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Sample records for abomasum duodenum jejunum

  1. The action of porcine glucagon on the motility of the canine duodenum and jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D. F.; Foster, G. E.; Hardcastle, J. D.; Jonhson, F.; Wright, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    1 Intravenous bolus doses of porcine glucagon of 0.001-0.05 mg kg-1 caused intense stimulation of the duodenum and jejunum of the dog. 2 Intravenous infusion of porcine glucagon at 0.025-0.05 mg kg-1 h-1 caused similar stimulation. In both cases the stimulation was phasic in nature. 3 Stimulation of the duodenum and jejunum following glucagon was accompanied by a decrease in frequency of the intestinal basic electrical rhythm (BER). No change was seen in the intervals between successive periods of phase III motor activity. PMID:7093585

  2. The action of porcine glucagon on the motility of the canine duodenum and jejunum.

    PubMed

    Evans, D F; Foster, G E; Hardcastle, J D; Jonhson, F; Wright, J W

    1982-06-01

    1 Intravenous bolus doses of porcine glucagon of 0.001-0.05 mg kg-1 caused intense stimulation of the duodenum and jejunum of the dog. 2 Intravenous infusion of porcine glucagon at 0.025-0.05 mg kg-1 h-1 caused similar stimulation. In both cases the stimulation was phasic in nature. 3 Stimulation of the duodenum and jejunum following glucagon was accompanied by a decrease in frequency of the intestinal basic electrical rhythm (BER). No change was seen in the intervals between successive periods of phase III motor activity.

  3. Elemental diet induces the proliferation of sialomucin goblet cells in the rat duodenum and jejunum.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shingo; Ito, Ayano; Kondo, Takashi; Morita, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We histologically examined the effects of elemental diet (ED) on the goblet cell profile in the rat small intestine. The sulfomucin goblet cells were predominant throughout the small intestine in the control group, while sialomucin goblet cells were manifest in the duodenum and jejunum in the ED group. Next, we investigated the possible relevance of luminal osmolality to the goblet cell profile. Gastric osmolality in the ED group was within the physiological range. Meanwhile, ingestion of high glucose diet elevated gastric osmolality and increased the number of sialomucin goblet cells in the duodenum and jejunum. Further, it turned out that the lower sulfur contents in ED was not related to the unique goblet cell profile by ED ingestion. It is inductively suggested that the influx of high concentrations of low molecular nutrients into the small intestine could be associated with the goblet cell alteration, but the alteration was not necessarily due to the changes in the gastric osmolality by ED ingestion.

  4. The endocrine polypeptide cells of the human stomach, duodenum, and jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, A. G. E.; Coulling, I.; Weavers, B.; Friesen, S.

    1970-01-01

    Thirty specimens of stomach, duodenum, and jejunum, removed at operation, were examined by optical microscopical, cytochemical, and electron microscopical techniques. The overall distribution of four types of endocrine polypeptide cell in the stomach, and three in the intestine, was determined. The seven cell types are described by names and letters belonging to a scheme for nomenclature agreed upon at the 1969 Wiesbaden conference on gastrointestinal hormones. The gastrin-secreting G cell was the only cell for which firm identification with a known hormone was possible. Although there was wide variation in the distribution of the various cells, from one case to another, striking differences were nevertheless observable, with respect to the G cell, between antra from carcinoma and from ulcer cases. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:4919258

  5. Nutrient infusion bypassing duodenum-jejunum improves insulin sensitivity in glucose-tolerant and diabetic obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Salinari, Serenella; Carr, Richard D; Guidone, Caterina; Bertuzzi, Alessandro; Cercone, Stefania; Riccioni, Maria E; Manto, Andrea; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2013-07-01

    The mechanisms of type 2 diabetes remission after bariatric surgery is still not fully elucidated. In the present study, we tried to simulate the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a canonical or longer biliary limb by infusing a liquid formula diet into different intestinal sections. Nutrients (Nutrison Energy) were infused into mid- or proximal jejunum and duodenum during three successive days in 10 diabetic and 10 normal glucose-tolerant subjects. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, incretins, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured before and up to 360 min following. Glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and insulin sensitivity (SI), secretion rate (ISR), and clearance were assessed by mathematical models. SI increased when nutrients were delivered in mid-jejunum vs. duodenum (SI × 10⁴ min⁻¹·pM⁻¹: 1.11 ± 0.44 vs. 0.62 ± 0.22, P < 0.015, in controls and 0.79 ± 0.34 vs. 0.40 ± 0.20, P < 0.05, in diabetic subjects), whereas glucose Ra was not affected. In controls, Sensitivity of NEFA production was doubled in mid-jejunum vs. duodenum (2.80 ± 1.36 vs. 1.13 ± 0.78 × 10⁶, P < 0.005) and insulin clearance increased in mid-jejunum vs. duodenum (2.05 ± 1.05 vs. 1.09 ± 0.38 l/min, P < 0.03). Bypass of duodenum and proximal jejunum by nutrients enhances insulin sensitivity, inhibits lipolysis, and increases insulin clearance. These results may further our knowledge of the effects of bariatric surgery on both insulin resistance and diabetes.

  6. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Butler, A R; Kern, R J; Hill, R; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E; Oliver, W T; Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-08-01

    Small intestine mass and cellularity were previously associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for the digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates, and it contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptome differences among the small intestine from cattle with divergent gain and feed intake. Animals most divergent from the bivariate mean in each of the four phenotypic Cartesian quadrants for gain × intake were selected, and the transcriptomes of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were evaluated. Gene expression analyses were performed comparing high gain vs. low gain animals, high intake vs. low intake animals and each of the phenotypic quadrants to all other groups. Genes differentially expressed within the high gain-low intake and low gain-high intake groups of animals included those involved in immune function and inflammation in all small intestine sections. The high gain-high intake group differed from the high gain-low intake group by immune response genes in all sections of the small intestine. In all sections of small intestine, animals with low gain-low intake displayed greater abundance of heat-shock genes compared to other groups. Several over-represented pathways were identified. These include the antigen-processing/presentation pathway in high gain animals and PPAR signaling, starch/sucrose metabolism, retinol metabolism and melatonin degradation pathways in the high intake animals. Genes with functions in immune response, inflammation, stress response, influenza pathogenesis and melatonin degradation pathways may have a relationship with gain and intake in beef steers.

  7. [Injuries of the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Korolev, M P; Urakcheev, Sh K; Shlosser, K V

    2012-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 69 patients with injuries of the duodenum were analyzed. The most frequent causes of the injury were stab-incised wound of the abdomen (43 patients), gunshot wounds (2 patients), closed injury of the abdomen. Postoperative complications developed in 18 (26%) cases. Lethality was 20.3% (14 patients died). Injuries caused by the closed trauma were considerably more severe than those caused by wounds of the duodenum; lethality was 37.5% and 11.1% respectively. The authors discuss questions of the special diagnostics and surgical strategy for open and closed injuries of the duodenum. Causes of the development of unfavorable outcomes were pyo-septic complications associated with progressing retroperitoneal phlegmons, peritonitis, development of traumatic pancreatitis, incompetent sutures of the duodenum with a formed duodenal fistula. Therefore, the effective prophylactics of incompetent sutures of the duodenum is its decompression with aspiration of the duodenal contents as well as decreased secretion by means of drainage of the bile excreting ducts and medicamental suppression of synthesis of the digestion enzymes of the pancreas and duodenum using Octreatid which allowed considerable decrease of the number of postoperative complications.

  8. Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen of the goat. I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum and intestines.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jacquat, D; Steininger, K

    2013-03-01

    This review article summarizes the ultrasonographic findings of the reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum and intestines of goats. Ultrasonographic examination is done on both sides with the goat in a standing position using a linear array or convex transducer with a frequency of 5.0 to 7.5 MHz. The shape, contour and motility of the reticulum are assessed; this organ appears as a crescent-shaped structure with a smooth contour immediately adjacent to the diaphragm. There are 0.8 to 2.1 reticular contractions per minute, which may be mono-, bi- and triphasic. The rumen is examined from the 8th to 12th intercostal spaces (ICSs) and flank on the left, and from the 12th ICS and flank on the right. The ruminal wall appears as a thick echoic line. The dorsal and ventral sacs of the rumen are differentiated based on the longitudinal groove, which forms an echoic notch. Differentiation of the dorsal gas cap, fibre mat and fluid layer is not always straightforward and varies among goats. The omasum is examined from the 6th to 11th ICSs on the right. Only the wall closest to the transducer can be imaged and it appears as a crescent-shaped echoic line medial to the liver. The omasal folds and the wall furthest from the transducer cannot be seen. In about two thirds of goats, active omasal motility is apparent as a transient reduction in size of several centimetres, followed by relaxation and return to its original size. There is an average of 1.1 contractions per minute. The abomasum is examined from the ventral midline and the left and right paramedian regions and can always be seen from the ventral midline. In all but a few goats the abomasum is also visible from the left and right paramedian areas. It appears as a heterogeneous, moderately echoic structure with echogenic stippling. The abomasal folds appear as prominent echoic bands in about two thirds of all goats. The small and large intestines are examined on the right from the 8th to the 12th ICSs. Loops of jejunum and

  9. Position of the abomasum in dairy cows during the first six weeks after calving.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, S C L; Brattinga, C R; Müller, K E; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Beynen, A C

    2002-10-12

    The position of the abomasum in six cows was examined by ultrasonography at regular intervals for six weeks after they had calved. Its position was established by determining the distance between the margin of the left side of the abomasum and the ventral midline at two sites. During the last weeks of pregnancy, the abomasum was positioned in a small region of the left ventral side of the abdominal cavity. At parturition it was positioned high on the left side and then descended. The abomasum was furthest from the midline immediately after parturition. Its position was related to the interval after calving, the cow's feed intake, and the pH and osmotic pressure of the rumen fluid. There was considerable variation between the cows in the position of the abomasum, which was in part due to analytical variation, and in individual cows it had a circadian rhythm.

  10. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of Eimeria maxima- infected broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intracellular parasite, Eimeria maxima, invades epithelial cells of the intestine causing malabsorption, diarrhea, and decreased feed conversion resulting in significant economic losses to poultry producers. The uptake of amino acids is mediated by active transporters located on the basal and br...

  11. Computed tomography of the abdomen in Saanen goats: II. liver, spleen, abomasum, and intestine.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Irmer, M; Augsburger, H; Müller, U; Jud, R; Ohlerth, S

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the results of computed tomography (CT) of the liver, spleen, abomasum, small intestine and large intestine in 30 healthy Saanen goats. CT examination and anatomical slice preparation postmortem were performed as described in the first communication. After subjective evaluation of the CT images, various variables including the length/size, volume and density of the liver, spleen and gallbladder, the wall thickness of the abomasum, small intestine and large intestine and the diameter of the intestine were measured. The liver, spleen, abomasum, small intestine and large intestine could be accurately visualised using CT.

  12. [Vascular compression of the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Acosta, B; Guachalla, G; Martínez, C; Felce, S; Ledezma, G

    1991-01-01

    The acute vascular compression of the duodenum is a well-recognized clinical entity, characterized by recurrent vomiting, abdominal distention, weight loss, post prandial distress. The cause of compression is considered to be effect produced as a result of the angle formed by the superior mesenteric vessels and sometimes by one of its first two branches, and vertebrae and paravertebral muscles, when the angle between superior mesenteric vessels and the aorta it's lower than 18 degrees we can saw this syndrome. The duodenojejunostomy is the best treatment, as well as in our patient.

  13. Jejunal Diverticulitis Ascending to the Duodenum as a Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Fresow, Robert; Kamusella, Peter; Talanow, Roland; Andresen, Reimer

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 73 year-old Caucasian male with acute abdominal pain, peritonism and vomiting. Due to the severity of symptoms a CT examination of the abdomen was performed. The scans revealed multiple jejunal diverticula, wall thickening of the duodenum and jejunum, and free peritoneal fluid. No clear signs of mesenteric infarction, free abdominal air or abscess formation were seen. An additional exploratory laparotomy was conducted to confirm the CT findings and rule out the need for resection of small bowel. Since the results were matching, conservative therapy was scheduled and the patient recovered well. Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare cause of acute abdomen, however has to be considered as a differential diagnosis to more common entities. It usually stays localized, while in our case the inflammation ascended to the duodenum. CT is the modality of choice to diagnose and rule out potentially life threatening complications. PMID:25302248

  14. Duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyo; Mohy-Ud-Din, Zia; Cho, Jin Ho

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to implement a duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopes because commercially available capsule endoscopes sometimes present a false negative diagnosis of the duodenum. One reason for the false negative diagnosis is that the duodenum is the fastest moving part within the gastrointestinal tract and the current frame rate of the capsule is not fast enough. When the capsule can automatically identify that it is in the duodenum, the frame rate of the capsule can be temporarily increased to reduce the possibility of a false negative diagnosis. This study proposes a mechanism to identify the duodenum using capacitive proximity sensors that can distinguish the surrounding tissue and transmit data using RF communication. The implemented capsule (D11 mm × L22 mm) was smaller than the commercially available capsule endoscopes, and power consumption was as low as 0.642 mW. Preexperiments were conducted to select an appropriate electrode width in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and in vitro experiments were conducted to verify whether the implemented capsule could identify the duodenum within 3 s. The experiment showed that the identification rate of duodenum was 93% when the velocity of the capsule was less than 1 cm/s.

  15. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Igor; Augustin, Goran; Hlupic, Ljiljana; Nedic, Ana; Romic, Ivan; Skegro, Mate

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare soft-tissue tumors that can occur at virtually any anatomical site. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with an IMT of the fourth part of the duodenum who presented with signs and symptoms of high intestinal obstruction and bilious vomiting. The patient underwent a surgical resection of the fourth part of the duodenum with end-to-end duodenojejunal anastomosis. The follow-up period of 6 months was uneventful with no evidence of recurrence. According to our knowledge, only six cases of duodenal IMTs have been reported in the literature thus far, and this is the first report of a duodenal IMT sited at the fourth part of the duodenum. The duodenum is among the rarest sites of IMTs. Signs and symptoms resulting from diagnostic imaging investigations are nonspecific and inadequate to obtain diagnosis accurately. In most cases, surgical treatment is considered a cure for IMTs. There is no evidence of deaths caused by duodenal IMT. IMT of the duodenum is a possible diagnosis in differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions of the duodenum.

  16. Absorption-Enhancing Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Absorption of Hydrophobic Drugs in Rat Duodenum.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Hisanao; Miyazaki, Kaori; Takizawa, Yusuke; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Katsuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous gas that plays a versatile role in the physiological system, has the ability to increase the intestinal absorption of water-soluble compounds through the paracellular route. However, it remains unclear whether NO can enhance the absorption of hydrophobic drugs through the transcellular route. In this study, we examined the absorption-enhancing effect of NO on intestinal permeability of hydrophobic drugs in rat intestine. The pretreatment of rat gastrointestinal sacs with NOC7, a NO-releasing reagent, significantly increased the permeation of griseofulvin from mucosa to serosa in the sacs prepared from the duodenum, but not in those prepared from the other regions such as jejunum, ileum, and colon. The absorption-enhancing effect of NOC7 on the duodenal permeation varied depending on the hydrophobicity of the drugs used. Furthermore, NOC7 treatment was found to be apparently ineffective on the griseofulvin permeation in the duodenum pretreated with dithiothreitol (DTT) that was used as a mucus remover, even though the permeation was increased by pretreatment with DTT alone. These results suggest that NO increases the absorption of hydrophobic drugs through the transcellular route in the duodenum by modulating the mucus layer function.

  17. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small intestine mass and cellularity have previously been associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and sugars and contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study ...

  18. Changes in the feed intake, pH and osmolality of rumen fluid, and the position of the abomasum of eight dairy cows during a diet-induced left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, S C L; Brattinga, C R; Müller, K E; Schonewille, J Th; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Beynen, A C

    2004-04-17

    During the last six weeks of the dry period, eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a restricted amount of grass silage; after calving, a mixture of maize silage and concentrates was offered in a feeding regimen designed to induce a displacement of the abomasum. In the first month after calving, the cows were monitored for the following variables: feed intake and composition, milk production, the position of the abomasum, and the pH and osmolality of the rumen contents. In five of the eight cows, a left displacement of the abomasum occurred between four and 21 days after calving in the absence of other diseases. The displacement was temporary, lasting between five and 36 consecutive hours and one or two days in two of the cows (floaters), and for three or more days in the other three. Before these three cows developed the displacement, their abomasum was 4.3 to 7.9 cm higher, its contents had a higher mean osmolality (+19.2 mosmol/kg), and the ratio of roughage to concentrates in their feed was lower (-0.87) than in the three cows that did not develop clinical signs of a displaced abomasum. There were no significant differences in these variables between the floaters and the healthy cows.

  19. Bouveret syndrome: gallstone ileus of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Englert, Zachary P; Love, Katie; Marilley, Mark D; Bower, Curtis E

    2012-10-01

    This is a case of a 59-year-old woman with Bouveret syndrome. An initial endoscopic approach to management is described. Gallstone ileus occurs when a gallstone passes from a cholecystoduodenal fistula or a choledochoduodenal fistula into the gastrointestinal tract and causes obstruction, usually at the ileocecal valve. Bouveret syndrome is a variant of gallstone ileus where the gallstone lodges in the duodenum or pylorus causing a gastric outlet obstruction. The endoscopic and surgical management of this process are important to keep in mind and may be evolving as endoscopic therapies improve.

  20. Omeprazole inhibits H+ secretion by Amphiuma jejunum.

    PubMed

    White, J F

    1985-02-01

    The effect on HCO3- absorption of the substituted benzimidazole omeprazole, an inhibitor of active H+-K+ exchange, was examined in in vitro Amphiuma jejunum. HCO-3 absorption was measured using titration in short-circuited intestinal segments bathed in a Cl--free (SO2-(4)-based) medium (pH 7.40). At 1 mM omeprazole lowered the short-circuit current (Isc) and the absorptive flux of HCO3- from mucosa to serosa by about 40% over 1 h. When the serosal medium was maintained at pH 5.0, additions of omeprazole beginning at 0.1 mM caused proportional reductions of the Isc. Omeprazole also reduced intracellular potassium activity (aiK) from 74 to 59 mM and lowered the luminal membrane potential (psi m) slightly over 30 min when this was measured with double-barreled, K+-sensitive microelectrodes. After 30 min aiK and psi m tended to spontaneously revert toward control values. Galactose added to the mucosal medium (to 20 mM) stimulated the Isc equally in omeprazole-treated tissues and paired untreated control tissues. These results support the view that a fraction of the absorptive HCO3- flux (so-called) is driven by an active luminal exchange of H+ for K+.

  1. Factors influencing the digestion of dietary carbohydrates between the mouth and abomasum of steers.

    PubMed

    McAllan, A B; Smith, R H

    1983-09-01

    Six protozoa-free steers with simple rumen and abomasal cannulas were given basal diets consisting of a concentrate mixture of flaked maize and tapioca with either barley straw (BS) or alkali-treated barley straw (BSA). Other diets used were supplemented with urea (BSU and BSAU respectively) or contained fish meal in place of tapioca BSF and BSAF respectively). The diets were given in a 6 X 6 Latin square design. Diets were isoenergetic and provided sufficient metabolizable energy (ME) to support a growth rate of approximately 0.5 kg/d. Basal diets, urea- and fish-meal-supplemented diets had estimated rumen-degradable nitrogen (RDN):ME values (g/MJ) of 0.5, 1.2 and 0.8 respectively. 103Ruthenium and polyethylene glycol were given as flow markers, and flows (g/24 h) at the abomasum of organic matter (OM) and carbohydrate components were calculated. True digestibility coefficients of OM between mouth and abomasum were significantly greater for diets containing alkali-treated straw (approximately 0.63) than for those containing untreated straw (approximately 0.55) but were not significantly affected by N supplementation. Digestibility coefficients of the neutral-sugar components of dietary polysaccharides between mouth and abomasum were 0.28, 0.34, 0.31, 0.23, 0.31 and 0.87 for mannose, galactose arabinose, xylose, cellulose-glucose and starch-glucose respectively for diet BS. Corresponding values were 0.37, 0.42, 0.56, 0.51, 0.40 and 0.88 for diet BSA. All but the mannose and starch-glucose values were significantly greater for the latter diet. N supplementation also led to increases in digestibility of all neutral sugars except mannose and starch-glucose. Fish meal produced a markedly greater effect than urea but only significantly so for cellulose-glucose. Thus, the highest digestibilities were seen for diet BSAF and were 0.68, 0.67, 0.74 and 0.64 for galactose, arabinose, xylose and cellulose-glucose respectively. Of all these sugars xylose consistently showed the

  2. Postoperative electromyographic profile in human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Ducerf, C; Duchamp, C; Pouyet, M

    1992-01-01

    The postoperative electromyographic profile of the proximal jejunum and its evolution during recovery from surgery were defined in fasted humans after cholecystectomy. An intraluminal probe supporting four groups of bipolar electrodes was transnasally inserted at the end of surgery to allow continuous recording of jejunal electrical activity over 4 consecutive days. Electromyographic activity was characterized by an early reappearance of phase 3 of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC) lasting 5.2 +/- 0.6 minutes and occurring at 38.1 +/- 3.1-minute intervals at day 1 after surgery. During the 4 days after surgery, there was an increased duration of MMC, mainly consisting of phase 2 occurrence with an increased duration and lengthening of the MMC cycle. The amplitude of spikes during phase 3 increased. During the postoperative period, characterized by an inversion of the circadian rhythm, the velocity of propagation was higher (p less than 0.05) between 18:00 and 06:00 (4.0 +/- 0.5 cm/minute) than between 06:00 and 18:00 (3.1 +/- 0.3 cm/minute). In contrast, the duration of phase 2 was lower during nighttime (18:00 to 06:00) than during daytime. The authors conclude that during the early (1 to 2 days) period after cholecystectomy, the jejunal electromyographic activity is limited to phase 3 activity, but that a normal fasted pattern is recovered after 4 days. A progressive reorganization and coordination of the intestinal tract may account for this delay. PMID:1543395

  3. Usefulness of Acidity and Temperature of the Rumen and Abomasum in Diagnosing SARA in Dairy Cows after Calving.

    PubMed

    Antanaitis, R; Žilaitis, V; Juozaitiene, V; Stoškus, R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the acidity and temperature of the contents of the reticulorumen and abomasum in the first 10 days after calving and to evaluate these factors as predictive traits for the diagnosis of subclinical acidosis. The acidity and temperature of the contents of the reticulorumen and abomasum were measured using specific smaXtec boluses manufactured for animal care. According to the directions of the manufacturer, the boluses were inserted into the reticulorumen of the cows researched with the help of a specific tool. The boluses were inserted into the abomasa by way of surgery, laparotomy and abomasotomy through the right flank. The readings of 7 cows were taken on a total of 10 days, twice a day (at 9 a.m. and at 9 p.m.). In total, 140 measurements were taken. The acidity of the reticulorumen is associated with the acidity of the abomasum. The acidity of the rumen increases, if the acidity of the reticulorumen increases also. A negative correlation was observed between the pH of the contents of the abomasum and this temperature. The increase in the acidity (decrease of pH) of the contents of the reticulorumen increases its temperature and also increases the temperature of the contents of the abomasum. There is a positive statistically significant dependence between the reticulorumen content temperature and the rectal temperature. Through measurement of the ruminoreticular temperature, it is possible to predict the health status of a cow's stomach in regard to acidosis.

  4. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota between German Holstein Dairy Cows with and without Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun-Sik; Jung, Sang Il; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Son, Jeong-Hoon; Hong, Sanghyun; Shim, Minkyung

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common diseases in high-performance German Holstein dairy cows is left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Hypomotility of the abomasum is detrimental during the pathogenesis of LDA. It is known that improper interactions between the gut microbiota and the enteric nervous system contribute to dysfunctions of gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut microbial composition will be different between German Holstein dairy cows with and without LDA. We used 16S rRNA gene analysis to evaluate whether there are any differences in bacterial composition between German Holstein dairy cows with and without LDA. Even though our data are limited to being used to correlate compositional changes with corresponding functional aspects in the pathogenesis of LDA, results from this study show that the fecal microbial compositions of German Holstein dairy cows with LDA shifted and were less diverse than those in normal cows. In particular, Spirochaetes were absent in cows with LDA. PMID:26842700

  5. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Ohlerth, S; Hatz, L; Augsburger, H

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) images of the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum of five healthy Holstein-Friesian bull calves were compared with anatomical transverse cadaver sections of the same calves. The calves were scanned in the transverse plane from the 5th thoracic vertebra to the sacrum six times three weeks apart from birth to 105 days of age. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to create images in sagittal and dorsal planes. After subjective assessment of various anatomical structures, the rumen, omasum and abomasum as well as the ruminal strata (gas cap, fibre mat and fluid phase) were measured. After the last CT scan, all calves were euthanised, and four were kept at -18 °C in sternal position for 14 days. Transverse sections 1.0 to 1.5 cm thick were made from two calves and dorsal and sagittal sections were made from one calf each using a band saw. The CT images and anatomical slices were compared and the structures on the CT images identified. Very clear CT images were obtained from the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum and there was excellent agreement between images and anatomical slices.

  6. Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship.

  7. Feed intake, milk yield, and metabolic parameters prior to left displaced abomasum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, S C L; Jorritsma, R; Müller, K E; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2003-04-01

    As left-displaced abomasum (LDA) often occurs in cows with high contents of fat in the liver (fatty liver), a postpartum fatty liver-inducing regimen was applied to 16 cows. The main interest of the study was whether there were productive or metabolic changes in cows prior to LDA. Therefore, feed intake and milk production were monitored and blood samples were collected from the cows. The LDA occurred in 4 out of 16 dairy cows that were included in the feeding regimen. Compared to cows not developing LDA, LDA-cows had a significantly lower feed intake, 6.5 kg/d less, and milk production, 8 kg/d less, prior to clinical diagnosis of LDA. In the 10-d period preceding clinical diagnosis of LDA, blood concentrations of calcium, glucose, and insulin were significantly lower, whereas blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate, as well as aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly elevated compared to cows not developing LDA. These preclinical changes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of LDA. It is not certain, however, whether there is a causal association between these parameters and LDA.

  8. The suspensory muscle of the duodenum and its nerve supply.

    PubMed Central

    Jit, I; Grewal, S S

    1977-01-01

    The gross anatomy, microscopic structure and nerve supply of the suspensory muscle of the duodenum and Hilfsmuskel have been studied in cadavers of 88 adults, 5 children, 1 infant and 6 neonates. The suspensory muscle of the duodenum, consisting of plain muscle fibres, arose from the connective tissue around the stems of the coeliac and superior mementeric arteries. It was inserted into the third and fourth parts of the duodenum in 53%, and into the duodeno-jejunal flexure in addition in 40%. It was innervated by non-myelinated fibres arising from the coeliac and superior mesenteric plexuses. Although both the longitudinal and circular muscle coats of the duodenum extended into the suspensory muscle, it was not supplied by Auerbach's plexus. The Halfsmuskel, which is a slip of the diaphragm is attached above to the margin of the oesophageal hiatus and below to the connective tissue in the region of the stem of the coeliac artery, sometimes extending to the stem of the superior mesenteric artery. The Hilfmuskel and the suspensory muscle of the duodenum are separate entities. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:870476

  9. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  10. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E. M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and "natural" animal and human Campylobacter infections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3354638

  11. A new host record of Camelostrongylus mentulatus (Nematoda; Trichostrongyloidea) from abomasum of a giraffe at a zoo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, S; Uchida, T; Ohbayashi, M; Ikebe, Y; Sasano, S

    1996-12-01

    Camelostrongylus mentulatus (Railliet et Henry, 1909) Orloff, 1933 (Nematoda; Trichostrongyloidea) was found from the abomasum of a three-year-old female cape giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa, born and died in a zoo park in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan. This is the new host record from Giraffidae and geographical distribution of C. mentulatus. Present case of C. mentulatus might be infected from other ruminants, e.g., camels, antelopes and goats, kept at a same paddock in the zoo. Risk of imported parasitic diseases by the zoo animals from outside of Japan is discussed.

  12. Foreign Body in Duodenum Mimicking a Duplication Cyst on Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vinay; Tanger, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun; Kumar, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric age group is most vulnerable for the accidental foreign body (FB) ingestion which may go unnoticed. These patients present with symptoms or complications as a result of FB and may mimic other conditions on various investigations. We describe a 9-month old infant who ingested crystal gel ball and presented with vomiting for a month. On radiological imaging it was interpreted as duplication cyst of the duodenum. At operation, crystal gel ball was retrieved. Our case vindicates importance of keeping various possibilities in mind as differential diagnoses during evaluation and management of surgical ailments such as the duplication cyst of duodenum. PMID:27900276

  13. Neurogenic tumors of the duodenum in patients with neurofibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tishler, J.M.; Han, S.Y.; Colcher, H.; Halpern, N.B.

    1983-10-01

    Neurogenic tumors of the duodenum may occur in patients with neurofibromatosis. They may be solitary or multiple and are located distal to the duodenal bulb. The presenting complaints may be hematemesis, vomiting, or jaundice. The lesions are generally benign and have a low potential for malignant degenertion. Four cases are reported.

  14. Role of tachykinins and neurokinin receptor subtypes in the regulation of motility of the forestomach and abomasum in conscious sheep.

    PubMed

    Oh-ishi, Taro; Shimoda, Tomohiko; Hayashi, Hideaki; Onaga, Takenori

    2013-02-01

    The present study was planned to evaluate role of tachykinins (TKs) and neurokinin (NK) receptors in the regulation of gastric motility in sheep. We examined the effects of intravenous (i.v.) injection of neurokinin A (NKA) and substance P (SP) on motility of the rumen, omasum, and abomasum in conscious sheep and the effects of NK receptor blockade on the effect of TKs using NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 and NK-2 receptor antagonist SR48968. Moreover, the effect of NK receptor blockade on omasal cyclic contractions was examined. Intravenous injection of NKA and SP induced tonic contraction of rumen, omasum, and abomasum, and the contractile effect of NKA was more potent than that of SP in all the gastric regions. Although the effect of SP was not inhibited by L-732,138, the effect of NKA was significantly inhibited by SR48968. However, single infusion of SR48968 and L-732,138 did not alter cyclic electromyographic activity and basal intraluminal pressure in the omasum. These results imply that NKA and NK-2 receptors play a primary role in non-cholinergic regulation of ovine gastric motility, though NK-2 and NK-1 receptors seem unlikely to be involved in the physiological regulation of omasal cyclic contractions.

  15. Cross-Platform Microarray Meta-Analysis for the Mouse Jejunum Selects Novel Reference Genes with Highly Uniform Levels of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Florian R. L.; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Binter, Claudia; Mair, Georg E.; Guelly, Christian; Vogl, Claus; Steinborn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Reference genes (RGs) with uniform expression are used for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data. Their optimization for a specific biological context, e.g. a specific tissue, has been increasingly considered. In this article, we compare RGs identified by expression data meta-analysis restricted to the context tissue, the jejunum of Mus musculus domesticus, i) to traditional RGs, ii) to expressed interspersed repeated DNA elements, and iii) to RGs identified by meta-analysis of expression data from diverse tissues and conditions. To select the set of candidate RGs, we developed a novel protocol for the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data. The expression stability of twenty-four putative RGs was analysed by RT-qPCR in at least 14 jejunum samples of the mouse strains C57Bl/6N, CD1, and OF1. Across strains, the levels of expression of the novel RGs Plekha7, Zfx, and Ube2v1 as well as of Oaz1 varied less than two-fold irrespective of genotype, sex or their combination. The gene set consisting of Plekha7 and Oaz1 showed superior expression stability analysed with the tool RefFinder. The novel RGs are functionally diverse. This facilitates expression studies over a wide range of conditions. The highly uniform expression of the optimized RGs in the jejunum points towards their involvement in tightly regulated pathways in this tissue. We also applied our novel protocol of cross-microarray platform meta-analysis to the identification of RGs in the duodenum, the ileum and the entire small intestine. The selection of RGs with improved expression stability in a specific biological context can reduce the number of RGs for the normalization step of RT-qPCR expression analysis, thus reducing the number of samples and experimental costs. PMID:23671661

  16. Norepinephrine uptake by rat jejunum: Modulation by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Suvannapura, A.; Levens, N.R. )

    1988-02-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is believed to stimulate sodium and water absorption from the small intestine by enhancing sympathetic nerve transmission. This study is designed to determine whether ANG II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission within the small intestine by inhibition norepinephrine (NE) uptake. Intracellular NE accumulation by rat jejunum was concentration dependent and resolved into high- and low-affinity components. The high-affinity component (uptake 1) exhibited a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 1.72 {mu}M and a maximum velocity (V{sub max}) of 1.19 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. The low-affinity component (uptake 2) exhibited a K{sub m} of 111.1 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 37.1 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. Cocaine, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake, inhibited the intracellular accumulation of label by 80%. Treatment of animals with 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals, also attenuated NE uptake by 60%. Thus accumulation within sympathetic nerves constitutes the major form of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake into rat jejunum. ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. At a dose of 1 mM, ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation by 60%. Cocaine failed to potentiate the inhibition of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake produced by ANG II. Thus ANG II appears to prevent ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation within rat jejunum by inhibiting neuronal uptake.

  17. Macrophage infiltration in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of dairy cows with displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Kabara, Ed; Brester, Jill; Neuder, Louis; Kiupel, Matti

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), a direct measure of lipolysis, are considered a risk factor for displaced abomasum (DA) and other clinical diseases. In nonruminants, uncontrolled lipolysis is commonly associated with adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration. In dairy cows, recent studies report ATM infiltration in specific adipose depots during the first week of lactation. Depending on their phenotype, ATM can be broadly classified as classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2). The M1 ATM are considered pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 ATM enhance inflammation resolution. Currently, it is not known whether multiparous transition cows with DA have increased ATM infiltration, and the predominant phenotype of these mononuclear cells remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize ATM infiltration into different adipose tissue depots in transition cows with DA (days in milk=7.8±4.6 d; body condition score=2.95±0.10; n=6). Serum samples and biopsies from omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat depots were obtained during corrective surgery for DA. In an effort to compare ATM infiltration in DA cows with that of healthy cows in anabolic state (AS), adipose biopsies and blood samples were collected from nonlactating, nongestating dairy cows at the time of slaughter (body condition score=3.75±0.12; n=6). Adipose tissues were digested and cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were analyzed using flow cytometry to establish cell surface expression of specific macrophage markers including CD14, CD11c, CD163, and CD172a. Tissue sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to assess ATM localization. Cows with DA were ketotic and had plasma NEFA above 1.0 mEq/L. The same group of cows had significant infiltration of ATM in OM characterized by increased numbers of SVF cells expressing CD14 and CD172a. At the same time, expression of CD11c, and CD163 was significantly higher in SVF from OM and SC of DA

  18. [Post-traumatic intramural hematoma of the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Hulin, A; Desbordes, J M

    1986-01-01

    A post-traumatic intramural hematoma of duodenum in a 9 year old child was detected during exploratory laparotomy but left undisturbed. Postoperative follow up during parenteral feeding included surveillance by repeated gastrografin follow through examinations, normal transit being restored by the 12th day. Intramural hematoma of duodenum is usually due to injury and often affects male children. Symptomatology is that of upper digestive occlusion. The principal investigation should be gastro-duodenal follow through examinations with gastrografin, because of the risk of an associated perforation, to reveal possible partial or total duodenal obstruction. Conservative treatment is possible, but in case of failure or in adults surgery is indicated with evacuation of the hematoma and in some cases a gastro-jejunostomy.

  19. [Indirect and direct determination of selenium levels in the blood of cows with left side displacement of the abomasum].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Weiser, M; Zibell, K L

    1995-10-01

    The selenium level in the blood of cows with left-side displacement of the abomasum (group A, n = 13), healthy herdmates (group B, n = 13), and healthy cows of a neighboring herd free of abomasal displacement (group C, n = 13) was determined indirectly (glutathione peroxidase activity of the erythrocytes) and directly (atomic absorbtion spectroscopy). The cows of groups A, B, and C were similar in terms of the directly and indirectly determined selenium levels of the blood. It is therefore assumed that the selenium level of the blood does not play a causative role in the occurrence of abomasal displacement in cows. By indirect determination higher selenium levels were measured than by the direct method. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  20. Inhibitory pathways in the circular muscle of rat jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Gwen; Robberecht, Patrick; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting data have been reported on the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to inhibitory neurotransmission in rat jejunum. Therefore, the mechanism of relaxation and contribution to inhibitory neurotransmission of NO, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) was examined in the circular muscle of Wistar–Han rat jejunum. Mucosa-free circular muscle strips were precontracted with methacholine in the presence of guanethidine and exposed to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and exogenous NO, ATP, VIP and PACAP. All stimuli induced reduction of tone and inhibition of phasic motility. Only electrically induced responses were sensitive to tetrodotoxin (3 × 10−6 M). NO (10−6–10−4 M)-induced concentration-dependent relaxations that were inhibited by the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10−5 M) and the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel blocker apamin (APA; 3 × 10−8 M). Relaxations elicited by exogenous ATP (10−4–10−3 M) were inhibited by the P2Y purinoceptor antagonist reactive blue 2 (RB2; 3 × 10−4 M), but not by APA and ODQ. The inhibitory responses evoked by 10−7 M VIP and 3 × 10−8 M PACAP were decreased by the selective PAC1 receptor antagonist PACAP6–38 (3 × 10−6 M) and APA. The VPAC2 receptor antagonist PG99-465 (3 × 10−7 M) reduced relaxations caused by VIP, but not those by PACAP, while the VPAC1 receptor antagonist PG97-269 (3 × 10−7 M) had no influence. EFS-induced relaxations were inhibited by the NO-synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (3 × 10−4 M), ODQ and APA, but not by RB2, PG97-269, PG99-465 and PACAP6–38. These results suggest that NO is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the circular muscle of Wistar–Han rat jejunum acting through a rise in cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels and activation of small conductance Ca2+-dependent K

  1. A "watch window" technique for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps during circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Zhang, Xin-Rui; Liu, Xue-Kui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Wei-Wei; Li, Hao; Guo, Zhu-Ming

    2012-07-01

    The free jejunum flap approach is the optimal option for circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction. In this study, we designed a "watch window" for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps, thereby allowing us to assess graft viability. From 2007 to 2011, 14 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy that was reconstructed using a free jejunum flap at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre. During the closing of the neck incision, a "watch window" was designed for postoperative monitoring. Two patients experienced thrombosis of the pedicle. One was detected early and successfully rescued by removal of the thrombosis, the other one managed with a second free jejunum flap. The success rate of the buried flaps was 92.9%. No pharyngocutaneous fistulas or strictures occurred. All patients eventually resumed oral feeding and swallowing. The "watch window" technique for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps is simple, reliable and useful for finding vascular problems. Level of evidence Case series.

  2. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on gene expression in the duodenum of lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study infusing butyrate into the abomasum of sheep produced increased oxygen, glucose, glutamate, and glutamine uptake by the portal-drained viscera. These changes were thought to be partially due to increases in glycolysis and cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate...

  3. Evidence of degradation process of sucrase-isomaltase in jejunum of adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Goda, T; Koldovský, O

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate degradation processes of sucrase-isomaltase in adult rat jejunum, we determined enzymic activity of sucrase and isomaltase and compared it with the amount of immunoreactive sucrase-isomaltase. In rats fed or starved for 18h, killed at 10:00 h or 22:00 h, sucrase activity (expressed on the basis of total protein or of immunoreactive sucrase-isomaltase) was significantly (P less than 0.02) lower in the lower jejunum than in the upper jejunum; isomaltase activity was similar in both segments. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated the existence of a second sucrase-isomaltase antigen reacting with anti-(sucrase-isomaltase) serum. This antigen was present in larger amounts in the lower jejunum than in the upper jejunum, exhibited immunological partial identity with the intact sucrase-isomaltase, and had isomaltase activity but no sucrase activity. Results suggest that this antigen is a degradation product of sucrase-isomaltase in which the sucrase active site has been broken down. To examine the role of pancreatic enzymes in degradation of sucrase-isomaltase, common pancreatico-biliary ducts were ligated. Within 18 h after the operation, the difference of sucrase activity between the upper and the lower jejunum disappeared and the amount of the second sucrase-isomaltase antigen markedly decreased in the lower jejunum. Our results indicate that, during the degradation of intestinal sucrase-isomaltase by the pancreatic proteinases, degradation of the sucrase active site precedes that of the isomaltase active site. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4052022

  4. Metastatic Prostate Cancer to the Duodenum: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Kaswala, Dharmesh H.; Patel, Nitin; Jadallah, Sana; Wang, Weizheng

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in man. About 1 in 6 males developed prostate cancer and 1 in 35 males die of this disease. Prostate cancer behavior ranges from microscopic tumors to aggressive cancer with metastatic potential. While metastasis to bone is relatively common, prostate cancer rarely metastasizes to the cecum, pituitary gland, small bowel, maxillary sinus and skin. Our case report presents a rare presentation of metastatic prostate cancer to the duodenum. Our search of the literature found only 2 cases of prostate metastases to duodenum published from 1966 to the present. To our knowledge this is the third case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with duodenal metastasis. Although it is rare but in symptomatic patients small intestine metastasis should not be ignored with advanced prostate cancer. The case demonstrates a novel presentation of a common malignancy, and should raise awareness in clinicians and radiologists that prostate cancer can present with distant metastases in absence of any local lymphadenopathy. PMID:25161979

  5. Endoscopic removal of multiple duodenum foreign bodies: An unusual occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sameer R; Islam, Ebtesam A; Hodges, David; Nugent, Kenneth; Parupudi, Sreeram

    2010-01-01

    Deliberate single foreign body ingestion is a scenario that many gastroenterologists commonly see in psychiatric units and prisons. However, multiple foreign body ingestions, especially located in the duodenum, provide the endoscopist with unique challenges for management and treatment. Although most foreign objects pass spontaneously, one should have a low threshold of intervention for multiple objects, especially those that are wide, sharp and at risk of perforation. Diagnosis is typically made when there is a history of ingestion coupled with corresponding radiographic verification. The symptoms tend to be non-specific although some patients are able to delineate where the discomfort level is, correlating with the site of impaction. Most foreign bodies pass spontaneously; however when multiple sharp objects are ingested, the gastroenterologist should perform endoscopic procedures to minimize the risks of bowel perforation. We describe here a successful case of multiple ingested foreign bodies retrieved across the C-loop of the duodenum and the pharynges-esophageal curve via endoscopy and review the literature of multiple foreign body ingestion. PMID:21160746

  6. Large gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alejandra Gordillo; Lanuza, Eduardo Dominguez-Adame; Matias, Auxiliadora Cano; Huertas, Rosario Perez; Rodriguez, Katherine Maria Gallardo; Perez, Purificacion Gallinato; Mompean, Fernando Oliva

    2015-01-01

    Gangliocytic paragangliomas are rare tumors that almost exclusively occur within the second portion of the duodenum. Although these tumors generally have a benign clinical course, they have the potential to recur or metastasize to regional lymph nodes. The case report presented here describes a 57-year-old female patient with melena, progressive asthenia, anemia, and a mass in the second-third portion of the duodenum that was treated by local excision. The patient was diagnosed with a friable bleeding tumor. The histologic analysis showed that the tumor was a 4 cm gangliocytic paraganglioma without a malignant cell pattern. In the absence of local invasion or distant metastasis, endoscopic resection represents a feasible, curative therapy. Although endoscopic polypectomy is currently considered the treatment of choice, it is not recommended if the size of the tumor is > 3 cm and/or there is active or recent bleeding. Patients diagnosed with a gangliocytic paraganglioma should be closely followed-up for possible local recurrence. PMID:26328037

  7. Milk yield and survival of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle after laparoscopic correction of left-displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, R; Westerlaan, B; Bierma, M P R; Frankena, K

    2008-06-07

    The milk yield and survival of 91 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that had had a left-displaced abomasum (LDA) corrected laparoscopically were compared with those of 193 control cows matched for herd, parity and calving date. Ninety per cent of the LDA treatments were performed within four weeks after calving. The risk of being culled during the whole observational period of at least three years was 1.5 times greater for the LDA cows than for their matched herdmates (P<0.01). The risk of being culled in the current lactation was 1.8 times greater for the LDA cows (P=0.01), but risk of being culled after the next calving following the LDA correction was similar for both groups. For the lactation in which the LDA was corrected, there was no difference in the 305-day milk production of 80 of the LDA cows and 182 of the matched cows; however, the mean interval from calving to first service during the same lactation was longer for the LDA cows (115 v 98 days) and the mean calving interval was also longer (451 v 418 days).

  8. Follow-up study of gastrin response after resection of the jejunum and the ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Kajiwara, T; Tamura, K; Suzuki, T

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on the effect of resection of the jejunum and ileum on gastrin release. The intravenous infusion of L. arginine in a dose of 0.5 g per kg body weight for 30 minutes proved to be most practical in evaluating gastrin release in addition to insulin and glucagon release. Serum gastrin levels in response to this dose of arginine were determined before and three weeks, three months and one year after resection of the jejunum and of the ileum. At three weeks, a significant increase in gastrin levels occurred in bothe the fasting state and after stimulation in dogs with either jejunum or ileum resection. At three months, the elevated gastrin response persisted only in those with jejunum resection. By one year, the gastrin levels had fallen in almost all dogs to approximately the preoperative levels. PMID:603274

  9. Effects of a hydrogen sulfide donor on spontaneous contractile activity of rat stomach and jejunum.

    PubMed

    Shafigullin, M Y; Zefirov, R A; Sabirullina, G I; Zefirov, A L; Sitdikova, G F

    2014-07-01

    We studied the effect of sodium hydrosulfite (NaHS), a donor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), on spontaneous contractive activity of isolated preparations of rat stomach and jejunum under isometric conditions. NaHS in concentrations of 10-200 μM reduced the amplitude, tonic tension, and frequency of contractions of the preparations. Blockade of K(+) channels with a non-specific antagonist tetraethylammonium (10 mM) increased contraction amplitude in the stomach strip and jejunum segment. The effects of NaHS on all parameters of contractile activity of the stomach and jejunum were fully preserved against the background of tetraethylammonium application. These data suggest that H2S in physiologically relevant concentrations inhibited spontaneous contractile activity of smooth muscle cells in rat stomach and jejunum by reducing the amplitude and frequency of contractions and decreased tonic tension without affecting the function of voltage- and calcium-dependent K(+) channels.

  10. Isolation of Clostridium difficile from human jejunum: identification of a reservoir for disease?

    PubMed Central

    Testore, G P; Nardi, F; Babudieri, S; Giuliano, M; Di Rosa, R; Panichi, G

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that the small intestine may represent a reservoir for Clostridium difficile was studied, using segments of human jejunum collected at necropsy. Our results (three of 100 specimens positive for C difficile culture) support the hypothesis that C difficile can be found in human jejunum and that it adheres to the normal mucosa as a resident bacterium. These findings suggest that gastrointestinal disease caused by C difficile has an endogenous origin. PMID:3745477

  11. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador.

  12. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide regulates dipeptide absorption in mouse jejunum.

    PubMed

    Coon, Steven D; Schwartz, John H; Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M; Jepeal, Lisa; Singh, Satish K

    2013-11-15

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secreted from jejunal mucosal K cells augments insulin secretion and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent studies, we have shown GIP directly activates Na-glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1) and enhances glucose absorption in mouse jejunum. It is not known whether GIP would also regulate other intestinal nutrient absorptive processes. The present study investigated the effect of GIP on proton-peptide cotransporter-1 (PepT1) that mediates di- and tripeptide absorption as well as peptidomimetic drugs. Immunohistochemistry studies localized both GIP receptor (GIPR) and PepT1 proteins on the basolateral and apical membranes of normal mouse jejunum, respectively. Anti-GIPR antibody detected 50-, 55-, 65-, and 70-kDa proteins, whereas anti-PepT1 detected a 70-kDa proteins in mucosal homogenates of mouse jejunum. RT-PCR analyses established the expression of GIPR- and PepT1-specific mRNA in mucosal cells of mouse jejunum. Absorption of Gly-Sar (a nondigestible dipeptide) measured under voltage-clamp conditions revealed that the imposed mucosal H(+) gradient-enhanced Gly-Sar absorption as an evidence for the presence of PepT1-mediated H(+):Gly-Sar cotransport on the apical membranes of mouse jejunum. H(+):Gly-Sar absorption was completely inhibited by cephalexin (a competitive inhibitor of PepT1) and was activated by GIP. The GIP-activated Gly-Sar absorption was completely inhibited by RP-cAMP (a cAMP antagonist). In contrast to GIP, the ileal L cell secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) did not affect the H(+):Gly-Sar absorption in mouse jejunum. We conclude from these observations that GIP, but not GLP-1, directly activates PepT1 activity by a cAMP-dependent signaling pathway in jejunum.

  13. Functional characterization of dipeptide transport system in human jejunum.

    PubMed

    Adibi, S A; Soleimanpour, M R

    1974-05-01

    The present studies were performed to determine whether dipeptide absorption in human jejunum exhibits the characteristics of carrier-mediated transport. 15-cm jejunal segments from human volunteers were perfused with test solutions containing varying amounts of either glycylglycine, glycylleucine, glycine, leucine, glycylglycine with leucine or glycine, glycylglycine with glycylleucine, or glycylleucine with an equimolar mixture of free glycine and leucine. Jejunal absorption rates of both glycylglycine and glycylleucine followed the kinetics of a saturable process. The K(m) value in millimoles/liter of glycylglycine was significantly greater than the K(m) value of glycylleucine (43.3+/-2.6 vs. 26.8+/-5.9, P < 0.05); and the K(m) value of glycine was also significantly greater than the K(m) value of leucine (42.7+/-7.5 vs. 20.4+/-5.4, P < 0.05). While overlapping occurred among the K(m) values of free amino acids and dipeptides, the transport kinetics of dipeptides were characterized by higher V(max) values (in micromoles per minute per 15 centimeters) than those of free amino acids. For example, the V(max) values for glycylglycine and glycine were 837+/-62 and 590+/-56, respectively (P < 0.02). While jejunal absorption rates of glycylglycine were not significantly affected by free leucine or free glycine, they were competitively inhibited by glycylleucine. The jejunal absorption rate of glycylleucine was not significantly altered by an equimolar mixture of free glycine and leucine. The selective absorption of dipeptides was investigated by infusing three equimolar mixtures, each containing two different dipeptides. Among the three dipeptides examined, glycylglycine was the least absorbed. There was no significant difference between the absorption of glycylleucine and leucylglycine. The above studies suggest that absorption of both glycylglycine and glycylleucine is mediated by a carrier which is not shared with free neutral amino acids; and that both COOH- and NH

  14. Pico2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal Pco2 (Pico2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer. Pico2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010. All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. Pico2 in the transferred jejunum correlated with arterial Pco2 (Paco2) that was measured concurrently, and dissociation of Pico2 from Paco2 was observed in cases with vascular complication. In those cases without postoperative vascular complication, the Pico2 value gradually increased for 3 hours but then decreased by 12 hours after surgery. Three patients experienced major vascular complication. All 3 patients had continuous elevation of Pico2 >100 mm Hg, although vascular flow in 1 patient recovered by removal of a venous thrombosis and reanastomosis of the vein 7.5 hours after surgery. Four other patients who experienced elevation of Pico2 had their skin suture released for decompression of their neck wound, resulting in a decrease in Pico2 after treatment. The current results demonstrated that continuous monitoring of Pico2 by air tonometry accurately reflects the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum, and this method is one of the best options for postoperative monitoring of jejunum blood perfusion. PMID:25789955

  15. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy for complex injuries of the pancreas and duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Krige, Jake E; Nicol, Andrew J; Navsaria, Pradeep H

    2014-01-01

    Background This single-centre study evaluated the outcome of a pancreatoduodenectomy for Grade 5 injuries of the pancreas and duodenum. Methods Prospectively recorded data of patients who underwent a pancreatoduodenectomy for trauma at a Level I Trauma Centre during a 22-year period were analysed. Results Nineteen (17 men and 2 women, median age 28 years, range 14–53 years) out of 426 patients with pancreatic injuries underwent a pancreatoduodenectomy (gunshot n = 12, blunt trauma n = 6 and stab wound n = 1). Nine patients had associated inferior vena cava (IVC) or portal vein (PV) injuries. Five patients had initial damage control procedures and underwent a definitive operation at a median of 15 h (range 11–92) later. Twelve had a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) and 7 a standard Whipple. Three patients with APACHE II scores of 15, 18, 18 died post-operatively of multi-organ failure. All 16 survivors had Dindo-Clavien grade I (n = 1), grade II (n = 7), grade IIIa (n = 2), grade IVa (n = 6) post-operative complications. Factors complicating surgery were shock on admission, number of associated injuries, coagulopathy, hypothermia, gross bowel oedema and traumatic pancreatitis. Conclusions A pancreatoduodenectomy is a life-saving procedure in a small cohort of stable patients with non-reconstructable pancreatic head injuries. Damage control before a pancreatoduodenectomy will salvage a proportion of the most severely injured patients who have multiple injuries. PMID:24841125

  16. Hemostasis Achieved Endoscopically for Diverticular Bleeding from the Horizontal Portion of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Matuso, Yasumasa; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Midori; Ishigooka, Shinya; Ozawa, Shun-ichiro; Yamashita, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Diverticulum of the horizontal portion of the duodenum is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Since it is difficult to access the horizontal portion of the duodenum by standard upper GI endoscopy, only a very few cases of endoscopic hemostasis have been reported. Herein, we report a case of diverticular bleeding from the horizontal portion of the duodenum for which hemostasis was achieved using a small-caliber colonoscope, which has an insertion part designed with a passive-bending function/high-force transmission and a transparent tip hood. PMID:26692767

  17. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  18. Effects of level of dietary intake and physical form of protein supplement on the digestibilities of different dietary carbohydrates between mouth and abomasum of young steers.

    PubMed

    McAllan, A B; Smith, R H

    1983-09-01

    Steers fitted with simple rumen and abomasal cannulas were given isoenergetic diets of rolled barley and chopped straw, pelleted together with some tapioca alone (B) or with some tapioca replaced by coarse soyabean meal (M) or finely ground soyabean flour (F). The diets were given at two levels to support 0.5 (L) and 1.0 (H) kg/d live weight gain. Chromic oxide and PEG were given as digesta flow markers. Mouth to abomasum digestibilities of different dietary sugars at the low level of intake (LB) were 0.65, 0.68, 0.59, 0.56 and 0.94 for arabinose, galactose, xylose, cellulose-glucose and starch-glucose respectively. Corresponding values at the higher level of intake (HB) were 0.55, 0.66, 0.55, 0.44 and 0.93 respectively. Supplementation with either soya bean meal or flour had no significant effects on the mouth to abomasum of dietary carbohydrate digestibilities at either level of feeding.

  19. Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele) = 0.64; -log(10)P(allele) = 6.8, -log(10)P(genotype) = 7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA.

  20. Purification and further characterization of enteropeptidase from porcine duodenum.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, M; Ichinose, M; Yahagi, N; Tsukada-Kato, S; Miki, K; Omata, M; Kim, Y T; Ito, H; Takahashi, T; Sakurai, Y; Tsuchiya, Y; Athauda, S B; Inoue, H; Takahashi, K

    1999-05-01

    Enteropeptidase [EC 3.4.21.9] is a membrane-bound serine endopeptidase present in the duodenum that converts trypsinogen to trypsin. We previously cloned the cDNA of the porcine enzyme and deduced its entire amino acid sequence [M. Matsushima et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 19976-19982]. In the present study, we purified the porcine enzyme approximately 2,200-fold in a 12% yield from a duodenal mucosal extract to apparent homogeneity by an improved procedure comprising four steps of chromatography including benzamidine-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Lectin blotting analysis suggested that the enzyme is glycosylated mainly with N-linked carbohydrate chains of the tri- and/or tetraantennary complex type. The H and L chains of the enzyme were separated into two major bands upon SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that the enzyme mainly comprises two isoforms, a higher molecular weight form and a lower molecular weight form. The enzyme was also separated by lectin affinity chromatography into two major fractions, named isoforms I and II, which corresponded to the higher and lower molecular weight forms, respectively. These two isoforms appeared to be different only in the carbohydrate moiety, having essentially the same enzymatic properties. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 8.0 toward Gly-Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys-beta-naphthylamide, and was inhibited strongly by various serine proteinase inhibitors. Furthermore, it was also strongly inhibited by E-64 [L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamide-(4-guanido)-butane], a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Substrate specificity studies involving various synthetic peptides indicated that acidic residues at the P2, P3, and/or P4 positions are especially favorable for maximal activity, but are not absolutely necessary, at least in the cases of peptide substrates.

  1. Intra Luminal Metastasis to Duodenum: A Histological Surprise

    PubMed Central

    Aroul, Tirou; Kuppusamy, Sasikumar; Gunashekaran, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma cervix is one of the most common malignancies seen in women worldwide and more so in the Indian subcontinent. Carcinoma cervix is known for its orderly lymphatic spread. Skip metastasis or intraluminal metastasis is not a frequent occurrence. A 50-year-old diabetic and hypertensive female patient who was diagnosed to have carcinoma cervix (stage II A 2) Grade II to III and post radiotherapy (3 years back) presented to the surgical outpatient with dyspeptic symptoms and vague abdominal pain. On examination she was found to have a 1x1cm hard, fixed, left supraclavicular node and a palpable liver. Ultrasound abdomen revealed multiple retro peritoneal lymphadenopathy and Contrast Enhanced Computerised Tomography (CECT) abdomen revealed secondary deposits in the pancreatico-duodenal groove infiltrating the duodenal C-loop and pancreatic head, with multiple retroperitoneal nodes with necrosis. Fine needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) from left supraclavicular node revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed 2 sessile lesions in the anterior wall of duodenum with mucosa stretched and central umbilication with almost complete luminal obstruction. Biopsy from the duodenal lesion also turned out positive for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Gynaecological examination was negative for any local recurrence. Patient was managed symptomatically for dyspepsia and is currently undergoing chemotherapy. She is at present on regular follow-up and is asymptomatic for the bowel metastasis. Given the frequency of cancer cervix and the rarity of intra luminal metastasis, this case report serves to reiterate the fact that the abdomen is truly a pandora’s box. PMID:27790514

  2. [A Case of Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Carcinoma, Penetrating the Stomach, Colon, and Jejunum].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tadahiro; Toyama, Hirochika; Asari, Sadaki; Terai, Sachio; Kinoshita, Hisoka; Matsumoto, Taku; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Tanaka, Motofumi; Takebe, Atsushi; Kido, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to a nearby clinic complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal CT showed a 10 cm diameter huge cystic lesion in the body and tail of the pancreas. The patient was referred to our institution for treatment. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a cystic mass with a solid lesion. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP) demonstrated mucous at the opening of the papilla of Vater and dilatation of the pancreatic duct with a solid nodule. Contrast radiography revealed a fistula from the tumor to the jejunum. A biopsy specimen from the lesion showed adenocarcinoma. Intraoperative findings showed a tumor occupying the pancreas body and tail with suspected invasion to the stomach, jejunum, and transverse colon. We performed distal pancreatectomy with partial resection of stomach, jejunum, and colon. Pathological findings showed an invasive type of IPMC, with invasion to the subserosal layer of the stomach and colon and the mucous layer of the jejunum. While IPMC is recognized as a slow growing malignancy, some cases of invasive carcinoma with fistulation into adjacent organs have been reported. To our knowledge, a case of IPMC penetrating to 3 adjacent organs is rare.

  3. Alteration in gene expression in the jejunum mucosa of Angus steers with divergent ADG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing ration containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% ...

  4. Effects of glucocorticoid-induced stress on absorption of glycylsarcosine in jejunum of broilers.

    PubMed

    Chang, W H; Li, J J; Zhang, S; Zheng, A J; Yuan, J L; Cai, H Y; Liu, G H

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stress on the absorption of glycylsarcosine in the jejunum of broilers, as well as the underlying mechanisms. A glucocorticoid analogue, dexamethasone (DEX), was chosen to simulate the effects of endogenous glucocorticoids. Two hundred 21-day-old male Arbor Acre broilers were randomly allotted to 4 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate by a completely randomized assignment involving a single factorial arrangement of injection dose DEX. The broilers were injected with 1-mL DEX (0.1-, 0.5-, and 2.5-mg/kg BW) or saline subcutaneously in the abdomen 1×/d for 7 d. The broilers were weighed, killed, and sampled at 28 days old. The results showed that DEX dose-dependently reduced growth and endogenous corticosterone content in the plasma of the broilers (P<0.05). DEX decreased absorption of glycylsarcosine by jejunum brush border membrane vesicles and gut sacs (P<0.05). DEX treatment increased the crypt depth of the jejunum, decreased the villus height, absorption area, and ratio of villus height to crypt depth (P<0.05). Effect of dexamethasone on villus width was not obvious (P>0.05). It was concluded that DEX reduced the absorption of glycylsarcosine in the jejunum of broilers.

  5. Emodin alleviates jejunum injury in rats with sepsis by inhibiting inflammation response.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Kun; Xu, Ying-Kun; Zhang, Hao; Yin, Jiang-Tao; Fan, Xin; Liu, Da-Dong; Fu, Hai-Yan; Wan, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Emodin is an anthraquinone derived from Chinese herb that exerts anti-inflammation effects. This study aimed to investigate whether emodin provides the protection for jejunum injury by inhibiting inflammation. We established a model of sepsis caused by cecal ligation and puncture. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=12). Jejunum injury was assessed by pathological examination. The activity of pJAK1/pSTAT3 and protein levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by Western blot analysis. Inflammatory factors IL-6, TNF-α and procalcitonin were detected by ELISA. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. We found that emodin alleviated jejunum damage and apoptosis induced by sepsis and decreased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and procalcitonin in septic rats. Furthermore, we observed that emodin increased the levels of pJAK1 and of pSTAT3, which were decreased in rats with sepsis. In addition, emodin enhanced the expression of Bcl-2 which was downregulated by sepsis and decreased the expression of Bax which was upregulated by sepsis. In conclusion, these results indicate that emodin suppresses inflammatory response induced by sepsis. Emodin activates JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway and regulates Bcl-2 and Bax expression to protect the jejunum in rats with sepsis.

  6. Morphometry and strain distribution in guinea pig duodenum with reference to the zero-stress state.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, H; Kassab, G; Pallencaoe, E; Lee, C; Chien, S; Skalak, R; Fung, Y C

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the distribution of residual circumferential strains along the duodenum in anesthetized guinea pigs. A silicone elastomer was allowed to harden in the duodenal lumen under a pressure of 0.7 kPa. The duodenum was excised with the cast and photographed. The zero-stress state was obtained by cutting rings of duodenum radially. The geometric configuration at the zero-stress state is of fundamental importance, because it is the basic state with respect to which the physical stresses and strains are defined. A basic piece of information is the way the tangent vector rotates from one end of the circumference to the other. In the duodenum at zero-stress state, the total rotation of the tangent from one tip to the other is -500 to -850 , with the lowest absolute value in the proximal duodenum. In other words, the duodenum usually turns itself inside out on changing from a loaded state to the zero-stress state. The serosal circumference, the duodenal wall thickness, and the ratio of wall thickness to mucosal circumference decreased in the distal direction. In the pressurized state, the serosal Cauchy strain was tensile and increased in the distal direction; the mucosal Cauchy strain was compressive in the proximal half of the duodenum and tensile in the distal half. The large circumferential residual strains must be taken into account in a study of physiological problems in which the stresses and strains are important, e.g., the bolus transport function.

  7. Management of gallstone ileus with stone impacted in the ascending part of duodenum.

    PubMed

    Kirac, Iva; Nikolić, Marko; Kulis, Tomislav; Kovacević, Dujo; Lovrencić-Prpić, Gordana; Kirac, Petar

    2010-09-01

    Gallstone ileus with impaction of gallstone in distal duodenum is an extremely rare complication of cholecystolithiasis. Gallstone ileus in itself accounts for less than 1% of these complications with 800 cases described so far. However, there are less than 15 cases described with the impaction of gallstone in distal duodenum. We report a case of an 84-year-old male patient in whom gallstone impacted in distal duodenum was found by ultrasonography and confirmed by computed tomography. Cholecystitis and a remaining large gallstone in the gallbladder were found intraoperatively, which made us opt for one-step procedure, i.e. lithotomy and fistula repair with cholecystectomy. Due to the rare position of impacted gallstone, we believe that cases like this should be reported in detail in order to generate enough data for establishing optimal treatment options.

  8. Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Invading the Duodenum and Presenting as Idiopathic Gastroparesis with Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Cengia, Brent T.; Stuart, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Prior esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed retained food and delayed gastric emptying, but abdominal computed tomography was normal. The working diagnosis was idiopathic gastroparesis. Subsequently, an electrogastrogram test showed normal 3-cycle-per-minute activity, although it was suggestive of obstructive gastroparesis. Repeat esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed obstruction at the postbulbar duodenum. Repeat abdominal computed tomography revealed a 2.2 x 1.6-cm mass in the pancreaticoduodenal groove narrowing the descending duodenum and aspiration of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma. PMID:27807571

  9. Primary adenocarcinoma of the jejunum and ileum: clinicopathological review of 25 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Lioe, T F; Biggart, J D

    1990-01-01

    Between 1954 and 1988 only a total of twenty five cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the small bowel (excluding periampillary tumours) were recorded at the Department of Histopathology, Belfast City Hospital. Of these, 14 tumours were located in the jejunum: the remainder arose in the ileum. The average age at presentation was 61.3 years and a slight female to male preponderance of 1:7:1 was noted. The adenocarcinoma arose from a preexisting villous adenoma in six cases. The overall prognosis was poor, with a five year survival of 15.7%. All the survivors had tumours located in the jejunum. The single most important prognostic indicator was the depth of tumour invasion or stage at the time of diagnosis. Tumour size and grade did not seem to correlate well with survival. It is concluded that the rarity of these tumours and their inaccessibility hinder detection and treatment and that surgical resection is more effective than chemotherapy. Images PMID:2380402

  10. Bleeding peptic ulcer caused by ectopic gastric mucosa in a duplicated segment of jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.

    1981-02-01

    The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described.

  11. The dynamic structure of a flat small intestinal mucosa studied on the explanted rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Loehry, C A; Grace, R

    1974-04-01

    Small pieces of jejunum with an intact blood supply were explanted to the anterior abdominal wall in rats. Six weeks after explantation the mucosa appeared totally flat in many areas, both histologically and under the dissecting microscope. The structure of the flattened mucosa was shown to be identical to that in coeliac disease with hypertrophied intervillous ridges. A dynamic study with tritium-labelled thymidine demonstrated a considerably increased turnover in the flat mucosa with some disorganization of cell production and migration.

  12. Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect.

    PubMed

    Russo, Michael A; Hogenauer, Christoph; Coates, Stephen W; Santa Ana, Carol A; Porter, Jack L; Rosenblatt, Randall L; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S

    2003-07-01

    Due to genetic defects in apical membrane chloride channels, the cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine does not secrete chloride normally. Depressed chloride secretion leaves CF intestinal absorptive processes unopposed, which results in net fluid hyperabsorption, dehydration of intestinal contents, and a propensity to inspissated intestinal obstruction. This theory is based primarily on in vitro studies of jejunal mucosa. To determine if CF patients actually hyperabsorb fluid in vivo, we measured electrolyte and water absorption during steady-state perfusion of the jejunum. As expected, chloride secretion was abnormally low in CF, but surprisingly, there was no net hyperabsorption of sodium or water during perfusion of a balanced electrolyte solution. This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption. Although Na+-glucose cotransport was normal in the CF jejunum, absence of passive chloride absorption completely blocked glucose-stimulated net sodium absorption and reduced glucose-stimulated water absorption 66%. This chloride absorptive abnormality acts in physiological opposition to the classic chloride secretory defect in the CF intestine. By increasing the fluidity of intraluminal contents, absence of passive chloride absorption may reduce the incidence and severity of intestinal disease in patients with CF.

  13. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  14. Sodium tungstate decreases sucrase and Na+/D-glucose cotransporter in the jejunum of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Miró-Queralt, Montserrat; Guinovart, Joan J; Planas, Joana M

    2008-09-01

    Sodium tungstate reduces glycemia and reverts the diabetic phenotype in several induced and genetic animal models of diabetes. Oral administration of this compound has recently emerged as an effective treatment for diabetes. Here we examined the effects of 30 days of oral administration of tungstate on disaccharidase and Na+/D-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) activity in the jejunum of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes increased sucrase-specific activity in the jejunal mucosa but did not affect the activity of lactase, maltase, or trehalase. The abundance and the maximal rate of transport of SGLT1 in isolated brush-border membrane vesicles also increased. Tungstate decreased sucrase activity and normalized SGLT1 expression and activity in the jejunum of diabetic rats. Furthermore, tungstate did not change the affinity of SGLT1 for d-glucose and had no effect on the diffusional component. In control animals, tungstate had no effect on disaccharidases or SGLT1 expression. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of specific SGLT1 mRNA was the same in the jejunum from all experimental groups, thereby indicating that changes in SGLT1 abundance are due to posttranscriptional mechanisms. We conclude that the antidiabetic effect of tungstate is partly due to normalization of the activity of sucrase and SGLT1 in the brush-border membrane of enterocytes.

  15. Fulminant phlegmonitis of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum due to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ogura, Hiroshi; Seki, Masafumi; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-03-28

    We report a case of phlegmonitis of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum in patient in an immunocompromised state. Culture of gastric juice and blood yielded Bacillus thuringiensis. This case showed that even low-virulence bacilli can cause lethal gastrointestinal phlegmonous gastritis in conditions of immunodeficiency.

  16. Nitrogen balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay and infused with differing proportions of casein in the rumen and abomasum.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K C; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2004-02-01

    Twenty wether lambs (46 +/- 2 kg) fitted with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of differing proportions of ruminal and abomasal casein infusion on N balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay (0.8% N, DM basis) for ad libitum intake. Wethers were infused with 0 (control) or 10.7 g/d of N from casein with ratios of ruminal:abomasal infusion of 100:0 (100R:0A), 67:33 (67R:33A), 33:67 (33R:67A), or 0:100% (0R:100A), respectively, over a 12-d period. Total N supply (hay N intake + N from casein infusion) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion (g/d) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion decreased as casein infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly increased in lambs receiving 0R:100A (quadratic, P = 0.02). Total N excretion was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls and decreased linearly (P = 0.005) as casein infusion was shifted to the abomasum. Retained N (g/d, % of N intake, and % of digested N) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein than in controls. Retained N increased as infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly decreased in lambs receiving 0R: 100A (quadratic, P < 0.07). Based on regression analysis, the predicted optimum proportion of casein infusion to maximize N retention was 68% into the abomasum. The regression suggests that supplementation with undegradable intake protein had an additional benefit over supplementation with ruminally degradable intake protein (100R:0A) and that changing the percentage of ruminally undegradable intake protein in supplemental protein from 33 to 100% resulted in minimal differences in N retention. Apparent N, DM, OM, and energy digestibility (% of intake) was greater (P < 0.03) in lambs infused with casein than controls but did not differ among casein

  17. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Homan; Arshami, Javad; Golian, Abolghasem; Raji, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP) as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate). At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days), feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24), one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW), drumstick weight (DW), and jejunum length (JL) as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01). The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04) and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01) and total periods (p < 0.05). The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059) and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079) as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD) at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL) and villi number (p < 0.05) and, VL/CD (p < 0.01) and, villus surface area (p < 0.02). The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05). The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01). In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry. PMID:25653792

  18. [Total laryngopharyngectomy and reconstruction with a jejunum speech siphon : A case report].

    PubMed

    Seidel, D U; Sheppard, K; Dogan, Z A; Remmert, S

    2014-06-01

    Advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis and a pronounced loss of quality of life due to impairment of the swallowing and voice function. The fundamental therapeutic challenge is successful tumor control with concomitant rehabilitation of swallowing and voice functions. Further objectives are a low complications rate (fistula, aspiration) and prompt transfer to the adjuvant radio-oncologic therapy. With these factors in mind, the microvascular anastomosed jejunum speech siphon with a biventer rein has proven to be an effective method of reconstruction following extensive circular laryngopharyngeal resections. In this case report, a typical operative and postoperative course is presented, as are the functional results.

  19. High-level recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of transgenic pigs can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli in the duodenum and influence intestinal morphology of sucking pigs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Li, Qiuyan; Wu, Zhibin; Shang, Shengzhe; Liu, Shen; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Wu, Fangfang; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme is often used as a feed additive and acts as an antimicrobial protein that enhances immune function and defends against pathogenic bacteria in pigs. In this study, we genetically added recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) to sow milk by somatic cell nuclear transfer and investigated whether the presence of recombinant human lysozyme can influence intestinal microbiota and morphology in sucking pigs. We generated transgenic cloned pigs and the first-generation hybrids (F1) produced high levels of rhLZ in milk. The average concentration of rhLZ was 116.34 ± 24.46 mg/L in the milk of F1 sows, which was 1500-fold higher than that of the native pig lysozyme. In vitro, it was demonstrated that rhLZ in milk of transgenic pigs had enzyme levels at 92,272 ± 26,413 U/mL. In a feeding experiment, a total of 40 newborn piglets were nursed by four transgenic sows and four sibling non-transgenic sows (F1), with five piglets per gilt. The piglets were allowed to nurse for 21 days and the sow milk was the only source of nutrition for the piglets. All piglets were slaughtered on postnatal day 22. Six types of bacteria were cultured and analyzed to detect the impact of rhLZ on gut microbiota. The number of Escherichia coli in the duodenum of piglets reared by transgenic sows was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and their villus height to crypt depth ratio in the intestine were increased due to the significant decrease of crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (p<0.001). Together, we successfully generated rhLZ transgenic cloned pigs and elevated lysozyme level in nuring piglets. The results of the feeding experiments demonstrated that rhLZ-enhanced milk can inhibit the growth of E. coli in the duodenum and positively influence intestinal morphology without adversely affecting weight gain or piglet growth.

  20. Preclinical trial on the use of doxycycline for the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Salazar, Hector R.; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D.; Montes-Galindo, Daniel A.; Espíritu, Gabriel Ceja; Guzman-Esquivel, José; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P.; Newton-Sánchez, Oscar A.; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L.; Gómez, Xóchitl G. Briseño; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto; Delgado-Enciso, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the duodenum comprises 50–70% of duodenal tumors. There is an increase in extracellular matrix metalloproteinases in this disease and it has been suggested that they play an important role in the development and pathology. Therefore, new therapeutic recommendations based on inhibitors of these enzymes, such as doxycycline, are under investigation. The cytotoxic effect of doxycycline was evaluated in the HuTu-80 duodenal adenocarcinoma cell line and its antitumor effect was determined in an immunodeficient murine model. A 10-µM (4.4 µg/ml) concentration of doxycycline was capable of causing apoptosis in 90% of the culture cells. Doxycycline was also responsible for a decrease in tumor growth and an increase in the survival of the mice with HuTu-80-cell tumors. These results suggest that doxycycline is a potential cytotoxic and antitumor agent effective in the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. PMID:27900107

  1. Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Graur, Florin; Mois, Emil; Al Hajjar, Nadim

    2014-09-01

    Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum is a very rare type of duodenal neoplasm and is more likely to be presented as a metastatic tumor. The literature offers little information on this subject and includes very few articles and case reports. Laboratory tests, CT and ultrasound examinations, x-rays and immunohistochemical markers assisted us in making this rare diagnosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum in a 47 year old female patient, who presented with weight loss and melena. The 8 cm duodenal tumor with pancreas invasion was resected by a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. The pathology examination revealed a primary duodenal squamous cell carcinoma moderately differentiated (G2), invasive in the head of the pancreas, with keratinization, stage II B (pT4N0MxL0V0R0). Positive outcome after surgery was highlighted, no recurrence being registered at the 6 month CT scan follow-up.

  2. Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation involving adjacent duodenum with gastrointestinal bleeding: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Eiji; Aimoto, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Katsuno, Akira; Chou, Kazumitsu; Kawamoto, Masao; Ono, Shinpei; Ishii, Nobuaki; Miyake, Kazumasa; Fujimori, Shunji; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Tajiri, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the symptoms of palpitation, dyspnea, and tarry stool. Upper gastroduodenal endoscopy revealed submucosal lesions with vascular ectasia in the second part of the duodenum. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) detected a hypervascular lesion in the pancreatic head and the duodenum. Selective angiography showed proliferation of a vascular network and early filling of the portal vein at the early arterial phase. With a diagnosis of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (AVM), we performed pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. At laparotomy, localized and meandering vessels were seen on the surface of the head of the pancreas. Histological examination showed dilated tortuous vessels accompanied by severed elastic fibers in the vessel media and blood clot formation. The incidence of pancreatic AVM remains extremely low, and recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequent complication. To prevent recurrent bleeding and progressive portal hypertension, surgery may be the definitive management of symptomatic AVM.

  3. Stomach and duodenum ulcer: comparing the efficiency of three laser therapeutic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myslovich, L. V.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of how effective various therapeutic techniques are in treating stomach and duodenum ulcers. The investigation was made on 105 patients (70 patients were affected by duodenum ulcer and 25 patients suffered from stomach ulcer). Three different complex laser therapeutic techniques were compared with each other and with a generally accepted drug treatment. It was found that the most pronounced therapeutic effect was observed in patients administered a complex laser technique that included drug therapy, the intravenous laser irradiation of blood, and the focal-segmental laser therapy. This complex laser therapy enabled ulcer scarring within 8 to 15 days after the beginning of the treatment (with the average scarring term of 9 days).

  4. Collision tumor in form of primary adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lan; Schwarz, Roderich E

    2012-04-12

    Collision tumor is a rare phenomenon characterized by coexistence of completely distinct and independent tumors at the same body location. Collision tumors have been reported in different sites. However, they are extremely uncommon in the duodenum. We report the case of a 52-year old man with a collision tumor in the third portion of the duodenum with two distinct tumors of primary adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma, and both tumors coexisting within a single metastatic lymph node. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed to conclude that this was a case of collision cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first collision tumor case reported to date at this location, and the first report of lymph node with a collision metastasis from a collision tumor. Such tumor is very rare and may thus provide diagnostic challenges. This report also provides a review of other cases on duodenal collision tumors.

  5. Evidence that GABAA receptors mediate relaxation of rat duodenum by activating intramural nonadrenergic-noncholinergic neurones.

    PubMed

    Maggi, C A; Manzini, S; Meli, A

    1984-06-01

    GABA produced rapid and transient relaxation of rat duodenum. Homotaurine (3-aminopropansulphonic acid) but not (+/-)-baclofen had a GABA-like effect. GABA-induced relaxation was almost completely inhibited by tetrodotoxin but was unaffected by atropine. Cross desensitization developed between GABA and homotaurine but not between GABA and (+/-)-baclofen. The concentration response curve to the relaxant effects of GABA was shifted to the right by both bicuculline and picrotoxin. However maximal relaxation was still produced by GABA in the presence of bicuculline but not in the presence of picrotoxin. GABA-induced relaxation was not affected by prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol or reserpine pretreatment. Field stimulation (0.1 Hz) of rat isolated duodenum in the presence of atropine and guanethidine produced relaxation similar to that produced by GABA. The ganglionic stimulant DMPP produced a similar effect. Neither Met-enkephalin, noradrenaline, 5-HT, histamine, VIP or arachidonic acid could be held responsible for GABA-induced neurogenic relaxation of rat duodenum. ATP produced relaxations which closely mimicked those produced by either GABA or field stimulation. Exposure to ATP desensitized responses to both GABA and field stimulation to about the same extent. ATP, GABA and field stimulation-induced relaxation was unaffected by either theophylline or indomethacin, but was significantly and selectively antagonized by apamin. In conclusion, GABA-induced relaxation of rat isolated duodenum is largely dependent upon activation of intra-mural nonadrenergic-noncholinergic neurones. The GABA receptor involved appears to be of the GABAA subtype. Circumstantial evidence is provided indicating that ATP might be the endogenous substance released by GABA.

  6. Intramural hematoma of duodenum: An unusual complication after endoscopic therapy for a bleeding peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Bhatia, Vikram; Garg, Hitendra Kumar; Sundar, Shyam

    2011-04-01

    Intramural hematoma of duodenum (IDH) is a relatively unusual complication associated with endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer. This unusual condition is usually seen in children following blunt trauma to the abdomen. We describe here a case of IDH occurring following endoscopic therapy for bleeding duodenal ulcer in an adult patient with end-stage renal disease. The hematomas appeared on the second day of endoscopic intervention, caused transient duodenal obstruction and resolved spontaneously with conservative treatment in a week.

  7. Effect of Imperatorin on the Spontaneous Motor Activity of Rat Isolated Jejunum Strips

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Marta; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Chłopecka, Magdalena; Dziekan, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Imperatorin, a psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent acting as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle. Its effects on other types of smooth muscle remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesized myorelaxant effect of imperatorin on gut motor activity and, possibly, to define the underlying mechanism of action. Imperatorin was made available for pharmacological studies from the fruits of the widely available Angelica officinalis through the application of high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). Imperatorin generated reversible relaxation of jejunum strips dose-dependently (1–100 μM). At 25 and 50 μM, imperatorin caused relaxation comparable to the strength of the reaction induced by isoproterenol (Isop) at 0.1 μM. The observed response resulted neither from the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, nor from β-adrenoreceptor involvement, nor from Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Imperatorin relaxed intestine strips precontracted with high potassium concentration, attenuated the force and duration of K+-induced contractions, and modulated the response of jejunum strips to acetylcholine. The results suggest that imperatorin probably interacts with various Ca2+ influx pathways in intestine smooth muscle. The types of some calcium channels involved in the activity of imperatorin will be examined in a subsequent study. PMID:26236380

  8. On the mechanism of the relaxing adrenaline effect on cat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Petkov, V; Radomirov, R

    1975-01-01

    The effect of propranolol, phentolamine, papaverine, theophyline and Ca++, administered in different combinations of their threshold doses, on the relaxing effect of adrenaline was studied on an isolated segment of proximal jejunum of male cats. It was established that phentolamine weakened the relaxing effect of adrenaline, while propranolol had no effect on it. Papaverine potentiated the relaxinf effects of adrenaline both when administered alone and in combination with propranolol or with phentolamine. Theophylline weakened the relaxing effect of adfrenaline and of the combination phentolamine-adrenaline. Ca++ increased the smooth-muscle tone. The interpretation of the results obtained leads to the fundamental conclusions that the relaxing effect of adrenaline on cat jejunum is more alpha- than beta-adrenergically determined and that the system of the cyclic AMP participates in its realization. At the smae time, however, the possibility of participation of other mechanisms is not excluded. The smooth-muscle effect of papaverine and theophylline is not determined only by their inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase.

  9. Effect of dantrolene sodium on the contractility of rabbit jejunum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, M; Dehpour, A R; Mofakham, S

    1981-03-26

    The effect of dantrolene sodium on the spontaneous contractions of rabbit jejunum was studied in vitro. Dantrolene sodium (4.5 x 10(6) to 4.5 10(4) M) reversibly decreased the amplitude of contractions in a dose-dependent manner. ED50 was found to be about 7.9 x 10(-5) M. Its effect was biphasic in that a period of potentiation preceded that of suppression of contractions. Lowering or increasing (2.5 fold in each direction) the calciumm concentration of bathing media did not affect the suppression of contraction caused by dantrolene sodium to any significant degree. Caffeine but not quinine was found to be able to restore the activity of the intestine to normal after a 50% inhibition caused by dantrolene sodium. Dantrolene sodium, verapamil and nifedipine were able to shift the dose-response curves of calcium in potassium-polarized rabbit jejunum to the right and pA2 values were found to be 4.18, 7.76 and 8.47 respectively. These data indicate that the effect of dantrolene on smooth muscle is mediated via inhibition of calciu movement across the membrane.

  10. Bacteria isolated from the duodenum, ileum, and cecum of young chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J P; Blake, I G; Muirehead, P A; Maglio, M; Goodman, J R

    1978-01-01

    Facultatively anaerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria colonizing the intestinal tracts of 14-day-old chicks fed a corn-based diet were enumerated, isolated, and identified. Colony counts from anaerobic roll tubes (rumen fluid medium) or aerobic plates (brain heart infusion agar) recovered from homogenates of the duodenum, upper and lower ileum, and cecum varied appreciably among samples from individual birds. Anaerobic and aerobic counts from the duodenum and ileum were similar. Anaerobic counts were highest from the cecum (0.7 X 10(11) to 1.6 X 10(11)/g of dry tissue) and exceeded aerobic plate counts by a factor of at least 10(2). Facultatively anaerobic groups (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli) comprised the predominant flora of the duodenum and ileum, although large numbers of anaerobes (9 to 39% of the small intestine isolates), represented by species of Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Clostridium, Gemmiger, and Fusobacterium, were also recovered. Strict anaerobes (anaerobic gram-positive cocci, Eubacterium, Clostridium Gemmiger, Fusobacterium, and Bacteriodes) made up nearly the entire microbial population of the cecum. Scanning electron microscopy of the intestinal epithelia of chicks revealed populations of microbes on the duodenal, ileal, and cecal mucosal surfaces. Images PMID:646359

  11. Intraepithelial lymphocyte distribution differs between the bulb and the second part of duodenum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation of intraepithelial duodenal lymphocytosis (IDL) is important in celiac disease (CD). There is no established cut-off value for increased number of IELs in the bulb. We therefore investigated the relation between IEL counts in the bulb and duodenal specimens in non-celiac subjects. Methods The number of CD3+ IELs was determined in specimens from the second part of the duodenum and from the bulb in 34 non-celiac subjects. The numbers of IELs in the villus tip and sides were counted and the quotient tip/side was calculated. HLA DQ2/DQ8 and serum antibodies against transglutaminase were analysed. Results The mean number of IELs per 100 enterocytes (95% CI) in specimens was 14.7 (11.8-17.6) in the bulb, and 21.2 (17.0-25.5) in the second part of the duodenum (p<0.01). There was no difference in IEL count or distribution comparing patients carrying or lacking HLA DQ2/DQ8. Conclusions IEL count in non-celiac, HLA DQ2/DQ8 positive or negative patients is significantly lower in the bulb than in the second part of the duodenum. These findings implicate that the site of biopsy should be taken into account when considering duodenal lymphocytosis. PMID:23841671

  12. Spontaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma in the duodenum of a Crlj:CD1 (ICR) mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Ryo; Ikezaki, Shinichiro; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Hoshiya, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a very rare tumor in humans and animals. This paper describes a case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma observed in the duodenum of a male ICR mouse. Grossly, a solid mass pushing up the tunica serosa was observed in the duodenal wall. Histologically, the tumor was located in the lamina propria mucosae and tela mucosa. Neoplastic cells densely proliferated in these areas, and replaced of the normal tissue components. A small amount of osteoid and a small clump of bone tissue were observed in the area of neoplastic cell proliferation, especially in the lamina propria mucosae. Neoplastic cells consisted of atypical polygonal cells and pleomorphic spindle-shaped cells, and the former were predominant. Mitotic figures were occasionally observed. Neither invasion of vessels in the duodenum nor metastasis to distant organs was observed. There were no skeletal tumors in the body. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for anti-osteocalcin, osteonectin, vimentin, and S-100 protein. Judging from these results, the present tumor was diagnosed as extraskeletal osteosarcoma. This is the first report of spontaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising from the duodenum of a mouse. PMID:27821914

  13. Intermittent parenteral administration of endotoxin triggers metabolic and immunological alterations typically associated with displaced abomasum and retained placenta in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zebeli, Q; Sivaraman, S; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2011-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of induced intermittent endotoxemia on plasma mediators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, humoral immunity, and clinical health status in periparturient dairy cows. Sixteen pregnant Holstein cows were blocked by parity and day of calving, and were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 different treatment groups. Eight cows were infused intravenously (i.v.) with 100mL of sterile saline and served as the control group (CON). The other 8 cows were infused i.v. with 100mL of sterile saline containing 3 increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), from Escherichia coli O111:B4, for 3 consecutive weeks during the 2 wk before and 1 wk after parturition as follows: (1) 0.01 μg of LPS/kg of body weight (BW) on d -14 and -10; (2) 0.05 μg of LPS/kg of BW on d -7 and -3; and (3) 0.1 μg of LPS/kg of BW on d 3 and 7 postpartum. Nine blood samples were collected during the experimental period (i.e., from -14 to 28 d postpartum) and analyzed for calcium, zinc, iron, copper, glucose, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol, insulin, cortisol, serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), haptoglobin (Hp), and anti-LPS IgA, IgG, and IgM. Results showed that intermittently induced endotoxemia decreased feed intake and milk production and triggered alterations in plasma cholesterol, BHBA, Hp, Ca, Cu, and anti-LPS IgG and IgM. All of these changes were associated with a greater number of cows affected by metabolic disorders such as left displaced abomasum (LDA, 2 from 8 LPS cows vs. 0 from 8 CON cows) and retained placenta (RP; 4 from 8 LPS cows vs. 0 from 8 CON cows). In addition, the discriminant analysis differently clustered the cow responses within LPS group, each corresponding to LDA, RP, and the cows displaying no clinical health problems (LPS-NO). The stepwise selection procedure of the best discriminant variables revealed that plasma Ca and anti-LPS IgG, as well as glucose

  14. Lack of Functionally-Active Sweet Taste Receptors in the Jejunum in vivo in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Rizwan M.; Garg, Alok; Abdelfatah, Mohamed M.; Duenes, Judith A.; Sarr, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND When studied in enterocyte-like cell lines (Caco-2 and RIE cells), agonists and antagonists of the sweet taste receptor (STR) augment and decrease glucose uptake, respectively. We hypothesize that exposure to STR agonists and antagonists in vivo will augment glucose absorption in the rat. MATERIAL/METHODS 30-cm segments of jejunum in anesthetized rats were perfused with iso-osmolar solutions containing 10, 35, and 100 mM glucose solutions (n=6 rats, each group) with and without the STR agonist 2 mM acesulfame potassium (AceK) and the STR inhibitor 10 μM U-73122 (inhibitor of the PLC pathway). Carrier-mediated absorption of glucose was calculated by using stereospecific and non-stereospecific 14C-D-glucose and 3H-L-glucose, respectively. RESULTS Addition of the STR agonist AceK to the 10, 35, and 100 mM glucose solutions had no substantive effects on glucose absorption from 2.1±0.2 to 2.0±0.3, 5.8±0.2 to 4.8±0.2, and 15.5±2.3 to 15.7±2.7 μmol/min/30-cm intestinal segment (p>0.05), respectively. Addition of the STR inhibitor (U-73122) also had no effect on absorption in the 10, 35, and 100 mM solutions from 2.3±0.1 to 2.1±0.2, 7.7±0.5 to 7.2±0.5, and 15.7±0.9 to 15.2±1.1 μmol/min/30-cm intestinal segment, respectively. CONCLUSION Provision of glucose directly into rat jejunum does not augment glucose absorption via STR-mediated mechanisms within the jejunum in the rat. Our experiments show either no major role of STRs in mediating postprandial augmentation of glucose absorption or that proximal gastrointestinal tract stimulation of STR or other luminal factors may be required for absorption of glucose to be augmented by STR. PMID:23531453

  15. Protective roles of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis of jejunum in broilers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-12-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler's jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression.

  16. Kinetics of acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii and histopathological changes in the duodenum of rats.

    PubMed

    Trevizan, Aline Rosa; Vicentino-Vieira, Suellen Laís; da Silva Watanabe, Paulo; Góis, Marcelo Biondaro; de Melo, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira; Garcia, João Luiz; José de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo; Sant'Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii crosses the intestinal barrier to spread into the body. We investigate the intestinal wall and epithelial cells of the duodenum of rats infected with T. gondii during different time points of acute infection. Male Wistar rats, 60 days of age, were assigned into groups that were orally inoculated with 5000 sporulated oocysts T. gondii for 6 h (G6), 12 h (G12), 24 h (G24), 48 h (G48), 72 h (G72), 7 days (G7d), and 10 days (G10d). The control group (CG) received saline. The rats were killed and the duodenum was processed to obtain histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff, and Alcian blue (pH 2.5 and 1.0). Morphometry was performed on the layers of the intestinal wall and enterocytes, and the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes was counted. The data were compared by ANOVA considering 5% as level of significance. The infection provoked an increase in the width of villi and crypts; decrease in enterocyte height; increase in the smaller-diameter and reduction in the larger-diameter of the enterocytes nuclei, increased number of goblet cells secreting neutral (G6, G12 and G7d) and acidic (G7d and G10d) mucus, and increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (G48). The infected groups showed atrophy of the submucosa and muscular layers and the total wall. Acute infection with T. gondii caused morphological changes in the intestinal wall and epithelial cells of the duodenum in rats.

  17. Linear distribution of nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of tracer lambs.

    PubMed

    Makovcová, Katerina; Langrová, Iva; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Jankovská, Ivana; Lytvynets, Andriy; Borkovcová, Marie

    2008-12-01

    Forty-eight tracer lambs were killed in 2004-2007. The abomasum, duodenum, small intestine (jejunum and ileum), colon and caecum were collected and processed for parasites enumeration and identification-mucosal scrapings of both abomasums and intestines were digested. Out of 48 gastrointestinal tracts examined, all were found to be positive for nematode infection. Seventeen species of gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered: Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Cooperia curticei, Haemonchus contortus, Chabertia ovina, Nematodirus battus, Nematodirus filicollis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Strongyloides papillosus, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosa, Trichuris skrjabini and Skrjabinema ovis. All species were searched for in the entire gastrointestinal tract. Six species of nematodes were recovered from abnormal sites, naturally in small numbers of lambs as well as in small amounts: Nematodirus battus in the abomasums (6.67% of lambs), N. filicollis in the caecum and in the colon (%4 and 8%, respectively), T. axei in the colon (9.52%), T. colubriformis in the colon (13.89%), T. vitrinus in the caecum (16.67%), in the colon (20.00%) and in the abomasum (3.33%). T. ovis was found in one case in the small intestine.

  18. Expression of enteropeptidase in differentiated enterocytes, goblet cells, and the tumor cells in human duodenum.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Takahisa; Kitamoto, Yasunori

    2003-12-01

    Enteropeptidase (EP) is a serine proteinase and activates trypsinogen to trypsin, thus playing an important role in food digestion. Nevertheless, the localization of EP is still controversial, likely due to a lack of studies using specific antibodies against EP. The aim of this study was to define cellular localization of EP in human duodenum and expression in tumor cells at the duodenal region. Immunohistochemical staining for resected tissues was performed with two antibodies against recombinant EP light and heavy chains, respectively. In situ hybridization was done with two RNA probes that include either the light or the heavy chain sequences of proEP, respectively. The two antibodies reacted with enterocytes, accentuated on the brush border, and goblet cells, with increasing intensity from the bottom of crypts to the top of villi. Paneth cells, neuroendocrine cells, Brunner's glands, lymphocytes, smooth muscle, or connective tissue did not react with the antibodies. The two RNA probes detected EP mRNA expression only in enterocytes and goblet cells. EP is produced in enterocytes and goblet cells, and the localization on the brush border of the cells is reasonable for the physiological activation of digestive enzymes. Interestingly, the antibodies reacted with tumor cells in duodenal polyps and adenocarcinoma at the duodenum but not in Brunner's gland adenoma. EP seems to be a marker of differentiated enterocytes and goblet cells, which suggests the existence of a common progenitor of these cells. Furthermore, EP may be a useful marker of tumor cells originating from these cells.

  19. The relationship of the sphincter of Oddi to the stomach, duodenum and gall-bladder

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, A. P.

    1967-01-01

    Flow through the sphincter of Oddi was studied by a constant-pressure perfusion apparatus, and by using a constant rate of infusion and measuring pressure changes just proximal to the sphincter. Pressure changes from balloons placed in the gastric antrum and duodenum were recorded. Despite considerable variation in activity and behaviour, the following conclusions were reached. 1. The sphincter of Oddi appears to be partially autonomous but is readily affected by changes in duodenal tone. 2. Reflex inhibition of the sphincter of Oddi is seen on electrical and mechanical stimulation of the gall-bladder but not with passive pressure changes within the gall-bladder. 3. This reflex is relayed through the coeliac ganglion. 4. There is a definite relationship between gastric antral activity and flow through the sphincter of Oddi. This is more obvious when food is present in the stomach. 5. Mechanical or electrical stimulation of the stomach, duodenum, or upper small bowel influences the tone of the sphincter of Oddi. PMID:6065875

  20. Effects of aqueous extracts of six marine microalgae on smooth muscle contraction in rat duodenum and vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Villar, R; Laguna, M R; Cadavid, I; Calleja, J M

    1994-12-01

    We report the effects of aqueous extracts of six marine microalgae on responses to various contractile agents in isolated rat duodenum (acetylcholine, calcium chloride, barium chloride) and vas deferens (noradrenaline). Our results suggest that only extracts of Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, and Chlorella stigmatophora may have pharmacological potential. Extracts of these three species had spasmolytic effects on responses to the three contractile agents in duodenum. In vas deferens, P. tricornutum and C. stigmatophora inhibited the contractions induced by noradrenaline, whilst S. costatum showed a non-dose-dependent potentiation. With the aim of elucidating their mechanisms of action, we are attempting to isolate the active principles present in these extracts.

  1. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis due to Actinomyces Mimicking a Perforation of the Proximal Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Eenhuis, Louise L.; de Lange, Marleen E.; Samson, Anda D.; Busch, Olivier R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 42 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis due to actinomyces Symptoms: Abdominal distension • abdominal pain • acute abdomen • fever • intermenstrual bleeding • nausea • sepsis • septic shock Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pelvic-abdominal actinomycosis is a rare chronic condition caused by an anaerobic, gram-negative rod-shaped commensal bacterium of the Actinomyces species. When Actinomyces becomes pathogenic, it frequently causes a chronic infection with granulomatous abscess formation with pus. Due to diversity in clinical and radiological presentation, actinomycosis can easily be mistaken for several other conditions. Peritonitis without preceding abscess formation caused by Actinomyces species has been described in only few cases before in literature. Case report: We report a case of spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis with presence of pneumoperitoneum and absence of preceding abscesses due to acute actinomycosis mimicking a perforation of the proximal jejunum in a 42-year-old female with an intra-uterine contraceptive device in place. Explorative laparotomy revealed 2 liters of odorless pus but no etiological explanation for the peritonitis. The intra-uterine contraceptive device was removed. Cultivation showed growth of Actinomyces turicensis. The patient was successfully treated with penicillin. Conclusions: In the case of primary bacterial peritonitis or lower abdominal pain without focus in a patient with an intrauterine device in situ, Actinomyces should be considered as a pathogen. PMID:27561364

  2. Responses of the Smooth Muscle Membrane of Guinea Pig Jejunum Elicited by Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, T.; Kuriyama, H.

    1969-01-01

    Field stimulation of the jejunum elicited successively an action potential of spike form, a slow excitatory depolarization, a slow inhibitory hyperpolarization, and a postinhibitory depolarization as a rebound excitation. The slow depolarization often triggered the spike. The inhibitory potential showed lower threshold than did the excitatory potential. Both the excitatory potentials were abolished by atropine and tetrodotoxin. Effective membrane resistance measured by the intracellular polarizing method was reduced during the peak of the excitatory potential, but the degree of reduction was smaller than that evoked by iontophoretic application of acetylcholine. Conditioning hyperpolarization of the muscle membrane modified the amplitude of the excitatory potential. The estimated reversal potential level for the excitatory potenialt was about 0 mv. No changes could be observed in the amplitude of the inhibitory potential when hyperpolarization was induced with intracellularly applied current. Low [K]o and [Ca]o blocked the generation of the excitatory potential but the amplitude of the inhibitory potential was enhanced in low [K]o. Low [Ca]o and high [Mg]o had no effect on the inhibitory potential. PMID:5778319

  3. Role of adenosine in postprandial and reactive hyperemia in canine jejunum.

    PubMed

    Sawmiller, D R; Chou, C C

    1992-10-01

    The role of adenosine in postprandial jejunal hyperemia was investigated by determining the effect of placement of predigested food into the jejunal lumen on blood flow and oxygen consumption before and during intra-arterial infusion of dipyridamole (1.5 microM arterial concn) or adenosine deaminase (9 U/ml arterial concn) in anesthetized dogs. Neither drug significantly altered resting jejunal blood flow and oxygen consumption. Before dipyridamole or deaminase, food placement increased blood flow by 30-36%, 26-42%, and 21-46%, and oxygen consumption by 13-22%, 21-22%, and 26-29%, during 0- to 3-, 4- to 7-, and 8- to 11-min placement periods, respectively. Adenosine deaminase abolished the entire 11-min hyperemia, whereas dipyridamole significantly enhanced the initial 7-min hyperemia (45-49%). Both drugs abolished the initial 7-min food-induced increase in oxygen consumption. Dipyridamole attenuated (14%), whereas deaminase did not alter (28%), the increased oxygen consumption that occurred at 8-11 min. Adenosine deaminase also prevented the food-induced increase in venoarterial adenosine concentration difference. In separate series of experiments, luminal placement of food significantly increased jejunal lymphatic adenosine concentration and release. Also, reactive hyperemia was accompanied by an increase in venous adenosine concentration and release. This study provides further evidence to support the thesis that adenosine plays a role in postprandial and reactive hyperemia in the canine jejunum.

  4. Neuronal adrenergic and muscular cholinergic contractile hypersensitivity in canine jejunum after extrinsic denervation.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, Bruno M; He, Chong-Liang; Zyromski, Nicholas J; Sarr, Michael G

    2003-01-01

    Extrinsic denervation may be responsible for motor dysfunction after small bowel transplantation. The aim of this study was to examine the role of extrinsic innervation of canine jejunum on contractile activity. An in vitro dose response of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists was evaluated in canine jejunal strips of circular muscle at 0, 2, and 8 weeks in a control group and after jejunoileal extrinsic denervation (EX DEN). Neurons in circular muscle were quantitated by means of immunohistochemical techniques. Adrenergic and cholinergic responses did not differ at any time in the control group. However, at 2 and 8 weeks, extrinsic denervation caused an increased sensitivity to the procontractile effects of the cholinergic agonist bethanechol at the level of the smooth muscle cells, and increased sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of the adrenergic agent norepinephrine mediated at the level of the enteric nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a reduction in all neurons and a complete lack of adrenergic fibers in the EX DEN group after 2 and 8 weeks. Extrinsic denervation induces enteric neuronal cholinergic and adrenergic smooth muscle hypersensitivity in canine jejunal circular muscle.

  5. Immediate free jejunum transfer for salvage surgery of gastric tube necrosis.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Hiroki; Matsutani, Takeshi; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-01-01

    Gastric tube necrosis after esophagus cancer surgery is a rare but critical situation. Salvage reconstruction of the esophagus remains a challenging procedure for head and neck surgeons. Historically, surgeons have employed a two-stage salvage surgery consisting of debridement followed by reconstruction. While this procedure generates good results, the time to restart oral alimentation is long. The present report describes the case of a 62-year-old male who developed gastric tube necrosis 3 days after undergoing surgery for thoracic-cervical esophageal cancer and immediate reconstruction with the retrosternal gastric pullup technique. He was treated with debridement and simultaneous free jejunum transfer 4 days after the primary surgery. He was able to restart oral alimentation 10 days after the salvage surgery. This rapid return to oral alimentation is a major advantage of the one-stage immediate esophagus salvage reconstruction. Another advantage is the ease of the reconstructive procedure: the absence of scarring and prolonged inflammation, which are disadvantages of the two-stage procedure, meant that recipient vessel selection and anastomosis were uncomplicated. The one-step procedure may be particularly useful in cases where the inflammation is discovered early.

  6. Possible degradative process of cholecystokinin analogs in rabbit jejunum brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Su, Sheng-Fang; Amidon, Gordon L; Lee, Hye J

    2002-11-22

    Our recent work on the intestinal metabolism and absorption of cholecystokinin analogs, sulfated C-terminal octapeptide (CCK8; Asp-Tyr(SO(3)H)-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe(NH(2)) = DY(SO(3)H)MGWMDF(NH(2))) and tetrapeptide (CCK4; Trp-Met-Asp-Phe(NH(2)) = WMDF(NH(2))), was extended to investigate the degradative process of these analogs using rabbit jejunum brush-border membrane vesicles and to find a better enzyme-inhibitor system for intestinal absorption of peptide drugs. Various enzyme inhibitors and a lower pH buffer were applied to discover the major enzyme(s) involved in each process. Metabolic pathways showing degradative processes were proposed for both analogs. The major cleavage site occurs at the W(1)-M(2) for CCK4. At least three metabolic pathways occur independently for CCK8 and appear at peptides bonds between G(4)-W(5), M(6)-D(7), and D(7)-F(NH(2))(8). Many different enzymes of aminopeptidase, endopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme, metalloenzyme, and others were involved in each process. Identification of more specific yet safe enzyme inhibitors and co-administration of various these inhibitors may lead to further enhancement in intestinal peptide absorption when administered orally.

  7. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to 'Dieulafoy's vascular malformation' of the jejunum: case report.

    PubMed Central

    Goins, W. A.; Chatman, D. M.; Kaviani, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Dieulafoy reported three cases of massive gastric hemorrhage due to a dilated submucosal artery in 1898, and since then, more than 100 cases of this gastric vascular malformation have been reported in the literature. These same pathologic lesions are even a rarer occurrence in the small bowel. This article reports a 38-year-old hypotensive male who presented to the hospital after an acute onset of massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage; superior mesenteric angiography demonstrated an actively bleeding lesion in a proximal jejunal branch. Intraoperative small bowel endoscopy via an enterotomy demonstrated a 4 mm bleeding submucosal lesion 30 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. A literature review revealed six other cases of Dieulafoy's vascular malformation that occurred in the small bowel, with the lesions located in the proximal jejunum between 15 cm and 45 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. The cause of these lesions is unknown. This case demonstrates the importance of preoperative angiography and intraoperative endoscopy when massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage is suspected to be from a small bowel source. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7473854

  8. [6 years' personal experience with duodenum-sparing procedures in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Sváb, J; Fried, M; Bortlík, M; Lukás, M; Horejs, J

    2000-06-01

    The First Surgical Clinic of the First Medical Faculty Charles University and General Faculty Hospital Prague made operations of the pancreas ever since 1971. In the work sooner or later all approaches to surgical treatment of pancreatitis were reflected. The authors present a brief review of results and their own experience since 1994 when duodenum sparing operations were introduced. Indications for surgical treatment were based on the diagnosis by US, CT and ERCP, in exceptional cases MR, after evaluation by a pancreatologist, roentgenologist and surgeon. The group of patients with chronic pancreatitis was extended by 15 patients from a group operated because of preoperative suspicion of a malignant pancreatic tumour not confirmed during and after surgery. In those Whipple's operation was performed. The same operation was performed in three patients with chronic pancreatitis with serious changes in the area of the head of the pancreas. In 111 patients a drainage and duodenum sparing operation was performed. Of these in 46x according to Neger, 9x according to Frey, 10x modification of these operations, 37x Partington-Rochelle's procedure. The authors did not record postoperative complications after the classical Beger operation and the hospital stay was on average by five days shorter as compared with the classical method of Whipple. When evaluating postoperative complaints and problems (pain, malnutrition, physical constitution and social position) the authors recorded equally favourable results as after non-complicated duodenopancreatectomy. They varied, depending on the patient s co-operation round 87% while after longitudinal drainage of the duct a satisfactory result was recorded in 78% of the operated patients. The authors consider Beger's operation logical because of the removal of the main tissue mass of the head of the pancreas, responsible for pain, complications caused by fibrosis in the area round the bile duct and duodenum, responsible for the

  9. Increased Intraepithelial Vα24 Invariant NKT Cells in the Celiac Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Bernardo, David; Martínez-Abad, Beatriz; Allegretti, Yessica; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Calvo, Carmen; Chirdo, Fernando G.; Garrote, José A.; Arranz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is an interferon (IFN)γ-mediated duodenal hypersensitivity to wheat gluten occurring in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten-free diet (GFD) leads to a complete remission of the disease. Vα24-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are important to maintain immune homeostasis in the gut mucosa because of their unique capacity to rapidly produce large quantities of both T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 cytokines upon stimulation. We studied the presence of these cells in the CD duodenum. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from 45 untreated-CD patients (uCD), 15 Gluten Free Diet-CD patients (GFD-CD), 44 non-inflamed non-CD controls (C-controls) and 15 inflamed non-CD controls (I-controls). Two populations from Spain and Argentina were recruited. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Vα24-Jα18 (invariant TCRα chain of human iNKT cells), IFNγ and intracellular transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (Foxp3), and flow cytometry intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) profile were determined. Both uCD and GFD-CD patients had higher Vα24-Jα18 mRNA levels than non-CD controls (I and C-controls). The expression of Vα24-Jα18 correlated with Marsh score for the severity of mucosal lesion and also with increased mRNA IFNγ levels. uCD and GFD-CD patients had decreased mRNA expression of FoxP3 but increased expression of Vα24-Jα18, which revealed a CD-like molecular profile. Increased numbers of iNKT cells were confirmed by flow cytometry within the intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment of uCD and GFD-CD patients and correlated with Vα24-Jα18 mRNA expression. In conclusion, we have found an increased number of iNKT cells in the duodenum from both uCD and GFD-CD patients, irrespective of the mucosal status. A CD-like molecular profile, defined by an increased mRNA expression of Vα24-Jα18 together with a decreased expression of FoxP3, may represent a pro-inflammatory signature of the CD duodenum. PMID:26529008

  10. The molecular mechanism of G2/M cell cycle arrest induced by AFB1 in the jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Heng; Jiang, Min; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; Zhou, Yi; He, Min; Zuo, Zhicai; Ouyang, Ping; Fan, Junde; Fang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has potent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic and other adverse effects in human and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of G2/M cell cycle arrest induced by AFB1 in the jejunum of broilers. Broilers, as experimental animals, were fed 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 diet for 3 weeks. Our results showed that AFB1 reduced the jejunal villus height, villus height/crypt ratio and caused G2/M cell cycle arrest. The G2/M cell cycle was accompanied by the increase of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), p53, Chk2, p21 protein and mRNA expression, and the decrease of Mdm2, cdc25C, cdc2, cyclin B and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein and mRNA expression. In conclusion, AFB1 blocked G2/M cell cycle by ATM pathway in the jejunum of broilers. PMID:27232757

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Glycosylation Pattern of the Jejunum and Ileum of the Wild Rodent Lagostomus maximus.

    PubMed

    Tano De La Hoz, María Florencia; Flamini, Mirta Alicia; Díaz, Alcira Ofelia

    2016-05-01

    Morphological and histochemical analyses were performed to characterize the histology, ultrastructure, and glycosylation pattern of the jejunum and ileum of the wild rodent Lagostomus maximus. Enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells were identified in both intestinal epithelia. Two morphological types of enterocytes were identified only in the ileum based on their cytoplasm electron density. Although the histological and ultrastructural examination showed that the epithelia of both anatomical regions were morphologically similar, a certain specialization in their secretory products was evident. The glycosylation pattern of the jejunum and ileum was characterized in situ by histochemical and lectin histochemical methods. Histochemical results revealed the presence of carboxylated and sulfated gycoconjugates in both regions, although sulfomucins were clearly prevalent in the ileum. Sialic acid was highly O-acetylated and particularly abundant in the jejunum. The KOH/PA*/Bh/PAS technique evidenced a more intense histochemical reaction in the jejunal than in the ileum goblet cells, demonstrating a reduction of neutral mucin secretion in the distal small intestine. Further specific differences were revealed by lectin histochemistry. These data evidenced that the nature of mucus varies at different anatomical regions, probably adapted to physiological requirements.

  12. Comparison of the antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote and loperamide in the rat jejunum and colon in vitro.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B; Tyler, K R; Venkova, K; Kuge, T

    2000-08-01

    Wood creosote, a mixture of guaiacol, creosol and related compounds, has long been used as an antidiarrheal agent. The goal of our study was to investigate the antisecretory effect of wood creosote and to compare it to the effect of loperamide, a synthetic opioid widely used in the treatment of diarrhea. Experiments were performed in rat jejunal and colonic mucosal sheets, mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Active electrogenic transport was monitored electrically as short circuit current (Isc) and hypersecretory responses were induced by acetylcholine (ACh). Neither loperamide nor wood creosote had any significant effect on basal lsc, when added to the serosal bathing solution at concentrations of 0.1-50microg/ml. In contrast, under hypersecretory conditions, both agents showed concentration-dependent (0.1--100microg/ml) antisecretory effects inhibiting ACh-induced responses in the jejunum and colon. However, the effects suggest regional differences, with loperamide being most potent in the jejunum, while wood creosote showed equal potency in both jejunum and colon. Based upon these in vitro findings, we conclude that like loperamide, the antidiarrheal action of wood creosote is due, at least in part, to its antisecretory activity.

  13. Application of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ri-Xing; Yan, Wen-Mao; Li, You-Guo; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the feasibility of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS Seventy-seven patients received side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum by utilization of linear stapler in LRYGB from April 2012 to July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS All patients were successfully completed laparoscopic gastric bypass with the side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum. No patient was switched to laparotomy during operation. No early complications including gastrointestinal anastomotic bleeding, fistula, obstruction, deep vein thrombosis, incision infections, intra-abdominal hernia complications were found. One patient complicated with stricture of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1.3%) and six patients complicated with incomplete intestinal obstruction (7.8%). BMI and HbA1c determined at 3, 6, 12, 24 mo during follow up period were significantly reduced compared with preoperative baselines respectively. The percentage of patients who maintain HbA1c (%) < 6.5% without taking antidiabetic drugs reached to 61.0%, 63.6%, 75.0%, and 63.6% respectively. The outcome parameters of concomitant diseases were significantly improved too. CONCLUSION Present surgery is a safety and feasibility procedure. It is effective to lighten the body weight of patients and improve type 2 diabetes and related complications. PMID:27729746

  14. Active transport of lead-210 by everted segments of rat duodenum

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Everted gut sacs prepared from rat duodenum can transfer /sup 210/Pb from mucosal to serosal surfaces against concentration gradients in vitro. The mechanism requires oxygen and is significantly inhibited by sodium azide, sodium iodoacetate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium cyanide and sodium fluoride. Lack of oxygen or the presence of metabolic inhibitors produced greater relative inhibition of net serosal transfer but greater absolute decrements of net mucosal uptake. Treatment of rats prior to sac preparation with either intravenous FeCl/sub 2/ or endotoxin, or the addition of FeCl/sub 2/ to the mucosal medium, selectively inhibited net serosal transfer. Net mucosal uptake and net serosal transfer were significantly negatively correlated with animal weight. Jejunal or ileal sacs did not actively transport /sup 210/Pb.

  15. The role of adrenergic receptors in the motility of duodenum and choledochoduodenal junction in the pig.

    PubMed

    Blichowski, A; Andrzejewski, W; Gaszyński, W; Kozulski, W

    1977-01-01

    The role of adenergic receptors in the motility of duodenum and choledochoduodenal junction in the pig. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1977, 28 (6): 521-528. The choldeochoduodenal junction in the Vietnamese pig is functionally and anatomically a part of duodenal wall. In view of this, investigations were carried out for establishing the role of adrenergic receptors in the development of motor function of this part of the intestinal tract. The experiments were performed on domestic Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and they showed that after stimulation of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors the motor activity of the duodenal muscular coat and the choledochoduodenal junction is inhibited. The obtained results suggest similar reactions of the adrenergic receptors in both examined parts of the intestinal tract in the pig.

  16. The role of mast cell in tissue morphogenesis. Thymus, duodenum, and mammary gland as examples.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are strategically located at host/environment interfaces like skin, airways, and gastro-intestinal and uro-genital tracts. MCs also populate connective tissues in association with blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves. MCs are absent in avascular tissues, such as mineralized bone, cartilage, and cornea. MCs have various functions and different functional subsets of MCs are encountered in different tissues. However, we do not' know exactly what is the physiological function of MC. Most of these functions are not essential for life, as various MC-deficient strains of mice and rats seems to have normal life spans. In this review article, we have reported and discussed the literature data concerning the role of MCs in tissue morphogenesis, and in particular their role in the development of thymus, duodenum, and mammary gland.

  17. Histological structure of duodenum in gilts receiving low doses of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Gajęcka, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), produced by microfungi of the Fusarium family, are among the most commonly occurring mycotoxins. They are considered important factors affecting human and animal health as well as livestock productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of these mycotoxins on the histological structure of the pig duodenum. The study was performed on 72 gilts, with initial weights of approximately 25kg, divided into 4 equal groups. Group I received per os ZEN (40μg/kg BW), group II-DON (12μg/kg BW), group III-ZEN (40μg/kg BW) and DON (12μg/kg BW), and group IV-vehicle. The pigs were killed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks of the treatment, and the duodenum samples were prepared for histological investigations. The slides were digitalized and subjected to morphometrical analysis. The treatment with DON and ZEN did not change the architecture of the mucosa or the ratio between goblet and adsorptive cells in the epithelium. The administration of DON induced an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the mucosal epithelium. Both mycotoxins, administered alone or together, increased the quantity of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages with black-brown granules in the lamina propria. The time-courses of changes in the number of defense system cells evoked by DON and ZEN were different. In conclusion, dietary exposure to low doses of Fusarium mycotoxins should be considered an important risk factor for subclinical inflammation in the small intestine.

  18. Effect of chronic intake of liquid nutrition on stomach and duodenum morphology.

    PubMed

    Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Vazan, Rastislav; Miko, Michal; Varga, Ivan; Mravec, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of food intake have been shown to be associated with morphological and functional alterations of the gastrointestinal system. To examine this, we investigated the effect of chronic liquid nutrition intake (Fresubin) on stomach and duodenum morphology in Wistar rats fed liquid nutrition during different developmental periods. We used four groups of rats: a) control group (CON) fed pelleted chow for 130days; b) liquid nutrition group (LN) fed liquid nutrition for 130days; c) liquid nutrition juvenile group (LNJ) fed liquid nutrition for 70days and then pelleted food for 60days; d) liquid nutrition adult group (LNA) fed pelleted chow for 70days and then liquid nutrition for 60days. We found that LN and LNA rats showed a significant reduction of empty stomach mass compared to CON animals, while stomach and duodenal longitudinal muscle layer thickness did not differ between groups. Villus height was increased only in LNA animals, while villus width was increased in both LN and LNA rats. Crypt depth was reduced in LNJ. However, liquid nutrition intake did not affect villus height/crypt depth ratio, nor number of goblet cells. We found that chronic intake of liquid nutrition affects some morphological parameters of the stomach and duodenum but these changes were not homogenous between experimental groups. Interestingly, transition from liquid nutrition to solid food reversed the alterations of stomach weight as well as villus width induced by intake of liquid nutrition in LNA rats. Our data indicate that morphological and functional changes in the gastrointestinal system induced by qualitative and quantitative changes in food intake are at least partially reversible. Therefore, specific diets may be used potentially as adjuvant treatment for modulating the progression of gastrointestinal diseases by affecting stomach and small intestine morphology.

  19. Release of avian neurotensin in response to intraluminal contents in the duodenum of chickens.

    PubMed

    DeGolier, Teresa F; Carraway, Robert E; Duke, Gary E

    2013-02-01

    Peripheral and hepatic-portal plasma levels of neurotensin (NT) in fed and fasted chickens were determined using RIA. Portal levels of NT(1-13) (fed = 61.3 ± 3.9 fmol/mL; fasted = 44.5 ± 3.9 fmol/mL) were significantly higher than peripheral levels (fed = 8.2 ± 3.3 fmol/mL; fasted = 7.8 ± 3.0 fmol/mL) collected from the wing vein, indicating that some NT is metabolized in the liver. Portal plasma levels of NT collected from fed birds were also significantly higher than portal plasma levels of NT collected from fasted birds. Neurotensin, as identified by HPLC, exhibited a 2-fold increase in plasma extracts following perfusion of the proximal ileum with a 10-mg sample of oleic acid, as compared with control samples of plasma collected before oleic acid perfusion. In whole-animal studies, the injection of a micellar solution of oleic acid into isolated segments of the duodenum resulted in elevated plasma immunoreactive NT in blood collected from the pancreaticoduodenal vein. Injection of a 1,000 mOsm sodium chloride solution had a slightly lesser and delayed effect compared with oleic acid, but a greater effect than 0.1 N hydrochloric acid in isotonic saline solution. Injection of an amino acid solution (10% Travasol), 300 mOsm glucose solution, or pure corn oil had no effect. These results demonstrate that intraduodenal oleic acid is a potent stimulus for the release of NT from the duodenum into the hepatic-portal circulation of chickens.

  20. Gene expression in breast muscle and duodenum from low and high feed efficient broilers.

    PubMed

    Ojano-Dirain, C; Toyomizu, M; Wing, T; Cooper, M; Bottje, W G

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes that are involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis: avian adenine nucleotide translocator (avANT), cytochrome oxidase III (COX III), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), avian PPAR-gamma coactivator-1alpha (avPGC-1alpha), and avian uncoupling protein in breast muscle and duodenum of broilers with low and high feed efficiency (FE). Total RNA was extracted from snap-frozen tissues from male broilers with low (0.55 +/- 0.01) and high (0.72 +/- 0.01) FE (n = 8 per group). Total RNA was reverse-transcribed using oligo(dT), random primers, or both followed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Protein oxidation, measured as protein carbonyls, was also evaluated in duodenal mucosa. Protein carbonyls were higher in low FE mucosa in tissue homogenate and mitochondrial fraction. The mRNA expression of iNOS and PPAR-gamma in the duodenum was lower in the low FE broilers, with no differences in avANT, COX III, and avPGC-1alpha. In contrast, expression of avANT and COX III mRNA in breast muscle was lower in low FE broilers with no differences in iNOS, PPAR-gamma, and avPGC-1alpha. The avian uncoupling protein in breast muscle was higher in low FE birds (P = 0.068). These results indicate that there are differences in the expression of mRNA encoding for mitochondrial transcription factors and proteins in breast muscle and duodenal tissue between low and high FE birds. The differences that were observed may also reflect inherent metabolic and gene regulation differences between tissues.

  1. The effect of administering ketoprofen on the physiology and behavior of dairy cows following surgery to correct a left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Newby, Nathalie C; Pearl, David L; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Duffield, Todd F

    2013-03-01

    Surgical correction of left displaced abomasum (LDA) is common in lactating dairy cattle. Despite the growing acceptance that abdominal surgery is painful, few cows are administered analgesia following LDA surgery. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of administering a label dose of ketoprofen on physiological and behavioral indicators of pain in dairy cattle. Holstein cows were enrolled in a field study following LDA surgery. Surgery was performed using the standing right flank (RF) approach or the paramedian (PARA) approach. Using a triple-blind randomized trial, each animal was assigned to receive either 3mg of ketoprofen/kg of body weight or saline (the equivalent volume) by intramuscular injection immediately following surgery and 24h postoperatively. Physiological parameters (heart rate, respiration rate, and rumen motility), blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) levels, and an assessment of cow attitude were measured on the day of surgery, and at 2 follow-up visits (visit 1=3 ± 0.9 d and visit 2=9 ± 1.2 d postsurgery; n=175). Milk production and culling were recorded for all cows enrolled in the study. Producers assessed their cows' attitudes and appetites daily for the first 3 d following surgery. A subset of cows (n=37) were fitted on the day of surgery with a 3-axis accelerometer on the hind leg to assess lying behavior. Continuous and binary outcome data were analyzed using multivariable mixed linear and mixed logistic models, respectively, with cow modeled as a random effect. Ketoprofen did not alter the physiological measures, BHBA levels, or behavioral outcomes measured. Cows subjected to RF surgery had longer lying times [model coefficient β=228.9 min; 95% confidence interval (CI): 122.2 to 335.6] in the first 3 d following surgery, and lower heart rates (β=-9.4 beats/min; 95% CI: -12 to -6.9 beats/min) at the follow-up visits, compared with animals that underwent PARA surgery. Regardless of surgical procedure, BHBA decreased from

  2. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on displaced abomasum, removal from herd, and reproduction in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-05-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Measured outcomes were development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 d in milk (DIM), conception to first service, and time to conception within 150 DIM. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Cows with SCK were randomized to treatment group (oral PG) or untreated control group (no PG); treatment cows were orally drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. Mixed effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of PG on DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service; a semiparametric proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the days-to-conception outcome. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least 1 β-hydroxybutyrate test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Of these, 372 were assigned to the PG treatment group and 369 to the control group. Thirty-nine cows (5.3%) developed a DA after testing positive for SCK and 30 cows (4.0%) died or were sold within the first 30 DIM. Based on risk ratios, control cows were 1.6 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3 to 2.0] to develop a DA and 2.1 times more likely (95% CI=1.2 to 3.6) to die or be sold than cows treated with PG. In addition, PG-treated cows were 1.3 times more likely (risk ratio 95% CI=1.1 to 1.5) to conceive at first insemination than control cows in 3 of the herds. No difference was observed in days to conception within 150 DIM between treatment groups (hazard ratio for PG cows=1.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 1.4), with a median time to

  3. Effects of dietary grape proanthocyanidins on the growth performance, jejunum morphology and plasma biochemical indices of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Jiang, X R; Qi, G H

    2016-10-24

    Grape proanthocyanidins (GPCs) are a family of naturally derived polyphenols that have aroused interest in the poultry industry due to their versatile role in animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of GPCs on growth performance, jejunum morphology, plasma antioxidant capacity and the biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of 280 newly hatched male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments of seven replicates each, and were fed a wheat-soybean meal-type diet with or without (control group), 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of GPCs. Results show that dietary GPCs decrease the feed conversion ratio and average daily gain from day 21 to day 42, increase breast muscle yield by day 42 and improve jejunum morphology between day 21 and day 42. Chicks fed 7.5 and 15 mg/kg of GPCs show increased breast muscle yield and exhibit improved jejunum morphologies than birds in the control group. Dietary GPCs fed at a level of 15 mg/kg markedly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity between day 21 and day 42, whereas a supplement of GPCs at 7.5 mg/kg significantly increased T-SOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde content by day 42. A supplement of 30 mg/kg of GPCs has no effect on antioxidant status but adversely affects the blood biochemical indices, as evidenced by increased creatinine content, increased alkaline phosphatase by day 21 and increased alanine aminotransferase by day 42 in plasma. GPC levels caused quadratic effect on growth, jejunum morphology and plasma antioxidant capacity. The predicted optimal GPC levels for best plasma antioxidant capacity at 42 days was 13 to 15 mg/kg, for best feed efficiency during grower phase was 16 mg/kg, for best jejunum morphology at 42 days was 17 mg/kg. In conclusion, GPCs (fed at a level of 13 to 17 mg/kg) have the potential to be a promising feed additive for broiler chicks.

  4. Contractile activity of circular smooth muscle in rats one year after small bowel transplantation: differing adaptive response of the jejunum and ileum to denervation.

    PubMed

    Shibata, C; Murr, M M; Balsiger, B; Anding, W J; Sarr, M G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the long-term effects of isogeneic small bowel transplantation (SBT) on jejunal and ileal circular smooth muscle contractile activity in the rat. Transmural strips of circular muscle were prepared from proximal jejunum and distal ileum of 1-year-old control rats and rats 1 year after SBT (SBT-1Y) to measure isometric force. Spontaneous contractile activity and the dose-responses to bethanechol and norepinephrine were studied. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) at varying frequencies (1 to 20 Hz) was evaluated under adrenergic and cholinergic blockade to investigate inhibitory nerves. Spontaneous activity both in the jejunum and ileum in SBT-1Y rats was not different compared to control rats. Sensitivity to bethanechol did not differ between control and SBT-1Y rats in the jejunum or ileum. Sensitivity to norepinephrine, however, was significantly increased after SBT in the ileum but not in the jejunum. During EFS, inhibition was seen at low frequencies, and contractions were induced at high frequencies in all groups. The degree of inhibition did not differ between control and SBT-1Y rats in the jejunum; however, it tended to be increased in the ileum after SBT. The long-term adaptive response of smooth muscle to the extrinsic denervation accompanying SBT differs between the jejunum and the ileum.

  5. Effects of age and zinc supplementation on transport properties in the jejunum of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, E M; Martens, H; Aschenbach, J R; Klingspor, S; Twardziok, S; Wrede, P; Pieper, R; Lodemann, U

    2015-06-01

    Zinc is effective in the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea and in promoting piglet growth. Its effects on the absorption of nutrients and the secretory capacity of the intestinal epithelium are controversial. We investigated the effects of age, dietary pharmacological zinc supplementation and acute zinc exposure in vitro on small-intestinal transport properties of weaned piglets. We further examined whether the effect of zinc on secretory responses depended on the pathway by which chloride secretion is activated. A total of 96 piglets were weaned at 26 days of age and allocated to diets containing three different levels of zinc oxide (50, 150 and 2500 ppm). At the age of 32, 39, 46 and 53 days, piglets were killed, and isolated epithelia from the mid-jejunum were used for intestinal transport studies in conventional Ussing chambers, with 23 μm ZnSO4 being added to the serosal side for testing acute effects. Absorptive transport was stimulated by mucosal addition of d-glucose or l-glutamine. Secretion was activated by serosal addition of prostaglandin E2 , carbachol or by mucosal application of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (Stp ). Jejunal transport properties showed significant age-dependent alterations (p < 0.03). Both absorptive and secretory responses were highest in the youngest piglets (32 d). The dietary zinc supplementation had no significant influence on jejunal absorptive and secretory responses. However, the pre-treatment of epithelia with ZnSO4 in vitro led to a small but significant decrease in both absorptive and secretory capacities (p < 0.05), with an exception for carbachol (p = 0.07). The results showed that, in piglets, chronic supplementation with zinc did not sustainably influence the jejunal transport properties in the post-weaning phase. Because transport properties are influenced by the addition of zinc in vitro, we suggest that possible epithelial effects of zinc depend on the acute presence of this ion.

  6. Targeting normal and neoplastic tissues in the rat jejunum and colon with boronated, cationic acrylamide copolymers.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abdel-Kareem; Srebnik, Morris; Doviner, Victoria; Rubinstein, Abraham

    2005-08-18

    A series of boronated cationic copolymers, composed of different ratios of acrylamide, N-acryloyl-3-aminophenylboronic acid and N-acryloyl-diaminoethane (the cationic moiety), were prepared with the intention of localizing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimentally induced polyps on the luminal side of the gut of the rat. The goals of this study were to: (a) test the effect of cationization of the boronated copolymers on their uptake by polyps and normal adjacent epithelium; (b) compare the whole rat body distribution of aminophenylboronic acid (APB) and polymeric APB after local application; (c) measure the effect of micro-environmental parameters such as pH, the presence of mucin and cations on the interaction between the APB-copolymers and the epithelium of the rat intestines. Direct analysis of tissue boron levels showed that polymeric APB-uptake was higher in the colonic polyps than in the surrounding normal tissues. Free APB, however, was found in similar quantities in both. When tested in the normal jejunum and colon of the rat, polymeric APB uptake was directly proportional to the molar content of the cationic monomer in the copolymers. The presence of magnesium ions, free boron cationic monomer and mucin interfered with this uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was pH-independent at pH 5, 7 and 10. APB accumulation in the colon polyps was inversely proportional to the cationic monomer content in the copolymers, suggesting an increased amount of mucus around the polyps, which probably impeded the electrostatic attachment of the polymer to the malignant tissue. The use polymeric APB for targeting BNCT in perioperative treatment of colorectal carcinoma is suggested, especially in the cases of microscopic residual disease after curative resection.

  7. Acute exposure of rabbit jejunum to ethanol. In vitro uptake of hexoses

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, A.B.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of acute exposure of rabbit jejunum to ethanol on the uptake of three hexoses was examined in vitro. With ethanol present in the preincubation medium for 30 min, or directly in the incubation medium for 6 min, glucose uptake was reduced. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that ethanol in the preincubation medium was associated with a rise in the value of the apparent Michaelis constant (Km*), whereas the inhibition of glucose uptake observed with ethanol present directly in the incubation medium was associated with a reduction in the apparent passive permeability coefficient (Pd*), a reduction in the maximal transport rate (Jdm), and an increase in Km*. When increasing concentrations of ethanol were added to the preincubation or to the incubation medium, there was a reduction in the uptake of both 1 mM and 40 mM glucose, galactose, and 3-O-methyl glucose. The addition of 40 mM galactose or 1 mM phloridzin to 40 mM glucose was associated with a 50% reduction in glucose uptake, but this uptake was not further inhibited by the addition of 6% ethanol (v/v). Similarly, the uptake of 3-O-methyl glucose was inhibited by the addition of 40 mM glucose or galactose but no further reduction in uptake was achieved by adding ethanol. Finally, galactose uptake was inhibited by adding 40 mM glucose or 40 mM 3-O-MG, but the addition of 6% ethanol was associated with no further decline in the uptake of galactose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Signet ring cell carcinoma of the jejunum: an uncommon finding within the reach of capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Juanmartiñena, José Francisco; Montes, Marta; Fernández-Urién, Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    An 80 year-old female presented with ductal breast carcinoma (stage II) three years ago, complained of asthenia and iron-deficiency anemia. No diagnosis was obtained after conventional endoscopy and iron supplements were indicated. Ten months later visible digestive hemorrhage was presented. Upper and lower endoscopy was repeated but non-diagnosis was obtained. Thus, video capsule endoscopy was indicated identifying a stenotic lesion arising in the mucosa of distal jejunum. Histopathological examination revealed a poorly mucinous differentiated signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma with an intense peri-tumoral lymphoid (Crohn´s-like lymphoid reaction) and lympho-vascular infiltration with no nodal metastases (pT3N0;7ª edition TNM classification). Immunochemistry revealed negative stained for estrogen and progesterone receptors in contrast with prior breast cancer. Thus, metastatic origin was rule out. Primary small-bowel malignancies are extremely rare. They account for 2% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Carcinoid tumor (40%), adenocarcinoma (33%), lymphoma (17%) and sarcoma (8%) are most common histological types. Symptomatic lesions are rare, but when present: gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain and weight loss are most common digestive symptoms. Primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma is a rarely histopathological variety of adenocarcinoma with poor prognosis, usually identified in esophageal or gastric locations (95%). They are less commonly detected in remaining gastrointestinal tract, and when present, metastatic origin must always rule out. Nowadays, diagnostic delayed is common and leads to detected small bowel neoplasms at late stages with poor treatment outcomes. Thus, capsule endoscopy may help to improve this situation as it may identify them at early stages.

  9. Slow Wave Activity and Modulations in Mouse Jejunum Myenteric Plexus In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ying; Tang, He; Jiang, Fan; Dong, Zhaojun

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Myenteric plexus interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) are involved in the generation of gut pacemaker activity and neuronal communication. We performed patch clamp on ICC-MY in situ to observe the changes of pacemaker activity in response to neural modulations. Methods A fresh longitudinal muscle with myenteric plexus (LMMP) from mouse jejunum was prepared. ICC-MY and ganglion neurons embedded in the layer of longitudinal muscles were targeted by patch clamping in whole-cell configuration in a model of current or voltage clamp. Neurogenic modulators were applied to evaluate their effects on ICC pacemaker activity. Results In situ ICC-MY showed spontaneous and rhythmical voltage oscillations with a frequency of 27.2 ± 3.9 cycles/min, amplitude of 32.6 ± 6.3 mV, and resting membrane potential of −62.2 ± 2.8 mV. In situ neurons showed electrically evocable action potential in single or multiple spikes. Pacemaker activity was modulated by neuronal activators through receiving a neuronal input. Application of tetrodotoxin depolarized pacemaker potentials in a dose dependent manner, and decreased the amplitude at tetrodotoxin 0.3 μM for about 40 ± 10%; capsaicin (1 μM) ameliorated ICC-MY K+ current for about 49 ± 14.8%; and, nitric oxide hyperpolarized pacemaker potential and decreased the amplitude and frequency. Conclusions The in situ preparation patch clamp study further demonstrates that the pacemaker activity is an intrinsic property of ICC. The neurogenic activators change and shape pacemaker potential and activity in situ. LMMP preparation in situ patch clamp provides an ideal platform to study the functional innervation of the ICC and the enteric neural system, thereby, for evaluating the neural regulation of pacemaker activity, especially in disorder models. PMID:27436346

  10. Extraordinary level of hormone and number of ghrelin cells in the stomach and duodenum of an obese woman.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, Irena; Arciszewski, Maciej; Łebkowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major metabolic disorder, in which ghrelin plays a significant role. The objective of this study was to characterize the morphology of ghrelin cells in the stomach and duodenum and the levels of ghrelin and leptin in the serum of a 52-year-old obese woman. Material for the study was obtained from the stomachs and duodenum, of obese and control women. Each subject had been treated at the Intensive Care Unit of the Clinical University Hospital in Białystok, due to brain damage, due to primary cardiac arrest. After brain death was diagnosed and individual death was confirmed by doctors, stomach and duodenum samples were collected from each body. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and processed for immunolocalization of ghrelin. The density of ghrelin cells in each part of the gastrointestinal tract was estimated under a light microscope with a digital camera. Ghrelin-IR cells were also analyzed in terms of morphometric features such as length, width and area. The ghrelin and leptin concentrations in each blood sample were measured by ELISA. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a small number of ghrelin cells in the stomach and duodenum which did not reflect the high level of hormone. The obese woman had lower number of ghrelin cells in the stomach and duodenum and elevated ghrelin and leptin levels in serum. It can therefore be assumed that additional source of ghrelin and probably changes in activity of ghrelin o-acylotransferase, are responsible for the high concentration of ghrelin in the obese woman.

  11. Duodenum has the greatest potential to absorb soluble non-ammonia nitrogen in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying-ming; Xu, Qing-biao; Wu, Yue-ming; Huang, Xin-bei; Liu, Jian-xin

    2015-06-01

    In cattle, dietary protein is gradually degraded into peptide-bound amino acids (PBAAs), free amino acids (FAAs), and ultimately into ammonia by the rumen microbes. Both PBAA and FAA are milk protein precursors, and the rumen and small intestines are the main sites where such precursors are produced and absorbed. This work was designed to investigate the expression of the peptide transporter PepT1 and the AA transporters ASCT2, y(+)LAT1, and ATB(0,+), and the concentrations of PBAA, FAA, and soluble protein in the rumen, omasum, and duodenum of dairy cows. Tissues and digesta were collected from six healthy Chinese Holstein dairy cows immediately after the animals were slaughtered. The expression of transporters was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The FAA concentration was assessed using an amino acid (AA) analyzer, PBAA concentration by quantification of AA before and after acid-hydrolysis by 6 mol/L HCl, and soluble protein concentration by quantification of the bicinchoninic acid content. The results showed that the relative abundance of mRNA of the transporters and the soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) concentration of each fraction were greater in the duodenum than in the rumen or omasum. These results indicate that the duodenum is the predominant location within the nonmesenteric digestive tract for producing milk protein precursors. In addition, PBAA was the largest component of SNAN in the digesta from the rumen, omasum, and duodenum. In conclusion, the duodenum has the greatest concentrations of SNAN and PBAA, and the greatest potential for absorption of SNAN in the form of PBAA in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows.

  12. Duodenum has the greatest potential to absorb soluble non-ammonia nitrogen in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ying-ming; Xu, Qing-biao; Wu, Yue-ming; Huang, Xin-bei; Liu, Jian-xin

    2015-01-01

    In cattle, dietary protein is gradually degraded into peptide-bound amino acids (PBAAs), free amino acids (FAAs), and ultimately into ammonia by the rumen microbes. Both PBAA and FAA are milk protein precursors, and the rumen and small intestines are the main sites where such precursors are produced and absorbed. This work was designed to investigate the expression of the peptide transporter PepT1 and the AA transporters ASCT2, y+LAT1, and ATB0,+, and the concentrations of PBAA, FAA, and soluble protein in the rumen, omasum, and duodenum of dairy cows. Tissues and digesta were collected from six healthy Chinese Holstein dairy cows immediately after the animals were slaughtered. The expression of transporters was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The FAA concentration was assessed using an amino acid (AA) analyzer, PBAA concentration by quantification of AA before and after acid-hydrolysis by 6 mol/L HCl, and soluble protein concentration by quantification of the bicinchoninic acid content. The results showed that the relative abundance of mRNA of the transporters and the soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) concentration of each fraction were greater in the duodenum than in the rumen or omasum. These results indicate that the duodenum is the predominant location within the nonmesenteric digestive tract for producing milk protein precursors. In addition, PBAA was the largest component of SNAN in the digesta from the rumen, omasum, and duodenum. In conclusion, the duodenum has the greatest concentrations of SNAN and PBAA, and the greatest potential for absorption of SNAN in the form of PBAA in the nonmesenteric gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows. PMID:26055912

  13. Effect of caloric restriction on myenteric neuroplasticity in the rat duodenum during aging.

    PubMed

    da Silva Porto, Gisele; Bertaglia Pereira, Joice Naiara; Tibúrcio, Vanessa Graciele; Stabille, Sandra Regina; Garcia de Faria, Haroldo; de Melo Germano, Ricardo; de Britto Mari, Renata

    2012-05-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on myenteric neurons in the duodenum of Wistar rats during aging. Thirty rats were divided into three groups: the C group (six-month-old animals that were fed a normal diet from weaning until six months of age), the SR group (18-month-old animals that were fed a normal diet from weaning until 18 months of age) and the CR group (18-month-old animals that were fed a 30% CR diet after six months of age). After 12 months, the animals were euthanized. Whole-mount preparations of the duodenums were either stained with Giemsa or underwent NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry to determine the general myenteric neuron population and the nitrergic neuron subpopulation (NADPH-d+), respectively. The NADPH-d-negative (NADPH-d-) neuron population was estimated based on the difference between the Giemsa-stained and NADPH-d+ neurons. The neurons were counted, and the cell body areas were measured. Aging was associated with neuronal loss in the SR group, which was minimized by caloric restriction in the CR group. The density (mm(2)) of the Giemsa-stained neurons was higher in the SR group (79.09 ± 6.25) than in the CR (92.37 ± 11.6) and C (111.68 ± 15.26) groups. The density of the NADPH-d+ neurons was higher in the SR group (44.90 ± 5.88) than in the C (35.75 ± 1.6) and RC (39.14 ± 7.02) groups. The density of NADPH-d- neurons was higher in the CR (49.73 ± 12.08) and C (75.64 ± 17.05) groups than in the SR group (33.82 ± 4.5). In the C group, 32% and 68% of the Giemsa-stained myenteric neurons were NADPH-d+ or NADPH-d-, respectively. With aging (SR group), the percentage of nitrergic neurons (56.77%) increased, whereas the percentage of NADPH-d- neurons (43.22%) decreased. In the CR group, the change in the percentage of nitrergic (42.37%) and NADPH-d- (57.62%) neurons was lower. As NADPH-d- neurons will be mostly cholinergic neurons, CR appears to reduce the loss of cholinergic neurons during

  14. Processing of vegetable-borne carotenoids in the human stomach and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Tyssandier, Viviane; Reboul, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Jean-François; Bouteloup-Demange, Corinne; Armand, Martine; Marcand, Julie; Sallas, Marcel; Borel, Patrick

    2003-06-01

    Carotenoids are thought to diminish the incidence of certain degenerative diseases, but the mechanisms involved in their intestinal absorption are poorly understood. Our aim was to obtain basic data on the fate of carotenoids in the human stomach and duodenum. Ten healthy men were intragastrically fed three liquid test meals differing only in the vegetable added 3 wk apart and in a random order. They contained 40 g sunflower oil and mashed vegetables as the sole source of carotenoids. Tomato purée provided 10 mg lycopene as the main carotenoid, chopped spinach (10 mg lutein), and carrot purée (10 mg beta-carotene). Samples of stomach and duodenal contents and blood samples were collected at regular time intervals after meal intake. all-trans and cis carotenoids were assayed in stomach and duodenal contents, in the fat and aqueous phases of those contents, and in chylomicrons. The cis-trans beta-carotene and lycopene ratios did not significantly vary in the stomach during digestion. Carotenoids were recovered in the fat phase present in the stomach during digestion. The proportion of all-trans carotenoids found in the micellar phase of the duodenum was as follows (means +/- SE): lutein (5.6 +/- 0.4%), beta-carotene (4.7 +/- 0.3%), lycopene (2.0 +/- 0.2%). The proportion of 13-cis beta-carotene in the micellar phase was significantly higher (14.8 +/- 1.6%) than that of the all-trans isomer (4.7 +/- 0.3%). There was no significant variation in chylomicron lycopene after the tomato meal, whereas there was significant increase in chylomicron beta-carotene and lutein after the carrot and the spinach meals, respectively. There is no significant cis-trans isomerization of beta-carotene and lycopene in the human stomach. The stomach initiates the transfer of carotenoids from the vegetable matrix to the fat phase of the meal. Lycopene is less efficiently transferred to micelles than beta-carotene and lutein. The very small transfer of carotenoids from their vegetable

  15. Phenylalanine transport in guinea pig jejunum. A general mechanism for organic solute and sodium cotransport.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, F; Lherminier, M

    1982-08-01

    1. Sodium-dependent phenylalanine transport by guinea pig jejunum exhibits apparently pure K-type activation kinetics where Vmaxs is constant but KT decreases as [Na+] increases. At 0, 3 and 6 mM sodium, however, the results deviate from the expected hyperbolic kinetics and give a plateau. 2. This finding is interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that the outer face of the brush border membrane contains enough Na+ to support amino acid and Na+ cotransport at essentially maximal rates, even after preincubation of the tissues in vitro for several minutes in sodium-free buffers. 3. Sodium could move dynamically into this region from tissue stores and across the paracellular pathway. Passage of NaCl directly across the brush border also seems possible by reversal of the (neutral) Na+ and Cl- cotransport system. 4. To reconcile contradictory observations obtained in different laboratories, either with intact-epithelium preparations or with isolated brush border membrane vesicles, we include a theoretical analysis of the kinetics of organic solute and Na+ cotransport. For simplicity, this analysis is limited to cases of 1/2 stoichiometry and to neutral organic solutes such as sugars and monoamino-monocarboxylic amino acids. 5. Cotransport is explained in terms of a general, allosteric mechanism involving one site for S and another for Na+. There is no preferential order for binding, but only the ternary complex S-carrier-Na+ can translocate at quantitatively significant rates (obligatory activation kinetics). Since Na+ crosses the membrane as the free cation, under physiological conditions (inside-negative membrane potential) it will move towards its position of electrical equilibrium, hence unidirectionally. This explains why, with intact-tissue preparations, solute influx exhibits Michaelis-Menten kinetics. 6. By definition, cotransport kinetics are mixed type and involve effects on both KT and Vmaxs. Macroscopic deviations from this expected behaviour can be explained

  16. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs and cytokines expression patterns in jejunum and ileum of broilers

    PubMed Central

    Yajing, Sun; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Weifen, Li; Ping, Li; Bloch, Dost Muhammad; Wenhua, Liu

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days. The result showed significant increase in mRNA expression level of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR15. Down streaming MyD88, TRAF6, TAB2 and NF-κB mRNA level noted higher, in the jejunum and ileum as compared to control group. Meanwhile, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, TGF-β expression levels showed high expression in the jejunum of Sb and Bs groups. IL-10 expression level increased in the ileum and IL-6, TNFα, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels increased in the jejunum of Sb group. Levels of IL-1 β, IL-17, and IL-4, increased merely in Sb group. Ileal cytokines IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-4concentration were noted higher in Sb group, and IL-1β, and IL-4 levels were up-regulated in Bs group. The results indicated that the INF-γ and IL-8 level decreased in Sb and BS groups. Serum IgA and sIgA level increased in both treatment groups. Our findings illustrated that S. boulardii and B. subtilis B10 may have a role to induce mucosal immunity by activating the TLRs and cytokines expressions in broilers. PMID:28319123

  17. Changes in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Su, Yong; Yao, Wen; Perez-Gutierrez, Odette N; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2008-12-01

    This present study investigated the changes in bacterial community composition, with an emphasis on Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis populations as potentially beneficial and harmful groups, in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning (21 days postpartum) by 16S rRNA gene-based methods. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that, after weaning, predominant bands related to Lactobacillus spp. disappeared and were replaced by potential pathogenic species, such as Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Moraxella cuniculi, S. suis and Porphyromonas catoniae. Real-time PCR revealed that the abundances of lactobacilli and Lactobacillus sobrius as a proportion of total bacterial abundance were significantly lower in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of weaned piglets than in 21-day-old piglets. A specific and sensitive real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of the important pathogen S. suis within gastrointestinal microbiota. The assay showed that S. suis predominated in the stomach samples of weaned piglets with population levels up to 10(7) copies g(-1) digesta, while it was not detected in the stomach before weaning. Streptococcus suis was not dominant in the jejunum and ileum digesta before weaning, but became dominant after weaning, with population levels up to 10(7) copies g(-1) digesta. The results demonstrated for the first time the postweaning dominance of the potentially harmful S. suis in piglet intestine. The results also suggest that the defensive barrier of the stomach can be impaired as S. suis became dominant while the proportion of Lactobacillus populations decreased after weaning, which may further result in an increase of S. suis abundance in the intestine.

  18. In vitro effects of wood creosote on enterotoxin-induced secretion measured electrophysiologically in the rat jejunum and colon.

    PubMed

    Kuge, T; Venkova, K; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2001-06-01

    Secretory diarrhea occurs when the balance between intestinal absorption and secretion is disturbed by excessive secretion caused by enterotoxins produced by the pathogen. Wood creosote has long been used as a traditional antidiarrheal remedy. The goal of our study was to extend our knowledge about the antisecretory action of wood creosote against Escherichia coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in the small intestine and colon. Experiments were performed in mucosal sheets of rat jejunum and colon which were stripped of the external muscle layers to eliminate interactions with smooth muscle activity and local blood flow. Mucosal sheets were placed in modified Ussing chambers and hypersecretory conditions were induced by heat-labile (LT) or heat-stable (STa) E. coli enterotoxins added cumulatively (0.01-10 microg/ml) to the mucosal bathing solution. Intestinal secretion was monitored electrophysiologically as transmucosal short circuit current (Isc). LT induced a concentration-dependent increase in Isc in the rat jejunum, with no effect in the colon. In contrast, STa induced a significant increase in colonic Isc, without causing any change in Isc across the jejunum. In separate experiments the effects of increasing concentrations of wood creosote (0.1-50 microg/ml), added to the mucosal or serosal bathing solution, were examined against the secretory responses induced by LT or STa. In the small intestine the antisecretory activity of wood creosote against LT-induced secretion was more potent following serosal application, whereas in the colon wood creosote inhibited STa-induced secretion with equal potency following either serosal or mucosal addition. In summary, our findings demonstrate that wood creosote possesses antidiarrheal activity suppressing E. coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in both the small intestine and colon.

  19. Successful treatment of early-stage jejunum adenocarcinoma by endoscopic mucosal resection using double-balloon endoscopy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirobumi; Yamada, Atsuo; Watabe, Hirotsugu; Kobayashi, Yuka; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Yamaji, Yutaka; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) has generally been considered to have a poor prognosis because of nonspecific presentations and difficulties in detection of the disease. The advent of capsule endoscopy (CE) and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) makes it possible to access to the small intestine for endoscopic interventions. We describe a successful case of early jejunum adenocarcinoma completely resected by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) using double-balloon endoscopy (DBE). Early diagnosis and EMR using new technologies such as CE and DBE may improve the recognition of this disease that, at present, has a poor prognosis.

  20. [Modulation on the P-glycoprotein in the jejunum by combined use of Glycyrrhiza inflata and Kansui].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Li, Guo-Feng; Tang, Zhong-Kun; Wu, Bing-Yi

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the modulation on the P-glycoprotein in the jejunum by combined use of Glycyrrhiza inflata and Kansui with ussing chamber and rt-pcr, Rhodamine 123 (R123), a P-gp substrate and fluorescein sodium (CF), a model drug of non-P-gp substrate transported by a passive diffusion were taken as investigational drugs. Because these two drugs can be easily assayed and widely used in various research fields. The permeability of R123 or CF via Wistar rat jejunum membranes was evaluated by in vitro ussing chamber after oral administration of four different decoctions of Glycyrrhiza inflata and Kansui for 1 week. And the concentration of R123 or CF was determined by the fluorospectrophotometry in the receiving solution. Meanwhile the expression of mdr1a in P-glycoprotein was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. After oral administration of combined decoction of the single drug, the absorptive directed permeability of R123 increased significantly (P < 0.01). On the other hand, Kansui and combine decoction of the two drugs also decrease the permeability of secretory directed transport (P < 0.05). No action of Glycyrrhiza inflata was found on the secretory transport of R123 [Papp = (2.56 +/- 0.38) x 10(-5), cm x s(-1)] across the jejunum tissues, while Papp of control group was found [Papp = (2.35 +/- 0.27) x 10(-5), cm x s(-1)]. After oral administration of Kansui decoction for 1 week and 2 weeks, the levels of mdr1a expression in Wistar rats were lower than that of the control group, but there were no significant difference in the results. Meanwhile, Glycyrrhiza inflata had no effect on transport of CF across the jejunum tissues, though the other three groups could decrease the permeability of CF, as compared with control group. Kansui may slightly inhibit P-glycoprotein function in the intestinal membrane. For another, some compositions in Kansui inhibit P-glycoprotein function, and some others strengthen the tight junction between cells in the

  1. Treatment of gastric and duodenum ulcers by means of copper laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbush, G. I.; Beliy, K. P.; Berezin, J. D.; Gidkov, B. N.; Solovjov, A. F.

    1996-04-01

    One of the leading problems of gastroenterology of our country is the task of ulcerative disease of the stomach treatment, duodenum treatment and diseases of large intestinal treatment. In spite of introduction of clinical practice the new anti-ulcerous preparations, the process of ulcerative disease of the stomach treatment remains a long process and makes in average about 2 - 4 weeks for acute ulcers and 2 - 3 months for chronic ulcers. In accordance with a world statistics an ulcerative disease of the stomach remains a very spread sickness (on the average 5 cases on 1 thousand persons), and even in the majority of countries at the last decade an increase of number of illness, stipulated by breach of ecology, stress, general worsening of human living conditions took place. Notice that the growth of exposure of morbidity in the area of alimentary tract to a certain extent is connected with introduction into diagnostics practice the endoscopical methods during a checkup of patients. Within Russia the statistics data give the following picture: (1) 500 - 700 persons per 100 thousand of inhabitants have an ulcerative disease and 15 - 20 persons from them have a steady resistance to an anti- ulcerative medicamental therapy. (2) At complex and electoral treatment of ulcerative disease patients with various preparations an epithelization have 60 - 94% of patients in the time of 20 - 48 days. (3) Insufficient efficiency of means of a conservative treatment results in that 50% of the sicks need urgent operations, sometimes at complicated for them conditions.

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.

    PubMed

    Mokrzycka, Małgorzata; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Kosierkiewicz, Anita; Wiszniewska, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.

  3. Evaluation of the relaxant effect of levetiracetam on isolated rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Salem, Hesham A; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y

    2017-02-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is an approved drug for the treatment of some epileptic disorders. With few and controversial reports addressing its possible pharmacodynamic interactions, the current study aimed at studying the effect of LEV on isolated rat duodenal strips to enlighten its possible intestinal adverse effects using the isolated smooth muscle strips of rat duodenum. LEV showed a dose-dependent inhibition in KCl (80 mm)-induced contractions in normal Tyrode's solution. Moreover, preincubation with LEV (3 mm) in K(+) -rich/Ca(2+) -free medium led to a significant decrease in the maximum contractions (Emax ) coupled to a right shift of the cumulative CaCl2 concentration curves implying a possible Ca(2+) channel blocking potential. In addition, LEV exhibited a typical noncompetitive inhibition in the cumulative carbachol concentration curves evidenced as a decrease in Emax without the alteration of EC50 , thus eliminating any possible role of the muscarinic receptors in the relaxant effect. To rule out other possible relaxant mechanisms, tests were conveyed in Tyrode's solution containing either 100 μm l-NAME or 10 μm glimepiride to test the possible relaxant roles exhibited by nitric oxide (NO) and KATP channel opening, respectively. None of the tested pathways was involved in LEV-mediated relaxation. Taken altogether, the results of the current study entail that LEV might exert a relaxant effect on intestinal smooth muscles through blocking L-type voltage-operated calcium channels, but not involving either NO release or KATP channel opening.

  4. Suppression of Calpain Expression by NSAIDs is Associated with Inhibition of Cell Migration in Rat Duodenum.

    PubMed

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, A; Thomas, Laurel; Bawa, Bhupinder; Lillich, James D

    2017-03-22

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity. Previous efforts demonstrated that treatment of cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) with NSAIDs inhibits expression and activity of calpain proteases, but the effects of specific inhibition of calpain expression in vitro or the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal cell migration in vivo remain to be determined. Accordingly, we examined the effect of suppression of calpain protease expression with siRNA on cell migration in cultured IECs and evaluated the effects of NSAID treatment on epithelial cell migration and calpain protease expression in rat duodenum. Our results show that calpain siRNA inhibits protease expression and slows migration in cultured IECs. Additionally, NSAID treatment of rats slowed migration up the villus axis and suppressed calpain expression in duodenal epithelial cells. Our results are supportive of the hypothesis that suppression of calpain expression leading to slowing of cell migration is a potential mechanism through which NSAIDs cause GI toxicity.

  5. Perinatal administration of a bitter tastant influences gene expression in chicken palate and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Niv, Masha Y; Uni, Zehava

    2014-12-31

    Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) and downstream effectors are responsible for mediating bitterness perception and regulation of food choice in mammals. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated the expression of three Tas2rs and taste signal transduction molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5, in the palate, tongue, and gastrointestinal tract sections in chicken. The bitter tastant quinine activates all three chicken Tas2rs in vitro as shown using calcium-imaging assays of transfected cells. Administration of quinine postnatally or perinatally (both pre- and posthatch) to chickens increased the expression of Tas2r genes in the palate by 6.45-fold (ggTas2r1 postnatal treatment), 4.86-fold (ggTas2r1 perinatal treatment), and 4.48-fold (ggTas2r7 postnatal treatment) compared to the genes' expression in the naı̈ve group respectively, and affected taste related gene expression in the duodenum. Whereas no-choice intake of quinine solution was not significantly lower than that of water in naı̈ve chicks, the treatment groups postnatal, prenatal, and perinatal showed significantly lower intake of quinine by 56.1, 47.7, and 50.2%, respectively, suggesting a possible trend toward sensitization. These results open new venues toward unraveling the formative stages shaping food intake and nutrition in chicken.

  6. Papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Zhen-hong; Cai, Shou-wang; Dong, Jia-hong

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma. A 58-year-old man underwent a physical examination that revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation on B ultrasound. Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation could be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the head of the pancreas and distal bile duct showed no tumor signals, which led to a diagnosis of periampullary carcinoma and right renal carcinoma. Considering the trauma of pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with renal resection operation is greater, we carried out the laparoscopic right renal radical resection first, and then a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. However, postoperative intra-abdominal infections and bleeding occurred; our patient improved after vascular interventional microcoil embolization for the treatment of hemostasis. The second operation for celiac necrotic tissue elimination, jejunal fistulization and peritoneal lavage and drainage was performed 14 days latter. Our patient improved gradually and was discharged on the 58th postoperative day. There has been no tumor recurrence after a follow-up of 26 months.

  7. Activation of epithelial proliferation induced by Eimeria acervulina infection in the duodenum may be associated with cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lili; Dong, Haibo; Zhang, Zhenchao; Liu, Jie; Hu, Yun; Ni, Yingdong; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation in the intestine is commonly occurred during infection and inflammation to replace damaged enterocytes, and cholesterol as an essential constituent of cell membrane, is required for cell proliferation and growth. Here we found that coccidium-challenged (CC) chickens showed severe damages in intestinal structure, a significant increase of cell proliferation, and an activation of genes expression involved in the innate immune response. Compared to control (CON), CC chickens showed a marked decrease of cholesterol (Tch) level in the circulating system, but a significant increase in local duodenum epithelium. Increase of LDLR protein combined with a significant decrease of CYP27A1 protein expression in duodenum epithelium may contribute to intestinal cholesterol accumulation in CC chickens. Moreover, we found miRNAs targeting to CYP27A1 gene participating in post-transcriptional regulation. Hence, these results provide a new insight for the intervention of epithelial proliferation and cholesterol metabolism in the gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:27050279

  8. Partial Resection of the Pancreatic Head and Duodenum for Management of Carcinoma of the Ampulla of Vater: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Tang, Kun; Sun, Fu-Bo; Sui, Lu-Lu; Xu, Gang

    2016-03-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with spontaneous pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdominal region of one year's duration. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography revealed the presence of a tumour in the periampullary region, gallstones, cholecystitis, and biliary obstruction, as well as atrophy of the pancreas and dense adhesions involving the pancreas, portal vein, and superior mesenteric vein. Duodenoscopy revealed a papillary neoplasm, measuring 2.5×3 cm, in the descending duodenum. Pathological analysis of the duodenoscopic biopsy suggested carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Partial resection of the pancreatic head and duodenum, together with lymph node dissection and digestive tract reconstruction, was performed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well. CT at 14 months postoperatively showed no recurrence or metastasis. This surgical procedure avoids the potential risk of pancreaticoduodenectomy and retains the function of the pancreas as much as possible, while achieving radical tumour resection.

  9. The Transhepatic Route for the Placement of a Duodenojejunal Stent: Application in a Postoperative Closed Loop Obstruction of the Duodenum

    SciTech Connect

    Ozden, Ilgin; Poyanli, Arzu; Kaygusuz, Arslan; Rozanes, Izzet; Alper, Aydin

    2001-01-15

    A patient who had undergone gastric resection for carcinoma, had closed loop obstruction of the duodenum due to neoplasia at the duodenojejunal junction. The obstruction was relieved successfully by transhepatic placement of a duodenojejunal stent. We were compelled to use the transhepatic route because a Roux-Y reconstruction had been performed. Transhepatic placement may be the only chance of palliation in a small subset of patients with malignant intestinal obstruction.

  10. The lactoferrin receptor may mediate the reduction of eosinophils in the duodenum of pigs consuming milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin; Nonnecke, Eric; Lönnerdal, Bo; Murray, James

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin is part of the immune system and multiple tissues including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and lung contain receptors for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin has many functions, including antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and iron binding. Additionally, lactoferrin inhibits the migration of eosinophils, which are constitutively present in the GI tract, and increase during inflammation. Lactoferrin suppresses eosinophil infiltration into the lungs and eosinophil migration in -vitro. Healthy pigs have a large population of eosinophils in their small intestine and like humans, pigs have small intestinal lactoferrin receptors (LFR); thus, pigs were chosen to investigate the effects of consumption of milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF-milk) on small intestinal eosinophils and expression of eosinophilic cytokines. In addition, LFR localization was analyzed in duodenum and circulating eosinophils to determine if the LFR could play a role in lactoferrin's ability to inhibit eosinophil migration. In the duodenum there were significantly fewer eosinophils/unit area in pigs fed rhLF-milk compared to pigs fed control milk (p = 0.025); this was not seen in the ileum (p = 0.669). In the duodenum, no differences were observed in expression of the LFR, or any eosinophil migratory cytokines, and the amount of LFR protein was not different (p = 0.386). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that within the duodenum the LFR localized on the brush border of villi, crypts, and within the lamina propria. Circulating eosinophils also contained LFRs, which may be a mechanism allowing lactoferrin to directly inhibit eosinophil migration.

  11. Intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with transhiatal herniation of the pancreas and duodenum: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Tarkan; Neureiter, Daniel; Nawara, Clemens; Dinnewitzer, Adam; Öfner, Dietmar; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Transhiatal herniation of the pancreas is an extremely rare condition. In the published literature we found only eleven cases reported in the period of 1958 to 2011. A coincidental hiatal herniation of the duodenum is described in two cases only. To our knowledge, we report the first case with a hiatal herniation of the complete duodenum and proximal pancreas presenting an intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with consecutive intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis. A 72-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our department with a hiatal hernia grade IV for further evaluation. According to our recommendation of surgical hernia repair soon after the diagnosis of a transhiatal herniation of the proximal pancreas and entire duodenum, we had to respect the declared intention of the patient for a conservative procedure. So we were forced to wait for surgical repair within an emergency situation complicated by a myocardial infarction and reduced general condition. We discuss the therapeutic decision making process and a complete literature review of this rare entity. PMID:23805366

  12. IDX-1: a new homeodomain transcription factor expressed in rat pancreatic islets and duodenum that transactivates the somatostatin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C P; McGehee, R E; Habener, J F

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning from a rat islet somatostatin-producing cell line of a 1.4 kb cDNA encoding a new homeoprotein, IDX-1 (islet/duodenum homeobox-1), with close sequence similarity to the Drosophila melanogaster homeobox protein Antennapedia (Antp) and the Xenopus laevis endoderm-specific homeoprotein XlHbox8. Analyses of IDX-1 mRNA and protein in rat tissues show that IDX-1 is expressed in pancreatic islets and ducts and in the duodenum. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays IDX-1 binds to three sites in the 5' flanking region of the rat somatostatin gene. In co-transfection experiments IDX-1 transactivates reporter constructs containing somatostatin promoter sequences, and mutation of the IDX-1 binding sites attenuates transactivation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of islet RNA using degenerate amplimers for mRNAs encoding homeoproteins indicates that IDX-1 is the most abundant of 12 different Antp-like homeodomain mRNAs expressed in adult rat islets. The pattern of expression, relative abundance and transcriptional regulatory activity suggests that IDX-1 may be involved in the regulation of islet hormone genes and in cellular differentiation in the endocrine pancreas and the duodenum. Images PMID:7907546

  13. Comparison of blood flow measurements by hydrogen gas clearance and laser Doppler flowmetry in the rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Leung, F W

    1990-05-01

    This report examines the relationship between hydrogen gas clearance and laser Doppler flowmetry measurements in the duodenum of fasted, anesthetized rats under conditions of 1) reduced perfusion due to graded levels of hemorrhagic hypotension or 2) hyperemia due to perfusion with step doses of acid. There was a significant correlation between hydrogen gas clearance and laser Doppler flowmetry measurements (r = 0.73, p less than 0.01; n = 32 data points in 16 rats). The change in laser Doppler flowmetry values from the period immediately before to the period during the 3 min of acid perfusion was significantly correlated with the dose of acid used (r = 0.51, p less than 0.01; n = 27 rats). The changes in hydrogen gas clearance and laser Doppler flowmetry values from the 30-min period before to the 30-min period after acid perfusion were not correlated with the dose of acid used (r = 0.30 and 0.33, respectively). We conclude that in the rat duodenum 1) the significant linear correlation between hydrogen gas clearance and laser Doppler flowmetry when blood flow is reduced suggests that the countercurrent exchange mechanism is unlikely to modulate significantly hydrogen gas clearance measurements, and 2) the dose-related acid-induced duodenal hyperemia is transient rather than persistent when the rat duodenum is exposed to hydrochloric acid (0.03 to 0.1 N) for 3 min.

  14. Mechanism for enhanced absorption of a solid dispersion formulation of LY2300559 using the artificial stomach duodenum model.

    PubMed

    Polster, Christopher S; Wu, Sy-Juen; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Sperry, David C

    2015-04-06

    An artificial stomach duodenum (ASD) model has been used to demonstrate the performance difference between two formulations of LY2300559, a low-solubility acidic developmental drug. The two formulations investigated were a conventional high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) formulation and a solid dispersion formulation. A pharmacokinetic study in humans demonstrated the enhanced performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation. The Cmax and AUC of the solid dispersion was 2.6 and 1.9 times greater, respectively, compared to the HSWG formulation. In the ASD, the solid dispersion formulation performance was characterized by three main phases: (1) rapid release in the stomach, creating a supersaturated concentration of drug, (2) precipitation in the stomach, and (3) rapid redissolution of the precipitate in the duodenum to concentration levels that are supersaturated relative to crystalline drug. A series of complementary experiments were employed to describe this performance behavior mechanistically. Imaging experiments with a pH indicating dye showed that local pH gradients from meglumine in the solid dispersion formulation were responsible for creating a high initial supersaturation concentration in the stomach. Upon dissipation of meglumine, the drug precipitated in the stomach as an amorphous solid. Because the precipitated drug is in an amorphous form, it can then rapidly redissolve as it transits to the more neutral environment of the duodenum. This unexpected sequence of physical state changes gives a mechanistic explanation for the enhanced in vivo performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation.

  15. Influence of diet and monensin on development of anaerobic fungi in the rumen, duodenum, cecum, and feces of cows.

    PubMed Central

    Grenet, E; Fonty, G; Jamot, J; Bonnemoy, F

    1989-01-01

    Three cows with fistulated rumens, duodenums, and ceca were fed five different diets: lucerne hay, lucerne hay plus whey (40:60), lucerne hay plus beets (50:50), corn silage plus monensin (40 ppm [40 g/kg] of dry matter intake), and lucerne hay plus monensin (80 ppm of dry matter intake). The fungal population was observed in the rumen, duodenum, cecum, and rectum and varied with diet; it was most abundant with lucerne hay alone and with corn silage plus monensin. The proportion of particles colonized by fungi in the duodenum, the cecum, and feces was measured by microscopic observation and varied from 5 to 50%, depending on the diet. The further sporangia attached to the plant particles were from the rumen, the more likely they were to be devoid of spores. Results confirmed the influence of diet on the development of the ruminal fungal population and showed that monensin does not eliminate these microorganisms. They also confirmed the presence of anaerobic fungi in the ruminant intestine. It is likely that anaerobic fungi leave the rumen attached to plant particles. However, large colonies of nonrhizoidal-type fungi were observed in cecum samples and in feces; at these sites, environmental conditions are perhaps more favorable for this type of fungus than they are in the rumen. PMID:2802609

  16. [Population characteristics of mucous tissue basocytes in the Mongolian gerbil's jejunum following the 12-day orbital flight onboard space platform "Foton-M3"].

    PubMed

    Atyakshin, D A; Bykov, E G

    2013-01-01

    Optical (light) microscopy and histochemical techniques were used for the first-ever studies of the population characteristics of tissue basocytes in the jejunum mucous membrane in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: flown over 12 days aboard space platform Foton-M3, subjected to spaceflight factors simulation (SFS) in dedicated system Kontur-L (2) and maintained in standard vivarium conditions (control). Space flight was shown to induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the population of jejunum mucus labrocytes. Reduction of the basocytes population, alterations in age composition and ratio of the morphofunctional cell types in microgravity were indicative of cytoplasmic aggregation intensity, paths of biosynthesis products release into the intersticium, and their tinctorial properties. Also, heparin maturation and liberalization into the extracellular space in support of the jejunum mucus adaptive functions progressed with greater intensity. SFS did not affect size of the basocytes population significantly although it did cause qualitative rearrangements in the population structure.

  17. Activation of enteric nerve pathways in the guinea-pig duodenum by cholecystokinin octapeptide and pentagastrin.

    PubMed Central

    Ngu, M C

    1985-01-01

    The action and mechanism of action of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) and pentagastrin on isolated segments of guinea-pig duodenum were examined using contractility studies and by intracellular recordings made from smooth muscle cells. Both CCK-8 and pentagastrin caused an excitatory contractile response. The threshold concentration ranged from 5 X 10(-11) to 10(-9) M for CCK-8 and 5 X 10(-10) to 10(-8) M for pentagastrin. The excitatory response was abolished by tetrodotoxin (3.1 X 10(-6) M) and atropine (1.5 X 10(-6) M) and inhibited by d-tubocurarine (up to 2.9 X 10(-5) M). In the presence of atropine a proportion of preparations relaxed in response to CCK-8 (nineteen of thirty-one) and pentagastrin (thirteen of seventeen). This response was only seen at high concentrations of the peptides (10(-8)-10(-7) M) and was abolished by tetrodotoxin (3 X 10(-6) M). Intracellular recordings from duodenal smooth muscle revealed multiple excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) in response to CCK-8 and to pentagastrin. These e.j.p.s were identical to those evoked by transmural nerve stimulation and were abolished by atropine (1.5 X 10(-7) M) and by tetrodotoxin (3 X 10(-6) M). Inhibitory junction potentials (i.j.p.s) were not recorded in response to the peptides except on one occasion. It is suggested that CCK-8 and pentagastrin cause an increase in duodenal motility by the selective activation of excitatory pathways in the enteric nervous system. PMID:4032301

  18. Metagenomics Reveals Dysbiosis and a Potentially Pathogenic N. flavescens Strain in Duodenum of Adult Celiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    D'Argenio, Valeria; Casaburi, Giorgio; Precone, Vincenza; Pagliuca, Chiara; Colicchio, Roberta; Sarnataro, Daniela; Discepolo, Valentina; Kim, Sangman M; Russo, Ilaria; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Horner, David S; Chiara, Matteo; Pesole, Graziano; Salvatore, Paola; Monteleone, Giovanni; Ciacci, Carolina; Caporaso, Gregory J; Jabrì, Bana; Salvatore, Francesco; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD)-associated duodenal dysbiosis has not yet been clearly defined, and the mechanisms by which CD-associated dysbiosis could concur to CD development or exacerbation are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the duodenal microbiome of CD patients. METHODS: The microbiome was evaluated in duodenal biopsy samples of 20 adult patients with active CD, 6 CD patients on a gluten-free diet, and 15 controls by DNA sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA libraries. Bacterial species were cultured, isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. Isolated bacterial species were used to infect CaCo-2 cells, and to stimulate normal duodenal explants and cultured human and murine dendritic cells (DCs). Inflammatory markers and cytokines were evaluated by immunofluorescence and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Proteobacteria was the most abundant and Firmicutes and Actinobacteria the least abundant phyla in the microbiome profiles of active CD patients. Members of the Neisseria genus (Betaproteobacteria class) were significantly more abundant in active CD patients than in the other two groups (P=0.03). Neisseria flavescens (CD-Nf) was the most abundant Neisseria species in active CD duodenum. Whole-genome sequencing of CD-Nf and control-Nf showed genetic diversity of the iron acquisition systems and of some hemoglobin-related genes. CD-Nf was able to escape the lysosomal compartment in CaCo-2 cells and to induce an inflammatory response in DCs and in ex-vivo mucosal explants. CONCLUSIONS: Marked dysbiosis and an abundance of a peculiar CD-Nf strain characterize the duodenal microbiome in active CD patients thus suggesting that the CD-associated microbiota could contribute to the many inflammatory signals in this disorder. PMID:27045926

  19. Periampullary mass--a rare presentation of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cancer of duodenum in a young adult: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha; Nayak, Hemanta K; Bagchi, Avishek; Kar, Premashis

    2012-10-09

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumour in the periampullary region of the duodenum is a rare entity. This entity usually present in old men. Here we report a periampullary poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cancer (PDEC) of duodenum presenting in a young man with subacute history of jaundice, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and constitutional symptoms. MRI localised the tumour and endoscopy-guided biopsy of the lesion proved the diagnosis. Although palliative surgery and chemotherapy were planned, the patient opted to leave against medical advice.

  20. Gallstone ileus with jejunum perforation managed with laparoscopic-assisted surgery: rare case report and minimal invasive management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Yin, Wen-Yao; Chen, Jian-Han

    2015-05-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis. Most patients affected by gallstone ileus are elderly and have multiple comorbidities. Symptoms are vague and insidious, which may delay the correct diagnosis for days. Here we are reporting an uncommon complication of gallstone ileus. We report on a 70-year-old man with small bowel obstruction at the jejunum due to an impacted stone, which led to necrosis and perforation of the proximal bowel wall. Laparoscope-assisted small bowel resection with enterolithotomy was used to successfully treat the patient's perforation and obstruction. His recovery was uneventful. Gallstone ileus commonly presents with bowel obstruction, but intestinal perforation occurs very rarely. A laparoscopic approach can provide both diagnostic and therapeutic roles in management.

  1. The Relationship Between Ischemia Time and Mucous Secretion in Vaginal Reconstruction With the Jejunal Free Flap: An Experimental Study on the Rat Jejunum.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Omer; Ozkan, Ozlenen; Bektas, Gamze; Cinpolat, Anı; Bassorgun, Ibrahim; Ciftcioglu, Akif

    2015-07-01

    Jejunum flap for reconstruction of the vagina provides a durable, stable coverage; patent tube passage; and natural esthetic appearance. However, excessive mucous secretion is a major drawback of the technique.We have recently presented our cases in which strict 3-hour ischemia with lower mucus secretion was applied. However, a quantitative analysis of goblet cells of the jejunum subjected to ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury on an animal model has not been reported to support this argument.Because goblet cells are responsible for the production and the maintenance of the mucous blanket, we aimed to determine whether goblet cell numbers decrease after ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury.This study was conducted on 3 groups of 10 animals. We applied to the rat jejunum only ischemia in group 1, one hour of ischemia followed by reperfusion in group 2, and 2 hours of ischemia followed by reperfusion in group 3. Histological samples taken from the jejunum exposed to ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury were evaluated in terms of goblet cell numbers, inflammation, apoptotic bodies, and necrosis.Goblet cell numbers significantly decreased in the group of animals exposed to ischemia and exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury. We think that mucus hypersecretion of the jejenum can be limited by applying a longer period of ischemia time during free flap transfer in vaginal reconstruction.

  2. Relationships between inflammation- and immunity-related transcript abundance in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers with divergent average daily gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bovine rumen papillae are in contact with a wide array of microorganisms and the metabolites they produce, which may activate an inflammatory and/or immune response. Cytokines, chemokines, and their receptor genes were tested for differential expression in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers w...

  3. The effect of free and protected oils on the digestion of dietary carbohydrates between the mouth and duodenum of sheep.

    PubMed

    McAllan, A B; Knight, R; Sutton, J D

    1983-05-01

    Sheep fitted with rumen and re-entrant duodenal cannulas were given diets of approximately 200 g hay and 400 g concentrate mixture alone, or supplemented daily with 40 g linseed or coconut oils free or protected with formaldehyde-casein in a 5 x 5 Latin-square arrangement. Chromic oxide paper was given as a marker at feeding time and passage to the duodenum of neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and different sugars were estimated from the values for constituent:marker at the duodenum. Contributions of microbial carbohydrates to these flows were estimated from amounts of RNA present. The carbohydrate composition of mixed rumen bacteria from sheep rumen digesta were similar regardless of diet. Of the sugars entering the duodenum all the rhamnose and ribose and 0.51, 0.24 and 0.35 of the mannose, galactose and starch-glucose respectively, were contributed by the microbes. Virtually all the arabinose, xylose and cellulose-glucose were contributed by the diet. For sheep receiving the basal ration, coefficients of digestibility between mouth and duodenum, corrected where necessary for microbial contribution, were 0.95, 0.66, 0.67, 0.62, 0.45 and 0.51 for starch-glucose, mannose, arabinose, galactose, xylose and cellulose-glucose respectively. Corresponding values when free-oil-supplemented diets were given were 0.95, 0.55, 0.38, 0.55, 0.01 and -0.02 respectively. Values for diets supplemented with linseed oil or coconut oil did not differ significantly. Addition of protected oils to the basal feed also resulted in depressed digestibilities of dietary structural sugars but to a far lesser extent than those observed with the free oils. Apparent digestibility of NDF was altered in the same direction as those of the main structural sugars, averaging 0.50, 0.17 and 0.29 in animals receiving the basal, free-oil-supplemented or protected-oil-supplemented diets respectively. The reasons for the difference between NDF and discrete carbohydrate analytical totals are discussed.

  4. Protective effects of leucine on redox status and mitochondrial-related gene abundance in the jejunum of intrauterine growth-retarded piglets during early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kai-Wen; He, Jin-Tian; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Li-Li; Wang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with 0.35% l-leucine on redox status and gene abundance relating to mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the jejunum of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets during early weaning period. According to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 IUGR and 16 normal body weight (NBW) piglets were fed a basal diet without l-leucine supplementation or a basal diet plus 0.35% l-leucine supplementation from the age of 14 to 35 d. The results showed that compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a lower (p < 0.05) jejunal DNA concentration, a reduced (p < 0.05) manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) activities and mitochondrial DNA content in the jejunum. Leucine supplementation increased (p < 0.05) MnSOD and T-AOC activities and decreased (p < 0.05) the malondialdehyde content in the jejunum of IUGR piglets. The mRNA gene abundance of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), ATP synthase (ATPs), cytochrome c oxidase V (CcOX V), cytochrome c and glucokinase in the jejunum of IUGR piglets was reduced (p < 0.05) compared with NBW piglets. However, NRF1, peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, TFAM, ATPs and CcOX I mRNA gene abundance in the jejunum of IUGR piglets were increased (p < 0.05) by diets supplemented with leucine. These data indicate that leucine supplementation has therapeutic potential for attenuating intestinal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in IUGR piglets during the early period of life via increasing enzyme activities and up-regulating mRNA gene abundance.

  5. Application of an Artificial Stomach-Duodenum Reduced Gastric pH Dog Model for Formulation Principle Assessment and Mechanistic Performance Understanding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Ming; Luner, Paul E; Locke, Karen; Briggs, Katherine

    2017-02-23

    The objective of this study was to develop an artificial stomach-duodenum (ASD) dissolution model as an in vitro evaluation tool that would simulate the gastrointestinal physiology of gastric pH-reduced dogs as a method to assess formulations for a poorly soluble free acid compound with ng/mL solubility. After establishing the ASD model with well controlled duodenum pH, five formulations each applying different solubilization principles were developed and their performance in the ASD model and in vivo in dogs was evaluated. Excellent correlations were obtained between dog AUC and ASD AUC of five formulations evaluated with SIF (r(2) = 0.987) and FaSSIF (r(2) = 0.989) as the duodenum dissolution medium, indicating that the approach of infusing NaOH into duodenum compartment to maintain duodenum pH of an ASD worked properly in simulating gastric pH-reduced dog. Raman spectroscopy was used to study drug dissolution kinetics associated with different solubilization principles and the results suggested that the solubilization principles performed as designed. Spectroscopic results also identified that the compound formed a gel during dissolution and HPMC maintained the drug gelled state to avoid further solid form conversion. The implication of the compound physical gelation to drug dissolution kinetics and in vivo exposure are discussed.

  6. Fluid secretion in the duodenum and intestinal handling of water and electrolytes in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rambaud, J C; Modigliani, R; Emonts, P; Matuchansky, C; Vidon, N; Besterman, H; Bernier, J J

    1978-12-01

    The slow marker perfusion technique was used in five patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in order to determine the basal and postcibal flow rates of fluids passing the duodenojejunal junction and distal ileum, and the composition of those fluids. Fecal water and electrolyte excretions were also measured. The 24-hr outputs at the ligament of Treitz were markedly increased, while fecal losses were normal or only slightly increased. Thus, the overall intestinal reabsorption of water was 96%. Fasting rates of fluid and electrolyte flow at the ligament of Treitz were also measured during a basal period, followed by a period of continuous gastric aspiration. Removal of gastric secretion had the following effects on the fluid passing through the duodenum: (1) dramatic decrease in flow rate; (2) an increase in osmolality, from hypotonicity to isotonicity; (3) rise of pH, from acid to alkaline values; (4) a decrease of PCO2, from high to normal values. No increase in fasting plasma levels of immunoreactive secretin and motilin was observed in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, whereas normal subjects respond to acid in the duodenum by a marked rise in the circulating levels of these hormones. These facts suggest that, in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: (1) the ability of the small bowel and colon to reabsorb water and electrolytes is normal: (2) duodenal dissipation of hydrogen ions is mainly due to intraluminal neutralization by bicarbonate; and (3) stimulation of water and electrolyte secretion by the pancreas is inadequate.

  7. New mechanistic explanation for the localization of ulcers in the rat duodenum: role of iron and selective uptake of cysteamine.

    PubMed

    Khomenko, Tetyana; Kolodney, Joanna; Pinto, John T; McLaren, Gordon D; Deng, Xiaoming; Chen, Longchuan; Tolstanova, Ganna; Paunovic, Brankica; Krasnikov, Boris F; Hoa, Neil; Cooper, Arthur J L; Szabo, Sandor

    2012-09-01

    Cysteamine, a coenzyme A metabolite, induces duodenal ulcers in rodents. Our recent studies showed that ulcer formation was aggravated by iron overload and diminished in iron deficiency. We hypothesized that cysteamine is selectively taken up in the duodenal mucosa, where iron absorption primarily occurs, and is transported by a carrier-mediated process. Here we report that cysteamine administration in rats leads to cysteamine accumulation in the proximal duodenum, where the highest concentration of iron in the gastrointestinal tract is found. In vitro, iron loading of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) accelerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased [(14)C]cysteamine uptake. [(14)C]Cysteamine uptake by isolated gastrointestinal mucosal cells and by IEC-6 was pH-dependent and inhibited by unlabeled cysteamine. The uptake of [(14)C]cysteamine by IEC-6 was Na(+)-independent, saturable, inhibited by structural analogs, H(2)-histamine receptor antagonists, and organic cation transporter (OCT) inhibitors. OCT1 mRNA was markedly expressed in the rat duodenum and in IEC-6, and transfection of IEC-6 with OCT1 siRNA decreased OCT1 mRNA expression and inhibited [(14)C]cysteamine uptake. Cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers were decreased in OCT1/2 knockout mice. These studies provide new insights into the mechanism of cysteamine absorption and demonstrate that intracellular iron plays a critical role in cysteamine uptake and in experimental duodenal ulcerogenesis.

  8. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  9. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher (P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting

  10. Arterial supply to the bleeding diverticulum in the ascending duodenum treated by transcatheter arterial embolization- a duodenal artery branched from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Hiroki H; Kawai, Nobuyuki N; Sato, Morio M; Tanaka, Fumihiro F; Nakata, Kouhei K; Minamiguchi, Hiroki H; Nakai, Motoki M; Sonomura, Tetsuo T

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of endoscopically unmanageable hemorrhagic diverticulum in the ascending duodenum. The ventral and dorsal walls of the ascending duodenum were supplied from the first jejunal artery (1JA) and inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA), respectively. The hemorrhage mainly occurred from IPDA. The abruptly branching of IPDA from superior mesenteric artery enabled successful catheterization of the IPDA with an angled microcatheter. Hemostasis was obtained by embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Gastroendoscopy depicted a duodenal hemi-circumferential ulcer. No symptoms related to hemorrhage were found at the last follow-up at 12 months.

  11. Effects of type of canola protein supplement on ruminal fermentation and nutrient flow to the duodenum in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Gozho, G N; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A; Racz, V; Mutsvangwa, T

    2009-10-01

    Ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and flows to the duodenum in growing cattle fed differently produced canola protein supplements were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin square design using Speckle Park heifers (initial BW = 451 +/- 26 kg). Canola protein supplement treatments consisted of the following: 1) 8.78% regular canola meal (RCM); 2) 9.25% RCM plus 1.80% canola oil (RCMO); 3) 11.1% canola presscake from biodiesel oil extraction (CPC); and 4) 8.14% high ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) canola meal (RUCM) plus 1.32% canola oil (RUCMO). Experimental diets also contained 39.9, 40.2, 39.9, and 39.9% barley grain; 31.7, 31.4, 31.2, and 31.4% barley silage; and 17.5, 15.2, 15.6, and 16.5% oat hulls for the RCM, RCMO, CPC, and RUCMO diets, respectively. Feeding the CPC, RCMO, and RUCMO diets decreased (P < or = 0.05) ruminal NH(3)-N concentration compared with feeding the RCM diet. Compared with the RCM diet, adding canola oil in the RCMO diet or residual oil in the CPC diet resulted in greater ruminal concentrations of propionate (P < or = 0.09). Additionally, feeding the RCMO diet also resulted in greater ruminal concentrations of acetate (P = 0.07), valerate (P = 0.06), and total VFA (P = 0.07) compared with the RCM diet. Also, compared with the RCM diet, heifers on the RUCMO diet had decreased acetate (P = 0.02) concentrations. The changes in ruminal concentrations of acetate and propionate resulted in reduced acetate:propionate ratios in the RCMO (P = 0.08), CPC (P = 0.02), and RUCMO (P < 0.01) diets. Ruminal digestion and flows of nutrients to the duodenum were not affected by dietary treatment. However, adding canola oil to the RCMO and RUCMO dietary treatments decreased the digestibility of ADF (P < or = 0.08) and NDF (P < or = 0.08) in the total tract compared with the RCM diet. Total tract digestibility of OM was also decreased (P = 0.02) in heifers fed the RUCMO compared with the RCM diet. Notwithstanding the different processing methods employed in

  12. The effect of sodium deoxycholate and other surfactants on the mucosal surface pH in proximal jejunum or rat.

    PubMed

    McKie, A T; Stewart, W; Lucas, M L

    1991-06-01

    The mucosal surface pH (acid microclimate) and nucleotide levels of rat proximal jejunum were measured in vivo under various conditions which included exposure to pharmacological agents and to surfactants. Mucosal surface pH was unaffected by sodium nitroprusside, A23187 and amiloride, as was mucosal cGMP content, although amiloride and A23187 reduced cAMP content. In contrast, surfactants elevated the pH of the mucosal surface significantly (P less than 0.001): control value 6.23 +/- 0.02 (n = 12); Lubrol PX 0.8% (v/v) 6.98 +/- 0.02 (n = 5); sodium deoxycholate 2 mmol/l 6.67 +/- 0.04 (n = 5); Triton X-100 0.5% (v/v) 7.41 +/- 0.03 (n = 5). No significant changes in cGMP levels were noted after surfactant treatment, although DOC and Triton X-100 reduced cAMP levels. The ability of higher concentrations of surfactant to elevate the mucosal surface pH beyond neutrality to values similar to plasma pH contrasts with the action of Escherichia coli heat-stable (STa) enterotoxin which at high concentrations could not elevate the mucosal surface pH beyond neutrality. Consistent with the known effects on tight junction permeability, surfactants may act by allowing plasma-like subepithelial fluid to neutralise the microclimate.

  13. Stimulation by D-glucose of the direct conversion of arginine to citrulline in enterocytes isolated from pig jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Blachier, F.; M'Rabet-Touil, H.; Darcy-Vrillon, B.; Posho, L.; Duee, P.H. )

    1991-06-28

    In enterocytes isolated from pig jejunum, L-arginine is metabolized to L-citrulline either directly or indirectly through the sequence of reactions catalysed by arginase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In the presence of 5 mM D-glucose, the direct conversion of 1mM L-(guanido-14C) arginine to L-citrulline was increased more than 4 times. Isolated enterocytes exhibit a high glycolytic capacity. Furthermore, the decarboxylation of 5mM D-(1-14C) glucose was 3.6 fold higher than the decarboxylation of 5 mM D-(6-14C) glucose which suggests the presence of a pentose phosphate pathway in enterocytes. Since the production of labelled L-citrulline from L-(guanido-14C) arginine in pig enterocyte homogenates was markedly increased in the presence of NADPH, it is proposed that the direct conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline could be stimulated by the production of NADPH from D-glucose in the pentose phosphate pathway.

  14. Duodenum-triggered delivery of pravastatin sodium via enteric surface-coated nanovesicular spanlastic dispersions: development, characterization and pharmacokinetic assessments.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Saadia Ahmed; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Abd-Elsalam, Wessam Hamdy

    2015-04-10

    Pravastatin sodium (PVS) is a hydrophilic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor that is mainly absorbed from duodenum. PVS has a short elimination half-life (1-3 h), suffers from instability at gastric pH, extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism and low absolute bioavailability (18%). The current work aimed to develop enteric surface-coated spanlastic dispersions as controlled-release duodenum-triggered systems able to surmount PVS drawbacks. PVS-loaded spanlastic dispersions were prepared by ethanol-injection method using span(®) 60. Tween(®) 60 and Tween(®) 80 were explored as edge activators. As a novel approach, the fine spanlastic dispersions were surface-coated with an enteric-polymer (Eudragit(®) L100-55) via freeze-drying. The systems were evaluated, before and after enteric-coating, for particle size, zeta potential, PVS entrapment efficiency (EE%), morphology and PVS release studies. PVS pharmacokinetics from the best achieved system and an aqueous solution were estimated in rats by UPLC-MS/MS. The best achieved enteric surface-coated spanlastic dispersion (E-S6) displayed spherical nanosized vesicles (647.60 nm) possessing negative zeta potential (-6.93 mV), promising EE% (63.22%) and a biphasic drug-release pattern characterized by a retarded-release phase (0.1 N HCl, 2 h) and a controlled-release phase (pH 6.8, 10 h). The higher Cmax, delayed Tmax, prolonged MRT(0-∞), longer elimination t50% and enhanced oral bioavailability unravel E-S6 potential for oral PVS delivery.

  15. Cholecystokinin but not ghrelin stimulates mucosal bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum: independence of feeding status and cholinergic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, Markus; Lindqvist, Ramin; Bengtsson, Magnus W; Jedstedt, Gunilla; Flemström, Gunnar

    2013-05-10

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important regulator of food digestion but its influence on small intestinal secretion has received little attention. We characterized effects of CCK-8, ghrelin and some related peptides on duodenal HCO3(-) secretion in vivo and demonstrated CCK-induced calcium signaling in acutely isolated enterocytes. A segment of proximal duodenum with intact blood supply was cannulated in situ in anaesthetized rats. Mucosal HCO3(-) secretion was continuously recorded (pH-stat). Peptides were administrated to the duodenum by close intra-arterial infusion. Clusters of duodenal enterocytes were attached to the bottom of a perfusion chamber. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was examined by dual-wavelength imaging. CCK-8 (3.0, 15 and 60 pmol/kg,h) caused dose-dependent increases (p<0.01) in duodenal alkaline secretion in both overnight fasted and continuously fed animals. The CCK1R-antagonist devazepide but neither the CCK2R-antagonist YMM022 nor the melatonin MT2-selective antagonist luzindole inhibited the rise in secretion. Atropine decreased sensitivity to CCK-8. The appetite-related peptide ghrelin was without effect on the duodenal secretion in fasted as well as fed animals. Superfusion with CCK-8 (1.0-50 nM) induced [Ca(2+)]i signaling in acutely isolated duodenal enterocytes. After an initial peak response, [Ca(2+)]i returned to near basal values within 3-5min. Devazepide but not YMM022 inhibited this [Ca(2+)]i response. Low doses of CCK-8 stimulate duodenal alkaline secretion and induce enterocyte [Ca(2+)]i signaling by an action at CCK1 receptors. The results point to importance of CCK in the rapid postprandial rise in mucosa-protective duodenal secretion.

  16. Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G; Love, Richard J; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W M

    2013-06-06

    We conducted numerical experiments to study the influence of non-propagating longitudinal and circular contractions, i.e. pendular activity and segmentation, respectively, on flow and mixing in the proximal duodenum. A lattice-Boltzmann numerical method was developed to simulate the fluid mechanical consequences for each of 22 randomly selected sequences of high-definition video of real longitudinal and radial contractile activity in the isolated proximal duodenum of the rat and guinea pig. During pendular activity in the rat duodenum, the flow was characterized by regions of high shear rate. Mixing was so governed by shearing deformation of the fluid that increased the interface between adjacent domains and accelerated their inter-diffusion (for diffusion coefficients approx. less than 10(-8) m² s(-1)). When pendular activity was associated with a slow gastric outflow characteristic of post-prandial period, the dispersion was also improved, especially near the walls. Mixing was not promoted by isolated segmentative contractions in the guinea pig duodenum and not notably influenced by pylorus outflow. We concluded that pendular activity generates mixing of viscous fluids 'in situ' and accelerates the diffusive mass transfer, whereas segmentation may be more important in mixing particulate suspensions with high solid volume ratios.

  17. Cap-assisted forward-viewing endoscopy to visualize the ampulla of Vater and the duodenum in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Kallenberg, Frank G J; Bastiaansen, Barbara A J; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-02-01

    Background and study aims Guidelines recommend surveillance endoscopy with both forward- and side-viewing endoscopes to identify duodenal and ampullary adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). We hypothesized that both the duodenum and the ampulla of Vater can be completely visualized during cap-assisted forward-viewing endoscopy. Patients and methods A total of 40 patients with FAP underwent forward-viewing endoscopy with a short cap attached to the tip of the gastroscope, with the aim of visualizing both the duodenum and the ampulla of Vater. If unsuccessful, the procedure was followed by a side-viewing endoscopy. Adverse events were reported. Results The duodenum, including the ampulla of Vater, was completely visualized using the cap in 38/40 patients (95.0 %). The ampulla could not be visualized using the cap in two patients, both of whom underwent additional side-viewing endoscopy, which was successful. No adverse events occurred. Conclusions This study showed that cap-assisted endoscopy can be used effectively and safely to visualize both the duodenum and the ampulla of Vater in patients with FAP. This practice might reduce burden, time, and costs of an additional side-viewing endoscopy.

  18. Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Fan, Huan; Han, Ye; Zhao, Jinzhao; Zhou, Zhijiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep’s health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum) of sheep. Methods This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum). Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep. PMID:27383798

  19. Retinoic Acid-Activated Ndrg1a Represses Wnt/β-catenin Signaling to Allow Xenopus Pancreas, Oesophagus, Stomach, and Duodenum Specification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiejun; Guo, Xiaogang; Chen, Yonglong

    2013-01-01

    How cells integrate multiple patterning signals to achieve early endoderm regionalization remains largely unknown. Between gastrulation and neurulation, retinoic acid (RA) signaling is required, while Wnt/β-catenin signaling has to be repressed for the specification of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum primordia in Xenopus embryos. In attempt to screen for RA regulated genes in Xenopus endoderm, we identified a direct RA target gene, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1a (ndrg1a) that showed expression early in the archenteron roof endoderm and late in the developing pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Both antisense morpholino oligonucleotide mediated knockdown of ndrg1a in Xenopus laevis and the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mediated disruption of ndrg1 in Xenopus tropicalis demonstrate that like RA signaling, Ndrg1a is specifically required for the specification of Xenopus pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum primordia. Immunofluorescence data suggest that RA-activated Ndrg1a suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Xenopus archenteron roof endoderm cells. Blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling rescued Ndrg1a knockdown phenotype. Furthermore, overexpression of the putative Wnt/β-catenin target gene Atf3 phenocopied knockdown of Ndrg1a or inhibition of RA signaling, while Atf3 knockdown can rescue Ndrg1a knockdown phenotype. Lastly, the pancreas/stomach/duodenum transcription factor Pdx1 was able to rescue Atf3 overexpression or Ndrg1a knockdown phenotype. Together, we conclude that RA activated Ndrg1a represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling to allow the specification of pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum progenitor cells in Xenopus embryos. PMID:23741453

  20. pH gradient effects on chloride transport across basolateral membrane vesicles from guinea-pig jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Touzani, K; Alvarado, F; Vasseur, M

    1997-01-01

    1. The effects of alkaline-inside pH gradients on 36Cl- uptake were quantified by using brush-border membrane (BBM) and basolateral membrane (BLM) vesicles from guinea-pig jejunum. 2. With BBM vesicles, a pHo/pHi gradient of 5.0/7.5 yielded fast overshoots involving a random, non-obligatory Cl(-)-H+ symport, strongly inhibited by CCCP. In contrast, BLM vesicles responded to similar pH gradients with much smaller, delayed overshoots, unaffected by CCCP. 3. The initial Cl- entry rates into BLM vesicles were a function of each pHo, pHi and delta pH value. They were stimulated by valinomycin in the presence of inward-directed K+ gradients. Short-circuiting the membrane potential with equilibrated K+ and valinomycin inhibited pH gradient-dependent Cl- uptake, but only partially. 4. Taken together, these results indicate that guinea-pig jejunal BLM vesicles possess both Cl- conductance and Cl(-)-H+ symport activities. 5. Even when different, the BBM and the BLM symporters are mechanistically similar. Neither of them involves a Cl(-)-OH- antiport, nor a simultaneous Cl(-)-anion exchange mechanism. Rather, for each membrane, all of these activities (symport, anion exchange) can be explained in terms of a single mobile carrier acting as a random, non-obligatory Cl(-)-H+ symporter where exchange occurs simply by counterflow. Net Cl- translocation via either the ternary (Cl(-)-C-H+) or the binary (Cl(-)-C) complexes accounts, respectively, for the existence of two, operationally distinct, electroneutral and rheogenic components. 6. The BBM symporter appears to involve an AE2 protein, but the molecular identity of the BLM one remains to be established. PMID:9147326

  1. Effects of extrinsic denervation on innervation with VIP and substance P in circular muscle of rat jejunum1

    PubMed Central

    KASPAREK, M. S.; FATIMA, J.; IQBAL, C. W.; SARR, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Extrinsic denervation contributes to enteric motor dysfunction after small bowel transplantation (SBT). Our aim was to determine changes in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic innervation with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (Sub P) in rat jejunal circular muscle after SBT. Muscle strips were studied in tissue chambers from six groups of rats (n ≥ 6 per group): naïve controls (NC), animals 1 week after anaesthesia/sham celiotomy (SC-1), and 1 and 8 weeks after jejunal and ileal transection/reanastomosis (TA-1, TA-8) and after syngeneic, orthotopic SBT (SBT-1, SBT-8). Response to exogenous VIP and Sub P and their endogenous release during electrical field stimulation (EFS) were studied. Exogenous VIP and Sub P caused a dose-dependent inhibition and stimulation of mechanical activity in all groups respectively (P < 0.05). The responses to VIP and Sub P were decreased (compared to NC) in all groups at 1 and 8 weeks postoperatively. The VIP antagonist ([D-p-Cl-Phe6,Leu17]-VIP) did not prevent the inhibition by exogenous VIP in any group, while the Sub P antagonist ([D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-Sub P) prevented the effect of exogenous Sub P in NC, TA-8 and SBT-8 (P < 0.05). Responses to exogenous VIP were unaffected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NG-nitro arginine and precontraction of muscle strips with Sub P. Endogenous release of VIP and Sub P during EFS was preserved after SBT. In circular muscle of rat jejunum, changes in neuromuscular transmission with VIP and Sub P during the first 8 weeks after SBT are not mediated by extrinsic denervation. PMID:18282172

  2. Intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells and VIP-IR submucosal neurons of jejunum rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Ana, Débora M G; Góis, Marcelo B; Zanoni, Jacqueline N; da Silva, Aristeu V; da Silva, Cleverton J T; Araújo, Eduardo J A

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) crosses the intestinal barrier in oral infections and can lead to changes in different cell types, including the neurons located there. In the gastrointestinal system, the autonomous nervous system component that regulate blood flow and mucous secretion is the submucosal plexus. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of T. gondii infection on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and submucosal neurons that are immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP-IR) of rat jejunum. Twenty male rats distributed as a control group (CG) and an infected group (IG), which received a suspension with 500 parasite oocysts (strain ME-49, genotype II) orally, were assessed. Routine histological sections were used to quantify IELs and to detect mucins secreted by goblet cells. Whole mounts including the submucosal layer were examined using immunofluorescence to detect the VIP neurotransmitter. Quantitative alterations in IELs were not observed. However, the reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of goblet cells that produce neutral mucins (PAS+) and sulphomucins (AB pH 1.0) and the maintenance of sialomucin-secreting cells (AB pH 2.5) resulting in a more fluid mucous were observed. Concerning the VIP-IR submucosal neurons, an increase in fluorescence on IG animals was observed. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of VIP-IR submucosal neurons and atrophy of their cell bodies in IG rats. Infection with T. gondii caused alterations in the chemical composition of the intestinal mucous and reduction in the neuron number and atrophy of the remaining neurons in this cell subpopulation. PMID:22804764

  3. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of interstitial cells of Cajal in the rabbit duodenum. Presence of a single cilium

    PubMed Central

    Junquera, Concepción; Martínez-Ciriano, Carmen; Castiella, Tomás; Serrano, Pedro; Azanza, María Jesús; Ramón y Cajal Junquera, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Santiago Ramón y Cajal discovered a new type of cell related to the myenteric plexus and also to the smooth muscle cells of the circular muscle layer of the intestine. Based on their morphology, relationships and staining characteristics, he considered these cells as primitive neurons. One century later, despite major improvements in cell biology, the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are still controversial for many researchers. The aim of study was to perform an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the ICCs in the rabbit duo-denum. We have found interstitial cells that are positive for c-Kit, CD34 and nestin and are also positive for Ki67 protein, tightly associated with somatic cell proliferation. By means of electron microscopy, we describe ICCs around enteric ganglia. They present triangular or spindle forms and a very voluminous nucleus with scarce per-inuclear chromatin surrounded by a thin perinuclear cytoplasm that expands with long cytoplasmic processes. ICC processes penetrate among the smooth muscle cells and couple with the processes of other ICCs located in the connective tissue of the circular muscle layer and establish a three-dimensional network. Intercellular con-tacts by means of gap-like junctions are frequent. ICCs also establish gap-like junctions with smooth muscle cells. We also observe a population of interstitial cells of stellate morphology in the connective tissue that sur-rounds the muscle bundles in the circular muscle layer, usually close to nervous trunks. These cells establish different types of contacts with the muscle cells around them. In addition, the presence of a single cilium show-ing a structure 9 + 0 in an ICC is demonstrated for the first time. In conclusion, we report positive staining c-kit, CD34, nestin and Ki 67. ICCs fulfilled the usual transmission electron microscopy (TEM) criteria. A new ultrastructural characteristic of at least some ICCs is demonstrated: the presence of a single

  4. Grape seed extract supplementation attenuates the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells in Simmental × Qinchuan steers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Yang, You; Liu, Shimin; Yang, Jing; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Zhihong

    2014-08-14

    Grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of polyphenols, is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of the present study was to determine whether GSE could attenuate the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells (JEC) in cattle. The JEC of a steer (Simmental × Qinchuan) were exposed to heat stress for 2 h in the absence (0 μg/ml) or presence (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) of GSE in the culture medium. When cultured at 40°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased glutathione peroxidase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P= 0·004), and mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF; P= 0·03) and EGF receptor (EGFR; P = 0·01). Under the same conditions, the cells exhibited decreased mRNA expression of IL-8 (P= 0·01) and TNF-α (P= 0·03) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P= 0·02), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4; P= 0·04) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; P< 0·001). When cultured at 43°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased catalase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P< 0·001), and mRNA expression of EGF (P< 0·001) and EGFR (P< 0·001) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·03) and HSP70 (P< 0·001), as well as mRNA expression of IL-8 (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·002) and TNF-α (P< 0·001). Temperature × GSE concentration interactions were also observed for the concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), IL-8 (P< 0·001), TNF-α (P= 0·01) and HSP70 (P= 0·04) and viability (P< 0·001) of JEC. The results of the present study indicate that GSE can attenuate the responses of JEC induced by heat stress within a certain range of temperatures.

  5. Modulation of vagal efferent fibre discharge by mechanoreceptors in the stomach, duodenum and colon of the ferret.

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, D; Salih, A A; Scratcherd, T

    1981-01-01

    1. A single-fibre-dissection technique was used to investigate the reflex modulation of vagal efferent fibre discharge by afferent fibres from various parts of the gastrointestinal tract of the urethane-anaesthetized ferret. 2. All but four of the 168 efferent fibres isolated in this study were spontaneously active. The majority of these had discharge frequencies of less than 6 spikes/sec. 3. All the efferent units received an afferent input from mechanoreceptors in the stomach. Two main types of response to gastric distension were seen: (i) an increase in efferent discharge and (ii) a decrease or complete suppression of efferent discharge. 4. The vagal efferent discharge was also modulated by duodenal and colonic distension, with the major effect being one of inhibition. 5. Bilateral vagotomy completely abolished the response to gastric distension in 68% of the units tested. The response to colonic and duodenal distension, however, was relatively unaffected by vagotomy. Thus the vagus provides the major afferent pathway from the stomach to these vagal efferent fibres, whilst the major input from the duodenum and colon is via a non-vagal pathway. Both vagal and splanchnic afferents therefore converge on to the vagal nucleus. 6. The destinations of these vagal efferent fibres and their possible functions are discussed. PMID:7320920

  6. Relationships between inflammation- and immunity-related transcript abundance in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers with divergent average daily gain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, J G; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C; Oliver, W T; Lindholm-Perry, A K

    2017-02-21

    The bovine rumen papillae are in contact with a wide array of microorganisms and the metabolites they produce, which may activate an inflammatory and/or immune response. Cytokines, chemokines and their receptor genes were tested for differential expression in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers with greater and lesser average daily body weight gain (ADG) near the average daily dry matter intake (DMI) for the population. Angus-sired steers (n = 16) were used to represent the greater (ADG = 2.2 ± 0.07 kg/day; DMI = 10.1 ± 0.05 kg/day) and lesser (ADG = 1.7 ± 0.05 kg/day; DMI = 10.1 ± 0.05 kg/day) ADG groups with eight steers each. Rumen epithelium and jejunum mucosal samples were collected at slaughter, and gene expression was evaluated using a commercially available qRT-PCR array containing 84 genes representing chemokines, cytokines and their receptors. None of the genes on the array were differentially expressed in the jejunum of the steers with greater vs. lesser ADG. However, in the rumen, two chemokine genes (CCL11, CXCL5) and one receptor gene (IL10RA) were detected as differentially expressed (P < 0.05). The genes IL1A, BMP2, CXCL12 and TNFSF13 also displayed trends for differential expression (P < 0.10). All of the genes identified were lower in transcript abundance in the greater ADG animals. Thus, greater ADG steers have a lesser inflammatory response in the rumen papillae, which may lead to a more efficient use of nutrients.

  7. in vitro and in silico determination of oral, jejunum and Caco-2 human absorption of fatty acids and polyphenols. Micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stępnik, Katarzyna E; Malinowska, Irena; Rój, Edward

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation chosen saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as polyphenols have been analyzed. The main aim of this study was to determine oral, jejunum and Caco-2 human absorption of chosen fatty acids and polyphenols using in vitro and in silico methods. For in vitro determination of human drug absorption, the usefulness of Micellar Liquid Chromatography (MLC) with mobile phases containing different surfactants (including Brij35-Biopartitioning Micellar Chromatography (BMC)) has been confirmed. On the basis of Foley's equation, 1/k vs. CM correlations for the tested compounds have been done. Satisfactory linearity of the relationships was found over the whole eluents composition range studied with R(2) approximately 0.99 in each case. Moreover, the analyte-micelle association constants (Kma) from Foley's equation have been compared for different micellar environments, containing Brij35, SDS and CTAB as a main component of micellar mobile phases. Completely new models describing human oral as well as Caco-2 and jejunum absorption have been constructed and compared with the cited models. These models are based on the Abraham descriptors and lipophilicity parameters as well as steric descriptors. Furthermore, many different correlations between physicochemical parameters and human intestinal absorption have been done, e.g. the correlation between human jejunum permeability estimated in silico and received using LSER parameters was excellent (R(2) nearly 0.99). Chromatographic parameters have been collated with steric, electronic and physicochemical ones using QRAR (Quantitative Retention - Activity Relationships) and QSAR (Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships) models. Moreover, retention BMC data have been compared with lipophilicity parameter logPo/w (n-octanol-water partition coefficient). The influence of lipophilicity on oral absorption (%) has been checked. The correlation between predicted oral absorption (%) and log

  8. Anti-Eimeria activity of berberine and identification of associated gene expression changes in the mouse jejunum infected with Eimeria papillata.

    PubMed

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Metwaly, Mahmoud S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sherif, Nour E; Delic, Denis; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Wunderlich, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Plant-based natural products are promising sources for identifying novel agents with potential anti-Eimeria activity. This study explores possible effects of berberine on Eimeria papillata infections in the jejunum of male Swiss albino mice. Berberine chloride, when daily administered to mice during infection, impairs intracellular development and multiplication of E. papillata, evidenced as 60% reduction of maximal fecal output of oocysts on day 5 p.i. Concomitantly, berberine attenuates the inflammatory response, evidenced as decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, and iNOS, as well as the oxidative stress response, evidenced as impaired increase in malondialdehyde, nitrate, and H2O2 and as prevented decrease in glutathione and catalase activity. Berberine also alters gene expression in the infected jejunum. On day 5 p.i., mRNA expression of 29 genes with annotated functions is more than 10-fold upregulated and that of 14 genes downregulated. Berberine downregulates the genes Xaf1, Itgb3bp, and Faim3 involved in apoptotic processes and upregulates genes involved in innate immune responses, as e.g., Colec11, Saa2, Klra8, Clec1b, and Crtam, especially the genes Cpa3, Fcer1a, and Mcpt1, Mcpt2, and Mcpt4 involved in mast cell activity. Additionally, 18 noncoding lincRNA species are differentially expressed more than 10-fold under berberine. Our data suggest that berberine induces hosts to exert anti-Eimeria activity by attenuating the inflammatory and oxidative stress response, by impairing apoptotic processes, and by activating local innate immune responses and epigenetic mechanisms in the host jejunum. Berberine has the potential as an anti-Eimeria food additive in animal farming.

  9. [3H]-Mesulergine labels 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum but not rat jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Hemedah, Maggie; Coupar, Ian M; Mitchelson, Fred J

    1999-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether binding sites corresponding to the 5-HT7 receptor could be detected in smooth muscle of the rat jejunum. Binding studies in rat brain (whole brain minus cerebellum) and guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle were also undertaken in order to compare the binding characteristics of these tissues. Studies were performed using [3H]-mesulergine, as it has a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors.In the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, pKD values for [3H]-mesulergine of 8.0±0.04 and 7.9±0.11 (n=3) and Bmax values of 9.9±0.3 and 21.5±4.9 fmol mg−1 protein were obtained respectively, but no binding was detected in the rat jejunum. [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum was displaced with the agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT)>5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)⩾5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT)>sumatriptan and the antagonists risperidone⩾LSD⩾metergoline>ritanserin>>pindolol.Despite the lack of [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat jejunum, functional studies undertaken revealed a biphasic contractile response to 5-HT which was partly blocked by ondansetron (1 μM). The residual response was present in over 50% of tissues studied and was found to be inhibited by risperidone>LSD>metergoline>mesulergine=ritanserin>pindolol, but was unaffected by RS 102221 (3 μM), cinanserin (30 nM), yohimbine (0.1 μM) and GR 113808 (1 μM). In addition, the agonist order of potency was 5-CT>5-HT>5-MeOT>sumatriptan.In conclusion, binding studies performed with [3H]-mesulergine were able to detect 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, but not in rat jejunum, where a functional 5-HT7-like receptor was present. PMID:10051134

  10. Synchronous Occurrence of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Duodenum and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Ileum in a Patient with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tohru; Maruyama, Yumiko; Saitoh, Mayuko; Itoh, Hideto; Yoshimoto, Mitsuru; Tsujisaki, Masayuki; Nakayama, Masato

    2016-01-01

    A 64 year-old woman with steroid-dependent immune thrombocytopenia developed anemia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed the presence of a tumor, which was diagnosed to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in the second portion of the duodenum. 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography showed an increased uptake mass in the pelvic cavity as well as in the duodenum. Though the duodenal tumor disappeared after 4 cycles of chemotherapy, the pelvic mass did not shrink in size. As a result, laparoscopic resection of the pelvic tumor was performed and the tumor was histologically diagnosed to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Subsequently, the patient was treated with 2 more cycles of the chemotherapy. Eventually, thrombocytopenia completely resolved. PMID:27746431

  11. Studies on the biotin flow at the duodenum of dairy cows fed diets with different concentrate levels and types of forages.

    PubMed

    Lebzien, Peter; Abel, Hansjörg; Schröder, Benjamin; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2006-02-01

    Biotin is involved in many vital metabolic pathways and must be provided for an efficient fermentation in the rumen, as well as for the intermediary metabolism of the host animal. Factors influencing ruminal biotin metabolism and output are widely unknown at present. Therefore, dairy cows fitted with permanent cannulas in the dorsal rumen and in the proximal duodenum were fed differently composed diets, and the biotin flow at the proximal duodenum was measured. The diets (on DM basis) consisted of 8.9 kg grass hay (Diet 1), 8.9 kg corn silage plus 2.0 kg concentrate (Diet 2), or 7.3 and 7.4 kg grass silage plus 10.0kg concentrate (Diets 3 and 4). The concentrate in Diets 3 and 4 contained 87% wheat and corn grain, respectively. The cows were pre-fed the rations for 21 days. Thereafter duodenal digesta was sampled every two h for 5 days. Cr2O3 served as a flow marker and the microbial proportion of total nitrogen at the duodenum was estimated by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The duodenal flow of biotin was not related to biotin intake, but to the amount of fermented organic matter (FOM) and the amount of microbial protein (Biotin [mg/d] = 0.518 kg FOM - 0.300; r=0.85 and biotin [mg/d] = 0.012 x g microbial protein + 1.478; r = 0.84), irrespective of the composition of the diet fed. Mean daily biotin flow was 0.48 +/- 0.11 mg/kg FOM without any systematic effect of diet composition. The ruminal biotin balance, calculated as the difference between biotin flow at the duodenum and biotin intake, was positive (1.4 - 2.0 mg/d) in cows fed the mixed roughage/concentrate diets and negative (-0.71 mg/d) when the pure hay diet was fed.

  12. Use of RNA-seq to determine variation in canine cytochrome P450 mRNA expression between blood, liver, lung, kidney and duodenum in healthy beagles.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Weber, K; Rincon, G; Merritt, D

    2017-03-19

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful tool for the evaluation and quantification of transcriptomes and expression patterns in animals, tissues, or pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA transcripts in whole blood, kidney, duodenum, liver, and lung in healthy, adult male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) beagles via RNA-seq. mRNA expression was above background (transcripts per million) for 45 canine CYPs, with liver, duodenum, and lung expressing a high number of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs, while prominent endogenous metabolizing CYP expression was present in blood and kidney. The relative expression pattern of CYP2A13, 2B11, 2C21, 2D15, 2E1, 3A12, and 27A1 in liver, lung, and duodenum was verified through qPCR. This is the first global profiling of physiologic CYP mRNA expression in multiple canine tissues, providing a platform for further studies characterizing canine CYPs and changes in gene expression in disease states.

  13. The inflammatory effect of infection with Hymenolepis diminuta via the increased expression and activity of COX-1 and COX-2 in the rat jejunum and colon.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, D I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, A; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, N; Gutowska, I; Korbecki, J; Namięta, H; Rotter, I

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Hymenolepis diminuta may affect the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), resulting in the altered levels of their main products - prostaglandins (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). The study used the same experimental model as in our previous studies in which we had observed changes in the transepithelial ion transport, tight junctions and in the indicators of oxidative stress, in both small and large intestines of rats infected with H. diminuta. In this paper, we investigated not only the site of immediate presence of the tapeworm (jejunum), but also a distant site (colon). Inflammation related to H. diminuta infection is associated with the increased expression and activation of cyclooxygenase (COX), enzyme responsible for the synthesis of PGE2 and TXB2, local hormones contributing to the enhanced inflammatory reaction in the jejunum and colon in the infected rats. The increased COX expression and activity is probably caused by the increased levels of free radicals and the weakening of the host's antioxidant defense induced by the presence of the parasite. Our immunohistochemical analysis showed that H. diminuta infection affected not only the intensity of the immunodetection of COX but also the enzyme protein localization within intestinal epithelial cells - from the entire cytoplasm to apical/basal regions of cells, or even to the nucleus.

  14. Acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng regulates the mitochondria/caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway in radiation-induced damage to the jejunum in mice.

    PubMed

    Bing, So Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Ahn, Ginnae; Im, Jaehak; Kim, Dae Seung; Ha, Danbee; Cho, Jinhee; Kim, Areum; Jee, Youngheun

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its susceptibility to radiation, the small intestine of mice is valuable for studying radioprotective effects. When exposed to radiation, intestinal crypt cells immediately go through apoptosis, which impairs swift differentiation necessary for the regeneration of intestinal villi. Our previous studies have elucidated that acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng (APG) protects the mouse small intestine from radiation-induced damage by lengthening villi with proliferation and repopulation of crypt cells. In the present study, we identified the molecular mechanism involved. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with gamma-rays with or without APG and the expression levels of apoptosis-related molecules in the jejunum were investigated using immunohistochemistry. APG pretreatment strongly decreased the radiation-induced apoptosis in the jejunum. It increased the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-XS/L) and dramatically reduced the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (p53, BAX, cytochrome c and caspase-3). Therefore, APG attenuated the apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway, which is controlled by p53 and Bcl-2 family members. Results presented in this study suggest that APG protects the mouse small intestine from irradiation-induced apoptosis through inhibition of the p53-dependent pathway and the mitochondria/caspase pathway. Thus, APG may be a potential agent for preventing radiation induced injuries in intestinal cells during radio-therapy such as in cancer treatment.

  15. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Porcine Jejunum Tissues in Response to a Virulent Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Its Attenuated Strain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghua; Chen, Fangzhou; Ye, Shiyi; Guo, Xiaozhen; Muhanmmad Memon, Atta; Wu, Meizhou; He, Qigai

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a predominant cause of acute enteric infection, leads to severe dehydrating diarrhea and mortality in piglets all over the world. A virulent PEDV YN13 strain, isolated in our laboratory, was attenuated to yield an attenuated PEDV strain YN144. To better understand the pathogenesis mechanism and the virus-host interaction during infection with both PEDV YN13 and YN144 strains, a comparative proteomic analysis was carried out to investigate the proteomic changes produced in the primary target organ, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 269 and 301 differently expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in the jejunum tissues of the piglets inoculated with YN13 and YN144, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins were involved in stress responses, signal transduction, and the immune system. All of these involved interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) which were up-regulated in jejunums by both of the PEDV-infected groups. Based on the comparative analysis, we proposed that different changes induced by YN13 and YN144 in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), eukaryotic initiation factor 4G1 (eIF4G1), and some members in the heat shock protein (HSP) family, may be responsible for differences in their pathogenicity. PMID:27916855

  16. Morphometric and quantitative evaluation of the NADH-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons of the jejunum of streptozotocin-diabetic rats supplemented with acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    De Miranda Neto, M H; Defani, M A; Fregonesi, C E P T; Natali, M R M; Pereira, A

    2005-06-01

    Summary In this study we investigated the effect of the acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) supplementation on the myenteric neurons of the jejunum of rats made diabetic at the age of 105 days by streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight). Four groups were used: non-diabetic (C), non-diabetic supplemented with ALC (CC), diabetic (D), diabetic supplemented with ALC (DC). After 15 weeks of diabetes induction the blood was collected by cardiac puncture to evaluate glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin. Next the animals were killed and the jejunum was collected and subjected to whole-mount preparation to evidence the myenteric neurons through the histochemical technique of the NADH-diaphorase. The neuronal counts were made in 80 microscopic fields, in tissue samples of five animals of each group. The profiles of the cell bodies of 1000 neurons per group were analysed. Diabetes induced a significant increase in the area of the cell body and decrease in the number of NADH-diaphorase positive myoenteric neurons. ALC suplementation to the diabetic group promoted smaller hypertrophic effects and less neuronal loss than in the myoenteric neurons of the diabetic rats, and in addition diminished the body weight decrease and reduced the fasting glycaemia.

  17. Immunohistochemical and histoplanimetrical study on the endothelial receptor involved in transportation of minute chylomicrons into subepithelial portal blood in intestinal villi of the rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Ei-ichirou; Yuasa, Hideto; Nishida, Miho; Mantani, Youhei; Udayanga, Kankanam Gamage Sanath; Qi, Wang-Mei; Takeuchi, Takashi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    A portion of the minute chylomicrons less than 75 nm in diameter are transcytosed from the extravascular tissue into the subepithelial blood capillaries (sBC) in the villous apices of the rat jejunum. However, the details of the transportation mechanism have not been clarified. In this study, the endothelial receptor involved in the transportation of minute chylomicrons into the sBC's lumina was immunohistochemically and histoplanimetrically examined in intestinal villi of the rat jejunum. Immunopositivity for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor was detected on the luminal and basal surfaces of the endothelial cells of sBC in approximately 68% of those apices of jejunal villi that possessed numerous chylomicrons in the lamina propria, while VLDL receptor was detected on the endothelial cells of sBC in only approximately 8% of intestinal villi that possessed few or no chylomicrons in the lamina propria. No immunopositivity for LDL receptor was detected in the sBC of all intestinal villi. These findings suggest that VLDL receptor is expressed by the endothelial cells of the sBC in conjunction with the filling of the lamina propria of jejunal villi with many chylomicrons produced by the villous columnar epithelial cells and that the VLDL receptor mediates the transportation of minute chylomicrons, maybe VLDL, into the subepithelial portal blood from the extravascular tissue of the rat jejunal villi.

  18. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and an organic mycotoxin adsorbent on immune cell dynamics in the jejunum of chickens infected with Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Girgis, George N; Barta, John R; Girish, Channarayapatna K; Karrow, Niel A; Boermans, Herman J; Smith, Trevor K

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of Fusarium mycotoxins, common animal feed contaminants, on intestinal immune responses to coccidia (Eimeria) in chickens. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) on immune cell populations were studied in the jejunum of broiler breeder pullets using an Eimeria maxima infection model. Birds were fed a control diet, a diet naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, contaminated diet plus 0.2% GMA, or control diet plus 0.2% GMA. Contaminated diets contained up to 6.5μg/g deoxynivalenol (DON), 0.47μg/g 15-acetyl-DON and 0.73μg/g zearalenone. Birds received a primary oral inoculation (1000 oocysts/bird) with E. maxima USDA strain 68 at 2 weeks of age and a secondary oral inoculation (30,000 oocysts/bird) with the same strain at 4 weeks of age. Diet-related differences in CD4(+) cell, CD8(+) cell and macrophage recruitment pattern into the jejunum were observed following both the primary and secondary infections. It was concluded that feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and GMA have the potential to modulate immune response to coccidial infections.

  19. Genome wide transcriptomic analysis identifies pathways affected by the infusion of Clostridium perfringens culture supernatant in the duodenum of broilers in situ.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadou, S; Russell, K M; Kaiser, P; Kanellos, T; Burgess, S T G; Mitchell, M; Clutton, E; Naylor, S W; Low, C J; Hutchings, M R; Sparks, N

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A is the main etiological factor for necrotic enteritis, a multifactorial enteric disease that penalizes performance, health, and welfare of poultry. Lack of knowledge of host responses and disease pathogenesis is slowing down progress on developing therapies for disease control. A combined genomewide and targeted gene approach was used to investigate pathways and biological functions affected by the infusion of C. perfringens culture supernatant in the duodenum of broilers in 2 experiments. An in situ isolated loop of duodenum was prepared in anesthetized broilers of 3 wk of age (Exp. 1) and was infused either with crude C. perfringens culture supernatant (n = 7; treated), positive for necrotic enteritis B-like toxin (NetB) as determined by a cytotoxicity assay, or with a control preparation (n = 6; control). Birds were maintained alive for 1 h and then euthanized for tissue recovery. The use of the Affymetrix chicken genome array on RNA samples from loop tissue showed top biological functions affected by culture supernatant infusion included cell morphology, immune cell trafficking, and cell death; pathways affected included death receptor signaling, inflammatory response, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling. In a second in situ study (Exp. 2), broilers were maintained alive for 4 h to monitor temporal expression patterns of targeted genes. Duodenal tissue was removed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h post-infusion with culture supernatant (n = 9) or a control preparation (n = 5) for histology and gene expression analysis. Genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon γ (IFNγ), cell trafficking, such as neuroblastoma 1 (NBL1) and B cell CLL/Lymphoma 6 (BCL6), and cell death, such as Fas cell surface death receptor (FAS) and GTPase IMAP family member 8 (GIMAP8), were differentially expressed in the duodenum of treated and control broilers (P < 0.05). We have demonstrated that C. perfringens culture supernatant (NetB positive

  20. Dietary betaine increases intraepithelial lymphocytes in the duodenum of coccidia-infected chicks and increases functional properties of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Klasing, K C; Adler, K L; Remus, J C; Calvert, C C

    2002-08-01

    Betaine is used by cells to defend against changes in osmolarity. We examined relationships among betaine, osmolarity and coccidiosis. In the first experiment, chicks were fed corn-soy diets containing 0.0, 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg betaine; half were challenged with Eimeria acervulina (Cocci). Cocci decreased weight gain and feed efficiency and increased the osmolarity of the duodenal and jejunal mucosa (P < 0.01). Betaine decreased osmolarity of the duodenum (P < 0.01), especially in Cocci-challenged birds. Cocci increased the thickness (P = 0.04) of and number (P < 0.01) of leukocytes in the duodenal lamina propria especially at high betaine levels (interaction P = 0.05). Villi height was decreased by Cocci (P = 0.05) and this was ameliorated by 1.0 g/kg betaine (interaction P = 0.04). Intraepithelial leukocyte numbers were increased by Cocci (P < 0.01) especially at 0.5 and 1 g/kg betaine. Peritoneal macrophages or peripheral blood heterophils were incubated in media with an osmolarity of 200, 310, 600 or 900 mOsmol and 0.0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.5 mmol/L betaine (4 x 4 factorial) for 6 h and then E. acervulina were added. In general, phagocytosis and NO release were decreased and interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 release were increased in hyperosmotic media compared with isosmotic media. Betaine (0.1 mmol/L) increased NO release by heterophils (P = 0.04) and tended to increase (P < 0.1) NO release from macrophages. The chemotaxis of monocytes toward chemotactic factors released by heterophils was increased by betaine. Increased chemotaxis of monocytes and NO release by macrophages may explain the decreased intestinal pathology but increased leukocyte numbers that were observed when betaine was fed during a Cocci infection.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and inflammatory gene expression in the duodenum of obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) from fish oil such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exert their anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating intestinal inflammation in humans is unknown. We investigated the impact of LCn-3PUFA supplementation on inflammatory gene expression in the duodenum of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Findings This placebo-controlled randomized crossover study included 12 men with type 2 diabetes. After a 4-week run-in period, patients received in a random sequence 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 3 g of EPA + DHA) and a placebo (corn and soybean oil) for 8 weeks each. The two treatment phases were separated by a 12-week washout period. Gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in duodenal biopsy samples obtained in the fasted state at the end of each treatment phase. Intestinal mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α were hardly detectable after either treatment (<100 copies/105 copies of the reference gene ATP5o). Intestinal mRNA expression of IL-18 and of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was higher (>5000 copies/105 copies ATP5o) but still relatively low. EPA + DHA supplementation had no impact on any of these levels (all P ≥ 0.73). Conclusions These data suggest that duodenal cells gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is low in patients with type 2 diabetes and not affected by EPA + DHA supplementation. Further studies are warranted to determine if inflammatory gene expression in other tissues surrounding the intestine is modulated by EPA + DHA supplementation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01449773 PMID:23855973

  2. Lipidomic and spatio-temporal imaging of fat by mass spectrometry in mice duodenum during lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Alexandre; Cantiello, Michela; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Nauze, Michel; Bézirard, Valérie; Collet, Xavier; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Coméra, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy.

  3. [Protein and amino acid metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract of young bulls. 3. Flow of NH3-free raw protein into the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Gabel, M; Poppe, S

    1985-10-01

    The amount of NH3-free crude protein getting into the duodenum corrected by the endogenous crude protein quota was determined on the basis of 28 differently composed rations for growing bulls in the live weight range of 140-460 kg provided with duodenal re-entrant cannulae. The experimental results were generalized by means of regression analysis and can be summarized as follows: The amount of NH3-free crude protein getting into the duodenum can partially be calculated with the regression equation (Formula: see text) resp. NH3-free crude protein D = 155 app. dig. org. matter + 0.262 pure protein +/- 42. The remaining dispersion amounts to +/- 6% of the mean value. The coincidence between the values calculated with these equations and those measured experimentally is very good. There is an interaction between the pure protein of feed getting into the duodenum in % of pure protein intake (y) and the bacteria crude protein D/kg app. dig. org. matter (x) characterized by the equation y = 116.8-0.52 x +/- 12.9. The amount of NH3-free crude protein duod. is not influenced by the flow rate (kg digesta/kg intake of org. matter) and not by the "dilution rate' (g bacteria free org. matter duod./kg live weight 0.75/h) either at a DM intake adequate to the production level. Apart from the partial estimation of the NH3-free crude protein duod. a evaluation based on the crude protein and pure protein concentration in app. dig. org. matter of the ration is possible.

  4. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  5. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Protects Jejunum and Bone Marrow of 60Cobalt-Gamma-Irradiated Mice by Regulating Apoptosis and Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Madhu; Gupta, Manish; Saini, Manu; Abdin, M. Z.; Prasad, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    A single dose (30 mg/kg body weight) of standardized sea buckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1), administered 30 min before whole body 60Co-gamma-irradiation (lethal dose, 10 Gy), protected >90% of mice population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of SBL-1 on jejunum and bone marrow, quantify key bioactive compounds, and analyze chemical composition of SBL-1. Study with 9-week-old inbred male Swiss albino Strain ‘A' mice demonstrated that SBL-1 treatment before 60Co-gamma-irradiation (10 Gy) significantly (p < 0.05) countered radiation induced decreases in jejunum crypts (1.27-fold), villi number (1.41-fold), villus height (1.25-fold), villus cellularity (2.27-fold), cryptal Paneth cells (1.89-fold), and Bcl2 level (1.54-fold). It countered radiation induced increases in cryptal apoptotic cells (1.64-fold) and Bax levels (1.88-fold). It also countered radiation (2 Gy and 3 Gy) induced bone marrow apoptosis (1.59-fold and 1.85-fold) and micronuclei frequency (1.72-fold and 2.6-fold). SBL-1 rendered radiation protection by promoting cryptal stem cells proliferation, by regulating apoptosis, and by countering radiation induced chromosomal damage. Quercetin, Ellagic acid, Gallic acid, high contents polyphenols, tannins, and thiols detected in SBL-1 may have contributed to radiation protection by neutralization of radiation induced oxidative species, supporting stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. PMID:26421051

  6. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Protects Jejunum and Bone Marrow of (60)Cobalt-Gamma-Irradiated Mice by Regulating Apoptosis and Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bala, Madhu; Gupta, Manish; Saini, Manu; Abdin, M Z; Prasad, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    A single dose (30 mg/kg body weight) of standardized sea buckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1), administered 30 min before whole body (60)Co-gamma-irradiation (lethal dose, 10 Gy), protected >90% of mice population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of SBL-1 on jejunum and bone marrow, quantify key bioactive compounds, and analyze chemical composition of SBL-1. Study with 9-week-old inbred male Swiss albino Strain 'A' mice demonstrated that SBL-1 treatment before (60)Co-gamma-irradiation (10 Gy) significantly (p < 0.05) countered radiation induced decreases in jejunum crypts (1.27-fold), villi number (1.41-fold), villus height (1.25-fold), villus cellularity (2.27-fold), cryptal Paneth cells (1.89-fold), and Bcl2 level (1.54-fold). It countered radiation induced increases in cryptal apoptotic cells (1.64-fold) and Bax levels (1.88-fold). It also countered radiation (2 Gy and 3 Gy) induced bone marrow apoptosis (1.59-fold and 1.85-fold) and micronuclei frequency (1.72-fold and 2.6-fold). SBL-1 rendered radiation protection by promoting cryptal stem cells proliferation, by regulating apoptosis, and by countering radiation induced chromosomal damage. Quercetin, Ellagic acid, Gallic acid, high contents polyphenols, tannins, and thiols detected in SBL-1 may have contributed to radiation protection by neutralization of radiation induced oxidative species, supporting stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration.

  7. Chrysin abrogates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, p53 expression, goblet cell disintegration and apoptotic responses in the jejunum of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Qamar, Wajhul; Lateef, Abdul; Ali, Farrah; Rehman, Muneeb U; Tahir, Mir; Sharma, Swati; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-11-14

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP)) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of numerous forms of cancer, but it has pronounced adverse effects, namely nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, diarrhoea and nausea. CDDP-induced emesis and diarrhoea are also marked toxicities that may be due to intestinal injury. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavone commonly found in many plants, possesses multiple biological activities, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of chrysin against CDDP-induced jejunal toxicity. The plausible mechanism of CDDP-induced jejunal toxicity includes oxidative stress, p53 and apoptosis via up-regulating the expression of caspase-6 and -3. Chrysin was administered to Wistar rats orally in maize oil. A single intraperitoneal injection of CDDP was given and the animals were killed after 24 h of CDDP injection. Chrysin ameliorated CDDP-induced lipid peroxidation, increase in xanthine oxidase activity, glutathione depletion, decrease in antioxidant (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and phase-II detoxifying (glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase) enzyme activities. Chrysin attenuated CDDP-induced goblet cell disintegration, enhanced expression of p53 and apoptotic tissue damage. Histological findings further substantiated the protective effects of chrysin against CDDP-induced damage in the jejunum. The results of the present study demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis are closely associated with CDDP-induced toxicity and chrysin shows the protective efficacy against CDDP-induced jejunum toxicity possibly via attenuating the oxidative stress and apoptotic tissue damage.

  8. The effects of dietary phosphorus deficiency on surface pH and membrane composition of the mucosa epithelium in caprine jejunum.

    PubMed

    Busche, R; Schröder, B; Huber, K; Sallmann, H P; Breves, G

    2007-01-01

    In ruminants, the uptake of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) across the intestinal mucosa epithelium by Na-dependent and Na-independent mechanisms is a main regulatory factor in P homeostasis. The aim of the study was to elucidate to which extent Na-independent mechanisms, including pH effects or composition of mucosal brush-border membranes, could be involved in positive stimulation of P(i) absorptive processes seen under the P deficient condition. Therefore, luminal, surface and intracellular pH of the jejunal epithelial cells in control and P depleted goats were compared and biochemical analyses of membrane phospholipids in the apical membrane of the jejunal epithelium were performed. Dietary P depletion resulted in decreased plasma P(i) levels. While pH in jejunal ingesta was not significantly changed, P depletion resulted in a significantly lower surface pH in the crypt region compared to control animals (7.62 +/- 0.02 vs. 7.77 +/- 0.04, n = 4, P < 0.01). Inhibition of apical Na(+)/H(+)-exchange resulted in an increase of the jejunal surface pH in P depleted animals by 0.07 +/- 0.01 (n = 6, P < 0.01) and 0.05 +/- 0.01 (n = 6, P < 0.01) for the villus and the crypt region, respectively. This increase were inversely correlated with the initial surface pH prior to inhibition. In contrast to surface pH, intracellular pH of the jejunal epithelium and the phospholipid composition of the apical jejunal membrane were not affected by P depletion. Although the data suggest the existence of a Na(+)/H(+)-exchange mechanism at the luminal surface of goat jejunum they do not support the hypothesis that adaptational processes of active P(i) absorption from goat jejunum in response to low dietary P could be based on "non P(i) transporter events".

  9. Histopathological changes in the epithelial cells of rat duodenum following chronic dietary exposure to cadmium, with particular reference to Paneth cells.

    PubMed Central

    Phillpotts, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Male and female rats 8 weeks old were exposed for 360 days to a sole source of drinking water containing 0.2 g/l cadmium as the chloride salt. Control rats were exposed for the same period to deionized water. At 90, 180, 270 and 360 day intervals a proportion of the rats from both test and control groups were killed and the duodenums removed. The histopathology was assessed by both light and electron microscopy. In cadmium treated rats the duodenums were enlarged and there was a significant reduction in the percentage of crypts containing Paneth cells. Remaining Paneth cells appeared vacuolated. By both light and electron microscopy changes were noted in the epithelial cells covering the villus tips. These were swollen and protruded towards the duodenal lumen to give a 'cobblestone' appearance by scanning electron microscopy. It is suggested that these histopathological appearances will be seen in chronic dietary exposure to cadmium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 PMID:3741776

  10. Herniation of Duodenum into the Right Ventral Hepatic Peritoneal Cavity with Groove Formation at the Ventral Hepatic Surface in a 2-Week-Old Chicken

    PubMed Central

    HARIDY, Mohie; SASAKI, Jun; GORYO, Masanobu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Internal hernia in avian species is very rare. A necropsy of a 2-week-old SPF White Leghorn chicken revealed that a loop of the duodenum and part of the pancreas (4 × 2 × 1 cm) was protruding through the abnormal foramen (2.5 cm in diameter) in the right posthepatic septum into the right ventral hepatic peritoneal cavity. The herniated loop was located underneath the ventral hepatic surface, leaving a groove on the right hepatic lobe (2 × 1.5 × 0.4 cm). The part of the pancreas involved in the hernia was grossly enlarged. Microscopically, a zone of pressure atrophy of hepatic tissue was characterized by crowdedness of hepatocytes with pyknotic nuclei and faint eosinophilic cytoplasm and indistinct narrow sinusoids. The pancreas revealed hypertrophy of the acinar cells with an increase in the secretory granules and basophilic cytoplasm. This is the first report of duodenum herniation into the right ventral hepatic peritoneal cavity resulting in groove formation on the ventral hepatic surface in a 2-week-old chicken. PMID:23759688

  11. Ruminal metabolism in sheep of saponins from Yucca schidigera.

    PubMed

    Flåøyen, A; Wilkins, A L; Sandvik, M

    2002-02-01

    Fifty-five mg per kg live weight of crystallized Yucca schidigera saponins, corresponding to 26 mg/kg live weight of sapogenins, was given daily intraruminally to two lambs for 11 consecutive days. Neither of the lambs showed any sign of toxicity throughout the experimental period. One lamb was killed 5 h after the last dose and GC-MS analysis of the free and conjugated sapogenin content samples of liver, and of the contents of the rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and rectum, of faecal samples collected before dosing started, and of parts of the administered Yucca saponin were performed. The Yucca material contained mainly sarsasapogenin and smilagenin saponins. Ingested saponins were quickly hydrolysed in the rumen to free sapogenins and, in part, epimerized at C-3 to afford episapogenins. The absorption of free sapogenins appeared to occur in the jejunum. The metabolism of Yucca saponins was identical to that of Narthecium ossifragum saponins, and it is suggested that Yucca saponins could replace N. ossifragum saponins for toxicity studies on the latter plant.

  12. Effect of casein infusion in the rumen, duodenum or both sites on factors affecting forage intake and performance of dairy cows fed red clover-grass silage.

    PubMed

    Khalili, H; Huhtanen, P

    2002-04-01

    Four lactating dairy cows were used in a balanced 4 x 4 Latin square design to examine the effects of casein infusion in the rumen, duodenum, or both on the intake of red clover-grass silage, chewing behavior, diet digestion, microbial protein synthesis, rumen fermentation, digestion, and passage kinetics, milk production, and milk composition. Duodenal infusion increased eating time, silage intake, rumen neutral detergent fiber pool, yields of milk, protein, and lactose, and concentration of milk protein, and tended to decrease that of milk fat. Ruminal infusion tended to decrease eating time, and increased significantly microbial protein synthesis, rumen ammonia-N concentration, molar proportions of isovalerate and valerate, digestion rate of digestible neutral detergent fiber, passage rate of indigestible neutral detergent fiber, and milk urea content, and decreased rumen neutral detergent fiber pool. Silage intake, and yields of milk, protein, and lactose were highest when casein was simultaneously infused in both sites.

  13. Effect of an aqueous distillate of Origanum onites L. on isolated rat fundus, duodenum and ileum: evidence for the role of oxygenated monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Aydin, S; Seker, E

    2005-02-01

    The aqueous distillate of Origanum onites L. (Labiatae) was reported to have various ethnomedical uses including effects on the gastrointestinal tract. The effects of three different doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL) of the aqueous distillate of Origanum onites on isolated rat fundus, duodenum and ileum against acetylcholine induced contractions were investigated in this study. The aqueous distillate inhibited contractions in a dose dependent manner. Inhibitions were lowest on fundus. Carvacrol, being the major compound of the test substance, did not inhibit acetylcholine induced contractions of the isolated rat fundus, indicating the presence of other active principles including menthane diols. As being one of the first pharmacological studies on aqueous distillates, a possible pharmacological activity of cis-p-menth-4-ene-1,2-diol and 3,7-dimethyl-1-octen-3,7-diol is proposed in this study.

  14. Nivalenol has a greater impact than deoxynivalenol on pig jejunum mucosa in vitro on explants and in vivo on intestinal loops.

    PubMed

    Cheat, Sophal; Gerez, Juliana R; Cognié, Juliette; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Bracarense, Ana Paula F L; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2015-05-29

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment.

  15. Characterisation of immune mediator release during the immediate response to segmental mucosal challenge in the jejunum of patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Santos, J; Bayarri, C; Saperas, E; Nogueiras, C; Antolin, M; Mourelle, M; Cadahia, A; Malagelada, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Food allergy is a common complaint among patients with a broad spectrum of abdominal and extra-abdominal symptoms that must be distinguished from other more common non-immunological food intolerances.
AIMS—To investigate whether human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are associated with detectable release of inflammatory mediators from activated cells, which may serve as a biological marker of true allergic reactions.
PATIENTS/METHODS—In eight patients with food allergy and seven healthy volunteers, a closed-segment perfusion technique was used to investigate the effects of jejunal food challenge on luminal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, eosinophil cationic protein, peroxidase activity, and water flux.
RESULTS—Intraluminal administration of food antigens induced a rapid increase in intestinal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and peroxidase activity (p<0.05 v basal period) but not eosinophil cationic protein. The increased release of these mediators was associated with a notable water secretory response.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are characterised by prompt activation of mast cells and other immune cells, with notable and immediate secretion of water and inflammatory mediators into the intestinal lumen. Analysis of the profile of markers released into the jejunum after food provocation may be useful for the objective diagnosis of food allergy.


Keywords: food allergy; intestinal perfusion; mast cells PMID:10486364

  16. Absorption of D-[{sup 14}C]-glucose and D-[{sup 3}H]-mannose in everted rat jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, B.; Galey, W.R. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Radiolabeled elements are useful in measuring physiologic processes in mammalian tissues. Absorption of D-[{sup 14}C]-glucose is often used as a marker for active transport by the sodium-dependent transmembrane glucose/galactose carrier, SGLT1, present in epithelial tissues. Also, D-[{sup 3}H]-mannose monitors the flux of a passively absorbed hexose through the intestinal wall. Many gastrointestinal absorption studies have employed the everted gut sac method developed by Wilson and Wiseman in 1954. Phloridzin is a glycoside derived from apple trees and an effective inhibitor of the sodium-dependent glucose carrier. It was hypothesized that a kinetic study of radiolabeled hexoses could be successfully applied to a modification of this method and assayed by an inhibitory effect of phloridzin on D-[{sup 14}C]-glucose influx into everted rat jejunum and that glycosides transported by the sodium-dependent glucose transporter would have a similar inhibitory effect on D-[{sup 14}C]-glucose influx.

  17. [CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE MUCOSAL LAMINA PROPRIA OF THE JEJUNUM IN MICE SUBJECTED TO THE CONDITIONS SIMULATING LONG-DURATION SPACEFLIGHT].

    PubMed

    Aminova, G G; Sapinj, M R; Yerofeyeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    The cellular composition of the lamina propria of the mucous membrane of the jejunum was examined in the villi (LPV) and between the crypts (LPC). Two groups of male C57/BL6 mice aged 4-5 months were studied. Experimental group of animals (n=8) for 30 days was living under the terrestrial conditions in "BIOS-SLA" blocks and received a paste-like food made with standard feed containing water and casein. The control group of animals (n=6) were kept in standard vivarium conditions and received standard dry pellets. Studies have shown no significant changes in the content of lymphocytes in LPV and LPC in a terrestrial experiment. LPV was characterized by a sharp reduction in the number of plasma cells. In both LPV and LPC the number of eosinophils was increased, while the content of low differentiated forms of cells (blasts and large lymphocytes) was decreased. It is suggested that the changes in the contents of different cell types in ground-based experiment were due not only to the limited mobility of the animals but also to different composition of the feed.

  18. Nivalenol Has a Greater Impact than Deoxynivalenol on Pig Jejunum Mucosa in Vitro on Explants and in Vivo on Intestinal Loops

    PubMed Central

    Cheat, Sophal; Gerez, Juliana R.; Cognié, Juliette; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. L.; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment. PMID:26035490

  19. Stimulatory effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like substances from Solanum malacoxylon and Cestrum diurnum on phosphate transport in chick jejunum.

    PubMed

    Peterlik, M; Wasserman, R H

    1978-10-01

    Extracts of the calcinogenic plants Solanum malocoxylon and Cestrum diurnum stimulate phosphate absorption by the jejunum of vitamin D-deficient chicks, as determined by everted gut sac technique. Their action on cellular pathways of transepithelial phosphate transport is indistinguishable thereby from that of cholecalciferol. Increased net absorption from the lumen was due to enhanced uptake of phosphate from the luminal side, while leakage of tissue phosphate in the opposite direction was apparently unaffected. Steep serosa/mucosa concentration gradients were observed as consequence of enhanced levels of transepithelial phosphate flux in the mucosa-to-serosa direction. With respect to their stimulatory action on phosphate absorption, the calcinogenic plant factors retained their biological activity when phosphate transport was depressed by a high strontium diet. Their action in overcoming the strontium inhibition of phosphate absorption, calcium-binding protein synthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity, was comparable to the effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. On the basis of these biological responses, the action of the plant factors from Solanum malacoxylon and Cestrum diurnum provides further evidence for their close resemblance to the hormonally active sterol.

  20. Nitric oxide induces muscular relaxation via cyclic GMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms in the longitudinal muscle of the mouse duodenum.

    PubMed

    Serio, Rosa; Zizzo, Maria Grazia; Mulè, Flavia

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in mouse duodenum, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the relaxation of longitudinal muscle evoked by nerve activation and the coupled action mechanism. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 0.5 ms, 10-s train duration, supramaximal voltage, at various frequencies) under nonadrenergic noncholinergic conditions evoked muscular relaxation occasionally followed, at the higher stimulus frequencies, by rebound contractions. Inhibition of the synthesis of NO by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) virtually abolished the evoked relaxation. The relaxation was reduced also by apamin (0.1 microM) and by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 1 microM), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. The coadministration of apamin and ODQ produced additive effects on the responses to EFS. Sodium nitroprusside (0.1-100 microM) produced a concentration-dependent reduction of the phasic spontaneous activity and at the highest dose used suppressed phasic activity and induced muscular relaxation. These effects were tetrodotoxin and L-NAME resistant and were antagonized both by apamin and by ODQ. 8-Bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (0.1-100 microM) reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the spontaneous mechanical activity and at 100 microM suppressed the phasic activity and induced muscular relaxation, not antagonized by apamin. This study indicates that NO is the primary transmitter released by inhibitory nerves supplying the longitudinal muscle of mouse duodenum and that guanylate cyclase stimulation and opening of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels are independent mechanisms working in parallel to mediate NO action.

  1. Microarray analysis of high-glucose diet-induced changes in mRNA expression in jejunums of C57BL/6J mice reveals impairment in digestion, absorption.

    PubMed

    Du, Dan; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Long term intake of high-glucose diet (HGD) may induce many diseases such as dyslipidemia, fatty liver and diabetes disease. Most of the research for molecular mechanisms of the association between HGD and the above diseases focus on the metabolism of glucose and lipid. However, there are few studies on molecular mechanism of the effect of HGD on digestion and absorption. We used HGD (containing 20% glucose) to feed C57BL/6J mice for 4 weeks, detected the expressions of 13,098 genes in jejunums of C57BL/6J mice with DNA microarray. Microarray analysis showed the expression of genes related to digestive enzyme, gastrointestinal peptide and nutrient transporters were significantly changed, which indicated that HGD induced the suppression of digestive enzyme gene expression, attenuation of alimentary tract movement and nutrient transportation. In one word, the microarray analysis suggested that HGD impaired the function of digestion and absorption in jejunum of C57BL/6J mice. We validated our microarray findings by conducting real-time RT-PCR assays on selected genes and detecting the activities of disaccharidases such as lactase, maltase and sucrase in jejunum of C57BL/6J mice.

  2. The transmembrane pH gradient drives uphill folate transport in rabbit jejunum. Direct evidence for folate/hydroxyl exchange in brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Schron, C M; Washington, C; Blitzer, B L

    1985-01-01

    In rabbit jejunal, but not ileal brush border membrane vesicles, an outwardly directed OH- gradient (pH 7.7 inside, pH 5.5 outside) markedly stimulated the initial velocity of folate (0.1 microM) uptake compared with uptake in the absence of a pH gradient. Under pH gradient conditions, folate was transiently accumulated at a concentration four times that found at equilibrium (over-shoot), implying uphill transport of the vitamin. Equilibrium folate uptake was inversely proportional to medium osmolality, suggesting uptake into an osmotically sensitive space. pH gradient-stimulated folate uptake was markedly reduced by inhibitors of anion exchange (4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene; 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid; furosemide), and was saturable (folate Km = 0.19 +/- 0.02 microM; Vmax = 12.8 +/- 0.4 pmol X mg protein-1 X min-1). Imposition of an inside-positive electrical potential did not stimulate folate uptake, suggesting that stimulation by a pH gradient was not due to an induced electrical potential. In contrast, an inwardly directed Na+ or K+ gradient did not stimulate folate uptake. These findings provide evidence for a carrier on the jejunal brush border membrane that mediates folate/OH- exchange (or H+/folate co-transport), and are consonant with the known presence of an outwardly directed OH- gradient in vivo (brush border acid microclimate), an acidic pH optimum for intestinal folate uptake, and the primary role of the jejunum in folate absorption. PMID:4056063

  3. Involvement of ERK1/2 signalling and growth-related molecules' expression in response to heat stress-induced damage in rat jejunum and IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Yin, Peng; Yin, Jingdong; Liu, Fenghua; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Guiling; Guo, Kaijun; Yin, Yulong; Xu, Jianqin

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies found small intestine epithelial tissues from several different animals (including rats, pigs and chickens) became significantly damaged following exposure to extreme heat. However, damaged tissue was rapidly repaired or regenerated in the following few days. Growth-related molecules are critical for cellular survival and promote endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The ERK1/2 signalling pathway is reported to regulate the growth and adaptation of endothelial cells to both physiological and pathological stimuli. However, little information is available concerning both growth-related molecules and ERK1/2 in response to heat stress. Herein, we employed both live rats and rat IEC-6 cells to investigate growth-related molecule expression and ERK1/2 activation in heat stress. Heat stress caused significant morphological damage to rat intestinal tissue and IEC-6 cells, reduced cell growth and proliferation, induced apoptosis, altered growth-related molecule mRNA expression and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Addition of U0126 (a selective inhibitor of MEK kinase responsible for ERK phosphorylation) combined with heat stress exacerbated the morphological damage and apoptosis. With the addition of U0126, further up- or down-regulation of Egfr, Ctgf, Tgif, Vegfa, Okl38 and Gdf15 in response to heat stress was observed. In conclusion, extreme heat stress caused obvious damage to rat jejunum and IEC-6 cells. Both growth-related molecule expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were involved in response to heat stress. ERK1/2 inhibition exacerbated apoptosis and affected growth factor mRNA expression in heat stress.

  4. Supplementation with L-Glutamine and L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters and Jejunum Morphophysiology in Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Carlos Vinicius D.; Azevedo, Silvia C. S. F.; Bazotte, Roberto B.; Peralta, Rosane M.; Buttow, Nilza C.; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat D.; de Godoi, Vilma A. F.; Natali, Maria Raquel M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the supplementation with L-glutamine and glutamine dipeptide (GDP) on biochemical and morphophysiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. For this purpose, thirty animals were distributed into six groups treated orally (gavage) during thirty days: non diabetic rats (Control) + saline, diabetic + saline; Control + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Diabetic + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Control + GDP (400 mg/kg), Diabetic + GDP (400 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and confirmed by fasting glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. Physiological parameters, i.e., body mass, food intake, blood glucose, water intake, urine and faeces were evaluated during supplementation. After the period of supplementation, the animals were euthanized. The blood was collected for biochemical assays (fructosamine, transaminases, lipid profile, total protein, urea, ammonia). Moreover, the jejunum was excised and stored for morphophysiological assays (intestinal enzyme activity, intestinal wall morphology, crypt proliferative index, number of serotoninergic cells from the mucosa, and vipergic neurons from the submucosal tunica). The physiological parameters, protein metabolism and intestinal enzyme activity did not change with the supplementation with L-glutamine or GDP. In diabetic animals, transaminases and fructosamine improved with L-glutamine and GDP supplementations, while the lipid profile improved with L-glutamine. Furthermore, both forms of supplementation promoted changes in jejunal tunicas and wall morphometry of control and diabetic groups, but only L-glutamine promoted maintenance of serotoninergic cells and vipergic neurons populations. On the other hand, control animals showed changes that may indicate negative effects of L-glutamine. Thus, the supplementation with L-glutamine was more efficient for maintaining intestinal morphophysiology and the supplementation with GDP was more efficient to the organism as a

  5. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25813057

  6. Grain processing, forage-to-concentrate ratio, and forage length effects on ruminal nitrogen degradation and flows of amino acids to the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate effects of dietary factors that alter ruminal fermentability on rumen N degradation, microbial protein synthesis, duodenal flows, and digestibility of amino acids (AA) in the intestines and the total tract. The experiment was a double 4 x 4 quasi-Latin square with a 2(3) factorial arrangement of treatments. The dietary factors were extent of barley grain processing, coarse (processing index; PI = 75.5%) or flat (PI = 60.2%); forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio, low (35:65) or high (55:45) on a DM basis; and forage particle length (FPL), long (7.59 mm) or short (6.08 mm). Eight lactating cows with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were offered ad libitum access to a total mixed diet. There were no significant interactions between dietary treatments for ruminal N degradation or its duodenal flow and digestibility in the intestines. Passage of microbial protein to the duodenum was improved with increased F:C ratio of the diet but was not affected by grain processing or FPL. Ruminal digestibility of N was increased with increased F:C ratio (49 vs. 60%) and with reduced FPL (59 vs. 50%). Increased grain processing improved N digestibility both in the intestine (15%) and in the total tract (8%). Reduction in the FPL of the diets reduced intestinal N digestion by 14% without affecting the N digestion in the total tract. Increased extent of grain processing tended to enhance duodenal flows of AA. In contrast, reducing FPL lowered flows of dietary AA to the duodenum because of lowered flows of feed plus endogenous N. Increased F:C ratio of the diet did not change the flow of total AA, but there was a reduced flow of dietary AA and increased flow of microbial AA. Flows of several individual AA were increased by feeding flatly rolled barley with limited effects of F:C ratio or FPL. An interaction between grain processing and FPL was detected for flows of some AA. Diets formulated with flatly rolled barley plus long FPL increased Arg

  7. Effect of surfactants, gastric emptying, and dosage form on supersaturation of dipyridamole in an in vitro model simulating the stomach and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Fadda, H M

    2014-08-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gastric emptying patterns, surfactants, and dosage form on the supersaturation of a poorly soluble weakly basic drug, dipyridamole, using an in vitro model mimicking the dynamic environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and, furthermore, to evaluate the usefulness of this model in establishing correlations to in vivo bioavailability for drugs with solubility/dissolution limited absorption. A simulated stomach duodenum model comprising four compartments was used to assess supersaturation and precipitation kinetics as a function of time. It integrates physiologically relevant fluid volumes, fluid transfer rates, and pH changes of the upper GI tract. Monoexponential gastric emptying patterns simulating the fasted state were compared to linear gastric emptying patterns simulating the fed state. The effect of different surfactants commonly used in oral preparations, specifically, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), poloxamer-188, and polysorbate-80, on dipyridamole supersaturation was investigated while maintaining surface tension of the simulated gastric fluids at physiological levels and without obtaining artificial micellar solubilization of the drug. The supersaturation behavior of different dose strengths of dipyridamole was explored. Significant levels of dipyridamole supersaturation were observed in the duodenal compartment under all the different in vivo relevant conditions explored. Dipyridamole supersaturation ratios of up to 11-fold have been observed, and supersaturation has been maintained for up to 120 min. Lower duodenal concentrations of dipyridamole were observed under linear gastric emptying patterns compared to mononexponential gastric emptying. The mean duodenal area under concentration-time curves (AUC60min) for the dipyridamole concentration profile in the duodenal compartment is significantly different for all the surfactants explored (P < 0.05). Our investigations with the different

  8. The spasmolytic effect of Aloysia citriodora, Palau (South American cedrón) is partially due to its vitexin but not isovitexin on rat duodenums.

    PubMed

    Ragone, María Inés; Sella, Mariana; Conforti, Paula; Volonté, María G; Consolini, Alicia E

    2007-09-05

    The spasmolytic effects of an acqueous extract of cedrón (AEC) were studied on rat isolated duodenums. This plant (Aloysia citriodora Palau, Verbenaceae) is widely used for gastrointestinal disorders and as eupeptic in South America. AEC non-competitively inhibited the dose-response curve (DRC) of Ach (IC50 of 1.34 +/- 0.49 mg lyophilized/mL) and the DRC of Ca(2+) in high-[K(2-)](o) (IC50 of 2.64 +/- 0.23 mg/mL). AEC potentiated the non-competitive inhibition of either 30 micromol/L W-7 (a calmodulin blocker) and 5-15 micromol/L papaverine on the Ca(2+)-DRC. Also, AEC relaxed the contracture produced by high-[K(+)](o) (IC50 of 2.6 +/- 0.2 mg/mL) until 81.0 +/- 3.2% of the maximal effect of papaverine and 78.1+/- 5.0% of the quercetin, the most selective inhibitor of PDE. The AEC relaxation was non-competitively inhibited by 10-30 micromol/L methylene blue and competitively antagonized by 40 mmol/L TEA. The relaxation of 1mg/mL AEC was inhibited by hypoxia, but not that of 2mg/mL. Two flavonoids were identified by HPLC in the AEC: vitexin and isovitexin. Vitexin non-competitively inhibited the Ach-DRC (pD(2') of 5.7 +/- 0.4) but significantly run leftward the DRC of Ca(2+). Isovitexin did not significantly inhibit the DRC of Ach nor Ca(2+). The results suggest that the spasmolytic effect of AEC could be mostly associated to the increase in cGMP (target shared with the PDE inhibitors) and the activation of K(+)-channels. At low concentrations, AEC also inhibits the aerobic metabolism. The flavonoid vitexin is partially responsible for the effect, since it non-competitively inhibits Ach but not the Ca(2+) influx. Isovitexin was devoid of activity on duodenums.

  9. Ruptured jejunum following Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Razaboni, R M; Brathwaite, C E; Dwyer, W A

    1986-01-01

    The Heimlich maneuver, over time, has proved to be a useful resuscitative procedure in the management of cases with airway occlusion secondary to foreign body. Medical treatments, however, can have side effects, and this maneuver is no exception. A previously unreported complication is presented, that of jejunal rupture. The proper application of the maneuver minimizes the number of side effects; however, since they do occur, it is suggested that all persons subject to this maneuver be subsequently evaluated by a physician as soon after the incident as is practicable.

  10. Comparison of the actions of porcine secretin and extracts of chicken duodenum on pancreatic exocrine secretion in the cat and turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Dockray, G J

    1975-01-01

    1. Extracts were prepared of chicken duodenum and their actions on pancreatic secretion in urethane anasthetized turkeys and in conscious cats were compared with those of pure natural porcine secretin. 2. The chicken extracts and porcine secretin stimulated dose-dependent increases in the rate of flow, but not the rate of protein secretion, from the pancreas in cats and turkeys. 3. Porcine cholecystokinin stimulated both the rate of flow and the rate of protein secretion from the pancrease in turkeys. 4. The doses of chicken extract required to evoke half maximal rates of flow of pancreatic juice were similar in the turkey (0-55 mg/kg) and in the cat (0-72 mg/kg). The highest concentration of bicarbonate recorded in the turkey responses was 30 m-equiv/l. compared with 112 m-equiv/l. in the cat. 5. The dose of porcine secretin required for half maximal rate of flow in the bird (5-9 mug/kg) was 180 times higher than in the mammal (0-33 mug/kg). In the cat the duration of responses to porcine secretin was significantly greater than to the chicken extract. 6. It is concluded that in birds there is a factor with biological properties similar but not identical to those of porcine secretin, and that this factor may regulate pancreatic secretion by a mechanism resembling the secretin mechanism in mammals. PMID:1133774

  11. Primary Pure Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Gallbladder Locally Invading the Liver, Duodenum, and Stomach: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Alpuerto, Aldrin C.; Mora, Maximo E.

    2017-01-01

    Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the gallbladder is an exceptionally rare type of tumor that comprises only 1% of all gallbladder cancer. SCC of the gallbladder portends a worse prognosis than the more common adenocarcinoma variant because of its aggressive invasion to local structures and because it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Owing to its rarity, diagnosis and management can be challenging. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female complaining of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography and ultrasonography results of the abdomen were consistent with acute cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Histologic evaluation of the resected mass revealed a malignant tumor with prominent keratinization, confirming the diagnosis of an invasive primary pure SCC of the gallbladder. Microscopic examination showed direct infiltration to the liver, duodenum, and stomach. This case report describes the hospital course of a patient with SCC of the gallbladder and suggests that gallbladder cancer should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in elderly patients presenting with acute cholecystitis. In addition, this article will review existing literature to examine the utility of different diagnostic techniques and treatment modalities available in the management of gallbladder cancer. PMID:28251014

  12. Addition of charcoals to broilers feeds did not impact Salmonella Typhimurium colonization or persistence, or the pH of the crop or duodenum during a 6 wk growout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3 types of charcoals added to feeds at 0.3% on Salmonella colonization and persistence, and the pH of the crop and duodenum during a 6 wk growout. A total of 1,280 male chicks (32/pen) were placed into 40 pens (10 pens for each of the 4 diet...

  13. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1) Mediates Copper Transport in the Duodenum of Iron-Deficient Rats and When Overexpressed in Iron-Deprived HEK-293 Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lingli; Garrick, Michael D.; Garrick, Laura M.; Zhao, Lin; Collins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular copper-binding proteins (metallothionein I/II) and a copper exporter (Menkes copper-transporting ATPase) are upregulated in duodenal enterocytes from iron-deficient rats, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa. How copper enters enterocytes during iron deficiency is, however, not clear. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1), the predominant iron importer in the mammalian duodenum, also transports other metal ions, possibly including copper. Given this possibility and that Dmt1 expression is upregulated by iron deprivation, we sought to test the hypothesis that Dmt1 transports copper during iron deficiency. Two model systems were utilized: the Belgrade (b) rat, expressing mutant Dmt1, and an inducible Dmt1-overexpression cell culture system. Mutant rats (b/b) were fed a semipurified, AIN93G-based control diet and phenotypically normal littermates (+/b) were fed control or iron-deficient diets for ∼14 wk. An everted gut sleeve technique and a colorimetric copper quantification assay were utilized to assess duodenal copper transport. The control diet-fed +/b rats had normal hematological parameters, whereas iron-deprived +/b and b/b rats were iron deficient and Dmt1 mRNA and protein levels increased. Importantly, duodenal copper transport was similar in the control +/b and b/b rats; however, it significantly increased (∼4-fold) in the iron-deprived +/b rats. Additional experiments in Dmt1 overexpressing HEK-293 cells showed that copper (64Cu) uptake was stimulated (∼3-fold) in the presence of an iron chelator. Dmt1 transcript stabilization due to a 3′ iron-responsive element was also documented, likely contributing to increased transport activity. In summary, these studies suggest that Dmt1 enhances copper uptake into duodenal enterocytes during iron deprivation. PMID:24089420

  14. Syndromic versus non-syndromic sporadic gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum: comparison of pathological features and biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Rosentraeger, M Johannes; Garbrecht, Nele; Anlauf, Martin; Raffel, Andreas; Knoefel, Wolfram T; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klöppel, Günter

    2016-03-01

    Sporadic gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum present either with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) or with unspecific symptoms. While syndromic gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumors often show metastases at the time of diagnosis, those without a syndrome do not. The aim of the study was to search for clinicopathological features that may distinguish the two categories of gastrin-producing duodenal tumors. In a retrospective study, we analyzed the clinical and pathological data in a series of 41 patients with syndromic (i.e., gastrinomas) or non-syndromic duodenal gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumors (ns-gas-NETs). Twenty-four (59 %) of the 41 patients had tumors that were associated with a ZES and were classified as gastrinomas. These tumors showed a higher Ki-67 index than that of the ns-gas-NETs (1.74 vs. 0.85 %, p = 0.012). In addition, they had more lymph node metastases (75 vs. 6 %, p < 0.001) and showed liver metastases and thus presented much more frequently in TNM stage ≥III (75 vs. 6 %; p < 0.001) than their non-syndromic counterparts. Gastrinomas were removed surgically, ns-gas-NETs endoscopically. We did not observe any significant differences in overall survival or recurrence of disease. Duodenal gastrinomas show no clear morphological features that distinguish them from their non-syndromic counterparts. However, the patients with gastrinomas present in a more advanced stage of disease and need surgical treatment, while non-syndromic gastrin-producing duodenal NETs may be cured by complete endoscopical removal.

  15. Cysteamine induces cholecystokinin release from the duodenum. Evidence for somatostatin as an inhibitory paracrine regulator of cholecystokinin secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Abucham, J.; Reichlin, S. )

    1990-12-01

    To determine whether cholecystokinin secretion is regulated by endogenous somatostatin, somatostatin deficiency was induced in vivo with cysteamine (250 mg/kg body wt, IV) or anti-somatostatin antiserum in anaesthetized rats and in vitro with cysteamine (30 micrograms/mL) in a rat duodenum-incubation system. Cholecystokinin secretion was assessed in vivo by measuring amylase in duodenal perfusates collected at 10-minute intervals for 1 hour and in vitro by a carboxy-terminal radioimmunoassay. Cysteamine induced a marked decrease in duodenal immunoreactive somatostatin both in vivo (50%) and in vitro (60%). The rate of amylase secretion increased from 9.7 +/- 2.1 U (mean +/- SE) to 28.0 +/- 4.8 U at 20 minutes (P less than 0.001). The cholecystokinin-receptor antagonist CR-1392 abolished amylase response for 30 minutes, whereas the more potent antagonists Asperlicin (18.0 mg/kg body wt, IV) and L-364,718 (0.25 mg/kg body wt, IV) caused prolonged blockade. The rate of amylase secretion in gastrectomized animals increased from 7.2 +/- 2.0 U to 15.0 +/- 2.2 U 20 minutes after cysteamine administration (P less than 0.01), indicating that the effect was not due to the presence of gastrin. In vitro, cysteamine caused a nearly fourfold increase in cholecystokinin secretion compared with controls (63.1 +/- 4.9 vs. 15.2 +/- 3.7, respectively; P less than 0.001). In vivo immunoneutralization of circulating somatostatin with a high-affinity and high-capacity antiserum produced no significant change in the rate of amylase secretion. These results suggest that cholecystokinin secretion is tonically inhibited by somatostatin and that this effect is mediated by locally secreted (paracrine) but not by circulating somatostatin.

  16. Net transfer of nutrients to the duodenum and disappearance of n-alkanes in the reticulo-rumen and the hindgut of sheep fed grass/legume combinations.

    PubMed

    Keli, Abdelhafid; Olmos, Genaro; de Vega, Antonio; Guada, José A

    2013-05-28

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effect of increasing the proportion of Wimmera ryegrass hay in a lucerne hay-based diet on net transfer of nutrients to the intestine, and on the disappearance of n-alkanes in the reticulo-rumen and the hindgut of sheep. Following a latin square design, four adult ewes were fed 1:0, 0·33:0·67, 0·67:0·33 and 0:1 proportions of legume and grass. Increasing the proportion of ryegrass in the diet linearly decreased the intake of DM (P= 0·017), organic matter (P= 0·021) and N (P= 0·001). However, neutral-detergent fibre intake was not affected (P= 0·148), nor was its digestibility coefficient (P>0·10). Diet had no effect on duodenal flows of nutrients (P>0·10), although the proportion of N intake (NI) recovered at the duodenum as non-NH₃ N (NAN) increased linearly with Lolium rigidum in the diet (P= 0·002). Full recovery of NI as NAN was achieved at NH₃ concentrations in the rumen below 110 g/l. Microbial N contribution to NAN varied in a quadratic manner (P< 0·05) with the proportion of grass in the diet, although efficiency of microbial synthesis was not affected (P>0·10). Duodenal recovery of consumed n-alkanes was not affected by diet and was complete for those present in higher concentrations in the forages. Isolated rumen bacteria contained significant amounts of n-alkanes, contributing to the duodenal flow of these hydrocarbons in variable proportions depending on the diet consumed.

  17. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    also attenuated by these agents application (given in the same doses, i.p., 1 h before cysteamine), with only exception to sulphasalazine. Thus, the extended cysteamine specific ulcerogenic effect, cysteamine colon/duodenum lesion-link and an extenuation of agents protection from upper to lower part of gastrointestinal tract (i.e. stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157, standard antiulcer agents, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole) and vice versa (remedies for inflammatory bowel disease) evidenced in the present study may be potentially important for both further experimental and clinical research.

  18. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-07-27

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system.

  19. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-11-03

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area.

  20. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  1. Effect of gastric pH on the pharmacokinetics of a BCS class II compound in dogs: utilization of an artificial stomach and duodenum dissolution model and GastroPlus,™ simulations to predict absorption.

    PubMed

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Perkins, Everett J; Tan, Jeffrey S; Burns, Lee J

    2011-11-01

    Dogs are one of the most commonly used non-rodent species in toxicology studies and are known to have basal stomach pH ranging from 2 to 7 in the fasted state. Thus absorption and resulting plasma exposure of weakly basic compounds administered as crystalline suspensions to dogs are often variable. LY2157299 is a potent and selective transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor type 1 kinase (TGF-βRI) inhibitor that displayed variable absorption in early dog studies. This molecule is a weakly basic Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)Class II compound, and depends on the rate and extent of dissolution to drive oral absorption. An artificial stomach and duodenum (ASD) dissolution model was utilized to evaluate potential effect of gastric pH on the absorption of suspension and buffered solution formulations. GastroPlus™ was also employed to predict the magnitude of gastric pH changes on LY2157299 absorption. The ASD experiments demonstrated that administration of a buffered acidic solution could improve the potential for absorption by normalizing gastric pH and enabling supersaturation in the duodenum. GastroPlus™ modeling suggested that direct modulation of gastric pH could lead to marked changes in bioavailability. Pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in dogs to evaluate the effect of gastric pH modification on plasma exposure. The data were qualitatively consistent with the predictions.

  2. Relationship Between Intestinal Motility Indexes From Internal and Surface Recordings of Electroenterogram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    serosa for internal recording, and two monopolar Ag-AgCl contact electrodes for surface recording. Internal electrodes were placed in the duodenum , Treitz...observed. For instance, while duodenum is in phase III of the IMMC, jejunum is still in phase II. Synchronization of IMMC detected on abdominal surface...calculated CCF’s maximum coefficients (fig 4). Duodenum 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 Treitz angle 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 Jejunum 1 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 Jejunum 2

  3. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    PubMed

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P < 0.05). Diets with 120 and 240 g kg(-1) inclusion rates of sesame meal improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in Japanese quail (P < 0.05). Results indicated that the higher level of crude protein improved protein efficiency ratio (PER) and increased feed intake (P < 0.05). The results of jejunum morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.05). Enzyme addition increased serum calcium and phosphorous of Japanese quails (P < 0.05). The liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet.

  4. Small intestine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the ... the duodenum. This short first portion of the small intestine is followed by the jejunum and the ileum. ...

  5. 40 CFR 798.3300 - Oncogenicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... marrow; salivary glands; liver; spleen; kidneys; adrenals; esophagus; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum... amount of test substance fed into the inhalation equipment divided by volume of air). (4) Actual... Environmental Carcinogenesis. (Bethesda: United States National Cancer Institute, 1976). (7) National Center...

  6. 40 CFR 798.3300 - Oncogenicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... marrow; salivary glands; liver; spleen; kidneys; adrenals; esophagus; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum... amount of test substance fed into the inhalation equipment divided by volume of air). (4) Actual... Environmental Carcinogenesis. (Bethesda: United States National Cancer Institute, 1976). (7) National Center...

  7. 40 CFR 798.3300 - Oncogenicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... marrow; salivary glands; liver; spleen; kidneys; adrenals; esophagus; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum... amount of test substance fed into the inhalation equipment divided by volume of air). (4) Actual... Environmental Carcinogenesis. (Bethesda: United States National Cancer Institute, 1976). (7) National Center...

  8. Lymphocytic enteritis in a filly.

    PubMed

    Clark, E S; Morris, D D; Allen, D; Tyler, D E

    1988-11-15

    A yearling Hanoverian filly had intermittent colic for 6 weeks, chylous peritoneal effusion, and a firm mass palpable per rectum. Exploratory laparotomy revealed mesenteric lymphadenopathy, adhesion of the mesenteric root to the duodenum and jejunum, distention of the mesenteric veins and lymphatic vessels, and increased jejunal venous pressure. Lesions in the duodenum, jejunum, and colon included infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propria.

  9. [A Case of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease with Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated by Duodenum-Preserving Resection of the Head of the Pancreas and Spleen-Preserving Resection of the Tail of the Pancreas].

    PubMed

    Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Tokura, Tomohisa; Yachi, Takafumi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented to our department with a diagnosis of multiple nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. She had a family history of pheochromocytoma and a medical history of bilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma at the age of 25 years. During follow-up treatment for adrenal insufficiency after the surgery, highly enhanced tumors in the pancreas were detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Other examinations found that the patient did not satisfy the clinical criteria for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Considering her age and risk of developing multiple heterotopic and heterochronous tumors, we performed a duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas and spleen-preserving resection of the tail of the pancreas with informed consent. The histopathological findings revealed that all of the tumors were NET G1. She underwent genetic testing postoperatively and was diagnosed with VHL disease. This diagnosis meant that we were able to create an optimal treatment plan for the patient. If a tumor predisposition syndrome is suspected, VHL disease should be borne in mind and genetic testing after genetic counseling should be duly considered.

  10. The metabolic fate of the amido-N group of glutamine in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract in 24 h-fasted sheep.

    PubMed

    Gate, J J; Parker, D S; Lobley, G E

    1999-04-01

    Whole-body and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) metabolism of [5-(15)N]glutamine were monitored in lambs (33 kg live weight) fasted for 24 h. Animals were previously prepared with vascular catheters across the mesenteric-(MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) to permit quantification of mass and isotopic transfers of metabolites by arterio-venous difference. Continuous infusions of [5-(15)N]glutamine into the jugular vein were conducted for 10 h and integrated blood samples withdrawn over 75 min intervals for the last 5 h of infusion. The lambs were then killed and portions from various tissues of the digestive tract and other body organs removed for determination of 15N enrichment in RNA, DNA and protein (the latter obtained by difference using total acid-precipitable N). Whole-body glutamine flux was 108 mumol/min of which 23 and 47% could be attributed to MDV and PDV metabolism (P < 0.001) respectively. There was a small net production of glutamine across the MDV. GIT blood-flows and NH3 production were partitioned 3:2 between MDV and non-MDV components. Less than 5% of the NH3 produced was derived from the amido-N of glutamine, while across the small intestine (MDV) 26% of the glutamine flux was converted to NH3, compared with 18% for non-MDV transfers. The 15N enrichments in protein were of the order jejunum > duodenum > ileum with mucosal cells more labelled than serosal (P < 0.001). Lesser enrichments were observed for other GIT tissues (abomasum > caecum > rumen) while liver and lymph were comparable with the abomasum; kidney, spleen and muscle were lower still (P < 0.05). Enrichments of RNA were similar to that of protein and followed the same pattern, except for higher relative values for liver, spleen and lymphoid tissue. The lowest enrichments were observed for DNA, but again the pattern order was similar except for increased label in lymph, caecum and the spleen. For the MDV there was reasonable agreement between 15N-disappearance as glutamine and

  11. Release of the mucosal mast cell granule chymase, rat mast cell protease-II, during anaphylaxis is associated with the rapid development of paracellular permeability to macromolecules in rat jejunum

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The soluble granule chymase, rat mast cell protease-II (RMCP-II), is abundantly expressed in intestinal mucosal mast cells (MMC) but its function is not known. One hypothesis is that RMCP-II degrades the epithelial basement membrane and promotes the loss of enterocytes typically associated with type I hypersensitivity reactions in the rat. To test this hypothesis more directly, ex vivo perfusion of the cranial mesenteric artery and jejunal lumen was used to monitor the anaphylactic release of RMCP-II and its effects on mucosal permeability and epithelial integrity. Within 2 min of intravascular challenge with soluble adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis worm antigen there was a 1,000-fold (P < 0.02) increase in the concentration of RMCP-II in the vascular perfusate from the jejunum of Nippostrongylus-sensitized rats but not the controls. Similarly, translocation of RMCP-II into the gut lumen increased 10-fold (P < 0.02) after 2 min only in worm antigen- challenged immune rats. Using an identical protocol, but incorporating Evans blue-labeled human serum albumin (EB-HSA) in the vascular perfusate, the timing of the release of RMCP-II into the two compartments was very similar to the first experiment and furthermore the translocation of EB-HSA increased 18-fold (P < 0.05) after 4 min in sensitized rats challenged with worm antigen. To examine the effects of RMCP-II more directly 1 mg of the highly purified chymase was introduced into the cranial mesenteric artery in ex vivo perfused normal rats. A significant (P < 0.05) 70-fold increase in concentration of RMCP-II in jejunal perfusate occurred after 6 min. In a repeat dose- response experiment, infusion of 0.375, 0.75, or 1.5 mg of RMCP-II, together with EB-HSA, established that the cumulative amounts of RMCP- II and EB-HSA translocated from the vasculature to the gut lumen in each perfusion (during the 10-min period of RMCP-II infusion) were significantly correlated. Analysis of intestinal perfusates by SDS-PAGE and

  12. Measurement of the postruminal digestibility of crude protein by the bag technique in cows.

    PubMed

    Voigt, J; Piatkowski, B; Engelmann, H; Rudolph, E

    1985-08-01

    A new method has been developed which permits the crude protein digestibility of feedstuffs in the intestine of cattle to be measured with little effort in terms of samples and experimental work. It consists of welding 0.4 ... 0.8 g of the feedstuff (particle size: 125 ... 1000 micron) into polyamide fabric bags (25 X 40 mm) which are inserted via cannulae into the digestive tracts of fistulated cows from the abomasum/duodenum to the ileum or from the abomasum/duodenum to the faeces. The mean retention time of the bags in the animal was 8.5 +/- 2.7 h from the abomasum to the end of the ileum and (13.3 +/- 1.9 h from the abomasum to the faeces. Up to 15 bags per day and cow may be used. The random error of the method is 1.3% (absolute) when the measurements are performed on two animals using two bags each. Intestinal digestibilities of over 90% were measured for concentrate proteins (except linseed meal) and of 72 ... 95% for forage proteins. Post-ruminal digestion was virtually finished at the end of the small intestine.

  13. Regional development of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside transport in the small intestine of chick embryos and newly-hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Esteban, S; Moreno, M; Mestre, I; Planas, J M; Tur, J A

    1991-12-01

    A regional study of the intestinal hexose transport shows the role played by duodenum, jejunum and ileum during the chick perinatal development. From at least two days before hatching the three regions of small intestine accumulate alpha-Méthyl-D-Glucose (alpha-MG) by mediated transport mechanisms, and phloridzin inhibit about 90% of the uptakes. This ability reaches the maximal level at 1 day after hatch in the three regions. Before hatching the jejunum shows higher transport levels than the observed values in the duodenum and ileum, but the three regions show similar values at 1 day after hatch. In the following days, the alpha-MG transport ability is strongly reduced in the duodenum, slightly reduced in the jejunum and maintained in the ileum until at least 7 day-old chicks.

  14. Iron absorption by small intestine of chickens.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, M P; Martí, M T; Mitjavila, M T; Planas, J

    1993-01-01

    Iron (Fe) absorption by three segments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) of the small intestine of chickens was studied by a perfusion technique in vivo in closed circuit using 59Fe Cl3 and was related to the histological characteristics of each segment. The serosal transfers of Fe for the duodenum and jejunum were the same (14%/cm), but significantly different (p < 0.05) from those of the ileum (9%/cm), which may be explained by the morphological and histological properties of the gut of chickens. However, the presence of Fe in blood and in liver was significantly lower after perfusion of the jejunum and ileum than after perfusion of the duodenum. It is concluded that chickens show an early adaptation of small intestine to Fe absorption in response to the considerable loss of Fe suffered during the laying process.

  15. Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in the response to abomasal parasites remai...

  16. Extensive Expression Differences along Porcine Small Intestine Evidenced by Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Núria; Berri, Mustapha; Esquerré, Diane; Chevaleyre, Claire; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Billon, Yvon; Lepage, Patricia; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Doré, Joël; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Estellé, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse gene expression along the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) and in the ileal Peyer's patches in four young pigs with no clinical signs of disease by transcriptome sequencing. Multidimensional scaling evidenced that samples clustered by tissue type rather than by individual, thus prefiguring a relevant scenario to draw tissue-specific gene expression profiles. Accordingly, 1,349 genes were found differentially expressed between duodenum and jejunum, and up to 3,455 genes between duodenum and ileum. Additionally, a considerable number of differentially expressed genes were found by comparing duodenum (7,027 genes), jejunum (6,122 genes), and ileum (6,991 genes) with ileal Peyer's patches tissue. Functional analyses revealed that most of the significant differentially expressed genes along small intestinal tissues were involved in the regulation of general biological processes such as cell development, signalling, growth and proliferation, death and survival or cell function and maintenance. These results suggest that the intrinsic large turnover of intestinal tissues would have local specificities at duodenum, ileum and jejunum. In addition, in concordance with their biological function, enteric innate immune pathways were overrepresented in ileal Peyer's patches. The reported data provide an expression map of the cell pathway variation in the different small intestinal tissues. Furthermore, expression levels measured in healthy individuals could help to understand changes in gene expression that occur in dysbiosis or pathological states. PMID:24533095

  17. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on porcine gastrointestinal electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Wechsung, E; Houvenaghel, A

    1994-01-01

    The influence of intravenous infusion of VIP, 150 and 300 pmol/kg/min, on gastrointestinal electrical activity was studied in conscious piglets with electrodes implanted in the wall of the antrum pylori, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Both doses resulted in a decrease in antral electrical activity. In the small intestine, only the lower dose caused a shortening of the irregular spiking activity phase in the jejunum and ileum. In the jejunum this resulted in a reduction of the MMC interval. It may be concluded that the prevailing effect of VIP is an inhibition of gastrointestinal electrical activity in the piglet.

  18. Jejunum or Stomach for the Pancreatic Anastomosis After Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The authors hypothesized that pancreaticogastrostomy is safer than pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy and less likely to be associated with a postoperative pancreatic fistula. Summary Background Data: Pancreatic fistula is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy, occurring in 10% to 20% of patients. Nonrandomized reports have suggested that pancreaticogastrostomy is less likely than pancreaticojejunostomy to be associated with postoperative complications. Methods: Between May 1993 and January 1995, the findings for 145 patients were analyzed in this prospective trial at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. After giving their appropriate preoperative informed consent, patients were randomly assigned to pancreaticogastrostomy or pancreaticojejunostomy after completion of the pancreaticoduodenal resection. All pancreatic anastomoses were performed in two layers without pancreatic duct stents and with closed suction drainage. Pancreatic fistula was defined as drainage of greater than 50 mL of amylase-rich fluid on or after postoperative day 10. Results: The pancreaticogastrostomy (n=73) and pancreaticojejunostomy (n=72) groups were comparable with regard to multiple parameters, including demographics, medical history, preoperative laboratory values, and intraoperative factors, such as operative time, blood transfusions, pancreatic texture, length of pancreatic remnant mobilized, and pancreatic duct diameter. The overall incidence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 11.7% (171145). The incidence of pancreatic fistula was similar for the pancreaticogastrostomy (12.3%) and pancreaticojejunostomy (11.1%) groups. Pancreatisc fistula was associated with a significant prolongation of postoperative hospital stay (36±5 vs. 15±1 days) (p<0.001). Factors significantly increasing the risk of pancreatic fistula by univariate logistic regression analysis included ampullary or duodenal disease, soft pancreatic texture, longer operative time, greater intraoperative red blood cell transfusions, and lower surgical volume (p<0.05). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the factors most highly associated with pancreatic fistula to be lower surgical volume and ampullary or duodenal disease in the resected specimen. Conclusions: Pancreatic fistula is a common complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy, with an incidence most strongly associated with surgical volume and underlying disease. These data do not support the hypothesis that pancreaticogastrostomy is safer than pancreaticojejunostomy or is associated with a lower incidence of pancreatic fistula. PMID:9174871

  19. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific, for example E. acervulina affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa cause reduced feed effic...

  20. Experimental infection with Cryptosporidium parvum IIaA21G1R1 subtype in immunosuppressed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIaA21G1R1 oocysts were used to infect dexamethasone immunosuppressed N: NIH Swiss mice. Histology showed developmental stages in the duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon, with the small intestine remaining infected until day 35 post infection....

  1. 40 CFR 798.3260 - Chronic toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liver and kidney function. The selection of specific tests will be influenced by observations on the.... (ii) The liver, kidneys, adrenals, brain and gonads should be weighed wet, as soon as possible after...; liver; spleen; kidneys; adrenals; esophagus; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; cecum; colon;...

  2. 40 CFR 798.3260 - Chronic toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liver and kidney function. The selection of specific tests will be influenced by observations on the.... (ii) The liver, kidneys, adrenals, brain and gonads should be weighed wet, as soon as possible after...; liver; spleen; kidneys; adrenals; esophagus; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; cecum; colon;...

  3. 40 CFR 798.3260 - Chronic toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liver and kidney function. The selection of specific tests will be influenced by observations on the.... (ii) The liver, kidneys, adrenals, brain and gonads should be weighed wet, as soon as possible after...; liver; spleen; kidneys; adrenals; esophagus; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; cecum; colon;...

  4. Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Death in the Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-06-01

    three sections of small in- Figure 1 diagrammatically depicts the testine - the duodenum , jejunum, and ileum, radiation facility. Thirty-two cobalt...intestine poe- the dose range tested (fig. 7). sess far more surface cells than comparable structures in the colon. Hence, there is Aside from digestive

  5. Lactation-induced cadmium-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Solaiman, D.; Garvey, J.S.; Miyazaki, W.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated an increase during midlactation in /sup 109/Cd adsorption and increased retention by the duodenum, kidney, and mammary tissue of mouse dams receiving environmental levels of cadmium//sup 109/Cd via drinking water, with little change in /sup 109/Cd retention in liver and jejunum compared to nonpregnant controls. Results are reported here of a study of cadmium deposition during midlactation as associated with induction of metallothionein (MT). A cadmium/hemoglobin (Cd/Hb) assay and radioimmunoassay for MT which measures heat-stable cadmium binding capacity in tissues was used to determine MT concentrations in fractions of kidney, liver, duodenum, and jejunum from female mice. Both assays demonstrated clear lactation-induced increases in MT concentrations in liver, kidney, and duodenum, with MT concentrations falling rapidly to control levels after weaning. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of dietary copper supplementation and copper source on digesta pH, calcium, zinc, and copper complex size in the gastrointestinal tract of the broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y; Applegate, T J

    2007-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of high dietary Cu and Cu source on the pH of digesta from the gizzard, duodenum + jejunum, ileum, and complex size of Ca, Zn, and Cu in the duodenum + jejunum digesta of broiler chickens. Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 32 cages and fed 1 of 4 treatments: control, 250 ppm Cu from sulfate, 250 ppm Cu from lysinate, and 250 ppm tribasic Cu from chloride from 15 to 21 d of age. Copper supplementation and Cu source had no effects on pH of gizzard or duodenum + jejunum contents. Copper supplementation, however, increased the pH of the ileal contents (P < 0.05) but was not affected by Cu source. Neither Cu supplementation nor Cu source had significant effects on the solubility of Ca in the duodenum + jejunum contents, and the portions of Ca existing in different soluble complex sizes: >100,000, 100,000 to 30,000, 30,000 to 5,000, and <5,000 molecular weight (MW) in the duodenum + jejunum digesta. About 80% of soluble Ca, Cu, and Zn was associated with either large complexes (>100,000 MW) or small complexes (<5,000 MW). The solubility of supplemental Cu in digesta was from 59 to 61% (P < 0.05), but solubility was not affected by Cu source. No effects on portions of Cu existing in different sizes of complexes in the supernatant were noted. Copper lysinate decreased the Zn solubility in the digesta (P < 0.05), but Cu sulfate and tribasic Cu chloride supplementation did not. Copper supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the percentage of Zn associated with large complexes (>100,000 MW) and decreased (P < 0.05) the percentage of Zn associated with small complexes (<5,000 MW; P < 0.05), thereby suggesting an antagonism between Cu and Zn.

  7. Characteristics of Small Intestinal Diseases on Single-Balloon Enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhang; Liu, G.X.; Cai, L.; Yu, H.; Min, X.J.; Gan, H.T.; Yang, K.; SQ, Li; Yan, J.; Chen, L.; Tan, Q.H.; Wu, J.C.; Huang, X.L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The small intestine has been considered inaccessible for a long term. The development of single-balloon endoscopy has greatly improved the diagnosis and treatment possibilities for small intestinal diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore the demographic characteristics and small intestinal diseases of patients who underwent single-balloon enteroscopy between 2009 and 2014 at our endoscopy center. We determined the enteroscopic findings for each small intestinal disease and the most susceptible age groups. In total, 186 patients were included in the study. Their mean age was 45.87 ± 15.77 years. Patients who underwent single-balloon enteroscopy were found to have neoplasms (most common age group: 14–45 years, most common lesion location: jejunum), lymphoma (46–59 and 60–74 years, ileum), protuberant lesions (45–59 years, jejunum), inflammation (14–45 and 46–59 years, ileum), benign ulcers (14–45 years, jejunum), diverticulum (14–45 years, ileum), vascular malformations (60–74 years, jejunum), polyps (14–45 years, jejunum), Crohn's disease (14–45 years, jejunum), hookworm infection (14–45 years, jejunum), lipid pigmentation (14–45 and 46–59 years, jejunum), undetermined bleeding (46–59 years, ileum), or undetermined stenosis (31 years, duodenum). Each small intestinal disease had distinct enteroscopic findings. PMID:26496270

  8. Crohn's disease confined to the duodenum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong Jin; Whang, Il Soon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Jeong, Cheol Yun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to anus. However, gastroduodenal CD is rare with a frequency reported to range between 0.5% and 4.0%. Most patients with gastroduodenal CD have concomitant lesions in the terminal ileum or colon, but isolated gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease is an extremely rare presentation of the disease accounting for less than 0.07% of all patients with CD. The symptoms of gastroduodenal CD include epigastric pain, dyspepsia, early satiety, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. The diagnosis of gastroduodenal CD requires a high level of clinical suspicion and can be made by comprehensive clinical evaluation. Here we report a rare case of isolated duodenal CD not confirmed by identification of granuloma on biopsy, but diagnosed by clinical evaluation. PMID:27326400

  9. Molecular cloning, distribution and ontogenetic expression of the oligopeptide transporter PepT1 mRNA in Tibetan suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wence; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Jianshe; Gu, Wanting; Li, Tiejun; Gen, Meimei; Chu, Wuying; Huang, Ruilin; Liu, Yulan; Hou, Yongqing; Li, Peng; Yin, Yulong

    2009-10-01

    The gene encoding the oligopeptide transporter PepT1 (HGMW-approved gene symbol SLC15A1) from Tibetan porcine intestine was cloned. The open reading frame of this cDNA encodes 708 deduced amino acid residues that show high sequence similarity with its ovine and bovine counterparts. The putative protein has 12 putative transmembrane domains, including many structural features that are highly conserved among the vertebrate orthologs. PepT1 mRNA expression can be detected in duodenum, jejunum and ileum from Tibetan pigs at 28 days by RT-PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the jejunum had the highest expression of PepT1 when compared with the duodenum and ileum. PepT1 mRNA expression in the duodenum and proximal jejunum increases continuously from day 1 to day 14: expression was highest at day14 (P < 0.01) and then decreased gradually from day 21 to day 35. Our findings show that PepT1 mRNA expression in the distal jejunum increased gradually with age in suckling Tibetan piglet, and this may have important implications for amino acid and protein nutrition in young animals.

  10. Influence of age, sex and rearing systems on Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) expression pattern in gut, lung and lymphoid tissues of indigenous ducks.

    PubMed

    Kolluri, Gautham; Ramamurthy, N; Churchil, R R; Dhinakar Raj, G; Kannaki, T R

    2014-02-01

    Abstract 1. The objective of the experiment was to determine the influence of age, sex and rearing system on Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene expression in gut, lung and lymphoid tissues and physiological responses to stress in male and female indigenous ducks of Tamil Nadu, India. 2. A total of 36 ducks (12 males and 24 females) were obtained from local farmers and tissue samples of gut tissues (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum), lymphoid organs (spleen and bursa) and lungs were collected in RNAlater solution followed by RNA extraction. 3. After normalisation to β-actin (endogenous control) qPCR analysis identified a significant effect of age, sex and rearing system on TLR7 expression in the ducks. 4. A significant up-regulation of TLR7 expression was observed in lungs, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum of sexually mature (45 wk) compared with that of immature ducks (16 wk). Among sexes, male ducks had significantly higher TLR7 expression than female ducks. 5. Age and sex interactions were significant in lungs, duodenum, jejunum and caecum. Ducks reared in an extensive housing system showed significantly higher TLR7 expression in bursa, lungs, duodenum, ileum and caecum compared to intensively reared ducks. There were no effects of age, sex and rearing systems on TLR7 expression in the spleen. 6. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and serum corticosterone were higher in ducks reared on an intensive system compared with ducks from an extensive rearing system.

  11. Histomorphometric changes of small intestine in pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Food intake of rats increases during pregnancy. This requires changes in the structure of the small intestine to absorb additional food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological changes in the layers of small intestine in rats during pregnancy. Duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (day 7, 14 and 21 of pregnancy) were collected. Villous height and width and thickness of lamina propria, tunica muscularis entirely and separately (circular and longitudinal layers) were measured on transverse sections. During pregnancy increasing villi length and muscular layer thickness was observed in duodenum. Furthermore, along with the progress of gestation greatest histomorphometric change in small intestine was observed in the jejunum. The reduction in the ileum histomorphologic indices was observed during pregnancy. In conclusion, increase in histomorphologic indices of duodenum and jejunum supplies more capacity of duodenum to digest food intake during pregnancy and decrease in these indices in ileum controls the absorption of excess produced amino acids and glucose by hyperphagia.

  12. Effects of PEGylated porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 therapy in weaning piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ke-ke; Wu, Jie; Xu, Zi-wei

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic effect of polyethylene glycosylated porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 (pGLP-2), a long-acting form of pGLP-2, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. Eighteen 21-day-old weaning piglets were randomly assigned into three groups: control (saline solution), LPS (100 μg/kg LPS), and PEG-pGLP-2 (10 nmol/kg PEG-pGLP-2+100 μg/kg LPS). All treatments were administered intraperitoneally. Compared with the control treatment, LPS treatment significantly decreased (P<0.05) the villus heights of the duodenum and jejunum, as well as the villus height/crypt depth ratio of the jejunum. However, PEG-pGLP-2 therapy reduced these effects (P>0.05). Specifically, PEG-pGLP-2 infusion significantly increased the villus height/crypt depth ratio of the duodenum (P<0.05) compared with LPS treatment. Compared with the control treatment, LPS treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the jejunum. However, PEG-pGLP-2 therapy reduced these effects (P<0.05). Specifically, PEG-pGLP-2 infusion significantly decreased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and TNF-α in the duodenum and jejunum, IL-10 in the duodenum, and IFN-γ in the jejunum compared with the LPS treatment. LPS treatment increased the caspase-3 activity of the ileum mucosal (P<0.05), and this effect was significantly reduced by PEG-pGLP-2 treatment. These results indicate that PEG-pGLP-2 infusion alleviates the severity of intestinal injury in weaning piglets by reducing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and the caspase-3 activity, and increasing the villus height/crypt depth ratio.

  13. Gene expression profiles in the intestine of lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dan; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Di; Ding, Binying; Wu, Tao; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Yulan; Kang, Ping; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Bowel diseases are common in human and animals and are characterized by intestinal dysfunction and injury. A well-established porcine model of intestinal injury can be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin released from the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria. LPS affects the expression of genes associated with intestinal immune response, mucosal growth, energy metabolism, absorption, mucosal barrier function, and antiviral function. Transcriptional analysis of intestinal genes reveals that the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon respond to LPS challenge in a similar pattern. Moreover, the jejunum and ileum exhibit greater responses to LPS challenge than the duodenum and colon with regard to gene expression. Additionally, over 85% of genes are co-expressed along the small and large intestines and there is a clear distinction in gene expression patterns amongst the different intestinal segments in pigs. These findings have important implications for underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for endotoxin-induced intestinal injury and dysfunction.

  14. Effect of diclazuril on intestinal morphology and SIgA expression in chicken infected with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Tian, Er-jie; Zhou, Bian-hua; Wang, Xue-ying; Zhao, Jing; Deng, Wen; Wang, Hong-wei

    2014-11-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), as a vital actor involving in the mucosal immunity, plays a key role in defending a variety of pathogenic infections, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites. Eimeria tenella is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite contacting with the digestive tract mucosa and specially parasitizes chicken caecum, causing a severe form of coccidiosis. Coccidiosis is currently mainly controlled using chemotherapeutic agents. Diclazuril, a classic coccidiostat, was used widely in the poultry industry. Because of the rising problem of drug resistance, it is therefore crucial to understand the pattern of the SIgA expression in the action of diclazuril against E. tenella. In this study, the intestinal morphology in the caecum was analyzed by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and the SIgA expression was examined by immunohistochemical technique. At the same time, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum tissues have also been evaluated. HE staining results showed that E. tenella infection caused severe damage characterized by structural disorder, haemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, serous and fibrinous exudation in chicken caecum and invisible damage in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. With the treatment of diclazuril, the damage in the caecum was alleviated obviously. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the SIgA level in the infected group was increased in the duodenum (p < 0.05), jejunum and ileum, respectively, but decreased (p < 0.01) in the caecum, compared with the control group. Interestingly, the SIgA level was decreased in the duodenum (p < 0.05), jejunum and ileum but increased (p < 0.05) in the caecum in the infected/diclazuril group in comparison to the infected group. The results showed that diclazuril effectively alleviated the damage in the caecum induced by E. tenella and provided a cure for coccidiosis by improving the immune function in chickens.

  15. Influence of motilin on gastrointestinal electrical activity in the conscious piglet.

    PubMed

    Wechsung, E; Houvenaghel, A

    1993-04-01

    In conscious just-weaned piglets, fed ad libitum, with electrodes implanted in the wall of the antrum pylori, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum, infusion of motilin (2 and 20 ng/kg/min for 2h) induced a transient increase in the frequency of the fast oscillations in the antrum followed by a delayed decrease. The polypeptide, however, was unable to induce a premature or extra phase III activity or to change the frequency of the migrating myoelectrical complexes.

  16. Influence of leukotriene D4 on arterial pressure and gastrointestinal electrical activity in the conscious piglet.

    PubMed

    Wechsung, E; De Saedeleer, V; Houvenaghel, A

    1992-05-01

    In 6 conscious weaned piglets with implanted electrodes in the corpus and antrum of the stomach, the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum the influence of intravenous infusion of leukotriene (LT)D4, 0.1 and 1 microgram kgmin for 10 min, on mean arterial pressure and gastrointestinal electrical activity was examined. LTD4 induced a significant increase in arterial pressure. Gastrointestinal electrical activity, however, was little influenced, since only the antrum pylori revealed a transient decrease.

  17. Histopathological changes in small and large intestines during hymenolepidosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kolasa, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is a chronic parasite living in the small intestine of rats, mice and humans. The aim of this study was to determine histopathological changes in the rat intestine during experimental hymenolepidosis. Our results showed that in rats infected with H. diminuta slight changes occurred in the length of the villus and crypts in different parts of the digestive tract. The changes were most distinct in the duodenum and jejunum on the 16 days post H. diminuta infection.

  18. A new tube for simultaneous gastric decompression and jejunal alimentation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R; Nyhus, L M

    1985-04-01

    A new tube has been devised for simultaneous gastric decompression and jejunal enteral alimentation. The tube is inserted by the nasogastric route intraoperatively. What differentiates this from earlier tubes is the addition of two inflatable balloons that facilitate passage of the tip of the tube through the retroperitoneal duodenum and into the proximal jejunum. Such a device is needed because the advantages of enteral alimentation in the postoperative patient include safety, low cost and significant metabolic benefits.

  19. The diagnosis and treatment of Rapunzel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Cao, Feng; Liu, Diangang; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Trichobezoars are hairballs or hair-like fibers formed by chewing and swallowing hair or any other indigestible materials. Trichobezoars usually form in the gastric body and are thus prepyloric. However, trichobezoars may rarely pass through the pylorus into the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and even the colon, in a condition referred to as Rapunzel syndrome. Here, we present a case of a 13-year-old girl with this rare syndrome and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. PMID:27900201

  20. Are muscarinic receptors involved in the effect of serotonin on gastrointestinal electrical activity in the conscious piglet?

    PubMed

    Wechsung, E; Houvenaghel, A

    1994-08-01

    In conscious piglets provided chronically with electrodes in the wall of the antrum pylori, duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the effect of intravenous infusion of 5-HT, 4 micrograms/kg/min for 2 h, with and without pre-treatment with atropine, 0.5 mg/kg, on gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity was studied. In the antrum, fast oscillations were partially inhibited by 5-HT and nearly completely blocked by the atropine/5-HT combination and by atropine alone. In the small intestine 5-HT induced a decrease in MMC interval, an increase in phase III activity in duodenum and jejunum and an acceleration of propagation velocity as measured for the jejunum. These effects were not influenced by atropine. Following atropine, phase II activity in the jejunum was significantly inhibited by 5-HT. The ileum was rather insensitive to 5-HT. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on antral electrical activity is enhanced by atropine, and that 5-HT has a stimulatory effect on small intestinal activity which is not dependent on a muscarinic action.

  1. [The enhancing effect of Angelica dahurica extracts on absorption of baicalin--the active composition of Scutellaria].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-yun; Liang, Xin-li; Wang, Guang-fa; Zhao, Guo-wei; Liao, Zheng-gen; Cao, Yun-chao; Chen, Xu-long; Yang, Ming

    2011-02-01

    To explore the mechanism of the absorption enhancement of Angelica dahurica extract (Ade), the absorption mechanism of baicalin in the Scutcllaria water extraction as well as the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on absorption of baicalin were investigated. In order to determine the main absorption site, everted intestinal sac model was used to study the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on the absorption of baicalin at duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. In situ single pass intestinal perfusion model was performed to study the absorption of various concentrations of baicalin and the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on the absorption of baicalin at the main absorption site. To authenticate the consequence of perfusion by getting the blood from the hepatic portal vein and determine the concentration of the baicalin in the blood. The result showed that baicalin could be absorbed at all of the four intestinal segments with increasing absorption amount per unit as follows: ileum > colon > jejunum > duodenum. The absorption ofbaicalin in the duodenum significantly increased with Angelica dahurica extract, thus, duodenum was chosen to be the studying site. Apparent permeability values (Papp) and absorption rate constant (Ka) of baicalin in the duodenum increased gradually with higher concentrations. When the concentration of baicalin rises to a certain degree, the absorption increase had a saturable process, the absorption of baicalin may be an active transportation. Baicalin may be not a substrate of P-gp as verapamil which had not significantly affected the Papp and Ka of baicalin. The absorption of baicalin in the duodenum significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the two models with Angelica dahurica extract and the concentration of baicalin in the blood from the hepatic portal vein showed that the Angelica dahurica extract can increase the absorption of baicalin.

  2. Effect of weaning on small intestinal structure and function in the piglet.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xianhong; Li, Defa; She, Ruiping

    2002-08-01

    Fifty-four piglets were selected from 12 litters weaned at 17 (Treatment 1), 21 (Treatment 2), 28 (Treatment 3) and 35 (Treatment 4) days old, respectively, to determine the effect of weaning age on small intestinal villus morphology, immunology and histochemistry. From proximal duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and middle ileum, intestinal samples with three replicates (piglets) in each treatment were taken at 18, 22, 28 and 36; 22, 28, 36 and 43; 28, 36, 43, and 50; and 18, 22, 28, 36, 43 and 50 d of age in Treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This was equivalent to 12 h, 3 d, 1 week, 2 week postweaning in Treatment 1; 12 h, 1 week, 2 week, 3 week postweaning in Treatment 2 and 3, and all the same age in Treatment 4 as in Treatment 1, 2, 3, respectively. The results showed that villous height of duodenum and proximal jejunum decreased significantly in Treatment 1 and 3. Crypt depth in the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileum also decreased significantly in Treatment 1. Date had significant effect on villous height of the duodenum, distal jejunum and ileum with the shortest on day 29 and crypt depth of all positions increased with piglet age except the crypt depth in proximal jejunum decreased on day 50. Weaning age and day of age had significant effects on intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) number and goblet cell (GC) number at all positions of small intestinal mucosa in piglets. The number of IEL at all segments of small intestinal mucosa in Treatment 3 increased significantly compared to those in other treatments, but IEL number at all locations of small intestinal mucosa in Treatment 2 decreased significantly compared to those in other treatments. The number of GC in small intestinal mucosa increased significantly in early-weaned (< day 21) piglets. It appears that providing fluid milk replacer for a few days postweaning could dramatically reduce the negative impact of weaning on villous morphology and digestive and absorptive function, especially in

  3. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 1. Intestinal weight and mucosal development.

    PubMed

    Iji, P A; Saki, A; Tivey, D R

    2001-09-01

    1. A study was conducted on the pattern of development of the intestinal mucosa of the Steggles x Ross (F1) strain of broiler chickens reared on a commercial starter diet. The mechanisms underlying the structural changes were also assessed. 2. In relation to body weight, small intestinal weight peaked at 7 d of age and declined subsequently. There was also a reduction in the relative weights of the gizzard and yolk sac with age. The length of the small intestine and its regions increased with age. 3. Crypt depth increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum while villus height increased significantly with age in all three regions of the small intestine. There were also significant changes in apparent villus surface area in the three regions, while interactions between age and intestinal region were significant in the case of crypt depth and villus height. 4. There were significant differences between the age groups in the mucosal protein content of jejunal and ileal homogenates, both tending to peak at 7 d of age. The DNA content of the intestinal mucosa declined with age in the three regions of the small intestine. While there was an increase in RNA content in the duodenum and ileum, there was a reduction in the jejunum. 5. Protein: DNA ratio increased between hatch and 21 d of age in all intestinal regions. Protein: RNA ratio decreased with age in the duodenum and ileum but increased in the jejunum. There were significant increases in RNA: DNA ratio in the duodenum and ileum but no changes were observed in the jejunum. The interactions between age and intestinal region were significant for all biochemical indices assessed. 6. At all ages, enterocyte proliferation at the jejunum was completed and quantifiable within 1 h of administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrDU). Subsequent assessment revealed an increase in crypt column count and number of BrDU-labelled cells. The rate of cell migration increased with age while there was a decline in the distance

  4. Electrophysiological study of the intestinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, H.; Osa, T.; Toida, N.

    1967-01-01

    The membrane properties of single cells of intestinal smooth muscle of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and rectum of guinea-pig have been studied. 1. The membrane potentials of longitudinal muscles of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and rectum varied from 54 to 56 mV and those of circular muscles of jejunum, ileum, caecum and rectum varied from 57 to 60 mV. The ablated longitudinal muscle had a slightly lower value (50 mV) than the intact one. 2. The longitudinal muscle generated spontaneous discharges but these were rare in the circular muscles of the intestine except for the caecum. Overshoot potentials could be observed in all regions of the intestine. The maximum rate of rise of the spontaneously discharging longitudinal muscles varied from 11 to 18 V/sec. 3. Not all of the slow potential changes (but at least some) were generated by the nervous elements distributed between the muscle layers and in them. 4. The conduction velocities measured from the longitudinal muscles of jejunum and rectum in the presence of tetrodotoxin were 2·1 cm/sec and 4·0 cm/sec respectively. 5. Chronaxies of the longitudinal muscles of jejunum and rectum were 2-5 msec and 5-18 msec respectively. 6. Intracellular stimulation of the single cells of the duodenum and caecum could trigger a spike, similar to that observed in the taenia coli. The spikes were mostly graded ones; a spike of full size was rarely elicited. When the spikes were triggered, the after-hyperpolarization appeared consistently presumably caused by the increased potassium conductance. 7. The effective membrane resistance and the time constant were measured for the longitudinal muscles of the jejunum and rectum. When spikes were generated by intracellular stimulation the observed values were 40-50 MΩ and 3-5 msec in both tissues. These values were the same as those observed in the taenia coli. 8. When the time constant of the membrane was measured by the extracellular polarizing method, the longitudinal muscles

  5. Histomorphology and small intestinal sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 gene expression in piglets fed phytic acid and phytase-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Adeola, O; Nyachoti, C M

    2011-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary phytic acid (PA) and phytase supplementation on small intestinal histomorphology and Na-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) gene expression in piglets. Twenty-four piglets with an average initial BW of 7.60 ± 0.73 kg were randomly assigned to 3 experimental diets, to give 8 piglets per diet. The diets were a casein-cornstarch-based diet that was supplemented with 0 or 2% PA, or 2% PA (as Na phytate) plus an Escherichia coli-derived phytase at 500 phytase units/kg. The basal diet was formulated to meet the 1998 NRC energy, digestible AA, mineral, and vitamin requirements for piglets. After 10 d of feeding, the piglets were killed to determine small intestinal histomorphology and small intestinal SGLT1 gene expression. Phytic acid supplementation did not affect (P > 0.1) villus height (VH) and the VH-to-crypt depth (CD) ratio, but did decrease (P < 0.05) CD in the jejunum. Phytase supplementation did not affect (P > 0.1) VH, CD, and the VH-to-CD ratio. Phytic acid supplementation reduced SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum by 1.1-, 5.4-, and 2.4-fold, respectively. Phytase supplementation increased SGLT1 gene expression in the jejunum by 2.6-fold, but reduced SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum and ileum by 2.0- and 4.0-fold, respectively. In conclusion, PA reduced CD in the jejunum and SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas phytase supplementation increased the expression of SGLT1 in the jejunum. The reduced SGLT1 gene expression by PA implies that PA reduces nutrient utilization in pigs partly through reduced expression of SGLT1, which is involved in glucose and Na absorption. The increased expression of SGLT1 in the jejunum by phytase supplementation implies that phytase alleviated the negative effects of PA partly through increased expression of SGLT1.

  6. A case of primary jejunal cancer diagnosed by preoperative small intestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Kazuhito; Machimura, Takao; Wasada, Mitsuru; Takayasu, Hiroyuki; Ogoshi, Kyoji; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2008-04-20

    The patient was a 37-year-old female. She was brought to our hospital by ambulance with nausea and vomiting. Abdominal ultra sound and abdominal enhanced CT scan showed a tumor in left side of the abdominal aorta 6 cm in size, and it showed an expanded stomach and duodenum. Upper gastrointestinal series revealed an apple core sign in upper jejunum near the Treitz' ligament. Small intestinal endoscopy (XSIF-240 endoscope, Olympus Inc.) revealed stenosis related to an epithelially protruding lesion with an irregular surface in the jejunum on the anal side of the horizontal duodenal peduncle. Biopsy suggested a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Scintigraphy showed hot spot in left middle abdomen. Under a diagnosis of primary jejunum cancer, Partial resection of the jejunum and partial resection of the transverse colon was performed. Histopathologically, the tumor was well differentiated adenocarcinoma exposed serosal surface. Postoperatively, the stage was evaluated as III (T3, N1, M0). Preoperative diagnosis to use small intestinal endoscopy was effectiveness. We report a patient with primary jejunum cancer in whom a definitive diagnosis was made before surgery.

  7. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol show in vivo synergism on jejunum enterocytes apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cheat, Sophal; Pinton, Philippe; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Cognie, Juliette; Vilariño, Maria; Callu, Patrick; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for human and animal gut health, following exposure through contaminated food and feed. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of DON and NIV, alone or associated, on the intestinal pig mucosa. Jejunal loops were used for testing DON and NIV individually and in combination (1:1) after a single exposure, for 24 h. For repeated exposure, piglets received a natural contaminated feed, with DON or with DON + NIV for 28 days. Histological investigations, proliferation and apoptosis assessments were conducted. Both experiments were concordant for the total-cell proliferation decreased at the villus tips after DON or DON + NIV at 10 μM acutely, or repeatedly, by 30-35% and 20-25%, respectively. In loops model, apoptotic enterocytes at villus tips increased dose-dependently after DON, NIV alone or DON + NIV in combination. The combination in loops at 10 μM showed higher effects on proliferation and apoptosis than DON alone, and synergism was shown for villus apoptotic enterocyte. These results are to be considered for NIV consumer risk assessment. Our results demonstrate the in vivo disruption of the intestinal balance proliferation/apoptosis explaining, at least partly, the disruption of intestinal barrier by these mycotoxins.

  8. Effects of long chain fatty acids on solute absorption: perfusion studies in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, H V; Thomas, P J; Phillips, S F

    1977-01-01

    Perfusion studies were performed in healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that net fluid secretion induced by fatty acids is accompanied by parallel reduction in solute transport. Ricinoleic acid provoked a marked net secretion of fluid and concomitantly inhibited the absorption of all solutes tested; these included glucose, xylose, L-leucine, L-lysine, Folic acid, and 2-mono-olein. Oleic acid also reduced net fluid and solute transport, but was less potent in reducing solute absorption than was ricinoleic acid. When fluid secretion was induced osmotically with mannitol, glucose and xylose absorption was not affected. The mechanism for this generalised effect of fatty acids on solute absorption is uncertain, possibly nonspecific, and might be related to mucosal damage and altered mucosal permeability induced by these agents. PMID:590838

  9. The chicken alimentary tract demarcation of the jejunum and ileum junction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken alimentary tract differs in several ways from other domestic food production animals. Chickens are considered monogastric omnivores although the stomach consists of two adjacent segments; the chemical proventriculus followed by the mechanical ventriculus (gizzard). The names used for the...

  10. A stubborn anemia caused by ectopic pancreas bleeding in the jejunum revealed by capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Yang, Xiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is extremely rare in clinical setting. Meanwhile, a stubborn anemia without obvious dark bloody stool due to ectopic pancreas diagnosed by capsule endoscopy has not been reported. We reported a case of an ectopic pancreas inducing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a 70-year-old woman presenting as stubborn anemia, which was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy. The patient recovered well after resection the lesion. Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is extremely difficult with conventional techniques. Endoscopists should pay more attention to the ectopic pancreas as a rare differential consideration for occult intestinal bleeding. PMID:26682148

  11. Differential expression of genes in the jejunum of steers with feed efficiency phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small intestine is an important site of digestion and absorption of nutrients in cattle, and has the potential to significantly impact feed efficiency. We hypothesized that the differences in feed efficiency phenotypes of beef cattle can be partially explained by the differences in gene expressi...

  12. The effect of hyperthermia on the radiation response of crypt cells in mouse jejunum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of hyperthermia and/or gamma-radiation on the survival of intestinal crypt cells was studied in BDF sub 1 mice using a microcolony assay. Hyperthermia treatments, which in themselves caused no detectable cell lethality, inhibited the capacity of crypt cells to repair sublethal radiation damage. In addition, heat applied either before or after single radiation exposures potentiated lethal damage to crypt cells; the degree of enhancement was dependent on the time interval between treatments. At the levels of heating employed, DNA synthesis in the intestinal epithelium was significantly reduced immediately following exposure, but returned rapidly to normal levels. No further disturbances in cellular kinetics were observed for up to 10 days after heating.

  13. Lipid peroxidation and electrogenic ion transport in the jejunum of the vitamin E deficient rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, K J; Goss-Sampson, M A; Muller, D P; Milla, P J

    1994-01-01

    Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species in children with depleted antioxidant defences have been implicated in a cycle of malnutrition, malabsorption, and infection leading to protracted diarrhoea. A rat model of chronic vitamin E deficiency has been used to study the effects of antioxidant depletion on jejunal structure and function in vitro. Basal intestinal short circuit current (Isc), a measure of net electrogenic ion movement across the intestinal epithelium, was greater in chronically vitamin E deficient jejuna than controls, as was the electrogenic secretory response to aminophylline and Escherichia coli STa but not to bethanechol. The galactose stimulated current was also greater in vitamin E deficient jejuna. Indices of lipid peroxidation (concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and malondialdehyde) were increased in the vitamin E deficient small bowel. Small intestinal brush border membranes from vitamin E deficient animals displayed changes in both static and dynamic components of membrane fluidity measured by steady state fluorescence polarography. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that oxidative stress in subjects with compromised antioxidant defences results in small intestinal hypersecretion, which could predispose to or perpetuate protracted diarrhoea. Images Figure 5 PMID:8307446

  14. Concurrent nephrosplenic entrapment and acquired inguinal herniation of the jejunum in a Standardbred stallion

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jennifer J.; MacMillan, Kathleen; Uehlinger, Fabienne D.; Riley, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    A stallion presenting for surgical correction of an acquired inguinal hernia was also diagnosed with a nephrosplenic entrapment (NSE) intraoperatively. Surgical intervention resulted in a successful outcome. To date, these conditions have not been reported to occur simultaneously. PMID:21629423

  15. Chlorate Concentration in the Jejunum and Cecum in Growing Pigs when Supplemented in Drinking Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research has demonstrated that oral administration of chlorate and nitrate results in reduced risk and / or concentration of Salmonella enterica fecal shedding of infected pigs, poultry and ruminants. The effect of chlorate is concentration dependent in vitro, but the concentrations of chlorat...

  16. Microbial community profiles of the jejunum from steers differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research regarding the association between the microbiome and host feed efficiency in cattle has primarily focused on the rumen. However, the various microbial populations within the gastrointestinal tract as a whole are critical to the overall well-being of the host and need to be examined when de...

  17. Nitric oxide pathways in circular muscle of the rat jejunum before and after small bowel transplantation.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, B M; Duenes, J A; Ohtani, N; Shibata, C; Farrugia, G; Anding, W J; Sarr, M G

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that nitric oxide synthase is upregulated after small bowel transplantation which may have implications in enteric dysfunction after small bowel transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory function after small bowel transplantation in rat jejunal circular muscle. The following four groups of rats (n = >/=8 rats per group) were studied: Neurally intact control animals; 1 week after anesthesia and sham celiotomy, and either 1 week or 8 weeks after isogeneic, orthotopic small bowel transplantation. Full-thickness jejunal circular muscle strips were evaluated under isometric conditions for spontaneous contractile activity, response to electrical field stimulation, and effects of exogenous nitric oxide and nitric oxide antagonists. Spontaneous activity did not differ among groups. Electrical field stimulation inhibited activity similarly in all groups. Exogenous nitric oxide, NG-monomethyl L-arginine monoacetate salt (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and methylene blue (cGMP antagonist) had no effect on spontaneous activity. Neither nitric oxide antagonist altered the inhibitory response to neural excitation by electrical field stimulation in any group. Nitric oxide, a known inhibitory neurotransmitter in other gut smooth muscle, has no apparent role in rat jejunal circular muscle before or after small bowel transplantation.

  18. pH-dependent association of carbonic anhydrase (CA) with gastric light microsomal membranes isolated from bovine abomasum. Partial characterization of membrane-associated activity.

    PubMed

    López Mañanes, A A; Daleo, G R; Vega, F V

    1993-05-01

    1. The effect of pH on the association of carbonic anhydrase (CA) with bovine gastric light microsomal membranes (LMMs) was investigated (a) by washing LMMs containing CA activity with solutions of different pHs; (b) by studying the adsorption at various pHs of soluble bovine erythrocyte CA to washed gastric LMMs. In both cases, the association of CA with gastric LMMs was dependent on pH, being lower at neutral or alkaline pH. 2. The amount of soluble CA associated with gastric LMMs at pHs 8.0 and 9.0 was reduced when 140 mM K+/10 mM Na+ was added to the incubation medium. 3. Two sources of CA activity in bovine gastric LMMs were assumed: a loosely- and a firmly-membrane-associated activity. Both CA activities were dose-dependently inhibited by acetazolamide (I50: 3.6 x 10(-9) and 8.4 x 10(-9) M, respectively) and by chloride, acetate, iodide, bromide and nitrate at 100 mM. Firmly-membrane-associated activity appeared to be less sensitive to inhibition by acetazolamide, chloride and iodide. 4. Both activities exhibited different behavior and stability following treatment with alkaline Triton X-100. 5. The possible importance of a membrane-associated CA activity in gastric LMMs related to gastric acid secretion is discussed.

  19. Effects of energy and protein restriction, followed by nutritional recovery on morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned kids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H; He, Z X; Zhang, Q L; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Wang, M; Yan, Q X

    2013-09-01

    Effects of energy, protein, or both energy and protein restriction on gastrointestinal morphological development were investigated in 60 Liuyang Black kids, which were sourced from local farms and weaned at 28 d of age. Weaned kids were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 dietary treatments (15 kids per treatment), which consisted of adequate nutrient supply (CON), energy restriction (ER), protein restriction (PR), or energy and protein restriction (EPR). The entire experiment included adaptation period (0 to 6 d), nutritional restriction period (7 to 48 d), and recovery period (49 to 111 d). Three kids from each group were killed at d 48 and 111, and the rumen, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were harvested. On d 48 (end of nutritional restriction), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.005), jejunum (P = 0.003), and ileum (P = 0.003), and weights of the rumen (P = 0.004), duodenum (P = 0.006), jejunum (P = 0.006), and ileum (P = 0.004) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were less than those of kids in CON. Compared with CON, PR decreased papillae width (P = 0.03) and surface area (P = 0.05) of the rumen epithelium, villus surface area (P = 0.05), and N concentration (P = 0.02) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. Compared with CON, EPR decreased papillae height (P = 0.001), width (P = 0.001), and surface area (P = 0.003), N concentration (P = 0.01), and the ratio of N to DNA (P = 0.03) of the rumen epithelium. Compared with CON, EPR also decreased villus height (P = 0.01), width (P = 0.006), and surface area (P = 0.006), N concentration (P < 0.001), and the ratio of N to DNA (P < 0.001) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. On d 111 (end of nutritional recovery), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P = 0.001), and ileum (P = 0.001), weights of the rumen (P < 0.001), duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P < 0.001), and ileum (P < 0.001) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were still less than those of kids in CON; N concentrations of rumen epithelium of kids in PR (P = 0.01) and EPR (P = 0.001), and

  20. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) During Torpor.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Shannon N; Katzenback, Barbara A; Pifferi, Fabien; Perret, Martine; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-04-01

    During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) of Madagascar experiences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The protein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in the duodenum and jejunum during torpor as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF), and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) but an increase in MIP-1α in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others). Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a suppression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine.

  1. A stereological evaluation of secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide-containing mucosal cells of the perinatal small intestine of the pig.

    PubMed

    Van Ginneken, C; Weyns, A

    2004-10-01

    Stereological methods were used to quantify secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-immunoreactivity (GIP-IR) in paraffin sections of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of fetal and neonatal piglets. In addition, sections were processed for GLP-1-immunohistochemistry. The volume density of the tunica mucosa increased after birth, giving rise to a decreased volume density of the tela submucosa and tunica muscularis. Generally known region-specific morphological distinctions were reflected in differing volume densities of the various layers. The highest volume density of GIP-IR epithelial cells was observed in the jejunum of the neonate. In contrast, the volume density of secretin-IR epithelial cells was highest in the duodenum of both fetal and neonatal piglets. The volume occupied by GIP-IR and secretin-IR epithelial cells increased in the jejunum after birth. Additionally, ileal secretin-IR epithelial cells were more numerous in the neonatal piglet. In conclusion, the quantitative and qualitative presence of GIP-IR and secretin-IR epithelial cells agree with earlier reports of their presence and co-localization between GIP-IR and GLP-1-IR, in the pig small intestine. Furthermore, the differences suggest that age- and region-related functional demands are temporally and probably causally related with the morphological diversification of the intestine and its endocrine cells.

  2. Pathological changes in cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron daubneyi adult flukes.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio; González-Lanza, M Camino; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Fernández, Miguel; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Ferreras, M Carmen

    2015-04-30

    Local host response and parasite distribution were studied in the forestomachs, abomasum, duodenum and regional lymph nodes of cattle suffering from bovine paramphistomosis. The parasites were found attached, by its ventral sucker, to small conical papillae of the rumen and reticulum. Affected papillae, showed morphological changes denoted by very narrow stalks and expanded heads. Histologically, these changes were characterized by epithelial acanthosis-hyperkeratosis of the epithelium. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was often related with the epithelial changes, although it was also found in the duodenal mucosa and submucosa. These cells were arranged as aggregates or follicles but sparse infiltration of eosinophils, globule leukocytes, mast cells or macrophages was also observed in the lamina propria. Tissue damage and inflammatory reaction were more severe in the ruminal atrium, where the largest number of flukes and affected papillae were observed. In contrast, lesions in the ruminal dorsal sac were absent or mild. Statistical correlation between lesion severity and parasite burden was confirmed.

  3. Intestinal permeability of forskolin by in situ single pass perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Jun; Jiang, Dong-bo; Tian, Lu-Lu; Yin, Jia-Jun; Huang, Jian-Ming; Weng, Wei-Yu

    2012-05-01

    The intestinal permeability of forskolin was investigated using a single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in rats. SPIP was performed in different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) with three concentrations of forskolin (11.90, 29.75, and 59.90 µg/mL). The investigations of adsorption and stability were performed to ensure that the disappearance of forskolin from the perfusate was due to intestinal absorption. The results of the SPIP study indicated that forskolin could be absorbed in all segments of the intestine. The effective permeability (P (eff)) of forskolin was in the range of drugs with high intestinal permeability. The P (eff) was highest in the duodenum as compared to other intestinal segments. The decreases of P (eff) in the duodenum and ileum at the highest forskolin concentration suggested a saturable transport process. The addition of verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, significantly enhanced the permeability of forskolin across the rat jejunum. The absorbed fraction of dissolved forskolin after oral administration in humans was estimated to be 100 % calculated from rat P (eff). In conclusion, dissolved forskolin can be absorbed readily in the intestine. The low aqueous solubility of forskolin might be a crucial factor for its poor oral bioavailability.

  4. Pathological lesions in European bison (Bison bonasus) with infestation by Ashworthius sidemi (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Osińska, B; Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Lachowicz, J

    2010-01-01

    Asworthius sidemi Schulz, 1933 is a blood sucking gastrointestinal nematode, primarily typical for Asiatic deer. It was found for the first time in Poland in European bison in 1997. To estimate the level of invasion of A. sidemi and histopathological changes connected with the presence of the parasite in the years 2004-2007 parasitological and histopathological examinations of 54 European bison from Białowieza Forest were carried out. Parasitological examination was carried out by the sedimentation method and A. sidemi were diagnosed under a binocular microscope. Samples for histological examination were collected from the abomasum and duodenum walls as well as from regional lymph nodes. Tissue samples were then fixed with 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, cut in to 5 microm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Parasitological examinations showed the presence of fourth stage larvae and juvenile forms of A. sidemi. The maximal intensity of invasion rose systematically from 4470 A. sidemi nematodes in 2004/2005 to 44310 in 2006/2007. Histopathological examinations showed infiltrations of inflammatory cells in the walls of abomasa and duodena at various levels of intensity (mainly lymphoid cells and eosinophils), hyperemiae, oedemae and lesions of mucosa and proliferation of lymphatic follicles. In individual cases of dysplasia of epithelial cells, atrophy or hyperplasia of glands and the presence of parasites in the lumen or walls of the abomasum/duodenum were observed. In one case, parasitic nodules were found. In regional lymph nodes proliferation of lymphatic follicles, presence of eosinophils and desolation of reproduction centers were observed. Intensification of histopathological changes was connected to a considerable degree with the developmental stage of A. sidemi as shown by parasitological examination.

  5. [A case of hepatic artery aneurysm that had formed asymptomatically and penetrated into the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Hatogai, Ken; Nakazawa, Atsushi; Takita, Maiko; Kishino, Ryouhei; Seki, Eri; Iwasaki, Eisuke; Izumiya, Motoko; Maeda, Norio; Motegi, Katsuhiko; Mukai, Kiyoshi; Tsukada, Nobuhiro

    2012-02-01

    A 41-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with gastrointestinal bleeding. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal protrusion with erosion in the duodenal bulb which was thought to be the bleeding source. Dynamic CT scan, ultrasonography and angiography of the abdomen revealed a hepatic artery aneurysm and a dilated celiac artery that dissected from its origin. Although we considered percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization with metallic coils, we chose surgical resection and vascular reconstruction to prevent hepatic ischemia resulting from interruption of collateral circulation. On the 8(th) day, hepatic artery aneurysmectomy and revascularization with a great saphenous vein was carried out without any severe complication. The pathological specimen demonstrated segmental arterial mediolysis.

  6. Microgastrinomas of the duodenum. A cause of failed operations for the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, N W; Vinik, A I; Eckhauser, F E

    1989-01-01

    Gastrinomas are now being detected at an earlier stage than was formerly the case. Furthermore, with the ability to control acid secretion, emphasis has been placed on identifying gastrinoma patients who are potentially curable by tumor resection rather than by palliative gastrectomy. Despites estimates suggesting that 20-40% of sporadic gastrinoma patients can be successfully resected for cure, as many as 40% of such patients have occult tumors that elude detection. In an effort to better localize gastrinomas, we have used percutaneous transhepatic venous (THVS) gastrin sampling over the past 10 years. From 1978 to 1988, THVS was used in 46 patients in whom there was no other evidence of metastatic gastrinoma by conventional studies. Gastrinomas were found at operation in all but one patient. The purpose of this report is to emphasize that occult tumors are most often found in the duodenal wall, and frequently they may be no greater than 2 mm in diameter. Five recent cases illustrate that these small tumors or microgastrinomas may be the sole source of hypergastrinemia and can be cured by local excision. These recent cases emphasize that microgastrinomas are not usually palpable through the duodenal wall. They may be detected only after duodenotomy and meticulous evaluation of the mucosa by eversion and direct palpation. Duodenotomy and intraluminal exploration should be considered an essential component of the operation for patients with extrapancreatic gastrinomas. Images Figs. 1A and B. Figs. 2A-C. Figs. 2A-C. Fig. 3. Figs. 4A-C. Figs. 4A-C. Figs. 5A-C. Figs. 5A-C. Figs. 6A and B. PMID:2930285

  7. Chronomics reveal and quantify circadian rhythmic melatonin in duodenum of rats

    PubMed Central

    Stebelova, K.; Zeman, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Bubenik, G.; Jozsa, R.; Hardeland, R.; Poeggeler, B.; Huether, G.; Olah, A.; Nagy, G.; Csernus, V.; Kazsaki, J.; Pan, W.; Otsuka, K.; Bakken, E. E.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    A circadian rhythm is documented in duodenal melatonin in rats, peaking 16.8 hours after light onset. This component is more readily detected after logl0-transformation of the data. It differs between male and female rats, females having a larger circadian amplitude and an earlier acrophase. The circadian rhythm in duodenal melatonin is also found to lead that of pineal melatonin. The results are qualified by the presence at the start of mapping of the second extremum of a double magnetic storm. PMID:16275496

  8. Imaging and modelling of digestion in the stomach and the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K

    2006-03-01

    Gastroduodenal physiology is traditionally understood in terms of motor-secretory functions and their electrical, neural and hormonal controls. In contrast, the fluid-mechanical functions that retain and disperse particles, expose substrate to enzymes, or replenish the epithelial boundary with nutrients are little studied. Current ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging allows to visualize processes critical to digestion like mixing, dilution, swelling, dispersion and elution. Methodological advances in fluid mechanics allow to numerically analyse the forces promoting digestion. Pressure and flow fields, the shear stresses dispersing particles or the effectiveness of bolus mixing can be computed using information on boundary movements and on the luminal contents. These technological advances promise many additional insights into the mechanical processes that promote digestion and absorption.

  9. Ileal conduit for reconstruction of the duodenum following right hemicolectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignant duodenocolic fistula.

    PubMed

    Ohri, A K; Ohri, S K

    1993-06-01

    We describe a case of malignant duodenocolic fistula in which after a radical resection of right hemicolectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy, the duodenal defect was reconstructed using a conduit of transposed ileum. This technique, not previously described, offers an alternative to 'duodenal patching', which allows only limited duodenal resection, or gastroenterostomy with its attendant side-effects such as dumping syndrome.

  10. Inflammatory fibroid polyp in the duodenum of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, Yusuke; Imaoka, Masako; Sayama, Ayako; Jindo, Toshimasa; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A 32-month-old male common marmoset had a firm and white-colored mass in the duodenal wall. The cut surface was smooth and grayish white in color. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferation of spindle cells with an oval to spindle-shaped nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a loose myxoid or fibrotic background. Most of the lesion displayed no specific growth pattern whereas some of the cells concentrated around the vessels and created an onion-bulb structure. Additionally, marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, mainly eosinophils, was observed throughout the lesion. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, fascin, and cyclin D1, and negative for S-100, factor VIII-related antigen, and c-kit. These histological and immunohistochemical features did not meet any differential diagnoses such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma, smooth muscle tumor, schwannoma, and hemangiosarcoma. Collectively, the authors diagnosed the mass as a lesion that corresponded to an inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) in humans. IFP is defined as a mesenchymal proliferation composed of spindle stromal cells, small blood vessels, and inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, and is currently classified as a nonneoplastic lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous IFP in nonhuman primates.

  11. [Features of the structure of the regional lymph nodes of the duodenum in monkeys].

    PubMed

    Rusina, A K

    1980-05-01

    By means of morphometric methods, duodenal regional lymph nodes were studied in rhesus and lapunder macaques. It was demonstrated that in monkeys the connective tissue framework, cortical plateau, medullary substance, cortical substance, sinuses and follicles are expressed differently. Cellular elements in the lymph nodes analysed in the monkeys subjected to a comparative investigation demonstrated their uneven distribution in the same structural components. Small lymphocytes were predominate cellular elements. There were rather essential differences in the number of plasmic cells, mitotically dividing cells, acidophilic granulocytes, mast cells and macrophages. Certain species differences were demonstrated to exist both in structure and cell composition of the lymph nodes that seemed to depend on some local peculiarities of immunogenic reactions.

  12. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    SciTech Connect

    Takito, J.; Shinki, T.; Sasaki, T.; Suda, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 alpha,25(OH)2D3). The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane.

  13. HCO3- secretion in rat duodenum after treatment with omeprazole and ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Knutson, L; Flemström, G; Gustavsson, S; Jedstedt, G; Lönnerholm, G

    1987-01-01

    The bicarbonate secretion by the duodenal mucosa, which is stimulated by luminal acid, is very probably important in mucosal protection against the acid. It was of interest to investigate whether long-term deprivation of the mucosa of this acid stimulus affected the alkali secretion. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 4-6 weeks with either omeprazole, 14 mg/kg body weight twice daily, or ranitidine, 300 mg/kg twice daily, by means of gastric intubation. The rate of bicarbonate secretion by the duodenal mucosa was determined in situ by continuous titration. Neither the basal secretion nor the increase in secretion in response to stimulation by prostaglandin E2 or luminal acid (pH 2.0 for 5 or 60 min) differed in treated animals from that in controls that had received placebo (p greater than 0.05). Thus, 4-6 weeks of treatment with omeprazole or ranitidine did not reduce duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat, nor did these drugs diminish the ability of this mucosa to respond to prolonged luminal acidification or luminally administered prostaglandin E2.

  14. Obstruction of the duodenum by a preduodenal portal vein in situs inversus.

    PubMed

    Duncan, N D; Trotman, H; Seepersaud, M; Dundas, S E; Thame, M; Antoine, M

    2007-06-01

    Mirror image transposition of abdominal and thoracic viscera is termed situs inversus. Duodenal obstruction in situs inversus is rare. A preduodenal portal vein, though not uncommon in situs inversus, rarely causes duodenal obstruction. Where obstruction by a preduodenal portal vein is diagnosed, a duodeno-duodenostomy is the recommended treatment. A duodenal diaphragm and other more common causes of duodenal obstruction should also be excluded in these patients.

  15. Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Involving the Duodenum Embolized with Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Luppi, Giacomo; Faiella, Eliodoro; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Giurazza, Francesco; Borzomati, Domenico; Coppola, Roberto; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno

    2012-08-15

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is a rare condition. Most patients are asymptomatic or alternatively may present with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Traditionally, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice; however, alternative approaches, such as transcatheter embolization (TAE), may be proposed. We report a case of a 48-year-old man with a pancreatic head AVM, presenting with upper abdominal pain and slight anemia. The patient refused surgery and underwent TAE by means of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). At 3 months follow-up, the patient was able to eat regularly, with no residual pain and no signs of anemia.

  16. Activation of vagal afferents in the rat duodenum by protein digests requires PepT1.

    PubMed

    Darcel, N P; Liou, A P; Tomé, D; Raybould, H E

    2005-06-01

    Intestinal infusion of protein digests activates a vago-vagal reflex inhibition of gastric motility. Protein digests release cholecystokinin (CCK) from enteroendocrine cells; however, the precise cellular mechanisms leading to vagal afferent activation is unclear. The hypothesis that the oligopeptide transporter PepT1 plays a major role in the initiation of this vago-vagal reflex was tested by recording activation of duodenal vagal afferent activity and inhibition of gastric motility in response to protein hydrolysates in the presence of 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid (4-AMBA), a competitive inhibitor of PepT1, or 4-aminophenylacetic acid (4-APAA), an inactive 4-AMBA analog. Duodenal infusion of the protein hydrolysate increased vagal afferent discharge and inhibited gastric motility; these responses were abolished by concomitant infusion of 4-AMBA, but not 4-APAA. Duodenal infusion with Cefaclor, a substrate of PepT1, increased duodenal vagal afferent activity; Cefaclor and protein hydrolysates selectively activated CCK-responsive vagal afferents. This study demonstrates that products of protein digestion increase spontaneous activity of CCK-sensitive duodenal vagal afferents via a mechanism involving the oligopeptide transporter PepT1.

  17. Ink dispersion by sequential contractions in isolated segments of guinea pig ileum and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K S; Clark, E

    2008-12-01

    Conventional preparations that record the effect of contractions on intestinal flow assess primarily net propulsion and not flow events that like mixing are essential for digestion and absorption. Here we recorded the flow of an ink bolus in response to peristaltic contractions of segments of guinea pig intestine. It took three to four contraction/relaxation cycles to disperse a tiny and compact ink bolus throughout the intestinal segment. This was achieved by stretching, propulsion and separation of the bolus into portions during the contraction phase, and return and confluence of the bolus portions during the relaxation phase. As the contraction advanced through the intestinal segment, it generated rapid retrograde flow through its narrow lumen; eddies (flow vortices) formed at upstream shoulder of the contracting segment and dispersed the ink radially. The contraction cleared much of the fluid from the intestinal segment; during the subsequent relaxation, fluid returned into the segment, and carried portions of the ink upstream into the segment where it coalesced with residual portions. The current video observations of luminal flow confirm earlier predictions on luminal flow derived from computations. These flow events are likely an important mechanism through which intestinal contractions promote digestion and absorption.

  18. Iron Malabsorption in a Patient With Large Cell Lymphoma Involving the Duodenum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    to a gluten - free diet (2) after an initial jejunal iron deficiency and lymphomatous involvement of the mucosal biopsy consistent with celiac disease... free diet (8. 9). To our knowledge. malab- small intestine. Both upper gastrointestinal series with sorption of iron due to lymphomatous involvement of... free diet (8. 9) or The patient with iron deficiency from menses had a prednisone (21). Steatorrhea may be a manifestation of dramatic response to oral

  19. Disorders of interstitial cells of Cajal in a neonate with segmental dilatation of the intestine.

    PubMed

    Okada, Tadao; Sasaki, Fumiaki; Honda, Shohei; Cho, Kazutosi; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Kubota, Kanako C; Todo, Satoru

    2010-06-01

    Localized myopathy of the muscular layers may be an important factor contributing to segmental dilatation of the intestine (SDI). Only one report has described SDI of the jejunum in a neonate showing no abnormality of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). The present report describes the very rare case of a neonatal girl with segmental dilatation of the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum with irregular arrangements of Auerbach's plexus and ICC and the successful surgical treatment of SDI. We review the literature on this type of relationship between abnormality of ICC and SDI and discuss the clinical features of this complication. Furthermore, the possible neuropathic cause of SDI complicated with disorders of ICC was explored in this report.

  20. Rapunzel syndrome resulting in gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Parakh, J S; McAvoy, A; Corless, D J

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female patient with no past medical history who presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and vomiting on the background of a long history of ingesting hair (trichophagia). Computed tomography revealed pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in keeping with visceral perforation. In addition, a large hair bolus was seen extending in contiguity from the stomach to the jejunum. A laparotomy was performed, revealing an anterior gastric perforation secondary to a 120cm long trichobezoar, which had formed a cast of the entire stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. The bezoar was removed and an omental patch repair to the anterior ulcer was performed. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery and was discharged home with psychiatric follow-up review.

  1. Neurogenic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat.

    PubMed

    Sann, H; Dux, M; Schemann, M; Jancsó, G

    1996-11-29

    In contrast to the skin and some visceral organs the capability of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves of evoking an inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract is equivocal. We have therefore investigated the neurogenic plasma extravasation induced by local application of capsaicin to the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon of the rat. Permeable vessels were visualised histologically with the vascular labelling technique using colloidal silver. In the smooth muscle layer of the small intestine, capsaicin elicited a 3-fold increase in the density of labelled blood vessels (diameter, 7-35 microns). Significant capsaicin-evoked plasma extravasation was also observed in the submucosa of the jejunum and ileum, and in the basal layer of the jejunal mucosa. Capsaicin-induced extravasation was not noted in the stomach and the colon. The data suggest the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferents in inflammatory processes in the rat small intestine.

  2. Kinetics of changes in the crypts of the jejunal mucosa of dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sunter, J. P.; Appleton, D. R.; Wright, N. A.; Watson, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    When symmetrical 1,2 dimethylhydrazine was administered to rats by weekly s.c. injection, 37% of the animals had developed small intestinal carcinomas after 21-27 weeks. These lesions were largely localized to duodenum and upper jejunum. At the same time there was a diffuse crypt hyperplasia in the jejunum which affected all the treated animals, not just those with neoplasms. This marked hyperplasia was preceded by a modest sustained crypt elongation which was seen soon after DMH injections began. In these hyperplastic jejunal crypts the absolute size of the proliferative compartment was increased, but the growth fraction calculated from labelling studies appeared to fall, probably by reduction in relative size of the proliferating population within the proliferative compartment. No convincing alteration in actual cell-cycle time was observed in the abnormal crypts. There was a slight (25%) increase in cell-production rate in the abnormal crypts. Images Fig. 1 PMID:656298

  3. Peptides reproducibly released by in vivo digestion of beef meat and trout flesh in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bauchart, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Chambon, Christophe; Mirand, Philippe Patureau; Reynès, Christelle; Buffière, Caroline; Rémond, Didier

    2007-12-01

    Characterisation and identification of peptides (800 to 5000 Da) generated by intestinal digestion of fish or meat were performed using MS analyses (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray-ionisation ion trap MS/MS). Four pigs fitted with cannulas at the duodenum and jejunum received a meal exclusively made of cooked Pectoralis profundus beef meat or cooked trout fillets. A protein-free meal, made of free amino acids, starch and fat, was used to identify peptides of endogenous origin. Peptides reproducibly detected in digesta (i.e. from at least three pigs) were evidenced predominantly in the first 3 h after the meal. In the duodenum, most of the fish- and meat-derived peptides were characteristic of a peptic digestion. In the jejunum, the majority of peptides appeared to result from digestion by chymotrypsin and trypsin. Despite slight differences in gastric emptying kinetics and overall peptide production, possibly in relation to food structure and texture, six and four similar peptides were released after ingestion of fish or meat in the duodenum and jejunum. A total of twenty-six different peptides were identified in digesta. All were fragments of major structural (actin, myosin) or sarcoplasmic (creatine kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and myoglobin) muscle proteins. Peptides were short ( < 2000 Da) and particularly rich in proline residues. Nineteen of them contained bioactive sequences corresponding mainly to an antihypertensive activity. The present work showed that after fish or meat ingestion, among the wide variety of peptides produced by enzymic digestion, some of them can be reproducibly observed in intestinal digesta.

  4. Structural and mechanical architecture of the intestinal villi and crypts in the rat intestine: integrative reevaluation from ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Yasue; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-08-01

    The ultrastructure of the rat intestinal interstitium was analyzed from the viewpoint of mechanical dynamics to stabilize the intestinal villi, crypts and mucosal folds. In the rat, the small intestine lacks circular folds, but the large intestine possesses spiral folds. The intestinal villi, the largest in the duodenum, decreased in size in the jejunum and ileum successively, and were absent in the large intestine. The intestinal interstitium consisted of lamina propria mucosae (LPM) and tela submucosa (TSM) separated by muscularis mucosae (MM), the LPM was subdivided into an upper part within the villi and a lower part among the crypts in the small intestine. The light microscopic density of interstitium in the intestinal wall was lowest in the upper LPM, moderately dense in the lower LPM and highest in the TSM, and that among the intestinal region was highest in the duodenum and decreased successively in the jejunum and ileum. In the large intestine, the TSM bulged to form spiral folds with very low density. The intestinal epithelium in the villi possessed wide intercellular spaces and that in the crypts had closed intercellular spaces. At electron microscopic level, the upper and lower LPM contained subepithelial supportive meshwork that consisted of collagen fibrils and myofibroblast processes. The lower LPM and TSM contained conspicuous bundles of collagen fibrils and, in addition, TSM contained minor populations of scattered collagen fibrils near the smooth muscle layer (SML). The diameter of collagen fibrils was the largest in the bundles of TSM, and decreased from the duodenum through the jejunum and ileum to the large intestine. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that the intestinal villi are mechanically stabilized by the balance between the expansive interstitial pressure and inward pull by the subepithelial supportive meshwork. This hypothesis explains the hitherto neglected fact that the intestinal epithelium possesses wide

  5. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  6. Properties of Zip4 accumulation during zinc deficiency and its usefulness to evaluate zinc status: a study of the effects of zinc deficiency during lactation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Nakagawa, Miki; Tsujimura, Natsuki; Miyazaki, Shiho; Kizu, Kumiko; Goto, Tomoko; Komatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Ayu; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Komai, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis is elaborately controlled by ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters. Therefore, detailed characterization of their expression properties is of importance. Of these transporter proteins, Zip4 functions as the primarily important transporter to control systemic zinc homeostasis because of its indispensable function of zinc absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we closely investigated Zip4 protein accumulation in the rat small intestine in response to zinc status using an anti-Zip4 monoclonal antibody that we generated and contrasted this with the zinc-responsive activity of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We found that Zip4 accumulation is more rapid in response to zinc deficiency than previously thought. Accumulation increased in the jejunum as early as 1 day following a zinc-deficient diet. In the small intestine, Zip4 protein expression was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum and was accompanied by reduction of ALP activity, suggesting that the jejunum can become zinc deficient more easily. Furthermore, by monitoring Zip4 accumulation levels and ALP activity in the duodenum and jejunum, we reasserted that zinc deficiency during lactation may transiently alter plasma glucose levels in the offspring in a sex-specific manner, without affecting homeostatic control of zinc metabolism. This confirms that zinc nutrition during lactation is extremely important for the health of the offspring. These results reveal that rapid Zip4 accumulation provides a significant conceptual advance in understanding the molecular basis of systemic zinc homeostatic control, and that properties of Zip4 protein accumulation are useful to evaluate zinc status closely.

  7. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2015-01-01

    Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages.

  8. Duodenal Lipomatosis as a Curious Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed: A Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Majid; Tiwari, Priyanka; Ramaswamy, Palaniswamy Kalipatti; Kumar, Reddy Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. Duodenal lipomas are incidental and mostly asymptomatic. Tumours may produce symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort or cause bleeding due to ulceration or intestinal obstruction due to intussusception. We describe a 45-year-old man presenting in emergency with 3 days history of melena with normal gastroduodenoscopy and contrast enhanced computed tomography revealing multiple polypoid lesion in duodenum and proximal jejunum suggestive of lipoma. Due to ongoing bleed, he underwent laparotomy with duodenectomy and uneventful postoperative recovery. Our review of cases published in last 67 years indicate that duodenal lipomas are rare to occur but commonly found in second part, they may be seen in third and fourth part of duodenum which may be missed on endoscopy. They can be multiple and may present as severe UGI bleeding which could be managed surgically. Though CT is diagnostic, histopathology confirms the diagnosis which shows lipomatous lesion composed of mature adipose arranged in lobules. PMID:27437304

  9. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  10. Enterovirus neutralizing activity in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, J B

    1974-10-01

    Neutralizing activity against porcine enterovirus strain T80 was demonstrated in the contents of the stomach, duodenum or ileum of four piglets which were suckling dams whose milk contained neutralizing substances against the same virus. No neutralizing activity was detected in the gastrointestinal contents of an unsuckled piglet or in four weaned piglets. Extracts of intestinal tissue from each of the above piglets failed to neutralize the virus. Four weaned piglets were dosed orally with live T80 virus. From nine days after infection virus neutralizing activity was found in extracts of tissue prepared from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon but not in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and a serological response to the virus was demonstrated. No virus neutralizing activity was detected in gastrointestinal tissue or contents from four weaned piglets inoculated parenterally with live T80 virus or in four piglets dosed orally with inactivated T80 virus and these piglets did not respond serologically to the virus.

  11. The ultrastructural localisation of De-Nol (colloidal tripotassium dicitrato-bismuthate--TDB) in the upper gastrointestinal tract of man and rodents following oral and instrumental administration.

    PubMed

    Coghill, S B; Hopwood, D; McPherson, S; Hislop, S

    1983-02-01

    In the presence of hydrochloric acid, tripotassium dicitrato-bismuthate forms a particulate precipitate which is electron dense. In upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic biopsies, following a single oral dose, precipitate was detected between superficial oesophageal epithelial cells and also lining lipid droplets within oesophageal cells. The precipitate does not appear to penetrate the thick mucus barrier in the normal stomach but reaches the epithelial cell surface in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Small particles of bismuth complex are endocytosed by the enterocyte and enter multivesicular bodies. A similar series of events was observed in rodents and an approximate time course for adsorption and endocytosis was estimated.

  12. [Wilkie's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bognár, Gábor; Ledniczky, György; Palik, Eva; Zubek, László; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál

    2008-10-01

    Loss of retroperitoneal fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions and noxa is believed to be the etiologic factor of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. A case of a 35 years old female patient with severe malnutrition and weight loss is presented, who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Various theories of etiology, clinical course and treatment options of this uncommon disease are discussed. In our case, conservative management was inefficient, while surgical treatment aiming to bypass the obstruction by an anastomosis between the jejunum and the proximal duodenum (duodenojejunostomy) was successful. An interdisciplinary teamwork provides the most beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic result in this often underestimated disease.

  13. Lesions of potato sprout and extracted potato sprout alkaloid toxicity in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Baker, D; Keeler, R; Gaffield, W

    1987-01-01

    Hamsters were gavaged either dried potato sprout material, alkaloid extract of potato sprouts, or the marc from which the alkaloid fraction was extracted and then were examined for gross and microscopic lesions. Nine of 10 hamsters receiving dried potato sprout material and 3 of 5 hamsters receiving alkaloid extract had severe gastric and intestinal mucosal necrosis which was most severe in the glandular stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. All control hamsters gavaged with water and all hamsters gavaged with the potato sprout marc survived to the time of euthanasia and did not have gross or microscopic lesions.

  14. Glycoprotein glycans that inhibit adhesion of Escherichia coli mediated by K99 fimbriae: treatment of experimental colibacillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mouricout, M; Petit, J M; Carias, J R; Julien, R

    1990-01-01

    Calf diarrhea due to infection by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was treated by administration of glycoprotein glycans derived from bovine plasma. The glycan moieties of the nonimmunoglobulin fraction of plasma mimicked the oligosaccharide moiety of intestinal receptors recognized by K99 pili. These glycoprotein glycans inhibited adhesion of E. coli K99+ ST+ to erythrocyte glycoconjugates in vitro, and they protected colostrum-deprived newborn calves against lethal doses of enterotoxigenic E. coli (10(10) bacteria). Adhesion of bacteria to the intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) was significantly reduced (by 2 orders of magnitude) in treated calves. PMID:2403535

  15. [Intestinal complications from vascular prostheses].

    PubMed

    Fernández, C; Calvete, J; García, J; Buch, E; Castells, P; Lledó, S

    1993-01-01

    Secondary FAE is a rare complication, usually located at the duodenum. The typical clinical presentation is like a digestive hemorrhage or a sepsis. We report two cases of FAE with atypical manifestations. The first case presented a lower digestive hemorrhage produced by the fistulization to the sigma. The second case appeared like an intestinal obliteration caused by the full emigration of a prosthesis to the jejunum. We wish to remark the importance of the clinical suspicion of a FAE (Key of diagnosis), and the sparing relevance of the complementary examinations and the urgency of a surgical treatment in order to avoid the high rate of morbi-mortality associated with this complication.

  16. The absorption site of cyclosporin in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Drewe, J; Beglinger, C; Kissel, T

    1992-01-01

    1. An emulsion preparation of cyclosporin was administered locally to different parts of the small and large intestine by gavage: to the duodenum (opposite to the papilla of Vater), jejunum (150 cm distal to the teeth), ileum (300 cm distal to the teeth), and to the colon descendens (30 cm proximal to the anus). 2. The bioavailability of cyclosporin after these instillations was compared with that after oral administration of a hard gelatine capsule formulation. 3. Cyclosporin was found to be absorbed predominantly in the small intestine. This may have implications for dosage in patients with reduced absorptive surface area. PMID:1540489

  17. The effect of porcine calcitonin on intestinal calcium and phosphate fluxes in the young piglet.

    PubMed

    McKercher, H G; Radde, I C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of a physiological (3.8 ng.mL-1) and a pharmacological (120 ng.mL-1) concentration of porcine calcitonin (CT) on transmucosal calcium and phosphate flux rates were determined in intestinal mucosa from young piglets (4--40 days) mounted in Ussing flux chambers. The physiological concentration of the hormone inhibited net absorptive calcium flux rates in the proximal jejunum and distal ileum but not in the duodenum. No effect of either concentration of CT on phosphate flux rates was observed. The inhibitory effect of the physiological concentration may indicate a role for CT in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis in the young suckling mammal.

  18. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Su, S; Miska, K B; Fetterer, R H; Jenkins, M C; Wong, E A

    2015-03-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific, for example E. acervulina affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa cause reduced feed efficiency and body weight gain. The growth reduction may be due to changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters and an antimicrobial peptide in broilers challenged with either E. acervulina, E. maxima or E. tenella. The genes examined included digestive enzymes (APN and SI), peptide and amino acid transporters (PepT1, ASCT1, b(0,+)AT/rBAT, B(0)AT, CAT1, CAT2, EAAT3, LAT1, y(+)LAT1 and y(+)LAT2), sugar transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1), zinc transporter (ZnT1) and an antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2). Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca were collected 7 days post challenge. E. acervulina challenge resulted in downregulation of various nutrient transporters or LEAP2 in the duodenum and ceca, but not the jejunum or ileum. E. maxima challenge produced both downregulation and upregulation of nutrient transporters and LEAP2 in all three segments of the small intestine and ceca. E. tenella challenge resulted in the downregulation and upregulation of nutrient transporters and LEAP2 in the jejunum, ileum and ceca, but not the duodenum. At the respective target tissue, E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella infection caused common downregulation of APN, b(0,+)AT, rBAT, EAAT3, SI, GLUT2, GLUT5, ZnT1 and LEAP2. The downregulation of nutrient transporters would result in a decrease in the efficiency of protein and polysaccharide digestion and uptake, which may partially explain the weight loss. The downregulation of nutrient transporters may also be a cellular response to reduced expression of the host defense protein LEAP2, which would

  19. Interdigestive gastroduodenal manometry in humans. Indication of duodenal phase III as a retroperistaltic pump.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, E S; Abrahamsson, H

    1995-03-01

    To elucidate the specific function of the three phases (I-III) of the migrating motor complex (MMC) by manometry, detailed analysis of individual pressure waves in the proximal duodenum was performed. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women of whom 11 were tube-naive) underwent computerized manometry for 5 h during fasting followed by 45 min after a meal using an 8-channel water perfused catheter. Three recording points were in the antrum, three in the proximal duodenum (2 cm apart), one in the distal duodenum and one in the proximal jejunum. In all subjects at least one phase III (median 2) was observed during the 5-h fasting recording. In the proximal duodenum the mean proportion of retrograde pressure waves, out of all propagating waves, was significantly increased in the last part of phase III (85 +/- 9%, mean, SE), compared with early phase III (6 +/- 5%), late phase II (5 +/- 4%) and the feeding phase (10 +/- 5%), irrespective of gender or previous tube-experience. The median length of the MMCs was 108.5 min. There was no statistically significant difference between men and women or between tube-naive and tube-experienced subjects for the duodeno-jejunal motility indices of phase II and phase III, nor for duration or migration of phase III. The postprandial motility index of the small intestine was increased compared with the interdigestive late phase II, particularly in the jejunum (P < 0.02). The last part of the duodenal interdigestive phase III in healthy subjects shows the feature of a retrosperistaltic pump. This cyclic sequence of retropropagation coincides with the reported rapid alkalinization of the duodenal bulb and the gastric antrum occurring in early antral phase I.

  20. Enhancement of mucosal immune responses in chickens by oral administration of cysteamine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Lian, G; Gong, X

    2007-07-01

    Somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide originally isolated from the hypothalamus, can exert an inhibitory effect on the secretion of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland. In addition to endocrine organs, somatostatin is also present in the digestive tract and immune organs. In lymphoid tissues, somatostatin appears to play a role in the modulation of the immune response. Cysteamine (CS) is a sulfhydryl reducing agent that is known as a depletory agent of somatostatin. To evaluate its effects on chicken mucosal immune responses, CS was administrated orally to 1-wk-old broilers (40 mg/kg) that were immunized orally with Newcastle disease attenuated vaccine (NDV). The number of IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL) in duodenum and jejunum were examined at 3-, 5-, and 7-wk posttreatment and immunization. The number of somatostatin-positive cells and relative amounts of somatostatin mRNA were also examined in the duodenum. The number of somatostatin-positive cells in the duodenum was reduced (P < 0.05) after CS treatment. In broilers receiving CS and NDV treatment (CS+NDV) the level of IgA-positive cells and iIEL in the duodenum and jejunum was increased (P < 0.05) at 3 and 5 wk posttreatment. The expression of somatostatin mRNA increased (P < 0.05) compared with that of the control group at 5 wk after immunization in broilers receiving CS+NDV or NDV alone. The results suggest that CS can induce proliferation and differentiation of IgA-positive cells and iIEL in the intestinal mucosa of chickens by reducing the number of somatostatin-positive cells.

  1. Distribution of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhou, Naizhen; Wang, Chaolin; Wu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the distribution pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distributed density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The results indicated that 5-HT-IR cells were distributed throughout the entire digestive tract, which were most predominant in duodenum and jejunum. The density increased significantly in stomach and duodenum during hibernation. GAS-IR cells were limited in small stomach and small intestine. The density decreased significantly in small stomach during hibernation, while increased in duodenum. What's more, most of the endocrine cells in duodenum were generally spindle shaped with long cytoplasmic processes ending in the lumen during hibernation. SS-IR cells were limited in stomach and small stomach. The density increased in stomach while decreased in small stomach during hibernation, meanwhile, fewer IR cells occurred in small intestine. VIP-IR cells occurred in stomach and small stomach. The density decreased in small stomach, while increased in stomach during hibernation. These results indicated that the endocrine cells in different parts of digestive tract varied differently during hibernation, their changes were adaptive response to the hibernation.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics and probiotics on intestinal microarchitecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, S; Zaneb, H; Yousaf, M S; Ijaz, A; Sohail, M U; Muti, S; Usman, M M; Ijaz, S; Rehman, H

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and/or probiotics (LBP) on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count, goblet cells (GC) count and differentiation and intestinal micro-architecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. Day-old broilers (n = 250) were randomly divided into five groups. Fifty birds were reared within the thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Remaining birds were subjected to cyclic heat stress from day 21 to 42 (35° C, 75% RH, 8 h/d). The birds were fed corn-soy-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS), or 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP), or their combination (HS-SYN). The birds were slaughtered on day 42. Tissue samples were collected from mid-duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined Alcian blue and PAS technique. All differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. The IEL count increased in all intestinal segments of the HS group compared with the TNZ group and decreased in all supplemented groups compared with the HS group. Compared with the TNZ, heat stress reduced villus height, crypt depth and surface area in duodenum and ileum, and increased crypt depth in ileum. Villus width decreased in duodenum and jejunum compared with the TNZ group. Supplementation of LBP, MOS and SYN reversed all these changes in duodenum, while only increased villus height and surface area in ileum. In jejunum, the villus height and surface area increased with HS-LBP, and crypt depth increased with HS-MOS. The number of GC containing acid mucins (duodenum and ileum) and mixed mucins (ileum) were increased in the HS compared with the TNZ. Supplementation of MOS, LBP and SYN maintained the enhanced activity of goblet cells. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of MOS and/or LBP may be helpful in alleviating some of the detrimental effects of heat stress on microstructure of the broiler gut.

  3. Contribution of intestinal- and cereal-derived phytase activity on phytate degradation in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2015-07-01

    There is little consensus as to the capability of poultry to utilize dietary phytate without supplemental phytase. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to examine the extent to which endogenous phytase of intestinal and cereal origin contributes to phytate degradation in birds aged 0 to 14 d posthatch. Ross 308 broilers (n = 720) were fed one of 4 experimental diets with differing dietary ingredient combinations and approximate total phytate levels of 10 g/kg, dietary phytase activity analyzed at 460 U/kg, dietary calcium (Ca) levels of 11 g/kg, and nonphytate-phosphorus (P) levels of 4 g/kg. Broiler performance, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum and ileum pH, Ca and P digestibility and solubility, amount of dietary phytate hydrolyzed in the gizzard, jejunum, and ileal digesta phytase activity were analyzed at d 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 posthatch. Intestinal endogenous phytase activity increased significantly (P < 0.001) between d 4 and 6, resulting in increased phytate hydrolysis in the gizzard (P = 0.003), jejunum (P < 0.001), and ileum (P < 0.001). Phytase activity and phytate hydrolysis continued to increase with age, with a greater phytase activity and associated increase in phytate hydrolysis and mineral utilization between d 10 and 12. Gizzard and jejunum Ca and P solubility and ileal Ca and P digestibility increased significantly (P < 0.001), and gastrointestinal pH decreased significantly (P < 0.001) between d 4 and 6. By d 14, phytase activity recovered in the ileum was approximately 45 U/kg. There were strong correlations between phytase activity measured in the ileum and phytate hydrolyzed in the gizzard (r = 0.905, P < 0.001), jejunum (r = 0.901, P = 0.023), and ileum (r = 0.938, P = 0.042). This study shows intestinal- and dietary-derived endogenous phytase activity is responsible for phytate-P hydrolysis in broilers.

  4. Growth Performance, Plasma Fatty Acids, Villous Height and Crypt Depth of Preweaning Piglets Fed with Medium Chain Triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Chwen, Loh Teck; Foo, Hooi Ling; Thanh, Nguyen Tien; Choe, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) on growth performance, plasma fatty acids, villus height and crypt depth in preweaning piglets. A total of 150 new born piglets were randomly assigned into one of three treatments: i) Control (no MCT); ii) MCT with milk (MCT+milk); iii) MCT without milk (MCT+fasting). Body weight, plasma fatty acid profiles, villus height and crypt depth were measured. Final BW for the Control and MCT+fasting was lower (p<0.05) than MCT+milk. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had greater medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) than the Control. In contrast, the Control had greater long chain fatty acid (LCFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) than the MCT piglets. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had higher villus height for the duodenum and jejunum after 6 h of feeding. Similar observations were found in piglets fed with MCT after 6 and 8 days of treatment. This study showed that feeding MCT to the piglets before weaning improved growth performance, with a greater concentration of MCT in blood plasma as energy source and a greater height of villus in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. PMID:25049841

  5. Intestinal atresia and stenosis in animals: a report of 34 cases.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, I; Tibboel, D

    1980-09-01

    Intestinal atresia was found in 29 animals and stenosis in five. Atresia was found in the duodenum in one pup; in the jejunum in nine calves, two lambs and one piglet; in the ileum in one pup, one lamb and one piglet; and in the colon in one foal, seven calves, one lamb, one piglet and three kittens. Stenosis was found in the duodenum of a foal, in the jejunum in two calves and one pup, and in both the ileum and the colon of a kitten. One lamb showed ileal atresia as well as ileal stenosis. We classified the atresia as type 1, membrane atresia (four cases); type 2, cord atresia (six cases); and type 3, blind-end atresia (19 cases). In the literature and our own study, atresia was found only in the small intestine in puppies, but in foals and kittens it was found only in the colon. Atresia of the colon is more common in animals than in man, but multiple atresia, frequent in man, is rare in animals.

  6. Expression and Function of Intestinal Hexose Transporters after Small Intestinal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Corey W.; Fatima, Javairiah; Duenes, Judith; Houghton, Scott G.; Kasparek, Michael S.; Sarr, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The role of neural regulation in expression and function of intestinal hexose transporters is unknown. Aim To determine the role of intestinal innervation in gene expression and function of the membrane hexose transporters, SGLT1, GLUT2, and GLUT5 in the enterocyte. Hypothesis Denervation of the small intestine decreases expression of hexose transporters leading to decreased glucose absorption. Methods Six groups of Lewis rats were studied (n=6 each): control, 1 wk after sham laparotomy, 1 and 8 wk after syngeneic (no immune rejection) orthotopic small bowel transplantation (SBT) (SBT1, SBT8) to induce complete extrinsic denervation, and 1 and 8 wk after selective disruption of intrinsic neural continuity to jejunoileum by gut transection and reanastomosis (T/A1, T/A8). All tissue was harvested between 8AM and 10AM. In duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, mucosal mRNA levels were quantitated by real time PCR, protein by Western blotting, and transporter-mediated glucose absorption using the everted sleeve technique. Results Across the six groups, relative gene expression of hexose transporter mRNA and protein levels were unchanged and no difference in transporter-mediated glucose uptake was evident in any region. Glucose transporter affinity (Km) and functional transporter levels (Vmax) calculated for duodenum and jejunum showed no difference between the six groups. Conclusion Baseline regulation of hexose transporter function is not mediated tonically by intrinsic or extrinsic neural continuity to the jejunoileum. PMID:19541015

  7. PROPOSAL OF A REVISIONAL SURGERY TO TREAT NON-INSULINOMA HYPERINSULINEMIC HYPOGLICEMIA POSTGASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    SAMPAIO-NETO, José; BRANCO-FILHO, Alcides José; NASSIF, Luis Sérgio; NASSIF, André Thá; MASI, Flávia David João De; XIMENEZ, Daniele Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Background : Hyperinsulinemic hypoglicemia with severe neuroglycopenic symptoms has been identified as a late and rare complication in patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, the potential gravity of its manifestations requires effective treatment of this condition. The absence of treatment makes it necessary to develop more effective clinical or surgical methods. Aim : To present one surgical option to revisional surgery in the treatment of hyperinsulinemic hypoglicemia Methods : The procedure consists in reconstituting alimentary transit through the duodenum and proximal jejunum, while keeping the restrictive part of the gastric bypass. As an additional strategy to maintain weight loss, is realized gastric fundus resection, aiming to suppress ghrelin production more effectively. Results : It was used in three patients with successful results in one year of follow-up. Conclusion : The procedure to reconstruct the food transit through the duodenum and proximal jejunum, keeping the restrictive component of gastric bypass in the treatment of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia showed good initial results and validated its application in other cases with this indication. PMID:26734801

  8. Histochemical features of the Muscovy duck small intestine during development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao An; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Xiaoming, Nie; Baglini, Alessandro; Romboli, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated for the first time the distribution and morphology of argyrophil and of goblet cells in the mucosa of the small intestine of the Muscovy duck during development using the Grimelius silver staining and alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS) staining technique. The argyrophil cells distribution was variable over the length of the small intestine from embryonic day 24 (24E) to post-hatching day 13 (13d). In the villi most argyrophil cells belonged to the open-type, while in the crypts they belonged to the closed-type. In the duodenum the density of argyrophil cells was highest at hatching, while in the jejunum and in the ileum the highest density value was at hatching and 13d. AB/PAS-positive goblet cells appeared on the villi and crypts of the duodenum and jejunum at 30E, and in the ileum at hatching. The density of AB/PAS-positive cells was the highest in the three segments at hatching. The AB-positive cells, compared with the PAS-positive cells, predominated in villi and crypts of the three segments, moreover the rate of AB-positive cells to PAS-positive cells significantly decreased from 30E to 9d. An increase in argyrophil and goblet cells number during the later incubation and at hatching, could indicate the small intestine in that period is being prepared to face a new diet.

  9. An immunohistochemical study on the gastrointestinal endocrine cells of three honeyeaters: singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, N; Yamada, J; Richardson, K C; Kitamura, N; Yamashita, T

    1993-01-01

    The gastrointestinal endocrine cells of the singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta) were studied immunohistochemically with special reference to their degree of dependency upon nectar. The nine types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were detected in their gastrointestinal mucosa. Coexistence of motilin and serotonin in the same cells was confirmed in the pyloric region. In the duodenum and jejunum, a few peptide tyrosin tyrosin (PYY)-immunoreactive cells were detected. The clear difference in the distribution and frequency of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells among three types of honeyeaters, which differ in the degree of dependency upon the nectar, could not be confirmed. However, some differences were found that serotonin-, somatostatin- and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-immunoreactive cells in the gizzard, gastrin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum and jejunum, enteroglucagon-immunoreactive cells in the caeca and in the colon, and pancreatic glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the ileum of brown honeyeaters were more numerous (p < 0.05) than other two species.

  10. Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Broor, S L; Slota, T; Ammon, H V

    1980-01-01

    Jejunal perfusion studies were performed in 16 healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that intraluminal cholesterol can mitigate the fluid secretion induced by dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. Fluid secretion in the presence of 5 mM taurodeoxycholate was somewhat reduced by 4 mM mono-olein which was used for the solubilization of cholesterol. Addition of 0.8 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion further (P less than 0.05). Fluid secretion induced by 4 mM oleic acid was changed to net absorption in a linear fashion with increasing cholesterol concentration in the perfusion solutions. 1 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion induced by 6 mM oleic acid (P less than 0.005), but had no effect on fluid secretion induced by 6 mM linolenic acid. Glucose absorption was generally affected in a similar manner as water transport. In vitro, 1 mM cholesterol reduced monomer activity of 6 mM oleic acid to 72.3 +/- 0.9% of control and that of linolenic acid to 81.1 +/- 1.7% of control. Although statistically significant (P less than 0.001), the difference in the effects of cholesterol on monomer activities of the two fatty acids was rather small and it is unlikely that changes in monomer concentration of fatty acids and bile acids account for the protective effect of cholesterol. The in vivo observations point to a new physiological role for biliary cholesterol: the modification of the response of the small intestine to the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. PMID:7358850

  11. Supraclavicular lymph node metastases from malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the jejunum: A case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chi; Hao, Shao-Long; Liu, Xin-Cheng; Nin, Jin-Yao; Wu, Guo-Chang; Jiang, Li-Xin; Fancellu, Alessandro; Porcu, Alberto; Zheng, Hai-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) represent the most common mesenchymal tumors of the alimentary tract. These tumors may have different clinical and biological behaviors. Malignant forms usually spread via a hematogenous route, and lymph node metastases rarely occur. Herein, we report a patient with a jejunal GIST who developed supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. We conclude that lymphatic diffusion via the mediastinal lymphatic station to the supraclavicular lymph nodes can be a potential metastatic route for GISTs. PMID:28348499

  12. Dietary inulin affects the morphology but not the sodium-dependent glucose and glutamine transport in the jejunum of broilers.

    PubMed

    Rehman, H; Rosenkranz, C; Böhm, J; Zentek, J

    2007-01-01

    Inulin, a prebiotic, is a fermentable oligosaccharide that may affect the intestinal mucosal architecture and the electrophysiological parameters. The effects of a diet with added inulin were tested on the jejunal morphology and electrogenic transport of Glc and Gln from the jejunal mucosa in broilers. Short-circuit current and transmucosal tissue resistance of jejunal flaps were measured in Ussing chambers. The feeding experiment was carried out in broilers (n = 40) using 1% inulin with an application period of 5 wk. The inulin-containing diet resulted in longer jejunal villi (P < 0.05) and deeper crypts (P < 0.01) than in control birds without affecting villus:crypt depth. Basal short-circuit current value remained unaffected by dietary treatment. Inulin supplementation did not modify the electrogenic transport of Glc and Gln in the jejunal mucosa. The basal value of transmucosal tissue resistance was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the inulin-fed group compared with the control group. In conclusion, inulin supplementation affected the jejunal mucosal architecture but did not modify the electrogenic transport of Glc and amino acid under present experimental condition.

  13. Dietary calcium concentration and cereals differentially affect mineral balance and tight junction proteins expression in jejunum of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Mann, Evelyne; Ertl, Reinhard; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Wagner, Martin; Klein, Dieter; Ritzmann, Mathias; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-04-14

    Ca plays an essential role in bone development; however, little is known about its effect on intestinal gene expression in juvenile animals. In the present study, thirty-two weaned pigs (9·5 (SEM 0·11) kg) were assigned to four diets that differed in Ca concentration (adequate v. high) and cereal composition (wheat-barley v. maize) to assess the jejunal and colonic gene expression of nutrient transporters, tight junction proteins, cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, nutrient digestibility, Ca balance and serum acute-phase response. To estimate the impact of mucosal bacteria on colonic gene expression, Spearman's correlations between colonic gene expression and bacterial abundance were computed. Faecal Ca excretion indicated that more Ca was available along the intestinal tract of the pigs fed high Ca diets as compared to the pigs fed adequate Ca diets (P> 0.05). High Ca diets decreased jejunal zonula occludens 1 (ZO1) and occludin (OCLN) expression, up-regulated jejunal expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and down-regulated colonic GLUT2 expression as compared to the adequate Ca diets (P< 0.05). Dietary cereal composition up-regulated jejunal TLR2 expression and interacted (P= 0.021) with dietary Ca on colonic IL1B expression; high Ca concentration up-regulated IL1B expression with wheat-barley diets and down-regulated it with maize diets. Spearman's correlations (r> 0·35; P< 0·05) indicated an association between operational taxonomic units assigned to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and bacterial metabolites and mucosal gene expression in the colon. The present results indicate that high Ca diets have the potential to modify the jejunal and colonic mucosal gene expression response which, in turn, interacts with the composition of the basal diet and mucosa-associated bacteria in weaned pigs.

  14. FcRn Expression on Placenta and Fetal Jejunum during Early, Mid-, and Late Gestation in Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Björn; Hill, Marilyn; Reynaud, Lucie; Hey, Adam; Barrow, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Developmental toxicity testing of therapeutic antibodies is most often conducted in nonhuman primates owing to lack of cross-reactivity in other species. Minipigs may show cross-reactivity for some humanized antibodies but have not been used for developmental toxicity testing due to an assumed lack of embryo-fetal exposure. Unlike in humans, maternal IgGs do not cross the porcine placenta to reach the fetus. Some humanized IgGs, however, have a higher affinity for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and are more likely than endogenous antibodies to cross the placenta of animals. The major site of prenatal IgG transfer is the placenta, though FcRn in fetal intestine could also uptake maternal IgGs from swallowed amniotic fluid. Using immunohistochemistry andin situhybridization in this experiment, FcRn was found in minipig placenta and fetal intestine during early, mid-, and late gestation. To date, however, fetal exposure to maternally administered IgGs has never been demonstrated in the minipig.

  15. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA1 IS EXPRESSED IN THE JEJUNUM AFTER EXPERIMENTAL HUMAN CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM INFECTION IN HUMANS. (R828035)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Complementary studies detecting classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction in incubating cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently we have described the distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectivity and/or PrPSc in Peyer’s patches (PP) of the small intestine of orally BSE infected cattle. In this follow-up study additional jejunal and ileal PP’s and ileocaecal-junction tissue samples from 1, 4, and 24 months post infection (mpi) were examined by mouse (Tgbov XV) bioassay. Infectivity was demonstrated in ileal PP’s 4 mpi and the distribution/extent of infectivity at 24 mpi was comparable to those seen at earlier time points, revealing no indication for a decline/clearance. These data are relevant for the definition of Specified Risk Materials in the context of the TSE legislation worldwide. PMID:24359408

  17. Complementary studies detecting classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction in incubating cattle.

    PubMed

    Fast, Christine; Keller, Markus; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Hills, Bob; Groschup, Martin H

    2013-12-21

    Recently we have described the distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectivity and/or PrPSc in Peyer's patches (PP) of the small intestine of orally BSE infected cattle. In this follow-up study additional jejunal and ileal PP's and ileocaecal-junction tissue samples from 1, 4, and 24 months post infection (mpi) were examined by mouse (Tgbov XV) bioassay. Infectivity was demonstrated in ileal PP's 4 mpi and the distribution/extent of infectivity at 24 mpi was comparable to those seen at earlier time points, revealing no indication for a decline/clearance. These data are relevant for the definition of Specified Risk Materials in the context of the TSE legislation worldwide.

  18. Changes of phasic and tonic smooth muscle function of jejunum in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To generate phasic and tonic stress-strain curves for evaluation of intestinal smooth muscle function in type 2 diabetic rats during active and passive conditions. METHODS: Seven diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) male rats, 32-wk old (GK group), and 9 age-matched normal Wistar rats (Normal group) were included in the study. Jejunal segments were distended up to a pressure of 10 cm H2O in an organ bath containing 37 °C Krebs solution with addition of carbachol (CA). The pressure and outer diameter changes were synchronously recorded. Passive conditions were obtained using calcium-free Krebs solution containing ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and papaverine. Total phasic, tonic and passive circumferential stress and strain were computed from the diameter and pressure data with reference to the zero-stress state geometry. The active phasic and tonic stresses were defined as the total phasic and tonic stresses minus the passive stress. RESULTS: Diabetes increased jejunal mucosa and muscle layer thicknesses compared to the Normal group (mucosa, 755.8 ± 63.3 vs 633.1 ± 59.1 μm, P < 0.01; muscle, 106.3 ± 12.9 vs 85.2 ± 11.7 μm, P < 0.05). The pressure and stress thresholds were decreased in the GK group after CA application compared to distensions without CA application (pressure, 1.01 ± 0.07 vs 1.99 ± 0.19 cmH2O, P < 0.01; stress, 0.11 ± 0.01 vs 0.24 ± 0.02 kPa, P < 0.01). CA application did not change the pressure and stress threshold in the Normal group (pressure, 2.13 ± 0.32 vs 2.34 ± 0.32 cm H2O, P > 0.05; stress, 0.25 ± 0.03 vs 0.35 ± 0.06 kPa, P > 0.05). The amplitude of total phasic, total tonic, active phasic and active tonic circumferential stresses did not differ for the distensions without CA application between the GK group and the Normal group. However, the total phasic and total tonic stresses increased after CA application in the GK group compared those in the Normal group. When normalized to muscle layer thickness, the amplitude of active stresses before CA application was lowest in the GK group compared with the Normal group. No difference was found during CA application. CONCLUSION: The stress generated by intestinal muscle normalized to the muscle layer thickness was lowest in GK rats compared to normal rats whereas the response to CA stimulation was preserved. PMID:24379925

  19. ClC-2 is required for rapid restoration of epithelial tight junctions in ischemic-injured murine jejunum

    SciTech Connect

    Nighot, Prashant K.; Moeser, Adam J.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Ghashghaei, Troy; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims: Involvement of the epithelial chloride channel ClC-2 has been implicated in barrier recovery following ischemic injury, possibly via a mechanism involving ClC-2 localization to the tight junction. The present study investigated mechanisms of intestinal barrier repair following ischemic injury in ClC-2{sup -/-} mice. Methods: Wild type, ClC-2 heterozygous and ClC-2{sup -/-} murine jejunal mucosa was subjected to complete ischemia, after which recovery of barrier function was monitored by measuring in vivo blood-to-lumen clearance of {sup 3}H-mannitol. Tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy. The role of ClC-2 in re-assembly of the tight junction during barrier recovery was studied by immunoblotting, immunolocalization and immunoprecipitation. Results: Following ischemic injury, ClC-2{sup -/-} mice had impaired barrier recovery compared to wild type mice, defined by increases in epithelial paracellular permeability independent of epithelial restitution. The recovering ClC-2{sup -/-} mucosa also had evidence of ultrastructural paracellular defects. The tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-1 shifted significantly to the detergent soluble membrane fraction during post-ischemic recovery in ClC-2{sup -/-} mice whereas wild type mice had a greater proportion of junctional proteins in the detergent insoluble fraction. Occludin was co-immunoprecipitated with ClC-2 in uninjured wild type mucosa, and the association between occludin and ClC-2 was re-established during ischemic recovery. Based on immunofluorescence studies, re-localization of occludin from diffuse sub-apical areas to apical tight junctions was impaired in ClC-2{sup -/-} mice. Conclusions: These data demonstrate a pivotal role of ClC-2 in recovery of the intestinal epithelium barrier by anchoring assembly of tight junctions following ischemic injury.

  20. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Cirilo, Carla Possani; Zapater, Mariana Cristina Vicente Umada; Vicentini, Fernando Augusto; Soares, Andréia Assunção; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar; Buttow, Nilza Cristina; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7), 12 (C12 and CA12), and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23). The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal) via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells. PMID:25960748

  1. Nutrient Transporter Expression in the Jejunum in Relation to Body Mass Index in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Brian A.; Wood, G. Craig; Bennotti, Peter N.; Babu, Ellappan; Deshpande, Abhishek; Lent, Michelle R.; Petrick, Anthony; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Rolston, David D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient tranters (NT) facilitate nutrient absorption and contribute to the regulation of circulating nutrients. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the associations between the level of obesity; mRNA abundance for NTs; and serum concentrations of amino acids, short-chain fatty acids, and glucose in patients with morbid obesity undergoing a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Proximal jejunal samples were obtained at the time of surgery from 42 patients (90% female, age = 42.6 ± 11.9 years, pre-operative body mass index (BMI) = 55.5 ± 11.3 kg/m2) undergoing a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. RNA was extracted from the jejunal mucosa and quantitative real-time–PCR was performed for the NTs studied. BMI negatively correlated with jejunal mRNA abundance of the amino acid NTs TauT (r = −0.625, p < 0.0001), ASCT2 (r = −0.320, p = 0.039), LAT1 (r = −0.304, p = 0.05). BMI positively correlated with jejunal mRNA abundance of the lactate/short-chain fatty acid NT SMCT1 (r = 0.543, p = 0.0002). Serum concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids, butyric, valeric, and isocaproic acid correlated positively with BMI (n = 30) (r = 0.45, r = 0.44, r = 0.36, p ≤ 0.05; respectively). Lower jejunal mRNA abundance for the amino acid NTs TauT, ASCT2, and LAT1 could protect against further obesity-related elevations in circulating amino acids. The positive correlation between BMI and the jejunal mRNA abundance of the high-affinity short-chain fatty acid/monocarboxylate transporter SMCT1 is intriguing and requires further investigation. PMID:27801863

  2. 2, 4-Diamino-6- hydroxy pyrimidine inhibits NSAIDs induced nitrosyl-complex EPR signals and ulcer in rat jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, S; Simpson, R; Rafi, S; Shergill, JK; Bjarnason, I; Wrigglesworth, J

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that one aspect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage is due to either uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of electron transport. We investigated the latter possibility using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Electron paramagnetic studies of NSAIDS on sub-mitochondrial particles revealed that indomethacin, but not with nabumetone, bound to a site near to Complex I and ubiquinone to generate a radical species. Normal rats exhibited prominent [3Fe-4S]ox signals (g ~ 2.01) at 20 K. One hour after indomethacin there was a prominent, intense and broad absorption pattern at (g ~2.07) suggesting, appearance of radical species overlapping [3Fe-4S]ox and was unaffected by pretreatment with 2,4 diamino -6-hydroxy pyrimidine. At 24 hrs, when macroscopic ulcers were seen, there was a new signal due to a nitric oxide radical (NO•). In contrast, nabumetone and 2,4 diamino-6-hydroxy pyrimidine pre-treated animals receiving indomethacin exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance spectra identical to those of controls at 24 hrs and neither was associated with small intestinal ulcers. Indomethacin and 2,4 diamino hydroxy pyrimidine pre-treated rats, but not nabumetone, had increased intestinal permeability. Conclusion The results suggest that the in vivo effects of indomethacin modulate the mitochondrial respiratory chain directly at 1 h and 24 h through formation of nitric oxide. NO• appears to play an important role in the late pathogenic stages of NSAID enteropathy and may be the site for targeted treatment to reduce their toxicity. PMID:11960558

  3. Cytoskeleton remodling and alterations in smooth muscle contractility in the bovine jejunum during the early stage of Cooperia oncophora infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes of the genus Cooperia are arguably the most important parasites of cattle. We characterized the bovine jejunal transcriptome in response to C. oncophora infection using RNA-seq technology. Approximately 71% of the 25,670 bovine genes were detected in the jejunal transcript...

  4. Quantitative Atlas of Cytochrome P450, UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase, and Transporter Proteins in Jejunum of Morbidly Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Eisuke; Tachikawa, Masanori; Declèves, Xavier; Uchida, Yasuo; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-08-01

    Protein expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human jejunal tissues excised from morbidly obese subjects during gastric bypass surgery were evaluated using quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Protein expression levels of 15 cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, 10 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, and NADPH-P450 reductase (P450R) in microsomal fractions from 28 subjects and 49 transporters in plasma membrane fractions from 24 of the same subjects were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on average values, UGT1A1, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, SGLT1, and GLUT2 exhibited high expression levels (over 10 fmol/μg protein), though UGT2B15 expression was detected at a high level in only one subject. CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, UGT1A6, P450R, ABCG2, GLUT5, PEPT1, MCT1, 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (4F2hc), LAT2, OSTα, and OSTβ showed intermediate levels (1-10 fmol/μg protein), and CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2J2, CYP3A7, CYP4A11, CYP51A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A8, UGT2B4, ABCC1, ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCC6, ABCG8, TAUT, OATP2A1, OATP2B1, OATP3A1, OATP4A1, OCTN1, CNT2, PCFT, MCT4, GLUT4, and SLC22A18 showed low levels (less than 1 fmol/μg protein). The greatest interindividual difference (364-fold) was detected for UGT2B17. However, differences in expression levels of other quantified UGTs (except UGT2B15 and UGT2B17), CYPs (except CYP1A1 and CYP3A5), and P450R, and all quantified transporters, were within 10-fold. Expression levels of CYP1A2 and GLUT4 were significantly correlated with body-mass index. The levels of 4F2hc showed significant gender differences. Smokers showed increased levels of UGT1A1 and UGT1A3. These findings provide a basis for understanding the changes in molecular mechanisms of jejunal metabolism and transport, as well as their interindividual variability, in morbidly obese patients.

  5. Development of the digestive tract in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Iji, P A; van der Walt, J G; Brand, T S; Boomker, E A; Booyse, D

    2003-06-01

    A study was conducted to investigate changes in the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in relation to body growth of growing ostriches. There was an 11-fold increase (P < 0.001) in body weight between 3 and 72 days of age. The relative (to body weight) weight of the proventriculus/gizzard, caeca and colon also increased (P < 0.001) with age. The relative weight of the small intestine peaked at 41 days of age and then tended to decline (P < 0.05) subsequently. The relative weight of the pancreas peaked at 27 days of age and remained fairly stable thereafter. The activities of chymotrypsin and lipase declined (P < 0.001) with age between 3 and 72 days. At 3 days of age, the protein content of the duodenal mucosal homogenate was higher (P < 0.001) than that of the jejunum or ileum, but at all subsequent periods the jejunal protein content was the highest. The protein content of the intestinal brush-border membrane was higher (P < 0.001) at the jejunum than at the duodenum or ileum. The specific activity of maltase declined (P < 0.001) with age in all three regions, most especially between 3 and 27 days of age. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) at 41 and 55 days of age was higher (P < 0.001) in the duodenum than in the jejunum or ileum. The activity of AP fluctuated with age in the duodenum but there was a more defined decline (P < 0.001) with age in the jejunum and ileum. The relative protein content of the liver increased (P < 0.001) with age, with two peaks at 27 and 55 days of age. Arginase activity was not detected in the liver of 3-day old chicks and was not significantly affected by age between 27 and 72 days of age. The pattern of development observed is similar to that in growing poultry. There is, however, a need for evaluation at closer intervals in early life as well as an in-depth assessment of the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa.

  6. Dosage Effect of Zinc Glycine Chelate on Zinc Metabolism and Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter in Intestinal Segments on Rat.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaoling; Fang, Shenglin; Feng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in various fundamental biological processes. The focus of this research was to investigate the dosage effect of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) on zinc metabolism and the gene expression of zinc transporters in intestinal segments. A total of 30 4-week-old SD rats were randomized into five treatment groups. The basal diets for each group were supplemented with gradient levels of Zn (0, 30, 60, 90, and 180 mg/kg) from Zn-Gly. After 1-week experiment, the results showed that serum and hepatic zinc concentration were elevated linearly with supplemental Zn levels from 0 to 180 mg Zn/kg. Serum Cu-Zn SOD activities resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) quadratic response and reached the peak when fed 60 mg Zn/kg. There were linear responses to the addition of Zn-Gly from 0 to 180 mg Zn/kg on Cu-Zn SOD and AKP activities in the liver. In the duodenum, MT1 mRNA was upregulated with the increasing dietary Zn-Gly levels and reached the peak of 180 mg Zn/kg (P < 0.05). Zip4 mRNA expression was downregulated with the increasing zinc levels (P < 0.05) in both duodenum and jejunum. In the jejunum, Zip5 mRNA expression in 60 mg Zn/kg was higher compared with other groups (P < 0.05). ZnT1 mRNA in duodenum was numerically increased with the rising levels of zinc content and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with 180 mg Zn/kg. In the duodenum, adding 60 or 90 mg Zn/kg increased PepT1 expression, but in the jejunum, 60 mg Zn/kg did not differ from 0 added Zn. In summary, there is a dose-dependent effect of dietary Zn-Gly on serum and hepatic zinc levels and the activities of Cu-Zn SOD and AKP on rats. Dietary Zn-Gly has a certain effect on MT1, Zip4, Zip5, and ZnT1 expression, which expressed differently in intestinal segments with different levels of Zn-Gly load. Besides, Zn-Gly also could regulate PepT1 expression in intestinal segments.

  7. Effects of Tributyrin on Intestinal Energy Status, Antioxidative Capacity and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaolong; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Hongyi; Ding, Binying; Gong, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB) on the growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, intestinal morphology, energy status, disaccharidase activity, and antioxidative capacity of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, with 4 replicated pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with TB supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg) and LPS challenge (0 or 500 μg/kg body weight [BW]). On days 22, 24, and 26 of the trial, broilers received an intraperitoneal administration of 500 μg/kg BW LPS or saline. Dietary TB showed no effect on growth performance. However, LPS challenge decreased the average daily gain of broilers from day 22 to day 26 of the trial. Dietary TB supplementation inhibited the increase of interleukin-1β (in the jejunum and ileum), interleukin-6 (in the duodenum and jejunum), and prostaglandin E2 (in the duodenum) of LPS-challenged broilers. Similar inhibitory effects of TB in the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (in the ileum) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (in the jejunum) were also observed in birds challenged with LPS. Additionally, TB supplementation mitigated the decrease of ileal adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and total adenine nucleotide and the reduction of jejunal catalase activity induced by LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that the TB supplementation was able to reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improve the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in the small intestine of LPS-challenged broilers. PMID:26580447

  8. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z R; Hu, C H; Xia, M S; Zhan, X A; Wang, M Q

    2003-06-01

    Two hundred forty male Avian Farms broiler chicks, 1 d of age, were randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had five pens of 12 chicks per pen. The chicks were used to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora and morphology. The chicks received the same basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, and FOS was added to the basal diet at 0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg diet at the expense of corn. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS to the basal diet significantly increased average daily gain of broilers. The feed-to-gain ratios were significantly decreased for the birds fed diets with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg FOS versus the control. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but inhibited Escherichia coli in the small intestinal and cecal digesta. Supplementation of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg FOS to chicks significantly improved the activities of amylase compared to the control (12.80 or 14.75 vs. 8.42 Somogyi units). A significant increase in the activities of total protease was observed in 4.0 g/kg FOS-treated birds versus controls (83.91 vs. 65.97 units). Morphology data for the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed no significant differences for villus height, crypt depth, or microvillus height at the duodenum. By contrast, addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS significantly increased ileal villus height, jejunal and ileal microvillus height, and villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratios at the jejunum and ileum and decreased crypt depth at the jejunum and ileum. However, addition of 8.0 g/kg FOS had no significant effect on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora, or morphology.

  9. Effects of adding liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid to drinking water on growth performance and small intestinal morphology of nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaewtapee, C; Krutthai, N; Poosuwan, K; Poeikhampha, T; Koonawootrittriron, S; Bunchasak, C

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analogue free acid (LMA) to drinking water on growth performance, small intestinal morphology and volatile fatty acids in the caecum of nursery pigs. Twenty-four crossbred pigs (Large White x Landrace, BW approximately 18 kg) were divided into three groups with four replications of two piglets each. The piglets received drinking water without (control), with 0.05 or 0.10% LMA. The results indicated that adding LMA at 0.10% to drinking water significantly increased their weight gain, average daily feed intake (p < 0.05) and tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. Adding LMA to drinking water significantly increased their water intake and significantly reduced the pH of drinking water (p < 0.01), thus total plate count (p < 0.01) and Escherichia coli in drinking water was reduced (p < 0.05), while the total number of bacteria in the caecum was not significantly affected. Liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analogue free acid supplementation in drinking water tended to decrease pH in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon and rectum. Furthermore, adding LMA at 0.10% significantly increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05), and the villous height:crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.01) was higher, whereas acetic acid concentration in the caecum was significantly lower than in the control group. It could be concluded that adding LMA to drinking water improved growth performance of the nursery pigs because of high water quality and high nutrient utilization caused by an improvement of small intestinal morphology (not from nutritional effect of methionine source).

  10. Effect of Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder supplementation on intestinal morphology and intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Gang; Qiu, Yin; He, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo; Li, Yinglun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 75 pigs were used to investigate effects of feeding Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder (TMFP) on small intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs. The dietary treatments were: a control diet; control diet + 3 g/kg TMFP; control diet + 0.3 g/kg colistin sulfate (ANT). The results showed that supplementation with TMFP increased (P < 0.05) villus height at duodenum, jejunum at 3 time points, increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth at duodenum, jejunum at day 14, improved villus height: crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in jejunum at day 21 as compared with ANT. Supplementation of TMFP and ANT had lower (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the ileum, cecum and colon at day 7 as compared with control. Supplementation of TMFP had higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria counts in the ileum, cecum and colon compared with ANT, except for colon at day 21. No effect (P > 0.05) on lactobacilli in colon has been seen with supplementation of TMFP and ANT at 3 time points, while both of supplementations showed increased the number of lactobacilli in cecum at day 14 and day 21. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints indicated that a highest similarity was observed for profiles from samples taken 14 d, 21 d from TMFP. The diversity of DGGE fingerprints of TMFP was higher than those of ANT and control. The results suggest that TMFP is potential to enhancing intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaning pigs, and can be served as an effective and safe dietary additive for weaning pigs.

  11. Effect of the hydrolytic state of dietary protein on post-irradiation morbidity and mucosal cell regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, M.K.; Mahler, P.A.; Yamanaka, W.K.; Guy, D.G.; Hutchinson, M.L.

    1987-03-01

    Diets containing hydrolyzed casein have been observed to enhance post-irradiation intestinal mucosal recovery. The intake and the composition of such diets were not carefully controlled. This study attempted to do so. Male specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either an enzymatically hydrolyzed casein semi-purified diet (EHC), a whole casein semi-purified diet (WC), or powdered lab chow (C). All diets were isonitrogenous, and the WC and C rats were pair-fed to the ad libitum fed EHC rats. Seven days after initiation of feeding, the rats were abdominally irradiated with a single 9.0 Gy dose of 137Cs gamma rays. The rats were continued on the diets for another 5 days. Intestinal mucosa from transverse segments at the duodenum, jejunum, proximal ileum, and distal ileum were measured for incorporation of (/sup 3/H methyl) thymidine 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection. Incorporation reached a maximum by day 4 post-irradiation regardless of diet or segment. Incorporation in the duodenum was enhanced by the EHC diet compared to the C diet, while the incorporation in the jejunum was initially suppressed by the EHC diet compared to the WC diet. In the jejunum, the number of mitoses per crypt of 25 anti-mesenteric crypts post-irradiation was increased by the EHC diet. Prior to irradiation, all groups gained similar amounts of weight. After irradiation, the C rats lost weight, while the EHC and WC rats remained the same or gained weight. Guaiac tests for occult blood were negative prior to irradiation, but positive for all rats on days 1-5 postirradiation. When calorie and protein intakes were controlled, different areas of the small intestine responded differently to EHC.

  12. Effects of human fecal flora on intestinal morphology and mucosal immunity in human flora-associated piglet.

    PubMed

    Che, C; Pang, X; Hua, X; Zhang, B; Shen, J; Zhu, J; Wei, H; Sun, L; Chen, P; Cui, L; Zhao, L; Yang, Q

    2009-03-01

    Human flora-associated (HFA) piglet model was established to examine the effects of gut microbes from a different donor species on the intestinal morphology and mucosal immunity. Newborn germ-free piglets, obtained by caesarean section, were orally inoculated with a human and a porcine faecal suspension, and artificially fed to establish a HFA group (n = 7) and pig flora-associated (PFA) group (n = 7), respectively. All pigs were killed 6 weeks later. Tissue samples from duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were collected and studied by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry methods for intestinal morphological analyses and detection of immunocompetent cells. In summary, both groups of pigs performed well but HFA pigs had a somewhat better daily weight gain, and their jejunal villus height and crypt depth were significantly higher. In comparison with PFA pigs, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in jejunum was lower but the number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins was significantly increased in HFA pigs. No difference was observed in the number of mast cells. The areas of IgA producing cells and CD4(+) T cells in the jejunum and IgG producing cells in the small intestine were significantly higher in HFA pigs. However, the areas of MHC class II expressing cells were significantly increased in the duodenum and colon. Additionally, the amount of Bifidobacteria spp. was significantly higher in HFA pigs. This study confirms that the composition of gut microbes differentially affects the host intestinal mucosal immunity and suggests that commensal bacteria have great effects on intestinal health and development.

  13. Effects of Tributyrin on Intestinal Energy Status, Antioxidative Capacity and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaolong; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Hongyi; Ding, Binying; Gong, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB) on the growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, intestinal morphology, energy status, disaccharidase activity, and antioxidative capacity of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, with 4 replicated pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with TB supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg) and LPS challenge (0 or 500 μg/kg body weight [BW]). On days 22, 24, and 26 of the trial, broilers received an intraperitoneal administration of 500 μg/kg BW LPS or saline. Dietary TB showed no effect on growth performance. However, LPS challenge decreased the average daily gain of broilers from day 22 to day 26 of the trial. Dietary TB supplementation inhibited the increase of interleukin-1β (in the jejunum and ileum), interleukin-6 (in the duodenum and jejunum), and prostaglandin E2 (in the duodenum) of LPS-challenged broilers. Similar inhibitory effects of TB in the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (in the ileum) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (in the jejunum) were also observed in birds challenged with LPS. Additionally, TB supplementation mitigated the decrease of ileal adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and total adenine nucleotide and the reduction of jejunal catalase activity induced by LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that the TB supplementation was able to reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improve the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in the small intestine of LPS-challenged broilers.

  14. Effect of Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder supplementation on intestinal morphology and intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Gang; Qiu, Yin; He, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo; Li, Yinglun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 75 pigs were used to investigate effects of feeding Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder (TMFP) on small intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs. The dietary treatments were: a control diet; control diet + 3 g/kg TMFP; control diet + 0.3 g/kg colistin sulfate (ANT). The results showed that supplementation with TMFP increased (P < 0.05) villus height at duodenum, jejunum at 3 time points, increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth at duodenum, jejunum at day 14, improved villus height: crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in jejunum at day 21 as compared with ANT. Supplementation of TMFP and ANT had lower (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the ileum, cecum and colon at day 7 as compared with control. Supplementation of TMFP had higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria counts in the ileum, cecum and colon compared with ANT, except for colon at day 21. No effect (P > 0.05) on lactobacilli in colon has been seen with supplementation of TMFP and ANT at 3 time points, while both of supplementations showed increased the number of lactobacilli in cecum at day 14 and day 21. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints indicated that a highest similarity was observed for profiles from samples taken 14 d, 21 d from TMFP. The diversity of DGGE fingerprints of TMFP was higher than those of ANT and control. The results suggest that TMFP is potential to enhancing intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaning pigs, and can be served as an effective and safe dietary additive for weaning pigs. PMID:25785165

  15. Role of Vagal Innervation in Diurnal Rhythm of Intestinal Peptide Transporter 1 (PEPT1)

    PubMed Central

    Qandeel, Hisham G.; Alonso, Fernando; Hernandez, David J.; Duenes, Judith A.; Zheng, Ye; Scow, Jeffrey S.; Sarr, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein is absorbed predominantly as di/tripeptides via H+/peptide cotransporter-1 (PEPT1). We demonstrated previously diurnal variations in expression and function of duodenal and jejunal but not ileal PEPT1; neural regulation of this pattern is unexplored. HYPOTHESIS: Complete abdominal vagotomy abolishes diurnal variations in gene expression and transport function of PEPT1. METHODS: 24 rats maintained in a 12-h light/dark room [6AM-6PM] underwent abdominal vagotomy; 24 other rats were controls. Four weeks later, mucosal levels of mRNA and protein were measured at 9AM, 3PM, 9PM, and 3AM (n=6 each) by quantitative real time-PCR and Western blots, respectively; transporter-mediated uptake of di-peptide (Gly-Sar) was measured by the everted-sleeve technique. RESULTS: Diurnal variation in mRNA, as in controls, was retained post-vagotomy in duodenum and jejunum (peak at 3PM, p<0.05) but not in ileum. Diurnal variations in expression of protein and Gly-Sar uptake, however, were absent post-vagotomy (p>0.3). Similar to controls, maximal uptake was in jejunum after vagotomy (Vmax-nmol/cm/min: jejunum vs. duodenum and ileum; 163 vs. 88 and 71 at 3AM; p<0.04); Km remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Vagal innervation appears to mediate in part diurnal variations in protein expression and transport function of PEPT1, but not diurnal variation in mRNA expression of PEPT1. PMID:19707837

  16. Segmental difference of mucosal damage along the length of a mouse small intestine in an Ussing chamber.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Eiko; Natori, Yasuo; Ohgishi, Yuki; Hayashi, Hisayoshi; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2005-12-01

    The Ussing chamber is often used for in vitro investigations into the transport physiology of epithelia including the small intestine. However, the morphological and functional integrity of the small intestine incubated in an Ussing chamber has been largely ignored. The present study attempted to compare the mucosal injury among different segments of the mouse small intestine when incubated in an Ussing chamber. To assess the functional damage, we measured changes in the transmural potential difference (PD) evoked by adding glucose to the mucosal solution and forskolin to the mucosal and serosal solutions. Morphological deterioration was assessed histologically. The villi in the duodenum and proximal jejunum were morphologically damaged by 2 h of incubation in an Ussing chamber and almost completely destroyed within 4 h, while crypts remained intact. The villi were moderately damaged in the distal jejunum. In contrast, the integrity of the villi and crypts was maintained in the ileum for 4 h. The basal PD and forskolin-induced PD were maintained up to 4 h of incubation in all segments. On the other hand, the glucose-induced PD was not apparent in the duodenum at 0 h, and was gradually suppressed to zero in the proximal jejunum by 4 h, although the glucose-induced PD was maintained for 4 h in the ileum. The loss of villous epithelial integrity was correlated with the disappearance of the glucose-induced PD, while both the basal and forskolin-induced PD were retained, even in the tissue with disrupted villi. It is concluded that the mucosa of the proximal small intestine was rapidly injured in the Ussing chamber, particularly in the villi, while the integrity of the mucosa of the distal small intestine was maintained for 4 h. The glucose-induced PD, but not the basal or forskolin-induced PD, can be used as a marker of the villous integrity.

  17. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora.

  18. Effects of corn type and fasting time before slaughter on growth and plasma index in weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; He, J; Chen, D W; Yu, B; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Yang, K Y; Yuan, Z C

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary corn type (waxy corn [WC] vs. nonwaxy corn [NC]) and fasting period (2 h vs. 12-16 h) before slaughter on growth and plasma index in weaning pigs. Twenty-four crossbred barrows (8.26 ± 0.47 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replications of 1 pig per replicate metabolism cage. Waxy corn contained less fat, a lower amylase:amylopectin ratio, more CP, and more starch than NC. Pigs fed the WC diet had lower jejunum digesta pH compared with those fed the NC diet ( < 0.05). Maltase activity in the jejunum and ileum mucosa ( < 0.01), sucrose activity in the ileum mucosa ( < 0.01), and amylase activity in the pancreas and jejunum digesta ( < 0.05) were increased in pigs fed the WC diet relative to those fed the NC diet. But the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of starch and CP was lower for the WC group ( < 0.05). Ingestion of the NC diet resulted in higher ( < 0.05) ADG and ADFI in the second week but did not affect ADG ( = 0.091) and the feed:gain ratio (F:G; = 0.077) during the whole experiment period. The plasma glucose ( < 0.01) concentration was higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; < 0.01) concentrations was lower in the hepatic portal vein in pigs fed the WC diet relative to those fed the NC diet. Fasting 2 h before slaughter decreased the jejunum and ileum digesta pH compared with the 12-h fasting group ( < 0.01). Villus height increased in the duodenum ( < 0.01) and jejunum ( < 0.05) and the villus height:crypt depth ratio increased in the duodenum ( < 0.05) of pigs after shortening the fasting period before slaughter. Shortening the fasting time before slaughter resulted in higher plasma glucose ( < 0.05) concentrations and a higher HDL-C:low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ratio ( < 0.05) whereas the LDL-C ( < 0.05) concentrations were reduced in the hepatic portal vein. The results of this experiment indicate that although the production

  19. A case of lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Ignacio; Latorre, Rafael; Soria, Federico; Carballo, Fernando; Lopez-Albors, Octavio; Buendia, Antonio J; Perez-Cuadrado, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    A 3 yr old male English setter dog was presented for evaluation of a 6-wk history of intermittent diarrhea. After standard gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy showed normal mucosa, double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) was used via both oral and anal approaches. Gross changes consistent with inflammation in the jejunum were seen, and biopsy specimens were obtained. Histologic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis. Clinical remission of the disease occurred after 3 mo of therapy with prednisone, metronidazole, and a novel protein diet. Use of DBE has not been previously reported in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease, and isolated lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis has not been described. The described cases of intestinal inflammatory disease diagnosed by conventional endoscopy were related to pathologic changes in the duodenum, ileum or colon, but not the jejunum. The main advantage of the DBE technique allowed examination of portions of the small intestine (jejunum) that were not commonly accessible by standard endoscopic techniques, and permitted a minimally invasive collection of biopsy samples compared with surgical biopsy. This case highlights the need to consider using DBE in animals with gastrointestinal disorders, whose symptoms are not readily explained by routine tests, conventional endoscopy, and dietary or therapeutic trials.

  20. Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H.D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. At 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

  1. Antibiotics conspicuously affect community profiles and richness, but not the density of bacterial cells associated with mucosa in the large and small intestines of mice.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Nathan J; Uwiera, Richard R E; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-02-01

    The influence of three antibiotics (bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate) on the mucosa-associated enteric microbiota and the intestines of mice was examined. Antibiotics caused conspicuous enlargement of ceca and an increase in overall length of the intestine. However, there were no pathologic changes associated with increased cecal size or length of the intestine. Conspicuous reductions in the richness of mucosa-associated bacteria and changes to community profiles within the small (duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum) and large (cecum, ascending colon, and descending colon) intestine occurred in mice administered antibiotics. Communities in antibiotic-treated mice were dominated by a limited number of Clostridium-like (i.e. clostridial cluster XIVa) and Bacteroides species. The richness of mucosa-associated communities within the small and large intestine increased during the 14-day recovery period. However, community profiles within the large intestine did not return to baseline (i.e. relative to the control). Although antibiotic administration greatly reduced bacterial richness, densities of mucosa-associated bacteria were not reduced correspondingly. These data showed that the antibiotics, bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate, administered for 21 days to mice did not sterilize the intestine, but did impart a tremendous and prolonged impact on mucosa-associated bacterial communities throughout the small and large intestine.

  2. Effect of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin on cell volume and intracellular inorganic ions of rat intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Gilles-Baillien, M; Gerday, C; Kaeckenbeeck, A; Flamee, P A; Duchesne, P Y

    1987-11-01

    1.--Electron micrographs of rat jejunum mucosa incubated for 1 h in the presence of Escheria coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in the lumen shows alterations of villous cells as well as of crypt cells. The brush border of mature enterocytes is partially desintegrated and covered with a thick mucus. Crypts are occupied on half of their height by cells very similar to Paneth cells, loaded with numerous large dark inclusions. 2.--Cell volume and intracellular inorganic ion concentrations have been estimated in mucosal scrapings of jejunum sacs, incubated in vitro for 1 or 3 h. The quick action (1 h of incubation) of STa is a swelling of the intestinal calls accompanied by an increase in Na+, Cl- and Ca2+ intracellular concentrations and a decrease in the K+ and Mg2+ ones. The delayed action (3 h of incubation) is an increase of extracellular space and a decrease in cell volume; and at the same time the intracellular concentration of Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ is augmented. 3.--After 3 h of incubation intestinal cells from the other levels of intestine (duodenum, ileum and colon) show the same variations in cell volume and intracellular inorganic ion concentrations under the influence of STa, as those recorded in the jejunum. 4.--The present work favours the hypothesis that all intestinal cells, villous or cryptic, are involved in the alteration of fluid ion transport ending in diarrhea.

  3. Adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the small intestine. Distribution and etiologic associations.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, R C; Welch, C E; Malt, R A

    1983-01-01

    Malignant small-bowel tumors in 171 patients over 64 years included 68 with adenocarcinomas, 41 with primary lymphomas, 50 with carcinoids, and 12 with sarcomas. The distribution of the carcinomas showed approximately 80% preponderance in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. A similar distribution in the upper small bowel in small-bowel carcinomas induced in Fischer and Sprague-Dawley rats by azoxymethane (90-160 mg/kg) suggests defense mechanisms within ileal mucosa. The clinical series from 1958 to 1976 included two Crohn's carcinomas (jejunum, defunctioned ileum), two jejunal cancers (lymphoma, carcinoma) associated with celiac disease, two duodenal carcinomas arising in villous adenomas, and one jejunal lymphoma following exposure to irradiation. Multiple primary malignancies were found in 20 to 25% of enteric cancers. Hemorrhage was more common with carcinoma than lymphoma, but lymphomas predominated considering perforation or a palpable mass. Both carcinoma and lymphoma had 75 to 80% resectability rates and 14 to 15% five-year postoperative survival rates. The prognosis was least poor for carcinoma of the jejunum, one third of patients with "curative" resections surviving five years. PMID:6337568

  4. [Intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin using single-passintestinal perfusion method in rat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yongmao; Meng, Xianli; Zhang, Yan

    2011-09-01

    The intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin was investigated using the single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in S/D rats. SPIP was performed in each isolated segment of the intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) and the different concentrations inhibitor group of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2) with the concentrations of aloe-emodin (0.238 mg x L(-1)) at a flow rate of 0.28 mL x min(-1). The effective absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent absorption coefficient (Papp) of aloe-emodin for each segment were determined before and after treated with different concentrations of inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 respectively. Aloe-emodin exhibits a high intestinal permeability except the the ileum, indicative that the compounds are well absorbed. Decreases of Ka and Papp values in the duodenum, jejunum, colon and ileum, furthermore, the duodenum has significant increased compared with the ileum, there are have no significant difference in other isolated region of the intestine. Compared with the group which have no inhibitor of P-gp, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of P-gp groups. Compared with the group of no inhibitor of MRP2, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of MRP2 groups with the highest and the middle concentration. The results suggested that the inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 all can promote the intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin.

  5. [Sonographic examinations of the intestines in calves].

    PubMed

    Padel-Gschwind, D; Stocker, H

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe the normal ultrasonic appearance of the intestinal loops of calves at different stages of their adolescence and at various intervals after suckling and to determine reliable reference values. Therefore the abdomen of 20 clinically healthy calves have been examined with a 5 MHz sector probe on the right and left flank of each animal and the exact position, the largest diameter, the thickness of the walls, the peristaltic activity and the appearance of the contents of each part of the intestines described. Most often, the pars cranialis duodeni could be seen ventral of the right costal arch as well as in the right flank, with younger calves it also showed in the left flank sometimes. The position could be changed considerably depending on the period elapsed since the last suckling time. The duodenum descendens and the duodenum ascendens could be traced in the right flank. The thickness of the wall was found to measure between 2 and 3 mm throughout the whole duodenum. The examination of the jejunum and the ileum was basically done in the right flank. In cases where the rumen was not yet fully developed visualization was also possible in the left flank. Most often these parts were seen in cross-section displaying permanent peristaltic activity. With the younger calves the large intestine could equally be traced in both flanks. In older animals it could be recognized as voluminous hollow organ filled with gas, or in case of the colon ascendens as garlandshape. In the jejunum and ileum as well as in the large intestine the thickness of the wall measured between 1 and 2 mm. Each part of the intestine showed an increase in diameter as the calves grew older. The peristaltic activity increased during two hours after suckling and during this time the echoing level of the contents was lower.

  6. Digital gene expression profiling analysis of duodenum transcriptomes in SD rats administered ferrous sulfate or ferrous glycine chelate by gavage.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhao; Fang, Shenglin; Hu, Qiaoling; Huang, Danping; Feng, Jie

    2016-11-30

    The absorption of different iron sources is a trending research topic. Many studies have revealed that organic iron exhibits better bioavailability than inorganic iron, but the concrete underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the differences in bioavailability of ferrous sulfate and ferrous glycinate in the intestines of SD rats using Illumina sequencing technology. Digital gene expression analysis resulted in the generation of almost 128 million clean reads, with expression data for 17,089 unigenes. A total of 123 differentially expressed genes with a |log2(fold change)| >1 and q-value < 0.05 were identified between the FeSO4 and Fe-Gly groups. Gene Ontology functional analysis revealed that these genes were involved in oxidoreductase activity, iron ion binding, and heme binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis also showed relevant important pathways. In addition, the expression patterns of 9 randomly selected genes were further validated by qRT-PCR, which confirmed the digital gene expression results. Our study showed that the two iron sources might share the same absorption mechanism, and that differences in bioavailability between FeSO4 and Fe-Gly were not only in the absorption process but also during the transport and utilization process.

  7. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition potentiates amino acid- and bile acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takuya; Wang, Joon-Ho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Rudenkyy, Sergiy; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal endocrine cells release gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptides (GLPs), in response to luminal nutrients. Luminal l-glutamate (l-Glu) and 5′-inosine monophosphate (IMP) synergistically increases duodenal HCO3− secretion via GLP-2 release. Since L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal amino acids or bile acids stimulate duodenal HCO3− secretion via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. We measured HCO3− secretion with pH and CO2 electrodes using a perfused rat duodenal loop under isoflurane anesthesia. l-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally coperfused with or without luminal perfusion (0.1 mM) or intravenous (iv) injection (3 μmol/kg) of the DPPIV inhibitor NVP728. The loop was also perfused with a selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA, 10 μM) or the non-bile acid type TGR5 agonist 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (CCDC; 10 μM). DPPIV activity visualized by use of the fluorogenic substrate was present on the duodenal brush border and submucosal layer, both abolished by the incubation with NVP728 (0.1 mM). An iv injection of NVP728 enhanced l-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3− secretion, whereas luminal perfusion of NVP728 had no effect. BTA or CCDC had little effect on HCO3− secretion, whereas NVP728 iv markedly enhanced BTA- or CCDC-induced HCO3− secretion, the effects inhibited by a GLP-2 receptor antagonist. Coperfusion of the TGR5 agonist enhanced l-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3− secretion with the enhanced GLP-2 release, suggesting that TGR5 activation amplifies nutrient sensing signals. DPPIV inhibition potentiated luminal l-Glu/IMP-induced and TGR5 agonist-induced HCO3− secretion via a GLP-2 pathway, suggesting that the modulation of the local concentration of the endogenous secretagogue GLP-2 by luminal compounds and DPPIV inhibition helps regulate protective duodenal HCO3− secretion. PMID:22821947

  8. Digestion of phospholipids after secretion of bile into the duodenum changes the phase behavior of bile components.

    PubMed

    Birru, Woldeamanuel A; Warren, Dallas B; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Williams, Hywel D; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Chalmers, David K; Pouton, Colin W

    2014-08-04

    Bile components play a significant role in the absorption of dietary fat, by solubilizing the products of fat digestion. The absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is often enhanced by interaction with the pathways of fat digestion and absorption. These processes can enhance drug absorption. Thus, the phase behavior of bile components and digested lipids is of great interest to pharmaceutical scientists who seek to optimize drug solubilization in the gut lumen. This can be achieved by dosing drugs after food or preferably by formulating the drug in a lipid-based delivery system. Phase diagrams of bile salts, lecithin, and water have been available for many years, but here we investigate the association structures that occur in dilute aqueous solution, in concentrations that are present in the gut lumen. More importantly, we have compared these structures with those that would be expected to be present in the intestine soon after secretion of bile. Phosphatidylcholines are rapidly hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes to yield equimolar mixtures of their monoacyl equivalents and fatty acids. We constructed phase diagrams that model the association structures formed by the products of digestion of biliary phospholipids. The micelle-vesicle phase boundary was clearly identifiable by dynamic light scattering and nephelometry. These data indicate that a significantly higher molar ratio of lipid to bile salt is required to cause a transition to lamellar phase (i.e., liposomes in dilute solution). Mixed micelles of digested bile have a higher capacity for solubilization of lipids and fat digestion products and can be expected to have a different capacity to solubilize lipophilic drugs. We suggest that mixtures of lysolecithin, fatty acid, and bile salts are a better model of molecular associations in the gut lumen, and such mixtures could be used to better understand the interaction of drugs with the fat digestion and absorption pathway.

  9. Digital gene expression profiling analysis of duodenum transcriptomes in SD rats administered ferrous sulfate or ferrous glycine chelate by gavage

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhao; Fang, Shenglin; Hu, Qiaoling; Huang, Danping; Feng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The absorption of different iron sources is a trending research topic. Many studies have revealed that organic iron exhibits better bioavailability than inorganic iron, but the concrete underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the differences in bioavailability of ferrous sulfate and ferrous glycinate in the intestines of SD rats using Illumina sequencing technology. Digital gene expression analysis resulted in the generation of almost 128 million clean reads, with expression data for 17,089 unigenes. A total of 123 differentially expressed genes with a |log2(fold change)| >1 and q-value < 0.05 were identified between the FeSO4 and Fe-Gly groups. Gene Ontology functional analysis revealed that these genes were involved in oxidoreductase activity, iron ion binding, and heme binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis also showed relevant important pathways. In addition, the expression patterns of 9 randomly selected genes were further validated by qRT-PCR, which confirmed the digital gene expression results. Our study showed that the two iron sources might share the same absorption mechanism, and that differences in bioavailability between FeSO4 and Fe-Gly were not only in the absorption process but also during the transport and utilization process. PMID:27901057

  10. A rare case of metastatic germ cell tumor to stomach and duodenum masquerading as signet ring cell adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sridhar; Patil, Prachi; Mehta, Shaesta; Ramadwar, Mukta

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas are the most common cancers affecting stomach. However gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), lymphomas and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can also affect the stomach. But stomach is relatively rare site of involvement by metastasis. In this case report a rare metastasis of germ cell tumor (GCT) into stomach is described which clinically and endoscopically masquerade as primary gastric cancers. But detailed clinical examination and vigilant histopathological reporting proves the origin of tumor distant from stomach and thereby change the whole approach of management. PMID:27668229

  11. Enteric, hepatic and muscle tissue development of goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p < 0.05). There were no differences in DNA contents in any intestinal segment (p > 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life.

  12. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  13. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  14. Expression and cellular localization of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT2, MCT7, and MCT8) along the cattle gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kirat, Doaa; Sallam, Khalid I; Kato, Seiyu

    2013-06-01

    Fourteen members of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT, SLC16) family have been identified, each having a different tissue distribution and substrate specificity. The expression of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 have been studied in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants; however, details of the expression of other MCT isoforms in the various parts of ruminant gastrointestinal tract are lacking. Reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction was used to study the regional distribution of MCT2, MCT3, and MCT5-MCT14 in the cattle gastrointestinal tract and verified the existence of MCT mRNA transcripts for MCT2, MCT3, MCT4, MCT7, MCT8, MCT9, MCT10, MCT13, and MCT14 in the ruminal and abomasal epithelia, mRNA transcripts for MCT2, MCT3, MCT4, MCT7, MCT8, MCT10, MCT13, and MCT14 in the jejunum, and mRNA transcripts for MCT2, MCT3, MCT4, MCT7, MCT8, MCT13, and MCT14 in the caecum of cattle. At the cellular level, immunohistochemical studies localized MCT2, MCT7, and MCT8 proteins in the cattle rumen, abomasum, jejunum, and caecum. This is the first study to detect the expression of various MCT isoforms in the gastrointestinal tract of a ruminant species. Our data suggest that these transporter proteins are involved in essential physiologic processes and are possible molecular targets for studying the regulation of the transport of short-chain monocarboxylates, aromatic amino acids, and thyroid hormones across the gastrointestinal tract of cattle.

  15. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria acervulina-challenged layers and broilers.

    PubMed

    Su, S; Miska, K B; Fetterer, R H; Jenkins, M C; Wong, E A

    2014-05-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by intestinal protozoa in the genus Eimeria. Clinical signs of coccidiosis include intestinal lesions and reduced feed efficiency and BW gain. This growth reduction may be due to changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine. The objective of this study was to examine the differential expression of digestive enzymes, transporters of amino acids, peptides, sugars, and minerals, and an antimicrobial peptide in the small intestine of Eimeria acervulina-infected broilers and layers. Uninfected broilers and layers, in general, expressed these genes at comparable levels. Some differences included 3-fold and 2-fold greater expression of the peptide transporter PepT1 and the antimicrobial peptide LEAP2 (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2), respectively, in the jejunum of layers compared with broilers and 17-fold greater expression of LEAP2 in the duodenum of broilers compared with layers. In the duodenum of Eimeria-infected broilers and layers, there was downregulation of aminopeptidase N; sucrase-isomaltase; the neutral, cationic, and anionic amino acid transporters b(o,+)AT/rBAT, B(o)AT, CAT2, and EAAT3; the sugar transporter GLUT2; the zinc transporter ZnT1; and LEAP2. In the jejunum of infected layers there was downregulation of many of the same genes as in the duodenum plus downregulation of PepT1, b(o,+)AT/rBAT, and the y(+) L system amino acid transporters y(+) LAT1 and y(+) LAT2. In the ileum of infected layers there was downregulation of CAT2, y(+)LAT1, the L type amino acid transporter LAT1, and the sugar transporter GLUT1, and upregulation of APN, PepT1, the sodium glucose transporter SGLT4, and LEAP2. In E. acervulina-infected broilers, there were no gene expression changes in the jejunum and ileum. These changes in intestinal digestive enzyme and nutrient transporter gene expression may result in a decrease in the efficiency of protein digestion, uptake of important amino acids

  16. Intestinal IgA⁺ cell numbers as well as IgA, IgG, and IgM contents correlate with mucosal humoral immunity of broilers during supplementation with high fluorine in the diets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2013-07-01

    Fluoride (F), a well-recognized harmful substance, is easily absorbed by the intestinal mucosa. The intestinal mucosal immune system is equipped with unique innate and adaptive defense mechanisms that provide a first line of protection against infectious agents. Meanwhile, immunoglobulins are the major secretory products of the adaptive immune system and their levels can be a strong indicator of a disease or condition. In this study, therefore, we investigated the effects of high dietary fluorine on the numbers of immunoglobulin A-positive (IgA(+)) cells in the lamina propria of intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) by immunohistochemistry as well as on the contents of immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the mucosa of intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 280 1-day-old healthy avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride (NaF) for 42 days. The experimental data showed that the numbers of IgA(+) cells as well as the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were significantly decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the high fluorine groups II and III when compared with those of the control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg significantly reduced the numbers of the IgA(+) cells and the contents of aforementioned immunoglobulins in the intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) of broilers, which could finally impact the mucosal humoral immune function in the intestines by a way that reduces the lymphocyte population and/or lymphocyte activation.

  17. A novel phosphatase upregulated in Akp3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Narisawa, Sonoko; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Doctor, Kutbuddin S; Fukuda, Michiko N; Alpers, David H; Millán, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    Reexamination of the Akp3(-/-) mouse intestine showed that, despite the lack of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), the Akp3(-/-) gut still had considerable alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in the duodenum and ileum. This activity is due to the expression of a novel murine Akp6 gene that encodes an IAP isozyme expressed in the gut in a global manner (gIAP) as opposed to duodenum-specific IAP (dIAP) isozyme encoded by the Akp3 gene. Phylogenetically, gIAP is similar to the rat IAP I isozyme. Kinetically, gIAP displays a 5.7-fold reduction in catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) and a 30% drop in K(m), leading to a 4-fold reduction k(cat)/K(m) compared with dIAP, and these changes in enzymatic properties can all be attributed to a crucial R317Q substitution. Western and Northern blot analyses document the expression of Akp6 in the gut, from the duodenum to the ileum, and it is upregulated in the jejunum and ileum of Akp3(-/-) mice. Developmentally, Akp3 expression is turned on during postnatal days 13-15 and exclusively in the duodenum, whereas Akp6 and Akp5 are expressed from birth throughout the gut with enhanced expression at weaning. Posttranslational modifications of gIAP have a pronounced effect on its catalytic properties. Given the low catalytic efficiency of gIAP, its upregulation during fat feeding, its sequence similarity with rat IAP I, and the fact that rat IAP I has been implicated in the upregulation of surfactant-like particles during fat intake, it appears likely that gIAP may have a role in mediating the accelerated fatty acid intake observed in Akp3(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet.

  18. Digestion of fat and fatty acids along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tancharoenrat, P; Ravindran, V; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the digestion of fat and fatty acids (FA) from soybean oil and tallow along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. The second experiment was conducted to determine endogenous fat and FA losses and the FA profile of chicken bile. In experiment 1, 2-wk-old broilers were fed corn-soy diets supplemented with 50 g/kg of soybean oil or tallow for 7 d and digesta were collected from the duodenum, upper jejunum, upper ileum, and lower ileum. Apparent digestibility coefficients were calculated using the titanium marker ratio in diets, and digesta. Digestibility of fat was determined to be negative in the duodenum, indicating marked net secretion of fat into this segment. Fat was rapidly digested in the jejunum, with digestibility coefficients of 0.60 to 0.64 being determined at the end of the jejunum. The digestion of fat continued in the upper ileum. The apparent digestibility coefficient of fat determined at lower ileum in soybean oil diets was higher (P < 0.05) than that in tallow diets (0.82 vs. 0.74). Linoleic acid was digested throughout the intestinal tract, whereas the digestion of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids started only in the jejunum. Measurements at the lower ileal level showed that the unsaturated FA (linoleic and oleic acids) were well digested (0.90 to 0.94), irrespective of the source of fat. In contrast, the digestibility of saturated FA (palmitic and stearic acids) was influenced (P < 0.05) by the fat source. Digestibility coefficients of palmitic and stearic acids at lower ileum were markedly higher (P < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil (0.77 to 0.85) compared with that containing tallow (0.58 to 0.68). In experiment 2, ileal endogenous fat loss was determined to be 1,714 mg/kg of DM intake. Endogenous fat was composed mainly of palmitic (75 g/kg), stearic (131 g/kg), oleic (73 g/kg), linoleic (133 g/kg), and arachidonic (60 g/kg) acids. Fatty acid profile of

  19. Effect of dietary or abomasal supplementation of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; McAllister, T A; Cheng, K J

    1998-12-01

    The effect of site of supplementation of a mixture of two crude preparations (Enzyme C and Enzyme X) of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (EPDE) was studied in vivo using four ruminally and duodenally cannulated heifers (Exp. 1). The treatments were as follows: control (no EPDE), EPDE supplied through the diet (EF, 47.0 g/d), and EPDE infused continuously into the abomasum (EA, 41.6 g/d). Enzyme treatment increased the concentration of soluble reducing sugars (P < .05) and decreased NDF content (P < .05) in the treated feed, but this did not increase the rate or extent of in sacco disappearance of DM from the feed. Compared with control, ruminal fermentation was not affected by EF, but abomasal infusion increased (P < .05) rumen ammonia levels and shifted ruminal VFA patterns. Ruminal carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase activities were not affected by treatment. Abomasal infusion increased (P < .05) duodenal xylanase activity as compared with control and EF, but apparent digestion of DM, NDF, and CP were not affected by treatment. Negligible levels of CMCase and amylase reached the duodenum. During an in vitro experiment (Exp. 2), abomasal stability of the two EPDE was studied over a range of pH from 3.39 to .85, with or without pepsin. Carboxymethylcellulase activity (in Enzymes C and X) and beta-glucanase activity (in Enzyme C) were largely unstable against pepsin proteolysis (P < .001) and low pH (P < .001). Xylanase and amylase activities were resistant to pepsin but irreversibly inactivated at low pH. These two experiments showed that abomasal supplementation of EPDE did not successfully supply cellulases and amylases to the intestine, due partially to their limited resistance to low pH and pepsin proteolysis. Although EPDE significantly increased the level of xylanase activity at the duodenum, this did not significantly improve total tract digestion.

  20. Arterial Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-06-01

    Based on gross dissection of fifteen adult animals (11 females, 4 males), we described the arterial supply of the stomach and intestines of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a South American endangered species. The coeliac artery emitted the splenic, left gastric and hepatic arteries. The splenic artery directed towards the spleen, and the right ruminal artery, which is its only collateral directed towards the stomach, being the main artery of the rumen. The left gastric artery gave origin to the left ruminal, the reticular and the left gastroepiploic arteries. The left gastroepiploic artery originated the reticular accessory artery. Both arteries, gastric and left gastroepiploic, anastomosed their right counterparts derived from the hepatic artery on the curvatures of the abomasum. The cranial mesenteric artery irrigated the second half of the duodenum until the beginning of the descending colon. The thickest branch emitted by the cranial mesenteric artery was the ileocolic artery, which was destined to the ascending colon, caecum and ileum. The colic branches and the right colic arteries were irradiated on the right surface of the spiral loop of the ascending colon and distributed to both centripetal and centrifugal coils of the ascending colon; the colic branches were also anastomosed with the last jejunals and ileals and with the right colic arteries. There were no variations in the origin of any of the main branches derived from the coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries. This species had a basic pattern of arterial distribution similar to small domestic ruminants.

  1. Ashworthius sidemi (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) in wild ruminants in Białowieza Forest.

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Lachowicz, J; Osińska, B

    2009-01-01

    Between 2003-2007, abomasa of 91 European bison (Bison bonasus), 4 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 2 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) shot in the Białowieza Primeval Forest (Poland) were examined for worms presence. All the animals examined were infected with nematodes A. sidemi with an exception of one bison, that was shot in year 2003. There was much higher average intensity of invasion in bison (5529), than in red deer (85) and in roe deer (1837). The animals were shot in a period from December to March, and the nematodes found in them were fourth stage larvae and immature adult specimens. In the following years of examinations, a gradual increase in average intensity of infection was observed. In 2007, it reached in bison 10814 nematodes. Maximum intensity of invasion was found in this year as well and it reached 44310 nematodes in one bison. Pathological changes such as an oedema, hyperaemia and effusion in the abomasum and duodenum mucosa were most clearly seen in the calves that were highly infected. These changes probably lead to chronic diarrhoea, deterioration and deaths of young animals.

  2. Primary lymphangiectasia in a dingo (Canis familiaris dingo).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Ludlow, Chris; Layton, Candace; Dennis, Jeff; Miller, Margaret

    2004-12-01

    A 3-yr-old intact male dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) presented with a 3-mo history of diarrhea. The diarrhea did not resolve with antibiotics or intestinal protectants. Fecal examination for parasites, fecal cultures, physical examination, and radiographs were unremarkable. Enteroscopic duodenal biopsies showed dilated lacteals without inflammation. Results of serum folate, cobalamin, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were normal. Low serum total protein and albumin combined with increased fecal levels of alpha-1 protease inhibitor suggested the diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum revealed dilated mucosal and submucosal lacteals without associated inflammation, confirming the diagnosis of primary lymphangiectasia. Currently, the dingo is being maintained with nutritional management.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of jejunoileal atresia.

    PubMed

    Touloukian, R J

    1993-01-01

    A total of 116 cases of intestinal atresia or stenosis were encountered at the Yale-New Haven Hospital between 1970 and 1990. Sites involved were the duodenum (n = 61; 53%), jejunum or ileum (n = 47; 46%), and colon (n = 8; 7%). All but two patients underwent operative correction, for an overall survival rate of 92%. Challenging problems were the management of apple-peel atresia (five patients), multiple intestinal atresia with short-gut syndrome (eight patients), and proximal jejunal atresia with megaduodenum requiring imbrication duodenoplasty (four patients). Major assets in the improved outlook for intestinal atresia are prenatal diagnosis, regionalization of neonatal care, improved recognition of associated conditions, innovative surgical methods, and uncomplicated long-term total parenteral nutrition.

  4. [Collagenous sprue: secondary or independent from celiac disease?].

    PubMed

    Alventosa Mateu, Carlos; Larrey Ruiz, Laura; Pérez Zahonero, Maria Dolores; Navarro Gonzales, Atilio Javier; Canelles Gamir, Pilar; Huguet Malavés, José María; Luján Sanchís, María Soledad; Martorell Cebollada, Miguel Ángel; Medina Chuliá, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Collagenous sprue is a rare disease that goes with persistent diarrhea, weight loss and bad absortion, because it affects the small intestine, mainly duodenum and proximal jejunum. Diagnosis is made by having clinical signs and histological proof of atrophy and subepitelial deposit of collagenous material. Its etiology is not known completely, it is proposed that the origin is autoimmune because its relationship with celiac disease. Also there is a proposal that is a celiac evolution to gluten free diet. Is because this is not clear that we present a case of a patient with bad absorptive diarrhea and a clinical expression of collagenous sprue, that had a great clinical response to corticosteroids with home parenteral nutrition center.

  5. The Effects of Pregnenolone 16α-Carbonitrile Dosing on Digoxin Pharmacokinetics and Intestinal Absorption in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Lowes, Simon; Haslam, Iain S; Fihn, Britt-Marie; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Karlsson, Johan E; Simmons, Nicholas L; Ungell, Anna-Lena

    2010-03-15

    The effect of Pgp induction in rats by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) (3 days, 35 mg/kg/d, p.o.) on digoxin pharmacokinetics and intestinal transport has been assessed. After intravenous or oral digoxin dosing the arterial and hepatic portal vein (oral) AUC(0-24h) were significantly reduced by PCN pre-treatment. Biliary digoxin clearance increased 2-fold following PCN treatment. PCN significantly increased net digoxin secretion (2.05- and 4.5-fold respectively) in ileum and colon but not in duodenum or jejunum. This increased secretion correlated with increased Pgp protein expression in ileum and colon. Both intestinal and biliary excretion therefore contribute to altered digoxin disposition following PCN.

  6. Coincidence of GIST and pancreatic endocrine neoplasm in neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Comesaña, Elias; Tome-Espiñeiro, Catherine; Ulla-Rocha, Jose L; Lorenzo-Lorenzo, Isabel; Lede-Fernandez, Angel; Portela-Serra, Jose L

    2011-09-01

    Carcinoids of the ampulla of Vater are infrequent tumors of which a quarter of cases have been detected in patients with type I neurofibromatosis. This hereditary disease is also associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). However, the coincidence of these three entities together have only been formerly detected in five cases. A 53 year-old female patient, diagnosed with type I neurofibromatosis, with a malignant carcinoid of ampulla of Vater and multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the duodenum and jejunum, was treated with total pancreatectomy and the excision of her intestinal tumors. Five-years on, a follow-up showed the patient to be well, and free from tumor recurrence. The coexistence of an ampullary carcinoid tumor, GIST and neurofibramatosis is very rare. Radical curative surgical resection is a good treatment option, but the optimal management of this is not yet well established.

  7. Passage rate through the anterior digestive tract of broiler chickens fed on diets with ground and whole wheat.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Hetland, H; Choct, M; Sundby, F

    2002-12-01

    1. Birds were fed diets containing ground or whole wheat and titanium dioxide for 10 min, followed by dissection of 4 birds per treatment after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. 2. The crop, proventriculus and gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum from each bird were dried and combusted, and titanium content in each section was determined. 3. Significant amounts of titanium were found in the small intestine of the birds as soon as 30 min after being given feed containing titanium, and significant amounts had passed the small intestine after 120 to 150 min. 4. Titanium contents equivalent to approximately 5 g feed were eliminated from the gizzard per hour independently of whether ground or whole wheat was used. Thus, a hypothesis that the use of whole grain would slow down passage rate through the upper digestive tract was not supported by the current results.

  8. Origin of chronic right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Kingham, J G; Dawson, A M

    1985-08-01

    We have studied 22 consecutive patients referred for investigation of severe chronic right upper quadrant pain. The majority were women whose symptoms had been present for many years. All had undergone repeated investigations of the pancreatico-biliary, gastro-intestinal, urinary, and even gynaecological systems without a satisfactory diagnosis. Most had undergone at least one abdominal operation in an unsuccessful attempt to cure their pain. In 21 of 22 patients the customary pain was completely and reproducibly mimicked by balloon distension of the small or large intestine in at least one site. The trigger sites were jejunum (15), ileum (12), right colon (nine), and duodenum (six). In 12 more than one trigger site was found. Close questioning revealed features of the irritable bowel syndrome in the majority and depression in many though the symptoms were not spontaneously volunteered. Reproduction of pain has provided a convincing demonstration to this difficult group of patients that they have a sensitive gut and allows appropriate management.

  9. [Characterization of the microflora of the small intestine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, H; Knoke, M

    1980-03-01

    Normal and abnormal microflora of the upper small intestine was studied in 356 patients. Low counts are characteristic of normal microbial colonization (eubiosis), changes in quality and/or quantity are pathological (dysbiosis). The latter status is described as overgrowth syndrome. We found some types of dysbiosis. Prevalent was type Dys1 with the highest counts and the greatest variety of bacteria and yeasts. In contrast to this, type Dys2 showed higher germ counts of only one genus like coliforms (Dys2 Coli), streptococci (Dys2 Str.), lactobacilli (Dys2 L.) or yeasts (Dys2 Y.). In dysbiosis, we frequently saw bifidobacterium and bacteroides. Simultaneous sampling from stomach, duodenum, and jejunum indicated different modes of colonization of these parts (oral or fecal type).

  10. The kinetics of intestinal calcium absorption in the rat: an analytical and model building study.

    PubMed

    de Labriolle-Vaylet, C; Bouvet, D; Brezillon, P; Milhaud, G; Staub, J F

    1986-04-01

    The experimental data obtained from in vivo single pass perfusion of duodenal, jejunal, and ileal intestinal segments of 33- and 50-day-old rats have been used to test a series of models for calcium absorption. Each model was checked for the statistical validity and goodness-of-fit with the experimental data. The model adopted for the duodenum and jejunum had two major components, one saturable and the other nonsaturable, and a minor secretory component. This model was not applicable to ileal calcium absorption. Here the secretory component appeared to be much more important, and the absorption parameters varied in such a manner as to suggest that this intestinal segment was capable of short term autoregulation of dietary calcium absorption.

  11. Effect of serotonin on gastrointestinal electrical activity in the conscious piglet.

    PubMed

    Wechsung, E; Houvenaghel, A

    1993-09-01

    In conscious piglets with electrodes implanted in the wall of the antrum pylori, duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the influence of intravenous infusion of serotonin (5-HT), 4 micrograms/kg/min for 2 hours, on gastrointestinal electrical activity and arterial pressure was examined. 5-HT was without significant influence on antral electrical activity and arterial pressure. In the small intestinal parts 5-HT provoked a shortening of the interval of the migrating myoelectrical complex (MMC) by reducing the duration of phase I and phase II activities, and an increase in propagation velocity. 5-HT also induced an increase in phase III activity. A possible involvement of 5-HT in the initiation and propagation of the MMC is suggested.

  12. Endotoxin in the conscious piglet: its effects on some general and gastrointestinal myoelectrical parameters.

    PubMed

    De Saedeleer, V; Wechsung, E; Houvenaghel, A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of an intravenous bolus injection of endotoxin, 0.1, 1 or 10 micrograms/kg, on rectal temperature, clinical appearance, haematological parameters, and on gastrointestinal electrical activity was examined in 11 conscious piglets of 4-5 weeks of age, with implanted electrodes in the antrum pylori, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. All doses resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in rectal temperature, in pronounced clinical signs and in distinct changes in haematological values. These included shivering, depression, respiratory distress, a leukopenia (0.1 micrograms/kg) or a leukocytosis (1 microgram/kg) with a shift to the left, an accelerated sedimentation rate and a decreased packed cell volume. Doses of 1 and 10 micrograms/kg induced a transient inhibition of gastroduodenal electrical activity. These results suggest that, in the piglet, endotoxin primarily manifests general clinical signs and that the gastrointestinal effects coincide with these.

  13. Influence of indomethacin on endotoxin-induced changes in gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity and some haematological and clinical parameters in the conscious piglet.

    PubMed

    De Saedeleer, V; Wechsung, E; Houvenaghel, A

    1992-01-01

    The effect of indomethacin, administered intravenously at 5 mg/kg, on the changes in gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity, rectal body temperature, clinical appearance and some haematological parameters induced by intravenous bolus injection of endotoxin, at 10 micrograms/kg, was examined in conscious piglets with electrodes implanted in the antrum pylori, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Indomethacin inhibited the endotoxin-induced febrile response and the accompanying clinical signs. However, it was without influence on the induced leukopenia and shift to the left. Indomethacin both delayed the onset of and shortened the endotoxin-induced increase in the duration of the antral inhibitory phase and the duodenal phase I activity. It therefore appears that prostanoids are probably not the main factors involved in the endotoxin-induced haematological and gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity changes in the piglet.

  14. Reciprocal variations of nNOS and HSP90 are associated with fasting in gastrointestinal tract of the piglet.

    PubMed

    Grongnet, Jean-François; David, Jean-Claude

    2003-02-01

    The effects of fasting on neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), Heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) was determined by immunoblotting in the stomach, duodenum, mid-jejunum, distal ileum, and proximal colon of 28-day-old piglets. nNOS expression was drastically reduced in all the gastrointestinal areas studied while HO-2 was not changed. Concomitant with the nNOS decrease, elevated expressions of HSP90 were observed in these different areas. These results are discussed in terms of the regulation relationship between NOS and HSP90 and the possible protective effect of the heat shock protein and the potential application in digestive pathologies.

  15. A geometric description of human intestine.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Ihsaniye; Yildiz, Hüseyin; Arslan, Kadri; Yildiz, Bahri

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical models of natural phenomena play a central role in the physical sciences. Moreover, modeling of the organs draws from some beautiful areas of mathematics, such as nonlinear dynamics, multiscale transforms and stability analysis. In this study, a geometric recognition of the separate intestine sections (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) of the human is presented. The human intestine was considered a tubular shape along a special curve and two male Turkish men were used for the modeling study. The length (cm) and diameter (mm) of the intestines were measured with a digital compass and formulated. These models were compared with their original photographs. It has been concluded that the geometric modeling and experimental work were consistent. These kinds of organ modeling techniques will also profit to medical lecturers to show 3-D figures to their students.

  16. A Simple, Realistic Stochastic Model of Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Yokrattanasak, Jiraphat; De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Satiracoo, Pairote; Lawton, Wayne M.; Lenbury, Yongwimon

    2016-01-01

    Several models of Gastric Emptying (GE) have been employed in the past to represent the rate of delivery of stomach contents to the duodenum and jejunum. These models have all used a deterministic form (algebraic equations or ordinary differential equations), considering GE as a continuous, smooth process in time. However, GE is known to occur as a sequence of spurts, irregular both in size and in timing. Hence, we formulate a simple stochastic process model, able to represent the irregular decrements of gastric contents after a meal. The model is calibrated on existing literature data and provides consistent predictions of the observed variability in the emptying trajectories. This approach may be useful in metabolic modeling, since it describes well and explains the apparently heterogeneous GE experimental results in situations where common gastric mechanics across subjects would be expected. PMID:27057750

  17. Ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia in four cats.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Andrea; Penninck, Dominique; Webster, Cynthia; Hecht, Silke; Keating, John; Craig, Linden E

    2013-02-01

    Four cats with feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia (FGESF) are described. Clinical signs included decreased appetite, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea. Bloodwork abnormalities included mild neutrophilia (n = 2) and hyperglobulinemia with concurrent hyperproteinemia (n = 2). Ultrasonographically, a total of five solitary masses with mural thickening and loss of layering were identified in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and colon. In one cat a second, separate lesion was diagnosed 3 weeks following surgical resection of one mass. Histopathologically, lesions were characterized by collagen trabeculae and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates, predominantly eosinophils. Multiple areas of necrosis were also noted, which contained bacteria in 2/4 cats. In two cats, changes consistent with FGESF were also noted in the liver. All cats had surgical resection of their lesions. Two cats are still living at time of publication (43 and 24 months post-surgery). FGESF should be considered as a differential for intestinal masses in cats.

  18. Gallstone ileus associated with impaction at Meckel's diverticulum: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Harveen K; Shi, Yiwen; Prabhu, Ajita

    2016-11-27

    Gallstone ileus due to erosion of one or more gallstones into the gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction. The site of impaction is usually distal ileum, and less commonly the jejunum, colon, duodenum, or stomach. We report a rare case of gallstone ileus with impaction at the proximal small bowel and at a Meckel's diverticulum (MD) in a 64-year-old woman managed with laparoscopic converted to open small bowel resections. Patient was discharged home in stable condition and remained asymptomatic at 6-mo follow up. We review the current literature on surgical approaches to MD and gallstone ileus. Diverticulectomy or segmental resection is preferred for complicated MD. For gallstone ileus, simple enterolithotomy or segmental resection are the most the most favored especially in older co-morbid patients due to lower mortality rates and the rarity of recurrent gallstone ileus. In addition, laparoscopy has been increasingly reported as a safe approach to manage gallstone ileus.

  19. Intravenous zinc therapy for acquired zinc deficiency secondary to gastric bypass surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vick, Garrett; Mahmoudizad, Rod; Fiala, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Zinc deficiency may result from either a congenitally inherited defect of zinc absorption or is acquired secondarily from a variety of factors affecting dietary zinc intake, absorption, or loss. We report a case of acquired zinc deficiency secondary to gastric bypass surgery that resulted in vulvar cutaneous manifestations of delayed onset, with failure to clear after oral supplementation with zinc. The patient experienced improvement of symptoms only after administration of intravenous zinc supplementation. Upon review of the current literature, it is thought that the patient's original suboptimal response to oral supplementation and improvement after receiving intravenous zinc were related to the intentional surgical alteration and bypass of the absorptive capacity of the duodenum and jejunum. With the current prevalence of obesity and availability of surgical weight loss therapies, it is important to be mindful of the resulting nutritional deficiencies, their clinical manifestations, and factors affecting the efficacy of therapeutic approaches as seen in this case.

  20. Intestinal amyloidosis: two cases with different patterns of clinical and imaging presentation.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, Pier-Paolo; Segreto, Sabrina; Mancini, Marcello; Rispo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Masone, Stefania; Rinaldi, Ciro-Roberto; Nardone, Gerardo; Salvatore, Marco

    2010-05-28

    The involvement of the small bowel in systemic forms of amyloidosis may be diffuse or very rarely focal. Some cases of focal amyloidomas of the duodenum and jejunum without extraintestinal manifestations have been reported. The focal amyloidomas consisted of extensive amyloid infiltration of the entire intestinal wall thickness. Radiological barium studies, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) patterns of diffuse small bowel amyloidosis have been described: the signs are non-specific and may include small-bowel dilatation, symmetric bowel wall thickening, mesenteric infiltration, and mesenteric adenopathy. No data are available about the positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of intestinal amyloidosis. We report two cases of small bowel amyloidosis: the former characterized by focal deposition of amyloid proteins exclusively within blood vessel walls of the terminal ileum, the latter characterized by diffuse intestinal involvement observed on MRI and PET/CT studies.

  1. Intestinal amyloidosis: Two cases with different patterns of clinical and imaging presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Segreto, Sabrina; Mancini, Marcello; Rispo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Masone, Stefania; Rinaldi, Ciro Roberto; Nardone, Gerardo; Salvatore, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of the small bowel in systemic forms of amyloidosis may be diffuse or very rarely focal. Some cases of focal amyloidomas of the duodenum and jejunum without extraintestinal manifestations have been reported. The focal amyloidomas consisted of extensive amyloid infiltration of the entire intestinal wall thickness. Radiological barium studies, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) patterns of diffuse small bowel amyloidosis have been described: the signs are non-specific and may include small-bowel dilatation, symmetric bowel wall thickening, mesenteric infiltration, and mesenteric adenopathy. No data are available about the positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of intestinal amyloidosis. We report two cases of small bowel amyloidosis: the former characterized by focal deposition of amyloid proteins exclusively within blood vessel walls of the terminal ileum, the latter characterized by diffuse intestinal involvement observed on MRI and PET/CT studies. PMID:20503459

  2. [Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal and pancreatic systems. Multiple endocrine adenoma from another viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Klempa, I; Helmstädter, V; Feurle, G; Röttger, P

    1980-05-01

    The 24 endocrine pancreatic tumors and 14 carcinoids were examined immunohistochemically for cholecystokinin, insulin, gastrin, GIP, glucagon, sercretin, VIP, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, and ACTH. In 12 tumors of the pancreas more than one peptide-containing cell type was observed. The clinical symptoms showed hypersecretion of only one of the hormones, however. The midgut carcinoids (jejunum, appendix) represented the classical view of the carcinoid as an argentaffin cell tumor secreting 5-hydroxytryptamine. Tumors originating in the foregut (bronchus, stomach, duodenum) and hindgut carcinoids (rectum) were nonargentaffine, containing and secreting various polypeptide hormones. We conclude that light microscopic immunohistochemical methods are useful in distinguishing endocrine from nonendocrine tumors and multihormonal syndromes (MEA) in the classification of predominant hormone-secreting tumors.

  3. An unexpected cause of small bowel obstruction in an adult patient: midgut volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Söker, Gökhan; Yılmaz, Cengiz; Karateke, Faruk; Gülek, Bozkurt

    2014-01-01

    The most important complication of intestinal malrotation is midgut volvulus because it may lead to intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography (US), colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), CT and barium studies were carried out. On US and CDUS, twisting of intestinal segments around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and alteration of the SMA–SMV relationship were detected. CT demonstrated that the small intestine was making a rotation around the SMA and SMV, which amounted to more than 360°. The upper gastrointestinal barium series revealed a corkscrew appearance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum, which is a pathognomonic finding of midgut volvulus. Prior knowledge of characteristic imaging findings of midgut volvulus is essential in order to reach proper diagnosis and establish proper treatment before the development of intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. PMID:24811563

  4. Telocytes in female reproductive system (human and animal).

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovych, Veronika; Walocha, Jerzy A; Gil, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a newly discovered type of cell with numerous functions. They have been found in a large variety of organs: heart (endo-, myo-, epi- and pericardium, myocardial sleeves, heart valves); digestive tract and annex glands (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, liver, gallbladder, salivary gland, exocrine pancreas); respiratory system (trachea and lungs); urinary system (kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra); female reproductive system (uterus, Fallopian tube, placenta, mammary gland); vasculature (blood vessels, thoracic duct); serous membranes (mesentery and pleura); and other organs (skeletal muscle, meninges and choroid plexus, neuromuscular spindles, fascia lata, skin, eye, prostate, bone marrow). Likewise, TCs are widely distributed in vertebrates (fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, including human). This review summarizes particular features of TCs in the female reproductive system, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes.

  5. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (2): Protein and starch hydrolyses.

    PubMed

    Villemejane, C; Denis, S; Marsset-Baglieri, A; Alric, M; Aymard, P; Michon, C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of protein and/or fibre enrichment on the nutritional properties of biscuits was studied in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Biscuits were digested using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system that simulates the main physiological digestive functions of the upper tract of healthy adult humans: the TIM-1. A control biscuit and three biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres were digested under the same conditions. Samples were collected in each compartment of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at different times of digestion and analysed in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Results indicate that both formulation and processing impacted the digestive fate of the biscuits. Incorporating proteins or fibres in biscuits lowered or delayed proteolysis. Moreover a protein-plus-fibre additional or synergic effect was observed. Biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres displayed a higher amylolysis degree than the control biscuit, probably due to lower starch amounts and higher gelatinization degrees.

  6. Supplementation with L-glutamine prevents tumor growth and cancer-induced cachexia as well as restores cell proliferation of intestinal mucosa of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Martins, Heber Amilcar; Sehaber, Camila Caviquioli; Hermes-Uliana, Catchia; Mariani, Fernando Augusto; Guarnier, Flavia Alessandra; Vicentini, Geraldo Emílio; Bossolani, Gleison Daion Piovezana; Jussani, Laraine Almeida; Lima, Mariana Machado; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intestinal mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with L-glutamine. Thirty-two male 50-day-old Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomly divided into four groups: control (C), control supplemented with 2 % L-glutamine (GC), Walker-256 tumor (WT), and Walker-256 tumor supplemented with 2 % L-glutamine (TWG). Walker-256 tumor was induced by inoculation viable tumor cells in the right rear flank. After 10 days, celiotomy was performed and duodenal and jejunal tissues were removed and processed. We evaluated the cachexia index, proliferation index, villus height, crypt depth, total height of the intestinal wall, and number of goblet cells by the technique of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). Induction of Walker-256 tumor promoted a reduction of metaphase index in the TW group animals, which was accompanied by a reduction in the villous height and crypt depths, resulting in atrophy of the intestinal wall as well as increased PAS-positive goblet cells. Supplementation with L-glutamine reduced the tumor growth and inhibited the development of the cachectic syndrome in animals of the TWG group. Furthermore, amino acid supplementation promoted beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa in the TWG animals through restoration of the number of PAS-positive goblet cells. Therefore, supplementation with 2 % L-glutamine exhibited a promising role in the prevention of tumor growth and cancer-associated cachexia as well as restoring the intestinal mucosa in the duodenum and jejunum of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

  7. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation of organic acids and phytase on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadagheri, Nasibeh; Najafi, Ramin; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acids and phytase enzyme supplementation on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers. The experiment was done in a factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 2 based on completely randomized design with eight treatments, five replicates with 12 chicks in each until 42 days of age. Diets included natural vinegar (0 and 2%), citric acid (CA; 0.00 and 1.00%) and phytase enzyme (PHY; 0.00 and 500 FTU phytase per kg of feed). One bird from each treatment replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate the small intestinal morphology on 42 days of age. Analysis of results showed that vinegar increased feed consumption and body weight gain in total experimental period (p ˂ 0.05), while CA significantly decreased feed consumption on 0-14 days of age (p ˂ 0.05). No effect was observed on performance in interaction of organic acids together and with PHY group (p > 0.05). In duodenum CA increased the villus height and width (p ˂ 0.05) and PHY enzyme increased villus width (p ˂ 0.05) and decreased crypt depth (p ˂ 0.05). On the other hand, CA along with PHY significantly decreased crypt depth (p ˂ 0.05). In jejunum PHY alone and in combination with vinegar increased the goblet cells numbers (p ˂ 0.05), whereas vinegar significantly increased the goblet cells numbers in ileum (p ˂ 0.05). The muscular thickness in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was not affected among different treatment groups. The results showed that supplementation of organic acids and phytase together in this experiment, with no negative effects on each other, improved their effects on some parameters. PMID:27872714

  9. Observations on the gross pathology of Eimeria praecox infections in chickens.

    PubMed

    Allen, P C; Jenkins, M C

    2010-06-01

    Challenge infections with 10(3), 5 x 10(4), 10(5), or 5 x 10(5) sporulated Eimeria praecox oocysts caused moderate but significant weight gain reduction at all infective doses. Substantial reduction in plasma carotenoids and moderate but significant increases in plasma NO2(-) + NO3- were observed only at the two higher doses when measured at day 6 postchallenge (PC). Daily monitoring of chickens after challenge with 5 x 10(4) oocysts revealed an inflammatory response in the duodenum and jejunum beginning at day 1 PC that was associated with a significant increase in levels of plasma NO2(-) + NO3-, which peaked at day 4 PC. A moderate, uniform hyperplasia of the small intestine and significant depression of plasma carotenoids were observed on days 4-6 PC. Plasma NO2(-) + NO3- decreased to control levels by day 6 PC. All infections were accompanied by production of a mucoid exudate in the duodenum and jejunum, which became thick and opaque by 4 days PC and tended to obscure mildly inflamed areas. These observations indicate that the acute host response to primary infection with E. praecox is both different from and occurs earlier than the response to experimental infections with other Eimeria spp., such as Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, or Eimeria tenella. These factors need to be considered in observations of pathology arising from co-infections of E. praecox with other Eimeria species, especially in drug sensitivity testing of Eimeria oocysts recovered from litter and in the evaluation of live oocyst vaccines.

  10. Gastrointestinal Transcriptomic Response of Metabolic Vitamin B12 Pathways in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Priscila; Belarmino, Giliane; Torrinhas, Raquel S; Machado, Natasha M; Fonseca, Danielle C; Ravacci, Graziela R; Ishida, Robson K; Guarda, Ismael F M S; de Moura, Eduardo G; Sakai, Paulo; Santo, Marco A; da Silva, Ismael D C G; Pereira, Claudia C A; Logullo, Angela F; Heymsfield, Steven; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly prevalent and may contribute to postoperative complications. Decreased production of intrinsic factor owing to gastric fundus removal is thought to have a major role, but other components of B12 metabolism may also be affected. We evaluated changes in the expression levels of multiple B12 pathway-encoding genes in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues to evaluate the potential roles in contributing to post-RYGB B12 deficiency. Methods: During double-balloon enteroscopy, serial GI biopsies were collected from 20 obese women (age, 46.9±6.2 years; body mass index, 46.5±5.3 kg/m2) with adult-onset type 2 diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl; hemoglobin A1c≥6.5%) before and, at the same site, 3 months after RYGB. Gene expression levels were assessed by the Affymetrix Human GeneChip 1.0 ST microarray. Findings were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT–qPCR). Results: Gene expression levels with significant changes (P≤0.05) included: transcobalamin I (TCN1) in remnant (−1.914-fold) and excluded (−1.985-fold) gastric regions; gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) in duodenum (−0.725-fold); and cubilin (CUBN) in duodenum (+0.982-fold), jejunum (+1.311-fold), and ileum (+0.685-fold). Validation by RT–qPCR confirmed (P≤0.05) observed changes for TCN1 in the remnant gastric region (−0.132-fold) and CUBN in jejunum (+2.833-fold). Conclusions: RYGB affects multiple pathway-encoding genes that may be associated with postoperative B12 deficiency. Decreased TCN1 levels seem to be the main contributing factor. Increased CUBN levels suggest an adaptive genetic reprogramming of intestinal tissue aiming to compensate for impaired intestinal B12 delivery. PMID:28055029

  11. Absorption of valproic acid from the gastrointestinal tract of the piglet.

    PubMed

    Nahata, M C; Breech, L; Ailabouni, A; Murray, R D

    1992-01-01

    Valproic acid is a commonly used drug for the treatment of epilepsy. Since valproic acid can only be given orally, its absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract especially in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and in neonates is important. The specific sites of absorption for valproic acid in the small intestine and colon have not been investigated. It is currently unknown whether these patients are able to absorb oral valproic acid sufficiently to maintain a therapeutic serum concentration. The primary objectives of the study were to: (a) determine the relative absorption of valproic acid from specific sites in the GI tract; and (b) investigate the influence of intestinal development on valproic acid absorption using the newborn piglet as a model. Two groups were studied: Group I included 5 piglets 18-21 days of age, and Group II included 5 piglets 1-3 days of age. A valproic acid solution was simultaneously perfused through 5 partitioned segments of the gastrointestinal tract: the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, right colon and left colon. Tritiated [3H] polyethylene glycol was co-administered to monitor water movement across the GI mucosa. Following steady state, samples were collected from each segment, and analyzed by a specific enzyme-mediated immunoassay. The absorption rates (micrograms/min/cm) of valproic acid in Group I were as follows: 9.96 +/- 2.8 duodenum; 11.28 +/- 2.79, jejunum; 9.42 +/- 3.34, ileum; 10.88 +/- 3.35, right colon; 10.96 +/- 2.92, left colon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Survival and in vivo adhesion of human isolates Lactobacillus gasseri LF221 and K7 in weaned piglets and their effects on coliforms, clostridia and lactobacilli viable counts in faeces and mucosa.

    PubMed

    Matijasic, Bojana Bogovic; Stojkovic, Sasa; Rogelj, Irena

    2006-11-01

    In in vivo study on 24 weaned piglets (8 per group), the survival rates of human isolates Lactobacillus gasseri K7 and LF221 were quantified by selective enumeration on MRS agar with rifampicin, and the presence of both strains in intestinal mucosa was examined. Faeces from individual animals were analysed for the number (cfu/g) of coliforms, lactobacilli, clostridia and both of the two probiotic strains during 2-weeks probiotic application period (5 x 10(10) cfu of individual strain/day) and 1 week after the probiotic treatment was ceased. Samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum of sacrificed animals (5th or 20th day) were also examined microbiologically. A great variability in the microflora of faeces and mucosa was observed even between equally treated animals. The survival of both Lb. gasseri strains was established by their detection in the faeces (2.5 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(5) cfu of K7 strain/g faeces; 4.5 x 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) cfu of LF221 strain/g). In two animals, the LF221 or K7 viable cells were found in the faeces 6 d after ceasing probiotic application. In both animals from the group fed with Lb. gasseri K7 that were sacrificed 5 d after weaning, the presence of K7 strain was found either in the mucosa of duodenum (140 cfu/10 cm2) and jejunum (170 cfu/10 cm2) or in the ileum (1600 cfu/10 cm2). LF221 cells were detected in the ileal mucosa of one piglet (820 cfu/10 cm2). The results demonstrated the capability of both tested strains of in vivo adhesion to intestinal mucosa and of temporary colonisation of the piglets' intestine.

  13. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 on T-Cell Subsets and mRNA Expression of Cytokines in the Intestine of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Yu, Zhengqiang; Chen, Zhengli

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on T-cell subsets and mRNA expression of cytokines in the small intestine of broilers. One hundred and fifty-six one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into control group (0 mg/kg AFB1) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) with three replicates per group and 26 birds per replicate for 21 days, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of age, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled for analyzing T cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+) by flow cytometry as well as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. The percentages of T-cells in the intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the AFB1 group showed a decreased tendency in comparison to the control group. The mRNA expression of cytokines in the three intestinal segments in the AFB1 group presented a general decline compared with the control groups. Our data demonstrated that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 in the broilers diet could reduce the percentages of T-cell subsets and the expression level of cytokine mRNA in the small intestine, implying that the immune function of the intestinal mucosa might be affected. The reduction of cytokines mRNA expression may be closely associated with the decreased proportions of T cells subsets induced by AFB1. PMID:25826527

  14. Sustained glucagon-like peptide-2 infusion is required for intestinal adaptation, and cessation reverses increased cellularity in rats with intestinal failure

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann, Matthew C.; Chen, Xueyan; Holst, Jens J.

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived hormone that is a proposed treatment for human short bowel syndrome (SBS). The objective was to determine how the timing, duration, and cessation of GLP-2 administration affect intestinal adaptation and enterocyte kinetics in a rat model of human SBS that results in intestinal failure requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Rats underwent 60% jejunoileal resection plus cecectomy and jugular vein cannulation and were maintained exclusively with TPN for 18 days in these treatments: TPN control (no GLP-2); sustained GLP-2 (1–18 days); early GLP-2 (1–7 days, killed at 7 or 18 days); and delayed GLP-2 (12–18 days). Body weight gain was similar across groups, and plasma bioactive GLP-2 was significantly increased with coinfusion of GLP-2 (100 μg·kg−1·day−1) with TPN. GLP-2-treated rats showed significant increases in duodenum and jejunum mucosal dry mass, protein, DNA, and sucrase activity compared with TPN control. The increased jejunum cellularity reflected significantly decreased apoptosis and increased crypt mitosis and crypt fission due to GLP-2. When GLP-2 infusion stopped at 7 days, these effects were reversed at 18 days. Sustained GLP-2 infusion significantly increased duodenum length and decreased 18-day mortality to 0% from 37.5% deaths in TPN control (P = 0.08). Colon proglucagon expression quantified by real-time RT-qPCR was increased in TPN controls and attenuated by GLP-2 infusion; jejunal expression of the GLP-2 receptor did not differ among groups. In summary, early, sustained GLP-2 infusion reduces mortality, induces crypt fission, and is required for intestinal adaptation, whereas cessation of GLP-2 reverses gains in mucosal cellularity in a rat model of intestinal failure. PMID:20864657

  15. Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus species-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and gut health in nursery pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Indrakumar, S; Kiarie, E; Kim, I H

    2015-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a spp.-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profile, intestinal histomorphology, and fecal gas emission in piglets fed corn and soybean meal-based diets. The DFM product was based on 1 strain of and 2 strains of and formulated to supply 1.5 × 10 cfu/g of feed. A total of 128 piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.6 kg BW; weaning age: 24 d) were housed in groups (4 pigs/pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts) and fed diets ( = 16) without or with DFM in a 2-phase feeding program: d 0 to 14 (phase I) and 15 to 42 (phase II). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly. At the end of each phase, samples for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine, ATTD, and fecal noxious gas emission were taken. At termination, 12 piglets per treatment were killed to access intestinal tissues for histomorphology. Overall, pigs fed DFM had a greater ( < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. In phase I, pigs fed DFM showed a greater ( < 0.05) ADG and lower ( < 0.05) concentration of BUN and fecal ammonia emission than the control group. In phase II, a greater ( < 0.05) ATTD of nitrogen and longer ( < 0.05) duodenum and jejunum villi were observed in pigs fed the DFM diet compared with the control group. In conclusion, inclusion of DFM improved growth performance and villi length of the duodenum and jejunum in nursery pigs. Furthermore, DFM enhanced protein utilization as demonstrated by increased nitrogen digestibility, lower BUN, and lower fecal ammonia release.

  16. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  17. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 1. Genetic parameters of anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Feed costs represent about 70% of the costs of raising broilers. The main way to decrease these costs is to improve feed efficiency by modification of diet formulation, but one other possibility would be to use genetic selection. Understanding the genetic architecture of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) and the impact of the selection criterion on the GIT would be of particular interest. We therefore studied the genetic parameters of AMEn (Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance), feed efficiency, and GIT traits in chickens. Genetic parameters were estimated for 630 broiler chickens of the eighth generation of a divergent selection experiment on AMEn. Birds were reared until 23 d of age and fed a wheat-based diet. The traits measured were body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), AMEn, weights of crop, liver, gizzard and proventriculus, and weight, length and density of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Results The heritability estimates of BW, FCR and AMEn were moderate. The heritability estimates were higher for the GIT characteristics except for the weights of the proventriculus and liver. Gizzard weight was negatively correlated with density (weight to length ratio) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Proventriculus and gizzard weights were more strongly correlated with AMEn than with FCR, which was not the case for intestine weight and density. Conclusions GIT traits were largely dependent on genetics and that selecting on AMEn or FCR would modify them. Phenotypic observations carried out in the divergent lines selected on AMEn were consistent with estimated genetic correlations between AMEn and GIT traits. PMID:21733156

  18. Developmental morphology of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Peng, K M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological development of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks and to examine the changes in the number of goblet cells therein by observing the gross anatomy and performing histochemistry and morphometry. The BW; length, height, and width of the villi; muscle thickness; depth of the crypts; and number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts were measured on neonatal d 1, 45, 90, and 334. Our results revealed that the weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (relative to the BW) peaked on d 90, 45, and 45, respectively, and tended to decline thereafter. The villus height and width and muscle thickness in the small intestine were positively correlated with the age of the birds. The ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth differed among the segments of the small intestine and at the different time points. The number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts increased rapidly up to postnatal d 45 and then decreased rapidly between d 45 and 90. The number of goblet cells in the villi was greatest in the jejunum on d 1 and in the ileum on d 45, whereas that in the crypt was greatest in the ileum on d 1 and 90 and in the duodenum on d 45. These results suggest that the small intestine develops gradually from postnatal d 1 to 90 and that the period up to postnatal d 45 is marked by significant developmental changes in the parameters reflective of the digestive capacity, such as the weight, length, and surface area of the intestine and the number of goblet cells. Therefore, in reared African ostrich chicks, feed management should be enhanced between postnatal d 1 and 45.

  19. Systematic microRNAome profiling reveals the roles of microRNAs in milk protein metabolism and quality: insights on low-quality forage utilization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Diming; Liang, Guanxiang; Wang, Bing; Sun, Huizeng; Liu, Jianxin; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular regulatory mechanisms of milk protein production in dairy cows by studying the miRNAomes of five key metabolic tissues involved in protein synthesis and metabolism from dairy cows fed high- and low-quality diets. In total, 340, 338, 337, 330, and 328 miRNAs were expressed in the rumen, duodenum, jejunum, liver, and mammary gland tissues, respectively. Some miRNAs were highly correlated with feed and nitrogen efficiency, with target genes involved in transportation and phosphorylation of amino acid (AA). Additionally, low-quality forage diets (corn stover and rice straw) influenced the expression of feed and nitrogen efficiency-associated miRNAs such as miR-99b in rumen, miR-2336 in duodenum, miR-652 in jejunum, miR-1 in liver, and miR-181a in mammary gland. Ruminal miR-21-3p and liver miR-2285f were predicted to regulate AA transportation by targeting ATP1A2 and SLC7A8, respectively. Furthermore, bovine-specific miRNAs regulated the proliferation and morphology of rumen epithelium, as well as the metabolism of liver lipids and branched-chain AAs, revealing bovine-specific mechanisms. Our results suggest that miRNAs expressed in these five tissues play roles in regulating transportation of AA for downstream milk production, which is an important mechanism that may be associated with low milk protein under low-quality forage feed. PMID:26884323

  20. Perioperative Evaluation of Patient Outcomes after Severe Acid Corrosive Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Ho; Wu, Han-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed 64 patients with perforation or full-thickness injury of the alimentary tract after acid ingestion. Based on our classification of laparotomy findings, there were class I (n = 15); class II (n = 13); class III (n = 16); and class IV (n = 20). Study parameters were preoperative laboratory data, gastric perforation, associated visceral injury, and extension of the injury. End points of the study were the patients' mortality and length of hospital stay. All these patients underwent esophagogastrectomy with (n = 16) or without (n = 24) concomitant resection, esophagogastroduodenojejunectomy with (n = 4) or without (n = 13) concomitant resection, and laparotomy only (n = 7). Concomitant resections were performed on the spleen (n = 10), colon (n = 2), pancreas (n = 1), gall bladder (n = 1), skipped areas of jejunum (n = 4), and the first portion of the duodenum (n = 4). The study demonstrates five preoperative risk factors, female gender, shock status, shock index, pH value, and base deficit, and four intraoperative risk factors, gastric perforation, associated visceral injury, injury beyond the pylorus, and continuous involvement of the jejunum over a length of 50 cm. The overall mortality rate was 45.3%, which increased significantly with advancing class of corrosive injury. PMID:26582190

  1. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ribeiro, Gláucia M; Fonseca, Cláudio C; Sartori, Sirlene S R; Loures-Ribeiro, Alan; Neves, Clóvis A

    2012-09-01

    The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05), except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05). No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals.

  2. GABA-related actions in isolated in vitro preparations of the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Krantis, A; Harding, R K

    1987-09-11

    Longitudinal organ bath preparations of the rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum were tested for their responsiveness to GABA-receptor agonists. The GABAA-receptor agonists, GABA and 3APS, induced non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxations and/or contractions, although the magnitude and type of response varied depending upon the region tested. All regions relaxed to applied GABA or 3APS, however the jejunum and ileum also responded with cholinergic contractions. These relaxant and contractile actions were neurogenic and sensitive to blockade by the GABA antagonists bicuculline or picrotoxinin, and desensitization to either agonist. The GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen, caused a reduction in electrically evoked cholinergic contractions. These inhibitory actions of baclofen were insensitive to bicuculline or picrotoxinin. Taken together, these results show that GABA-ergic actions in the rat small intestine are mediated by two pharmacologically distinct neural receptor populations, the GABAA and GABAB sites, the distribution and sensitivity of which differ along the length of the small intestine.

  3. The activity and localization patterns of cathepsins B and X in cells of the mouse gastrointestinal tract differ along its length.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Tripti; Arampatzidou, Maria; Gerganova, Veneta; Tacke, Marlene; Illukkumbura, Rukshala; Dauth, Stephanie; Schaschke, Norbert; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas; Brix, Klaudia

    2014-10-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are expressed in most tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. We demonstrated an involvement of mouse intestinal cathepsin B in extracellular matrix remodeling for regeneration from trauma. The present study aimed at elucidating roles of cysteine cathepsins in the non-traumatized gastrointestinal tract of mice. Thus we investigated expression and localization patterns of cathepsin B and its closest relative, cathepsin X, along the length of the gastrointestinal tract, and determined the effects of their absence. Cathepsin B showed the highest protein levels in the anterior segments of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the highest activity was observed in the jejunum, as revealed by cathepsin B-specific activity-based probe labeling. Cathepsin X was most abundant in the jejunum and protein levels were elevated in duodenum and colon of Ctsb-/- mice. The segmental pattern of cathepsin expression was reflected by a compartmentalized distribution of junction proteins and basal lamina constituents, changes in tissue architecture and altered activities of the brush border enzyme aminopeptidase N. In conclusion, we observed different compensatory effects and activity levels of cysteine peptidases along the length of the small and large intestines in a segment-specific manner suggesting specific in situ functions of these enzymes in particular parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Folate-binding protein and the absorption of folic acid in the small intestine of the suckling rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.B.; Selhub, J.

    1988-09-01

    The folate in milk is largely bound to high-affinity folate-binding protein (FBP). With an in vivo intestinal loop technique, we examined the absorption of folic acid bound to FBP (FA-FBP) in the small intestine of the suckling rat. In contrast to unbound folic acid (FA), FA-FBP is absorbed more avidly in the ileum than in the jejunum (p less than 0.025) and its absorption is not inhibited by 1 mmol sulfasalazine/L. Folate-binding activities in the mucosa of the proximal (duodenum and jejunum combined) and distal (ileum) small intestine were also examined and found to be 0.32 and 1.31 pmol/mg protein, respectively (p less than 0.001). A 6-h fast produced a 42% decrease in folate-binding activity in the distal small intestine (p less than 0.01) but did not change activity in the proximal portion. Collectively, these observations suggest that FA-FBP is absorbed by a mechanism that is distinct from that responsible for the absorption of FA and that absorption does not require prior dissociation of the vitamin-binding protein complex.

  5. Effect of Escherichia coli on Fluid Transport across Canine Small Bowel MECHANISM AND TIME-COURSE WITH ENTEROTOXIN AND WHOLE BACTERIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, R. L.; Ganguly, U.; Casper, A. G. T.; Moore, E. J.; Pierce, N. F.; Carpenter, C. C. J.

    1973-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain isolated from a patient with severe cholera-like diarrhea elaborates a partly heat-labile enterotoxin shown to cause prompt adenyl cyclase stimulation and isotonic fluid secretion by canine jejunum. Both responses disappear upon removal of the enterotoxin. The duration of action of a submaximal dose of this E. coli enterotoxin was brief, despite sustained exposure to the jejunum, suggesting inactivation of the enterotoxin by its interaction with the mucosa. Inoculation of whole bacterial cultures of this E. coli strain into canine duodenum was followed by bacterial survival and induction of net secretion after 4-7 h. The onset of fluid production was associated with increasing gut mucosal adenyl cyclase activity. Washed bacterial cells could also produce fluid secretion. In vivo multiplication of this enterotoxin-producing E. coli was demonstrated 6-12 h after intraduodenal inoculation of approximately 106 organisms. This was associated with fluid secretion. Intestinal fluid production occurred without microscopic pathology in the mucosa. Images PMID:4578157

  6. LC-MS/MS determination and interaction of the main components from the traditional Chinese drug pair Danshen-Sanqi based on rat intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Jing; Bai, Junqi; Xu, Wen; Wu, Dinghong; Qiu, Xiaohui

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese drug pair Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza)-Sanqi (Panax ginseng) has been widely used for centuries treating various cardiovascular disorders, among which salvianlic acid B (SAB), ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1 ), ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1 ) and notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1 ) were identified as the major components. The present study focused on the interaction between these components based on investigating their intestinal absorption using the Ussing chamber technique. The concentrations of SAB, GRg1 , GRb1 and NGR1 in the intestinal perfusate were determined by LC-MS/MS method, followed by Q (accumulative quantity) and Papp (apparent permeability). The results showed that all these four main components displayed very low permeabilities, which implied their poor absorption in the rat intestine. The intestinal absorption level of SAB displayed regioselectivity: duodenum < jejunum < ileum. However, there was no significant difference in the absorption of GRg1 and GRb1 in the different segments. The Q and Papp values of the four main components were obviously increased in jejunum when co-administrating Danshen extract with Sanqi extract. In conclusion, compatibility of Danshen and Sanqi could remarkably improve the intestinal absorption level of the main components in the pair. To some extent, this might explain the nature of the compatibility mechanisms of composite formulae in TCMs.

  7. Surface hydrophobicity is increased in the ileum and proximal colon of cystic fibrosis mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, C; van Hoof, L; Policova, Z; Beharry, S; Sherman, P M; Neumann, A W; Durie, P

    1999-08-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have abnormal concentrations and composition of electrolytes and macromolecules in gastrointestinal secretions. Such alterations could change intestinal surface properties, such as surface hydrophobicity, and may influence the adhesion of macromolecules, bacteria, or microbial toxins to the intestinal surface. The objective of this study was to compare the surface hydrophobicity of the gastrointestinal tract in wild type and CF mice. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis-contact diameter to determine surface hydrophobicity by measuring contact angles of sessile water droplets placed onto epithelial surfaces. In wild type mice, there were no differences in contact angles between the duodenum, upper jejunum, lower jejunum, and ileum. The contact angle of the gastric mucosa was lower than the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. Contact angles of the proximal colon and distal colon were both higher than that of the gastric mucosa and those of the small intestinal sections. In CF mice, contact angles along the gastrointestinal tract followed the same pattern as in wild type mice. However, contact angles in the ileum and proximal colon of CF mice were greater than those from wild type mice. This study of the murine intestine showed regional differences in surface hydrophobicity comparable to those observed in other mammalian species. In addition, we showed that the ileum and proximal colon of CF mice were more hydrophobic than the corresponding segments in wild type mice. These observations are of potential clinical relevance because patients with CF exhibit clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal disease primarily in the ileum and proximal colon.

  8. Gross anatomy of the intestine in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Lima, M; Clauss, M

    2009-11-01

    We describe the macroscopic anatomy of the intestine of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The caecum was attached to the ileum by a long ileocaecal fold, and to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon by a caecocolic fold. The ascending colon was the most developed portion of the gross intestine and had the most complex arrangement with three ansae: the proximal ansa, the spiral ansa and the distal ansa. The proximal ansa completely encircled the caecum, describing a 360 degrees gyrus, and represented the widest portion of the intestine. The spiral ansa was formed by three and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and three centrifugal gyri. The last centrifugal gyrus left the spiral and described nine flexures of different form and direction over the left side of the mesentery. The two portions that formed each of these flexures ran parallel to each other. The last part of this gyrus ran parallel to the jejunum. When compared with domestic cattle, giraffe had a comparatively short small intestine and a comparatively long large intestine, with a resulting small ratio of small:large intestine. Reasons are presented why this should be considered a peculiarity of cattle-like ruminants rather than a different representative of a browser-grazer dichotomy in general.

  9. An Unusual Presentation of Gallstone Ileus: A Red-Herring or Missed Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mudares, Saif; Kurer, Mohamed; Koshy, Renol M.; El-Menyar, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 72 Final Diagnosis: Gallstone ileus Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of chronic calcular cholecystitis and an uncommon etiological entity responsible for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common obstructed part is the narrow terminal ileum, whereas the jejunum is rarely affected. The gallstone is postulated to reach the small bowel by gradual erosion from the gall bladder, most commonly into the duodenum, forming a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. Case Report: Herein, we report a 72-year-old male who presented with intestinal obstruction of a 5-day duration, with a clinical diagnosis of an irreducible inguinal hernia. However, the patient continued to be symptomatic following an uncomplicated hernioplasty. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed a small bowel lesion, which intra-operatively was confirmed to be an impacted gallstone in the jejunum with a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. Conclusions: Despite gallstone is uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction, a high index of suspicion with a careful CT scan interpretation is the key to the diagnosis, especially when there is a red-herring distracting the attention, like irreducible hernia in this case. PMID:27133032

  10. Pathophysiology of short bowel syndrome: considerations of resected and residual anatomy.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    The human small intestine is organized with a proximal-to-distal gradient of mucosal structure and nutrient processing capacity. However, certain nutrients undergo site-specific digestion and absorption, such as iron and folate in the duodenum/jejunum vs vitamin B12 and bile salts in the ileum. Intestinal resection can result in short bowel syndrome (SBS) due to reduction of total and/or site-specific nutrient processing areas. Depending on the segment(s) of intestine resected, malabsorption can be nutrient specific (eg, vitamin B12 or fat) or sweeping, with deficiencies in energy, protein, and various micronutrients. Jejunal resections are generally better tolerated than ileal resections because of greater postresection adaptive capacity than that of the jejunum. Following intestinal resection, energy scavenging and fluid absorption become particularly important in the colon owing to loss of digestive and absorptive surface area in the resection portion. Resection-induced alterations in enteroendocrine cell abundance can further disrupt intestinal function. For example, patients with end jejunostomy have depressed circulating peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide 2 concentrations, which likely contribute to the rapid intestinal transit and blunted intestinal adaptation observed in this population. SBS-associated pathophysiology often extends beyond the gastrointestinal tract, with hepatobiliary disease, metabolic bone disease, D-lactic acidosis, and kidney stone formation being chronic complications. Clinical management of SBS must be individualized to account for the specific nutrient processing deficit within the remnant bowel and to mitigate potential complications, both inside and outside the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens II. Pathology and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, J. R.; Barnum, D. A.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The intestines from 124 dead, sick and normal broiler chickens from 24 cases of necrotic enteritis were subjected to histological examination. Tissue sections from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca from each broiler were examined histologically for lesions of necrotic enteritis and the presence of coccidia. Lesions of necrotic enteritis were present in one or more areas of the intestine in all but six of 94 dead or sick birds and they were most common and severe in the jejunum. Coccidia were found in only small numbers in both diseased and normal birds. Brown and Brenn stained sections showed Gram-positive bacilli intimately associated with early necrotic lesions on the tips of villi. Tissue sections from the intestines of sick birds permitted a proposed pathogenesis for this disease with the lesion starting at the tips of villi. The similarity in pathogenesis and pathological lesions in this disease of broilers and Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in baby pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4373152

  12. Sunflower cake with or without enzymatic complex for broiler chickens feeding

    PubMed Central

    Berwanger, Eveline; Nunes, Ricardo Vianna; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Murakami, Alice Eiko; de Oliveira, Taciana Maria Moraes; Bayerle, Douglas Fernando; Frank, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was to evaluate the sunflower cake and enzymatic complex fed to broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Methods In a completely randomized design, a total of 850 birds were allotted in a 2×5 factorial scheme (with and without enzymatic complex) and five inclusion levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) of sunflower cake. There were 5 replications and 17 birds in each experimental unit. Data from performance, carcass yield and intestinal morphology were evaluated. Results Feed intake, weight gain, final weight and feed:gain ratio linearly worsened as sunflower cake increased. For weight gain, final weight and feed:gain ratio, the birds whose diets contained levels of 15% and 20% of sunflower cake showed worse values (p<0.05) than the birds fed the control diet. When fed the enzymatic complex, birds improved (p<0.05) crypt depth and villus:crypt ratio in the jejunum. As inclusion levels of sunflower cake increased, villus depth and villus:crypt ratio in duodenum, jejunum and ileum linearly reduced and the crypt depth linearly increased. Carcass yield linearly reduced as sunflower cake increased. Conclusion Based on performance, sunflower cake can be used up to 10% in broilers feeding from 21 to 42 days of age. PMID:28249377

  13. Protein abundance of clinically relevant multidrug transporters along the entire length of the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Drozdzik, Marek; Gröer, Christian; Penski, Jette; Lapczuk, Joanna; Ostrowski, Marek; Lai, Yurong; Prasad, Bhagwat; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Siegmund, Werner; Oswald, Stefan

    2014-10-06

    Intestinal transporters are crucial determinants in the oral absorption of many drugs. We therefore studied the mRNA expression (N = 33) and absolute protein content (N = 10) of clinically relevant transporters in healthy epithelium of the duodenum, the proximal and distal jejunum and ileum, and the ascending, transversal, descending, and sigmoidal colon of six organ donors (24-54 years). In the small intestine, the abundance of nearly all studied proteins ranged between 0.2 and 1.6 pmol/mg with the exception of those of OCT3 (<0.1 pmol/mg) and PEPT1 (2.6-4.9 pmol/mg) that accounted for ∼50% of all measured transporters. OATP1A2 was not detected in any intestinal segment. ABCB1, ABCG2, PEPT1, and ASBT were significantly more abundant in jejunum and ileum than in colon. In contrast to this, the level of expression of ABCC2, ABCC3, and OCT3 was found to be highest in colon. Site-dependent differences in the levels of gene and protein expression were observed for ABCB1 and ASBT. Significant correlations between mRNA and protein levels have been found for ABCG2, ASBT, OCT3, and PEPT1 in the small intestine. Our data provide further physiological pieces of the puzzle required to predict intestinal drug absorption in humans.

  14. Occurrence of jejunojejunal and ileocecal intussusceptions in a thoroughbred stallion

    PubMed Central

    Sasani, Farhang; Javanbakht, Javad; Alidadi, Naser; Khaligh, Sahar Ghaffari; Hosseini, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    A 4-year-old, 600.4 kg stallion horse of German thoroughbred breed was presented at the Tehran University Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, Iran, with a history of weakness of 2–3 days duration. The stallion died of unknown cause on the previous day. Abnormal findings during physical examination included an estimated dehydration of 3% to 5%, dark red oral mucous membranes, elevated heart and respiratory rates, stiffened feces, and absence of intestinal motility on auscultation. Postmortem examination indicated the presence of a jejunojejunal and ileocecal intussusceptions, 46 cm in length; a torsion of jejunum proximal to the intussusceptions was also noted. An ulcerative lesion, 6 cm in diameter, was found on the mucosa of duodenum. Large amounts of sand, coat hair, and hay mantling in bloody discharge were observed in a colonic impaction. It was an acute case that was evident by the involvement of intussusception and ulceration, indicating desquamation of the necrotic epithelial cells with edema and distinct infiltration of neutrophils. Histopathological examination confirmed that the ileum was the intussiscipiens to the jejunum that subsequently passed through into the caecum, and the mesentery probably tore as a result of the intussusception.

  15. The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Tarasiuk, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Zielonka, Łukasz; Gajęcki, Maciej; Gajęcka, Magdalena

    2015-11-11

    Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

  16. Impact of cremophor-EL and polysorbate-80 on digoxin permeability across rat jejunum: delineation of thermodynamic and transporter related events using the reciprocal permeability approach.

    PubMed

    Katneni, Kasiram; Charman, Susan A; Porter, Christopher J H

    2007-02-01

    The effect of Cremophor-EL (Cr-EL) and polysorbate-80 (PS-80) on the transepithelial permeability of digoxin (DIG) has been evaluated using the reciprocal permeability approach to delineate thermodynamic and transporter related events. Permeability data were corrected for solubilization using the micellar association constant (Ka) obtained from Papp data generated in the presence of the nonspecific ATPase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. In the presence of mucosal Cr-EL, a concentration dependent decrease in serosal-mucosal (S-M) and increase in M-S transport was observed. Whilst serosal Cr-EL resulted in a reduction in S-M DIG transport, no impact on M-S transport was apparent. For PS-80, the presence of either serosal or mucosal surfactant led to a decrease in secretory (S-M) DIG transport, however no effect on absorptive transport was evident. The data confirm the potential P-gp inhibitory effects of Cr-EL, but suggest that in contrast to Cr-EL, PS-80 is not a potent inhibitor of P-gp and is incapable of increasing absorptive drug transport, at least in excised rat intestinal tissue and at the concentrations tested. The data are also consistent with the involvement of additional transporters (both apical and basolateral) in the intestinal permeability of DIG, although more definitive data is required to confirm this possibility.

  17. Dietary supplementation of boron differentially alters expression of borate transporter (NaBCl) mRNA by jejunum and kidney of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shengfa F; Monegue, James S; Lindemann, Merlin D; Cromwell, Gary L; Matthews, James C

    2011-11-01

    Inorganic boron (B), in the form of various borates, is readily absorbed across gastrointestinal epithelia. Although there is no stated B requirement, dietary B supplementation is thought to positively affect animal growth and metabolism, including promotion of bone strength and cell proliferation. Because of effective homeostatic control of plasma B levels, primarly by renal excretion, B toxicity in animals and humans is rare. The mechanisms responsible for improved animal performance and borate homeostasis are incompletely understood. Although a Na+-coupled borate transporter (NaBC1) has been identified, the effect of dietary B supplementation on expression of NaBCl has not been evaluated. An experiment was conducted with growing pigs to determine if NaBC1 mRNA was expressed by small intestinal epithelia and kidney of growing barrows and whether dietary B (as borate) supplementation would affect expression of NaBC1 mRNA. A concomitant objective was to test the hypothesis that B supplementation of a phosphorus (P)-deficient diet would improve calcium, phosphorus, or nitrogen retention. Twenty-four crossbred growing barrows (body weight=74.0±9.8 kg) were selected and used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a total of eight blocks and three B supplementation treatments (n=8/treatment). A typical corn-soybean meal basal diet (calculated to contain 41 mg intrinsic B/kg) was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements, except for P, and fed to all pigs for 12 days. The basal diet plus 0, 50, or 100 mg/kg of B (prilled sodium borate pentahydrate, Na₂B₄O₇·5H₂O) was then fed for 18 more days. Feces and urine were collected during days 6 to 16 of the B supplementation, and pigs were killed for collection of jejunal and ileal epithelia and kidney tissue. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that NaBC1 mRNA was expressed by these tissues, a novel finding for jejunal and ileal epithelia. Boron supplementation increased jejunal, but decreased, renal NaBC1 mRNA expression, relative to the 0 mg/kg treatment. The finding that NaBC1 mRNA is regulatable by dietary B is novel. That B supplementation evoked opposite effects on jejunal and kidney NaBC1 mRNA expression indicates that transcriptional regulation of NaBC1 expression may constitute a part of the homeostatic control of B metabolism. In contrast to its effect on NaBC1 mRNA expression, B supplementation did not affect total tract digestibility or retention of phosphorus, calcium, or nitrogen.

  18. An Overlooked Victim of Cannabis: Losing Several Years of Well-being and Inches of Jejunum on the Way to Unravel Her Hyperemesis Enigma.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Udo

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a severe cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is presented, which had worsened during dronabinol administration and was associated with intestinal dysmotility (pseudo-obstruction). Because dronabinol is an isomer of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, this case provides first direct clinical evidence on the key role of THC in the obscure pathogenesis of CHS. Another peculiarity of this case was that the patient had an odyssey of hospital stays with extensive workups before the patient herself found via Internet the right diagnosis for her cyclic vomiting and abdominal pain. This is typical for CHS, which is often overlooked because physicians refer to the widely known antiemetic properties of cannabis, for example, in cancer chemotherapy but were not always aware of a possible paradoxical emetic reaction of recreational cannabis use. Being pathognomonic of CHS, the patient became symptom-free while abstaining from her cannabis use, meanwhile being in her 12th month of controlled abstinence.

  19. Effect of chronic, extrinsic denervation on functional NANC innervation with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and substance P in longitudinal muscle of rat jejunum1

    PubMed Central

    KASPAREK, M. S.; FATIMA, J.; IQBAL, C. W.; DUENES, J. A.; SARR, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal denervation contributes to enteric motor dysfunction after intestinal transplantation [small bowel transplantation (SBT)]. Our aim was to determine long-term effects of extrinsic denervation on functional non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic innervation with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P. Contractile activity of jejunal longitudinal muscle from six age-matched, naïve control rats (NC) and eight rats 1 year after syngeneic SBT were studied in tissue chambers. Spontaneous contractile activity did not differ between groups. Exogenous VIP inhibited contractile activity dose-dependently in both groups, greater in NC than in SBT. The VIP antagonist ([D-p-Cl-Phe6,Leu17]-VIP) and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitro arginine prevented inhibition by exogenous VIP and electrical field stimulation (EFS) in both groups. Exogenous substance P increased contractile activity dose-dependently, greater in NC than in SBT. The substance P antagonist ([D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-substance P) inhibited effects of exogenous substance P and increased the EFS-induced inhibitory response. Immunohistofluorescence showed staining for tyrosine hydroxylase in the jejunoileum 1 year after SBT suggesting sympathetic reinnervation. In rat jejunal longitudinal muscle after chronic denervation, response to exogenous VIP and substance P is decreased, while endogenous release of both neurotransmitters is preserved. These alterations in excitatory and inhibitory pathways occur despite extrinsic reinnervation and might contribute to enteric motor dysfunction after SBT. PMID:17971029

  20. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Kreydiyyeh, S I; Usta, J; Copti, R

    2000-09-01

    The effect of a water extract of some spices on the in vitro activity of the rat jejunal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was investigated. Extracts of nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, cumin, coriander, turmeric and caraway all inhibited the ATPase, while anise seed and white pepper exerted no significant effects. The extracts of clove and cinnamon had the most potent inhibitory effect on the intestinal ATPase as compared to extracts of other spices. They also inhibited the in vitro Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in a crude kidney homogenate and the activity of an isolated dog kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The alcoholic extract of cinnamon, compared to the aqueous extract, had a stronger inhibitory action on the jejunal enzyme and a lower IC(50) value, which was not significantly different from the one observed with cinnamaldehyde, the major volatile oil present cinnamon, suggesting that in alcoholic extracts cinnamaldehyde is the major inhibitory component. The IC(50) values of eugenol, aqueous clove extract and ethanolic clove extract all fell within the same range and were not significantly different from each other, suggesting that eugenol is the major inhibitory component in both alcoholic and aqueous extracts. Based on the IC(50) values, the order of sensitivity of the enzyme to the spices extracts is as follows: isolated dog kidney ATPase>rat kidney ATPase>rat intestine ATPase. The aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon also significantly lowered the absorption of alanine from the rat intestine. It was concluded that the active principle(s) in clove and cinnamon can permeate the membrane of the enterocytes and inhibit the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase that provides the driving force for many transport processes.

  1. Ontogenic Changes of Villus Growth, Lactase Activity, and Intestinal Glucose Transporters in Preterm and Term Born Calves with or without Prolonged Colostrum Feeding.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Zitnan, Rudolf; Hudakova, Monika; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hammon, Harald M

    2015-01-01

    Oral glucose supply is important for neonatal calves to stabilize postnatal plasma glucose concentration. The objective of this study was to investigate ontogenic development of small intestinal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporter in calves (n = 7 per group) that were born either preterm (PT; delivered by section 9 d before term) or at term (T; spontaneous vaginal delivery) or spontaneously born and fed colostrum for 4 days (TC). Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, protein concentration of mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), total DNA and RNA concentration of mucosa, mRNA expression and activity of lactase, and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and immunochemical localization of GLUT2 in the enterocytes were determined. Villus height in distal jejunum was lower in TC than in T. Crypt depth in all segments was largest and the villus height/crypt depth ratio in jejunum was smallest in TC calves. Concentration of RNA was highest in duodenal mucosa of TC calves, but neither lactase mRNA and activity nor SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression differed among groups. Localization of GLUT2 in the apical membrane was greater, whereas in the basolateral membrane was lower in TC than in T and PT calves. Our study indicates maturation processes after birth for mucosal growth and trafficking of GLUT2 from the basolateral to the apical membrane. Minor differences of mucosal growth, lactase activity, and intestinal glucose transporters were seen between PT and T calves, pointing at the importance of postnatal maturation and feeding for mucosal growth and GLUT2 trafficking.

  2. The complex arrangement of an "aorto-jejunal paraduodenal" fossa, as revealed by dissection of human posterior parietal peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Barberini, Fabrizio; Zani, Augusto; Ripani, Maurizio; Di Nitto, Valentina; Brunone, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Peritoneal fossae derive from normal or anomalous coalescence of the peritoneum during fetal development, or from the course of retroperitoneal vessels. Clinically, internal abdominal hernias may be housed inside these fossae. In this report from an autopsy, a singular peritoneal fossa was delimited superiorly by an arcuate serous fold, raised up by the inferior mesenteric vein, and infero-posteriorly by two (right and left) avascular folds, extending from the abdominal aorta to the jejunum. The right fold reached the duodeno-jejunal flexure, which was located on the right side of the aorta. The left fold subdivided into two, anterior and posterior, secondary folds. The anterior fold reached the superior edge of the first jejunal loop, and the posterior fold turned medially to connect with the inferior edge of the proximal limb of the same loop. This fossa consisted of three recesses: superior, Located behind the subserous vascular arch, antero-inferior and postero-inferior, separated by interposition of the left posterior secondary fold, between the jejunum and aorta. The complex arrangement of this fossa suggests that it might have originated from a coalescence arising beyond the duodeno-jejunal flexure and including the first jejunal loop, and from the subserous course of the inferior mesenteric vein. Because of displacement to the right of the flexure, processes of coalescence in a location normally occupied by the ascending duodenum might have occurred in a similar pattern for the jejunum, involving the mesoduodenum and the proximal part of the mesentery. Labyrinthine fossae like this might cause strangulation of internal abdominal hernias and hinder intraoperative maneuvers.

  3. Lactobacillus brevis strain 1E1 administered to piglets through milk supplementation prior to weaning maintains intestinal integrity after the weaning event.

    PubMed

    Gebert, S; Davis, E; Rehberger, T; Maxwell, C V

    2011-03-01

    Early colonisation in the gastrointestinal tract by commensal microbes influences the progressive development and maturity of digestive and immune system functionality in the neonate. Application of strategically selected direct-fed microbials to neonatal pigs may provide an opportunity to dictate a portion of the intestinal microbial community and exert a beneficial influence on these developmental processes. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of early administration of Lactobacillus brevis strain 1E1 to neonatal piglets (n=224) via a milk supplement system on gastrointestinal microbial counts, villous architecture, and immune cell phenotypes during the lactation phase and after weaning. Pigs administered the direct-fed microbial had lower Escherichia coli counts in the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05), and lower coliform counts in the jejunum compared to unsupplemented pigs (P<0.05). The villous height:crypt depth ratio was greater in the ileum at 9 days of age when pigs were provided L. brevis 1E1 compared to unsupplemented pigs (P<0.05), as well as in the duodenum of pigs supplemented with L. brevis 1E1 at 22 days of age (P<0.05). The number of leukocytes expressing CD2 (P<0.05), CD4 (P=0.07) and MHC-II (P=0.07) was lower in the jejunum of pigs administered L. brevis 1E1 compared to unsupplemented pigs, however direct-fed microbial treatment had no effect on the number of leukocytes expressing CD8, CD25 or SWC3. These data demonstrate that early colonisation of the porcine gastrointestinal tract with L. brevis strain 1E1 during the lactation phase influences the progression of intestinal structure, immune system development, and pathogen establishment, indicating a relationship between early microbial colonisation and development of intestinal maturity and integrity.

  4. Ontogenic Changes of Villus Growth, Lactase Activity, and Intestinal Glucose Transporters in Preterm and Term Born Calves with or without Prolonged Colostrum Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Zitnan, Rudolf; Hudakova, Monika; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hammon, Harald M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral glucose supply is important for neonatal calves to stabilize postnatal plasma glucose concentration. The objective of this study was to investigate ontogenic development of small intestinal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporter in calves (n = 7 per group) that were born either preterm (PT; delivered by section 9 d before term) or at term (T; spontaneous vaginal delivery) or spontaneously born and fed colostrum for 4 days (TC). Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, protein concentration of mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), total DNA and RNA concentration of mucosa, mRNA expression and activity of lactase, and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and immunochemical localization of GLUT2 in the enterocytes were determined. Villus height in distal jejunum was lower in TC than in T. Crypt depth in all segments was largest and the villus height/crypt depth ratio in jejunum was smallest in TC calves. Concentration of RNA was highest in duodenal mucosa of TC calves, but neither lactase mRNA and activity nor SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression differed among groups. Localization of GLUT2 in the apical membrane was greater, whereas in the basolateral membrane was lower in TC than in T and PT calves. Our study indicates maturation processes after birth for mucosal growth and trafficking of GLUT2 from the basolateral to the apical membrane. Minor differences of mucosal growth, lactase activity, and intestinal glucose transporters were seen between PT and T calves, pointing at the importance of postnatal maturation and feeding for mucosal growth and GLUT2 trafficking. PMID:26011395

  5. Gross anatomy of the intestine and its mesentery in the nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Lima, M; Bielli, A

    2008-11-01

    The intestines and mesentery of the nutria (Myocastor coypus) have not been fully described. In the present study 30 adult nutrias were studied using gross dissection. The small intestine was divided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The duodenum started at the pylorus with a cranial portion, which dilated forming a duodenal ampulla. The ileum was located within the concavity of the caecum and attached to the coiled caecum by means of the iliocaecal fold. The ascending colon had two ansae, one proximal and one distal. The proximal ansa was fixed to the caecum by the caecocolic fold. The base of the caecum and a short proximal part of the ascending colon belonging to the proximal ansa were attached to the mesoduodenum descendens. The distal ansa of the ascending colon had a proximal part which was sacculated and a distal part which was smooth. The two parts of the distal ansa of the ascending colon were parallel and joined by a flexure of variable localisation. The smooth part of the distal ansa of the ascending colon was attached to the initial portion of the descending colon by a peritoneal fold. The short transverse colon was directly attached to the mesoduodenum and greater omentum. In conclusion, we have described the anatomy of the intestines of the nutria and its mesentery in detail, and provided a nomenclature list adapted to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria.

  6. Major Complications of Small Bowel Diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Donald, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Complications of diverticula of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, exclusive of Meckel's diverticula are extremely rare but can produce major diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Major reported complications include hemorrhage, perforation, biliary and pancreatic obstruction, and inflammation with intestinal obstruction. The mortality of complicated duodenal diverticula is reported from 33 to 48%. Our experience with some of these complications is reported. This experience and a review of other reported cases have led to the following recommendations for surgical treatment. 1) Massively bleeding duodenal diverticulum. Precise localization of the bleeding point by endoscopy and/or arteriography is highly desirable. Excision or partial excision of the diverticulum with suture ligation of the bleeding point is necessary. 2) Perforated duodenal diverticulum. Excision or partial excision, secure closure and drainage are necessary. If peri-Vaterian, a probe should be passed through the ampulla of Vater via the common duct. Unless an entirely satisfactory closure is achieved, complete diversion of the enteric stream from the duodenum by vagotomy, antrectomy with closure of duodenal stump, and Billroth II anastomosis is recommended. 3) Choledochal obstruction due to duodenal diverticulum. Choledocho-duodenostomy. 4) Perforation, bleeding, or obstruction due to jejunal or ileal diverticulum. In rare cases, local excision of the diverticulum is feasible. Usually, resection of the involved segment with primary anastomosis is indicated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:111637

  7. Dietary Administration of Bacillus subtilis Enhances Growth Performance, Immune Response and Disease Resistance in Cherry Valley Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengjiao; Hao, Guangen; Wang, Baohua; Li, Ning; Li, Rong; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Given the promising results of applying Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) as a probiotic in both humans and animals, the aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effects of B. subtilis on growth performance, immune response and disease resistance in Cherry Valley ducks. At 28 d post-hatch (dph), ducks fed a diet with B. subtilis weighed significantly more, had higher relative immune organ weights (e.g., bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen), and exhibited greater villus heights, villus height to crypt depth ratios (duodenum and jejunum), and shallower crypt depths in the duodenum than controls fed a normal diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the major pro-inflammatory factors and antiviral proteins, as measured in the thymus and the spleen, were higher at 28 dph in ducks fed probiotics than those of 14 dph. After 28 d of feeding, the ducks were challenged with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and novel duck reovirus (NDRV), and ducks fed B. subtilis achieved survival rates of 43.3 and 100%, respectively, which were significantly greater than the control group's 20 and 83.3%. Altogether, diets with B. subtilis can improve Cherry Valley ducks' growth performance, innate immune response, and resistance against E. coli and NDRV. PMID:28008328

  8. Oral distension methods for small bowel MRI: comparison of different agents to optimize bowel distension.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan A; Baumann, Julia A; Stanescu-Siegmund, Nora; Froehlich, Eckhart; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus S

    2016-12-01

    Background Different methods for bowel distension prior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were described in recent years. Purpose To compare orally administered psyllium or locust bean gum / mannitol (LBM) with tylose administered through a duodenal catheter for bowel distension in patients undergoing MRI examination of the small bowel. Material and Methods Three different methods of bowel distension prior to MRI were compared: tylose applied through a duodenal catheter and orally administered psyllium and LBM in three groups with 15 patients each. Datasets were blinded and reviewed independently by two experienced radiologists, who assessed the diagnostic value and the maximum luminal diameter. Results Tylose was superior to psyllium and LBM in the examination of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. LBM was superior to the other methods for distension of the ileum and terminal ileum. The greatest luminal diameter of the duodenum was achieved after tylose and distension of the terminal ileum was the best in patients receiving LBM. The psyllium group was inferior to the other two groups in all segments. Conclusion By using LBM as an oral method of bowel distension, many patients can avoid the unpleasant placement of a duodenal catheter without compromising the diagnostic value of the examination.

  9. Zearalenone in the Intestinal Tissues of Immature Gilts Exposed per os to Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Kostecki, Marian; Dąbrowski, Michał; Obremski, Kazimierz; Goliński, Piotr; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone and its metabolites, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, demonstrate estradiol-like activity and disrupt physiological functions in animals. This article evaluates the carryover of zearalenone and its selected metabolites from the digesta to intestinal walls (along the entire intestines) in pre-pubertal gilts exposed to low doses of zearalenone over long periods of time. The term “carryover” describes the transfer of mycotoxins from feed to edible tissues, and it was used to assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure for consumers. The experimental gilts with body weight of up to 25 kg were per os administered zearalenone at a daily dose of 40 μg/kg BW (Group E, n = 18) or placebo (Group C, n = 21) over a period of 42 days. In the first weeks of exposure, the highest values of the carryover factor were noted in the duodenum and the jejunum. In animals receiving pure zearalenone, the presence of metabolites was not determined in intestinal tissues. In the last three weeks of the experiment, very high values of the carryover factor were observed in the duodenum and the descending colon. The results of the study indicate that in animals exposed to subclinical doses of zearalenone, the carryover factor could be determined by the distribution and expression of estrogen receptor beta. PMID:26295259

  10. Iron, oxidative stress, and redox signaling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Guenancia, Charles; Zeller, Marianne; Cottin, Yves; Vergely, Catherine; Rochette, Luc

    2014-08-01

    The redox state of the cell is predominantly dependent on an iron redox couple and is maintained within strict physiological limits. Iron is an essential metal for hemoglobin synthesis in erythrocytes, for oxidation-reduction reactions, and for cellular proliferation. The maintenance of stable iron concentrations requires the coordinated regulation of iron transport into plasma from dietary sources in the duodenum, from recycled senescent red cells in macrophages, and from storage in hepatocytes. The absorption of dietary iron, which is present in heme or nonheme form, is carried out by mature villus enterocytes of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Multiple physiological processes are involved in maintaining iron homeostasis. These include its storage at the intracellular and extracellular level. Control of iron balance in the whole organism requires communication between sites of uptake, utilization, and storage. Key protein transporters and the molecules that regulate their activities have been identified. In this field, ferritins and hepcidin are the major regulator proteins. A variety of transcription factors may be activated depending on the level of oxidative stress, leading to the expression of different genes. Major preclinical and clinical trials have shown advances in iron-chelation therapy for the treatment of iron-overload disease as well as cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases.

  11. Endothelin system in intestinal villi: A possible role of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor in the maintenance of intestinal architecture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Mariana; Adur, Javier; Takizawa, Satoshi; Saida, Kaname; Casco, Víctor H

    2012-01-27

    The endothelin system consists of three ligands (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and at least two receptors (ETA and ETB). In mice ET-2 counterpart is a peptide originally called "vasoactive intestinal contractor" (VIC) for this reason, this peptide is frequently named ET-2/VIC. In intestinal villi, fibroblasts-like cells express endothelin's receptors and response to ET-1 and ET-3 peptides, changing their cellular shape. Several functions have been attributed to these peptides in the "architecture" maintenance of intestinal villi acting over sub-epithelial fibroblasts. Despite this, ET-2/VIC has not been analyzed in depth. In this work we show the intestine gene expression and immunolocalization of ET-1, ET-2 and the ETA and ETB receptors from duodenum to rectus and in the villus-crypt axis in mice, allowing a complete analysis of their functions. While ET-1 is expressed uniformly, ET-2 had a particular distribution, being higher at the bottom of the villi of duodenum, ileum and jejunum and reverting this pattern in the crypts of colon and rectus, where the higher expression was at the top. We postulated that ET-2 would act in a cooperative manner with ET-1, giving to the villus the straight enough to withstand mechanical stress.

  12. Partial regression of duodenal lesions of intestinal follicular lymphoma after antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Tomonori; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Kizaki, Masahiro; Hosoe, Naoki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Ogata, Haruhiko; Iwao, Yasushi; Kameyama, Kaori; Ikeda, Yasuo; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2010-10-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of duodenal lesions of lymphoma. Endoscopy showed multiple tiny smooth whitish granules in the second portion of the duodenum including the papilla of Vater. Biopsy specimens showed medium-sized centrocyte-like cells forming lymphoid follicles, and immunohistology showed positive staining for bcl-2 and CD10. A small bowel series showed multiple granular lesions extending from the second portion of the duodenum to the proximal jejunum and the proximal ileum. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as stage I follicular lymphoma (FL). Although the patient was negative for Helicobacter pylori, he underwent antibiotic treatment. The lesions improved 3 months after antibiotic treatment, but biopsy specimens showed residual lymphoma cells. The patient therefore received combination chemotherapy with rituximab. Endoscopy 4 months later showed regression of FL, and there was no evidence of recurrence during 3 years of follow up. The partial regression of duodenal lesions of intestinal FL may be due to the effect of antibiotic treatment.

  13. Effect of infusion of a diarrheogenic dose of PGE2 on gastrointestinal electrical activity in the conscious piglet.

    PubMed

    De Saedeleer, V; Wechsung, E; Houvenaghel, A

    1992-01-01

    In 5 conscious piglets with electrodes implanted on the antrum pylori and small intestine, phasic and integrated electrical activity was daily recorded. PGE2, 10 micrograms/kg/min, was infused intravenously during 1.5 h and the induced changes in electrical activity were analyzed. Clinical appearance was also studied. PGE2 induced an inhibition in both antral and intestinal activity. In the antrum this inhibition was characterized by a decrease in the frequency of electrical control activity and fast oscillations, and an increase in the duration of the inhibitory phase. Small intestinal recordings revealed an increase in the quiescence phase for the duodenum and a decrease in the integrated total activity for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, induced by a decrease in phase II activity. PGE2 was without influence on phase III activity and the recycling of the migrating myoelectrical complexes. All piglets developed a severe diarrhea. Vomiting, sedation, fever and shivering were observed in most animals. These data suggest that the diarrheogenic effect of PGE2 is not provoked by an increase in small intestinal motility. Moreover, the direct effect of this PG is a partial inhibition of gastrointestinal electrical activity.

  14. Dietary Administration of Bacillus subtilis Enhances Growth Performance, Immune Response and Disease Resistance in Cherry Valley Ducks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengjiao; Hao, Guangen; Wang, Baohua; Li, Ning; Li, Rong; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Given the promising results of applying Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) as a probiotic in both humans and animals, the aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effects of B. subtilis on growth performance, immune response and disease resistance in Cherry Valley ducks. At 28 d post-hatch (dph), ducks fed a diet with B. subtilis weighed significantly more, had higher relative immune organ weights (e.g., bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen), and exhibited greater villus heights, villus height to crypt depth ratios (duodenum and jejunum), and shallower crypt depths in the duodenum than controls fed a normal diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the major pro-inflammatory factors and antiviral proteins, as measured in the thymus and the spleen, were higher at 28 dph in ducks fed probiotics than those of 14 dph. After 28 d of feeding, the ducks were challenged with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and novel duck reovirus (NDRV), and ducks fed B. subtilis achieved survival rates of 43.3 and 100%, respectively, which were significantly greater than the control group's 20 and 83.3%. Altogether, diets with B. subtilis can improve Cherry Valley ducks' growth performance, innate immune response, and resistance against E. coli and NDRV.

  15. Histological and mucin histochemical study of the small intestine of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus).

    PubMed

    Tootian, Zahra; Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Sheibani, Mohammad Taghi; Fazelipour, Simin; De Sordi, Nadia; Chiocchetti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the histological and mucin histochemical properties of the small intestine of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus). This species is widely distributed in the Middle East and can be found as a companion animal. The histological studies revealed that the plicae circulares were not visible in the tunica mucosa. The maximum height and width of the villi were observed in the duodenum, which then decreased toward the ileum. The muscularis mucosa was scattered, whereas the tunica submucosa was composed of dense connective tissue. The lymphatic nodules were seen in the submucosa of the distal part of the jejunum and ileum, and Brunner's glands were embedded in the initial portion of the duodenum. The tunica muscularis was significantly thicker in the ileum, and the circular muscle layer was thicker than the longitudinal muscle layer throughout the entire length of the small intestine. The mucin histochemistry, which was examined using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and alcian blue (AB) (pH 1.0 and 2.5) and also PAS-AB (pH 2.5) and aldehyde fuchsin-AB (pH 2.5) techniques coupled with methylation and saponification reaction for some sections, showed that the small intestine mucous content included both carboxylated and sulfated acidic mucins with few neutral mucins. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the histological and histochemical characteristics of the gastrointestinal tracts of exotic mammals and provide data for comparison with other mammals.

  16. Radiation therapy for localized duodenal low-grade follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Arisa; Oguchi, Masahiko; Terui, Yasuhito; Takeuchi, Kengo; Igarashi, Masahiro; Kozuka, Takuyo; Harada, Ken; Uno, Takashi; Hatake, Kiyohiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial treatment results and toxicities of radiation therapy for patients with early stage low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) arising from the duodenum. We reviewed 21 consecutive patients with early stage duodenal FL treated with radiation therapy between January 2005 and December 2013 at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo. The characteristics of patients were: median age 62 years (range, 46–79 years), gender (male, 6; female, 15), clinical stage (I, 20; II1, 1), histological grade (I, 17; II, 4). All patients were treated with radiation therapy alone. The median radiation dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6–39.6) in 17 fractions. The involved-site radiation therapy was delivered to the whole duodenum. The median follow-up time was 43.2 months (range 21.4–109.3). The 3-year overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and local control (LC) rates were 94.7%, 79.3% and 100%, respectively. There were four relapses documented outside the treated volumes: two in the gastrointestinal tract (jejunum, terminal ileum), one in an abdominal lymph node (mesenteric lymph node) and one in the bone marrow. None died of the disease; one death was due to acute myeloid leukemia. No toxicities greater than Grade 1 were observed during treatment and over the follow-up time. The 30.6 Gy of involved-site radiation therapy provided excellent local control with very low toxicities. Radiation therapy could be an effective and safe treatment option for patients with localized low grade FL arising from the duodenum. PMID:27009323

  17. Gastrointestinal acetylcholinesterase activity following endotracheal microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Soma; Song, Jian; Rezk, Peter; Sabnekar, Praveena; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2010-09-06

    The goal of this study was to assess acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract following inhalation exposure to nerve agent sarin. Seven major regions of the GI tract were removed from saline control animals (n=3) and 677.4 mg/m(3) sarin-exposed animals at 4h (n=4) and 24h (n=4) post-exposure. AChE activity was determined in blood and homogenized tissue supernatant by specific Ellman's assay using Iso-OMPA, a BChE inhibitor, and expressed as activity/optical density of hemoglobin for blood and activity/mg protein for tissues. Our data showed that the AChE activity was significantly decreased for groups both 4h and 24h post-sarin exposure. Among the seven chosen regions of the guinea pig GI tract, duodenum showed the highest AChE activity in control animals. The AChE activity was significantly decreased in the stomach (p=0.03), duodenum (p=0.029), jejunum (p=0.006), and ileum (p=0.006) 4h following sarin exposure. At 24h post-sarin exposure the AChE activity of duodenum (p=0.029) and ileum (p=0.006) was significantly inhibited. Esophagus showed no inhibition following sarin exposure at both 4h and 24h groups. These results suggest that the AChE activity is different in different regions of the GI tract and highest levels of AChE inhibition following sarin exposure were seen in regions exhibiting higher overall AChE activity and cholinergic function.

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Hexavalent Chromium in the Alimentary Canal of F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice Following Exposure in Drinking Water: Implications for Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Chad M.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Hébert, Charles D.; Mann, Jill F.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Hixon, J. Gregory; Harris, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1–182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3–520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well. PMID:22011396

  19. Bacteriophage cocktail and multi-strain probiotics in the feed for weanling pigs: effects on intestine morphology and targeted intestinal coliforms and Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Hosseindoust, A; Lee, S H; Choi, Y H; Kim, M J; Lee, J H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of bacteriophage cocktail, probiotics and a combination of these two supplements on performance and gut health of weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, 150 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of BW. The dietary treatments included a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail. Pigs fed 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg bacteriophage product had greater (P<0.05) average daily gain (ADG), apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter from day 22 to 35, ileal Lactobacillus spp., villus height (duodenum and jejunum), and fewer coliforms (ileum) and Clostridium spp. (ileum). In Experiment 2, 200 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to four treatments. Dietary treatments included basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 3.0 g/kg fermented probiotic product (P), 1.0 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail (B) and combination of 1.0 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail and 3.0 g/kg fermented probiotic product. Pigs fed bacteriophage cocktail diets had greater (P<0.05) overall ADG, gain to feed ratio (G : F), fecal score from day 8 to day 21, and pigs fed bacteriophage cocktail diets had fewer coliforms (ileum) Clostridium spp. (ileum and cecum). Probiotics significantly increased G : F, colonization of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum. At day 35, bacteriophage treatment group showed greater (P<0.05) villus height of the duodenum, but a deeper crypt in duodenum. The present results indicate that the bacteriophage cocktail had a potential to enhance the performance and gut health of weanling pigs, however their combination with probiotics did not show an interaction.

  20. Comparison of the effects of hexavalent chromium in the alimentary canal of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following exposure in drinking water: implications for carcinogenic modes of action.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C; Hébert, Charles D; Mann, Jill F; Shertzer, Howard G; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1-182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3-520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well.

  1. Numbers and distribution of immune cells in the tunica mucosa of the small and large intestine of full-thickness biopsies from healthy pet cats.

    PubMed

    Marsilio, S; Kleinschmidt, S; Harder, J; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2011-02-01

    In this study, CD3(+) T lymphocytes and IgA(+) , IgG(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells were quantified in the tunica mucosa of the intestinal tract of 12 pet cats without gastrointestinal diseases. The study included full-thickness biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. The distribution and quantification of CD3(+) T cells, IgA(+) , IgG(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells within the intestinal tunica mucosa was performed by using immunohistochemical methods and computer-aided morphometry. CD3(+) T cells were significantly prominent in the villi and their numbers increased from duodenum to ileum but decreased towards the colon. The predominant type of plasma cells was IgA(+) cells, followed by IgM(+) cells. The number of IgG(+) cells was generally low compared to the other plasma cell types investigated. The results of the vertical distribution showed that IgA(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells were most numerous in the lower crypt areas, whilst IgG(+) plasma cells accumulated in the upper crypt region with a decline towards the villi and the lower crypt areas of control cats. All types of plasma cells showed a general decline from the duodenum towards the caudal sections of the intestinal tract regarding the horizontal distribution of plasma cells. This study provides a comprehensive overview on the vertical and horizontal distribution and the number of CD3(+) T cells and IgA(+) , IgG(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells in the intestinal tunica mucosa of pet cats.

  2. Regional susceptibility to stress-induced intestinal injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Novosad, Veronica L; Richards, Jennifer L; Phillips, Neil A; King, Michelle A; Clanton, Thomas L

    2013-09-15

    Injury to the intestinal mucosa is a life-threatening problem in a variety of clinical disorders, including hemorrhagic shock, trauma, burn, pancreatitis, and heat stroke. The susceptibility to injury of different regions of intestine in these disorders is not well understood. We compared histological injury across the small intestine in two in vivo mouse models of injury, hemorrhagic shock (30% loss of blood volume) and heat stroke (peak core temperature 42.4°C). In both injury models, areas near the duodenum showed significantly greater mucosal injury and reductions in villus height. To determine if these effects were dependent on circulating factors, experiments were performed on isolated intestinal segments to test for permeability to 4-kDa FITC-dextran. The segments were exposed to hyperthermia (42°C for 90 min), moderate simulated ischemia (Po2 ∼30 Torr, Pco2 ∼60 Torr, pH 7.1), severe ischemia (Po2 ∼20 Torr, Pco2 ∼80 Torr, pH 6.9), or severe hypoxia (Po2 ∼0 Torr, Pco2 ∼35 Torr) for 90 min, and each group was compared with sham controls. All treatments resulted in marked elevations in permeability within segments near the duodenum. In severe hypoxia or hyperthermia, permeability was also moderately elevated in the jejunum and ileum; in moderate or severe ischemia, permeability was unaffected in these regions. The results demonstrate increased susceptibility of proximal regions of the small intestine to acute stress-induced damage, irrespective of circulating factors. The predominant injury in the duodenum may impact the pattern of acute inflammatory responses arising from breach of the intestinal barrier, and such knowledge may be useful for designing therapeutic strategies.

  3. Effects of Chitosan on Body Weight Gain, Growth Hormone and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure. PMID:25049731