinal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporter in calves (n = 7 per group) that were born either preterm (PT; delivered by section 9 d before term) or at term (T; spontaneous vaginal delivery) or spontaneously born and fed colostrum for 4 days (TC). Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, protein concentration of mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), total DNA and RNA concentration of mucosa, mRNA expression and activity of lactase, and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and immunochemical localization of GLUT2 in the enterocytes were determined. Villus height in distal jejunum was lower in TC than in T. Crypt depth in all segments was largest and the villus height/crypt depth ratio in jejunum was smallest in TC calves. Concentration of RNA was highest in duodenal mucosa of TC calves, but neither lactase mRNA and activity nor SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression differed among groups. Localization of GLUT2 in the apical membrane was greater, whereas in the basolateral membrane was lower in TC than in T and PT calves. Our study indicates maturation processes after birth for mucosal growth and trafficking of GLUT2 from the basolateral to the apical membrane. Minor differences of mucosal growth, lactase activity, and intestinal glucose transporters were seen between PT and T calves, pointing at the importance of postnatal maturation and feeding for mucosal growth and GLUT2 trafficking.

  14. Evaluation of the mRNA and Protein Expressions of Nutritional Biomarkers in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Patients with Small Intestinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masanao; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Osamu; Yamamura, Takeshi; Funasaka, Kohei; Ohno, Eizaburo; Miyahara, Ryoji; Kawashima, Hiroki; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of biomarkers related to absorption in the small intestinal mucosa of humans and determine the relationships between small intestinal diseases and nutrition. Methods The study subjects consisted of patients scheduled to undergo double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) or total colonoscopy for suspected gastrointestinal disorder in a clinical practice. Biopsies were taken from apparently normal mucosa in the visible areas of 6 parts of the intestines from the duodenum to the colon. The mRNA expression of specific biomarkers (SGLT1, SGLT5, GIP, GLP, LAT1, LAT2, and NPC1L1) in the mucosa was compared among three patient groups: Inflammation, Tumor, and Control. Results Sixty-six patients participated in this study. Both routes of DBE were performed in 20 patients, in whom biopsy samples were obtained from the mucosa for all sections. There were no remarkable differences in the mRNA expression levels among the 3 groups. However, SGLT1, GIP, GLP, and NPC1L1 exhibited specific distribution patterns. The expression levels of GIP and NPC1L1 were highest in the upper jejunum, but were extremely low in the terminal ileum and colon. A comparison of the mRNA expression profile in each intestinal section revealed that the SGLT1 mRNA expression in the Tumor group and the GIP mRNA expression in the Inflammation group were significantly higher than the corresponding levels in the Control group in the upper jejunum. Conclusion The gastrointestinal mucosa of patients with small bowel diseases can maintain proper nutrient absorption, except in the upper jejunum. PMID:27522989

  15. Changes of gastrointestinal argyrophil endocrine cells in the osteoporotic SD rats induced by ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Hyeung Sik; Lee, Jae Hyun

    2004-09-01

    The regional distributions and frequencies of argyrophil endocrine cells in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of osteoporotic Sprague-Dawley rat induced by ovariectomy were studied using Grimelius silver stain. The experimental animals were divided into two groups, one is non-ovariectomized group (Sham) and the other is ovariectomized group (OVX). Samples were collected from each part of GI tract (fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) at 10th week after ovariectomy or sham operation. In this study, argyrophil cells were detected throughout the entire GI tract with various frequencies regardless of ovariectomy. Most of these argyrophil cells in the mucosa of GI tract were generally spherical or spindle in shape (open type cell) while cells showing round in shape (close type cell) were found occasionally in gastric and/or intestinal gland regions. The regional distributions of GI argyrophil endocrine cells in OVX were similar to those of Sham. However, significant decreases of argyrophil cells were detected in OVX compared to those of Sham except for the pylorus, jejunum and cecum. In pylorus and jejunum, argyrophil cells in OVX dramatically decreased compared to those of Sham but significances were not recorded. In addition, argyrophil cells in cecum of OVX showed similar frequency compared to that of Sham. The endocrine cells are the anatomical units responsible for the production of gut hormones that regulate gut motility and digestion including absorption, and a change in their density would reflect the change in the capacity of producing these hormones and regulating gut motility and digestion. Ovariectomy induced severe quantitative changes of GI argyrophil endocrine cell density, and the abnormality in density of GI endocrine cells may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in osteoporosis such as impairments of calcium and some lipids, frequently encountered in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID

  16. Lactobacillus brevis strain 1E1 administered to piglets through milk supplementation prior to weaning maintains intestinal integrity after the weaning event.

    PubMed

    Gebert, S; Davis, E; Rehberger, T; Maxwell, C V

    2011-03-01

    Early colonisation in the gastrointestinal tract by commensal microbes influences the progressive development and maturity of digestive and immune system functionality in the neonate. Application of strategically selected direct-fed microbials to neonatal pigs may provide an opportunity to dictate a portion of the intestinal microbial community and exert a beneficial influence on these developmental processes. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of early administration of Lactobacillus brevis strain 1E1 to neonatal piglets (n=224) via a milk supplement system on gastrointestinal microbial counts, villous architecture, and immune cell phenotypes during the lactation phase and after weaning. Pigs administered the direct-fed microbial had lower Escherichia coli counts in the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05), and lower coliform counts in the jejunum compared to unsupplemented pigs (P<0.05). The villous height:crypt depth ratio was greater in the ileum at 9 days of age when pigs were provided L. brevis 1E1 compared to unsupplemented pigs (P<0.05), as well as in the duodenum of pigs supplemented with L. brevis 1E1 at 22 days of age (P<0.05). The number of leukocytes expressing CD2 (P<0.05), CD4 (P=0.07) and MHC-II (P=0.07) was lower in the jejunum of pigs administered L. brevis 1E1 compared to unsupplemented pigs, however direct-fed microbial treatment had no effect on the number of leukocytes expressing CD8, CD25 or SWC3. These data demonstrate that early colonisation of the porcine gastrointestinal tract with L. brevis strain 1E1 during the lactation phase influences the progression of intestinal structure, immune system development, and pathogen establishment, indicating a relationship between early microbial colonisation and development of intestinal maturity and integrity.

  17. Ontogenic Changes of Villus Growth, Lactase Activity, and Intestinal Glucose Transporters in Preterm and Term Born Calves with or without Prolonged Colostrum Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Zitnan, Rudolf; Hudakova, Monika; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hammon, Harald M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral glucose supply is important for neonatal calves to stabilize postnatal plasma glucose concentration. The objective of this study was to investigate ontogenic development of small intestinal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporter in calves (n = 7 per group) that were born either preterm (PT; delivered by section 9 d before term) or at term (T; spontaneous vaginal delivery) or spontaneously born and fed colostrum for 4 days (TC). Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, protein concentration of mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), total DNA and RNA concentration of mucosa, mRNA expression and activity of lactase, and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and immunochemical localization of GLUT2 in the enterocytes were determined. Villus height in distal jejunum was lower in TC than in T. Crypt depth in all segments was largest and the villus height/crypt depth ratio in jejunum was smallest in TC calves. Concentration of RNA was highest in duodenal mucosa of TC calves, but neither lactase mRNA and activity nor SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression differed among groups. Localization of GLUT2 in the apical membrane was greater, whereas in the basolateral membrane was lower in TC than in T and PT calves. Our study indicates maturation processes after birth for mucosal growth and trafficking of GLUT2 from the basolateral to the apical membrane. Minor differences of mucosal growth, lactase activity, and intestinal glucose transporters were seen between PT and T calves, pointing at the importance of postnatal maturation and feeding for mucosal growth and GLUT2 trafficking. PMID:26011395

  18. Iron, oxidative stress, and redox signaling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Guenancia, Charles; Zeller, Marianne; Cottin, Yves; Vergely, Catherine; Rochette, Luc

    2014-08-01

    The redox state of the cell is predominantly dependent on an iron redox couple and is maintained within strict physiological limits. Iron is an essential metal for hemoglobin synthesis in erythrocytes, for oxidation-reduction reactions, and for cellular proliferation. The maintenance of stable iron concentrations requires the coordinated regulation of iron transport into plasma from dietary sources in the duodenum, from recycled senescent red cells in macrophages, and from storage in hepatocytes. The absorption of dietary iron, which is present in heme or nonheme form, is carried out by mature villus enterocytes of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Multiple physiological processes are involved in maintaining iron homeostasis. These include its storage at the intracellular and extracellular level. Control of iron balance in the whole organism requires communication between sites of uptake, utilization, and storage. Key protein transporters and the molecules that regulate their activities have been identified. In this field, ferritins and hepcidin are the major regulator proteins. A variety of transcription factors may be activated depending on the level of oxidative stress, leading to the expression of different genes. Major preclinical and clinical trials have shown advances in iron-chelation therapy for the treatment of iron-overload disease as well as cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases.

  19. Gross anatomy of the intestine and its mesentery in the nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Lima, M; Bielli, A

    2008-11-01

    The intestines and mesentery of the nutria (Myocastor coypus) have not been fully described. In the present study 30 adult nutrias were studied using gross dissection. The small intestine was divided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The duodenum started at the pylorus with a cranial portion, which dilated forming a duodenal ampulla. The ileum was located within the concavity of the caecum and attached to the coiled caecum by means of the iliocaecal fold. The ascending colon had two ansae, one proximal and one distal. The proximal ansa was fixed to the caecum by the caecocolic fold. The base of the caecum and a short proximal part of the ascending colon belonging to the proximal ansa were attached to the mesoduodenum descendens. The distal ansa of the ascending colon had a proximal part which was sacculated and a distal part which was smooth. The two parts of the distal ansa of the ascending colon were parallel and joined by a flexure of variable localisation. The smooth part of the distal ansa of the ascending colon was attached to the initial portion of the descending colon by a peritoneal fold. The short transverse colon was directly attached to the mesoduodenum and greater omentum. In conclusion, we have described the anatomy of the intestines of the nutria and its mesentery in detail, and provided a nomenclature list adapted to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria.

  20. Compensation by the residual intestine after intestinal resection in the rat. I. Influence of amount of tissue removed.

    PubMed

    Hanson, W R; Osborne, J W; Sharp, J G

    1977-04-01

    Thirty days after resection of 10 to 80% of the midportion of the small intestine, excluding the duodenum, several cell kinetic parameters were investigated in the residual intestine. The degree of intestinal response increased in a stepwise fashion as the amount of tissue removed was increased. The response involved marked increases in: DNA synthesis per crypt expressed as disintegrations per minute of tritium (3H) reflecting (3H)thymidine incorporation, cells per crypt column, 3H-labelled cells per crypt column, cells per villus column, and thickness of all intestinal wall components. These changes occureed throughout the small intestine even at lesser resections. "Crypt profiles'' reflected changes in cell counts, but when the labeling frequency of proliferative cells was expressed as a percentage of the total crypt height, there was no change. The total number of crypts in the duodenum remained unchanged and the total number of cyrpts in the residual jejunum plus ileum decreased proportionally to the amount of tissue removed. Intestinal compensation occurred by increasing the size of the structures present in the residual intestine, not by increasing the number of structural units. PMID:838224

  1. Zearalenone in the Intestinal Tissues of Immature Gilts Exposed per os to Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Kostecki, Marian; Dąbrowski, Michał; Obremski, Kazimierz; Goliński, Piotr; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone and its metabolites, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, demonstrate estradiol-like activity and disrupt physiological functions in animals. This article evaluates the carryover of zearalenone and its selected metabolites from the digesta to intestinal walls (along the entire intestines) in pre-pubertal gilts exposed to low doses of zearalenone over long periods of time. The term “carryover” describes the transfer of mycotoxins from feed to edible tissues, and it was used to assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure for consumers. The experimental gilts with body weight of up to 25 kg were per os administered zearalenone at a daily dose of 40 μg/kg BW (Group E, n = 18) or placebo (Group C, n = 21) over a period of 42 days. In the first weeks of exposure, the highest values of the carryover factor were noted in the duodenum and the jejunum. In animals receiving pure zearalenone, the presence of metabolites was not determined in intestinal tissues. In the last three weeks of the experiment, very high values of the carryover factor were observed in the duodenum and the descending colon. The results of the study indicate that in animals exposed to subclinical doses of zearalenone, the carryover factor could be determined by the distribution and expression of estrogen receptor beta. PMID:26295259

  2. [Manometric study of two Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy].

    PubMed

    Peillon, C; Ducrotte, P; Duhamel, C; Denis, P; Testart, J

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe (during the fasting state in two patients the motor activity of the limb in Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy). In the two patients, the limb was created 15 years and 15 days prior to the study respectively. Recordings were performed with a low compliance pneumohydraulic system below the jejuno-jejunal anastomosis then in the limb. Motor studies in the limb were coupled with recordings carried out in the duodenum. In both patients, the regular occurrence of a typical phase III (PIII) activity was demonstrated in the limb whereas no retrograde or abnormal motor patterns were found. PIIIs in the limb were uncoordinated with duodenal PIIIs. Trimebutine, given intravenously, induced a typical PIII activity in the duodenum and the limb simultaneously. Spontaneous or trimebutine-induced PIIIs in the limb had a slower migration velocity (p less than 0.01) than duodenal PIIIs. Lastly, we were unable to record PIIIs in the distal jejunum below the jejuno-jejunal anastomosis despite the lack of associated abnormal motor patterns. This study demonstrates that a normally propagated PIII activity can be observed in the limb in Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy immediately or several years after the surgical procedure. PMID:2270917

  3. Iron, oxidative stress, and redox signaling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Guenancia, Charles; Zeller, Marianne; Cottin, Yves; Vergely, Catherine; Rochette, Luc

    2014-08-01

    The redox state of the cell is predominantly dependent on an iron redox couple and is maintained within strict physiological limits. Iron is an essential metal for hemoglobin synthesis in erythrocytes, for oxidation-reduction reactions, and for cellular proliferation. The maintenance of stable iron concentrations requires the coordinated regulation of iron transport into plasma from dietary sources in the duodenum, from recycled senescent red cells in macrophages, and from storage in hepatocytes. The absorption of dietary iron, which is present in heme or nonheme form, is carried out by mature villus enterocytes of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Multiple physiological processes are involved in maintaining iron homeostasis. These include its storage at the intracellular and extracellular level. Control of iron balance in the whole organism requires communication between sites of uptake, utilization, and storage. Key protein transporters and the molecules that regulate their activities have been identified. In this field, ferritins and hepcidin are the major regulator proteins. A variety of transcription factors may be activated depending on the level of oxidative stress, leading to the expression of different genes. Major preclinical and clinical trials have shown advances in iron-chelation therapy for the treatment of iron-overload disease as well as cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:24888568

  4. The Effects of Low Doses of Two Fusarium Toxins, Zearalenone and Deoxynivalenol, on the Pig Jejunum. A Light and Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Tarasiuk, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Zielonka, Łukasz; Gajęcki, Maciej; Gajęcka, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON. PMID:26569306

  5. An Overlooked Victim of Cannabis: Losing Several Years of Well-being and Inches of Jejunum on the Way to Unravel Her Hyperemesis Enigma.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Udo

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a severe cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is presented, which had worsened during dronabinol administration and was associated with intestinal dysmotility (pseudo-obstruction). Because dronabinol is an isomer of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, this case provides first direct clinical evidence on the key role of THC in the obscure pathogenesis of CHS. Another peculiarity of this case was that the patient had an odyssey of hospital stays with extensive workups before the patient herself found via Internet the right diagnosis for her cyclic vomiting and abdominal pain. This is typical for CHS, which is often overlooked because physicians refer to the widely known antiemetic properties of cannabis, for example, in cancer chemotherapy but were not always aware of a possible paradoxical emetic reaction of recreational cannabis use. Being pathognomonic of CHS, the patient became symptom-free while abstaining from her cannabis use, meanwhile being in her 12th month of controlled abstinence.

  6. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Kreydiyyeh, S I; Usta, J; Copti, R

    2000-09-01

    The effect of a water extract of some spices on the in vitro activity of the rat jejunal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was investigated. Extracts of nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, cumin, coriander, turmeric and caraway all inhibited the ATPase, while anise seed and white pepper exerted no significant effects. The extracts of clove and cinnamon had the most potent inhibitory effect on the intestinal ATPase as compared to extracts of other spices. They also inhibited the in vitro Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in a crude kidney homogenate and the activity of an isolated dog kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The alcoholic extract of cinnamon, compared to the aqueous extract, had a stronger inhibitory action on the jejunal enzyme and a lower IC(50) value, which was not significantly different from the one observed with cinnamaldehyde, the major volatile oil present cinnamon, suggesting that in alcoholic extracts cinnamaldehyde is the major inhibitory component. The IC(50) values of eugenol, aqueous clove extract and ethanolic clove extract all fell within the same range and were not significantly different from each other, suggesting that eugenol is the major inhibitory component in both alcoholic and aqueous extracts. Based on the IC(50) values, the order of sensitivity of the enzyme to the spices extracts is as follows: isolated dog kidney ATPase>rat kidney ATPase>rat intestine ATPase. The aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon also significantly lowered the absorption of alanine from the rat intestine. It was concluded that the active principle(s) in clove and cinnamon can permeate the membrane of the enterocytes and inhibit the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase that provides the driving force for many transport processes. PMID:10930696

  7. The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Tarasiuk, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Zielonka, Łukasz; Gajęcki, Maciej; Gajęcka, Magdalena

    2015-11-11

    Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

  8. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus. PMID:27179882

  9. Radiation therapy for localized duodenal low-grade follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Arisa; Oguchi, Masahiko; Terui, Yasuhito; Takeuchi, Kengo; Igarashi, Masahiro; Kozuka, Takuyo; Harada, Ken; Uno, Takashi; Hatake, Kiyohiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial treatment results and toxicities of radiation therapy for patients with early stage low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) arising from the duodenum. We reviewed 21 consecutive patients with early stage duodenal FL treated with radiation therapy between January 2005 and December 2013 at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo. The characteristics of patients were: median age 62 years (range, 46–79 years), gender (male, 6; female, 15), clinical stage (I, 20; II1, 1), histological grade (I, 17; II, 4). All patients were treated with radiation therapy alone. The median radiation dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6–39.6) in 17 fractions. The involved-site radiation therapy was delivered to the whole duodenum. The median follow-up time was 43.2 months (range 21.4–109.3). The 3-year overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and local control (LC) rates were 94.7%, 79.3% and 100%, respectively. There were four relapses documented outside the treated volumes: two in the gastrointestinal tract (jejunum, terminal ileum), one in an abdominal lymph node (mesenteric lymph node) and one in the bone marrow. None died of the disease; one death was due to acute myeloid leukemia. No toxicities greater than Grade 1 were observed during treatment and over the follow-up time. The 30.6 Gy of involved-site radiation therapy provided excellent local control with very low toxicities. Radiation therapy could be an effective and safe treatment option for patients with localized low grade FL arising from the duodenum. PMID:27009323

  10. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus.

  11. Comparison of the effects of hexavalent chromium in the alimentary canal of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following exposure in drinking water: implications for carcinogenic modes of action.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C; Hébert, Charles D; Mann, Jill F; Shertzer, Howard G; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1-182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3-520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well.

  12. Gastrointestinal acetylcholinesterase activity following endotracheal microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Soma; Song, Jian; Rezk, Peter; Sabnekar, Praveena; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to assess acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract following inhalation exposure to nerve agent sarin. Seven major regions of the GI tract were removed from saline control animals (n=3) and 677.4 mg/m(3) sarin-exposed animals at 4h (n=4) and 24h (n=4) post-exposure. AChE activity was determined in blood and homogenized tissue supernatant by specific Ellman's assay using Iso-OMPA, a BChE inhibitor, and expressed as activity/optical density of hemoglobin for blood and activity/mg protein for tissues. Our data showed that the AChE activity was significantly decreased for groups both 4h and 24h post-sarin exposure. Among the seven chosen regions of the guinea pig GI tract, duodenum showed the highest AChE activity in control animals. The AChE activity was significantly decreased in the stomach (p=0.03), duodenum (p=0.029), jejunum (p=0.006), and ileum (p=0.006) 4h following sarin exposure. At 24h post-sarin exposure the AChE activity of duodenum (p=0.029) and ileum (p=0.006) was significantly inhibited. Esophagus showed no inhibition following sarin exposure at both 4h and 24h groups. These results suggest that the AChE activity is different in different regions of the GI tract and highest levels of AChE inhibition following sarin exposure were seen in regions exhibiting higher overall AChE activity and cholinergic function.

  13. Effect of estrogen in relation to dietary vitamin D3 and calcium on activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Ca-ATPase in immature chicks.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H

    1993-06-01

    The interaction between 17 beta-estradiol (E2), vitamin D3 (D3), and dietary Ca on the activities of Ca-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined in the intestine of young female chicks. Chicks (n = 36) were assigned to two groups, one of which was transferred to a low Ca (0.2%) diet and the other maintained on a regular diet. One week later, each group was further divided into three subgroups and given daily injections of 0(oil), 0.25, or 0.5 mg E2/kg body wt for 14 days. E2 treatment as well as low dietary Ca significantly increased AP activity (P < 0.05), whereas the highest E2 dose decreased jejunal Ca-ATPase (P < 0.05). In a separate study, day-old chicks (n = 40) fed a purified diet supplemented with or without D3 for 24 days were divided into two subgroups and administered daily injections of either 0 or 0.25 mg estrogen 3-benzoate/kg body wt for 5 days. E2 alone or in combination with D3 failed to change Ca-ATPase activity in either the duodenum or the jejunum. However, E2 enhanced the D3-stimulated AP activity measured in the supernatant of duodenum (D3, P < 0.001; E2, P > 0.05; E2 x D3, P < 0.05) and jejunum (D3, P < 0.001; E2, P > 0.05; E2 x D3, P = 0.06). Daily injections of 0.5 mg E2/kg body wt for 6 days to 6-week-old D3-adequate chicks (n = 16) significantly increased AP activity in jejunum but not in liver and kidney (P < 0.05). In conclusion, E2 treatment enhanced the activity of intestinal AP but not Ca-ATPase. This enhancement was independent of dietary Ca, but was D3-dependent and tissue specific. The results suggest that the pubertal increase in plasma E2 can affect Ca absorption from the intestine by increasing the activity of AP.

  14. PEGylated porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 improved the intestinal digestive function and prevented inflammation of weaning piglets challenged with LPS.

    PubMed

    Qi, K K; Wu, J; Deng, B; Li, Y M; Xu, Z W

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects on intestinal function, anti-inflammatory role and possible mechanism of polyethylene glycosylated (PEGylated) porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 (pGLP-2), a long-acting form of pGLP-2, in weaning piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We divided 18 weaned piglets on day 21 into three groups (control, LPS and LPS+PEG-pGLP-2; n=6). The piglets from the LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 group were injected with PEG-pGLP-2 at 10 nmol/kg BW from 5 to 7 days of the trials daily. On 8th day, the piglets in the LPS and LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 groups were intraperitoneally administered with 100 µg LPS/kg. The control group was administered with the same volume of saline solution. The piglets were then sacrificed on day 28. Afterwards, serum, duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples were collected for analysis of structural and functional endpoints. LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment increased (P<0.05) lactase activities in the duodenum and the jejunum compared with LPS treatment. LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment also significantly increased sucrase activity in the jejunum compared with LPS treatment. Furthermore, LPS treatment increased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-8, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10 in the ileum compared with the control treatment. By contrast, LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment decreased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression levels of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in the ileum compared with the LPS treatment. LPS treatment also increased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression level of GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) and the percentage of GLP-2R-positive cells in the ileum; by comparison, these results were (P<0.05) reduced by LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment. Moreover, LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment increased (P<0.05) the content of serum keratinocyte growth factor compared with the control group and the LPS group. The protective effects of PEG-pGLP-2 on intestinal digestive function were associated with the release of GLP-2R mediator (keratinocyte

  15. Recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor-secreting Lactococcus lactis promotes the growth performance of early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE expression system have superior performance in exogenous protein expression. This study aimed to construct and express porcine EGF (pEGF), and use L. lactis as vehicle for producing and delivering pEGF. Furthermore, investigating biological activity of pEGF and exploring applications feasibility of combination effects of L. lactis and pEGF on early weaned piglets’ production. Results A recombinant Lactococcus lactis which produced and secreted pEGF at 1000 ng/ml in culture supernatant was generated. Secreted pEGF was a fully biologically active protein, as demonstrated by its capacity to stimulate L929 mouse fibroblast cell line proliferation in vitro. For in vivo study, forty piglets were randomly allocated to control, antibiotic control, empty vector-expressing L. lactis (LL-EV) and pEGF-secreting L. lactis (LL-pEGF). After 14 d of rearing, final body weight and average daily gain in LL-pEGF were greater (P < 0.05, 8.95 vs. 8.37 kg, 206.1 vs. 157.7 g/day, respectively) than those in control, but no significant differences between LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control. Overall period average daily feed intake was higher in LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control than in control (P < 0.05, 252.9, 255.6, 250.0, 207.3 g/day, respectively). No significant difference was observed on ADFI/ADG. LL-pEGF increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than in control and LL-EV (P < 0.05). Sucrase in the 3 intestinal segments, aminopeptidase A in the duodenum and Jejunum, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidase IV in the duodenum in LL-pEGF were higher than those in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus counts decreased in the ileum and Lactobacillus increased in the ileum and cecum digesta in LL-pEGF compare with the

  16. Synchrotron-based imaging of chromium and  γ-H2AX immunostaining in the duodenum following repeated exposure to Cr(VI) in drinking water

    DOE PAGES

    Thompson, Chad M.; Seiter, Jennifer; Chappell, Mark A.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Haws, Laurie C.; Vitale, Rock; Mittal, Liz; et al

    2014-10-28

    Current drinking water standards for chromium are for the combined total of both hexavalent and trivalent chromium (Cr(VI) and Cr(III)). However, recent studies have shown that Cr(III) is not carcinogenic to rodents, whereas mice chronically exposed to high levels of Cr(VI) developed duodenal tumors. These findings may suggest the need for environmental standards specific for Cr(VI). Whether the intestinal tumors arose through a mutagenic or non-mutagenic mode of action (MOA) greatly impacts how drinking water standards for Cr(VI) are derived. Herein, X-ray fluorescence (spectro)microscopy (µ-XRF) was used to image the Cr content in the villus and crypt regions of duodenamore » from B6C3F1 mice exposed to 180 mg/l Cr(VI) in drinking water for 13 weeks. DNA damage was also assessed by γ-H2AX immunostaining. Exposure to Cr(VI) induced villus blunting and crypt hyperplasia in the duodenum—the latter evidenced by lengthening of the crypt compartment by ~2-fold with a concomitant 1.5-fold increase in the number of crypt enterocytes. γ-H2AX immunostaining was elevated in villi, but not in the crypt compartment. µ-XRF maps revealed mean Cr levels >30 times higher in duodenal villi than crypt regions; mean Cr levels in crypt regions were only slightly above background signal. Despite the presence of Cr and elevated γ-H2AX immunoreactivity in villi, no aberrant foci indicative of transformation were evident. Lastly, these findings do not support a MOA for intestinal carcinogenesis involving direct Cr-DNA interaction in intestinal stem cells, but rather support a non-mutagenic MOA involving chronic wounding of intestinal villi and crypt cell hyperplasia.« less

  17. Pancreas transplantation with enteroanastomosis to native duodenum poses technical challenges--but offers improved endoscopic access for scheduled biopsies and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Horneland, R; Paulsen, V; Lindahl, J P; Grzyb, K; Eide, T J; Lundin, K; Aabakken, L; Jenssen, T; Aandahl, E M; Foss, A; Øyen, O

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate endoscopic access for rejection surveillance and stenting of the pancreas, we have abandoned the duodenojejunostomy (DJ) in favor of duodenoduodenostomy (DD) in pancreas transplantation (PTx). From September 2012 to September 2013 we performed 40 PTx with DD; 20 solitary-PTx (S-PTx) and 20 simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK). We compared the outcomes with results from 40 PTx-DJ (10 S-PTx and 30 SPK) from the preceding era. The DD-enteroanastomoses were performed successfully. Endoscopic pancreas biopsies (endoscopic ultrasound examination [EUS]) yielded representative material in half of the cases. One exocrine fistula was treated by endoscopic stenting. PTxs-DD were associated with a higher rate of thrombosis compared to PTx-DJ (23% vs. 5%) and reoperations (48% vs. 30%), as well as inferior graft survival (80% vs. 88%). Time on waiting list, HLA A + B mismatches and reoperations were associated with graft loss. Only recipient age remained an independent predictor of patient death in multivariate analysis. PTx-DD showed a higher rate of thrombosis and inferior results, but facilitated a protocol biopsy program by EUS that was feasible and safe. Given that technical difficulties can be solved, the improved endoscopic access might confer long-term benefits, yet this remains to be proven.

  18. Ca2(+)-channel agonist BAY K8644 mimics 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 rapid enhancement of Ca2+ transport in chick perfused duodenum

    SciTech Connect

    de Boland, A.R.; Nemere, I.; Norman, A.W. )

    1990-01-15

    To further understand the molecular mechanism by which 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) rapidly stimulates intestinal calcium transport (termed transcaltachia), the effect of the calcium channel agonist BAY K8644 was studied in vascularly perfused duodenal loops from normal, vitamin D-replete chicks. BAY K8644, 2 mu M, was found to stimulate {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} transport from the lumen to the vascular effluent to the same extent as physiological levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. The sterol and the Ca{sup 2+} channel agonist both increased {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} transport 70% above control values within 2 min and 200% after 30 min of vascular perfusion. The effect of the Ca{sup 2+} channel agonist was dose dependent. Also, 1,25(OH)2D3-enhanced transcaltachia was abolished by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Collectively, these results suggest the involvement of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the activation of basal lateral membrane Ca{sup 2+} channels as an early effect in the transcaltachic response.

  19. Synchrotron-Based Imaging of Chromium and γ-H2AX Immunostaining in the Duodenum Following Repeated Exposure to Cr(VI) in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Chad M.; Seiter, Jennifer; Chappell, Mark A.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Haws, Laurie C.; Vitale, Rock; Mittal, Liz; Kirman, Christopher R.; Hays, Sean M.; Harris, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Current drinking water standards for chromium are for the combined total of both hexavalent and trivalent chromium (Cr(VI) and Cr(III)). However, recent studies have shown that Cr(III) is not carcinogenic to rodents, whereas mice chronically exposed to high levels of Cr(VI) developed duodenal tumors. These findings may suggest the need for environmental standards specific for Cr(VI). Whether the intestinal tumors arose through a mutagenic or non-mutagenic mode of action (MOA) greatly impacts how drinking water standards for Cr(VI) are derived. Herein, X-ray fluorescence (spectro)microscopy (µ-XRF) was used to image the Cr content in the villus and crypt regions of duodena from B6C3F1 mice exposed to 180 mg/l Cr(VI) in drinking water for 13 weeks. DNA damage was also assessed by γ-H2AX immunostaining. Exposure to Cr(VI) induced villus blunting and crypt hyperplasia in the duodenum—the latter evidenced by lengthening of the crypt compartment by ∼2-fold with a concomitant 1.5-fold increase in the number of crypt enterocytes. γ-H2AX immunostaining was elevated in villi, but not in the crypt compartment. µ-XRF maps revealed mean Cr levels >30 times higher in duodenal villi than crypt regions; mean Cr levels in crypt regions were only slightly above background signal. Despite the presence of Cr and elevated γ-H2AX immunoreactivity in villi, no aberrant foci indicative of transformation were evident. These findings do not support a MOA for intestinal carcinogenesis involving direct Cr-DNA interaction in intestinal stem cells, but rather support a non-mutagenic MOA involving chronic wounding of intestinal villi and crypt cell hyperplasia. PMID:25352572

  20. Prolonged high fat diet ingestion, obesity, and type 2 diabetes symptoms correlate with phenotypic plasticity in myenteric neurons and nerve damage in the mouse duodenum.

    PubMed

    Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe M; Nyavor, Yvonne E A; Kappmeyer, Adam J; Horton, Sarah; Gericke, Martin; Balemba, Onesmo B

    2015-08-01

    Symptoms of diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility indicate neuropathy of the enteric nervous system. Long-standing diabetic enteric neuropathy has not been fully characterized, however. We used prolonged high fat diet ingestion (20 weeks) in a mouse model to mimic human obese and type 2 diabetic conditions, and analyzed changes seen in neurons of the duodenal myenteric plexus. Ganglionic and neuronal size, number of neurons per ganglionic area, density indices of neuronal phenotypes (immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and varicosities per ganglion or tissue area) and nerve injury were measured. Findings were compared with results previously seen in mice fed the same diet for 8 weeks. Compared to mice fed standard chow, those on a prolonged high fat diet had smaller ganglionic and cell soma areas. Myenteric VIP- and ChAT-immunoreactive density indices were also reduced. Myenteric nerve fibers were markedly swollen and cytoskeletal protein networks were disrupted. The number of nNOS nerve cell bodies per ganglia was increased, contrary to the reduction previously seen after 8 weeks, but the density index of nNOS varicosities was reduced. Mice fed high fat and standard chow diets experienced an age-related reduction in total neurons, with bias towards neurons of sensory phenotype. Meanwhile, ageing was associated with an increase in excitatory neuronal markers. Collectively, these results support a notion that nerve damage underlies diabetic symptoms of dysmotility, and reveals adaptive ENS responses to the prolonged ingestion of a high fat diet. This highlights a need to mechanistically study long-term diet-induced nerve damage and age-related impacts on the ENS.

  1. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Duodenum of Individuals Diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Are Uniquely Immunoreactive to Antibodies to Human Endogenous Retroviral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    De Meirleir, Kenny L.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Frémont, Marc; Hulstaert, Jan; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Palotás, András; Lombardi, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a debilitating illness of unknown etiology characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, inflammation, immune abnormalities and gastrointestinal distress. An increasing body of evidence suggests that disruptions in the gut may contribute to the induction of neuroinflammation. Therefore, reports of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) expression in association with neuroinflammatory diseases prompted us to investigate the gut of individuals with ME for the presence of HERV proteins. In eight out of 12 individuals with ME, immunoreactivity to HERV proteins was observed in duodenal biopsies. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was detected in any of the eight controls. Immunoreactivity to HERV Gag and Env proteins was uniquely co-localized in hematopoietic cells expressing the C-type lectin receptor CLEC4C (CD303/BDCA2), the co-stimulatory marker CD86 and the class II major histocompatibility complex HLA-DR, consistent with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Although the significance of HERVs present in the pDCs of individuals with ME has yet to be determined, these data raise the possibility of an involvment of pDCs and HERVs in ME pathology. To our knowledge, this report describes the first direct association between pDCs and HERVs in human disease. PMID:23422476

  2. Acute relaxation of mouse duodenum [correction of duodenun] by estrogens. Evidence for an estrogen receptor-independent modulation of muscle excitability.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mario; Ramírez, Cristina M; Marin, Raquel; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Gómez, Tomás; Alonso, Rafael

    2004-10-01

    17-beta-Estradiol, the stereoisomer 17-alpha-estradiol and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), all caused a rapid (<3 min) dose-dependent reversible relaxation of mouse duodenal spontaneous activity, reduced basal tone and depressed the responses to CaCl(2) and KCl. The steroidal antiestrogen 7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5,-pentafluoropenty)sulphinyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(19)-triene-3,17beta-diol (ICI182,780) failed to either mimic or prevent the effect of 17-beta-estradiol. The effect of estrogens was unrelated to activation of nitric oxide (NO), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase G (PKG) or protein kinase C (PKC). Estrogen-induced relaxation was partially reversed by 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-pyridine-3-carboxilic acid methyl ester (BAY-K8644), depolarization, or by application of tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine, but not by glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, paxilline or verruculogen. The effects of BAY-K8644 and K(+) channel blockers were synergistic, and allowed relaxed tissues to recover spontaneous activity and basal tone. We hypothesize that the rapid non-genomic spasmolytic effect of estrogens on mouse duodenal muscle might be triggered by an estrogen-receptor-independent mechanism likely involving activation of tetraethylamonium- and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(+) channels and inhibition of L-type Ca2(+) channels on the smooth muscle cells. PMID:15464075

  3. Synchrotron-based imaging of chromium and  γ-H2AX immunostaining in the duodenum following repeated exposure to Cr(VI) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Chad M.; Seiter, Jennifer; Chappell, Mark A.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Haws, Laurie C.; Vitale, Rock; Mittal, Liz; Kirman, Christopher R.; Hays, Sean M.; Harris, Mark A.

    2014-10-28

    Current drinking water standards for chromium are for the combined total of both hexavalent and trivalent chromium (Cr(VI) and Cr(III)). However, recent studies have shown that Cr(III) is not carcinogenic to rodents, whereas mice chronically exposed to high levels of Cr(VI) developed duodenal tumors. These findings may suggest the need for environmental standards specific for Cr(VI). Whether the intestinal tumors arose through a mutagenic or non-mutagenic mode of action (MOA) greatly impacts how drinking water standards for Cr(VI) are derived. Herein, X-ray fluorescence (spectro)microscopy (µ-XRF) was used to image the Cr content in the villus and crypt regions of duodena from B6C3F1 mice exposed to 180 mg/l Cr(VI) in drinking water for 13 weeks. DNA damage was also assessed by γ-H2AX immunostaining. Exposure to Cr(VI) induced villus blunting and crypt hyperplasia in the duodenum—the latter evidenced by lengthening of the crypt compartment by ~2-fold with a concomitant 1.5-fold increase in the number of crypt enterocytes. γ-H2AX immunostaining was elevated in villi, but not in the crypt compartment. µ-XRF maps revealed mean Cr levels >30 times higher in duodenal villi than crypt regions; mean Cr levels in crypt regions were only slightly above background signal. Despite the presence of Cr and elevated γ-H2AX immunoreactivity in villi, no aberrant foci indicative of transformation were evident. Lastly, these findings do not support a MOA for intestinal carcinogenesis involving direct Cr-DNA interaction in intestinal stem cells, but rather support a non-mutagenic MOA involving chronic wounding of intestinal villi and crypt cell hyperplasia.

  4. Cryofixation, ultracryomicrotomy, and X-ray microanalysis of enterocytes from chick duodenum: Vitamin-D-induced formation of an apical tubulovesicular system

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.L.; Hagler, H.K.; Jones, R.G.; Farmer, G.R.; Cooper, O.J.; Martin, J.H.; Bridges, G.E.; Goodman, D.B. )

    1991-02-01

    New methods of tissue preparation were developed to study the morphology and distribution of calcium ions in duodenal enterocytes from normal, rachitic, and vitamin D-replete (either cholecalciferol (CC) or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-DHCC) treated) chicks. Frozen hydrated sections were prepared from cryofixed tissues by ultracryomicrotomy at -125 degrees C. Sections were subsequently freeze-dried by increasing the temperature to -100 degrees C. The latter temperature was maintained throughout both the structural and elemental analyses. In cells from normal, rachitic, and vitamin D-treated (CC) animals the brush border from lanthanum-infused tissues was electron dense and calcium-lanthanum positive by x-ray analysis. In the absence of lanthanum, i.e., sucrose-infused duodena, the microvilli were still calcium positive. In the terminal web region of normal and CC-treated enterocytes, numerous, apparently interconnected, tubules and vesicles were seen. Vacuole-like structures were also seen. Such structures were especially prominent in the enterocytes from the vitamin-treated (CC) animals. Except for the vacuoles, the tubules and vesicles were electron dense in the lanthanum-infused duodena, and clear in sucrose-infused tissues. In both instances, the structures were calcium positive. Similar, but even larger structures were seen below the terminal web. Here however, the tubules and vesicles seemed to be organized into multiple complex interconnecting networks, i.e., tubulo-vesicular complexes. Both the tubules and the vesicles seemed to be interconnected via smaller channel-like entities. The extensiveness of this structure was better appreciated in the enterocytes from lanthanum-infused tissues, where it appeared similar in structure and complexity to an en face view of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle.

  5. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  6. The influence of age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract in Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Palmer, S I; Steele, M A; Metcalf, J A; Penner, G B

    2015-10-01

    Fourteen Holstein bull calves were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effect of calf age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) a weaning protocol that was initiated on d 35; WN; n=7), or (2) a control treatment where calves were not weaned (CON; n=7). Calves were bottle-fed milk replacer (150 g/L), in 3 equal portions/d targeting 15% of their body weight (BW) in liquid milk intake [approximately 21.1g/kg of BW/d, dry matter (DM) basis]. On d 35, the amount of milk replacer offered to WN calves was reduced to 7.5% of BW for 7 d before calves were weaned on d 42. On d 14, 28, and 42, calves were orally dosed with 500 mL of Cr-EDTA (179 mM Cr-EDTA solution) and housed in a metabolism crate to enable total urine collection and determination of total urinary Cr recovery as an indicator of total-tract permeability. On d 44, calves were killed and tissues from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon were collected, rinsed, and transported in buffer solution (pH 7.4 at 38.5°C). Tissues were incubated in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions with buffer solutions designed to mimic the mucosal and serosal energy source that would be available in vivo (glucose for tissues from the small intestine and short-chain fatty acids for tissues that would be exposed to fermentation; rumen, omasum, and large intestinal tissues). The serosal to mucosal flux of (14)C-mannitol and (3)H-inulin was measured for each region. Although we detected treatment × period interactions for BW and starter intake, dietary treatments did not differ within a week. Overall, the time that ruminal pH was <5.5 was less before weaning than after weaning. We observed a differential response for the appearance of Cr in urine for WN and CON calves, where the appearance of Cr (mg/48 h) in urine decreased for both treatments from d 14 to 28, but

  7. Right flank laparotomy and abomasotomy for removal of a phytobezoar in a standing cow.

    PubMed

    Tschuor, Andreas C; Muggli, Evelyne; Braun, Ueli; Gorber, Ulla; Schmid, Tanja

    2010-07-01

    A 4.5-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow underwent surgery because of left abomasal displacement. Intra-operative palpation of the pyloric region revealed a phytobezoar. The abomasum containing the phytobezoar was exteriorized, and an incision was made directly over the mass in the region of the greater curvature of the pyloric part of the abomasum.

  8. Right flank laparotomy and abomasotomy for removal of a phytobezoar in a standing cow

    PubMed Central

    Tschuor, Andreas C.; Muggli, Evelyne; Braun, Ueli; Gorber, Ulla; Schmid, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    A 4.5-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow underwent surgery because of left abomasal displacement. Intra-operative palpation of the pyloric region revealed a phytobezoar. The abomasum containing the phytobezoar was exteriorized, and an incision was made directly over the mass in the region of the greater curvature of the pyloric part of the abomasum. PMID:20885831

  9. A comparison of intragastric and intrajejunal feedings in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Curet-Scott, M; Shermeta, D W

    1986-06-01

    Intrajejunal feedings by continuous infusion of nutrients into the proximal jejunum have been advocated for premature and low-birthweight infants. This technique eliminates the risks of gastric distention and aspiration associated with intragastric feedings. However, intrajejunal feedings disregard the normal physiologic responses to gastric feedings and completely bypass the stomach and duodenum, thus eliminating the important contributions to intestinal function of salivary enzymes, pancreatic secretions, and duodenal osmoregulation and absorption. The objective of this investigation is the comparison in neonatal piglets of differences in nutritional status and intestinal absorption between animals administered intrajejunal nutrients with those given intragastric formula. A total of 14 three- to five-day-old 1.5 to 2.5 kg domestic strain piglets were studied for two weeks. Seven animals underwent operative insertion of a jejunostomy tube into the proximal jejunum, while seven animals had a gastrostomy tube inserted. Intravenous antibiotics and fluids were given for two days postoperatively, then Premature Enfamil (24 kcal/oz) was administered continuously through the feeding tube. The animals were maintained on 115 kcal/kg/d for 10 to 14 days with daily measurements of weight, height, length, stool volume, and weekly determinations of electrolytes, blood counts, and fecal fat analysis. Student's unpaired t-test analysis of the data reveals significantly greater weight gain in the gastrostomy animals (2.5% weight gain/d +/- 0.3% v 1.5% +/- 0.3%, P less than 0.05). These animals also had less diarrhea (14% v 71%), and less fat malabsorption (0.15g/48 hr v 0.9g/48 hr).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Potential pharmacokinetic effect of rifampicin on enrofloxacin in broilers: Roles of P-glycoprotein and BCRP induction by rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengjie; Dai, Xiaohua; Hu, Dongmin; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Yong; Ren, Weilong; Wang, Liping

    2016-09-01

    P-glycoprotein ( P-GP: , encoding gene Abcb1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein ( BCRP: , encoding gene Abcg2) are transport proteins that play a major role in modulating the bioavailability of oral drugs in humans and rodents. It has been shown that rifampicin is the typical inducer of P-gp in rodents by activating the nuclear receptor. However, its effect on Abcb1, Abcg2, CYP3A, and chicken xenobiotic-sensing orphan nuclear receptor ( CXR: ) mRNA expression in broilers is poorly understood. This study explored the effect of rifampicin on mRNA expression of Abcb1, Abcg2, CYP3A37, CXR as well as its effect on the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in broilers. The mRNA levels of Abcb1, Abcg2, CYP3A37, and CXR were significantly increased in the liver (except Abcg2), kidney, jejunum, and ileum (P < 0.05) but not significantly changed in the duodenum (P > 0.05) after treated with rifampicin. Further analysis revealed that the variation tendencies of Abcb1, Abcg2, and CYP3A37 expression levels were significantly correlated with CXR mRNA expression levels in liver, kidney, jejunum, and ileum. Coadministration of rifampicin significantly changed the pharmacokinetic behavior of enrofloxacin orally administered by showing clearly lower AUC0-∞, AUC0-t, and Cmax as well as longer Tmax. The bioavailability of orally administered enrofloxacin was decreased from 72.5% to 24.8% by rifampicin. However, rifampicin did not significantly change the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin following intravenous administration. Our study shows that rifampicin up-regulated the small intestinal level of P-gp and BCRP and suggests that P-gp and BCRP are key factors that affected pharmacokinetic behavior of orally administered enrofloxacin by limiting its absorption from the intestine in broilers.

  11. Xanthine oxidase formation during experimental ischemia of the equine small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, M; Ducharme, N G; Wilkins, P A; Erb, H N; Butt, M

    1991-01-01

    We hypothesized that xanthine oxidase plays a role in the postischemic reperfusion injury in the equine small intestine. Under anesthesia, four horses and two ponies underwent ischemic strangulating obstructions of segments of the proximal jejunum, mid-jejunum and ileum. Prior to vascular occlusion, and at 1 h and 2 h of ischemia, full-thickness intestinal biopsies were collected for histopathological evaluation and for determination of combined xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) plus xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, and XO activity alone. The level of XO activity was expressed in percentage according to the ratio of XO/(XDH + XO). We found a nearly threefold increase in the combined level of XDH plus XO activity from ileum to duodenum (p less than 0.04). However, the preischemic level of % XO activity did not vary significantly (p = 0.61) between segments of jejuno-ileum. Likewise, no significant difference was noted between intestinal segments after ischemia. Therefore, the data from all intestinal segments were pooled for each time and analyzed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test (one-tailed). Compared to the pre-ischemic level of % XO activity (median 27%), the % XO activity increased after 1 h of ischemia (median 37.0%), reaching statistical significance (p = 0.016). There were no statistical differences between the preischemic % XO activity and the % XO activity in non-ischemic bowel at the end of the anesthetic period. During ischemia, % XO activity increased, which lends credence to the importance of xanthine oxidase in previously-documented reperfusion injury in the equine small intestine. PMID:1790484

  12. Electroacupuncture at ST25 inhibits jejunal motility: Role of sympathetic pathways and TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhi; Zhang, Na; Lu, Chun-Xia; Pang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Kai-Yue; Jiang, Jing-Feng; Zhu, Bing; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) at ST25 affects jejunal motility in vivo and if so, whether a sympathetic pathway is involved. METHODS: Jejunal motility was assessed using a manometric balloon placed in the jejunum approximately about 3-5 cm away from the suspensory ligament of the duodenum in anesthetized animals. The effects of EA at ST25 were measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats, some of which were treated with propranolol or clenbuterol (EA intensities: 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mA), and in male transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) (capsaicin receptor) knockout mice (EA intensities: 1, 2, and 4 mA). RESULTS: Anesthetized rats exhibited three types of fasting jejunal motor patterns (types A, B, and C), and only type C rats responded to EA stimulation. In type C rats, EA at ST25 significantly suppressed the motor activity of the jejunum in an intensity-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of EA was weakened by propranolol (β adrenoceptor antagonist) and disappeared with clenbuterol (β adrenoceptor agonist) induced inhibition of motility, suggesting that the effect of EA on motility is mediated via a sympathetic pathway. Compared with wild-type mice, EA at ST25 was less effective in TRPV1 knockout mice, suggesting that this multi-modal sensor channel participates in the mechanism. CONCLUSION: EA at ST25 was found to inhibit jejunal motility in an intensity-dependent manner, via a mechanism in which sympathetic nerves and TRPV1 receptors play an important role. PMID:26855542

  13. Giardiasis in dairy calves: effects of fenbendazole treatment on intestinal structure and function.

    PubMed

    O'Handley, R M; Buret, A G; McAllister, T A; Jelinski, M; Olson, M E

    2001-01-01

    Twelve Giardia duodenalis-infected Holstein dairy calves were allocated into a treatment (n=6) and placebo group (n=6) according to pre-study faecal cyst counts. Calves in the treatment group received an oral dose of 5 mg/kg fenbendazole once daily for 3 days, while placebo calves received a sterile saline solution. Calves were euthanised 7 days following the initiation of treatment and intestinal were collected and prepared for trophozoite quantitation, histology, electron microscopy, and disaccharidase assays. In all calves treated with fenbendazole, intestinal trophozoites were below detection limits, while in saline-treated calves, trophozoites were observed in all intestinal segments. Histologically, no significant difference was observed between treatment groups with respect to intestinal villus height or crypt depth. However, a significant decline in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was observed in fenbendazole-treated calves when compared with placebo-treated calves in the duodenum (13.9+/-1.2 vs. 17.0+/-1.1 IEL/100 enterocytes) and jejunum (21.6+/-0.8 vs. 30.7+/-1.0 IEL/100 enterocytes). In addition, measurements from TEM micrographs demonstrated a significant increase in microvillus surface area in the jejunum of fenbendazole-treated calves compared with saline-treated calves (31.2+/-10.2 vs. 22.8+/-7.6 microm(2)). This increase in microvillus surface area was also associated with an increase in jejunal maltase activity in fenbendazole-treated calves compared with calves treated with saline. These results demonstrate that fenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiasis in calves. fenbendazole treatment eliminated Giardia trophozoites from the small intestine of calves resulting in increased microvillus surface area and greater intestinal enzyme activity. This study also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of giardiasis in calves is similar to that observed in humans and laboratory animals, and provides further evidence that Giardia is

  14. Gastrointestinal distribution and kinetic characterization of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 8 (NHE8).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Chen, Huacong; Dong, Jiali; Lynch, Ronald; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2008-01-01

    NHE8 is a newly identified NHE isoform expressed in rat intestine. To date, the kinetic characteristics and the intestinal segmental distribution of this NHE isoform have not been studied. This current work was performed to determine the gene expression pattern of the NHE8 transporter along the gastrointestinal tract, as well as its affinity for Na(+), H(+), and sensitivity to known NHE inhibitors HOE694 and S3226. NHE8 was differentially expressed along the GI tract. Higher NHE8 expression was seen in stomach, duodenum, and ascending colon in human, while higher NHE8 expression was seen in jejunum, ileum and colon in adult mouse. Moreover, the expression level of NHE8 is much higher in the stomach and jejunum in young mice compared with adult mice. To evaluate the functional characterictics of NHE8, the pH indicator SNARF-4 was used to monitor the rate of intra-cellular pH (pH(i)) recovery after an NH(4)Cl induced acid load in NHE8 cDNA transfected PS120 cells. The NHE8 cDNA transfected cells exhibited a sodium-dependent proton exchanger activity having a Km for pH(i) of approximately pH 6.5, and a Km for sodium of approximately 23 mM. Low concentration of HOE694 (1 microM) had no effect on NHE8 activity, while high concentration (10 microM) significantly reduced NHE8 activity. In the presence of 80 microM S3226, the NHE8 activity was also inhibited significantly. In conclusion, our work suggests that NHE8 is expressed along the gastrointestinal tract and NHE8 is a functional Na(+)/H(+) exchanger with kinetic characteristics that differ from other apically expressed NHE isoforms.

  15. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation with an ethanolic extract of propolis on broiler intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Eyng, C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Santos, T C

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of an ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on broiler performance, carcass characteristics, weight of gastrointestinal organs, intestinal morphometry and digestive enzyme activity. 1020 male broiler chicks were assigned in a completely randomised experimental design to six treatments (EEP supplement levels of 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm) and five replications, and 34 birds per experimental unit. The experimental diets were administered from 1 to 21 days of age, and the birds were subsequently provided a ration based on corn and soybean meal. EEP supplementation from 1 to 7 days negatively affected (p < 0.05) the weight gain and feed intake. The proventriculus weight at 7 days exhibited a quadratic response (p < 0.05), which predicted a lower weight at a dose of 2865 ppm of the EEP. For the duodenum at 21 days of age, the response pattern (p < 0.05) predicted that birds that were fed 2943 and 3047 ppm of the EEP would exhibit an improved crypt depth and villus-to-crypt ratio respectively. The villus height, crypt depth and villus-to-crypt ratio in the jejunum and the ileum were not affected (p > 0.05). With increased EEP doses, the duodenal sucrase activity linearly decreased at 7 days of age and linearly increased in the jejunum at 21 days of age (p < 0.05), while pancreatic enzyme activity was unaffected (p > 0.05). Although the carcass and cut yields did not improve, the percentage of abdominal fat decreased (p < 0.05). The supplementation of the broiler pre-starter diet with 1000-5000 ppm of the EEP impaired performance at this stage, most likely due to the decreased sucrase activity. However, the EEP supplementation from 3000 ppm improved intestinal morphophysiology at 21 days of age and did not affect the performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age.

  17. Intestinal morphology and cytokinetics in pancreatic insufficiency. An experimental study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hauer-Jensen, M; Skjonsberg, G; Moen, E; Clausen, O P

    1995-10-01

    Intraluminal pancreatic enzymes influence intestinal function, adaptation, and susceptibility to injury. These effects may be mediated partly through changes in the rate of epithelial cell turnover. We assessed intestinal morphology and cytokinetics in a rat model of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency that does not alter anatomic relationships or animal growth. Pancreatic duct occlusion was performed by applying metal clips on both sides along the common bile duct. Control animals underwent sham-operation with exposure and manipulation of the pancreas without duct occlusion. Twelve days later, pulse labeling with tritiated thymidine was performed, and mitotic arrest was induced with colcemid. Groups of animals were sacrificed at 0 and 2 hr after colcemid injection. Specimens for histopathology, morphometry, and autoradiography were obtained from duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum. Labeling index, grain counts, mitoses per crypt, cells per crypt, cells per villus, crypt depth, villus height, and number of goblet cells per villus were used as end points. Pancreatic duct occlusion resulted in increased labeling index across intestinal segments relative to sham-operated controls (P < 0.01) and increased labeling index and mitotic rate in distal compared to proximal intestine (P < 0.05). Grain-count histograms were similar in the two experimental groups. There were no significant morphologic differences between pancreatic duct-occluded animals and controls. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency increases crypt cell proliferation in distal small intestine but does not alter the duration of S phase. These changes are most likely due to an increase in the size of the proliferative compartment and may be partly responsible for changes in small bowel function and response to injury.

  18. The clinical pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of small intestine primary malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaochuan; Mao, Zhiyuan; Su, Dan; Jiang, Zhaocai; Bai, Li

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the clinicopathological features and diagnosis of Chinese patients with small intestine primary malignant tumors and to explore the best therapy to small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). More than 26,000 patients with digestive tract malignant tumors received treatment in PLA hospital from 2000 to 2011, and among them, there were 887 patients who had small intestine primary malignant tumors, and 666 of 887 patients had the completed basic clinical documents. We retrospectively analyzed the correlation between clinical and pathological features of the 666 patients and analyzed the survival and prognosis of 173 SBA patients with follow-up data. Both the number of patients with primary malignant tumors of the small intestine and the number of patients who received chemotherapy showed an increasing trend. The ratio of male to female was 1.58:1. The male patients significantly exceed the female patients with tumors of non-ampullary duodenum, jejunum and duodenal ampulla; and most of the patients are over 60 years of age. For patients burdened with either of the pathological types of tumors, the males exceeded the females, but there was no significant difference. Abdominal pain was the main clinical manifestation for patients with tumors of non-ampullary duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and the most common clinical manifestations were jaundice and abdominal pain for patients with ampullary duodenal tumors, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and sarcoma. In addition, patients with stromal tumors were prone to gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointestinal endoscopy was the most common examinational procedure. Patients under 60 years of age were prone to surgery and chemotherapy after surgery, and patients over 60 years of age were prone to supportive treatment and chemotherapy without surgery. The medium overall survival of patients who received surgery without chemotherapy, chemotherapy after surgery, chemotherapy without surgery

  19. Identification of optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in the rat hypothalamus and intestine for the study of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Li, B; Matter, EK; Hoppert, HT; Seeley, RJ; Sandoval, DA

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity has a complicated metabolic pathology, and defining the underlying mechanisms of obesity requires integrative studies with molecular endpoints. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool that has been widely utilized. However, the importance of using carefully validated reference genes in RT-qPCR seems to be overlooked in obesity-related research. The objective of this study was to select a set of reference genes with stable expressions to be used for RT-qPCR normalization in rats under fasted vs. re-fed and chow vs. high fat diet (HFD) conditions. DESIGN Male Long-Evans rats were treated under four conditions, chow/fasted, chow/re-fed, HFD/fasted, and HFD/re-fed. Expression stabilities of the13 candidate reference genes were evaluated in the rat hypothalamus, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum using ReFinder software program. The optimal number of reference genes needed for RT-qPCR analyses was determined using geNorm. RESULTS Using geNorm analysis, we found that it was sufficient to use the two most stably expressed genes as references in RT-qPCR analyses for each tissue under specific experimental conditions. Unique subsets of reference genes out of the 13 candidate genes were identified, each of which is specific for one type of rat tissue (hypothalamus, duodenum, jejunum, or ileum) under a different combination of diet and feeding condition. CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrates that gene expression levels of reference genes commonly used in obesity-related studies, such as ACTB, or RPS18, are altered by changes in acute or chronic energy status. These findings underline the importance of using reference genes that are stable in expression across experimental conditions when studying the rat hypothalamus and intestine, because these tissues play an integral role in regulation of energy homeostasis. It is our hope that this study will raise awareness among obesity researchers on the essential need for reference gene validation in gene

  20. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Che, Lianqiang; Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Wang, Ru; Cheng, Yuanfang; Chen, Hong; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Feng, Bin; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR) neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 days old) were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet) or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet) for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05). Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05), as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05). In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05), as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05), TLR-9 (P = 0.08) and TLR-2 (P = 0.07) was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05), activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05), count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05), serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05). In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1) in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05). These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  1. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on dairy calves: Ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J X; Alugongo, G M; Chung, R; Dong, S Z; Li, S L; Yoon, I; Wu, Z H; Cao, Z J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) in the calf starter and milk on ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community in the first 56 d of life. Thirty Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a texturized calf starter containing 0 (CON), 0.5, or 1% SCFP (XPC, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) of dry matter from d 4 to 56. In addition, the XPC-supplemented calves were fed with 1 g/d SCFP (SmartCare, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) in milk from d 2 to 30. All calves were fed 4 L of colostrum within 1 h of birth and were subsequently fed milk twice daily until weaned on d 56. Rumen fluid was collected by an esophageal tube 4 h after the morning feeding on d 28 and 56 to determine ruminal pH, ammonia-N, and volatile fatty acids concentrations. On d 56, 15 (5 per treatment) calves were harvested and slaughter weight, gastrointestinal morphology parameters, and bacteria community were recorded. Papilla length, width, and surface area were measured from 5 locations within the rumen. Villus height, width, surface area, crypt depth, and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio were measured in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to test the microbial community of the rumen and duodenum samples on d 28 and 56. Data were analyzed by MIXED procedure in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with contrast statements to declare CON versus all SCFP and 0.5 versus 1% SCFP in starter grains. Ruminal pH, ammonia-N, and total volatile fatty acids were not altered by SCFP. However, the supplemented groups exhibited higher ruminal butyrate concentrations coinciding with higher Butyrivibrio and lower Prevotella richness than CON group. Supplementation of SCFP increased papilla length in the rumen. In the small intestine, SCFP reduced crypt depth of jejunum, and increased villus height-to-crypt depth ratio in all segments of the small intestine

  2. Effects of Corticosterone and Dietary Energy on Immune Function of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy. PMID:25803644

  3. Effect of dietary mannanase-hydrolysed copra meal on growth performance and intestinal histology in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, M; Fukui, K; Yamauchi, K

    2014-08-01

    We investigated mannanase-hydrolysed copra meal (MCM), which contains β-1,4-mannobiose (MNB), for its capacity to improve growth performance and activate intestinal villus function. Seven-day-old chicks were separated into four flocks with an equal mean body weight and then fed a basal diet (control) or a diet supplemented with 0.02% or 0.1% MCM. After 7 weeks, the feed intake and body weight were determined and then used to calculate the feed efficiency (FE). Moreover, the intestinal segments were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for cellular and morphological changes in the villus. Although feed intake was not significantly different among the experimental groups, the body weight gain and FE were significantly higher in the 0.1% MCM group than in the control group (p < 0.05), while feed intake tended to be higher in the 0.02% and 0.1% MCM groups. The cellular area of the ileum was significantly higher in the 0.02% and 0.1% groups in relation to that in the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the cellular area of the duodenum and the jejunum tended to be higher in the 0.02% and 0.1% MCM groups. For the correlation analysis, a significant correlation was observed between the dosage of MCM and the cell area of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Moreover, the number of mitotic cells was higher in the 0.1% MCM group. As shown by SEM, the cells at the villi tips were protuberant in appearance in the 0.02% and 0.1% MCM treatments when compared with the relatively flat cells of the control. On the duodenal villus surface of the 0.1% MCM group, some cells devoid of microvilli were observed, suggesting that the increased protuberance of these cells represents increased absorption activity. Although intestinal villus height and area did not significantly differ among groups, the levels of these parameters tended to increase in the experimental groups relative to the control. The present morphological findings reveal that MNB might

  4. Pancreatic and gastrointestinal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Grosfeld, J L; Cooney, D R

    1975-05-01

    Injuries to the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract following blunt abdominal trauma continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group. Optimal treatment of these injuries is frequently hampered by considerable delays in diagnosis. Factors contributing to these delays include the location of much of the duodenum and the pancreas in the retroperitoneum resulting in an absence of initial symptoms and signs, the often trivial nature of some of the responsible blunt traumatic accidents, inappropriate child-parent or child-physician communication, failure to achieve a meaningful physical examination in uncooperative or unconscious patients, and false negative paracentesis. Eighty per cent of these injuries occurred in boys. Eleven of 16 patients with pancreatic trauma had pseudocysts. A persistently elevated serum amylase level was invariably noted and epigastric mass was palpable in eight patients. Significant delays in diagnosis were prevalent and pseudocysts was misdiagnosed as appendicitis in three cases. Internal drainage by cystgastrostomy or cystjejunostomy was effective operative treatment. In instances of acute pancreatic injuries, sump drains, gastrostomy, cholecystostomy, and total parenteral hyperalimentation were useful therapeutic adjuncts. There was one death for a 6.2 per cent mortality rate. Forty patients had gastrointestinal injuries involving the duodenum in 17, jejunum in 14, ileum in seven, and stomach in two. Perforations occured in 65 per cent of cases, obstructing hematomas in 30 per cent, and mesenteric avulsions in 5 per cent. Associated injuries were observed in 15 patients (37.5 per cent). Pain and tenderness were the only consistent findings. Upper gastrointestinal contrast studies were diagnostic of duodenal hematomas. Eighty per cent of perforations were managed by simple closures and 20 per cent by resection and anastomosis. Obstructing hematomas unassociated with other injuries may be expected to

  5. Robot-Assisted Subtotal Pancreas-Preserving Duodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gheza, Federico; Raimondi, Paolo; D'Ugo, Stefano; Calatayud, David; Giulianotti, Pier C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Angiodysplasia of the duodenum is a rare disorder, often requiring surgical resection. Technical difficulties have made the use of the minimally invasive approach uncommon. Herein, we present a subtotal pancreas-preserving duodenectomy using robotic assistance. Methods: The patient is a 60-y-old female with a long medical history including chronic gastrointestinal bleeding due to angiodysplasia with intermittent melena, and requiring multiples blood transfusions. A capsule endoscopy and double-balloon upper endoscopy showed angiectasis, which appeared to be limited to the third and fourth portion of the duodenum and the proximal loops of the jejunum. Despite multiple endoscopic cauterizations, the patient continued to require blood transfusion for several years. The patient underwent a robot-assisted subtotal pancreas-preserving duodenectomy. Results: The operation lasted 420 min with minimal blood loss. The postoperative course was uneventful. The pathology report showed multiple small bowel mucosal and submucosal distorted and dilated vasculature, consistent with angiodysplasia. At 2-mo follow-up, the patient was totally asymptomatic. A barium swallow study showed contrast passed antegrade through the duodenojejunostomy with no evidence of obstruction, stricture, or leakage. Conclusion: The use of robotic assistance to perform a subtotal pancreas-preserving duodenectomy for the treatment of benign duodenal disease, such as angiodysplasia, is feasible and safe. The technical advantages include a high degree of freedom offered by the robotic instruments, as well as enhanced visualization, which allows for precise microdissection and microsuture, thereby preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. The use of robotic technology allows for a wider range of indications for minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23484581

  6. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway genes in Escherichia coli F18-resistant and - sensitive Meishan piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Gan, L N; Qin, W Y; Sun, S Y; Zhu, G Q; Wu, S L; Bao, W B

    2016-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is an important inflammatory pathways associated with the progression of numerous diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between TLR4 signaling and resistance to Escherichia coli F18 in locally weaned Meishan piglets. Using a real-time PCR approach, expression profiles were determined for key TLR4 signaling pathway genes TLR4, MyD88, CD14, IFN-α, IL-1β and TNF-α in the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, duodenum and jejunum of E. coli F18-resistant and -sensitive animals. TLR4 signaling pathway genes were expressed in all the immune organs and intestinal tissues, and the expression was generally higher in the spleen and lymph nodes. TLR4 transcription was higher in the spleen of sensitive piglets (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in TLR4 mRNA levels in other tissues. Similarly, CD14 transcription was higher in lymph nodes of sensitive animals (p<0.05) but not in other tissues. IL-1β expression was higher in the spleen and in the duodenum of resistant piglets (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively), and there were no significant differences in other tissues. There were also no significant differences in the expression of MyD88, TNF-α and IFN-α between sensitive and resistant piglets (p>0.05). These results further confirm the involvement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in resistance to E. coli F18 in Meishan weaned piglets. The resistance appeared to be mediated via downregulation of TLR4 and CD14, and upregulation of MyD88 that may promote the release of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-α and other inflammatory mediators which help to fight against E. coli F18 infection. PMID:27487503

  7. An Investigation into the Gastrointestinal Stability of Exenatide in the Presence of Pure Enzymes, Everted Intestinal Rings and Intestinal Homogenates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wang, Mengshu; Sun, Bingxue; Li, Feng; Liu, Shubo; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastrointestinal stability of exenatide to determine the key factor(s) contributing to peptide degradation during the oral delivery process. The effects of pH and various digestive enzymes on the degradation kinetics of exenatide were determined. Moreover, the degradation clearances of peptide were also examined using rat everted intestinal rings and intestinal homogenates from various intestinal locations. Exenatide was comparatively stable within a pH range of 1.2-8. However, obvious degradation was observed in the presence of digestive enzymes. The order of enzymes, in terms of ability to degradate exenatide, was chymotrypsin>aminopeptidase N>carboxypeptidase A>trypsin>pepsin. Chymotrypsin showed the greatest ability to degrade exenatide (half-life t1/2, 5.784×10(-2) h), whereas aminopeptidase N and carboxylpeptidase A gave t1/2 values of 3.53 and 10.16 h, respectively. The degradation of exenatide was found to be peptide concentration- and intestinal site-dependent, with a lower clearance in the upper part of the duodenum and the lower part of the ileum. When using intestinal homogenates as enzyme sources, the order, in terms of peptide degradation ability, was ileum>jejunum>duodenum. However, no significant difference was observed in the remaining peptide concentrations throughout 2 h of incubation, which may be due to the involvement of cytosolic enzymes. These results revealed key factors contributing to peptide degradation, and suggest that the inhibition of chymotrypsin and site-specific delivery of exenatide might be advantageous in overcoming metabolic obstacles during its oral delivery.

  8. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol contaminated wheat on growth performance, organ weights and histological parameters of the intestine of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Böhm, J; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Zentek, J

    2006-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of moderate dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) during a 21-day feeding experiment on the performance of broilers. Fifteen 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was fed non-contaminated diet. Another group of broilers was fed a diet naturally contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg diet. Deoxynivalenol had no effect (p > 0.05) on feed consumption, feed conversion, body-weight gain, live body weight or mortality. The absolute and relative weight of the organs (gizzard, pancreas, heart, spleen, colon and caecum) were not altered by the dietary inclusion of DON contaminated grain. However, both the absolute and relative weight of small intestine was decreased (p < 0.01) in DON fed broilers compared to the controls. No gross lesions were detected in any of the organs of birds fed contaminated wheat during the feeding trial. The microscopic examination revealed that, the height and the width of villi in duodenum decreased (p < 0.05) in birds fed DON contaminated wheat compared to controls. On the other hand the height and the width of jejunum villi were not affected (p > 0.05). This study indicates that feeding DON for 21 days to broiler chickens at a concentration of up to 5 mg/kg of diet influenced the weight of the small intestine as well as intestinal histology, especially the duodenum, as evidenced by shorter and thinner villi. In conclusion, diets with DON contamination below levels that induce negative impact on health and performance could affect small intestinal morphology in broilers.

  9. Investigation of the mode of action underlying the tumorigenic response induced in B6C3F1 mice exposed orally to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Hébert, Charles D; Grimes, Sheila D; Shertzer, Howard G; Kopec, Anna K; Hixon, J Gregory; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Harris, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice. To investigate the mode of action (MOA) underlying these tumors, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted using similar exposure conditions as in a previous cancer bioassay, as well as lower (heretofore unexamined) drinking water concentrations. Tissue samples were collected in mice exposed for 7 or 90 days and subjected to histopathological, biochemical, toxicogenomic, and toxicokinetic analyses. Described herein are the results of toxicokinetic, biochemical, and pathological findings. Following 90 days of exposure to 0.3-520 mg/l of sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), total chromium concentrations in the duodenum were significantly elevated at ≥ 14 mg/l. At these concentrations, significant decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed. Beginning at 60 mg/l, intestinal lesions were observed including villous cytoplasmic vacuolization. Atrophy, apoptosis, and crypt hyperplasia were evident at ≥ 170 mg/l. Protein carbonyls were elevated at concentrations ≥ 4 mg/l SDD, whereas oxidative DNA damage, as assessed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, was not increased in any treatment group. Significant decreases in the GSH/GSSG ratio and similar histopathological lesions as observed in the duodenum were also observed in the jejunum following 90 days of exposure. Cytokine levels (e.g., interleukin-1β) were generally depressed or unaltered at the termination of the study. Overall, the data suggest that Cr(VI) in drinking water can induce oxidative stress, villous cytotoxicity, and crypt hyperplasia in the mouse intestine and may underlie the MOA of intestinal carcinogenesis in mice.

  10. Chronic restraint stress induces intestinal inflammation and alters the expression of hexose and lipid transporters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chooi Yeng

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is reported to be one of the main causes of obesity. Based on observations in studies that relate stress and gut inflammation to obesity, the present study hypothesized that chronic stress, via inflammation, alters the expression of nutrient transporters and contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Rats were exposed to restraint stress for 4 h/day for 5 days/week for eight consecutive weeks. Different segments of rat intestine were then collected and analysed for signs of pathophysiological changes and the expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like-1 (NPC1L1), sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SLC5A1, previously known as SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter-2 (SLC2A2, previously known as GLUT2). In a separate experiment, the total anti-oxidant activity (TAA)-time profile of control isolated intestinal segments was measured. Stress decreased the expression of NPC1L1 in the ileum and upregulated SLC5A1 in both the jejunum and ileum and SLC2A2 in the duodenum. Inflammation and morphological changes were observed in the proximal region of the intestine of stressed animals. Compared with jejunal and ileal segments, the rate of increase in TAA was higher in the duodenum, indicating that the segment contained less anti-oxidants; anti-oxidants may function to protect the tissues. In conclusion, stress alters the expression of hexose and lipid transporters in the gut. The site-specific increase in the expression of SLC5A1 and SLC2A2 may be correlated with pathological changes in the intestine. The ileum may be protected, in part, by gut anti-oxidants. Collectively, the data suggest that apart from causing inflammation, chronic stress may promote sugar uptake and contribute to hyperglycaemia.

  11. Human microsomal cyttrochrome P450-mediated reduction of oxysophocarpine, an active and highly toxic constituent derived from Sophora flavescens species, and its intestinal absorption and metabolism in rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lili; Zhong, Wanping; Liu, Junjin; Han, Weichao; Zhong, Shilong; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Shuwen; Tang, Lan

    2015-09-01

    Oxysophocarpine (OSC), an active and toxic quinolizidine alkaloid, is highly valued in Sophora flavescens Ait. and Subprostrate sophora Root. OSC is used to treat inflammation and hepatitis for thousands of years in China. This study aims to investigate the CYP450-mediated reduction responsible for metabolizing OSC and to evaluate the absorption and metabolism of OSC in rat in situ. Four metabolites were identified, with sophocarpine (SC) as the major metabolite. SC formation was rapid in human and rat liver microsomes (HLMs and RLMs, respectively). The reduction rates in the liver are two fold higher than in the intestine, both in humans and rats. In HLMs, inhibitors of CYP2C9, 3A4/5, 2D6, and 2B6 had strong inhibitory effects on SC formation. Meanwhile, inhibitors of CYP3A and CYP2D6 had significant inhibition on SC formation in RLMs. Human recombinant CYP3A4/5, 2B6, 2D6, and 2C9 contributed significantly to SC production. The permeability in rat intestine and the excretion rates of metabolites were highest in the duodenum (p<0.05), and the absorbed amount of OSC in duodenum and jejunum was concentration-dependent. The metabolism could be significantly decreased by CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. In conclusion, the liver was the main organ responsible for OSC metabolism. First-pass metabolism via CYP3A4/5, 2B6, 2D6, and 2C9 may be the main reason for the poor OSC bioavailability.

  12. Effects of dietary natural zeolite including plant extract on growth performance and intestinal histology in Aigamo ducks.

    PubMed

    Khambualai, O; Ruttanavut, J; Kitabatake, M; Goto, H; Erikawa, T; Yamauchi, K

    2009-01-01

    1. To investigate the growth performance and histological intestinal alterations of Aigamo ducks fed on dietary combinations of zeolite, plant extract and vermiculite (ZEM, 14-d-old Aigamo ducks were divided into 4 groups, with 3 replicates of 3 male and 3 female ducks. They were fed ad libitum on a basal commercial duck mash diet with 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg dietary ZEM for 63 d. 2. Body weight gain tended to be higher for the 0.1 and 0.5 g/kg ZEM groups than for the control group at 9 weeks. 3. In light microscopic observation, most values of the intestinal villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis numbers were higher in the ZEM group than those of the control in all intestinal segments, and the duodenal villus height, cell area and cell mitosis of the 0.5 g/kg ZEM group, as well as jejunal cell mitosis in the 0.1 g/kg ZEM group, increased (P < 0.05). In the scanning electron microscope results, all ZEM groups showed protuberant epithelial cells and cell clusters on the villus apical surface of the duodenum and ileum. In the jejunum, villus gyri were frequently observed in the 0.1 g/kg ZEM group. These histological intestinal alterations suggest that intestinal villi and epithelial cellular functions might have been activated. 4. From the present results, dietary ZEM showed hypertrophied functions of intestinal villi and epithelial cells at the duodenum and ileum, and the 0.1 and 0.5 g/kg levels improved body weight gain. These suggest that the ZEM can be supplemented until a level of 1.0 g/kg.

  13. Characterization and Regulation of the Amino Acid Transporter SNAT2 in the Small Intestine of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangran; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Bie; Wang, Jing; Kong, Xiangfeng; Guan, Guiping; Li, Fengna; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), which has dual transport/receptor functions, is well documented in eukaryotes and some mammalian systems, but has not yet been verified in piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics and regulation of SNAT2 in the small intestine of piglets. The 1,521-bp porcine full cDNA sequence of SNAT2 (KC769999) from the small intestine of piglets was cloned. The open reading frame of cDNA encodes 506 deduced amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 56.08 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.16. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SNAT2 is highly evolutionarily conserved in mammals. SNAT2 mRNA can be detected in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum by real-time quantitative PCR. During the suckling period from days 1 to 21, the duodenum had the highest abundance of SNAT2 mRNA among the three segments of the small intestine. There was a significant decrease in the expression of SNAT2 mRNA in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa and in the expression of SNAT2 protein in the jejunal and ileal mucosa on day 1 after weaning (P < 0.05). Studies with enterocytes in vitro showed that amino acid starvation and supplementation with glutamate, arginine or leucine enhanced, while supplementation with glutamine reduced, SNAT2 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). These results regarding the characteristics and regulation of SNAT2 should help to provide some information to further clarify its roles in the absorption of amino acids and signal transduction in the porcine small intestine.

  14. Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Markert, T; Vaandrager, A B; Gambaryan, S; Pöhler, D; Häusler, C; Walter, U; De Jonge, H R; Jarchau, T; Lohmann, S M

    1995-01-01

    Certain pathogenic bacteria produce a family of heat stable enterotoxins (STa) which activate intestinal guanylyl cyclases, increase cGMP, and elicit life-threatening secretory diarrhea. The intracellular effector of cGMP actions has not been clarified. Recently we cloned the cDNA for a rat intestinal type II cGMP dependent protein kinase (cGK II) which is highly enriched in intestinal mucosa. Here we show that cGK II mRNA and protein are restricted to the intestinal segments from the duodenum to the proximal colon, with the highest amounts of cGK II protein in duodenum and jejunum. cGK II mRNA and protein decreased along the villus to crypt axis in the small intestine, whereas substantial amounts of both were found in the crypts of cecum. In intestinal epithelia, cGK II was specifically localized in the apical membrane, a major site of ion transport regulation. In contrast to cGK II, cGK I was localized in smooth muscle cells of the villus lamina propria. Short circuit current (ISC), a measure of Cl- secretion, was increased to a similar extent by STa and by 8-Br-cGMP, a selective activator of cGK, except in distal colon and in monolayers of T84 human colon carcinoma cells in which cGK II was not detected. In human and mouse intestine, the cyclic nucleotide-regulated Cl- conductance can be exclusively accounted for by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Viewed collectively, the data suggest that cGK II is the mediator of STa and cGMP effects on Cl- transport in intestinal-epithelia. Images PMID:7543493

  15. Luminal glucose does not enhance active intestinal calcium absorption in mice: evidence against a role for Ca(v)1.3 as a mediator of calcium uptake during absorption.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Fernandez, Perla C; Fleet, James C

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal Ca absorption occurs through a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-regulated transcellular pathway, especially when habitual dietary Ca intake is low. Recently the L-type voltage-gated Ca channel, Cav1.3, was proposed to mediate active, transcellular Ca absorption in response to membrane depolarization caused by elevated luminal glucose levels after a meal. We tested the hypothesis that high luminal glucose could reveal a role for Cav1.3 in active intestinal Ca absorption in mice. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were fed AIN93G diets containing either low (0.125%) or high (1%) Ca for 1 week, and Ca absorption was examined by an oral gavage method using a 45Ca-transport buffer containing 25 mmol/L of glucose or fructose. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6), calbindin D9k (CaBPD9k), and Cav1.3 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were measured in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. TRPV6 and CaBPD9k expressions were highest in the duodenum, where active, 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated Ca absorption occurs, whereas Cav1.3 mRNA levels were similar across the intestinal segments. As expected, the low-Ca diet increased renal cytochrome p450-27B1 (CYP27B1) mRNA (P = .003), serum 1,25(OH)2D3 (P < .001), and Ca absorption efficiency by 2-fold with the fructose buffer. However, the glucose buffer used to favor Cav1.3 activation did not increase Ca absorption efficiency (P = .6) regardless of the dietary Ca intake level. Collectively, our results show that glucose did not enhance Ca absorption and they do not support a critical role for Cav1.3 in either basal or vitamin D-regulated intestinal Ca absorption in vivo.

  16. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Associated with von Recklinghausen Disease: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Alshikho, Mohamad J.; Noureldine, Salem I.; Talas, Joud M.; Nasimian, Antoine; Zazou, Safi; Mobaed, Bashir; Nasser, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 28 Final Diagnosis: Gastrinoma Symptoms: Vomiting • diarrhea • epigastric soreness • heartburn • nausea • significant weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy • blood tests • abdomen CT scan • surgery Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are rare and can occur as part of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Gastrinomas are functional PETs that are rarely associated with NF1. Only two cases of their occurrence have been reported in the literature. Case Report: A 28-year-old woman was admitted for further evaluation of epigastric soreness, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a significant weight loss. Physical examination was remarkable for cutaneous findings (axillary freckling and multiple café-au-lait spots) as well as neurofibromas (dermal, plexiform). A diagnosis of NF1 was confirmed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed multiple ulcers in the duodenum and the upper jejunum. A fasting gastrin level exceeded ten times the normal limit. An abdominal multi-slice 128 computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an oval mass of 26 mm in diameter adjacent to the second segment of the duodenum. The patient was examined carefully to rule out multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Surgical resection was performed and a gastrinoma, causing Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), was diagnosed by histological examinations of the extirpated mass. The serum gastrin level decreased to normal limits shortly after surgery. Continuous follow-up revealed that the symptoms and the EGD findings completely resolved without recurrences. Conclusions: Although NF1 has common skeletal, visual, neurological, and cardiovascular complications, it also has a rare association with duodenal or pancreatic gastrinomas. Vigilance for this possible association is important to promote timely and careful management to help

  17. Relationship between dietary-induced changes in intestinal commensal microflora and duodenojejunal myoelectric activity monitored by radiotelemetry in the rat in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lesniewska, V; Rowland, I; Laerke, H N; Grant, G; Naughton, P J

    2006-01-01

    occurrence of phase III of the MMC at all three levels of the small intestine. The propagation velocity of phase III in the whole recording segment was also increased from 3.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.4 +/- 0.2 cm min(-1) by dietary treatment. Treatment with synbiotics increased the frequency of response potentials of the propagated phase III of the MMC at both levels of the jejunum, but not in the duodenum. In both parts of the jejunum, the supplementation of the diet significantly decreased the duration of phase II of the MMC, while it did not change the duration of phase I and phase III. Using the telemetry technique it was demonstrated that changes in the gastrointestinal microflora exhibited an intestinal motility response and, more importantly, that such changes can be initiated by the addition of synbiotics to the diet. PMID:16263800

  18. Effect of addition of a probiotic micro-organism to broiler diet on intestinal mucosal architecture and electrophysiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Böhm, J

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics might be one of the solutions to reduce the effects of the recent ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feed. However, the mode of action of probiotics still not fully understood. Therefore, evaluating probiotics (microbial feed additives) is essential. Thus the objective of this work was to investigate the efficacy of a new microbial feed additive (Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri) in broiler nutrition. The body weight (BW), average daily weight gain was relatively increased by the dietary inclusion of Lactobacillus sp. in broiler diets. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus feed additive influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of Lactobacillus sp. increased (p < 0.05) the villus height (VH)/crypt depth ratio and the VH was numerically increased in duodenum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (p > 0.05), while the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus sp. compared with the control. At the end of the feeding period, the basal and glucose stimulated short-circuit current (Isc) and electrical tissue conductivity were measured in the isolated gut mucosa to characterize the electrical properties of the gut. The addition of glucose on the mucosal side in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (p = 0.001) in Isc in both jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in Lactobacillus probiotic group. This increase in Isc for probiotic group in jejunum is equivalent to an increase of about two times that for the basal values, while in the control group is about half fold that for the basal value. In addition, the DeltaIsc after glucose addition to the large intestine was greater than the DeltaIsc in the small intestine in both control and probiotic group. Moreover in both jejunum and colon, the increase in Isc for birds fed Lactobacillus was higher than their control counterparts (p < or = 0.1). This result suggests that the addition of

  19. Effects of feeding diets containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate to heat-stressed finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, R; Foster, D N; Shurson, G C

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress and dietary bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immunological responses in finishing pigs. Four groups of 32 finishing pigs (n = 128) with initial BW between 80 to 90 kg were used. Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-distillers grains-based control or BMD (31.5 mg/kg) diet for a 14-d adaptation period at the thermal neutral temperature (23°C), and continued to be fed their respective diets when exposed to a constant temperature (23°C) or a cyclical heat stress environment (37°C from 1000 to 1900 h and 27°C from 1900 to 1000 h) for a 28-d experimental period. Each group of pigs was housed in 4 rooms, with 2 pens/room and 4 pigs/pen. Saliva samples from each pig were collected on d -1 (initial baseline), 1, 13, and 27 for cortisol analysis. Concentrations of haptoglobin, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined in serum samples on d -1, 1, 13, and 27. Pigs exposed to heat stress had 31% less ADG (P < 0.001), 23% less ADFI (P < 0.001), 9% less G:F (P < 0.001), and 34% greater average daily water intake (P = 0.03) than those in the non-heat-stress conditions. Dietary BMD tended to reduce ADG (P < 0.07) compared with the control (0.66 vs. 0.73 kg/d, respectively). Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) saliva cortisol on d 1, but no effects were observed on subsequent days. Serum haptoglobin concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in heat-stressed pigs on d 1, and concentrations tended to remain greater (P < 0.1) on d 13. Pigs fed the BMD diet tended to have a longer villus height (P = 0.07) in the duodenum and greater crypt depths in the duodenum (P = 0.09) and jejunum (P = 0.07). Heat-stressed pigs tended to have a decreased proportion of propionate (P = 0.08), greater acetate:propionate (P = 0.08), and a reduced proportion of valerate (P = 0.02) in the cecum. These results indicate that BMD did not counteract the negative effects of

  20. Magnifying Endoscopic Features of Follicular Lymphoma Involving the Stomach: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Katsuyoshi; Kawano, Seiji; Fujii, Nobuharu; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with follicular lymphoma involving the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, bone, and lymph nodes. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple depressed lesions in the stomach. Examination with magnifying endoscopy showed branched abnormal vessels along with gastric pits, which were irregularly shaped but were preserved. The second case was a 45-year-old man diagnosed with stage II1 follicular lymphoma with duodenal, ileal, and colorectal involvement, as well as lymphadenopathy of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed six years after the diagnosis revealed multiple erosions in the gastric body and angle. Magnifying endoscopic observation with narrow-band imaging showed that the gastric pits were only partially preserved and were destroyed in most of the stomach. Branched abnormal vessels were also seen. Pathological features were consistent with follicular lymphoma in both cases. The structural differences reported between the two cases appear to reflect distinct pathologies. Disappearance of gastric pits in the latter case seems to result from loss of epithelial cells, probably due to chronic inflammation. In both cases, branched abnormal vasculature was observed. These two cases suggest that magnified observations of abnormal branched microvasculature may facilitate endoscopic detection and recognition of the extent of gastric involvement in patients with follicular lymphoma. PMID:27747111

  1. Postprandial hemodynamics in the conscious rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anzueto Hernandez, L.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-07-01

    The postprandial intestinal hyperemia was studied in conscious and anesthetized rats using the radioactive microsphere technique. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mixed meals, and the vehicle (Tyrode's solution), were placed in the stomach via a gastrostomy tube. In conscious rats, blood flow increased by 40-80% in the duodenum and jejunum 1 h after either a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or mixed meal. Tyrode's solution produced a comparable hyperemia. Blood flow in the distal bowel segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) was significantly increased only by Tyrode's solution and the carbohydrate meal. The proximal intestinal hyperemia produced by the mixed meal in conscious animals was significantly attenuated by vagotomy yet unaltered by atropine pretreatment. In contrast to the results obtained from conscious rats, the mixed meal did not significantly alter intestinal blood flow in anesthetized animals. The results of this study indicate that the postprandial intestinal hyperemia is much greater in conscious than anesthetized animals. This difference may result from the higher resting blood flows in the latter group. The hyperemic response in conscious animals may be mediated by the vagus nerve.

  2. KLF4 regulation in intestinal epithelial cell maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Flandez, M. Guilmeau, S.; Blache, P.; Augenlicht, L.H.

    2008-12-10

    The Krueppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) transcription factor suppresses tumorigenesis in gastrointestinal epithelium. Thus, its expression is decreased in gastric and colon cancers. Moreover, KLF4 regulates both differentiation and growth that is likely fundamental to its tumor suppressor activity. We dissected the expression of Klf4 in the normal mouse intestinal epithelium along the crypt-villus and cephalo-caudal axes. Klf4 reached its highest level in differentiated cells of the villus, with levels in the duodenum > jejunum > ileum, in inverse relation to the representation of goblet cells in these regions, the lineage previously linked to KLF4. In parallel, in vitro studies using HT29cl.16E and Caco2 colon cancer cell lines clarified that KLF4 increased coincident with differentiation along both the goblet and absorptive cell lineages, respectively, and that KLF4 levels also increased during differentiation induced by the short chain fatty acid butyrate, independently of cell fate. Moreover, we determined that lower levels of KLF4 expression in the proliferative compartment of the intestinal epithelium are regulated by the transcription factors TCF4 and SOX9, an effector and a target, respectively, of {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling, and independently of CDX2. Thus, reduced levels of KLF4 tumor suppressor activity in colon tumors may be driven by elevated {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling.

  3. Lysosomal Acid Lipase Hydrolyzes Retinyl Ester and Affects Retinoid Turnover*

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Lukas; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Zierler, Kathrin A.; Leopold, Christina; Moustafa, Tarek; Radovic, Branislav; Romauch, Matthias; Yan, Cong; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Fickert, Peter; Lass, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the clearance of endocytosed cholesteryl ester and triglyceride-rich chylomicron remnants. Humans and mice with defective or absent LAL activity accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in multiple tissues. Although chylomicrons also contain retinyl esters (REs), a role of LAL in the clearance of endocytosed REs has not been reported. In this study, we found that murine LAL exhibits RE hydrolase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LAL in the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2, incubated with chylomicrons, led to increased accumulation of REs in endosomal/lysosomal fractions. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of LAL in murine liver largely reduced in vitro acid RE hydrolase activity. Interestingly, LAL-deficient mice exhibited increased RE content in the duodenum and jejunum but decreased RE content in the liver. Furthermore, LAL-deficient mice challenged with RE gavage exhibited largely reduced post-prandial circulating RE content, indicating that LAL is required for efficient nutritional vitamin A availability. In summary, our results indicate that LAL is the major acid RE hydrolase and required for functional retinoid homeostasis. PMID:27354281

  4. Hematoporphyrin derivative uptake and photodynamic therapy in pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, T.; Chen, I.W.; Sperling, M.; Bell, R.H. Jr.; Brackett, K.; Joffe, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    Little information is currently available concerning the uptake of porphyrins by pancreatic tumors, or the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on pancreatic cancer. In Syrian golden hamsters (n = 33), the organ distribution of /sup 125/I-labeled dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE) was studied in a pancreatic cancer model. In the same animal model the effect of PDT was studied using a gold vapor laser for energy delivery 3 hr after the injection of DHE (n = 7). DHE was 2.4 times more concentrated in the pancreatic tumor than in the nontumorous pancreas at 3 hr. Simultaneously there was a considerable accumulation of DHE in the surrounding gastrointestinal tract, causing perforation of the duodenum and jejunum with resultant death in four (57%) animals after PDT. Photodynamic therapy caused extensive tumor necrosis without any obvious effect on the nontumor-bearing pancreas. Damage to the surrounding tissue in the hamster indicates that precautions should be taken if PDT is to be used clinically in pancreatic cancer. Intratumoral injection of DHE may give higher drug concentrations with greater specificity for tumor treatment.

  5. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  6. Gross anatomical features of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) - oesophagus to cloaca.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, J; Tivane, C; Rodrigues, M N; Wagner, P G; Campos, D B; Guerra, R R; Miglino, M A

    2013-12-01

    Morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) are scarce. In view of the paucity of information regarding the digestive tract of macaws, this study aims to describe the gross anatomical features (oesophagus to cloaca) as part of a broad study of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these birds. Three animals (two males and one female) adult macaws were anatomically dissected from the oropharynx to the cloaca to expose the GIT. The oesophagus was identified as a muscle-membranous tube continuous with the crop, which was intimately attached to the skin. The internal longitudinal folds of the cervical oesophagus were sparser cranial to the crop and less evident compared to the portion caudal to the crop. The duodenum began in the pylorus and was grey-coloured exhibiting a large lumen. The jejunum was formed by loops in a spiral-fashion model supported by mesojejunum. The ileum was also composed by small loops and was continuous with the colo-rectum forming the large intestine, because the caeca were absent. The large intestine was short, median in position, suspended in the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity by mesentery and ended in the cloaca. The GIT was similar to the basic patterns in birds, in general, and also presented new unreported morphological data that might be important when studying nutrition and health of the macaws.

  7. Adult stem cells in the small intestine are intrinsically programmed with their location-specific function.

    PubMed

    Middendorp, Sabine; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Wiegerinck, Caroline L; Mokry, Michal; Akkerman, Ronald D L; van Wijngaarden, Simone; Clevers, Hans; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S

    2014-05-01

    Differentiation and specialization of epithelial cells in the small intestine are regulated in two ways. First, there is differentiation along the crypt-villus axis of the intestinal stem cells into absorptive enterocytes, Paneth, goblet, tuft, enteroendocrine, or M cells, which is mainly regulated by WNT. Second, there is specialization along the cephalocaudal axis with different absorptive and digestive functions in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum that is controlled by several transcription factors such as GATA4. However, so far it is unknown whether location-specific functional properties are intrinsically programmed within stem cells or if continuous signaling from mesenchymal cells is necessary to maintain the location-specific identity of the small intestine. Using the pure epithelial organoid technique, we show that region-specific gene expression profiles are conserved throughout long-term cultures of both mouse and human intestinal stem cells and correlated with differential Gata4 expression. Furthermore, the human organoid culture system demonstrates that Gata4-regulated gene expression is only allowed in absence of WNT signaling. These data show that location-specific function is intrinsically programmed in the adult stem cells of the small intestine and that their differentiation fate is independent of location-specific extracellular signals. In light of the potential future clinical application of small intestine-derived organoids, our data imply that it is important to generate GATA4-positive and GATA4-negative cultures to regenerate all essential functions of the small intestine.

  8. Effect of different levels of crude glycerol on the morphology and some pathogenic bacteria of the small intestine in male broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozdogan, M; Topal, E; Paksuz, E Pinar; Kirkan, S

    2014-01-01

    The gut health of poultry is closely associated with feeds and feeding. The experiment was conducted to the effect of crude glycerol addition to diets of male broilers on the bacterial microflora and morphology of their small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chicks received diets containing 0% (GLY 0), 4% (GLY 4) or 8% (GLY 8) crude glycerol for 42 days. The presence of Coliform bacteria and Enterobacteria was reduced in the duodenal tract of the broilers of GLY 4 (P<0.001); however, the presence of Staphylococci/Micrococci in the GLY 8 was reduced relative to the other groups (P<0.001). The presence of Salmonella spp. decreased in conjunction with the increasing quantities of glycerol (P<0.001). Analysis of the data regarding gut morphology (epithelial cell thickness, villi length and width, and crypt length and width) indicated that the glycerol levels fed to the different groups of broilers represented statistically different results in the small intestine. In general, whereas the diet with 4% glycerol statistically affected the investigated parameters of the gut, the diet with 8% glycerol statistically affected some segments of the broiler intestines.

  9. The mechanism of self-assembled mixed micelles in improving curcumin oral absorption: In vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; Ma, Wenzhuan; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-09-01

    Curcumin-loaded self-assembled polymeric micelles (Cur-PMs) were designed to increase oral bioavailability of curcumin and investigate the oral absorption mechanism in vitro and in vivo. The Cur-PMs were spherical nano-size particles 17.82±0.33nm in size, with a drug loading of 3.52±0.18%, and encapsulation efficiency as high as 93.08±2.23%. The intestinal absorption of Cur-PMs in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was 3.09-, 6.48-, and 1.78-fold greater than that of curcumin solution (Cur-Sol) at 0.5h. The cellular uptake of Cur-PMs in Caco-2 cells was significantly enhanced in comparison with Cur-Sol by caveolae-mediated and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of Cur-PMs was 3.50-fold higher than that of Cur-Sol in Caco-2 transport studies. The transport mechanism of Cur-PMs into the system circulation was not paracellular transport through opening the tight junctions, but was by energy-dependent, macropinocytic transcytosis and lymphatic transport pathways. Furthermore, the AUC(0-t) value of Cur-PMs was improved 2.87-fold compared with that of Cur-Sol after oral administration in rats. Therefore, self-assembled polymeric micelles could be a promising vehicle to efficiently improve the oral absorption of curcumin.

  10. The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Bergentall, Mattias; Ghaffari, Pouyan; Zhang, Cheng; Larsson, Erik; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-10-16

    The gut microbiota has been proposed as an environmental factor that promotes the progression of metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated how the gut microbiota modulates the global metabolic differences in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver, and two white adipose tissue depots obtained from conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free (GF) mice using gene expression data and tissue-specific genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs). We created a generic mouse metabolic reaction (MMR) GEM, reconstructed 28 tissue-specific GEMs based on proteomics data, and manually curated GEMs for small intestine, colon, liver, and adipose tissues. We used these functional models to determine the global metabolic differences between CONV-R and GF mice. Based on gene expression data, we found that the gut microbiota affects the host amino acid (AA) metabolism, which leads to modifications in glutathione metabolism. To validate our predictions, we measured the level of AAs and N-acetylated AAs in the hepatic portal vein of CONV-R and GF mice. Finally, we simulated the metabolic differences between the small intestine of the CONV-R and GF mice accounting for the content of the diet and relative gene expression differences. Our analyses revealed that the gut microbiota influences host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice.

  11. The effect of hibernation on the morphology and histochemistry of the intestine of the greater mouse-eared bat, Myotis myotis.

    PubMed

    Paksuz, Emine Pinar

    2014-10-01

    Seasonal variations in morphometry and histochemistry of the intestine have been examined in the active and hibernating greater mouse-eared bat, Myotis myotis, using histological and histochemical techniques. The results of morphometric analyses indicated that hibernation affected the villus height, villus width, crypt depth and crypt width of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Histochemical analysis showed that goblet cells of the small and large intestine contain acidic and neutral mucosubstances. According to the results obtained with Alcian Blue (pH 5.8)/PAS staining, hyaluronic acid is dominant in the goblet cells of the small and large intestine during both the hibernation and active periods. Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which are sulfated GAGs, were dominant, and very little heparan sulfate, heparin and keratan sulfate were present. Moreover, sulfated glycoproteins were also detected in the goblet cells of the small intestine in the active animals. The present study demonstrates that hibernation altered the examined morphometric and histochemical parameters of the intestine.

  12. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken.

  13. Inclusion complexes of HP-β-cyclodextrin with agomelatine: Preparation, characterization, mechanism study and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yunhui; Zhang, Xuefei; Li, Chenglin; Huang, Yanjuan; Lei, Ming; Yan, Mina; Zhou, Yuefang; Zhao, Chunshun

    2016-08-20

    Agomelatine (AGM), is efficacious in both the acute phase and the continuation phase of depression. However, its poor water-solubility, low bioavailability and polymorphism limit its pharmacological effects. To address these problems, agomelatine-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (AGM/HPβ-CD) was prepared successfully by freeze-drying. The products was evaluated by structural characterization, solubilization test, in-situ absorption of rat intestinal tract and pharmacokinetic study. In addition, thermodynamic studies were performed, the results indicated that the inclusion process was enthalpy-determined and exothermic nature of complexation, signifying the role of steric interactions in complex formation. Molecular docking of AGM with HPβ-CD has been conducted as well to verify the experimental findings and predict the stable molecular structure of the inclusion complex. The in vivo data showed that, AGM was mainly absorbed in duodenum and jejunum by passive diffusion. AGM/HPβ-CD inclusion complex displayed earlier Tmax and higher Cmax, and the AUC0-12h was approximately twice larger than its physical mixture. These results suggested that AGM/HPβ-CD inclusion complex was established with 1:1 stoichiometry through the naphthalene group of AGM and it was deeply inserted into the cavity of HPβ-CD, and the inclusion complex could significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of AGM. PMID:27178948

  14. Hepaticojejunostomy for the management of sump syndrome arising from choledochoduodenostomy in a patient who underwent bariatric Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Mohammed S.; Alshammary, Shadi A.; Alqahtani, Enas M.; Bojal, Shoukat A.; Alaidh, Amal; Osian, Gelu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid weight loss following bariatric surgery is associated with high incidence of gallstones and complications that may need bilioenteric diversion. This presents a specific challenge in the management of this group of patients. Case presentation A 37 years old female underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in 2008 for morbid obesity. In 2009 she presented with obstructive jaundice and was diagnosed with choledocholithiasis successfully managed by open cholecystectomy and choledochoduodenostomy. In the following years, she developed recurrent attacks of fever, chills, jaundice, and right upper quadrant pain and her weight loss was not satisfactory. Imaging of the liver showed multiple cholangitic abscesses. Reflux at the choledochoduodenostomy site was suggestive of sump syndrome as a cause of her recurrent cholangitis and a definitive surgical treatment was indicated. Intraoperative findings confirmed sump at the choledochoduodenostomy site and also revealed the presence of a large superficial accessory duct arising from segment four of the liver with separate drainage into the duodenum distal to the choledochoduodenostomy site. A formal hepaticojejunostomy was done after ductoplasty. The Roux limb was created by transecting the jejunum 40 cm distal to the foot anastomosis of the RYGB. The gastric limb was lengthened as part of this procedure which afforded the patient the additional benefit of weight loss. Conclusion Choledochoduodenostomy should be avoided in patients with RYGB due to the risk of sump syndrome which requires conversion to a formal hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:26921534

  15. One-step self-assembled nanomicelles for improving the oral bioavailability of nimodipine

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Gong, Tao; Fu, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to develop a self-assembled nanomicelle for oral administration of nimodipine (NIM) with poor water solubility. Using Solutol® HS15, the NIM-loaded self-assembled nanomicelles displayed a near-spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution of 12.57±0.21 nm (polydispersity index =0.071±0.011). Compared with Nimotop® (NIM tablets), the intestinal absorption of NIM from NIM nanomicelle in rats was improved by 3.13- and 2.25-fold in duodenum and jejunum at 1 hour after oral administration. The cellular transport of NIM nanomicelle in Caco-2 cell monolayers was significantly enhanced compared to that of Nimotop®. Regarding the transport pathways, clathrin, lipid raft/caveolae, and macropinocytosis mediated the cell uptake of NIM nanomicelles, while P-glycoprotein and endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi complex (ER/Golgi) pathways were involved in exocytosis. Pharmacokinetic studies in our research laboratory have showed that the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–∞) of NIM nanomicelles was 3.72-fold that of Nimotop® via oral administration in rats. Moreover, the NIM concentration in the brain from NIM nanomicelles was dramatically improved. Therefore, Solutol® HS15-based self-assembled nanomicelles represent a promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of NIM. PMID:27042060

  16. Gastric manometric abnormalities in patients with dyspeptic symptoms after fundoplication.

    PubMed Central

    Stanghellini, V; Malagelada, J R

    1983-01-01

    We describe six patients in whom severe dyspeptic symptoms developed after fundoplication. The symptoms began immediately after operation (three patients) or shortly thereafter (three and eight months). There were no other known predisposing factors to gastroparesis. Seven, age-matched, healthy volunteers served as controls. Pressure activity from antrum (two sites), duodenum (two sites), and jejunum (one site) was recorded by a low compliance perfusion system connected to external strain gauge transducers. Activity was recorded for three hours during fasting and for two hours after the ingestion of a solid and a liquid meal. To determine whether an inadvertent vagotomy had been performed, basal acid output and the response to insulin (Hollander's test) were measured on a separate day. Manometric studies revealed postprandial hypomotility in these patients, whereas fasting antral and intestinal activities were normal. Acid output increased in all patients during insulin induced hypoglycaemia. In three patients, an antrectomy was subsequently performed, and they were relieved of their symptoms. We conclude that, after fundoplication, symptoms associated with postprandial antral hypomotility may develop in some patients. The pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown, but a positive acid response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia does not support the occurrence of incidental vagotomy. We do not know the prevalence of this motor abnormality among asymptomatic patients with prior fundoplication. A favourable symptomatic response to antrectomy in several of our patients, however, suggests that the symptoms were related to antral motor dysfunction. PMID:6350114

  17. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken. PMID:26414482

  18. Expression and immunohistochemical distribution of duck plague virus glycoprotein gE in infected ducks.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hua; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xiang, Jun; Xie, Wei; Shen, Fuxiao; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Luo, Qihui; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2011-03-01

    To determine the distribution of duck plague virus (DPV) gE protein in paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally DPV-infected ducks, an indirect immunoperoxidase assay was established to detect glycoprotein E (gE) protein for the first time. The rabbit anti-His-gE serum, raised against the recombinant His-gE fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), was prepared and purified. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that the anti-His-gE serum had a high level of reactivity and specificity and could be used as the first antibody for further experiments to study the distribution of DPV gE protein in DPV-infected tissues. A number of DPV gE proteins were distributed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, liver, esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and kidney of DPV-infected ducks and a few DPV gE were distributed in the Harders glands, myocardium, cerebrum, and lung, whereas the gE was not seen in the skin, muscle, and pancreas. Moreover, DPV gE was expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes, reticulum cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, and hepatocytes. The present study may be useful not only for describing the characteristics of gE expression and distribution in infected ducks but also for understanding the pathogenesis of DPV.

  19. Reduced Burst Release and Enhanced Oral Bioavailability in Shikimic Acid-Loaded Polylactic Acid Submicron Particles by Coaxial Electrospray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuanwen; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Wang, Shengli; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-08-01

    In this study, using the coaxial electrospray method, we prepared submicron particles of the water-soluble drug shikimic acid (SA) with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymer, to reduce the burst release and enhance the oral bioavailability. In vitro release study performed in HCl solution (pH 1.2) showed that the coaxial electrospray submicron particles could reduce burst release effect and presented a sustained release profile, compared with free SA and the particles prepared by electrospray method. The absorption of SA in the intestinal tract, studied using an in situ perfusion method in rats, also revealed jejunum as the main absorptive segment followed by duodenum and ileum. Moreover, the SA-loaded particles greatly enhanced the absorption of SA in the tested intestinal segments. The intestinal absorption rate was not enhanced with increasing drug concentration (5-15 μg/mL) which suggested that active transport or facilitated diffusion could play vital role in SA absorption. In addition, the SA-loaded PLA coaxial electrospray particle exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation with enhanced bioavailability after oral administration. In all, the coaxial electrospray technique could provide notable advantages for the oral delivery of SA, thereby enhancing its clinical application.

  20. Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks. PMID:24773606

  1. Recovery, growth and development of Macroorchis spinulosus in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ho-Chun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2003-01-01

    The developmental features, growth and organogenesis of Macroorchis spinulosus were observed in albino rats. Globular and thick walled metacercariae, possessed a stylet, Y-shaped excretory bladder and extracecal testes. In albino rats, M. spinulosus showed habitat shifting. The majority of M. spinulosus reside in the jejunum for the first four days post infection (p.i.) and migrate to the duodenum at the later stage of infection. M. spinulosus grew rapidly during the first four days and reached full maturity at 14 days p.i. and later reduced in size. The ovary was separated from the genital primodium at one day p.i. The seminal vesicle appeared on the third day and divided into two sacs on the fourth day p.i. and intrauterine eggs and sperm mass were produced on the fourth day. Organogenesis and enlargement of reproductive organs governed the growth of M. spinulosus. The similarity of related species of the genus Macroorchis to M. spinulosus was discussed in consideration to developmental features. PMID:12666727

  2. Deoxynivalenol Impairs Weight Gain and Affects Markers of Gut Health after Low-Dose, Short-Term Exposure of Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Arash; Braber, Saskia; Akbari, Peyman; Garssen, Johan; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi, and exposure to this mycotoxin requires an assessment of the potential adverse effects, even at low toxin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term, low-dose DON exposure on various gut health parameters in pigs. Piglets received a commercial feed or the same feed contaminated with DON (0.9 mg/kg feed) for 10 days, and two hours after a DON bolus (0.28 mg/kg BW), weight gain was determined and samples of different segments of the intestine were collected. Even the selected low dose of DON in the diet negatively affected weight gain and induced histomorphological alterations in the duodenum and jejunum. The mRNA expression of different tight junction (TJ) proteins, especially occludin, of inflammatory markers, like interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxigenase1, were affected along the intestine by low levels of DON in the diet. Taken together, our results indicate that even after low-level exposure to DON, which has been generally considered as acceptable in animal feeds, clinically-relevant changes are measurable in markers of gut health and integrity. PMID:26067367

  3. Gastric Bypass Surgery Reverses Diabetic Phenotypes in Bdnf-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shujun; Wang, Qinghua; Huang, Zan; Song, Anying; Peng, Yu; Hou, Siyuan; Guo, Shiying; Zhu, Weiyun; Yan, Sheng; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Duodenum-jejunum gastric bypass (DJB) has been used to treat morbid diabetic patients. However, neither the suitability among patients nor the mechanisms of this surgical treatment is clear. Previously, we reported a new mouse strain named Timo as type 2 diabetes model caused by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) deficiency. In this study, we found that DJB on Timo mice reversed their metabolic abnormalities without altering the expression of Bdnf. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were improved greatly, along with reduction of fat accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue. The gut flora population was altered by DJB with increased proportion of Firmicutes and decreased Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in the ileum after surgery. Systemic inflammation in Timo mice was greatly suppressed with less macrophage infiltration and lower tumor necrosis factor-α levels in liver and white adipose tissue after surgery. Interestingly, the alteration of gut microflora abundance and improved metabolism preceded the inflammation alleviation after DJB surgery. These results suggested that DJB can reverse Bdnf deficiency-associated metabolic abnormality. In addition, the reduced inflammation may not be the initial cause for the DJB-associated metabolic and microbiota alterations. The increased BDNF protein levels in hypothalamus and hippocampus may result from microbiota change after DJB surgery. PMID:27418549

  4. Effect of probiotics on enrofloxacin disposition in gastrointestinal tract of poultry.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I; Danova, S; Naidenski, H; Tropcheva, R; Milanova, A

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics are routinely used in poultry husbandry due to health benefit on the host. The gut microbiota is now recognized to exert an important influence on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of many compounds. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of candidate probiotics belonging to the species Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum and L. bulgaricus on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in healthy chickens. The probiotic administration leads to higher degree of metabolism of enrofloxacin to ciprofloxacin in liver. The antibacterial drug was significantly faster absorbed (kab of 0.61 ± 0.54 h(-1) and Tmax 7.81 ± 3.52 h) at lower concentrations (Cmax of 1.34 ± 0.18 μg·g(-1)) during the first 24 h of treatment in the probiotic's group. The values of kab , Tmax , and Cmax for the group, treated solely with enrofloxacin, were 0.10 ± 0.065 h(-1), 15.42 ± 3.07 h, and 1.61 ± 0.24 μg·g(-1), respectively. A significantly higher concentration of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in the liver was observed in the group with the probiotic treatment. Disposition of both drugs was not significantly changed in the duodenum and in the jejunum. The selected dose is appropriate for treatment of infections caused by pathogens with MIC < 0.06 μg·mL(-1) irrespective of antibiotic administration alone or in combination with probiotics.

  5. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a chicken intestinal peptide transporter (cPepT1) in Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Pan, YuanXiang; Wong, Eric A; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Webb, Kenneth E

    2002-03-01

    To study peptide absorption in chickens, an intestinal peptide transporter cDNA (cPepT1) was isolated from a chicken duodenal cDNA