Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna; Miller, Anton
BACKGROUND: Windows of achievement provide age ranges for the attainment of early developmental skills. Group-specific research is warranted given that development may be influenced by social or cultural factors. OBJECTIVES: To examine developmental milestones for Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nation children in Canada, based on developmental domains collected from the 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey. Sociodemographic and health predictors of risk for developmental delay were also examined. RESULTS: The ranges in which children achieve certain developmental milestones are presented. Gross motor and self-help skills were found to be achieved earlier (across the three Aboriginal groups), whereas language skills were achieved slightly later than in Canadian children in general. Furthermore, health factors (eg, low birth weight, chronic health conditions) were associated with late achievement of developmental outcomes even when sociodemographic characteristics were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the timing of milestone achievement may differ for Aboriginal children, highlighting the importance of establishing culturally specific norms and standards rather than relying on those derived from general populations. This information may be useful for practitioners and parents interested in identifying the age ranges for development, as well as age ranges indicating potential for developmental risk and opportunities for early intervention among Aboriginal children. PMID:24855426
Falster, Kathleen; Banks, Emily; Lujic, Sanja; Falster, Michael; Lynch, John; Zwi, Karen; Eades, Sandra; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa
Australian Aboriginal children experience a disproportionate burden of social and health disadvantage. Avoidable hospitalizations present a potentially modifiable health gap that can be targeted and monitored using population data. This study quantifies inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. This statewide population-based cohort study included 1 121 440 children born in New South Wales, Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012, including 35 609 Aboriginal children. Using linked hospital data from 1 July 2000 to 31 December 2013, we identified pediatric avoidable, ambulatory care sensitive and non-avoidable hospitalization rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Absolute and relative inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children were measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively. Individual-level covariates included age, sex, low birth weight and/or prematurity, and private health insurance/patient status. Area-level covariates included remoteness of residence and area socioeconomic disadvantage. There were 365 386 potentially avoidable hospitalizations observed over the study period, most commonly for respiratory and infectious conditions; Aboriginal children were admitted more frequently for all conditions. Avoidable hospitalization rates were 90.1/1000 person-years (95 % CI, 88.9-91.4) in Aboriginal children and 44.9/1000 person-years (44.8-45.1) in non-Aboriginal children (age and sex adjusted rate ratio = 1.7 (1.7-1.7)). Rate differences and rate ratios declined with age from 94/1000 person-years and 1.9, respectively, for children aged <2 years to 5/1000 person-years and 1.8, respectively, for ages 12- < 14 years. Findings were similar for the subset of ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations, but in contrast, non-avoidable hospitalization rates were almost identical in Aboriginal (10.1/1000 person-years, (9.6-10.5)) and non-Aboriginal
Smithers, Lisa G; Lynch, John; Hedges, Joanne; Jamieson, Lisa M
There are marked disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous children's diets and oral health. Both diet and oral health are linked to longer-term health problems. We aimed to investigate whether a culturally appropriate multi-faceted oral health promotion intervention reduced Aboriginal children's intake of sugars from discretionary foods at 2 years of age. We conducted a single-blind, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial involving women who were pregnant or had given birth to an Aboriginal child in the previous 6 weeks. The treatment group received anticipatory guidance, Motivational Interviewing, health and dental care for mothers during pregnancy and children at 6, 12 and 18 months. The control group received usual care. The key dietary outcome was the percent energy intake from sugars in discretionary foods (%EI), collected from up to three 24-h dietary recalls by trained research officers who were blind to intervention group. Secondary outcomes included intake of macronutrients, food groups, anthropometric z scores (weight, height, BMI and mid-upper arm circumference) and blood pressure. We enrolled 224 children to the treatment group and 230 to the control group. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that the %EI of sugars in discretionary foods was 1·6 % lower in the treatment group compared with control (95 % CI -3·4, 0·2). This culturally appropriate intervention at four time-points from pregnancy to 18 months resulted in small changes to 2-year-old Aboriginal children's diets, which was insufficient to warrant broader implementation of the intervention. Further consultation with Aboriginal communities is necessary for understanding how to improve the diet and diet-related health outcomes of young Aboriginal children.
Lawrence, Herenia P; Binguis, Darlene; Douglas, Jan; McKeown, Lynda; Switzer, Bonita; Figueiredo, Rafael; Reade, Margaret
To investigate (i) oral health inequalities between off-reserve Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children entering junior kindergarten (JK) in the Thunder Bay District, Northwest Ontario, Canada, (ii) oral health inequalities between kindergarten-aged (4 years old) Aboriginal children living on reserves in the Sioux Lookout Zone (SLZ), Northwest Ontario and those living off-reserve in the Thunder Bay District and (iii) early childhood caries (ECC) trends among SLZ children between 2001 and 2005. Cross-sectional oral health data (dmft/s Indices) for 416 (2003/2004), 687 (2004/2005) and 544 (2005/2006) 3- to 5-year olds attending JK in the Thunder Bay District were collected by calibrated dental hygienists with the District's Health Unit. Secondary analysis of oral health status data from two studies conducted in the SLZ between 2001 and 2005 provided the dmft of random samples of children younger than 6 years of age living in 16-20 First Nations communities. When compared with non-Aboriginal children aged 3-5 years attending the same schools in the Thunder Bay District between 2003 and 2006, off-reserve Aboriginal children had 1.9 to 2.3 times the risk of having ECC (dmft > 0), 2.9 to 3.5 times the risk of a dmft > 3 and 1.8 to 2.5 times the risk of untreated decayed teeth after adjusting the prevalence ratios for child's age and sex, school's risk level and clustered-correlated data. The mean dmft of on-reserve Aboriginal 4-year olds in 2005 was 11.2 and 5.9 for their off-reserve Aboriginal counterparts. In 2001, the mean dmft scores (95% confidence interval) of 2-, 3- and 4-year-old Aboriginal children in the SLZ were: 9.1 (8.3-9.9), 12.4 (11.8-13.1), 13.1 (12.1-14.2). In 2005, similarly aged SLZ children had a mean dmft of: 6.2 (5.2-7.1), 8.9 (8.2-9.6), 11.2 (10.5-11.9), representing significant reductions in caries severity (32%, 28% and 14.5%, respectively). Significant disparities in caries experience exist between off-reserve Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal
Kickett-Tucker, Cheryl S.
This paper examines the self-concept of urban Western Australian Aboriginal school children, aged 11-12, in school sports settings. Most students were from the Nyoongar Aboriginal community of southwestern Western Australia. Data were collected from interviews with Aboriginal students and parents, class teachers, and sports teachers, and from…
Hall, Kerry K; Chang, Anne B; Anderson, Jennie; Dunbar, Melissa; Arnold, Daniel; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F
There are no published data on factors impacting on acute respiratory illness (ARI) among urban Indigenous children. We describe the characteristics and respiratory risk profile of young urban Indigenous children attending an Aboriginal-friendly primary health-care practice. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected at baseline in a cohort study investigating ARI in urban Indigenous children aged less than 5 years registered with an Aboriginal primary health-care service. Descriptive analyses of epidemiological, clinical, environmental and cultural factors were performed. Logistic regression was undertaken to examine associations between child characteristics and the presence of ARI at baseline. Between February 2013 and October 2015, 180 Indigenous children were enrolled; the median age was 18.4 months (7.7-35), 51% were male. A total of 40 (22%) children presented for a cough-related illness; however, ARI was identified in 33% of all children at the time of enrolment. A total of 72% of children were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. ARI at baseline was associated with low birthweight (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-5.94), a history of eczema (aOR 2.67, 95% CI 1.00-7.15) and either having a family member from the Stolen Generation (aOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.33-9.03) or not knowing this family history (aOR 3.35, 95% CI 1.21-9.26). We identified an urban community of children of high socio-economic disadvantage and who have excessive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Connection to the Stolen Generation or not knowing the family history may be directly impacting on child health in this community. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between cultural factors and ARI. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Bratu, Ioana; Lowe, Danielle; Phillips, Leah
Injuries are the leading cause of death in young people. Our aim is to examine the differences between aboriginal and non-aboriginal pediatric trauma mortality as a means to focus on prevention strategies. The records for all traumatic pediatric (0-18 years) deaths between 1996 and 2010 were reviewed from the regional Medical Examiner's office. The majority of the total 932 pediatric deaths were the result of non-intentional injuries (640) followed by suicide (195), homicide (65), child abuse (15), and undetermined (17). Despite being only 3.3% of the provincial population, Aboriginals represented 30.9% of pediatric trauma fatalities. Aboriginal fatalities occurred most commonly in the home, with males and females equally affected. Road related events were the main causes of injury overall. Up to three-quarters of Aboriginal children who died in a non-pedestrian road related event did not wear an indicated protective device. Pedestrian deaths were over-represented in Aboriginal children. The second most common cause of death was suicide for both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children. Almost half of all of the suicides were Aboriginal. Homicide and child abuse had similar proportions for both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children. Pediatric Aboriginal injury prevention should be a priority and tailored for Aboriginal communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fathima, Parveen; Snelling, Thomas Laurence; de Klerk, Nicholas; Lehmann, Deborah; Blyth, Christopher Charles; Waddington, Claire Shelley; Moore, Hannah Catherine
Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. We aimed to assess the maternal and infant characteristics and population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with childhood gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations. We conducted a whole-of-population retrospective birth cohort study of 367,476 children live-born in Western Australia (WA) 2000-2012. We identified hospital admissions up to age <15 years pertaining to these children, with a principal diagnosis code for infectious gastroenteritis. Cox regression was used to obtain the adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the PAFs associated with each risk factor in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children for their first gastroenteritis hospital admission. There were a total of 15,888 gastroenteritis-related hospital admissions (25.7% occurring among Aboriginal children). The overall gastroenteritis hospitalization rate for children aged <15 years was 4.6/1000 child-years for non-Aboriginal children and 21.5/1000 child-years for Aboriginal children. Male gender, maternal age <20 years, pre-term birth, low birth weight, residence in remote regions of WA and birth in the pre-rotavirus vaccine era were significant independent risk factors for gastroenteritis hospitalization in both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, birth by caesarean section and low socio-economic status were identified as being associated with gastroenteritis hospitalization in non-Aboriginal children. PAFs suggest that 39% of all gastroenteritis hospitalizations in non-Aboriginal children (38% in Aboriginal children) could be averted if all children receive the rotavirus vaccine. Given the beneficial effect of infant rotavirus vaccination in preventing all-cause gastroenteritis hospitalization, efforts should be taken to optimize rotavirus vaccine coverage in those at highest risk.
Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena
The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…
Hall, Kerry K; Chang, Anne B; Anderson, Jennie; Arnold, Daniel; Otim, Michael; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F
The majority of Australia's Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children live in urban areas; however, little is known about their health service use. We aimed to describe health service utilisation amongst a cohort of urban Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children aged <5 years. We analysed health service utilisation data collected in an ongoing prospective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with an Aboriginal-owned and operated primary health-care service. Enrolled children were followed monthly for 12 months, with data on health service utilisation collected at baseline and at each monthly follow-up. Health service utilisation rates, overall and by service provider and reason for presentation, were calculated and reported as incidence rates per 100 child-months with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Between February 2013 and November 2015, 180 children were enrolled, and 1541 child-months of observation were available for analysis. The overall incidence of health service utilisation was 52.5 per 100 child-months (95% CI 48.7-56.5); 81% of encounters were with general practitioners. Presentation rates were the highest for acute respiratory illnesses (30.7/100 child-months, 95% CI 27.8-33.9). In this community, acute respiratory illnesses are predominant causes of health service utilisation in young children. The health-care utilisation profile of these children presents important opportunities for health promotion and intervention. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Kim, S; Macaskill, P; Baur, L A; Hodson, E M; Daylight, J; Williams, R; Kearns, R; Vukasin, N; Lyle, D M; Craig, J C
Adult Aboriginal Australians have 1.5-fold higher risk of obesity, but the trajectory of body mass index (BMI) through childhood and adolescence and the contribution of socio-economic factors remain unclear. Our objective was to determine the changes in BMI in Australian Aboriginal children relative to non-Aboriginal children as they move through adolescence into young adulthood, and to identify risk factors for higher BMI. A prospective cohort study of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal school children commenced in 2002 across 15 different screening areas across urban, regional and remote New South Wales, Australia. Socio-economic status was recorded at study enrolment and participants' BMI was measured every 2 years. We fitted a series of mixed linear regression models adjusting for age, birth weight and socio-economic status for boys and girls. In all, 3418 (1949 Aboriginal) participants were screened over a total of 11 387 participant years of follow-up. The prevalence of obesity was higher among Aboriginal children from mean age 11 years at baseline (11.6 vs 7.6%) to 16 years at 8 years follow-up (18.6 vs 12.3%). The mean BMI increased with age and was significantly higher among Aboriginal girls compared with non-Aboriginal girls (P<0.01). Girls born of low birth weight had a lower BMI than girls born of normal birth weight (P<0.001). Socio-economic status and low birth weight had a differential effect on BMI for Aboriginal boys compared with non-Aboriginal boys (P for interaction=0.01). Aboriginal boys of highest socio-economic status, unlike those of lower socio-economic status, had a higher BMI compared with non-Aboriginal boys. Non-Aboriginal boys of low birth weight were heavier than Aboriginal boys. Socio-economic status and birth weight have differential effects on BMI among Aboriginal boys, and Aboriginal girls had a higher mean BMI than non-Aboriginal girls through childhood and adolescence. Intervention programs need to recognise the differential risk
Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon
In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814
Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob
Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…
Hossain, Alomgir; Konrad, Stephanie; Dosman, James A; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McCrosky, Jesse; Pahwa, Punam
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge concerning chronic bronchitis (CB) in Canadian Aboriginal peoples. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted) of CB and its associated risk factors in Canadian Aboriginal children and youth six to 14 years of age. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples Survey were analyzed in the present study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of CB among Aboriginal children and youth. The balanced repeated replication method was used to compute standard errors of regression coefficients to account for clustering inherent in the study design. The outcome of interest was based on the question: “Have you been told by a doctor, nurse or other health professional that you have chronic bronchitis?” Demographics, environment and population characteristics (predisposing and enabling resources) were tested for an association with CB. RESULTS: The prevalence of CB was 3.1% for boys and 2.8% for girls. Other significant risk factors of CB were age (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.52] for 12 to 14 year olds versus six to eight year olds), income (OR 2.28 [95% CI 2.02 to 2.59] for income category <$25,000/year versus ≥$85,000/year), allergies (OR 1.96 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.16] for having allergies versus no allergies), asthma (OR 7.61 [ 95% CI 6.91 to 8.37] for having asthma versus no asthma) and location of residence (rural/urban and geographical location). A significant two-way interaction between sex and body mass index indicated that the relationship between the prevalence of CB and body mass index was modified by sex. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of CB was related to well-known risk factors among adults, including older age and lower annual income. PMID:23248806
Liu, Karen; Kuo, Li Tsung Wen
Many Americans believe that diversity issues are limited to the United States. The truth is, however, that many cultures struggle to recognize and foster cultural diversity. In this article, the authors have two aims: (1) to recognize various ethnic groups in Taiwan, in particular aboriginal groups; and (2) to inform educators about what they can…
Thomas, Susan L; Boreland, Frances; Lyle, David M
Lead poses a health risk to young children with detrimental effects on their intellectual development. Attendance rates for Aboriginal children at routine blood lead screening and at follow-up appointments in Broken Hill, NSW, have declined in recent years. This study sought to identify strategies to improve the participation of Aboriginal children aged 1-4 years in blood lead screening services in Broken Hill. Attendance rates during the period 2000-2010 were determined using the Broken Hill Lead Management database. From June to August 2011, Aboriginal community members, service providers and public health staff were invited to interviews and focus groups to explore barriers, enablers and suggestions for improving participation. In 2009, 27% of Aboriginal children aged 1-4 years attended blood lead screening and 29% of these children with blood lead levels over 15 µg/dL attended follow-up appointments. Barriers to participation in lead screening services included community perceptions, reduced service capacity, socio-economic and interorganisational factors. Enablers included using a culturally acceptable model, linking lead screening with routine health checks and using the finger-prick method of testing. The final report for the study included recommendations to improve participation rates of Aboriginal children including using social marketing, formalising collaboration between health services, supporting disadvantaged families and employing an Aboriginal Health Worker.
Duncan, Catriona; Williams, Katrina; Nathanson, Dania; Thomas, Susan; Cottier, Carolyn; O'Meara, Matthew; Zwi, Karen
This study describes the presentations made to the Sydney Children's Hospital (SCH) Emergency Department (ED) by local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) children with particular reference to children who present frequently or whose presentation was preventable. Data from the SCH ED Information System were extracted for all presentations made by children who identified as Aboriginal, aged between 0-15 years, who presented between 2005-2008. Presentations were coded according to the presenting problem, diagnosis, outcome, and whether the presentations were potentially preventable. Preventable presentations include those presentations considered to be avoidable and those that could have been managed by a local primary care or community service. There were 1252 presentations to the SCH ED by 453 Aboriginal children aged 0-15 years. More than 50% of children presented more than once. Seventy-nine children presented more than five times. Nearly 45% of presentations were coded as potentially preventable. A significant proportion of ED presentations were potentially preventable with the use of culturally appropriate and accessible local community and primary health care services and better referral pathways back to these services. Community engagement is required to raise awareness of common presentations and to look at strategies to prevent common problems both occurring and presenting to the ED. This will enhance the health of urban Aboriginal children. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Fournier, Suzanne; Crey, Ernie
A deliberate policy to separate and forcibly assimilate Aboriginal First Nations children into the mainstream has pervaded every era of Aboriginal history in Canada. Each era saw a new reason to take Aboriginal children away from their homes, placing them in residential schools, foster care, or non-Aboriginal adoptive families. In the words of…
Baskin, Cyndy; Davey, Caitlin J
Based on a research project in Toronto, Canada, this article highlights the strengths and resiliency of 12 female Aboriginal Elders and seniors as they age together. For these women, being actively involved in their families and the Aboriginal community gives them a solid grounding in who they are, what their roles are and how they contribute to the whole. Of particular significance is the support and friendship the women offer each other through their commonalities, activities, and sense of humor.
Peckmann, Tanya R; Manhein, Mary H; Listi, Ginesse A; Fournier, Michel
This study examines facial tissue depth in Canadian Aboriginal children. Using ultrasound, measurements were taken at 19 points on the faces of 392 individuals aged 3-18 years old. The relationships between tissue thickness, age, and sex were investigated. A positive linear trend may exist between tissue thickness and age for Aboriginal females and males at multiple points. No points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 3-8 years old; seven points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 9-13 years old; and five points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 14-18 years old. Comparisons were made with White Americans and African Nova Scotians. These data can assist in 3-D facial reconstructions and aid in establishing an individual's identity. Previously, no data existed for facial tissue thickness in Canadian Aboriginal populations. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
The chronic diseases associated with overweight and obesity are major contributors to the excess disease burden of Aboriginal Australians. Surveillance of overweight and obesity is required to monitor these conditions, and to develop and evaluate interventions to improve health and wellbeing. Remote Aboriginal communities in Australia's Northern Territory (NT) are where approximately two-thirds of the NT Aboriginal people live, a proportion which has been stable over many years. However the remote communities suffer significant socioeconomic disadvantage including limited education and employment opportunities, and poor quality and overcrowded housing. Approximately one-third of Aboriginal people in NT live in central Australia, which consists of the Alice Springs and Barkly districts. The Healthy School-Aged Kids Program includes health promotion and child health screening, and is run in remote Aboriginal communities of NT. This report provides estimates of prevalences of overweight and obesity among children in central Australia who participated in health checks as part of Healthy School-Aged Kids Program in 2010. All children in remote central Australian Aboriginal communities were invited to participate in health checks. Children who attended were weighed and measured. Date of birth, sex, height and weight for each child were used to determine prevalence of overweight (≥+1 standard deviation [SD] BMI-for-age) and obesity (≥+2 SD BMI-for-age) according to WHO Growth standards. Differences in proportions of overweight and obesity by age group and sex, and their statistical significance were calculated. Weight, height, sex and age data were available for 996 children from a population of 1764. It was found that 22.1% of girls and 20.7% of boys were overweight; and 5.1% of girls and 5.8% of boys were obese as defined by BMI-for-age. Prevalence of overweight but not obesity increased with age (for overweight z=3.28, p=0.0011; for obesity z=0.68; p=0.50). The
Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A
Introduction Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. Methods and analysis All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and
Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…
Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.; Corscadden, Karli J.; Wiertsema, Selma P.; Fuery, Angela; Jones, B. Jan; Coates, Harvey L.; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Zhang, Guicheng; Keil, Anthony; Richmond, Peter C.
ABSTRACT Indigenous populations experience high rates of otitis media (OM), with increased chronicity and severity, compared to those experienced by their nonindigenous counterparts. Data on immune responses to otopathogenic bacteria in these high-risk populations are lacking. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the predominant otopathogen in Australia. No vaccines are currently licensed to target NTHi; however, protein D (PD) from NTHi is included as a carrier protein in the 10-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PHiD10-CV), and other promising protein vaccine candidates exist, including outer membrane protein 4 (P4) and protein 6 (P6). We measured the levels of serum and salivary IgA and IgG against PD, P4, and P6 in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children with chronic OM who were undergoing surgery and compared the levels with those in healthy non-Aboriginal children (controls). We found that Aboriginal cases had lower serum IgG titers to all NTHi proteins assessed, particularly PD. In contrast, serum IgA and salivary IgA and IgG titers to each of these 3 proteins were equivalent to or higher than those in both non-Aboriginal cases and healthy controls. While serum antibody levels increased with age in healthy controls, no changes in titers were observed with age in non-Aboriginal cases, and a trend toward decreasing titers with age was observed in Aboriginal cases. This suggests that decreased serum IgG responses to NTHi outer membrane proteins may contribute to the development of chronic and severe OM in Australian Aboriginal children and other indigenous populations. These data are important for understanding the potential benefits of PHiD10-CV implementation and the development of NTHi protein-based vaccines for indigenous populations. PMID:28151410
Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.
This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…
Background Delayed immunisation and vaccine preventable communicable disease remains a significant health issue in Aboriginal children. Strategies to increase immunisation coverage and timeliness can be resource intensive. In a low cost initiative at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney (AMSWS) in 2008–2009, a trial of personalised calendars to prompt timely childhood immunisation was undertaken. Methods Calendars were generated during attendances for early childhood immunisations. They were designed for display in the home and included the due date of the next immunisation, a photo of the child and Aboriginal artwork. In a retrospective cohort design, Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data from AMSWS and non-AMSWS providers were used to determine the delay in immunisation and percentage of immunisations on time in those who received a calendar compared to those who did not. Interviews were undertaken with carers and staff. Results Data on 2142 immunisation doses given to 505 children were analysed, utilising pre-intervention (2005–2007) and intervention (2008–2009) periods and a 2 year post-intervention observation period. 113 calendars were distributed (30% of eligible immunisation attendances). Improvements in timeliness were seen at each schedule point for those children who received a calendar. The average delay in those who received a calendar at their previous visit was 0.6 months (95% CI -0.8 to 2.6) after the due date, compared to 3.3 months (95% CI −0.6 to 7.5) in those who did not. 80% of doses were on time in the group who received a calendar at the preceding immunisation, 66% were on time for those who received a calendar at an earlier point and 57% of doses were on time for those who did not receive a calendar (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test). Interview data further supported the value and effectiveness of the calendars as both a prompt to timely immunisations and a community health education project without undue
Stephen, Anna T N; Leach, Amanda J; Morris, Peter S
To measure the impact of 4 weeks of daily swimming on rates of ear discharge among Aboriginal children with a tympanic membrane perforation (TMP) and on the microbiology of the nasopharynx and middle ear. A randomised controlled trial involving 89 Aboriginal children (aged 5-12 2013s) with a TMP, conducted in two remote Northern Territory Aboriginal communities from August to December 2009. 4 school weeks of daily swimming lessons (45 minutes) in a chlorinated pool. Proportions of children with ear discharge and respiratory and opportunistic bacteria in the nasopharynx and middle ear. Of 89 children randomly assigned to the swimming or non-swimming groups, 58 (26/41 swimmers and 32/48 non-swimmers) had ear discharge at baseline. After 4 weeks, 24 of 41 swimmers had ear discharge compared with 32 of 48 non-swimmers (risk difference, - 8% (95% CI, - 28% to 12%). There were no statistically significant changes in the microbiology of the nasopharynx or middle ear in swimmers or non-swimmers. Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae were the dominant organisms cultured from the nasopharynx, and H. influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the dominant organisms in the middle ear. Swimming lessons for Aboriginal children in remote communities should be supported, but it is unlikely that they will substantially reduce rates of chronic suppurative otitis media and associated bacteria in the nasopharynx and middle ear. However, swimming was not associated with increased risk of ear discharge and we found no reason to discourage it. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000634774.
Gwynn, Josephine D; Hardy, Louise L; Wiggers, John H; Smith, Wayne T; D'Este, Catherine A; Turner, Nicole; Cochrane, Janine; Barker, Daniel J; Attia, John R
To validate a self-report measure of physical activity for both Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous rural children, and to describe their physical activity participation. In this cross-sectional study, 84 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and 146 non-Indigenous children aged 10-12 years old completed the Many Rivers Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire (MRPARQ), a modified version of the Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire (APARQ). A sub-group (n=86) wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days in order to validate the instrument. Pearson and Intra Class Correlation coefficients between the survey and acceleromtery for weekdays only are 0.31 and 0.16, respectively, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and 0.38 and 0.31, respectively, for non-Indigenous children, and demonstrate a modest (p<0.05) correlation. Self-reported MVPA for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is between 162 and 172 minutes/day, and is 125 minutes by accelerometer; for non-Indigenous children MVPA is between 123 and 149 minutes (survey) and 107 minutes (accelerometer). Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children's self-report of physical activity is at least as valid as non-Indigenous children, given culturally appropriate support; they tend to be more active than non-Indigenous children. The MRPARQ can be administered with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous children.
Chaffey, Graham W.; Bailey, Stan B.; Vine, Ken W.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dynamic testing as a method for identifying high academic potential in Australian Aboriginal children. The 79 participating Aboriginal children were drawn from Years 3-5 in rural schools in northern New South Wales. The dynamic testing method used in this study involved a…
Lavergne, Chantal; Dufour, Sarah; Trocme, Nico; Larrivee, Marie-Claude
The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77…
Webb, Gwendalyn L.; Williams, Cori J.
Australian Aboriginal children, in general, lag behind their mainstream peers in measures of literacy. This article discusses some of the complex and interconnected factors that impact Aboriginal children's early language and literacy development. Poor health and historically negative socio-political factors are known influences on Aboriginal…
George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod
Children and youth worldwide are at high risk of injury resulting in morbidity, disability or mortality. Disparities in risk exist between and within countries, and by sex and ethnicity. Our aim is to contribute data on disparities of injury rates for Aboriginal children and youth compared with those of the general population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, by examining risks for the two populations, utilizing provincial administrative data over a 24-year period. Hospital discharge records from the provincial health care database for children and youth were used to identify injury for the years 1986 to 2009. Within the total BC population, the Aboriginal population was identified. Crude rates and standardized relative risks (SRR) of hospitalization were calculated, by year and category of injury type and external cause, and compared to the total BC population for males and females under age 25 years. Over the 24-year period, substantive decreases were found in hospitalization injury risks for children and youth in both Aboriginal and total populations, for both sexes, and for most categories and types of injuries. Risk in overall injury dropped by 69% for the Aboriginal population and by 66% for the total BC population, yet in every year, the Aboriginal population had a higher risk than the total BC population. There were over 70% declines in risks among females of intentionally inflicted injury by another, among both the Aboriginal and total BC populations. Risk of injury caused by transport vehicles has decreased by an overwhelming 83% and 72% for the Aboriginal male population and for the total BC male population, respectively. The over 70% declines in risks for females of intentionally inflicted injury by another, among both the Aboriginal and total BC populations is excellent news. Risk of injury caused by transport vehicles for males decreased overwhelmingly for both populations. Disparities in rates between the Aboriginal population and total BC
Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Robertson, Hamish; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Broe, Gerald A
Dementia is an emerging health priority in Australian Aboriginal communities, but substantial gaps remain in our understanding of this issue, particularly for the large urban section of the population. In remote Aboriginal communities, high prevalence rates of dementia at relatively young ages have been reported. The current study is investigating aging, cognitive decline, and dementia in older urban/regional Aboriginal Australians. We partnered with five Aboriginal communities across the eastern Australian state of New South Wales, to undertake a census of all Aboriginal men and women aged 60 years and over residing in these communities. This was followed by a survey of the health, well-being, and life history of all consenting participants. Participants were also screened using three cognitive instruments. Those scoring below designated cut-offs, and a 20% random sample of those scoring above (i.e. "normal" range), completed a contact person interview (with a nominated family member) and medical assessment (blind to initial screening results), which formed the basis of "gold standard" clinical consensus determinations of cognitive impairment and dementia. This paper details our protocol for a population-based study in collaboration with local Aboriginal community organizations. The study will provide the first available prevalence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment in a representative sample of urban Aboriginal people, across city and rural communities, where the majority of Aboriginal Australians live. It will also contribute to improved assessment of dementia and cognitive impairment and to the understanding of social determinants of successful aging, of international significance.
Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A
Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ
Attwood, Lucy; Rodrigues, Sarah; Winsor, Josephine; Warren, Shirley; Biviano, Lyn; Gunasekera, Hasantha
To identify opportunities to improve health-care delivery for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children requiring hospital admission and to determine their characteristics. We analysed all documentation of admissions of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children to a tertiary paediatric hospital in 2010. We reviewed the medical records to determine whether the Aboriginal status of patients was known, whether Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and their families were reviewed by Aboriginal staff during admission and whether basic health-care quality indicators were met, including documentation of anthropometry, ear examination findings, immunisation status and catch-up immunisation delivery. In 2010, 543 (2%) patients admitted to the institution were identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander: 140/538 (26.0%) were from the first decile (most disadvantaged) on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas index. Of all admitted children, 148/543 (27.3%) were referred to Aboriginal health professionals during admission, more when length of stay was greater than 7 days (61% vs. 23%, P < 0.001). There was documentation of weight in 533/543 (98.2%), ear examinations in 64/543 (11.8%), immunisations being not up to date in 126/543 (23%), catch-up immunisation given in 7/126 (5.6%), Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status in 8/543 (1.5%) medical and 1/543 (0.2%) nursing discharge summaries. We have identified several opportunities to improve culturally appropriate health-care delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children admitted to hospital, including improved recognition of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status of patients, improved access to Aboriginal health professionals and increased performance and documentation of basic anthropometry, ear examination and immunisation catch-up. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian
McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.
The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…
Richards, L C; Miller, S L
Tooth wear scores (ratios of exposed dentin to total crown area) were calculated from dental casts of Australian Aboriginal subjects of known age from three populations. Linear regression equations relating attrition scores to age were derived. The slope of the regression line reflects the rate of tooth wear, and the intercept is related to the timing of first exposure of dentin. Differences in morphology between anterior and posterior teeth are reflected in a linear relationship between attrition scores and age for anterior teeth but a logarithmic relationship for posterior teeth. Correlations between age and attrition range from less than 0.40 for third molars (where differences in the eruption and occlusion of the teeth resulted in different patterns of wear) to greater than 0.80 for the premolars and first molars. Because of the generally high correlations between age and attrition, it is possible to estimate age from the extent of tooth wear with confidence limits of the order of +/- 10 years.
Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Disparities experienced by Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal metropolitan Western Australians in receiving coronary angiography following acute ischaemic heart disease: the impact of age and comorbidities.
Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C
Aboriginal Australians have a substantially higher frequency of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events than their non-Aboriginal counterparts, together with a higher prevalence of comorbidities. The pattern of health service provision for IHD suggests inequitable delivery of important diagnostic procedures. Published data on disparities in IHD management among Aboriginal Australians are conflicting, and the role of comorbidities has not been adequately delineated. We compared the profiles of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in the metropolitan area undergoing emergency IHD admissions at Western Australian metropolitan hospitals, and investigated the determinants of receiving coronary angiography. Person-linked administrative hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD emergency admission events (n =20,816) commencing at metropolitan hospitals in 2005-09. The outcome measure was receipt of angiography. The Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal risk ratio (RR) was estimated from a multivariable Poisson log-linear regression model with allowance for multiple IHD events in individuals. The subgroup of myocardial infarction (MI) events was modelled separately. Compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts, Aboriginal IHD patients were younger and more likely to have comorbidities. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, Aboriginal patients were less likely than others to receive angiography (RRIHD 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.83; RRMI 0.81, 95% CI 0.75-0.87) but in the full multivariable model this disparity was accounted for by comorbidities as well as IHD category and MI subtype, and private health insurance (RRIHD 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.01; RRMI 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-1.01). When stratified by age groups, this disparity was not significant in the 25-54 year age group (RRMI 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02) but was significant in the 55-84 year age group (RRMI 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). The disproportionate under-management of older Aboriginal IHD patients is of
Young, Nancy L; Wabano, Mary Jo; Usuba, Koyo; Pangowish, Brenda; Trottier, Mélanie; Jacko, Diane; Burke, Tricia A; Corbiere, Rita G
Aboriginal children experience challenges to their health and well-being, yet also have unique strengths. It has been difficult to accurately assess their health outcomes due to the lack of culturally relevant measures. The Aboriginal Children's Health and Well-Being Measure (ACHWM) was developed to address this gap. This paper describes the validity of the new measure. We recruited First Nations children from one First Nation reserve in Canada. Participants were asked to complete the ACHWM independently using a computer tablet. Participants also completed the PedsQL. The ACHWM total score and 4 Quadrant scores were expected to have a moderate correlation of between 0.4 and 0.6 with the parallel PedsQL total score, domains (scale scores), and summary scores. Paired ACHWM and PedsQL scores were available for 48 participants. They had a mean age of 14.6 (range of 7 to 19) years and 60.4 % were girls. The Pearson's correlation between the total ACHWM score and a total PedsQL aggregate score was 0.52 (p = 0.0001). The correlations with the Physical Health Summary Scores and the Psychosocial Health Summary Scores were slightly lower range (r = 0.35 p = 0.016; and r = 0.51 p = 0.0002 respectively) and approached the expected range. The ACHWM Quadrant scores were moderately correlated with the parallel PedsQL domains ranging from r = 0.45 to r = 0.64 (p ≤ 0.001). The Spiritual Quadrant of the ACHWM did not have a parallel domain in the PedsQL. These results establish the validity of the ACHWM. The children gave this measure an Ojibway name, Aaniish Naa Gegii, meaning "how are you?". This measure is now ready for implementation, and will contribute to a better understanding of the health of Aboriginal children.
Kickett-Tucker, C S; Christensen, D; Lawrence, D; Zubrick, S R; Johnson, D J; Stanley, F
In Australia, there is little empirical research of the racial identity of Indigenous children and youth as the majority of the current literature focuses on adults. Furthermore, there are no instruments developed with cultural appropriateness when exploring the identity and self-esteem of the Australian Aboriginal population, especially children. The IRISE_C (Racial Identity and Self-Esteem of children) inventory was developed to explore the elements of racial identity and self-esteem of urban, rural and regional Aboriginal children. This paper describes the development and validation of the IRISE_C instrument with over 250 Aboriginal children aged 8 to 12 years. A pilot of the IRISE C instrument was combined with individual interviews and was undertaken with 35 urban Aboriginal children aged 8-12 years. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to refine the survey and reduce redundant items in readiness for the main study. In the main study, the IRISE C was employed to 229 Aboriginal children aged 6-13 years across three sites (rural, regional and urban) in Western Australia. An exploratory factor analysis using Principal axis factoring was used to assess the fit of items and survey structure. A confirmatory factor analysis was then employed using LISREL (diagonally weighted least squares) to assess factor structures across domains. Internal consistency and reliability of subscales were assessed using Cronbach's co-efficient alpha. The pilot testing identified two key concepts - children's knowledge of issues related to their racial identity, and the importance, or salience, that they attach to these issues. In the main study, factor analyses showed two clear factors relating to: Aboriginal culture and traditions; and a sense of belonging to an Aboriginal community. Principal Axis Factoring of the Knowledge items supported a 2-factor solution, which explained 38.7% of variance. Factor One (Aboriginal culture) had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.835; Factor 2 (racial
Chan, Hsiang-Lin; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Ling, Tiing-Soon; Huang, Yu-Shu
Objectives This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively) than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation comprehension and personal–social skills. Further studies are required to understand the learning styles of the aboriginal children and to develop effective screening and intervention strategies for ADHD and ASD. PMID:27785028
Ruben, A R; Fisher, D A
The Northern Territory Health Service implemented a casemix system of hospital funding in 1996 using national averages and national cost weights as benchmarks for length of stay and funding. Clinicians and health administrators were concerned about the potential of this model to impair health service delivery, especially to children of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) descent, whose current poor health has been well described. Data were collected on children aged under 10 years who were discharged from the Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 July 1991 and 30 June 1996 and assigned one of four DRGs (simple pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma, gastroenteritis, nutritional and metabolic disorders). Data collected included age, sex, ethnicity, duration of hospital stay, location of residence and presence of comorbidities. There were significant differences in the proportion of children with multiple comorbidities between ATSI and non-ATSI children, as well as between rural- and urban-dwelling ATSI children. A higher proportion of ATSI compared with non-ATSI children had prolonged hospital stays (22.6% v. 1.5%), with the variables influencing length of stay in ATSI children including "age < 2 years", "living in a remote area", and "presence of two or more comorbidities". These results confirm clinical impressions about disease patterns and length of hospital stay in ATSI children, and highlight the problems of imposing a casemix classification system for a "typical" Australian population on a region with a high proportion of people of ATSI descent.
Blinkhorn, Fiona; Wallace, Janet; Smith, Leanne; Blinkhorn, Anthony S
Dental caries (decay) is a serious problem for young Aboriginal children, causing pain and stress. Treatment often involves extraction of teeth under a general anaesthetic. However, dental caries can be prevented by reducing the frequency of sugar consumption and brushing teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Such straightforward advice could be given to families by Aboriginal Health Workers who are trusted by their communities and have an existing advisory role. This paper reports on the development of dental health advice leaflets for use in Aboriginal communities. An Aboriginal reference panel was recruited to comment on dental health advice leaflets prepared by an Aboriginal graphic designer. The panel was asked to consider the design, cultural appropriateness and practicality of the leaflets. Comments were collected through email and face-to-face discussions, which were collated and the leaflets altered accordingly. The advice from the panel resulted in greater use of pictures. For example large green ticks and red crosses highlighted healthy and unhealthy behaviours, respectively. The tooth brushing leaflet was amended to emphasise the safe storage of toothpaste in order to keep it out of reach of young children. The panel stated that all leaflets should incorporate the Aboriginal flag, and proposed that fridge magnets might be beneficial as all family members would benefit from seeing the messages every day. The consultation process refined dental advice leaflets to reflect the views of an Aboriginal Reference Panel, in terms of design, cultural competence and practicality. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Kickett-Tucker, Cheryl S.
This ethnographic study tested the hypothesis that positive social interactions in sport will contribute positively to the Aboriginal identity of urban, Australian Aboriginal children. Nine male and female children aged 11-12 years were observed and interviewed. Significant responses were extracted and meanings were identified and grouped into…
Grant, Mary; Trimingham-Jack, Christine
Interviews with and written responses from 20 Aboriginal adult reentry students illustrated their struggles with changing perspectives of gender relations and family responsibilities. Results suggested that perspective transformation may be a key process in attaining mutuality and equality in relationships. (SK)
The effect of school violence on mental health was examined among 12,366 Aboriginal children and adolescents, primarily First Nations, Métis, and Inuit residing off reservations in the Canadian provinces and territories. Analyses were based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples' Survey, a postcensal national survey of Aboriginal youth aged 6-14 years. More than one-fifth of students in the sample attended schools where violence was perceived as a problem. The occurrence of psychological or nervous disorders was about 50% higher among students exposed to school violence than among other students. School violence was a significant predictor of mental health difficulties, irrespective of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Virtually the entire effect was mediated by interpersonal processes, or negative quality of parent-child and peer relationships, while the effect was not explained by cultural detachment through lack of interactions with Elders and traditional language ability/use. Results underscored school violence as a significant public health concern for Aboriginal elementary and high school students, and the need for evidence-based mental health interventions for at-risk populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna
Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education…
Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene
The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children of Aboriginal heritage and their caregivers. We used a single-group, pretest (program intake)/posttest (program exit) design with follow-up when the children were 7 years old. We used an observational measure of child receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) and caregiver-reported measures of child development (Nipissing District Developmental Screen), risk for child maltreatment (Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory; AAPI), parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; RSE), and life skills (Community Life Skills scale; CLS). Using paired t-tests we found statistically significant increases in child receptive language scores between intake and exit, and repeated-measures ANOVA showed that these improvements were maintained up to age 7 years. For caregivers, Pearson's correlations demonstrated that risk for child maltreatment, parenting stress, self-esteem, and life skills were stable over time. Results of this study suggest that children of Aboriginal heritage can benefit from participation in a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program. Their caregivers may have received greater benefit if issues of intergenerational transmission of the negative influences of residential schools were addressed as part of programming.
Lévesque, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon
Background Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk) children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). Methods During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8) from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR). In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. Results Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was judged to be adequate
Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M
Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.
Parker, E. J.; Misan, G.; Shearer, M.; Richards, L.; Russell, A.; Mills, H.; Jamieson, L. M.
Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401
Brooke, Nicole J
This review was undertaken to identify evidence-based practice guidelines to support the care needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients residing in residential aged-care facilities. A systematic literature review was undertaken. An electronic search of online databases and subsequent manual retrieval process was undertaken to identify relevant reports and studies that explored interventions for care of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person. Very limited published material identified strategies necessary within residential aged care. Sixty-seven articles were considered for inclusion, and a subsequent review resulted in 34 being included due to direct alignment with the study aim. Strategies recommended within the review cover areas such as care, communication, palliative care, activities and the environment. Care for an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person in an Australian residential aged-care facility requires a collaborative and individual approach. Cultural safety principles should be maintained across a culturally competent workforce. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in care is a significant experience that should not be considered 'routine' as there is much to consider in the care of this person and their community. © 2011 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.
In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…
Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa
To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.
Lumby, Bronwyn; McGloin, Colleen
Teaching Aboriginal studies to a diverse student cohort presents challenges in the pursuit of developing a critical pedagogy. In this paper, we present "Children of the Sun" (2006), a local film made by Indigenous youth in the Illawarra region south of Sydney, New South Wales. We outline the film's genesis and its utilisation in our…
Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey
The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…
MacMillan, Harriet L; Jamieson, Ellen; Walsh, Christine; Boyle, Michael; Crawford, Allison; MacMillan, Angus
Reports on child health in Canada often refer to the disproportionate burden of poor health experienced by Aboriginal children and youth, yet little national data are available. This paper describes the health of First Nations and Inuit children and youth based on the First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey (FNIRHS). The FNIRHS combines data from 9 regional surveys conducted in 1996-1997 in Aboriginal reserve communities in all provinces. The target population consisted of all on-reserve communities. All households or a random sample of households or adults (depending on province) were selected based on their population representation. One child was randomly selected from each participating household, except in Ontario and Nova Scotia, where children were randomly selected based upon their population representation. Alberta did not include the section on children's health in their regional survey. Approximately 84% of adults, who were proxy respondents for their child, rated their children's health as very good or excellent. The most frequently reported conditions were ear problems (15%), followed by allergies (13%) and asthma (12%). Broken bones or fractures were the most frequently reported injuries (13%). Respondents reported that 17% of children had behavioural or emotional problems. Overall, 76% of children were reported to get along with the family "very well" or "quite well." While most respondents rated their child's health as very good or excellent, injuries, emotional and behavioural problems, respiratory conditions and ear problems were reported among many Aboriginal children. Issues such as substance abuse, exposure to violence and academic performance were not addressed in the 10 core survey questions. Clearly there is a need for more in-depth information about both the physical and emotional health of Aboriginal children and youth.
Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Bakar, Nur Hazirah Abu; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Osman, Emelia
The epidemiology and environmental factors affecting transmission of human microsporidiosis are poorly understood. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis among aboriginal school children in the Kuala Krau District, Pahang State, Malaysia. We collected stool samples from 255 school children and examined the samples using Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun stain. We also collected demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and personal hygiene information using a pre-tested questionnaire. Sixty-nine of the children was positive for microsporidia: 72.5% and 27.5% were low (1+) and moderate (2+) excretions of microsporidia spores, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed being aged 10 years (p = 0.026), using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water (p = 0.044) and having close contact with domestic animals (p = 0.031) were all significantly associated with microsporidial infection among study subjects. Our findings suggest asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis is common in the study population, more than previously reported. In the study population, control measures need to be implemented, such as good personal hygiene, proper sanitation and safe drinking water supply.
What are the factors associated with good mental health among Aboriginal children in urban New South Wales, Australia? Phase I findings from the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH).
Williamson, Anna; D'Este, Catherine; Clapham, Kathleen; Redman, Sally; Manton, Toni; Eades, Sandra; Schuster, Leanne; Raphael, Beverley
To identify the factors associated with 'good' mental health among Aboriginal children living in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional survey (phase I of a longitudinal study). 4 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services that deliver primary care. All services were located in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. 1005 Aboriginal children aged 4-17 years who participated in phase I of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH). Carer report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Scores <17 were considered to indicate 'good' mental health for the purposes of this article. The majority (72%) of SEARCH participants were not at high risk for emotional or behavioural problems. After adjusting for the relative contributions of significant demographic, child and carer health factors, the factors associated with good mental health among SEARCH children were having a carer who was not highly psychologically distressed (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.1); not suffering from frequent chest, gastrointestinal or skin infections (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.3); and eating two or more servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.8). Being raised by a foster carer (OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.71) and having lived in 4 or more homes since birth (OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.0) were associated with significantly lower odds of good mental health. Slightly different patterns of results were noted for adolescents than younger children. Most children who participated in SEARCH were not at high risk for emotional or behavioural problems. Promising targets for efforts to promote mental health among urban Aboriginal children may include the timely provision of medical care for children and provision of additional support for parents and carers experiencing mental or physical health problems, for adolescent boys and for young people in the foster care system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Seow, W K; Amaratunge, A; Bennett, R; Bronsch, D; Lai, P Y
This investigation studied the dental health status of a group of 184 Australian Aboriginal children with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 0.8 years, who were attending pre-schools in metropolitan Brisbane, a non-fluoridated state capital city. The DDE (Developmental Defects of Enamel) Index was used to chart enamel hypoplasia and enamel opacities. WHO criteria was used to diagnose dental caries. The results showed that 98% of children had at least one tooth showing developmental enamel defects. Each child had a mean of 3.8 +/- 1.7 teeth affected by enamel hypoplasia and another 1.1 +/- 0.8 teeth affected by enamel opacity. Seventy-eight percent of the children had dental caries. The mean number of decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) per child was 3.8 +/- 3.7. The decayed component constituted 3.5 (95%) of the mean dmft, indicating a high unmet restorative need in this group. The mean dmfs (decayed, missing, filled, surfaces) was 5.9 +/- 7.3. Maxillary anterior labial decay of at least one tooth affected 43 (23%) of the children. In this sub-group, the dmft and dmfs was 9.1 +/- 2.8 and 15.4 +/- 7.7 respectively. Oral debris was found in 98% of the children. It is hypothesized that the high levels of underlying developmental enamel defects, compounded by low fluoride exposure, poor oral hygiene and a diet high in refined sugars pose an important caries risk factor in this group of children.
Niccols, Alison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon
In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and…
Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo
The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…
Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene
The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of…
Lehmann, Deborah; Willis, Judith; Moore, Hannah C; Giele, Carolien; Murphy, Denise; Keil, Anthony D; Harrison, Catherine; Bayley, Kathy; Watson, Michael; Richmond, Peter
BACKGROUND. In 2001, Australia introduced a unique 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster for Aboriginal children, and in 2005, 7vPCV alone in a 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule for non-Aboriginal children. Aboriginal adults are offered 23vPPV but coverage is poor. We investigated trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australia (WA). METHODS. Enhanced IPD surveillance has been ongoing since 1996. We calculated IPD incidence rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians before and after introduction of 7vPCV. RESULTS. A total of 1792 cases occurred during the period 1997-2007; the IPD incidence rate was 47 cases per 100,000 population per year among Aboriginal people and 7 cases per 100,000 population per year in non-Aboriginal people. After introduction of 7vPCV, IPD rates among Aboriginal children decreased by 46% for those <2 years of age and by 40% for those 2-4 years of age; rates decreased by 64% and 51% in equivalent age groups for non-Aboriginal children. IPD rates decreased by >30% in non-Aboriginal people 50 years of age but increased among Aboriginal adults (eg, from 59.1 to 109.6 cases per 100,000 population per year among those 30-49 years of age). Although IPD due to 7vPCV serotypes decreased in all age groups, IPD incidence due to non-7vPCV serotypes increased, and it almost doubled among Aboriginal adults 30-49 years of age (from 48.3 to 97.0 cases per 100,000 population per year). Among non-Aboriginal children, 37% of IPD is now due to serotype 19A. CONCLUSIONS. IPD incidence rates have decreased markedly among children and non-Aboriginal adults with a 3-dose infant 7vPCV schedule. However, IPD due to non-7vPCV serotypes has increased and is of particular concern among young Aboriginal adults, for whom an intensive 23vPPV campaign is needed. An immunization register covering all age groups should be established.
Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H
We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Dimitropoulos, Yvonne; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Blinkhorn, Anthony; Byun, Roy; Binge, Norma; Gwynne, Kylie; Irving, Michelle
As part of an oral health service for Aboriginal people in central northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, oral health promotion was identified as a priority by the local Aboriginal community. The objective of this study was to collaborate with local Aboriginal communities to determine (1) the oral health needs of Aboriginal children aged 5-12 years, (2) the oral health knowledge and attitudes towards oral health of parents/guardians and (3) the perceived barriers and enablers towards oral health promotion for school children by local school staff and community health workers. The results of this collaboration will inform a community-owned oral health promotion program. Aboriginal children aged 5-12 years enrolled in local schools received a dental screening by a single examiner. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth of primary and permanent dentition (dmft/DMFT), plaque and gingivitis were recorded. Children completed a questionnaire assessing current oral hygiene practices, dental history and information on their diet. Parents/guardians completed a questionnaire assessing oral health knowledge and attitudes towards oral health. School staff and community health workers completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes, barriers and enablers towards implementing an oral health promotion program in schools. Eighty-eight children, representing 94% of those eligible, were screened, and 78 (82%) completed a questionnaire. The mean dmft/DMFT score was 5.3. Risk factors for dental caries identified included lack of toothbrush ownership (35%), minimal fluoride toothpaste use (24%), limited daily tooth brushing (51%) and frequent consumption of sugary foods (72%) and soft drinks (64%). Questionnaires were completed by 32 parents/guardians and 39 school and community health workers. Parents/guardians had limited oral health knowledge. School and health staff were willing to support a health promotion program to improve dental health of children. Aboriginal
Hopkins, R M; Gracey, M S; Hobbs, R P; Spargo, R M; Yates, M; Thompson, R C
To determine the prevalence of hookworm infections, iron deficiency and anaemia in an Aboriginal community in the north of Western Australia. A cross-sectional survey conducted in 1992, examining faecal specimens and blood samples from Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals in a remote coastal community in the north of Western Australia. All those living in the community at the time of the survey. Parasite status and haematological values for haemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and mean red cell volume. Infections with hookworm were present throughout the Aboriginal population (77%; n = 243), with the highest prevalence in children aged 5-14 years (93%; n = 74). Hookworm was not detected in non-Aboriginals (n = 24). Iron deficiency was common throughout the Aboriginal population, especially in children aged 5-14 years (79%; n = 68) and women aged over 14 years (72%; n = 65). Anaemia was highly prevalent among Aboriginal children aged 5-14 years (84% in hookworm-positive children, 75% in hookworm-negative) and women aged over 14 years (63% in hookworm-positive women, 31% in hookworm-negative). Aboriginals over 14 years of age who had hookworm (n = 82) had significantly lower levels of haemoglobin, serum iron and serum ferritin, a lower mean red cell volume and significantly higher transferrin levels than uninfected Aboriginals (n = 38) and non-Aboriginals (n = 19) in the same age group. Hookworm infections were associated with anaemia (P < 0.01) and iron deficiency (P < 0.01) in people over 14 years of age. The species of hookworm, determined after examining 13 larval cultures and two adult worms, was found to be Ancylostoma duodenale. Infections with A. duodenale are endemic in Aboriginals in this community, and are likely to contribute to the high prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia observed in the Aboriginal population, particularly in children and women.
Andersen, Melanie J; Skinner, Adam; Williamson, Anna B; Fernando, Peter; Wright, Darryl
To examine the associations between housing and gastrointestinal infection in Aboriginal children in urban New South Wales. A total of 1,398 Aboriginal children were recruited through four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. Multilevel regression modelling of survey data estimated associations between housing conditions and recurrent gastrointestinal infection, adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors. Of the sample, 157 children (11%) had recurrent gastrointestinal infection ever and 37 (2.7%) required treatment for recurrent gastrointestinal infection in the past month. Children in homes with 3+ housing problems were 2.51 (95% CrI 1.10, 2.49) times as likely to have recurrent gastrointestinal infection ever and 6.79 (95% CrI 2.11, 30.17) times as likely to have received recent treatment for it (versus 0-2 problems). For every additional housing problem, the prevalence of recurrent gastrointestinal infection ever increased by a factor of 1.28 (95% CrI 1.14, 1.47) and the prevalence of receiving treatment for gastrointestinal infection in the past month increased by a factor of 1.64 (95% CrI 1.20, 2.48). Housing problems were independently associated with recurrent gastrointestinal infection in a dose-dependent manner. Implications for public health: The role of housing as a potential determinant of health in urban Aboriginal children merits further attention in research and policy settings. © 2018 The Authors.
Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina
Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…
Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109
Priest, Kathryn; King, Sharijn; Nangala, Irene; Brown, Wendy Nungurrayi; Nangala, Marilyn
This article outlines an early childhood leadership model that senior Anangu and Yapa (Aboriginal) women, living semi-traditional lifestyles in the remote desert regions of central Australia, have identified as a positive and important way forward for their children, families, governments and related professionals. The initiative--Warrki…
Grace, Rebekah; Elcombe, Emma; Knight, Jennifer; McMahon, Catherine; McDonald, Jenny; Comino, Elizabeth
Child development for a cohort of urban Aboriginal children was assessed at three time points: 12 months, 3 years and 4.5 years. This paper reports developmental findings and explores the impact of child, family, home and community variables over time. Overall, child development at 4.5 years was significantly below the standardised mean. Female…
Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.
To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)
Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M
Indigenous children in Australia have higher dental caries levels than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Indigenous communities in South Australia's mid-north region have identified dental health as one of their top health priorities. In response to this, an oral health program based at the Pika Wiya Health Service in Port Augusta was established, with a dentist providing care for adults, and a dental therapist providing care for children, 2 days per week each. The purpose of this article is to compare the socio-demographic and oral health characteristics of children attending for care at the Pika Wiya Health Service Dental Clinic with those of their counterparts attending the general Port Augusta School Dental Service (SDS). Both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children were included. Data were obtained from the South Australian Dental Service (SADS), which routinely collects socio-demographic and dental information from patients seen through their system. Examinations were conducted by SADS-employed dental professionals. A full enumeration of children attending for care at Pika Wiya and the Port Augusta SDS from March 2001 to March 2006 was included. Surface level tooth data was captured using the EXACT treatment charting and management information system. The Socio-Economic Indices For Areas (SEIFA) were used to determine socio-economic status, and the dmft (sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth in the deciduous dentition) and DMFT (sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth in the permanent dentition) indices were used to assess oral health outcomes. Both measures were used for children aged 6-10 years because in such age groups children have a mixed dentition (both primary and permanent teeth are present). Caries prevalence (dmft/DMFT>0) and severity (mean dmft/DMFT) were calculated, as well as the Significant Caries Index (SiC) and Significant Caries Index 10 (SiC 10). The SiC is the mean dmft/DMFT of the one-third of the sample with the highest caries score
George, Ajesh; Grace, Rebekah; Elcombe, Emma; Villarosa, Amy R; Mack, Holly A; Kemp, Lynn; Ajwani, Shilpi; Wright, Darryl C; Anderson, Cheryl; Bucknall, Natasha; Comino, Elizabeth
Australian Aboriginal children have a higher risk of dental caries yet there is limited focus on oral health risk factors for urban Aboriginal preschool children. This study examined the oral health behaviours and fluid consumption practices of young children from an urban Aboriginal community in south-western Sydney, Australia. In total, 157 Aboriginal children who were recruited to the "Gudaga" longitudinal birth cohort participated in this study. A survey design was employed and parents responded to the oral health questions when their child was between 18 and 60 months. Few parents (20%) were concerned about their child's oral health across the time period. By 60 months, only 20% of children had seen a dentist while 80% were brushing their teeth at least once daily. High levels of bottle use were seen up to 30 months. Consumption of sugary drinks was also very high in the early years, although this was replaced by water by 36 months. While there are some encouraging findings, such as the rates of tooth brushing and increasing rates of water consumption, the findings do highlight the poor uptake of dental services and high levels of bottle usage among urban aboriginal children during their early years. SO WHAT?: Targeted oral health promotional programs are needed in the urban Aboriginal community to better support parents understanding of good oral health practices in the early years and engagement with dental health services. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.
Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Azam, Mohammad Nurul; Ithoi, Init; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Surin, Johari
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), among the most common neglected tropical diseases, is a major public health problem in Malaysia with a possible impact on the nutritional status and school participation of rural children. This study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren, living in an endemic area for STH in Malaysia, to determine the possible relationship between intestinal helminthiasis and school absenteeism. We also evaluated whether successful treatment of the infection will affect school attendance among the subjects. Stool analysis revealed that more than 90% of the subjects were infected with at least 1 helminth species, with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections being most prevalent. Infection of moderate-to-heavy worm burdens, low level of fathers' education and anaemia were identified as the significant predictors of high absenteeism among the subjects (P<0·05). Following treatment of the infected children, it was found that school absenteeism was reduced significantly (P<0·01). In conclusion, STH continues to have significant impacts on public health, particularly in rural communities with a negatively significant effect on the school participation of Aboriginal children. A school-based de-worming programme should be introduced and incorporated in the current educational assistance targeted towards the Aboriginal communities, under the auspices of the government.
Hamdullahpur, Kevin; Jacobs, Kahá Wi J; Gill, Kathryn J
Aboriginal women in urban areas have been reported to experience high rates of poverty, homelessness, interpersonal violence, and health problems. However, there are few prior ethnocultural comparisons of urban women from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. The current study explored the mental and physical health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women accessing social services agencies and shelters. Half of the sample (n=172) was Aboriginal (48.3%). The lifetime rate of physical abuse was significantly higher in Aboriginal women, and they were more likely to have been victims of violence or crime in the past year (A=50.6%, NA=35.6%, p<0.05). Rates of teenage pregnancy (<18 years of age) were significantly higher among Aboriginals (A=51.3%, NA=30.6%, p<0.05) and they reported more parental drug/alcohol problems (A=79.2%, NA=56.5%, p<0.05). Aboriginal women were also more likely to have previously received treatment for a drug or alcohol problem. There were no differences in self-reported physical health, medication use, hospitalisations, and current substance misuse. Irrespective of ethnicity, lifetime rates of anxiety, depression and suicide attempts were extremely high. Future research should explore the effects of individual resources (e.g. social support, family relations) and cultural beliefs on women's ability to cope with the stress of living with adverse events, particularly among low SES women with children.
It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).
An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…
Gray, A; Tesfaghiorghis, H
The authors examine data from the 1986 and 1991 Australian censuses to assess discrepancies between the census data and past projections of the size and structure of the Aboriginal population. They also "comment on ways in which determinants of Aboriginal population change are diverging from the parameters used for previous projections. We pay particular attention to mortality prospects.... We note the evidence for under-enumeration of the Aboriginal population in particular age groups in the 1991 Census as in previous censuses, and estimate the size of adjustments necessary to correct for some, but not all, of these deficiencies. The analysis shows that Aboriginal fertility increased in the second half of the 1980s." excerpt
Cashman, Patrick M; Allan, Natalie A; Clark, Katrina K; Butler, Michelle T; Massey, Peter D; Durrheim, David N
Improving timely immunisation is key to closing the inequitable gap in immunisation rates between Aboriginal children and non-Indigenous children. Aboriginal Immunisation Officers were employed in Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD), New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to telephone the families of all Aboriginal infants prior to the due date for their first scheduled vaccination. Aboriginal Immunisation Officers contacted the families of Aboriginal children born in the Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD) by telephone before their due immunisation date (pre-call) to provide the rationale for timely immunisation, and to facilitate contact with culturally safe local immunisation services if this was required. The impact of this strategy on immunisation coverage rates is reviewed. For the period March 2010 to September 2014 there was a significant increase in immunisation coverage rate for Aboriginal children at 12 months of age in HNELHD (p < 0.0001). The coverage in the rest of NSW Aboriginal children also increased but not significantly (p = 0.218). Over the full study period there was a significant decrease in the immunisation coverage gap between Aboriginal children and non-Indigenous children in HNELHD (p < 0.0001) and the rest of NSW (p = 0.004). The immunisation coverage gap between Aboriginal and non-Indigenous infants decreased at a significantly faster rate in HNELHD than the rest of NSW (p = 0.0001). By the end of the study period in 2014, immunisation coverage in HNELHD Aboriginal infants had surpassed that of non-Indigenous infants by 0.8 %. The employment of Aboriginal immunisation officers may be associated with closing of the gap between Aboriginal and non-Indigenous infants' immunisation coverage in HNELHD and NSW. The pre-call telephone strategy provided accelerated benefit in closing this gap in HNELHD.
Stressful life events and resilience among carers of Aboriginal children in urban New South Wales: cross-sectional findings from the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH).
Young, Christian; Craig, Jonathan C; Clapham, Kathleen; Williams, Sandra; Williamson, Anna
In caregivers of urban Aboriginal children, to determine the frequency of major stressful life events, the proportion who meet criteria for resilience, and factors that are associated with resilience. Cross-sectional survey. Four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services located in urban or regional areas in New South Wales, Australia. 574 caregivers of Aboriginal children participating in the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health. Resilience, defined as having experienced three or more stressful life events in the last 12 months, and having scores of ≤21 on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. Over half (315, 55%) of the caregivers reported three or more stressful life events-the most common being a close family member who was hospitalised with a serious medical problem (259, 45%). Of the participants who experienced three or more stressful life events, almost three-quarters (227, 72%) met the criteria for resilience. Using multivariable analysis, two factors were independently associated with resilience: not having a physical health problem that limited normal activities (adjusted OR (aOR) 4.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 9.0), and not having problems caused by alcohol within the home (aOR 5.3; 95% CI 2.2 to 12.8). Having a child whose behaviour placed a great deal of burden on the family was associated with less resilience (aOR 0.25; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.68). Caregivers of urban Aboriginal children experienced a large number of stressful events, the most common being the poor health of close family members, but most exhibited resilience. Resilience was associated with stable family environments and good physical health. The high number of stressful life events that caregivers experience is reflective of broader inequalities that Aboriginal communities face. The availability of easily accessible and long-term health and support services may go some way to reducing this inequality and improving social and emotional well-being for
Findlay, Leanne C; Janz, Teresa A
Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.
Findlay, Leanne C.; Janz, Teresa A.
Objectives Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health. PMID:22973565
Wagner, Bree; Fitzpatrick, James; Symons, Martyn; Jirikowic, Tracy; Cross, Donna; Latimer, Jane
Although previous research has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-regulation in non-Aboriginal children, it is unclear whether such programs would be effective for Aboriginal children attending school in remote communities. Some of these children have been diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) impairing their ability to self-regulate. The aim of this article is to describe a three phase formative process to develop and pilot a curriculum version of the Alert Program ® , a promising intervention for improving self-regulation that could be used in remote community schools. This modified version of the program will be subsequently tested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. A mixed methods approach was used. Modifications to the Alert Program ® , its delivery and evaluation were made after community and stakeholder consultation facilitated by a senior Aboriginal community researcher. Changes to lesson plans and program resources were made to reflect the remote community context, classroom environment and the challenging behaviours of children. Standardised study outcome measures were modified by removing several questions that had little relevance to the lives of children in remote communities. Program training for school staff was reduced in length to reduce staff burden. This study identified aspects of the Alert Program ® training, delivery and measures for evaluation that need modification before their use in assessing the efficacy of the Alert Program ® in remote Aboriginal community primary schools. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne
Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…
Within the Australian education system, Aboriginal students' use of non-standard English features is often viewed simplistically as evidence of non-attainment of literacy and oral-English milestones. One reason for this is the widespread use of assessment tools which fail to differentiate between native-English speakers and students who are…
Rojas, Erika Y; Gretton, Heather M
Canada's Aboriginal peoples face a number of social and health issues. Research shows that Aboriginal youths are over-represented in the criminal justice system and youth forensic psychiatric programmes. Within the literature on sex offending youth, there appears to be no published data available to inform clinicians working with adjudicated Aboriginal youth. Therefore, the present study examines the background, offence characteristics, and criminal outcomes of Aboriginal (n = 102) and non-Aboriginal (n = 257) youths who engaged in sexual offending behaviour and were ordered to attend a sexual offender treatment programme in British Columbia between 1985 and 2004. Overall, Aboriginal youths were more likely than non-Aboriginal youths to have background histories of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), substance abuse, childhood victimization, academic difficulties, and instability in the living environment. Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youths had a tendency to target children under 12-years-old, females, and non-strangers. Aboriginal youths were more likely than non-Aboriginal youths to use substances at the time of their sexual index offence. Outcome data revealed that Aboriginal youths were more likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to recidivate sexually, violently, and non-violently during the 10-year follow-up period. Furthermore, the time between discharge and commission of all types of re-offences was significantly shorter for Aboriginal youths than for non-Aboriginal youths. Implications of these findings are discussed with regards to the needs of Aboriginal youth and intervention.
Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)
Ng, T K W; Low, C X; Kong, J P; Cho, Y L
Carotenoid-rich red palm oil (RPO)-based snacks have been provided to children in impoverished communities to improve their vitamin A status. The non-availabilty of information on the acceptability of RPO-based snacks by Malaysian aborigines (Orang Asli) children forms the basis of this study. Twenty-one Orang Asli children, majority of whom had normal body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) and aged 4.73 +/- 0.92 years in Sungai Tekir, Negeri Sembilan were provided with three freshly-prepared snacks (springroll, curry puff or doughnut) each containing one teaspoon or 5 ml of RPO per serving, on separate mornings. On the fourth morning, one serving each of all 3 different snacks was provided together on a plate to every child for consumption and preference for the snacks recorded. The children's habitual vitamin A intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid retention tests for the prepared snacks were performed by column chromatography. Fifty-four percent of the children did not meet their RNI for vitamin A. Based on acceptance criterion of consuming at least one-half serving of the snacks provided, springroll and curry puff recorded 100% acceptability while doughnut had 82% acceptability. Preference of snack was in the order, springroll (47%) > doughtnut (35%) > curry puff (18%), but a Z-test test for proportions showed no statistical significance. Carotenoid retention tests showed great variation between snacks namely, doughnut (100%) > springroll (84%) > curry puff (45%). The overall findings indicate that the RPO-based snacks are highly acceptable and can be used to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids of Malaysian Orang Asli children.
Clapham, Kathleen; Bennett-Brook, Keziah; Hunter, Kate
Aboriginal Australian children experience higher rates of injury than other Australian children. However few culturally acceptable programs have been developed or evaluated. The Illawarra Aboriginal Medical Service (IAMS) developed the Safe Homes Safe Kids program as an injury prevention program targeting disadvantaged Aboriginal families with children aged 0-5 in an urban region of NSW. Delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers the program aims to reduce childhood injury by raising awareness of safety in the home. A program evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the home visiting model as an injury prevention program. This paper reports on the qualitative interviews which explored the ways in which clients, IAMS staff, and external service providers experienced the program and assessed its delivery by the Aboriginal Family Workers. A qualitative program evaluation was conducted between January 2014 and June 2015. We report here on the semi-structured interviews undertaken with 34 individuals. The results show increased client engagement in the program; improved child safety knowledge and skills; increased access to services; improved attitudes to home and community safety; and changes in the home safety environment. Safe Homes Safe Kids provides a culturally appropriate child safety program delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers to vulnerable families. Clients, IAMS staff, and external service were satisfied with the family workers' delivery of the program and the holistic model of service provision. SO WHAT?: This promising program could be replicated in other Aboriginal health services to address unintentional injury to vulnerable Aboriginal children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women
Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W
Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge
Lovie-Toon, Yolanda G; Hall, Kerry K; Chang, Anne B; Anderson, Jennie; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F
To evaluate immunisation coverage, timeliness and predictors of delayed receipt in urban Australian Indigenous children during the first 18 months of life. Cross-sectional retrospective analysis of data collected from 140 Australian Indigenous children aged < 5 years at the time of enrolment in a prospective cohort study on respiratory illness between 14 February 2013 and 28 January 2015. Children were recruited through an urban community primary health care centre in the Northern suburbs of Brisbane, Queensland. The proportion of children with completed immunisation schedules was 50 of 105 (47.6%) at 7 months, 30 of 85 (35.3%) at 13 months and 12 of 65 (18.5%) at 19 months. Timely receipt of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis decreased from 78.4% at 2 months of age to 63.7 and 59.3% at 4 and 6 months respectively. Amongst the 105 parents/guardians with children ≥7 months at enrolment, 71 (67.6%) incorrectly reported their child's immunisation status. Delayed vaccine receipt was significantly associated (p ≤0.05) with having multiple children in the household, mother's unemployment and premature birth. Coverage and timeliness among this population is suboptimal and decreases as children age. Parent/guardian reporting of vaccination status was unreliable. Children of unemployed mothers and those with multiple siblings should be targeted to improve community immunisation timeliness due to a greater risk of vaccination delay. High quality trials, conducted in several settings to account for the diversity of Australian Indigenous communities are urgently needed to identify culturally appropriate, effective and sustainable strategies to improve immunisation targets in children.
Ussher, Jane M; Charter, Rosie; Parton, Chloe; Perz, Janette
The colonisation of Australia has been associated with traumatic consequences for Aboriginal health and wellbeing, including the breakdown of the traditional family unit and negative consequences for the mother/child relationship. Early-intervention programs have been developed to assist families to overcome disadvantage and strengthen mother/child attachment. However, there is no research examining Aboriginal women's subjective experiences and constructions of motherhood in the context of such programs, and no research on the perceived impact of such programs, from the perspective of Aboriginal mothers and healthcare workers (HCWs), with previous research focusing on child outcomes. Researchers conducted participant observation of an early intervention program for Aboriginal mothers and young children over a 6 month period, one-to-one interviews and a focus group with 10 mothers, and interviews with nine HCWs, in order to examine their perspectives on motherhood and the intervention program. Thematic analysis identified 2 major themes under which subthemes were clustered. Constructions of motherhood: 'The resilient mother: Coping with life trauma and social stress' and 'The good mother: Transformation of self through motherhood'; Perspectives on the intervention: '"Mothers come to life": Transformation through therapy'; and '"I know I'm a good mum": The need for connections, skills and time for self'. The mothers constructed themselves as being resilient 'good mothers', whilst also acknowledging their own traumatic life experiences, predominantly valuing the peer support and time-out aspects of the program. HCWs positioned the mothers as 'traumatised', yet also strong, and expressed the view that in order to improve mother/child attachment a therapeutic transformation is required. These results suggest that early interventions for Aboriginal mothers should acknowledge and strengthen constructions of the good and resilient mother. The differing perspectives of
To determine whether the prevalence of Aboriginal patients in a consecutive series of patients with uveitis differs significantly from the prevalence of Aboriginal persons in the general population. Retrospective chart review. 133 consecutive patients with uveitis. The proportion of Aboriginal patients in a series of 133 consecutive patients with uveitis was compared to the proportion of Aboriginal persons within the general population to determine whether Aboriginal patients were under- or overrepresented in the population with uveitis, relative to their numbers in the population in general. The main outcome measure was the self-reported race of patients. The mean age, sex, and prior disease duration were also compared between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in the consecutive series. There was no significant difference (p = 0.84) between the proportion of Aboriginal persons in the uveitis population studied (22 of 133; 16.5%) compared to general population census data (15.5% Aboriginal). Mean age at presentation was 36.8 years in the Aboriginal population versus 47.3 years in the control non-Aboriginal group (p = 0.01). Mean prior disease duration was 20.3 months in the Aboriginal population versus 21.1 months in the control group (p = 0.79). The gender proportion was 68.2% female in the Aboriginal group versus 53.2% female in the non-Aboriginal group (p = 0.02). This study finds no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal persons occurring within a consecutive series of uveitis patients as compared to the general population. Mean age at presentation was significantly younger, and female preponderance was significantly greater in the Aboriginal than in the non-Aboriginal group. Prior disease duration was comparable in the 2 groups. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slade, Gary D; Bailie, Ross S; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Leach, Amanda J; Raye, Iris; Endean, Colin; Simmons, Bruce; Morris, Peter
Objectives We tested a dental health program in remote Aboriginal communities of Australia's Northern Territory, hypothesizing that it would reduce dental caries in preschool children. Methods In this 2-year, prospective, cluster-randomized, concurrent controlled, open trial of the dental health program compared to no such program, 30 communities were allocated at random to intervention and control groups. All residents aged 18–47 months were invited to participate. Twice per year for 2 years in the 15 intervention communities, fluoride varnish was applied to children's teeth, water consumption and daily tooth cleaning with toothpaste were advocated, dental health was promoted in community settings, and primary health care workers were trained in preventive dental care. Data from dental examinations at baseline and after 2 years were used to compute net dental caries increment per child (d3mfs). A multi-level statistical model compared d3mfs between intervention and control groups with adjustment for the clustered randomization design; four other models used additional variables for adjustment. Results At baseline, 666 children were examined; 543 of them (82%) were re-examined 2 years later. The adjusted d3mfs increment was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group by an average of 3.0 surfaces per child (95% CI = 1.2, 4.9), a prevented fraction of 31%. Adjustment for additional variables yielded caries reductions ranging from 2.3 to 3.5 surfaces per child and prevented fractions of 24–36%. Conclusions These results corroborate findings from other studies where fluoride varnish was efficacious in preventing dental caries in young children. PMID:20707872
This article explores ways in which population aging in the United States between 2010 and 2030 might impact the well-being of children, with a distinction made between advantaged and disadvantaged children. A variety of economic and demographic statistics are used to describe the changing age structure of the population and changing public spending on older people and children. Data from the 1985 General Social Survey and Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households are also used to examine connections between older people and children. In recent decades, there has been a graying of the federal budget, and programs for children have received a declining proportion of domestic spending. These trends will be exaggerated between 2010 and 2030 unless structural changes occur. Grandparents may provide increasing resources for their grandchildren. Age segregation results in relatively few older people being directly involved with children not related to them by kinship. The implications of population aging for children are relevant primarily for disadvantaged children. Disadvantaged children have grandparents with fewest resources and are most in need of public spending. As costs of supporting the older population increase, intentional social changes will be needed to prevent growing inequality among children.
What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study).
Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah
Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service providers) through a reference group, and writing of summary
What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)
Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah
Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service
Exploring alternate specifications to explain agency-level effects in placement decisions regarding Aboriginal children: Further analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part C.
Fallon, Barbara; Chabot, Martin; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy; Sinha, Vandna; Allan, Kate; MacLaurin, Bruce
A series of papers using data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) explored the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place Aboriginal children in out-of-home placements at the conclusion of child maltreatment investigations. The purpose of this paper is to further explore a consistent finding of the previous analyses: the proportion of investigations involving Aboriginal children at a child welfare agency is associated with placement for all children in that agency. CIS-2008 data were used in the analysis, which allowed for inclusion of previously unavailable organizational and contextual variables. Multi-level statistical models were developed to analyze the influence of clinical and organizational variables on the placement decision. Final models revealed that the proportion of investigations conducted by the child welfare agency involving Aboriginal children was again a key agency-level predictor of the placement decision for any child served by the agency. Specifically, the higher the proportion of investigations of Aboriginal children, the more likely placement was to occur for any child. Further, this analysis demonstrated that structure of governance, an organizational-level variable not available in previous cycles of the CIS, is an important agency-level predictor of out-of-home placement. Further analysis is needed to fully understand individual and organizational level variables that may influence decisions regarding placement of Aboriginal children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…
Tavella, Rosanna; McBride, Katharine; Keech, Wendy; Kelly, Janet; Rischbieth, Amanda; Zeitz, Christopher; Beltrame, John F; Tideman, Philip A; Brown, Alex
To assess differences in the rates of angiography and subsequent revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS); to explore the reasons for any observed differences. Analysis of administrative data with logistic regression modelling to assess the relationship between Aboriginal status and the decision to undertake diagnostic angiography. A detailed medical record review of Aboriginal admissions was subsequently undertaken. Emergency ACS admissions to SA cardiac catheterisation hospitals, 2007-2012. 13 701 admissions of patients with an ACS, including 274 Aboriginal patients (2.1%). Rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation; documentation of justification for non-invasive management. After adjustment for age, comorbidities and remoteness, Aboriginal patients presenting with an ACS were significantly less likely than non-Aboriginal patients to undergo angiography (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the rates of revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients who had undergone angiography. Reasons for Aboriginal patients not undergoing angiography included symptoms being deemed non-cardiac (16%), non-invasive test performed (8%), and discharge against medical advice (11%); the reasons were unclear for 36% of Aboriginal patients. After controlling for age and other factors, the rate of coronary angiography was lower among Aboriginal patients with an ACS in SA. The reasons for this disparity are complex, including patient-related factors and their preferences, as well as the appropriateness of the intervention. Improved consideration of the hospital experience of Aboriginal patients must be a priority for reducing health care disparities.
Hayward, Lynda M; Campbell, H Sharon; Sutherland‐Brown, Carol
Objectives To conduct an exploratory, comparative study of the utilisation and effectiveness of tobacco cessation quitlines among aboriginal and non‐aboriginal Canadian smokers. Setting Population based quitlines that provide free cessation information, advice and counselling to Canadian smokers. Subjects First time quitline callers, age 18 years of age and over, who called the quitline between August 2001 and December 2005 and who completed the evaluation and provided data on their ethnic status (n = 7082). Main measures Demographic characteristics and tobacco behaviours of participants at intake and follow‐up; reasons for calling; actions taken toward quitting, and 6‐month follow‐up quit rates. Results 7% of evaluation participants in the time period reported aboriginal origins. Aboriginal participants were younger than non‐aboriginals but had similar smoking status and level of addiction at intake. Concern about future health and current health problems were the most common reasons aboriginal participants called. Six months after intake aboriginals and non‐aboriginals had taken similar actions with 57% making a 24‐hour quit attempt. Quit rates were higher for aboriginals than non‐aboriginals, particularly for men. The 6‐month prolonged abstinence rate for aboriginal men was 16.7% compared with 7.2% for aboriginal women and 9.4% and 8.3% for non‐aboriginal men and women, respectively. Conclusions This exploratory analysis showed that even without targeted promotion, aboriginal smokers do call Canadian quitlines, primarily for health related reasons. We also showed that the quitlines are effective at helping them to quit. As a population focused intervention, quitlines can reach a large proportion of smokers in a cost efficient manner. In aboriginal communities where smoking rates exceed 50% and multiple health risks and chronic diseases already exist, eliminating non‐ceremonial tobacco use must be a priority. Our results, although
McGuire, Sandra L.
Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…
Summarizes the main themes and presents recommendations of the international conference, "Children in an Information Age: Tomorrow's Problems Today," that was held in Bulgaria in 1985. Topics discussed include computer training for children; the need for well designed research; the teacher-computer relationship; artificial intelligence;…
Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline
Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.
Hall, D M
This paper explores the implications of demographic aging for children and pediatric practice in the Western society. It focuses on the social class differences in childbearing patterns, specific issues related to disability, and distribution of resources between age groups. Women in the Western world are now having children at an older age than at any time in the past 50 years. Voluntary childlessness or deliberate delay in childbearing is common among highly educated women. This changing pattern in childbearing may increase and polarize health and wealth inequalities. With advancements in neonatal and pediatric care which prolong life expectancy and survival of disabled children, it is projected that there will be an increasing number of very old parents caring for severely disabled offspring. Meanwhile, there are also many children who are carrying considerable burdens of caring for their disabled parents. The community burden of disability will continue to rise. The needs of the elderly population may drain resources from child health services. Despite this demographic pattern, care for the children is still important. Health care authorities must not become contented with the existing pediatric care services just because demographic changes require that the nation should invest more in care of the older population.
Adegbija, Odewumi Oluwarotimi; Wang, Zhiqiang
To compare gender-specific waist circumference (WC) levels of Aboriginal Australians with non-Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search on Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify papers that reported gender-specific waist circumference (WC) estimates of participants from the age of 15 years and above among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Means and their 95% confidence intervals of gender differences in WC, height and weight were recorded or calculated where they were not provided. Gender-specific WC, height and weight mean estimates were pooled and the I(2) statistic was used to test heterogeneity among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Of 17 selected cross-sectional studies, 9 focused on Aboriginal and 8 on non-Aboriginal Australians. Seven studies reported significantly higher WC estimates among indigenous females than males. On the other hand, non-indigenous males had significantly higher WC levels than females. Males had greater height and weight estimates than females in both groups. Although indigenous women were shorter and had lower weight estimates, they had greater WC levels than indigenous men. This is the first systematic review to assess the gender-specific differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The findings of this review warrant more efforts to understand and reduce the high prevalence of central obesity and related chronic diseases among Aboriginal women. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ambtman, Rudy; Hudson, Suzanne; Hartry, Reid; Mackay-Chiddenton, Dawne
This article describes the work of the Circle of Courage, a cross-cultural group committed to improving the cultural competence of organizations providing services to Aboriginal populations in a midsized city in Canada. Rather than concentrating on individuals' cultural competence, the Circle targets mainstream organizations. Many of its…
Beatch, Michelle; Le Mare, Lucy
In this qualitative study, over the period of one year, we assessed the appropriateness of a mainstream early childhood education intervention, the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) programme, in five on-reserve First Nations communities, by focusing on the experiences of the Aboriginal women who delivered the programme.…
Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Surin, Johari; Sallam, Atiya A.; Abdullah, Ariffin W.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 241 primary schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia to update their vitamin A status and to investigate the association of poor vitamin A status with their health and socioeconomic factors. All children were screened for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood samples were collected and vitamin A status was assessed. Socioeconomic data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires. The results showed that 66 (27.4%) children had low serum retinol levels (< 0.70 μmol/L). Giardiasis and severe ascariasis were significantly associated with low serum retinol levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0.018, respectively). Logistic regression confirmed the significant association of giardiasis with low serum retinol (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–5.5). In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency is still a public health problem in rural Malaysia. Vitamin A supplementation and treatment of intestinal parasitic infections should be distributed periodically to these children to improve their health and nutritional status. PMID:20810815
Durham, Jo; Vaughan, Lisa; Willis, Cameron D.
Background Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The objective of this paper is to examine the alignment between efforts designed to address otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Queensland, Australia and core concepts of systems thinking. This paper’s overall purpose is to identify which combination of activities, and at which level, hold the potential to facilitate systems changes to better support ear health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Methods We began with a review of documents identified in consultation with stakeholders and an online search. In addition, key informants were invited to participate in an online survey and a face-to-face or phone interview. Qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were used to explore survey responses in more depth. We also undertook interviews at the community level to elicit a diverse range of views. Ideas, statements or activities reported in the documents and interviews as being performed under the Intervention Level Framework were identified using qualitative thematic and content analysis. A quantitative descriptive analysis was also undertaken, whereby data was extracted into an Excel spreadsheet and coded under the relevant strategic directions and performance indicators of the Framework. Subsequently, we coded activities against the five-level intervention framework developed by Malhi and colleagues, that is: 1) paradigm; 2) goals; 3) system structure; 4) feedback and delays; and 5) structural
Durham, Jo; Schubert, Lisa; Vaughan, Lisa; Willis, Cameron D
Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The objective of this paper is to examine the alignment between efforts designed to address otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Queensland, Australia and core concepts of systems thinking. This paper's overall purpose is to identify which combination of activities, and at which level, hold the potential to facilitate systems changes to better support ear health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. We began with a review of documents identified in consultation with stakeholders and an online search. In addition, key informants were invited to participate in an online survey and a face-to-face or phone interview. Qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were used to explore survey responses in more depth. We also undertook interviews at the community level to elicit a diverse range of views. Ideas, statements or activities reported in the documents and interviews as being performed under the Intervention Level Framework were identified using qualitative thematic and content analysis. A quantitative descriptive analysis was also undertaken, whereby data was extracted into an Excel spreadsheet and coded under the relevant strategic directions and performance indicators of the Framework. Subsequently, we coded activities against the five-level intervention framework developed by Malhi and colleagues, that is: 1) paradigm; 2) goals; 3) system structure; 4) feedback and delays; and 5) structural elements. Overall, twenty
Fallon, Barbara; Chabot, Martin; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil
Objective: Fluke et al. (2010) analyzed Canadian Incidence Study on Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) data collected in 1998 to explore the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place Aboriginal children in an out-of-home placement at the conclusion of a child maltreatment investigation. This study…
It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard Australian English (SAE) at one end, through to something very close to creole at the other. The phonetics and phonology, grammar, and lexicon of AAE are influenced to varying degrees by the Australian Aboriginal language substrate. There are also some features typical of non-standard Englishes in general, and some which have been retained from earlier forms of the colonial language. Many teachers still see this variety as an uneducated or corrupted form of Standard Australian English, rather than as a different dialect of English that is just as efficient a medium of communication.
Maxwell, Susannah J; Brameld, Kate J; Bower, Caroline; D'Antoine, Heather; Hickling, Siobhan; Marley, Julia; O'Leary, Peter
In September 2009, Australia implemented mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for bread-making to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Our study aimed to establish baseline folate status data in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Patients who presented at a health service or collection centre for blood tests were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-one Aboriginals and 159 non-Aboriginals were recruited between April 2008 and September 2009. Participants completed a five-minute questionnaire and had blood taken for red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Data were analysed using SPSS (version 17.0.2, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Ten per cent (95% confidence intervals (CI): 5, 19) of the Aboriginal women participants and 26% (95% CI: 16, 40) of men had RBC folate concentrations below 250 ng/mL, the cut-off associated with folate deficiency. None of the non-Aboriginal women (95% CI: 0, 4) and 4% of the non-Aboriginal men (95% CI: 2, 12) had RBC folate concentrations below 250 ng/mL. All participants were vitamin B12 replete. None of the 96 Aboriginal and 8% of non-Aboriginal women aged 16-44 reported consumption of supplements with a daily intake of >400 μg folic acid during the previous week. This study established a baseline of RBC folate, folate consumption and supplement use in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups. We identified 10% of Aboriginal women and none of non-Aboriginal women participants with low folate concentrations. The higher prevalence of folate deficiency in Aboriginal participants suggests they are more likely to benefit from a universal program of folate fortification. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Hones, Donald F.
In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…
Blinkhorn, Fiona; Brown, Ngiare; Freeman, Ruth; Humphris, Gerry; Martin, Andrew; Blinkhorn, Anthony
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. ACTRN12612000712808.
Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327
The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey
Jasmin, Bhawra; Martin, J. Cooke; Yanling, Guo; Piotr, Wilk
Introduction: Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non- Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. Methods: We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900) from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chisquare tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity− weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Results: Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Conclusion: Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity. PMID:28273035
The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.
Bhawra, Jasmin; Cooke, Martin J; Guo, Yanling; Wilk, Piotr
Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non- Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900) from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chi-square tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity-weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity.
Cazes, Gaël; Fink, David; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka; Codilean, Alexandru T.
The Kimberley region, northwest Australia, possesses an extensive and diverse collection of aboriginal rock art that potentially dates to more than 40,000 years ago. However, dating of such art using conventional techniques remains problematic. Here, we develop a new approach which makes use of the difference in production rates of in-situ 10Be and 26Al between intact rock walls and exposed surfaces of detached slabs from rock art shelters to constrain the age of Aboriginal rock-art. In the prevailing sandstone lithology of the Kimberley region, open cave-like rock shelters with cantilevered overhangs evolve by the collapse of unstable, partially rectangular, blocks weakened typically along joint-lines and fractures. On release, those slabs which extend outside the rock face perimeter will experience a higher production rate of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al than the adjacent rock which remains intact within the shelter. The dating of these freshly exposed slabs can help reconstruct rock-shelter formation and provide either maximum or minimum ages for the rock art within the shelter. At each site, both the upper-face of the newly exposed fallen slab and the counterpart intact rock surface on the ceiling need to be sampled at their exact matching-point to ensure that the initial pre-release cosmogenic nuclide concentration on slab and ceiling are identical. The calculation of the timing of the event of slab release is strongly dependent on the local production rate, the new shielding of the slab surface and the post-production that continues on the ceiling sample at the matching point. The horizon, ceiling and slab shielding are estimated by modelling the distribution of neutron and muon trajectories in the irregular shaped rock-shelter and slab using 3D photogrammetric reconstruction from drone flights and a MATLAB code (modified from G. Balco, 2014) to estimate attenuation distances and model the production rate at each sample. Five rock-art sites have been dated and
British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012
Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…
In this article, the author stresses that teacher-librarians must make themselves aware of a variety of aspects of the local aboriginal culture as well as the differences in interpersonal interaction. Artwork, both student and professional, can make a library more beautiful. Posters or aboriginal role models should be mixed with non-aboriginal…
Predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Aboriginal tobacco smokers of reproductive age in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia: quantitative and qualitative findings of a cross-sectional survey.
Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R
To assess the predictors of intentions to quit smoking in a community sample of Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, in whom smoking prevalence is slow to decline. A cross-sectional survey involved 121 Aboriginal smokers, aged 18-45 years from January to May 2014, interviewed at community events on the Mid-North Coast NSW. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected on smoking and quitting attitudes, behaviours and home smoking rules. Perceived efficacy for quitting, and perceived threat from smoking, were uniquely assessed with a validated Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) Scale. Logistic regression explored the impact of perceived efficacy, perceived threat and consulting previously with a doctor or health professional (HP) on self-reported intentions to quit smoking, controlling for potential confounders, that is, protection responses and fear control responses, home smoking rules, gender and age. Participants' comments regarding smoking and quitting were investigated via inductive analysis, with the assistance of Aboriginal researchers. Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit within 3 months. Perceived efficacy (OR=4.8; 95% CI 1.78 to 12.93) and consulting previously with a doctor/HP about quitting (OR=3.82; 95% CI 1.43 to 10.2) were significant predictors of intentions to quit. 'Smoking is not doing harm right now' was inversely associated with quit intentions (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.8). Among those who reported making a quit attempt, after consulting with a doctor/HP, 40% (22/60) rated the professional support received as low (0-2/10). Qualitative themes were: the negatives of smoking (ie, disgust, regret, dependence and stigma), health effects and awareness, quitting, denial, 'smoking helps me cope' and social aspects of smoking. Perceived efficacy and consulting with a doctor/HP about quitting may be important predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age. Professional support was generally perceived to be low
Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C
Despite Coronary Heart Disease exacting a heavy toll among Aboriginal Australians, accurate estimates of its epidemiology are limited. This study compared the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 28-day case fatality (CF) among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years from 2000-2004. Incident (AMI hospital admission-free for 15 years) AMI events and 28-day CF were estimated using person-based linked hospital and mortality data. Age-standardised incidence rates and case fatality percentages were calculated by Aboriginality and sex. Of 740 Aboriginal and 6933 non-Aboriginal incident events, 208 and 2352 died within 28 days, respectively. The Aboriginal age-specific incidence rates were 27 (males) and 35 (females) times higher than non-Aboriginal rates in the 25-29 year age group, decreasing to 2-3 at 70-74 years. The male:female age-standardised incidence rate ratio was 2.2 in Aboriginal people 25-54 years compared with 4.5 in non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal age-standardised CF percentages were 1.4 (males) and 1.1 (females) times higher at age 25-54 years and 1.5 times higher at age 55-74 years. These data suggest higher CF and, more importantly, AMI incidence contribute to the excess ischaemic heart disease mortality in Aboriginal Western Australians. The poorer cardiovascular health in Aboriginal women, particularly in younger age groups, should be investigated. Copyright © 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Exploring factors impacting early childhood health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families and communities: protocol for a population-based cohort study using data linkage (the ‘Defying the Odds’ study)
Gubhaju, Lina; Jorm, Louisa; Preen, David; Jones, Jocelyn; Joshy, Grace; Shepherd, Carrington; McAullay, Daniel; Eades, Sandra; Ball, Stephen
Introduction Empirical evidence on family and community risk and protective factors influencing the comparatively high rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations and deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and children is limited. As is evidence on geographical variation in these risks. The ‘Defying the Odds’ study aims to explore the impact of perinatal outcomes, maternal social and health outcomes and level of culturally secure service availability on the health outcomes of Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal infants and children aged 0–5 years. Methods and analysis The study combines a retrospective cohort study that uses state-wide linked health and administrative data from 12 data sources for multiple generations within Aboriginal families in WA, with specifically collected survey data from health and social services supporting Aboriginal families in regions of WA. Data sources include perinatal/birth registration, hospital, emergency department, mental health services, drug and alcohol service use, mortality, infectious disease notifications, and child protection and family services. Multilevel regression models will be used to examine the intensity of admissions and presentations, mortality, intensity of long stays and morbidity-free survival (no admissions) for Aboriginal children born in WA in 2000–2013. Relationships between maternal (and grand-maternal) health and social factors and child health outcomes will be quantified. Community-level variation in outcomes for Aboriginal children and factors contributing to this variation will be examined, including the availability of culturally secure services. Online surveys were sent to staff members at relevant services to explore the scope, reach and cultural security of services available to support Aboriginal families across selected regions of WA. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for the study. Interpretation and dissemination are guided by the
El Hayek Fares, Jessy; Weiler, Hope A
Aboriginal Canadians have low intakes of vitamin D and are shifting away from consumption of traditional foods. Higher body mass index, skin pigmentation, and geographic latitude of residence further predispose Canadian Aboriginal populations to low vitamin D status. Low vitamin D status could compromise bone health and other health outcomes. Studies assessing vitamin D status of different Aboriginal groups are limited. The aim of this review is to examine the literature on vitamin D status and intakes of Canadian Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic. PubMed was searched for relevant articles published from 1983 to 2013. The prevalence of 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency ranged from 13.9% to 76.0% among children and adults in the summer. Furthermore, mean vitamin D intakes among all age groups were below the estimated average requirement. As vitamin D deficiency has been recently associated with chronic diseases, and Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic are at high risk for low vitamin D status, their vitamin D status should be assessed regularly across seasons. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
This paper details the lived experience of the author as an education consultant from the mainstream of Australian education, attempting to assist a remote Aboriginal corporation establish its own secondary school, in its own cultural context on its own land. It is about the experience of an Anglo Australian servant of an Aboriginal corporation.…
Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil
Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…
As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…
Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.
One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…
Sheppard, Philip A. E.
No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265
Lukaszyk, Caroline; Coombes, Julieann; Keay, Lisa; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne; Broe, Tony; Lovitt, Lorraine; Ivers, Rebecca
Falls and fall-related injury are emerging issues for older Aboriginal people. Despite this, it is unknown whether older Aboriginal people access available fall prevention programs, or whether these programs are effective or acceptable to this population. To investigate the use of available fall prevention services by older Aboriginal people and identify features that are likely to contribute to program acceptability for Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A questionnaire was distributed to Aboriginal and mainstream health and community services across NSW to identify the fall prevention and healthy ageing programs currently used by older Aboriginal people. Services with experience in providing fall prevention interventions for Aboriginal communities, and key Aboriginal health services that delivered programs specifically for older Aboriginal people, were followed up and staff members were nominated from within each service to be interviewed. Service providers offered their suggestions as to how a fall prevention program could be designed and delivered to meet the health and social needs of their older Aboriginal clients. Of the 131 services that completed the questionnaire, four services (3%) had past experience in providing a mainstream fall prevention program to Aboriginal people; however, there were no programs being offered at the time of data collection. From these four services, and from a further five key Aboriginal health services, 10 staff members experienced in working with older Aboriginal people were interviewed. Barriers preventing services from offering appropriate fall prevention programs to their older Aboriginal clients were identified, including limited funding, a lack of available Aboriginal staff, and communication difficulties between health services and sectors. According to the service providers, an effective and acceptable fall prevention intervention would be evidence based, flexible, community-oriented and social
Robinson, Penelope; Comino, Elizabeth; Forbes, Andrew; Webster, Vana; Knight, Jennifer
To compare the timing of first hospital antenatal care visit by mothers of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants, and to identify the risk and protective factors associated with timeliness of accessing care, mothers who delivered at Campbelltown hospital between October 2005 and November 2006 were surveyed on the maternity ward. This survey was linked to hospital administrative data. Gestational age at first visit to a hospital-based antenatal clinic was compared for mothers of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants. Risks and protective factors associated with timing of antenatal care were also examined using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Data on 1520 deliveries were included in this study. Mothers of Aboriginal infants presented slightly later to hospital-based antenatal clinics than mothers of non-Aboriginal infants (median 15.6 weeks versus 14.0 weeks). This difference did not remain after adjustment for all risk and protective factors. The three significant factors remaining were: maternal smoking; not in paid employment; and residence in a disadvantaged suburb. The results may reflect the complex associations that exist between the clustering of disadvantage among families of Aboriginal infants. A multifaceted approach is required to improve the timeliness of hospital-based antenatal care for the mothers of Aboriginal infants.
Wadhwa, Puneet; Yu, Qingzhao; Zhu, Han; Townsend, Janice A
The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in dental development are associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or ADHD medications. This retrospective chart review evaluated the dental age of 128 patients between 6 and 16 years of age using the Demirjian method from the following two groups a) children with ADHD b) unaffected children. The ADHD group was further stratified into four groups according to the medication type. The impact of ADHD on dental age difference (the difference between dental age and chronologic age) was analyzed using T-test and the association between medication type and dental age difference was analyzed through one way ANOVA. The mean difference between estimated dental age and chronologic age (dental age difference) for all subjects was 0.80 years. There was no significant dental age difference in subjects with ADHD and the control group (0.78±1.28vs. 0.84 ±1.09 years respectively; P=0.75) and there was no significant difference in dental age difference and type of medication (P=0.84). No significant difference was found between children with ADHD and unaffected children with respect to dental age difference. No significant differences were found in dental age difference in the four medication groups.
Thurber, Katherine Ann; Joshy, Grace; Korda, Rosemary; Eades, Sandra J; Wade, Vicki; Bambrick, Hilary; Liu, Bette; Banks, Emily
High body mass index (BMI) is the second leading contributor to Australia's burden of disease and is particularly prevalent among Aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to provide insight into factors relating to obesity among Aboriginal adults and Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal differences. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 45 and Up Study, comparing obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) prevalence and risk factors among 1515 Aboriginal and 213 301 non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales. Age-sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity by sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and health status were estimated (multivariable log-binomial regression) for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants separately. We quantified the extent to which key factors (physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness, area-level disadvantage) accounted for any excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. Obesity prevalence was 39% among Aboriginal and 22% among non-Aboriginal participants (PR=1.65, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.76). Risk factors for obesity were generally similar for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants and included individual-level and area-level disadvantage, physical inactivity, and poor physical and mental health, with steeper gradients observed among non-Aboriginal participants for some factors (P interaction <0.05). Many risk factors were more common among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants; key factors accounted for >40% of the excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. A substantial proportion of the excess obesity prevalence among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants was explained by physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness and area-level disadvantage. Socioeconomic and health behaviour factors are potential targets for promoting healthy BMI, but these must be considered within the context of upstream social and cultural factors. Adults with health needs and disability require particular attention. © Article author(s) (or their
Background Lower breast cancer survival has been reported for Australian Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women, however the reasons for this disparity have not been fully explored. We compared the surgical treatment and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women diagnosed with breast cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods We analysed NSW cancer registry records of breast cancers diagnosed in 2001–2007, linked to hospital inpatient episodes and deaths. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare the odds of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women receiving surgical treatment. Breast cancer-specific survival was examined using cumulative mortality curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Of the 27 850 eligible women, 288 (1.03%) identified as Aboriginal. The Aboriginal women were younger and more likely to have advanced spread of disease when diagnosed than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginal women were less likely than non-Aboriginal women to receive surgical treatment (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.86). The five-year crude breast cancer-specific mortality was 6.1% higher for Aboriginal women (17.7%, 95% CI 12.9-23.2) compared with non-Aboriginal women (11.6%, 95% CI 11.2-12.0). After accounting for differences in age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, spread of disease and surgical treatment received the risk of death from breast cancer was 39% higher in Aboriginal women (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.86). Finally after also accounting for differences in comorbidities, socioeconomic disadvantage and place of residence the hazard ratio was reduced to 1.30 (95% CI 0.94-1.75). Conclusion Preventing comorbidities and increasing rates of surgical treatment may increase breast cancer survival for NSW Aboriginal women. PMID:24606675
Bailie, Ross S; Stevens, Matthew; McDonald, Elizabeth L
The mental health of carers is an important proximate factor in the causal web linking housing conditions to child health, as well as being important in its own right. Improved understanding of the nature of the relationships between housing conditions, carer mental health and child health outcomes is therefore important for informing the development of housing programs. This paper examines the relationship between the mental health of the carers of young children, housing conditions, and other key factors in the socio-physical environment. This analysis is part of a broader prospective cohort study of children living in Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia at the time of major new community housing programs. Carer's mental health was assessed using two validated scales: the Affect Balance scale and the Brief Screen for Depression. The quality of housing infrastructure was assessed through detailed surveys. Secondary explanatory variables included a range of socio-environmental factors, including validated measures of stressful life events. Hierarchical regression modelling was used to assess associations between outcome and explanatory variables at baseline, and associations between change in housing conditions and change in outcomes between baseline and follow-up. There was no clear or consistent evidence of a causal relationship between the functional state of household infrastructure and the mental health of carers of young children. The strongest and most consistent associations with carer mental health were the measures of negative life events, with a dose-response relationship, and adjusted odds ratio of over 6 for carers in the highest stress exposure category at baseline, and consistent associations in the follow up analysis. The findings highlight the need for housing programs to be supported by social, behavioral and community-wide environmental programs if potential health gains are to be more fully realized, and for
Click, Eulalia Tate; Powell, Judith A.
This study attempted to investigate: (1) preschool children's positive or negative perceptions of the aged, and (2) the effect of increased interpersonal contact with older adults on these perceptions. A review of related literature is reported. Two instruments, The Perceptions of the Aged Test (PAT) and The Familiarity With the Aged Questionnaire…
Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Rigatto, Claudio; Komenda, Paul; Yeates, Karen; Promislow, Steven; Mojica, Julie; Tangri, Navdeep
Summary Background and objectives Previous studies have shown that Aboriginals and Caucasians experience similar outcome on dialysis in Canada. Using the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry, this study examined whether dialysis modality (peritoneal or hemodialysis) impacted mortality in Aboriginal patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study identified 31,576 adult patients (hemodialysis: Aboriginal=1839, Caucasian=21,430; peritoneal dialysis: Aboriginal=554, Caucasian=6769) who initiated dialysis between January of 2000 and December of 2009. Aboriginal status was identified by self-report. Dialysis modality was determined 90 days after dialysis initiation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and competing risk models were constructed to determine the association between race and mortality by dialysis modality. Results During the study period, 939 (51.1%) Aboriginals and 12,798 (53.3%) Caucasians initiating hemodialysis died, whereas 166 (30.0%) and 2037 (30.1%), respectively, initiating peritoneal dialysis died. Compared with Caucasians, Aboriginals on hemodialysis had a comparable risk of mortality (adjusted hazards ratio=1.04, 95% confidence interval=0.96–1.11, P=0.37). However, on peritoneal dialysis, Aboriginals experienced a higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazards ratio=1.36, 95% confidence interval=1.13–1.62, P=0.001) and technique failure (adjusted hazards ratio=1.29, 95% confidence interval=1.03–1.60, P=0.03) than Caucasians. The risk of technique failure varied by patient age, with younger Aboriginals (<50 years old) more likely to develop technique failure than Caucasians (adjusted hazards ratio=1.76, 95% confidence interval=1.23–2.52, P=0.002). Conclusions Aboriginals on peritoneal dialysis experience higher mortality and technique failure relative to Caucasians. Reasons for this race disparity in peritoneal dialysis outcomes are unclear. PMID:22997343
Jung, James J; Pinto, Ruxandra; Zarychanski, Ryan; Cook, Deborah J; Jouvet, Philippe; Marshall, John C; Kumar, Anand; Long, Jennifer; Rodin, Rachel; Fowler, Robert A
Preliminary studies suggested that Aboriginal Canadians had disproportionately higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and critical illness due to pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. We used a prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with laboratory confirmed or probable H1N1 infection in Canada between April 16 2009 and April 12 2010. Baseline characteristics, medical interventions, clinical course and outcomes were compared between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Of 647 critically ill adult patients with known ethnicity, 81 (12.5%) were Aboriginal, 566 (87.5%) were non-Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were younger (mean [SD] age 40.7[13.7] v. 49.0[14.9] years, p < 0.001) and more frequently female (64.2% v. 51.1%, p = 0.027). Rates of any co-morbid illnesses (Aboriginal v. non-Aboriginal, 92.6% v. 91.0%, p = 0.63), time from symptom onset to hospital admission (median [interquartile range] 4 [2-7] v. 4 [2-7] days, p = 0.84), time to ICU admission (5 [3-8] v.5 [3-8] days, p = 0.91), and severity of illness (mean APACHE II score (19.9 [9.6] v. 21.1 [9.9], p = 0.33) were similar. A similar proportion of Aboriginal patients received antiviral medication before ICU admission than non-Aboriginal patients (91.4% v. 93.8%, p = 0.40). Among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal patients, the need for mechanical ventilation (93.8% v. 88.6%, p = 0.15), ventilator-free days (14 [3-23] v. 17 [0-24], p = 0.62), durations of stay in ICU (13[7-19.5] v. 11 [5-8] days, p = 0.05), hospital (19 [12.5-33.5] v. 18 [11-35] days, p = 0.63), and hospital mortality were similar (19.8% v. 22.6%, p = 0.56). In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher APACHE II score (1.06; 1.04-1.09, p<0.001) was independently associated with an increased risk of death; antiviral treatment with a lower risk of death (0.34; 0.15 - 0.78, p = 0.01). Ethnicity was not associated with mortality. During the 2009-2010 Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic
Maher, Marguerite; Bellen, Linda
There is a growing awareness that some children transition into formal schooling more readily than others. Compelling evidence indicates that children familiar with the skills and knowledge associated with the dominant practices of literacy teaching in schools have an advantage. While families play a pivotal role in children's early literacy…
Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell
Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…
Reeve, Rebecca; Church, Jody; Haas, Marion; Bradford, Wylie; Viney, Rosalie
To identify factors underpinning the gap in diabetes rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW. This will indicate appropriate target areas for policy and for monitoring progress towards reducing the gap. Data from the 2004-05 National Health Survey and National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey were used to estimate differences in self-reported diabetes rates and risk/prevention factors between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the contribution of each factor to predicting the probability of diabetes. Risk factors for diabetes are more prevalent and diabetes rates 2.5 to 4 times higher in Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal adults in non-remote NSW. The odds of (known) diabetes for both groups are significantly higher for older people, those with low levels of education and those who are overweight or obese. In the Aboriginal sample, the odds of diabetes are significantly higher for people reporting forced removal of their relatives. Differences in BMI and education appear to be driving the diabetes gap, together with onset at younger ages in the Aboriginal population. Psychological distress, indicated by removal of relatives, may contribute to increased risk of diabetes in the Aboriginal population. The results imply that improved nutrition and exercise, capacity to access and act upon health care information and early intervention are required to reduce the diabetes gap. Current strategies appear to be appropriately aligned with the evidence; however, further research is required to determine whether implementation methods are effective. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan
Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and
Phillips, James H; Wigger, Christine; Beissbarth, Jemima; McCallum, Gabrielle B; Leach, Amanda; Morris, Peter S
Does phone multimedia messages (MMS) to families of Indigenous children with tympanic membrane perforation (TMP): (i) increase clinic attendance; (ii) improve ear health; and (iii) provide a culturally appropriate method of health promotion? Fifty-three Australian Aboriginal children with a TMP living in remote community households with a mobile phone were randomised into intervention (n = 30) and control (n = 23) groups. MMS health messages in local languages were sent to the intervention group over 6 weeks. there was no significant difference in clinic attendance, with 1.3 clinic visits per child in both groups (mean difference -0.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.1, 0.9; P = 0.9). (i) there was no significant change in healed perforation (risk difference 6%; 95% CI -10, 20; P = 0.6), middle ear discharge (risk difference -1%; 95% CI -30, 30; P = 1.0) or perforation size (mean difference 3%; 95% CI -11, 17; P = 0.7) between the groups; (ii) 84% (95% CI 60, 90) in the control and 70% (95% CI 50, 80) in the intervention group were happy to receive MMS health messages in the future. The difference was not significant (risk difference -14%; 95% CI -37, 8; P = 0.3). Although there was no improvement in clinic attendance or ear health, this randomised controlled trial of MMS in Indigenous languages demonstrated that MMS is a culturally appropriate form of health promotion. Mobile phones may enhance management of chronic disease in remote and disadvantaged populations. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Hamacher, Duane W.
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
Abdalla, Tasnim; Hendrickx, David; Fathima, Parveen; Walker, Roz; Blyth, Christopher C; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Bowen, Asha C; Moore, Hannah C
The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of skin infection associated hospitalizations in children born in Western Australia (WA). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in WA between 1996 and 2012 (n = 469,589). Of these, 31,348 (6.7%) were Aboriginal and 240,237 (51.2%) were boys. We report the annual age-specific hospital admission rates by geographical location and diagnostic category. We applied log-linear regression modelling to analyse changes in temporal trends of hospitalizations. Hospitalization rates for skin infections in Aboriginal children (31.7/1000 child-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 31.0-32.4) were 15.0 times higher (95% CI 14.5-15.5; P<0.001) than those of non-Aboriginal children (2.1/1000 child-years; 95% CI 2.0-2.1). Most admissions in Aboriginal children were due to abscess, cellulitis and scabies (84.3%), while impetigo and pyoderma were the predominant causes in non-Aboriginal children (97.7%). Admissions declined with age, with the highest rates for all skin infections observed in infants. Admissions increased with remoteness. Multiple admissions were more common in Aboriginal children. Excess admissions in Aboriginal children were observed during the wet season in the Kimberley and during summer in metropolitan areas. Our study findings show that skin infections are a significant cause of severe disease, requiring hospitalization in Western Australian children, with Aboriginal children at a particularly high risk. Improved community-level prevention of skin infections and the provision of effective primary care are crucial in reducing the burden of skin infection associated hospitalizations. The contribution of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors warrant further investigation.
Smith, Bert Kruger; And Others
After an opening series of vignettes which describe the frustrations of adults who care for aging and infirm parents, this pamphlet addresses the issue of aging parents and the dilemmas they pose for their children. In particular, it describes a model entitled "As Parents Grow Older" (APGO) that originated as a service for families of…
Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C
Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.
McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Brewster, David; Morris, Peter
Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC) guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies). In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59). There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies), as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies) on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is small and the quality
McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Brewster, David; Morris, Peter
Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC) guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies). In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59). There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies), as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies) on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is small and the quality of the studies generally
Flaskas, Yvonne; O'Brien, Ciaran; Jeffries, Thomas Lee; McCowen, Debbie; Finlayson, Heather; Martin, Tanya; Neubeck, Lis; Freedman, Ben
Introduction There is a 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for Aboriginal Australians is cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known precursor to stroke there are no published studies about the prevalence of AF for Aboriginal people and limited evidence about AF in indigenous populations globally. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will recruit and train Aboriginal health workers to use an iECG device attached to a smartphone to consecutively screen 1500 Aboriginal people aged 45 years and older. The study will quantify the proportion of people who presented for follow-up assessment and/or treatment following a non-normal screening and then estimate the prevalence and age distribution of AF of the Australian Aboriginal population. The study includes semistructured interviews with the Aboriginal health workers about the effectiveness of the iECG device in their practice as well as their perceptions of the acceptability of the device for their patients. Thematic analysis will be undertaken on the qualitative data collected in the study. If the device and approach are acceptable to the Aboriginal people and widely adopted, it may help prevent the effects of untreated AF including ischaemic stroke and early deaths or impairment in Aboriginal people. Ethics and dissemination This mixed methods study received ethics approval from the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (1135/15) and the Australian Health Council of Western Australia (HREC706). Ethics approval is being sought in the Northern Territory. The findings of this study will be shared with Aboriginal communities, in peer reviewed publications and at conferences. There are Aboriginal investigators in each state/territory where the study is being conducted who have been actively involved in the study. They will also be involved in data analysis
Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta
In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities.
Gilbert, Mark; Dawar, Meenakshi; Armour, Rosemary
Fire-related mortality rates are known to be higher in Aboriginal people in BC. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology and context of fire-related deaths in this population. All death registrations attributable to fires in the province were identified by the B.C. Vital Statistics Agency (1991-2001). Age-specific death rates (ASDR) and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) were calculated for Status Indians and other residents. Data from Coroner's reports from the B.C. Coroners' Service (1997-2001) were used to describe the context of Aboriginal fire-related deaths. The overall fire-related ASMR for Status Indians and other residents were 0.66 deaths and 0.07 deaths/10,000 population respectively. Annual ASMR for both populations were constant over the study period. ASDR were higher in every age category for Status Indians; children and seniors had higher rates in both populations. Twenty-seven Aboriginal fatalities (20 fires) were identified for the contextual analysis. Key findings were: 48% of the total sample had elevated blood alcohol levels; 30% of the fires were caused by lit cigarettes (majority of decedents were intoxicated); 15% of the fires were caused by electric heating sources; at least 34% of fires occurred in homes with absent or non-functional smoke alarms. Fire-related mortality among Aboriginal people in BC is a preventable public health concern. In this population, fire safety and prevention programs should consider improving the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms, promoting the safe use of heat sources, and decreasing smoking behaviours and the use of alcohol.
Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R
Excessive weight gain and physical inactivity in pregnancy have been identified as risk factors for negative health outcomes for mothers and fetuses, particularly among Aboriginal women. In this paper we engage with postcolonial feminist theory and critical discourse analysis to examine the question, "how do urban Aboriginal women understand pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity." We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 25 urban Aboriginal pregnant or postpartum women between the ages of 16 and 39 in Ottawa, Canada. Three prominent discourses emerged: Aboriginal women have different pregnancies than non-Aboriginal women because Aboriginal women gain more weight and are more likely to develop gestational diabetes; Aboriginal women feel personally responsible for and shameful about excessive weight gain; finally, Aboriginal women need culturally safe pregnancy resources. Our results illuminate the complex and often paradoxical ways in which discourses around weight gain and physical activity are produced and taken-up by Aboriginal women and their healthcare providers. Based on these findings, we argue there is a lack of accessible and culturally safe resources for urban Aboriginal women, specifically concerning weight gain and physical activity in pregnancy. We recommend the development of resources that are created for/by/with Aboriginal women to better address that issues that urban Aboriginal women themselves identify as being of key importance. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teasdale, G. R.; Whitelaw, A. J.
The book describes the setting, objectives, program, evaluation and achievement of six innovative action-research early childhood education projects for Aboriginal Australian children, traces various previous attempts to provide education, and provides an historical background of the estimated 140,000 Aboriginal people who make up 1% of…
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter
This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…
Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don
Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…
Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.
This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…
Watson, Robert; Bennett, Ella; Masuda, Jeffrey; King, Malcolm; Stewart, Miriam
Background Asthma affects at least 10% of Aboriginal children (aged 11 or younger) in Canada, making it the second most common chronic disease suffered by this demographic group; yet asthma support strategies specific to Aboriginal peoples have only begun to be identified. Community Context This research builds on earlier phases of a recent study focused on identifying the support needs and intervention preferences of Aboriginal children with asthma and their parents or caregivers. Here, we seek to identify the implications of our initial findings for asthma programs, policies, and practices in an Aboriginal context and to determine strategies for implementing prevention programs in Aboriginal communities. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 22 recruited community health care professionals and school personnel in 5 Mi’kmaq communities in Unama’ki (Cape Breton), Nova Scotia, Canada, through a community-based participatory research design. Each focus group was first introduced to findings from a local “social support for asthma” intervention, and then the groups explored issues associated with implementing social support from their respective professional positions. Outcome Thematic analysis revealed 3 key areas of opportunity and challenges for implementing asthma prevention and management initiatives in Mi’kmaq communities in terms of 1) professional awareness, 2) local school issues, and 3) community health centers. Interpretation Culturally relevant support initiatives are feasible and effective community-driven ways of improving asthma support in Mi’kmaq communities; however, ongoing assistance from the local leadership (ie, chief and council), community health directors, and school administrators, in addition to partnerships with respiratory health service organizations, is needed. PMID:26766847
Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay
This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (≥0.15 μg/ml) in ≥97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12 μg/ml versus 3.51 μg/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4 mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hopcraft, M; Chowt, W
A survey of dental caries experience in children was undertaken in five Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in the Northern Peninsula Area of Queensland prior to the introduction of water fluoridation. Data were obtained from screening dental examinations conducted by the Australian Army as part of a community assistance programme between May and September 2004 from 486 children aged 4-15 years. The clinical examinations were performed in a dental van using a dental chair, light, mirror and probe by a single calibrated examiner. Caries experience was high with a mean 6-year-old dmft of 6.37 and a mean 12-year-old DMFT of 3.50. The 6-year-old dmft Significant Caries Index (SiC) for the third of the population with the highest caries experience was 11.65 and the 12-year-old DMFT SiC was 7.08. Only 15.3 per cent of 6-year-old children had dmft = 0 and 28.9 per cent of 12-year-old children had DMFT = 0. Dental caries was a significant problem for these remote communities. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from the Northern Peninsula Area of Queensland had more than four times the caries experience of Australian children for both 6-year-old dmft and 12-year-old DMFT.
Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James
To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior. PMID:22754293
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.
Abbott, Penelope A; Davison, Joyce E; Moore, Louise F; Rubinstein, Raechelle
To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured interviews with 23 Aboriginal course participants aged 19-72. Verbatim transcripts were coded using NVivo 7 software, and qualitative analysis was undertaken. Engagement and learning were increased by emphasizing the social aspects of the program, holding the course in a familiar Aboriginal community-controlled health setting and using small group learning with Aboriginal peers. Partnership with a vocational training institute provided teaching expertise, but there was conflict between vocational and health promotion objectives. Nutrition programs for Aboriginal Australians should be social, flexible, and held in accessible, culturally appropriate settings and focus on healthful cooking techniques using simple, affordable ingredients. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob
While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…
Hoy, Wendy E; Mott, Susan Anne; McLeod, Beverly June
To describe trends in ages and causes of death in a remote-living Australian Aboriginal group over a recent 50-year period. A retrospective observational study, from 1960 to 2010, of deaths and people starting dialysis, using data from local clinic, parish, dialysis and birthweight registers. A remote island community in the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory, where a Catholic mission was established in 1911. The estimated Aboriginal population was about 800 in 1960 and 2260 in 2011. All Aboriginal residents of this community whose deaths had been recorded. Annual frequencies and rates of terminal events (deaths and dialysis starts) by age group and cause of death. Against a background of high rates of low birth weight, 223 deaths in infants and children and 934 deaths in adults (age > 15 years) were recorded; 88% were of natural causes. Most deaths in the 1960s were in infants and children. However, over time these fell dramatically, across the birthweight spectrum, while adult deaths progressively increased. The leading causes of adult natural deaths were chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease and, more recently, renal failure, and rates were increased twofold in those of low birth weight. However, rates of natural adult deaths have been falling briskly since 1986, most markedly among people of age ≥45 years. The population is increasing and its age structure is maturing. The changes in death profiles, the expression of the Barker hypothesis and the ongoing increases in adult life expectancy reflect epidemiological and health transitions of astonishing rapidity. These probably flow from advances in public health policy and healthcare delivery, as well as improved inter-sectoral services, which are all to be celebrated. Other remote communities in Australia are experiencing the same phenomena, and similar events are well advanced in many developing countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the
This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…
Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina
Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.
This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…
Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve
We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases.
Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.
Tzelepis, Flora; Daly, Justine; Dowe, Sarah; Bourke, Alex; Gillham, Karen; Freund, Megan
Tobacco use during pregnancy is substantially higher among Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women in Australia. However, no studies have investigated the amount or type of smoking cessation care that staff from Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal services provide to clients who smoke or staff confidence to do so. This study examined Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal staff confidence, perceived role and delivery of smoking cessation care to Aboriginal women and characteristics associated with provision of such care. Staff from 11 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Services and eight Aboriginal Child and Family Health services in the Hunter New England Local Health District in Australia completed a cross-sectional self-reported survey (n = 67, response rate = 97.1%). Most staff reported they assessed clients' smoking status most or all of the time (92.2%). However, only a minority reported they offered a quitline referral (42.2%), provided follow-up support (28.6%) or provided nicotine replacement therapy (4.7%) to most or all clients who smoked. Few staff felt confident in motivating clients to quit smoking (19.7%) and advising clients about using nicotine replacement therapy (15.6%). Staff confident with talking to clients about how smoking affected their health had significantly higher odds of offering a quitline referral [OR = 4.9 (1.7-14.5)] and quitting assistance [OR = 3.9 (1.3-11.6)] to clients who smoke. Antenatal and postnatal staff delivery of smoking cessation care to pregnant Aboriginal women or mothers with young Aboriginal children could be improved. Programs that support Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal providers to deliver smoking cessation care to clients are needed. Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal service staff have multiple opportunities to assist Aboriginal women to quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. However, staff confidence and practices of offering various forms of smoking cessation support to pregnant Aboriginal
Reilly, Rachel; Micklem, Jasmine; Yerrell, Paul; Banham, David; Morey, Kim; Stajic, Janet; Eckert, Marion; Lawrence, Monica; Stewart, Harold B; Brown, Alex
Aboriginal people with cancer experience worse outcomes than other Australians for a range of complex and interrelated reasons. A younger age at diagnosis, higher likelihood of more advanced cancer or cancer type with poorer prognosis, geographic isolation and cultural and language diversity mean that patient pathways are potentially more complex for Aboriginal people with cancer. In addition, variation in the quality and acceptability of care may influence cancer outcomes. This study sought to understand how care coordination influences Aboriginal people's experiences of cancer treatment. Interviews with 29 Aboriginal patients or cancer survivors, 11 carers and 22 service providers were carried out. Interviews were semi-structured and sought to elicit experiences of cancer and the health-care system. The manifest content of the cancer narratives was entered onto a cancer pathway mapping tool and underlying themes were identified inductively. The practice of cancer care coordination was found to address the needs of Aboriginal patients and their families/carers in 4 main areas: "navigating the health system"; "information and communication"; "things to manage at home"; and "cultural safety". The CanDAD findings indicate that, when the need for cancer care coordination is met, it facilitated continuity of care in a range of ways that may potentially improve cancer outcomes. However, the need remains unmet for many. Findings support the importance of dedicated care coordination to enable Aboriginal people to receive adequate and appropriate patient-centred care, so that the unacceptable disparity in cancer outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people can be addressed. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Doige, Lynda A. Curwen
A historical overview of Aboriginal education in the Maritime Provinces of Canada reveals that an Aboriginal form of literacy that existed before European contact met all the requirements of a valid literacy and is worthy of respect. Teachers' understanding and valuing of Aboriginal literacy would transform Aboriginal education. (Contains 26…
Study protocol for a self-controlled cluster randomised trial of the Alert Program to improve self-regulation and executive function in Australian Aboriginal children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Fitzpatrick, James P; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Symons, Martyn; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Jirikowic, Tracy; Cross, Donna; Wright, Edie; Adams, Emma; Carter, Maureen; Bruce, Kaashifah; Latimer, Jane
Introduction While research highlights the benefits of early diagnosis and intervention for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), there are limited data documenting effective interventions for Australian children living in remote communities. Methods and analysis This self-controlled cluster randomised trial is evaluating the effectiveness of an 8-week Alert Program school curriculum for improving self-regulation and executive function in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Children in grades 1–6 attending any of the eight participating schools across the Fitzroy Valley in remote North-West Australia (N ≈ 363) were invited to participate. Each school was assigned to one of four clusters with clusters randomly assigned to receive the intervention at one of four time points. Clusters two, three and four had extended control conditions where students received regular schooling before later receiving the intervention. Trained classroom teachers delivered the Alert Program to students in discrete, weekly, 1-hour lessons. Student outcomes were assessed at three time points. For the intervention condition, data collection occurred 2 weeks immediately before and after the intervention, with a follow-up 8 weeks later. For control conditions in clusters two to four, the control data collection matched that of the data collection for the intervention condition in the preceding cluster. The primary outcome is change in self-regulation. FASD diagnoses will be determined via medical record review after the completion of data collection. The results will be analysed using generalised linear mixed modelling and reported in accordance with Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Western Australia (WA) (RA/4/1/7234), WA Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee (601) and WA Country Health Service (2015:04). The Kimberley Aboriginal Health
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.
Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C
To investigate the impact of prevalence correction of population denominators on myocardial infarction (MI) incidence rates, rate ratios, and rate differences in Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years during the study period 2000-2004. Person-based linked hospital and mortality data sets were used to estimate the number of prevalent and first-ever MI cases each year from 2000 to 2004 using a 15-year look-back period. Age-specific and -standardized MI incidence rates were calculated using both prevalence-corrected and -uncorrected population denominators, by sex and Aboriginality. The impact of prevalence correction on rates increased with age, was higher for men than women, and substantially greater for Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people. Despite the systematic underestimation of incidence, prevalence correction had little impact on the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal age-standardized rate ratios (6% and 4% underestimate in men and women, respectively), although the impact on rate differences was more marked (12% and 6%, respectively). The percentage underestimate of differentials was greater at older ages. Prevalence correction of denominators, while more accurate, is difficult to apply and may add modestly to the quantification of relative disparities in MI incidence between populations. Absolute incidence disparities using uncorrected denominators may have an error >10%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article examines two psychological interventions with Australian Aboriginal children in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first involved evaluating the cognitive maturation of Aboriginal adolescents using a series of Piagetian interviews. The second, a more extensive educational intervention, used a variety of quantitative tests to measure and intervene in the intellectual performance of Aboriginal preschoolers. In both of these interventions the viability of the psychological instruments in the cross-cultural encounter created ongoing ambiguity as to the value of the research outcomes. Ultimately, the resolution of this ambiguity in favour of notions of Aboriginal 'cultural deprivation' reflected the broader political context of debates over Aboriginal self-governance during this period.
Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen
This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of drowning by different bodies of water in and near the home for children aged 1 to 4 years. SETTING: The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A population case-control study. Cases (n=33) were children 1 to 4 years old who drowned at their home; controls (n=200) were a random sample of the general population. RESULTS: The risk of drowning for children whose parents reported having a water well at home was almost seven times that of children in homes without a water well (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2 to 20.5). Risk ratio estimates for other bodies of water were: swimming pools (OR=5.8, 95% CI=0.9 to 37.5), water barrel (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0 to 5.6), underground cistern (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 5.2), and a basin front (courtyard pool to store water) of 35 or more litres (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8 to 4.4). CONCLUSION: Drowning at home is frequent in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, but the causes are different from those reported in developed countries. Accordingly, the preventive strategies must also be different. Images PMID:9493619
Carmichael, Karla D.
Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…
Newman, Sally; Faux, Robert; Larimer, Barbara
Examines childrens' (N=71) perceptions and attitudes about aging and older adults. Results indicate that children do not view aging negatively as adults assume. Children were positively affected by interactions with older adults, described physical signs of aging without judgment, and responded negatively to some of the unpleasant conditions…
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...
Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C
Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as a filter to reduce rural residents
Gubhaju, Lina; Banks, Emily; MacNiven, Rona; McNamara, Bridgette J.; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Eades, Sandra J.
Background Australian Aboriginal people are disproportionately affected by physical disability; the reasons for this are unclear. This study aimed to quantify associations between severe physical functional limitations and socio-demographic and health-related factors among older Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults. Methods Questionnaire data from 1,563 Aboriginal and 226,802 non-Aboriginal participants aged ≥45 years from the Sax Institute’s 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia) were used to calculate age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for severe limitation [MOS-PF score <60] according to socio-demographic and health-related factors. Results Overall, 26% (410/1563) of Aboriginal participants and 13% (29,569/226,802) of non-Aboriginal participants had severe limitations (aPR 2.8, 95%CI 2.5–3.0). In both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants, severe limitation was significantly associated with: being ≥70 vs <70 years old (aPRs 1.8, 1.3–2.4 and 5.3, 5.0–5.5, within Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants, respectively), none vs tertiary educational qualifications (aPRs 2.4, 1.7–3.3 and 3.1, 3.0–3.2), lower vs higher income (aPRs 6.6, 4.2–10.5 and 5.5, 5.2–5.8), current vs never-smoking (aPRs 2.0, 1.6–2.5 and 2.2, 2.1–2.3), obese vs normal weight (aPRs 1.7, 1.3–2.2 and 2.7, 2.7–2.8) and sitting for ≥7 vs <7 hours/day (aPRs 1.6, 1.2–2.0 and 1.6, 1.6–1.7). Severe limitations increased with increasing ill-health, with aPRs rising to 5–6 for ≥5 versus no chronic conditions. It was significantly higher in those with few vs many social contacts (aPRs 1.7, 1.4–2.0 and 1.4, 1.4–1.4) and with very high vs low psychological distress (aPRs 4.4, 3.6–5.4 and 5.7, 5.5–5.9). Conclusions Although the prevalence of severe physical limitation among Aboriginal people in this study is around three-fold that of non-Aboriginal people, the factors related to it are similar, indicating that Aboriginal people have higher
Vericker, Tracy C.; Macomber, Jennifer; Isaacs, Julia; Kent, Adam; Bringewatt, Elizabeth H.
This report provides a first-time analysis of the nation's current investments in elementary-age children, defined as children ages 6 through 11. The authors consider over 100 federal programs through which the federal government allocates money to children, and subsequently estimate the amount spent on six- to eleven-year-old children. This…
Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.
We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434
Hamacher, Duane W.
In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the
Randall, Deborah A; Lujic, Sanja; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R
To investigate under-recording of Aboriginal people in hospital data from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, define algorithms for enhanced reporting, and examine the impact of these algorithms on estimated disparities in cardiovascular and injury outcomes. NSW Admitted Patient Data were linked with NSW mortality data (2001-2007). Associations with recording of Aboriginal status were investigated using multilevel logistic regression. The number of admissions reported as Aboriginal according to six algorithms was compared with the original (unenhanced) Aboriginal status variable. Age-standardised admission, and 30- and 365-day mortality ratios were estimated for cardiovascular disease and injury. Sixty per cent of the variation in recording of Aboriginal status was due to the hospital of admission, with poorer recording in private and major city hospitals. All enhancement algorithms increased the number of admissions reported as Aboriginal, from between 4.1% and 37.8%. Admission and mortality ratios varied markedly between algorithms, with less strict algorithms resulting in higher admission rate ratios, but generally lower mortality rate ratios, particularly for cardiovascular disease. The choice of enhancement algorithm has an impact on the number of people reported as Aboriginal and on estimated outcome ratios. The influence of the hospital on recording of Aboriginal status highlights the importance of continued efforts to improve data collection. Estimates of Aboriginal health disparity can change depending on how Aboriginal status is reported. Sensitivity analyses using a number of algorithms are recommended. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.
Allen, Mark S.; Vella, Stewart A.
This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association. PMID:27486752
Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A
This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association.
Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell
Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture
Youhne, Mia Song
Advocates for multi-age classrooms claim multi-age groupings benefit children (Brynes, Shuster, & Jones, 1994). Currently, there is a lack of research examining play among students in multi-age classrooms. If indeed there is a positive benefit of play among children, research is needed to examine these behaviors among and between young children in…
Jung, James J.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Zarychanski, Ryan; Cook, Deborah J.; Jouvet, Philippe; Marshall, John C.; Kumar, Anand; Long, Jennifer; Rodin, Rachel; Fowler, Robert A.
Background Preliminary studies suggested that Aboriginal Canadians had disproportionately higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and critical illness due to pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Methods We used a prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with laboratory confirmed or probable H1N1 infection in Canada between April 16 2009 and April 12 2010. Baseline characteristics, medical interventions, clinical course and outcomes were compared between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Results Of 647 critically ill adult patients with known ethnicity, 81 (12.5%) were Aboriginal, 566 (87.5%) were non-Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were younger (mean [SD] age 40.7[13.7] v. 49.0[14.9] years, p < 0.001) and more frequently female (64.2% v. 51.1%, p = 0.027). Rates of any co-morbid illnesses (Aboriginal v. non-Aboriginal, 92.6% v. 91.0%, p = 0.63), time from symptom onset to hospital admission (median [interquartile range] 4 [2–7] v. 4 [2–7] days, p = 0.84), time to ICU admission (5 [3–8] v.5 [3–8] days, p = 0.91), and severity of illness (mean APACHE II score (19.9 [9.6] v. 21.1 [9.9], p = 0.33) were similar. A similar proportion of Aboriginal patients received antiviral medication before ICU admission than non-Aboriginal patients (91.4% v. 93.8%, p = 0.40). Among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal patients, the need for mechanical ventilation (93.8% v. 88.6%, p = 0.15), ventilator-free days (14 [3–23] v. 17 [0–24], p = 0.62), durations of stay in ICU (13[7-19.5] v. 11 [5–8] days, p = 0.05), hospital (19 [12.5-33.5] v. 18 [11-35] days, p = 0.63), and hospital mortality were similar (19.8% v. 22.6%, p = 0.56). In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher APACHE II score (1.06; 1.04-1.09, p<0.001) was independently associated with an increased risk of death; antiviral treatment with a lower risk of death (0.34; 0.15 – 0.78, p = 0.01). Ethnicity was not associated with mortality
Warren, Claire; Maynard, Sally
The study described here investigates the thoughts and opinions of young readers related to age banding on children's books. Emphasizing the views of children themselves, rather than adults such as parents, librarians, teachers and authors, the research involved a series of three focus groups involving children aged 11-13 years. The discussions…
Rubin, Alan M.
Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…
Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…
Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.
Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…
Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming
Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.
Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E; Si, Damin
Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Six hundred and eighty six (686) Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty four (124) new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3), adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5) for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4) for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.
More than just the development of reading and writing skills, Aboriginal literacy is a wholistic concept, with spiritual, physical, mental, and emotional aspects, involving relationships between self, community, nation, and creation. Models are presented for incorporating traditional Aboriginal knowledge and methodologies into Aboriginal learning…
Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Simo, Annick; Jury, Delores; Reading, Charlotte; Shannon, Kate
The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, 2010-present), a prospective cohort of street and off-street SWs, through outreach and semi-annual visits to the research office. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine correlates of child apprehension. Of a total of 510 SWs, 350 women who had given birth to at least one child were included in the analyses (median age = 37 yrs: IQR: 31-44 yrs). The prevalence of child apprehension among mothers was 38.3%, with 37.4% reporting having been apprehended themselves by child welfare services. In multivariable analysis, servicing clients in outdoor public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments or informal indoor settings) (adjusted odds ratio, (aOR) = 2.73; 95%CI 1.27-5.90), history of injecting drugs (aOR = 2.53; 95%CI 1.42-4.49), Aboriginal ancestry (aOR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.01-2.74) were associated with increased odds of child apprehension. Child apprehension rates are high, particularly among the most marginalized sex workers, including sex workers who use drugs and sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry. Structural reforms to child protection are urgently needed, that support family-based care address the historical legacy of colonization affecting Aboriginal peoples.
In this article, the author describes one classroom's experience engaging in a lesson on aboriginal painting. Aboriginal painting has a particular allure to middle school students. As this age group crosses the threshold from concrete knowing to conceptual understanding, they are ready to re-frame their perspective of the artist's intent. Learning…
Starting primary education is one of the most important changes that children encounter in early childhood. Moreover, especially within the last twenty years, as an outcome of the idea that children are active learners, listening to children's ideas about their learning, lives, and experiences has gained importance. In this sense, this study is…
Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.
The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.
Huo, Meng; Graham, Jamie L; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S; Fingerman, Karen L
When adult children incur life problems (e.g., divorce, job loss, health problems), aging parents generally report providing more frequent support and experiencing poorer well-being. Yet, it is unclear how adult children's problems may influence aging parents' daily support exchanges with these children or the parents' daily mood. Aging parents from the Family Exchanges Study Wave 2 (N = 207, Mage = 79.86) reported providing and receiving emotional support, practical support, and advice from each adult child each day for 7 days. Parents also rated daily positive and negative mood. Multilevel models showed that aging parents were more likely to provide emotional and practical support to adult children incurring life problems than children not suffering problems. Parents were also more likely to receive emotional support and advice from these children with problems. Further, parents reported less negative mood on days when providing practical support to children with problems. Examining daily support exchanges adds to our understanding of how children's problems influence parent-child ties in late life. Prior research suggests that children's problems upset parents. In this study, however, it appears that supporting adult children who suffer problems may alleviate aging parents' distress regarding such children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This research describes an observation study of 100 children, ages 9-13 years, on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. The children were in a French government boarding school in the main valley of the island. Complex, sophisticated group processes among the Marquesan children were observed. The role structures of the group…
Kwong See, Sheree T.; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pertman, S. Quinn
We examined five-year-old-children's age stereotyping using a modified Piagetian conservation task. Children were asked if two lines of objects were the "same" after one line had been made longer (transformed). A conversational account posits that children's answers reflect assumptions about the asker's motivation for the question (Schwarz, 1996).…
Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.
Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…
Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.
To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…
Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.
The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…
Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.
The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.
This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…
Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.
The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…
Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon
The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…
Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee
Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…
Westerveld, Marleen F.; Moran, Catherine A.
Purpose: This research investigated the expository language skills of young school-age children with the ultimate aim of obtaining normative data for clinical practice. Specifically, this study examined (a) the level of expository language performance of 6- and 7-year-old children with typical development and (b) age-related differences between…
The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...
Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.
Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…
Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Assor, Avi; Katz, Idit
Two experiments examined the effect of age and cognitive demands on children's choice strategies. Children aged 8-9 and 12-13 years were asked to choose among either two or four products that differed in several attributes of varying importance to them. Choice tasks were designed to differentiate between the lexicographic and the equal-weighting…
Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…
Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…
Taylor, Lee K; Bentley, Jason; Hunt, Jennifer; Madden, Richard; McKeown, Sybille; Brandt, Peter; Baker, Deborah
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are under-reported in administrative health datasets in NSW, Australia. Correct reporting of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is essential to measure the effectiveness of policies and programmes aimed at reducing the health disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This study investigates the potential of record linkage to enhance reporting of deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW, Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics death registration data for 2007 were linked with four population health datasets relating to hospitalisations, emergency department attendances and births. Reporting of deaths was enhanced from linked records using two methods, and effects on patterns of demographic characteristics and mortality indicators were examined. Reporting of deaths increased by 34.5% using an algorithm based on a weight of evidence of a person being Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, and by 56.6% using an approach based on 'at least one report' of a person being Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The increase was relatively greater in older persons and those living in less geographically remote areas. Enhancement resulted in a reduction in the urban-remote differential in median age at death and increases in standardised mortality ratios particularly for chronic conditions. Record linkage creates a statistical construct that helps to correct under-reporting of deaths and potential bias in mortality statistics for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression. PMID:22853622
Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz
The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…
Bartik, Warren; Dixon, Angela; Dart, Katrina
The Third National Mental Health Plan places a strong emphasis on the development of an Aboriginal mental health workforce. This paper documents the establishment, implementation and initial evaluation of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child and Adolescent Mental Health Traineeship Program, a partnership initiative involving Hunter New England Area Health Service (HNEAHS), Hunter New England Aboriginal Mental Health (HNEAMH) and the Department of Psychological Medicine at the Children's Hospital at Westmead (CHW), with guidance and input from additional collaborators. The program includes: (i) employment as a child and adolescent mental health worker and professional support and supervision through HNEAHS; (ii) a mentoring program provided through HNEAMH; (iii) formal academic studies in Aboriginal Mental Health; and (iv) a clinical education and supervision program conducted through the Department of Psychological Medicine, CHW. Initial feedback suggests that this is a promising program to train Aboriginal child and adolescent mental health workers. Further evaluation will provide information about its viability and effectiveness in providing an integrated, collaborative child and adolescent mental health service for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and their families.
Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.
The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).
Glascoe, F P; Sandler, H
To determine whether parents' estimates of children's developmental ages can function as a prescreening technique. Parents of 234 children from birth to 77 months of age seeking well-child care in pediatric offices were queried in two separate studies. In the first study, parents were asked to give an estimate of their child's overall developmental age and, in the second study, to estimate ages in each of six developmental domains. Children were administered a range of screening measures of intelligence, speech-language, and adoptive behavior. The overall age-estimate, if less than chronologic age, was 75% sensitive to likely developmental problems and, if equal to or greater than chronologic age, was 90% specific in identifying children likely to have typical development. Age estimates for each developmental domain were 81% sensitive to likely developmental problems if less than chronologic age in the domains of fine motor, language, grass motor, or behavior, and 62% specific if equal to or greater than chronologic age. Estimates at or below chronologic age in receptive language or personal-social domains were 90% sensitive and 43% specific in identifying likely behavior problems. There were no differences in the accuracy of parents estimates on the basis of children's age, gender, race, parents' level of education, or parenting experience. Parents' overall age-estimates provided a sensitive and specific indicator of global developmental status, but insufficient information about strengths and weaknesses to enable focused referrals for services. In contrast, discrete patterns of age estimates in each developmental domain sensitively discriminated children with developmental versus behavioral problems, although specificity was limited. Age estimates appear to be a potentially helpful method for identifying a subset of children in need of thorough screening, although further research is needed on a larger sample given diagnostic rather than screening tests.
D'Entremont, Denise Morel
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…
Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.
This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…
Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi; Kanters, Steve; Druyts, Eric; Toor, Kabirraaj; Muldoon, Katherine A; Farquhar, John W; Mills, Edward J
Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated "years of life lost to incarceration" for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8-1443.4). The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians.
Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C
To estimate the association between attachment security in children aged 24 months and their risk for obesity at 4½ years of age. Insecure attachment is associated with unhealthy physiologic and behavioral responses to stress, which could lead to development of obesity. Cohort study. National sample of US children born in 2001. Children and mothers participating in the 2003 and 2005-2006 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Our analytic sample included 6650 children (76.0% of children assessed in both waves). Attachment security at 24 months was assessed by trained interviewers during observation in the child's home. Insecure attachment was defined as lowest quartile of attachment security, based on the security score from the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 Item. Obesity at 4½ years of age (sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile for age). The prevalence of obesity was 23.1% in children with insecure attachment and 16.6% in those with secure attachment. For children with insecure attachment, the odds of obesity were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) times higher than for children with secure attachment after controlling for the quality of mother-child interaction during play, parenting practices related to obesity, maternal body mass index, and sociodemographic characteristics. Insecure attachment in early childhood may be a risk factor for obesity. Interventions to increase children's attachment security should examine the effects on children's weight.
Ellerby, Jonathan H.; McKenzie, John; McKay, Stanley; Gariépy, Gilbert J.; Kaufert, Joseph M.
Although philosophies and practices analogous to bioethics exist in Aboriginal cultures, the terms and categorical distinctions of "ethics" and "bioethics" do not generally exist. In this article we address ethical values appropriate to Aboriginal patients, rather than a preconceived "Aboriginal bioethic." Aboriginal beliefs are rooted in the context of oral history and culture. For Aboriginal people, decision-making is best understood as a process and not as the correct interpretation of a unified code. Aboriginal cultures differ from religious and cultural groups that draw on Scripture and textual foundations for their ethical beliefs and practices. Aboriginal ethical values generally emphasize holism, pluralism, autonomy, community- or family-based decision-making, and the maintenance of quality of life rather than the exclusive pursuit of a cure. Most Aboriginal belief systems also emphasize achieving balance and wellness within the domains of human life (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual). Although these bioethical tenets are important to understand and apply, examining specific applications in detail is not as useful as developing a more generalized understanding of how to approach ethical decision-making with Aboriginal people. Aboriginal ethical decisions are often situational and highly dependent on the values of the individual within the context of his or her family and community. PMID:11033715
Ellerby, J H; McKenzie, J; McKay, S; Gariépy, G J; Kaufert, J M
Although philosophies and practices analogous to bioethics exist in Aboriginal cultures, the terms and categorical distinctions of "ethics" and "bioethics" do not generally exist. In this article we address ethical values appropriate to Aboriginal patients, rather than a preconceived "Aboriginal bioethic." Aboriginal beliefs are rooted in the context of oral history and culture. For Aboriginal people, decision-making is best understood as a process and not as the correct interpretation of a unified code. Aboriginal cultures differ from religious and cultural groups that draw on Scripture and textual foundations for their ethical beliefs and practices. Aboriginal ethical values generally emphasize holism, pluralism, autonomy, community- or family-based decision-making, and the maintenance of quality of life rather than the exclusive pursuit of a cure. Most Aboriginal belief systems also emphasize achieving balance and wellness within the domains of human life (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual). Although these bioethical tenets are important to understand and apply, examining specific applications in detail is not as useful as developing a more generalized understanding of how to approach ethical decision-making with Aboriginal people. Aboriginal ethical decisions are often situational and highly dependent on the values of the individual within the context of his or her family and community.
Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary
Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.
Banham, David; Roder, David; Keefe, Dorothy; Farshid, Gelareh; Eckert, Marion; Cargo, Margaret; Brown, Alex
This study tested the utility of retrospectively staging cancer registry data for comparing stage and stage-specific survivals of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Differences by area level factors were also explored. This test dataset comprised 950 Aboriginal cases and all other cases recorded on the South Australian cancer registry with a 1977-2010 diagnosis. A sub-set of 777 Aboriginal cases diagnosed in 1990-2010 were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by year of birth, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site of cancer. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, and geographic attributes with risk of cancer death. Aboriginal cases were 10 years younger at diagnosis, more likely to present in recent diagnostic years, to be resident of remote areas, and have primary cancer sites of head & neck, lung, liver and cervix. Risk of cancer death was associated in the matched analysis with more advanced stage at diagnosis. More Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal cases had distant metastases at diagnosis (31.3% vs 22.0, p<0.001). After adjusting for stage, remote-living Aboriginal residents had higher risks of cancer death than Aboriginal residents of metropolitan areas. Non-Aboriginal cases had the lowest risk of cancer death. Retrospective staging proved to be feasible using registry data. Results indicated more advanced stages for Aboriginal than matched non-Aboriginal cases. Aboriginal people had higher risks of cancer death, which persisted after adjusting for stage, and applied irrespective of remoteness of residence, with highest risk of death occurring among Aboriginal people from remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This is an autoethnographic reflection of teaching Aboriginal art as a non-Aboriginal person. Over a period of ten months, a class of grade seven students was led through an inquiry into Aboriginal art including research and the creation of individual and group art pieces. The evolving curriculum was shaped by considerations of respect for…
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the effects of a PICU hospitalization on critically ill school- age children. Few studies have examined the impact of the PICU experience on children themselves. A convenience sample was recruited of 21 developmentally appropriate children who were aged 7-12 years and had never been hospitalized. Children were asked open-ended questions related to their PICU experience, frequency and effectiveness of coping strategies was measured, and drawings were used to evaluate anxiety. Although not detailed, most children did have some recollection of their PICU stay. People in the PICU (i.e., nurses, physicians) were remembered as good, while feelings the children had (i.e., tired, didn't like it) were described as what was bad about the PICU. Children's coping strategies scores were very low. Most children had an average level of anxiety based on analysis of their drawings. Children's repertoire of coping strategies may be limited by the PICU, especially while intubated. Nurses should never underestimate the effect their behavior and responsiveness has on children. Feasible coping strategies and use of therapeutic play for PICU children should be explored further.
Masten, Ann S.
Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)
Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of
Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke
We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…
Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Lee, Shuko; Plaetke, Rosemarie
Purpose: Sentence completion exercises require students to give open-ended responses to prompts. The first purpose of this article is to describe the method of sentence completion to assess middle-school children's attitudes and beliefs about aging. The second purpose is to describe the patterns of characteristics that children associate with…
Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.
Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…
Ideal measurement of food use in school-aged children possesses validity, reliability, interpretability, and feasibility. The article discusses dietary records and recalls and measures of patterns in food use. Issues to consider when constructing children's food frequency are food list, time intervals, response set, context of questioning, and…
Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…
Kellert, Stephen R.
Reviews a study's findings on children's (N=267) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward animals and natural habitats. Research results indicate that existence of three stages in the development of children's perceptions of animals. Major differences in age, sex, ethnicity and urban/rural residence were also noted. (ML)
Langford, George A.; McCurdy, Kevin W.
It is essential for physical education teachers to utilize a foundation of physiological principles to design and monitor appropriate, safe, and effective exercise for their students. Adult training programs are not appropriate for children. Teachers should consider individual levels of maturation, motor skill ability, and affective needs when…
Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae
This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…
Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan
This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weiler, Hope A; Leslie, William D; Bernstein, Charles N
Canadian Aboriginal women have lower age- and weight-corrected bone mineral density (BMD) and lower vitamin D status than White women. This study was undertaken to describe the differences in biomarkers of bone metabolism and vitamin D in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women and to establish which biomarkers were predictive of BMD. In total, 41 rural Aboriginal, 212 urban Aboriginal and 182 urban White women were studied for BMD of the distal radius, calcaneus, lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and whole body using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum biomarkers measured included calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25(OH)D. Data were analyzed for differences among the three groups stratified by age (25 to 39, 40 to 59 and 60 to 75 y) using factorial ANOVA. Predictors of BMD including ethnicity, age and body weight were identified using step-wise regression. Unadjusted BMD of all sites declined with age regardless of ethnic grouping. Prediction models for 5 of 6 BMD sites included PTH accounting for age and body weight. Other predictors of BMD included OC for the radius and calcaneus; OPG for spine and total hip; and ALP for whole body and calcaneus. Serum 25(OH)D was not included in any model of BMD. After accounting for all variables in the regression equation, an average Aboriginal woman of 46 y and 79 kg was predicted to have 6% lower calcaneus BMD and 3% lower radius BMD compared to a White woman of the same age and weight. In conclusion, PTH is a better predictor of BMD than 25(OH)D in this population of Aboriginal and White women.
Lyyra, Nelli; Välimaa, Raili; Tynjälä, Jorma
The first aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of loneliness and subjective health complaints (SHCs) among school-aged children in Finland. The second aim was to analyse to what extent perceived loneliness explains any variance in SHCs among school-aged children. A representative sample of 5925 Finnish children and adolescents from grades 5 ( M age =11.8 years), 7 ( M age =13.8) and 9 ( M age =15.8) completed the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of health complaints and loneliness. Structural equation modelling was used to test how strongly loneliness was associated with SHCs. The prevalence of loneliness and SHCs was higher among girls and increased with age. Loneliness was a significant predictor of health complaints, especially of psychological symptoms among girls and among ninth grade students. The findings indicate that loneliness is a major risk to the health and well-being of school-aged children. The strong association between loneliness and SHCs highlights the importance of active preventive actions to reduce loneliness.
Walker, Jacqueline L; Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Davies, Peter S W
There is a paucity of data concerning the energy requirements (ERs) of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP), the knowledge of which is essential for early nutritional management. We aimed to determine the ERs for preschool-age children with CP in relation to functional ability, motor type, and distribution and compared with typically developing children (TDC) and published estimation equations. Thirty-two children with CP (63% male) of all functional abilities, motor types, and distributions and 16 TDC (63% male) aged 2.9-4.4 y participated in this study. The doubly labeled water method was used to determine ERs. Statistical analyses were conducted by 1-factor ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests, independent and paired t tests, Bland and Altman analyses, correlations, and multivariable regressions. As a population, children with CP had significantly lower ERs than did TDC (P < 0.05). No significant difference in ERs was found between ambulant children and TDC. Marginally ambulant and nonambulant children had ERs that were ∼18% lower than those of ambulant children and 31% lower than those of TDC. A trend toward lower ERs with greater numbers of limbs involved was observed. The influence of motor type could not be determined statistically. Published equations substantially underestimated ERs in the nonambulant children by ∼22%. In preschool-age children with CP, ERs decreased as ambulatory status declined and more limbs were involved. The greatest predictor of ERs was fat-free mass, then ambulatory status. Future research should build on the information presented to expand the knowledge base regarding ERs in children with CP. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN 12612000686808.
Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data
Banham, David; Chen, Tenglong; Karnon, Jonathan; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John
Objectives To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Setting Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records. Participants Participants included all SA residents in 2005–2006 to 2010–2011. Analysis focused on those individuals experiencing chronic PPH as defined by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Primary outcome measures Number and rates (unadjusted, then adjusted for sex and age) of chronic PPH, total LOS and direct hospital costs by Aboriginality. Results Aboriginal SAs experienced higher risk of index chronic PPH compared with non-Aboriginals (11.5 and 6.2 per 1000 persons per year, respectively) and at younger ages (median age 48 vs 70 years). Once hospitalised, Aboriginal people experienced more chronic PPH events, longer total LOS with higher costs than non-Aboriginal people (2.6 vs 1.9 PPH per person; 11.7 vs 9.0 days LOS; at $A17 928 vs $A11 515, respectively). Compared with population average LOS, the standardised rate ratio of LOS among Aboriginal people increased by 0.03 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.07) as disadvantage rank increased and 1.04 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.44) as remoteness increased. Non-Aboriginal LOS also increased as disadvantage increased but at a lower rate (0.01 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.01)). Costs of Aboriginal chronic PPH increased by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.06) for each increase in disadvantage and 1.18 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.55) for increased remoteness. Non-Aboriginal costs also increased as disadvantage increased but at lower rates (0.01 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.01)). Conclusion Aboriginal people’s heightened risk of chronic PPH resulted in more time in hospital and greater cost. Systematic disparities in chronic PPH by Aboriginality, area disadvantage and
Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data.
Banham, David; Chen, Tenglong; Karnon, Jonathan; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John
To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records. Participants included all SA residents in 2005-2006 to 2010-2011. Analysis focused on those individuals experiencing chronic PPH as defined by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Number and rates (unadjusted, then adjusted for sex and age) of chronic PPH, total LOS and direct hospital costs by Aboriginality. Aboriginal SAs experienced higher risk of index chronic PPH compared with non-Aboriginals (11.5 and 6.2 per 1000 persons per year, respectively) and at younger ages (median age 48 vs 70 years). Once hospitalised, Aboriginal people experienced more chronic PPH events, longer total LOS with higher costs than non-Aboriginal people (2.6 vs 1.9 PPH per person; 11.7 vs 9.0 days LOS; at $A17 928 vs $A11 515, respectively). Compared with population average LOS, the standardised rate ratio of LOS among Aboriginal people increased by 0.03 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.07) as disadvantage rank increased and 1.04 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.44) as remoteness increased. Non-Aboriginal LOS also increased as disadvantage increased but at a lower rate (0.01 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.01)). Costs of Aboriginal chronic PPH increased by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.06) for each increase in disadvantage and 1.18 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.55) for increased remoteness. Non-Aboriginal costs also increased as disadvantage increased but at lower rates (0.01 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.01)). Aboriginal people's heightened risk of chronic PPH resulted in more time in hospital and greater cost. Systematic disparities in chronic PPH by Aboriginality, area disadvantage and remoteness highlight the need for improved uptake of effective primary care. Routine
Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng
Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410) using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996-2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit) births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death. Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively), and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively) relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively) births (all p<0.001). Compared to non-Aboriginal births, preterm birth rates were persistently (1.7-1.8 times) higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7-3.0 times) higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996-2000 and 2006-2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times) in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times) or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times) infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence) attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively), infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively) and postneonatal mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times
Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng
Background Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410) using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996–2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit) births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death. Results Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively), and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively) relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively) births (all p<0.001). Compared to non-Aboriginal births, preterm birth rates were persistently (1.7–1.8 times) higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7–3.0 times) higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996–2000 and 2006–2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times) in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times) or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times) infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence) attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively), infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively) and postneonatal
Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo
In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…
Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Heinzer, Marjorie M; Musil, Carol M; Tsai, Wen-Che
This paper is a report of a secondary data analysis to the hypothesis that a child's resourcefulness moderates the relationships between the primary female caregiver's variables (depressive symptoms and learned resourcefulness) and the child's outcomes (depressive symptoms and adaptive functioning). School-aged children between 10 and 12 years of age are at an important stage of development characterized by dramatic biological and psychosocial challenges. Maladaptive functioning and depressive symptoms increase markedly in this stage. To prevent long-term effects of depressive symptoms and impaired adaptive functioning, identifying moderators of the relationship between stress and these mental health indicators is critical. A secondary analysis was conducted in 2004 using the data obtained in 2000 from a community-based sample of 122 school students aged 10-12 years and their primary female caregivers in four suburban public schools in Northeastern Ohio. Instruments included the Self-Control Schedule, Beck Depression Inventory, the Children's version of the Self-Control Schedule, the Children's Community Living Skills Scale, and the Children's Depression Inventory. Children's resourcefulness significantly moderated the relationship between their female caregiver's depressive symptoms and their own adaptive functioning (P<0.01). Children's resourcefulness had a statistically significant impact on depressive symptoms and adaptive functioning (P<0.001). The key to reducing depressive symptoms and enhancing adaptive functioning among middle school children is to build their resourcefulness skills, especially in children whose female caregivers are depressed. This is an important role for school nurses.
McClowry, Sandra Graham
Maternal reports of child temperament were used to develop temperament profiles of school-age children. The subjects were 883 children who were between 4 and 12 years of age. The children's families varied substantially in their socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. To develop the profiles, the dimensions derived from the School-Age Temperament Inventory were subjected to a second order principal factor analysis with varimax rotation. Pearson chi-squares were used to determine whether sociodemographic variables were proportionally represented among the profiles. Forty-two percent of the children were classified into four temperament profiles. High maintenance and cautious/slow to warm up were deemed as challenging temperaments. Industrious and social/eager to try were mirror images of those profiles and were labeled easy. Some children were both types of challenging or easy profiles. The generalizability of the profiles in relation to the sociodemographic variables of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status was also examined. Challenging temperament profiles were disproportionately represented by boys, Hispanic children, and those from lower socioeconomic families. Girls were over represented in the group that included both types of easy temperaments. Social/eager to try children were more often from higher rather than lower socioeconomic status families. Clinical applications and research implications for the profiles are discussed. The profiles can be used as exemplars that parents can use to recognize their child's temperament. Further research is needed to explore whether different developmental outcomes are associated with the profiles. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA).
Attiguppe, Prabhakar Ramasetty; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Maganti, Rekhamani; Mythri, P
Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of a person, especially in children. Age estimation plays an important part in treatment planning, forensic dentistry, legal issues, and paleodemographic research. The present study was an attempt to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population by using Cameriere's India specific formula. This was a retrospective observational study to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population. A total of 150 panoramic radiographs of patients aged between 6 and 15 years, including both sexes, were selected. Age was calculated by measuring open apices of seven right or left mandibular teeth using Adobe Photoshop software. Statistical analysis was performed to derive a regression equation for estimation of age, which showed that, of the variables X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , X 7 , s, N 0 , the variables N 0 and X 4 were statistically noteworthy. Hence, these two variables were used to derive the linear regression formula: Age = 10.522 + 0.712(N 0 ) - 5.040(X 4 ). The model was found to be statistically significant, F(2, 147) = 207.96, p < 0.001, and accounted for approximately 74% of the variance of age (R 2 = 0.739, adjusted R 2 = 0.735). Cameriere's method can be used for age assessment in children for forensic as well as legal contexts and based on these variables a reliable age estimation equation could be proposed specifically for Davangere population. Attiguppe PR, Yavagal C, Maganti R, Mythri P. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere's Stratagem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):330-334.
Attiguppe, Prabhakar Ramasetty; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Mythri, P
Aim Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of a person, especially in children. Age estimation plays an important part in treatment planning, forensic dentistry, legal issues, and paleodemographic research. The present study was an attempt to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population by using Cameriere’s India specific formula. Materials and methods This was a retrospective observational study to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population. A total of 150 panoramic radiographs of patients aged between 6 and 15 years, including both sexes, were selected. Age was calculated by measuring open apices of seven right or left mandibular teeth using Adobe Photoshop software. Results Statistical analysis was performed to derive a regression equation for estimation of age, which showed that, of the variables X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, s, N0, the variables N0 and X4 were statistically noteworthy. Hence, these two variables were used to derive the linear regression formula: Age = 10.522 + 0.712(N0) - 5.040(X4). The model was found to be statistically significant, F(2, 147) = 207.96, p < 0.001, and accounted for approximately 74% of the variance of age (R2 = 0.739, adjusted R2 = 0.735). Conclusion Cameriere’s method can be used for age assessment in children for forensic as well as legal contexts and based on these variables a reliable age estimation equation could be proposed specifically for Davangere population. How to cite this article Attiguppe PR, Yavagal C, Maganti R, Mythri P. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere’s Stratagem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):330-334. PMID:28127165
Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A
The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.
Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current
Jin, A; Hertzman, C; Peck, S H; Lockitch, G
OBJECTIVES: To determine the blood lead levels in children and to identify risk factors for elevated levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Vancouver. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of children aged 24 to 36 months, born and still resident in Vancouver. The sample was stratified proportionally by the median annual family income in the census tract where each family resided. OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood lead levels and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels, determined from a questionnaire administered to parents. RESULTS: Of the children in the sample, 42% (178/422) were ineligible or could not be located. Of the remaining children, 73% (177/244) participated and adequate blood specimens were obtained from 172. The mean blood lead level was 0.29 mumol/L (standard deviation 0.13 mumol/L). (A blood lead level of 1 mumol/L is equivalent to 20.7 micrograms/dL.) The lowest level was 0.06 mumol/L, and the highest was 0.85 mumol/L. Of children with adequate samples, 8.1% (14/172) had blood lead levels of 0.48 mumol/L or higher, and 0.6% (1/172) had a level higher than 0.72 mumol/L. The logarithms of the levels were normally distributed, with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.26 mumol/L (geometric standard deviation 1.56). Of approximately 70 possible predictors of blood lead levels analysed, those that showed a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with increased blood lead levels were soldering performed in the home as part of an electronics hobby (GM blood lead level 0.34 mumol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27 to 0.39 mumol/L), aboriginal heritage (GM blood lead level 0.33 mumol/L, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.39 mumol/L), dwelling built before 1921 (GM blood lead level 0.32 mumol/L, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.37 mumol/L), age of water service connection to dwelling (predicted blood lead level 0.00087 mumol/L [95% CI 0.00005 to 0.00169 mumol/L] higher per year since service connection) and decreased stature (predicted blood lead level 0.018 mumol/L [95% CI 0.0353 to 0
Kuo, Hsien-Wen; Lai, Li-Hsing; Chou, Sze-Yuan; Wu, Fang-Yang
To investigate the relationship between the blood lead level (BLL) and blood pressure among aborigines and non-aborigines in central Taiwan, a community-based survey that included demographic data, medical history, and blood chemistry analyses was conducted among 2,565 adults during an annual health examination. BLLs were analyzed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). There was a dose response among the non-aborigines (high BLL odds ratio = 2.97, compared with low BLL) but not among aborigines. Based on multiple linear regression models, BLLs were positively correlated with both systolic (an increase of 0.85 mm Hg/microg/dL) and diastolic (an increase of 0.48 mm Hg/microg/dL) blood pressures after adjusting for age, gender, ethnic group, alcohol consumption, and body mass index. BLLs were higher among aborigines than non-aborigines and were significantly correlated with blood pressure, particularly systolic pressure. The association should be considered causal.
Ali, O; Shamsuddin, Z; Khalid, B A
The socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary pattern of 100 Aborigines and Malays, aged 7 years and above from Kuala Pangsoon, Selangor Malaysia were studied by using pretested questionnaires. The individual's dietary intake was estimated using 24 hour recall for 3 days within one week which was chosen at random. The household's food consumption pattern was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires. There was no difference in the total income per month for both communities, as well as the educational attainment of the head of household and property ownership. The proportion of smokers among the Aborigines and the Malays was almost similar (33%) but the percentage of heavy smokers was higher among Aborigines compared to Malays. One third of the Aborigines regularly consume alcohol. The main energy source for both communities was rice, sugar and cooking oil whilst fish and eggs were the main sources of protein. More than 50% of the Aborigines take tapioca or tapioca leaves at least once a week compared to less than 20% among the Malays. There was no significant different in the intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate between the groups. However, the Aborigines take less fats and iron compared to the Malays. The difference in terms of smoking, drinking habit and dietary intake may determine the distribution of disease in both communities.
Wilson, Kathi; Young, T Kue
To examine if Aboriginal health research conducted within the field of social sciences reflects the population and geographic diversity of the Aboriginal population. Review. We searched the Web of Science Social Science Citation Index, the Arts and Humanities Citation Index and Scholars Portal for the time period 1995-2005 using search terms to reflect different names used to refer to Canada's Aboriginal peoples. Citations that did not focus on health or Canada were eliminated. Each paper was coded according to 7 broad categories: Aboriginal identity group; geography; age; health status; health determinants; health services; and methods. Based on the 96 papers reviewed, the results show an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal peoples. Most of the papers are on health status and non-medical determinants of health, with a particular focus on chronic conditions and life-style behaviours. Only 6 papers examined traditional approaches to healing and/or access to traditional healers/medicines. A small number involved the use of community-based research methods. Further research is required to address gaps in the current body of literature. Community-based research studies are necessary to address gaps that are most relevant to Aboriginal peoples.
Lin, Jye-Bin; Lin, Ding-Bang; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Chen, Pao-San; Chen, Wen-Kang
Taiwan was a hyperendemic area for hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV and HBV) infection before late 1980s. To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, C, and E viruses (HCV and HEV) infection among preschool children in Taiwan, a community-based survey was carried out in 54 kindergartens in 10 urban areas, 10 rural areas, and 2 aboriginal areas randomly selected through stratified sampling. Serum specimens of 2,538 preschool children were screened for the hepatitis A, C, and E antibodies by a commercially available enzyme immunoassay and for HBV markers by radioimmunoassay methods. The multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through the multiple logistic regression analysis. Females had a statistically significantly higher HAV seroprevalence than males. The seroprevalence of HCV infection increased significantly with age. The larger the sibship size, the higher the seroprevalence of HBV infection. Aboriginal children had a significantly higher seroprevalence of HBV and HEV infection and lower seroprevalence of HCV infection than non-aboriginal children. A significantly higher seroprevalence of HBV infection was found in rural children than urban children. There was no significant association between serostatus of HAV and HEV infection and between serostatus of HBV and HCV infection among preschool children in Taiwan. The poor environmental and hygienic conditions in the aboriginal areas might play a role in infection with HBV and HEV.
Pollock, Nathaniel J.; Mulay, Shree; Valcour, James
Objectives. To compare suicide rates in Aboriginal communities in Labrador, including Innu, Inuit, and Southern Inuit, with the general population of Newfoundland, Canada. Methods. In partnership with Aboriginal governments, we conducted a population-based study to understand patterns of suicide mortality in Labrador. We analyzed suicide mortality data from 1993 to 2009 from the Vital Statistics Death Database. We combined this with community-based methods, including consultations with Elders, youths, mental health and community workers, primary care clinicians, and government decision-makers. Results. The suicide rate was higher in Labrador than in Newfoundland. This trend persisted across all age groups; however, the disparity was greatest among those aged 10 to 19 years. Males accounted for the majority of deaths, although suicide rates were elevated among females in the Inuit communities. When comparing Aboriginal subregions, the Innu and Inuit communities had the highest age-standardized mortality rates of, respectively, 165.6 and 114.0 suicides per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions. Suicide disproportionately affects Innu and Inuit populations in Labrador. Suicide rates were high among male youths and Inuit females. PMID:27196659
Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Delbaere, Kim; Broe, Gerald A
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dementia in collaboration with urban/regional Aboriginal communities. A census of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women aged 60 years and above in the target communities identified 546 potential participants, with 336 (61.5%) participating in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed a structured interview and cognitive screening tests. One hundred fifty-three participants also completed a detailed medical assessment. Assessment data were reviewed by a panel of clinicians who determined a diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) according to standard criteria. Crude prevalence of dementia was 13.4%, and age-standardized prevalence was 21.0%. The most common types of dementia were Alzheimer's dementia (44%) and mixed dementia diagnoses (29%). Estimated prevalence of MCI was 17.7%. Consistent with previous findings in a remote population, urban and regional Aboriginal Australians face high rates of dementia at younger ages, most commonly Alzheimer's dementia. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poehlmann, Julie; Gerstein, Emily D.; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay; Bolt, Daniel M.; Maleck, Sarah; Schwichtenberg, A.J.
Children born preterm are at risk for experiencing significant deleterious developmental outcomes throughout their childhood and adolescence. However, individual variation and resilience are hallmarks of the preterm population. The present study examined pathways to resilience across multiple domains (e.g. social activities, peer relations, ADHD symptomology, externalizing and internalizing behavior, sleep quality) as children born preterm reached school age. The study also examined early child and family predictors of resilience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 173 infants born preterm and without significant neurological complications were assessed at 5 timepoints: NICU discharge, 9 months, 16 months, 24 months, and 6 years. Three pathways of adaptation emerged at 6 years: children who were resilient, those who remained at-risk, and children who exhibited significant difficulties. Resilient children were less likely to have experienced negative parenting at 9 and 16 months, more likely to delay gratification at 24 months, and more likely to experience neonatal health complications than non-resilient children. PMID:25196017
The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.
Fuehrer, Ann; And Others
The specific purposes of this study were to examine (1) age differences in the sophistication of influence strategies children use to affect parents' consumption decisions, and (2) whether or not parents differentially reinforce such strategies according to the child's age. Data were gathered by observing the interactions of 145 parent-child dyads…
Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara A; Sherrington, Catherine; Close, Jacqueline Ct; Coombes, Julieann; Mitchell, Rebecca J; Moore, Robyn; Ivers, Rebecca
To compare the socio-demographic characteristics and type of injury sustained, the use of hospital resources and rates of hospitalisation by injury type, and survival following fall injuries to older Aboriginal people and non-Indigenous Australian people hospitalised for fall-related injuries. Population-based retrospective cohort data linkage study. Setting, participants: New South Wales residents aged 50 years or more admitted to a public or private NSW hospital for a fall-related injury during 1 January 2003 - 31 December 2012. Proportions of patients with defined injury types, mean hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, age-standardised hospitalisation rates and age-adjusted rate ratios, 28-day re-admission rates. There were 312 758 fall-related injury hospitalisations for 234 979 individuals; 2660 admissions (0.85%) were of Aboriginal people. The proportion of hospitalisations for fall-related fracture injuries was lower for Aboriginal than for non-Indigenous Australians (49% v 60% of fall-related hospitalisations; P < 0.001). The major injury type for Aboriginal patients was non-fracture injury to head or neck (19% of hospitalisations); for non-Indigenous patients it was hip fractures (18%). Age-adjusted LOS was lower for Aboriginal than for non-Indigenous patients (9.1 v 14.0 days; P < 0.001), as was 30-day mortality (2.9% v 4.2%; P < 0.001). For Aboriginal people, fall injury hospitalisations increased at an annual rate of 5.8% (95% CI, 4.0-7.7%; P < 0.001); for non-Indigenous patients, the mean annual increase was 2.5% (95% CI, 2.1-3.0; P < 0.001). The patterns of injury and outcomes of fall injury hospitalisations were different for older Aboriginal people and other older Australians, suggesting that different approaches are required to prevent and treat fall injuries.
Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E
Lifetime risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important yardstick by which policy makers, clinicians and the general public can assess and promote the awareness and prevention of CHD. The lifetime risk in Aboriginal people is not known. Using a cohort with up to 20 years of follow-up, we estimated the lifetime risk of CHD in Aboriginal people. A cohort study. A remote Aboriginal region. 1115 Aboriginal people from one remote tribal group who were free from CHD at baseline were followed for up to 20 years. During the follow-up period, new CHD incident cases were identified through hospital and death records. We estimated the lifetime risks of CHD with and without adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes. Participants were followed up for 17 126 person-years, during which 185 developed CHD and 144 died from non-CHD causes. The average age at which the first CHD event occurred was 48 years for men and 49 years for women. The risk of developing CHD increased with age until 60 years and then decreased with age. Lifetime cumulative risk without adjusting for competing risk was 70.7% for men and 63.8% for women. Adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes, the lifetime risk of CHD was 52.6% for men and 49.2% for women. Lifetime risk of CHD is as high as one in two in both Aboriginal men and women. The average age of having first CHD events was under 50 years, much younger than that reported in non-Aboriginal populations. Our data provide useful knowledge for health education, screening and prevention of CHD in Aboriginal people.
Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex
In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the recommendations in these documents. Published by the
Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex
Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of
The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars) followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars), are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with…
Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally
The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…
Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.
This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The…
Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.
For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from…
Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).
The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…
Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia
The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…
Gallop, Cynthia J.; Bastien, Nicole
For most Aboriginal students in Canada, the term "success" in postsecondary education is more complicated than the mainstream notions of higher socioeconomic status and career advancement. Historically, "success" for Aboriginal peoples in postsecondary education was linked to issues of assimilation, since to be successful meant…
Willis, Sandra M.
At any one time, between 2 percent and 17 percent of the school-age population in the United States experiences moderate to severe depression. Too often, depression goes unrecognized, damaging self-esteem, ruining academic achievement, and disrupting families. This paper discusses childhood depression and treatment. Following an introduction…
Silver, Jim; Mallett, Kathy
This study investigated the educational circumstances of Aboriginal students in inner city high schools in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is based on a literature review and interviews with Aboriginal high school students, Aboriginal school dropouts, adult members of the Aboriginal community, and teachers. Results indicate that there is a…
Gantevoort, Michelle; Hamacher, Duane W.; Lischick, Savannah
The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from these ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors and aurorae held cultural, spiritual and subsistence significance for the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.
Those with self-beliefs in negative aging may desire a stronger support network to buffer against potential threats and may hence see their current network as less than adequate. This study investigated whether negative self-perception of aging is associated with increased dissatisfaction with children's support. Six hundred and forty Chinese older adults with at least one child and a total of 2,108 adult children rated the degree of support received from each child individually and the degree to which it met their expectation. Additionally, the participants responded to measures of self-perception of aging (both positive and negative), neuroticism, instrumental activities of daily living, chronic illnesses, financial strain, and living status. The multilevel dataset was analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Individuals who had a more negative self-perception of aging, who were younger, who lived alone, and who had fewer children provided lower support satisfaction ratings after support received from children was controlled for. Positive self-perception of aging was unrelated to support satisfaction. Neuroticism did not account for the relationship between negative self-perception of aging and support satisfaction. A negative self-perception of aging may create vulnerability to intergenerational tension that puts older people at risk of adverse psychological and physical health outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hamacher, Duane W.
Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.
Sypek, Scott A; Benson, Jill; Spanner, Kate A; Williams, Jan L
Many refugee children arriving in Australia have an inaccurately documented date of birth (DOB). A medical assessment of a child's age is often requested when there is a concern that their documented DOB is incorrect. This study's aim was to assess the accuracy a holistic age assessment tool (AAT) in estimating the age of refugee children newly settled in Australia. A holistic AAT that combines medical and non-medical approaches was used to estimate the ages of 60 refugee children with a known DOB. The tool used four components to assess age: an oral narrative, developmental assessment, anthropometric measures and pubertal assessment. Assessors were blinded to the true age of the child. Correlation coefficients for the actual and estimated age were calculated for the tool overall and individual components. The correlation coefficient between the actual and estimated age from the AAT was very strong at 0.9802 (boys 0.9748, girls 0.9876). The oral narrative component of the tool performed best (R = 0.9603). Overall, 86.7% of age estimates were within 1 year of the true age. The range of differences was -1.43 to 3.92 years with a standard deviation of 0.77 years (9.24 months). The AAT is a holistic, simple and safe instrument that can be used to estimate age in refugee children with results comparable with radiological methods currently used. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. © The Author(s) 2015.
Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0–15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097
... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This...); and 1931(b) and (d) of the Act. (b) Scope. The agency must provide Medicaid to children under age 19...
... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This...); and 1931(b) and (d) of the Act. (b) Scope. The agency must provide Medicaid to children under age 19...
Assessed children's temperament and maternal socialization at age 2-3. Assessed children's conscience at ages 4 and 5 by observing children's cheating behavior in a game. Found that for children fearful as toddlers, maternal gentle discipline promoted conscience at age 5. For children fearless as toddlers, alternative maternal socialization…
Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Payne, Keith; Perrin, Andrew J; Panter, Abigail T; Howard, Janna B; Bardone-Cone, Anna; Bulik, Cynthia M; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M
Assess implicit weight bias in children 9 to 11 years old. Implicit weight bias was measured in children ages 9 to 11 ( N = 114) by using the Affect Misattribution Procedure. Participants were shown a test image of a child for 350 milliseconds followed by a meaningless fractal (200 milliseconds), and then they were asked to rate the fractal image as "good" or "bad." We used 9 image pairs matched on age, race, sex, and activity but differing by weight of the child. Implicit bias was the difference between positive ratings for fractals preceded by an image of a healthy-weight child and positive ratings for fractals preceded by an image of an overweight child. On average, 64% of abstract fractals shown after pictures of healthy-weight children were rated as "good," compared with 59% of those shown after pictures of overweight children, reflecting an overall implicit bias rate of 5.4% against overweight children ( P < .001). Healthy-weight participants showed greater implicit bias than over- and underweight participants (7.9%, 1.4%, and 0.3% respectively; P = .049). Implicit bias toward overweight individuals is evident in children aged 9 to 11 years with a magnitude of implicit bias (5.4%) similar to that in studies of implicit racial bias among adults. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S; Ryff, Carol D; Lachman, Margie E
This study examines the cognitive functioning of parents of children with disabilities, specifically, whether there is an evidence of accelerated cognitive aging among these parents. In addition, the study investigates the moderating influences of two variables: parents' gender and stress from negative parenting experience. The analyses utilize data from the National Survey of Midlife in the United States (2005). The analytic sample consisted of two groups of parents, who completed the cognitive battery, the interview, and the mail-back survey: 128 parents who had children with childhood-onset disabilities and 512 matched comparison parents who had only nondisabled children. Age differences in episodic memory were more pronounced among mothers of children with disabilities than among mothers with nondisabled children, especially among mothers with higher levels of negative parenting experience. In contrast, there were no interaction effects of parenting status, age, and negative parenting experience among fathers. The results show that parenting children with disabilities over a prolonged period of time jeopardizes cognitive function (especially memory) among older mothers, possibly via the mechanism of heightened parenting stress due to higher levels of negative parenting experience. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cremone, Amanda; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Executive attention is impaired following sleep loss in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults. Whether naps improve attention relative to nap deprivation in preschool-aged children is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare executive attention in preschool children following a nap and an interval of wake. Sixty-nine children, 35-70 months of age, completed a Flanker task to assess executive attention following a nap and an equivalent interval of wake. Overall, accuracy was greater after the nap compared with the wake interval. Reaction time(s) did not differ between the nap and wake intervals. Results did not differ between children who napped consistently and those who napped inconsistently, suggesting that naps benefit executive attention of preschoolers regardless of nap habituality. These results indicate that naps enhance attention in preschool children. As executive attention supports executive functioning and learning, nap promotion may improve early education outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Guest, C S; O'Dea, K
As part of a study of risk factors for glucose intolerance and heart disease in Australian Aborigines and persons of European descent, we elicited the prevalence of food habits that may be associated with high fat and high salt intakes. Interview data were gathered from population-based samples in country towns and visitors to an Aboriginal health service in a state capital city, all in southeastern Australia. Among persons aged 13 years and over, the frequency of eating takeaway food as a meal was categorised as monthly or less, weekly, more than once per week, and daily or more often. The prevalence of eating such meals was higher among city Aborigines than those living in the country town; the prevalence was lowest among the country-town Europeans (chi 2 = 184, 6 df, P < 0.001). The prevalence of adding salt during cooking and food consumption was higher among Aborigines compared with Europeans. Among country-town Aboriginal males aged 35 or under, 25 of 40 (63 per cent) added salt to cooked food 'most of the time', compared with 66 of 185 (36 per cent) Europeans (chi 2 = 9.8, P = 0.002). Among Aboriginal females, 47 of 64 (64 per cent) were in the highest category of salt use, compared with 35 of 190 (18 per cent) of Europeans (chi 2 = 66.3, P < 0.001). About one-third of country-town Aboriginal males used dripping to fry food, but in the other ethnicity, gender and location groups, vegetable oil was the most frequent choice. The main differences in food habits were associated with ethnicity, rather than location.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Bradshaw, Pamela J; Alfonso, Helman S; Finn, Judith C; Owen, Julie; Thompson, Peter L
To determine the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in an urban Aboriginal population. Cohort study of 906 Aboriginal people without CHD from 998 who had undergone risk-factor assessment in the Perth Aboriginal Atherosclerosis Risk Study (PAARS) in 1998-1999. PAARS cohort data were electronically linked to a range of databases that included Western Australian hospital morbidity data and death registry data. We analysed data from January 1980 to December 2006 to identify previous admissions for CHD from 1980 to baseline (1998-1999) and new events from baseline to 2006. First CHD event (hospital admission or death). There were 891 linked records for the 906 participants without previous CHD. The event rate was 12.6/1000 person-years (95% CI, 10.2-15.6/1000 person-years). Annual CHD event rates ranged from 8 to 18/1000 person-years. After adjustment for age (sex was not associated with the risk factors assessed), factors associated with risk of a CHD event in the PAARS cohort were a history of diabetes, overweight or obesity (indicated by body mass index), smoking, and hypertension, but not waist circumference. People with these risk factors were 1.9-2.7 times more likely to experience a CHD event. Compared with previously published information from a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory, the incidence of CHD events among urban-dwelling Aboriginal people was not significantly different (P > 0.05 overall and for subgroups defined by age and sex). City-dwelling Aboriginal Australians have an incidence of CHD events comparable to that of Aboriginal people living in remote northern Australia.
Macha, Madhulika; Lamba, Bharti; Muthineni, Sridhar; Margana, Pratap Gowd Jai Shankar; Chitoori, Prasad
Introduction In the modern era, identification and determination of age is imperative for diversity of reasons that include disputed birth records, premature delivery, legal issues and for validation of birth certificate for school admissions, adoption, marriage, job and immigration. Several growth assessment parameters like bone age, dental age and the combination of both have been applied for different population with variable outcomes. It has been well documented that the chronological age does not necessarily correlate with the maturational status of a child. Hence, efforts were made to determine a child’s developmental age by using dental age (calcification of teeth) and skeletal age (skeletal maturation). Aim The present study was aimed to correlate the chronological age, dental age and skeletal age in children from Southeastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods Out of the total 900 screened children, only 100 subjects between age groups of 6-14 years with a mean age of 11.3±2.63 for males and 10.77±2.24 for females were selected for the study. Dental age was calculated by Demirjian method and skeletal age by modified Middle Phalanx of left hand third finger (MP3) method. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation tests were done to estimate the correlation between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among study population. Results There was a significant positive correlation between chronological age, dental age and all stages of MP3 among males. Similar results were observed in females, except for a non-significant moderate correlation between chronological age and dental age in the H stage of the MP3 region. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed correlation with statistical significance (p<0.05) between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among all the subjects (48 males and 52 females) and females attained maturity earlier than males in the present study population. PMID:29207822
Macha, Madhulika; Lamba, Bharti; Avula, Jogendra Sai Sankar; Muthineni, Sridhar; Margana, Pratap Gowd Jai Shankar; Chitoori, Prasad
In the modern era, identification and determination of age is imperative for diversity of reasons that include disputed birth records, premature delivery, legal issues and for validation of birth certificate for school admissions, adoption, marriage, job and immigration. Several growth assessment parameters like bone age, dental age and the combination of both have been applied for different population with variable outcomes. It has been well documented that the chronological age does not necessarily correlate with the maturational status of a child. Hence, efforts were made to determine a child's developmental age by using dental age (calcification of teeth) and skeletal age (skeletal maturation). The present study was aimed to correlate the chronological age, dental age and skeletal age in children from Southeastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Out of the total 900 screened children, only 100 subjects between age groups of 6-14 years with a mean age of 11.3±2.63 for males and 10.77±2.24 for females were selected for the study. Dental age was calculated by Demirjian method and skeletal age by modified Middle Phalanx of left hand third finger (MP3) method. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests were done to estimate the correlation between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among study population. There was a significant positive correlation between chronological age, dental age and all stages of MP3 among males. Similar results were observed in females, except for a non-significant moderate correlation between chronological age and dental age in the H stage of the MP3 region. The results of the present study revealed correlation with statistical significance (p<0.05) between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among all the subjects (48 males and 52 females) and females attained maturity earlier than males in the present study population.
Yurt, Yasin; Sener, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz
Unsuitable footwear worn in childhood may cause some foot problems by interfering normal development of foot. To compare footwear suitability rate of indoor and outdoor footwear at all points in preschool children and investigate factors which could affect footwear suitability. A cross-sectional survey study. A total of 1000 healthy preschool children (4-6 years old) participated in this study. Indoor and outdoor footwear of children were evaluated through Turkish version of Footwear Assessment Score. Effect of factors like age, sex, number of siblings, educational and occupational situation of parents, and behavior of school management about selecting footwear was investigated. Children got better footwear score for outdoor than indoor ones (p < 0.001). Boys got statistically better footwear score for both indoor and outdoor ones than girls (p < 0.001). Also significant difference in footwear score was found in favor of children who were going to schools that gave guidance about selecting footwear for both indoor and outdoor in comparison to children going to other schools (p < 0.001). For healthy foot development, parents need an education about suitable footwear for their children. Performing education programs and investigation of their effect with comprehensive follow-up studies in future is essential. This study reflects footwear habits of Turkish preschool children and factors affecting this issue. Results may give way to education programs about suitable footwear worn in childhood for healthy foot development. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.
Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria
To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are < 1 cm/year. Head circumference increments decrease in increasing age of the children. In girls, adult head circumference is reached at the age of 16 years, whereas head circumference growth continues, in boys, slowly until 18 years. The comparison of Romanian head percentiles with those from Belgium and Germany revealed a smaller head circumference in Romanian children (both girls and boys). Comparing head circumference references from Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.
Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill
Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Sarah E.; Whitaker, Robert C.
Objective Insecure attachment is associated with unhealthy physiologic and behavioral responses to stress, which could lead to the development of obesity. We estimated the association between children’s attachment security at 24 months of age and risk for obesity at 4.5 years of age. Design Cohort study. Setting National sample of US children born in 2001. Participants Children and mothers participating in the 2003 and 2005-2006 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Our analytic sample included 6650 children (76% of children assessed at both waves). Main Exposure Attachment security at 24 months was assessed by trained interviewers following observation in the child’s home. Insecure attachment was defined as lowest quartile of attachment security, based on the security score from the Toddler Attachment Sort. Outcome Measure Obesity at 4.5 years of age (sex-specific BMI ≥95th percentile for age). Results The prevalence of obesity was 23.1% in children with insecure attachment and 16.6% in those with secure attachment. For children with insecure attachment, the odds (95% confidence interval) of obesity was 1.30 (1.05, 1.62) times higher than for children with secure attachment, after controlling for the quality of mother-child interaction during play, parenting practices related to obesity, maternal body mass index, and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions Insecure attachment in early childhood may be a previously unrecognized risk factor for obesity. Interventions to increase children’s attachment security should also examine impacts on children’s weight. PMID:21383273
Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope
Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…
Gordon, Megan; Hodson, John; Kitchen, Julian
Recent Ontario provincial and federal education policy developments propose to increase the academic success of an ever increasing number of First Nation children attending urban and First Nation schools. Key to achieving that goal is increasing the number of Aboriginal educators who are skilled in teaching that is grounded in culturally…
The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…
Thurber, Katherine; Burgess, Leonie; Falster, Kathleen; Banks, Emily; Möller, Holger; Ivers, Rebecca; Cowell, Chris; Isaac, Vivian; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Woodall, Cheryl; Clapham, Kathleen
Despite being disproportionately affected by injury, little is known about factors associated with injury in Aboriginal children. We investigated factors associated with injury among urban Aboriginal children attending four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales, Australia. We examined characteristics of caregiver-reported child injury, and calculated prevalence ratios of 'ever-injury' by child, family, and environmental factors. Among children in the cohort, 29% (n=373/1,303) had ever broken a bone, been knocked out, required stitches or been hospitalised for a burn or poisoning; 40-78% of first injuries occurred at home and 60-91% were treated in hospital. Reported ever-injury was significantly lower (prevalence ratio ≤0.80) among children who were female, younger, whose caregiver had low psychological distress and had not been imprisoned, whose family experienced few major life events, and who hadn't experienced alcohol misuse in the household or theft in the community, compared to other cohort members. In this urban Aboriginal child cohort, injury was common and associated with measures of family and community vulnerability. Implications for public health: Prevention efforts targeting upstream injury determinants and Aboriginal children living in vulnerable families may reduce child injury. Existing broad-based intervention programs for vulnerable families may present opportunities to deliver targeted injury prevention. © 2017 The Authors.
Juonala, Markus; Singh, Gurmeet R; Davison, Belinda; van Schilfgaarde, Katherine; Skilton, Michael R; Sabin, Matthew A; Cheung, Michael; Sayers, Susan; Burgner, David P
We evaluated whether atherosclerotic changes associated with MetS in Australian Aboriginals are reversible in childhood. In addition, we investigated whether heightened inflammation is mediating the adverse effects of MetS. The study cohort comprised of 351 children from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort Study (a longitudinal study based in the Northern Territory of Australia) aged 9-13 years at baseline examination who were followed up 6 years later. MetS was defined by at least three of the following parameters within the extreme sex- and age-specific quartile: highest quartile for waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, and glucose, and lowest quartile for HDL-cholesterol. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed at follow-up. Individuals with MetS at baseline or follow-up had increased carotid IMT at follow-up (mean ± SEM 539 ± 3 vs. 561 ± 8 μm, P=0.007; and 537 ± 3 vs. 567 ± 8 μm, P<0.0001 respectively). In combined analyses from baseline and follow-up studies, those individuals with MetS only at baseline had partially improved vascular status; their IMT was not significantly increased compared to those without MetS at both time-points (534 ± 3 vs. 550 ± 10 μm, P=0.09). At the follow-up examination, MetS status was associated with increased IMT levels only among individuals with CRP levels above the median (≥ 2.1mg/l) (536 ± 5 vs. 573 ± 9 μm, P<0.0001, P for interaction 0.01). MetS in childhood is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in an Australian Aboriginal population and the effects appear to be mediated by increased inflammation. The extent of atherosclerosis was partially reduced if metabolic status improved during the follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daymont, Carrie; Bonafide, Christopher P; Brady, Patrick W
Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient's severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients <18 years of age at 2 large freestanding children's hospitals from July 2011 to June 2012. We selected up to 10 HR-temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. We used 60,863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼ 10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A
Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Sheftall, Arielle H.; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Campo, John V.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide in elementary school–aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school–aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. METHODS: We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5–11 years and 12–14 years) were conducted by using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. RESULTS: Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school–aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. PMID:27647716
Shen, Yu-Tang; Radford, Kylie; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Broe, Tony G. A.; Draper, Brian
Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%), current late-life depression (18.1%), and suicidal ideation (11.1%). Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies. PMID:29510527
Background Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas. Methods Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression and general health were all considered as outcomes with self-reported racism as the exposure, adjusting for a range of relevant confounders. Results Racism was reported by a high proportion (52.3%) of participants in this study. Self-reported racism was significantly associated with poor overall mental health (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.70, p = 0.01) and poor general health (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, p = 0.04), and marginally associated with increased depression (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.97-4.09, p = 0.06) in the multivariate models. Number of worries and number of friends were both found to be effect modifiers for the association between self-reported racism and overall mental health. Getting angry at racist remarks was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported racism and general health. Conclusions This study highlights the need to acknowledge and address racism as an important determinant of health and wellbeing for Aboriginal young people in urban areas of Australia. PMID:21756369
Shen, Yu-Tang; Radford, Kylie; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Broe, Tony G A; Draper, Brian
Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%), current late-life depression (18.1%), and suicidal ideation (11.1%). Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.
Iwasaki, Yoshi; Bartlett, Judith; O'Neil, John
In this study, a series of focus groups were conducted to gain an understanding of the nature of stress among Canadian Aboriginal women and men living with diabetes. Specifically, attention was given to the meanings Aboriginal peoples with diabetes attach to their lived experiences of stress, and the major sources or causes of stress in their lives. The key common themes identified are concerned not only with health-related issues (i.e. physical stress of managing diabetes, psychological stress of managing diabetes, fears about the future, suffering the complications of diabetes, and financial aspects of living with diabetes), but also with marginal economic conditions (e.g. poverty, unemployment); trauma and violence (e.g. abuse, murder, suicide, missing children, bereavement); and cultural, historical, and political aspects linked to the identity of being Aboriginal (e.g. 'deep-rooted racism', identity problems). These themes are, in fact, acknowledged not as mutually exclusive, but as intertwined. Furthermore, the findings suggest that it is important to give attention to diversity in the Aboriginal population. Specifically, Métis-specific stressors, as well as female-specific stressors, were identified. An understanding of stress experienced by Aboriginal women and men with diabetes has important implications for policy and programme planning to help eliminate or reduce at-risk stress factors, prevent stress-related illnesses, and enhance their health and life quality.
Taylor, Griffin Lijding
Modifications to speech production made by adult talkers in response to instructions to speak clearly have been well documented in the literature. Targeting adult populations has been motivated by efforts to improve speech production for the benefit of the communication partners, however, many adults also have communication partners who are children. Surprisingly, there is limited literature on whether children can change their speech production when cued to speak clearly. Pettinato, Tuomainen, Granlund, and Hazan (2016) showed that by age 12, children exhibited enlarged vowel space areas and reduced articulation rate when prompted to speak clearly, but did not produce any other adult-like clear speech modifications in connected speech. Moreover, Syrett and Kawahara (2013) suggested that preschoolers produced longer and more intense vowels when prompted to speak clearly at the word level. These findings contrasted with adult talkers who show significant temporal and spectral differences between speech produced in control and clear speech conditions. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to analyze changes in temporal and spectral characteristics of speech production that children aged 6-10 made in these experimental conditions. It is important to elucidate the clear speech profile of this population to better understand which adult-like clear speech modifications they make spontaneously and which modifications are still developing. Understanding these baselines will advance future studies that measure the impact of more explicit instructions and children's abilities to better accommodate their interlocutors, which is a critical component of children's pragmatic and speech-motor development.
Brown, Courtney M.; Copeland, Kristen A.; Sucharew, Heidi; Kahn, Robert S.
Objectives To estimate the prevalence of positive screens for social-emotional problems among preschool-aged children in a low-income clinical population and to explore the family context and receptivity to referrals to help guide development of interventions. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Setting Two urban primary care clinics. Participants A total of 254 parents of 3- and 4-year-old children at 2 urban primary care clinics. Main Outcome Measures Score on a standardized screen for social-emotional problems (Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional) and answers to additional survey questions about child care arrangements, parental depressive symptoms, and attitudes toward preschool and behavioral health referrals. Results Twenty-four percent (95% CI, 16.5%-31.5%) of children screened positive for social-emotional problems. Among those screening positive, 45% had a parent with depressive symptoms, and 27% had no nonparental child care. Among parents of children who screened positive for social-emotional problems, 79% reported they would welcome or would not mind a referral to a counselor or psychologist; only 16% reported a prior referral. Conclusions In a clinical sample, 1 in 4 low-income preschool-aged children screened positive for social-emotional problems, and most parents were amenable to referrals to preschool or early childhood mental health. This represents an opportunity for improvement in primary prevention and early intervention for social-emotional problems. PMID:22926145
Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C
Nordic children's health has declined. Studies show that parents' engagement in children's leisure-time activities might provide beneficial health outcomes for children. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Swedish parents' activities together with their children, the parents' experiences of time pressure and their children's health. Data of 1461 Swedish children aged 2-17 years old that were collected in the NordChild study of 2011 were used. We analyzed physical health, diseases and disabilities, psychosomatic health and well-being, and the parents' experiences of time pressure; and we calculated the associations between parental activity together with the child and health indicators. Activities that were significantly and positively associated with children's health at ages 2-17 years of age were: playing and playing games; going to the cinema, theatre, and sporting events; reading books; playing musical instruments/singing; sports activities; watching TV/video/DVD. Playing video games or computer games, driving child to activities and going for walks were significantly and positively associated at age groups 7-12 years and 13-17 years. Activities that were negatively associated with health were: surfing/blogging on the Internet, going shopping and doing homework. Parents who were not experiencing time pressures had a higher level of activity together with their children. The parental experience of time pressure was associated with work time, with less homework activity and more symptoms in children. The family and home are important settings for the development of children's health we found eight parental activities together with their children that promoted the children's health parents' working time and their time pressure experiences affected their activities with their children there is a need for an increased focus on parental activities that are positively associated with children's health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of
Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz
This study was positioned within a larger action research study relating to a peer-led Aboriginal home visiting parent support program in an urban Western Australian setting. The aims for this study component were to identify program elements, exploring participants' perceptions of the program's suitability, feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness to inform program model recommendations and add to the body of knowledge on effective Aboriginal peer-led program models. The ability of Aboriginal parents to develop positive family environments is crucial, with parent support needing to be reflexive to local needs and sociocultural influences. Culturally appropriate service provision needs meaningful and acceptable strategies. This study was situated within a critical paradigm supporting Participatory Action Research methodology, using Action Learning Sets as the participant engagement and data collection setting. Within ten Action Learning Sets, focus group interviews were carried out with Aboriginal peer support workers, a non-Aboriginal parent support worker, an Aboriginal program coordinator, an Aboriginal education support officer and non-Aboriginal program managers (n = 8), and individual interviews with parents (n = 2) and community agencies (n = 4). Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes were derived from peer support worker and community agency cohorts: peer support worker home visiting skills; responding to impacts of social determinants of health; client support and engagement; interagency collaboration; and issues addressing program sustainability. Parent responses augmented these themes. Participants identified five key elements relating to peer-led home visiting support for Aboriginal parents. These are uniquely placed to inform ongoing program development as there is little additional evidence in wider national and international contexts. Engagement with communities and peer support workers to develop culturally relevant
Stracciolini, Andrea; Casciano, Rebecca; Levey Friedman, Hilary; Meehan, William P; Micheli, Lyle J
Significant knowledge deficits exist regarding sports injuries in the young child. Children continue to engage in physically demanding, organized sports to a greater extent despite the lack of physical readiness, predisposing themselves to injury. To evaluate sports injuries sustained in very young children (5-12 years) versus their older counterparts (13-17 years) with regard to the type and location of injuries, severity, and diagnosis. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review was performed on a 5% random probability sample (final N = 2133) of 5- to 17-year-old patients treated for sports injuries in the Division of Sports Medicine at a large, academic pediatric medical center between 2000 and 2009. Using descriptive statistics, correlates of injuries by age group, injury type, and body area are shown. Five- to 12-year-old patients differed in key ways from older patients. Children in this category sustained injuries that were more often traumatic in nature and more commonly of the upper extremity. Older patients (13-17 years) were more likely to be treated for injuries to the chest, hip/pelvis, and spine. A greater proportion of the older children were treated for overuse injuries, as compared with their younger counterparts (54.4% vs. 49.2%, respectively), and a much larger proportion of these injuries were classified as soft tissue injuries as opposed to bony injuries (37.9% vs. 26.1%, respectively). Injury diagnosis differed between the 2 age groups. The 13- to 17-year age group sustained more anterior cruciate ligament injuries, meniscal tears, and spondylolysis, while younger children were diagnosed with fractures, including physeal fractures, apophysitis, and osteochondritis dissecans. The 5- to 12-year-old patients treated for spine injuries were disproportionately female (75.8%); most of these injuries were overuse (78.8%) and bony (60.6%); over one third of the youngest children were diagnosed with spondylolysis. Surgery
Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana
The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…
Shen, Yih-Jiun; Sink, Christopher A.
This article addresses the effects of disasters on elementary-age children and their needs for mental health. Suggests possible school-based interventions and provides a case study of a traumatized first-grader, demonstrating how child- centered play therapy can be used in school settings. (Contains 57 references.) (GCP)
A review of annual survey data revealed that hearing impaired children under age 6 reported in 1984, when compared to those reported in 1977, tended to be younger; had higher percentages of heredity, meningitis, and prematurity as causes of hearing loss; and were more likely to have additional handicaps. (CL)
Kearns, Devin M.
Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…
DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly
This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…
Zuckerman, Miron; Przewuzman, Sylvia J.
Preschool-age children drew, decoded, and encoded facial expressions depicting five different emotions. Accuracy of drawing, decoding and encoding each of the five emotions was consistent across the three tasks; decoding ability was correlated with drawing ability among female subjects, but neither of these abilities was correlated with encoding…
Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir
The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…
Pierskalla, Carol S.
This paper describes a program providing support, education, and skill-building within a self-help format for the children of aged parents. The selection of the 18 initial program members, each with relatives living either in their homes, in a nearby location, or in nursing homes is reviewed. The 90-minute group sessions which met weekly for 8…
Smith-Davis, Judy; Littlejohn, William R.
This theme issue provides an overview of related services for school aged children with disabilities as required by federal law, especially the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It identifies the personnel associated with delivering various services including audiology, occupational…
Holmes, Jonathan M.; Lazar, Elizabeth L.; Melia, B. Michele; Astle, William F.; Dagi, Linda R.; Donahue, Sean P.; Frazier, Marcela G.; Hertle, Richard W.; Repka, Michael X.; Quinn, Graham E.; Weise, Katherine K.
Objective To determine whether age at initiation of amblyopia treatment influences the response among children 3 to <13 years of age with unilateral amblyopia 20/40 to 20/400. Methods A meta-analysis of individual subject data from 4 recently completed randomized amblyopia treatment trials was performed to evaluate the relationship between age and improvement in logMAR amblyopic eye visual acuity. Analyses were adjusted for baseline amblyopic eye visual acuity, spherical equivalent refractive error in the amblyopic eye, type of amblyopia, prior amblyopia treatment, study treatment, and protocol. Age was categorized (3 to <5 years, 5 to <7 years, and 7 to <13 years) because there was a non-linear relationship between age and improvement in amblyopic eye acuity. Results Subjects 7 to <13 years were significantly less responsive to treatment compared with younger age groups (3 to <5 years, 5 to <7 years) for moderate and severe amblyopia (P<0.04 for all four comparisons). There was no difference in treatment response between subjects age 3 to <5 years and 5 to <7 years for moderate amblyopia (P=0.67), but there was a suggestion of greater responsiveness of 3- to <5-year olds compared with 5- to <7-year olds for severe amblyopia (P=0.09). Conclusions Amblyopia is more responsive to treatment among children younger than age 7 years. Although the average treatment response is smaller in 7- to <13-year olds, some individuals show a marked response to treatment. PMID:21746970
Bonafide, Christopher P.; Brady, Patrick W.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient’s severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. METHODS: Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients <18 years of age at 2 large freestanding children’s hospitals from July 2011 to June 2012. We selected up to 10 HR-temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. RESULTS: We used 60 863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. PMID:25917984
van der Waerden, Judith; Galéra, Cédric; Larroque, Béatrice; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Melchior, Maria
To assess the relationship between trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to the child's age of 5 years and children's emotional and behavioral difficulties at age 5 years. Mother-child pairs (n = 1183) from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Children's behavior at age 5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Maternal depression was assessed repeatedly with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire (pregnancy, 3, and 5 years of age) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (4, 8, and 12 months postpartum). Homogeneous latent trajectory groups of maternal depression were identified within the study population and correlated with Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores by the use of multivariate linear regression analyzes. Five trajectories of maternal symptoms of depression were identified: no symptoms (62.0%); persistent intermediate-level depressive symptoms (25.3%); persistent high depressive symptoms (4.6%); high symptoms in pregnancy only (3.6%); and high symptoms in the child's preschool period only (4.6%). Children whose mothers had persistent depressive symptoms--either intermediate or high--had the greatest levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at age 5 years. In addition, compared with children whose mothers were never depressed, those whose mothers had high symptoms in the preschool period also had increased levels of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems. Maternal depression symptoms are related to children's emotional and behavioral problems, particularly if they are persistent (29.9%) or occur during early childhood (4.6%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Taylor, Duncan; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; Turkalov, Rust; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, Robert J
Understanding the origins of Aboriginal Australians is crucial in reconstructing the evolution and spread of Homo sapiens as evidence suggests they represent the descendants of the earliest group to leave Africa. This study analyzed a large sample of Y-chromosomes to answer questions relating to the migration routes of their ancestors, the age of Y-haplogroups, date of colonization, as well as the extent of male-specific variation. Knowledge of Y-chromosome variation among Aboriginal Australians is extremely limited. This study examined Y-SNP and Y-STR variation among 657 self-declared Aboriginal males from locations across the continent. 17 Y-STR loci and 47 Y-SNPs spanning the Y-chromosome phylogeny were typed in total. The proportion of non-indigenous Y-chromosomes of assumed Eurasian origin was high, at 56%. Y lineages of indigenous Sahul origin belonged to haplogroups C-M130*(xM8,M38,M217,M347) (1%), C-M347 (19%), K-M526*(xM147,P308,P79,P261,P256,M231,M175,M45,P202) (12%), S-P308 (12%), and M-M186 (0.9%). Haplogroups C-M347, K-M526*, and S-P308 are Aboriginal Australian-specific. Dating of C-M347, K-M526*, and S-P308 indicates that all are at least 40,000 years old, confirming their long-term presence in Australia. Haplogroup C-M347 comprised at least three sub-haplogroups: C-DYS390.1del, C-M210, and the unresolved paragroup C-M347*(xDYS390.1del,M210). There was some geographic structure to the Y-haplogroup variation, but most haplogroups were present throughout Australia. The age of the Australian-specific Y-haplogroups suggests New Guineans and Aboriginal Australians have been isolated for over 30,000 years, supporting findings based on mitochondrial DNA data. Our data support the hypothesis of more than one route (via New Guinea) for males entering Sahul some 50,000 years ago and give no support for colonization events during the Holocene, from either India or elsewhere. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Smith, Tyler J; Lindsey, Rebecca A; Bohora, Som; Silovsky, Jane F
Intrusive sexual behaviors (ISBs) are a specific type of problematic sexual behavior characterized by the invasive nature of the acts (e.g., touching others' private parts, attempting intercourse; Friedrich, 1997). The limited amount of research on ISBs has focused on sexual abuse history as the primary predictor. However, Friedrich, Davies, Feher, and Wright (2003) found that ISBs in children up to age 12 were related to four broad conceptual factors: (a) exposure to sexual content, (b) exposure to violent behavior, (c) family adversity, and (d) child vulnerabilities. The current study sought to replicate Friedrich's study using a clinical sample of 217 preschool-aged children (ages two to six). Results supported variables from within the child vulnerabilities construct (externalizing behaviors, β EXT = 0.032, p = 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria met (β PTSD = 0.177, p = 0.02), and an inverse relationship with age (β AGE = -0.206, p = 0.024). These results highlight the importance of considering childhood behavioral patterns and reactivity to traumatic events as correlates of ISBs in young children.
Sylvestre, Audette; Brisson, Jacinthe; Lepage, Céline; Nadeau, Line; Deaudelin, Isabelle
Two objectives are being pursued: (1) to describe the level of social participation of children aged 8-12 presenting a specific language impairment (SLI) and (2) to identify personal and family factors associated with their level of social participation. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 29 children with SLI and one of their parents. Parental stress and family adversity were measured as risk factors. The measure of life habits (LIFE-H) adapted to children aged 5-3 was used to measure social participation. The assumption that social participation of these children is impaired in relation to the communication dimension was generally confirmed. The statements referring to the "communication in the community" and "written communication" are those for which the results are weaker. "Communication at home" is made easier albeit with some difficulties, while "telecommunication" is totally preserved. A high level of parental stress is also confirmed, affecting the willingness of parents to support their child's autonomy. The achievement of a normal lifestyle of children with SLI is upset in many spheres of life. Methods of intervention must better reflect the needs and realities experienced by these children in their various living environments, in order to optimize social participation, and consequently, to improve their well-being and that of their families. The need to develop strategies to develop children's independence and to reduce parental stress must be recognized and all stakeholders need to be engaged in the resolution of this challenge. The realization of life habits of SLI children is compromised at various levels, especially in the domain related to "communication in the community" and "written communication". Speech-language pathologists must consider providing ongoing support throughout the primary years of these children and during adolescence, to promote and facilitate the continued realization of life habits of SLI persons. Providing ongoing
Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H
Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide
Liu, Jennifer A
Notions of identity in Taiwan are configured in relation to numbers. I examine the polyvalent capacities of enumerative technologies in both the production of ethnic identities and claims to political representation and justice. By critically historicizing the manner in which Aborigines in Taiwan have been, and continue to be, constructed as objects and subjects of scientific knowledge production through technologies of measuring, I examine the genetic claim made by some Taiwanese to be "fractionally" Aboriginal. Numbers and techniques of measuring are used ostensibly to know the Aborigines, but they are also used to construct a genetically unique Taiwanese identity and to incorporate the Aborigines within projects of democratic governance. Technologies of enumeration thus serve within multiple, and sometimes contradictory, projects of representation and knowledge production.
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…
Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed.
Brossard-Racine, Marie; Hall, Nick; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael I; Law, Mary; Poulin, Chantal; Rosenbaum, Peter
Although behavioural problems are frequent in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), the exact nature of these difficulties and their relationship with intrinsic or extrinsic factors are just beginning to be explored. To describe and characterize behavioural problems in children with CP and to determine the nature of any relationships with child and family characteristics. In this cross-sectional study, children with CP between 6 and 12 years of age were recruited. Children were assessed using the Leiter Intelligence Test, the Gross Motor Function Measure, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and questionnaires on demographic factors. Parents' level of stress was measured with the Parenting Stress Index. Seventy-six parents completed the SDQ. Using the Total Difficulties Scores, 39.4% of the sample scored in the borderline to clinically abnormal range. Peer problems were the most common (55.3%). High parental stress was consistently associated with behavioural difficulties across all domains of the SDQ. Not surprisingly, better socialization skills and a lower parental stress were correlated with more positive behaviours. Behavioural difficulties are common in children with CP and appear not to be associated with socio-demographic variables and physical and cognitive characteristics. These difficulties are an important correlate of parental distress. This study emphasizes the need to recognize and address behavioural difficulties that may arise so as to optimize the health and well-being of children with CP and their families. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel
Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.
Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske
The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.
Patel, J; Hearn, L; Slack-Smith, L M
Aboriginal Australians face significant disparities in oral health and this is particularly the case in remote communities where access to dental services can be difficult. Using volunteers to provide dental care in the remote Kimberley region of Western Australia is a novel approach. This study comprised an anonymous online survey of volunteers working with the Kimberley Dental Team (KDT). The survey had a response fraction of 66% and explored volunteer demographic characteristics, factors that motivated their involvement, perceptions of oral health among Aboriginal communities, and barriers and enablers to oral health in remote Aboriginal communities. Volunteers were more likely to be female, middle-aged and engaged in full-time employment. The two most common reasons reported for volunteering were to assist the community and visit the Kimberley region. Education and access to reliable, culturally appropriate care were perceived as enablers to good oral health for Aboriginal people in the Kimberley while limited access to services, poor nutrition and lack of government support were cited as barriers. Volunteers providing dental services to remote areas in Western Australia had a diverse demographic profile. However, they share similar motivating factors and views on the current barriers and enablers to good oral health in remote Aboriginal communities. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie
To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.
Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.
Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…
Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.
This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…
Chacon, Antonia; Parkin, Melissa; Broome, Kate; Purcell, Alison
Children with cleft palate demonstrate atypical speech sound development, which can influence their intelligibility, literacy and learning. There is limited documentation regarding how speech sound errors change over time in cleft palate speech and the effect that these errors have upon mono-versus polysyllabic word production. The objective of this study was to examine the phonetic and phonological speech skills of children with cleft palate at ages 3 and 5. A cross-sectional observational design was used. Eligible participants were aged 3 or 5 years with a repaired cleft palate. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) Articulation subtest and a non-standardised list of mono- and polysyllabic words were administered once for each child. The Profile of Phonology (PROPH) was used to analyse each child's speech. N = 51 children with cleft palate participated in the study. Three-year-old children with cleft palate produced significantly more speech errors than their typically-developing peers, but no difference was apparent at 5 years. The 5-year-olds demonstrated greater phonetic and phonological accuracy than the 3-year-old children. Polysyllabic words were more affected by errors than monosyllables in the 3-year-old group only. Children with cleft palate are prone to phonetic and phonological speech errors in their preschool years. Most of these speech errors approximate typically-developing children by 5 years. At 3 years, word shape has an influence upon phonological speech accuracy. Speech pathology intervention is indicated to support the intelligibility of these children from their earliest stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Pinillos, Felipe García; Pantoja Vallejo, Antonio; Berrios Aguayo, Beatriz
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between creativity and physical fitness in elementary school children. Data were collected from 308 primary school students in southern Spain, ranging in age from 8 to 12 years (mean, 9.72 ± 1.25 years). They completed a fitness test battery, and the Prueba de Imaginación Creativa para Niños (PIC-N; Creative Imagination Test for Children) to analyze creativity. Significant differences were found between the sexes. Boys had better physical fitness but there were no sex differences in creativity. On clusters analysis, the highly creative groups had better physical fitness. Creativity was correlated with physical fitness. Aerobic capacity was a predictor of creativity. There is an association between creativity and physical fitness in primary school children that may have important implications for academic achievement. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.
Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake
We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ryckman, Kandace; Richmond, Sarah A; Anderson, Laura N; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Macarthur, Colin; Maguire, Jonathon L; Howard, Andrew W
Approximately one-half of all children will sustain a fracture before adulthood. Understanding the factors that place a child at increased risk of fracture is necessary to inform effective injury prevention strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between temperament and fracture risk in preschool-aged children. Children aged 3 to 6 years who were diagnosed with a fracture were recruited from the Hospital for Sick Children Fracture Clinic. Using a retrospective case-control study design, the 148 cases were frequency-matched by age and sex to 426 controls from the TARGet Kids primary care paediatric cohort. The Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire, a 36-item caregiver response questionnaire was used to assess three of the following temperament factors: surgency (e.g., high activity level), negative affect (e.g., anger, fear, discomfort) and effortful control (e.g., attentional focusing). Unadjusted logistic models demonstrated no association between children with previous fracture and higher scores of surgency (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84, 1.34), negative affect (unadjusted OR=1.15, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.42) or effortful control (unadjusted OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.03). Further, models adjusted for covariates also demonstrated no significant association with surgency (1.00, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.29), negative affect (1.09, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.37) and effortful control (0.80, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.05). None of the three main temperament types identified by the Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire were associated with an increase in fracture risk.
Zubrzycki, Joanna; Shipp, Rick; Jones, Victoria
This qualitative inquiry explored the processes and practices of collaboration as experienced by a group of Australian multidisciplinary Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workers. Each worker had participated, for a period of 2 to 5 years, in an Australian Government–funded project in which a range of health initiatives led to improved access to cancer services by Aboriginal communities in a rural region of South Eastern Australia. Initiatives which addressed high rates of mortality from cancer, poor access to cancer screening, and engagement with cancer treatment were developed through the formation of close working relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workers. These relationships were regarded as personally and professionally transformative. Through the sharing of knowledge, skills, and experiences, new ways of knowing, being, and doing emerged. Developing a deeper understanding of cross-cultural collaboration is one way of addressing complex health problems and building the capacity of the health workforce. PMID:28682709
Sakai, Toshinori; Goda, Yuichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi
Lumbar spondylolysis, a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis in the lumbar spine, is often precipitated by trauma, but there may be a congenital predisposition to this condition. There have been few studies on spondylolysis in young children, despite their suitability for studies on congenital defects. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children in order to elucidate its pathogenesis. Thirty lumbar spondylolysis patients (23 boys, 7 girls, including a pair of twins; mean age 9.5 years, age range 5-12 years) were studied. Patient data on history of athletic activity, symptoms at first consultation, and radiological findings such as spinal level, stage of the stress fracture, and skeletal age were collected. Among the 30 patients, 27 (21 boys, 6 girls) had L5 spondylolysis (90.0 %). Only 2 patients had no history of athletic activity at the first consultation. All patients, except for 2 whose diagnosis was incidental, complained of low back pain. In the 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis, 17 (63.0 %) had terminal-stage fracture and 25 (92.6 %) had spina bifida occulta (SBO) involving the S1 lamina. Sixteen of the 27 (59.3 %) had SBO involving the affected lamina (L5) and S1 lamina. In contrast, the 3 patients with L3 or L4 spondylolysis had no evidence of SBO. With respect to skeletal age, 23 of the 27 L5 spondylolysis patients (85.2 %) were in the cartilaginous stage while the remaining 4 patients were in the apophyseal stage. Lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children was commonly a terminal-stage bone defect at L5, which was not necessarily related to history of athletic activity and was sometimes asymptomatic. It was often associated with SBO, indicating a possible congenital predisposition. These findings may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of lumbar spondylolysis.
Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie
Athletic children are prone to overuse injuries, especially at the heel and knee. Since footwear is an extrinsic factor of lower limb injury risk, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics. Fourteen children active in sports participated in a laboratory biomechanical evaluation. A new pair of shoes was provided to each participant at an inclusion visit. Four months later, the participants performed a running task and their kinematics and kinetics were assessed both with their used shoes and with a new pair of shoes identical to the first. Furthermore, mechanical cushioning properties of shoes were evaluated before and after in-vivo aging. After 4months of use, the sole stiffness increased by 16% and the energy loss capacity decreased by 18% (p<0.001). No ankle or knee kinematic adjustment was found at foot strike in used shoes but changes were observed later during stance. Running with used shoes produced a higher loading rate of the vertical ground reaction force (+23%, p=0.016), suggesting higher compressive forces under the heel and placing children at risk to experience impact-related injuries. Nevertheless, the decreased peak ankle and knee power absorption in used shoes (-11%, p=0.010 and -12%, p=0.029, respectively) suggests a lower ankle and knee joints loading during the absorption phase that may be beneficial regarding stretch-related injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy
A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…
Lejeune, Caroline; Catale, Corinne; Schmitz, Xavier; Quertemont, Etienne; Meulemans, Thierry
Procedural learning is generally considered to proceed in a series of phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role during the initial step. From a developmental perspective, little is known about the development of procedural learning or the role played by explicit cognitive processes during learning. The main objectives of this study were (a) to determine whether procedural learning performance improves with age by comparing groups of 7-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults and (b) to investigate the role played by executive functions during the acquisition in these three age groups. The 76 participants were assessed on a computerized adaptation of the mirror tracing paradigm. Results revealed that the youngest children had more difficulty in adapting to the task (they were slower and committed more errors at the beginning of the learning process) than 10-year-olds, but despite this age effect observed at the outset, all children improved performance across trials and transferred their skill to a different figure as well as adults. Correlational analyses showed that inhibition abilities play a key role in the performance of 10-year-olds and adults at the beginning of the learning but not in that of 7-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the age-related differences observed in our procedural learning task are at least partly due to the differential involvement of inhibition abilities, which may facilitate learning (so long as they are sufficiently developed) during the initial steps of the learning process; however, they would not be a necessary condition for skill learning to occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John
Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kallvik, Emma; Lindström, Elisabeth; Holmqvist, Sofia; Lindman, Jenny; Simberg, Susanna
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of hoarseness in children attending the first or second grade of primary school and to explore possible background factors for hoarseness in children. The participants were 217 children, aged 6-10 years, from 10 different schools. Questionnaires were filled in by the parents and the teachers of the children and voice samples were recorded. The voice samples from the children were perceptually evaluated by eight trained listeners and intra- and inter-rater reliability was calculated. Additionally, the parents and teachers were in the questionnaires asked to rate the children's voices. Connections between background factors and voice quality were explored. Both the intra- and inter-rater reliability for the trained listeners were relatively high and significant. The prevalence of hoarseness for the whole group was 12.0% as judged by the trained listeners. For girls, the prevalence of hoarseness was 7.8% and for boys 15.8%. A lower teacher rating of degree of maturity correlated significantly with the voice quality. Additionally, there was a significant negative correlation between the amount of talking at home and voice quality. For girls, heavy voice use as an infant correlated significantly with voice quality. For boys, being the youngest sibling correlated significantly with voice quality. The results from the present study indicate that more attention should be paid to hoarseness in children and that background factors should be further explored. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A; Sallam, Atiya A; Ariffin, W A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Amran, Adel A; Surin, Johari
A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren aged 7-12 years living in remote areas in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia to investigate the potential determinants influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function was measured by intelligence quotient (IQ), while examination scores of selected school subjects were used in assessing educational achievement. Blood samples were collected to assess serum Fe status. All children were screened for soil-transmitted helminthes. Demographic and socio-economic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Almost two-thirds (67·6 %) of the subjects had poor IQ and most of them (72·6 %) had insufficient educational achievement. Output of the stepwise multiple regression model showed that poor IQ was significantly associated with low household income which contributed the most to the regression variance (r2 0·059; P = 0·020). Low maternal education was also identified as a significant predictor of low IQ scores (r2 0·042; P = 0·043). With educational achievement, Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was the only variable to show significant association (r2 0·025; P = 0·015). In conclusion, the cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren are poor and influenced by household income, maternal education and IDA. Thus, effective and integrated measures to improve the nutritional and socio-economic status of rural children would have a pronounced positive effect on their education.
Long, Xiangyu; Benischek, Alina; Dewey, Deborah; Lebel, Catherine
Brain function and structure change significantly during the toddler and preschool years. However, most studies focus on older or younger children, so the specific nature of these changes is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed 77 functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 44 children aged 2-6 years. We extracted measures of both local (amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and regional homogeneity) and global (eigenvector centrality mapping) activity and connectivity, and examined their relationships with age using robust linear correlation analysis and strict control for head motion. Brain areas within the default mode network and the frontoparietal network, such as the middle frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule and the posterior cingulate cortex, showed increases in local and global functional features with age. Several brain areas such as the superior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus presented opposite development trajectories of local and global functional features, suggesting a shifting connectivity framework in early childhood. This development of functional connectivity in early childhood likely underlies major advances in cognitive abilities, including language and development of theory of mind. These findings provide important insight into the development patterns of brain function during the preschool years, and lay the foundation for future studies of altered brain development in young children with brain disorders or injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Mahmood, Razi; Esmaeelzadeh, Sarvenaz; Kyaw Soe, Nway Mon
COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a major public health concern. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and association between certain risk factors and COPD among the 35-year-old or older Aboriginal peoples in Canada. This is a cross-sectional study. It uses data from Statistics Canada's Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), 2012. It consists of 8,117 self-identified Aboriginal peoples, aged 35 years old or older from all Canadian provinces and territories. The study outcomes centered on evaluating the prevalence and associated factors of COPD. This study found that 6.80% of the participants self-reported having COPD. Results of the logistic regression analysis show that COPD was significantly higher among daily smokers (odds ratio [OR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65-3.14), aged 55 years or older (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.14-4.30), who earned $5,000-$9,999 per annum (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.39-7.41) and needed health care over the past 12 months and did not receive it (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.27-2.65). The findings of our study show that COPD is strongly associated with Aboriginal peoples, who are older, smoke, have a low socioeconomic status (SES) and do not have access to health care when needed. Clinicians, health care professionals, medical/public health organizations, researchers and patients will greatly benefit from additional research in this common, serious and often overlooked disease among Aboriginal peoples in Canada.
Radford, Kylie; Delbaere, Kim; Draper, Brian; Mack, Holly A; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Chalkley, Simon; Minogue, Cecilia; Broe, Gerald A
High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses. Participants completed a life course survey of health, well-being, cognition, and social history including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with consensus diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer disease. CTQ scores ranged from 25-117 (median: 29) and were associated with several adverse childhood indicators including separation from family, poor childhood health, frequent relocation, and growing up in a major city. Controlling for age, higher CTQ scores were associated with depression, anxiety, suicide attempt, dementia diagnosis, and, specifically, Alzheimer disease. The association between CTQ scores and dementia remained significant after controlling for depression and anxiety variables (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.05-2.45). In contrast, there were no significant associations between CTQ scores and smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, or cardiovascular risk factors. Childhood stress appears to have a significant impact on emotional health and dementia for older Aboriginal Australians. The ongoing effects of childhood stress need to be recognized as people grow older, particularly in terms of dementia prevention and care, as well as in populations with greater exposure to childhood adversity, such as Aboriginal Australians. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kochhann, Renata; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Pureza, Janice da Rosa; Viapiana, Vanisa Fante; Fonseca, Flavia Dos Passos; Salles, Jerusa Fumagali; Fonseca, Rochele Paz
Cognitive development in children presents peculiarities according to groups of age, gender, and type of school. Few studies have been investigating the effects of all these factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effects and the interactions of age, gender, and type of school in 419 children from ages 6 to 12 years old evaluated by the Child Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NEUPSILIN-Inf). Older children, children in private schools and girls presented better results. Interactions between all three independent variables were observed in different cognitive domains. The results highlight both the heterogeneity and the influence of multiple factors in children's neuropsychological development.
Caplova, Zuzana; Compassi, Valentina; Giancola, Silvio; Gibelli, Daniele M; Obertová, Zuzana; Poppa, Pasquale; Sala, Remo; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina
The situation of missing children is one of the most emotional social issues worldwide. The search for and identification of missing children is often hampered, among others, by the fact that the facial morphology of long-term missing children changes as they grow. Nowadays, the wide coverage by surveillance systems potentially provides image material for comparisons with images of missing children that may facilitate identification. The aim of study was to identify whether facial features are stable in time and can be utilized for facial recognition by comparing facial images of children at different ages as well as to test the possible use of moles in recognition. The study was divided into two phases (1) morphological classification of facial features using an Anthropological Atlas; (2) algorithm developed in MATLAB® R2014b for assessing the use of moles as age-stable features. The assessment of facial features by Anthropological Atlases showed high mismatch percentages among observers. On average, the mismatch percentages were lower for features describing shape than for those describing size. The nose tip cleft and the chin dimple showed the best agreement between observers regarding both categorization and stability over time. Using the position of moles as a reference point for recognition of the same person on age-different images seems to be a useful method in terms of objectivity and it can be concluded that moles represent age-stable facial features that may be considered for preliminary recognition. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bierbaum, Mia; Plueckhahn, Tania; Roth, Firona; McNamara, Carmel; Ramsey, Imogen; Corsini, Nadia
The Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) population has a higher age-standardised cancer mortality rate and a significantly lower 5-year survival rate for all cancers than the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal people from regional and remote South Australia and the Northern Territory, are often required to travel to Adelaide to access specialist cancer care services. The burden and expenses associated with transport and accommodation and cultural and linguistic factors have been identified as barriers to accessing medical treatment and health services. In collaboration with community and stakeholders, Cancer Council South Australia led the development of the Cancer Healing Messages flipchart and patient flyer to assist health professionals in explaining cancer and the cancer journey to Aboriginal cancer patients and their families. This study examined the usage, acceptability and perceived usefulness of the resources, barriers to uptake, and strategies to improve their utilisation and sustainability. An evaluation survey was conducted among Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) and other health professionals working with Aboriginal clients in South Australia (n=18). Participants indicated whether they agreed that the resources are valuable, culturally appropriate, helpful for explaining aspects of cancer to Aboriginal cancer patients, and useful with regard patient outcomes, how frequently they used or would use the resources for information, and how they use the flipchart in practice. Participants were also asked to report any usage barriers. The resources were considered useful, valuable and culturally appropriate by almost all participants; however, there was a discrepancy between intentions to use the resources and actual uptake, which was low. The most commonly reported barriers related to appropriateness for certain patients and lack of availability of resources in some contexts. The Cancer Healing Messages flipchart and patient flyer
The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the…
This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…
Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.
Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…
In June 2014, the Supreme Court of Canada held that Aboriginal title should be granted to the Tsilhqo'tin Nation over a portion of its traditional territory in British Columbia.1 This was the first time that a Canadian court had granted Aboriginal title to a specific land area. The court noted that Aboriginal title is collective title held for…
Robin J. Marles
Ethnobotanical research was conducted in over 30 Aboriginal communities within Canada's boreal forest region. Specific methods for the research were developed that involved a high degree of participation by Aboriginal people in every stage of the project, with the result that well over 100 Aboriginal elders contributed information on the uses of more that 200...
Preston, Jane P.
Canada has an unprecedented need to increase the number of Aboriginal peoples who undertake and complete postsecondary programs. Endorsing postsecondary education for Aboriginal peoples advocates an invigorating, fortifying future for Aboriginal peoples, their families, and their communities. Additionally, the postsecondary educational…
The academic difficulties experienced by many Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) students in Canada have been well-documented. Indicators such as school persistence and post-secondary enrollment are typically far lower for Aboriginal students as a group compared to non-Aboriginal students. Identifying facilitators of success is key to…
George, Ningwakwe Priscilla
Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…
Education Council, 2015
Despite determined effort much more needs to be done to close the gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are the first Australians with the oldest continuing cultures in human history. Governments across Australia affirm the right of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people to…
In British Columbia, K-12 school Aboriginal students' completion rates are far from equivalent to those of their non-Aboriginal peers. In addition, there is a high degree of variability in Aboriginal students' school completion rates across schools and communities. Administrative data associating approximately 1.5 million school census records of…
Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F
Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.
Martin, L.J.; Houston, S.; Yasui, Y.; Wild, T.C.; Saunders, L.D.
Objectives: To compare rates of initial virological suppression and subsequent virological failure by Aboriginal ethnicity after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-patients starting HAART in January 1999-June 2005 (baseline), followed until December 31, 2005 in Alberta, Canada. We compared the odds of achieving initial virological suppression (viral load <500 copies/mL) by Aboriginal ethnicity using logistic regression and, among those achieving suppression, rates of virological failure (the first of two consecutive viral loads > 1000 copies/mL) by Aboriginal ethnicity using cumulative incidence curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Sex, injection drug use as an HIV exposure category (IDU), baseline age, CD4 cell count, viral load, calendar year, and HAART regimen were considered as potential confounders. Results: Of 461 study patients, 37% were Aboriginal and 48% were IDUs; 71% achieved initial virological suppression and were followed for 730.4 person-years. After adjusting for confounding variables, compared to non-Aboriginals with other exposures, the odds of achieving initial virological suppression were lower for Aboriginal IDUs (odds ratio (OR)=0.33, 95% CI=0.19-0.60, p=0.0002), non-Aboriginal IDUs (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.15-0.60, p=0.0006), and Aboriginals with other exposures (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.21-0.67, p=0.0009). Among those achieving suppression, Aboriginals experienced higher virological failure rates ≥1 year after suppression (hazard ratio=3.35, 95% CI=1.68-6.65, p=0.0006). Conclusions: Future research should investigate adherence among Aboriginals and IDUs treated with HAART and explore their treatment experiences to assess ways to improve outcomes. PMID:21187007
Jin, Andrew; Brussoni, Mariana; George, M Anne; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod
Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC), especially those residing on Indian reserves, have higher risk of unintentional fall injury than the general population. We test the hypothesis that the disparities are attributable to a combination of socioeconomic status, geographic place, and Aboriginal ethnicity. Within each of 16 Health Service Delivery Areas in BC, we identified three population groups: total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve. We calculated age and gender-standardized relative risks (SRR) of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury (relative to the total population of BC), during time periods 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, and we obtained custom data from the 2001 and 2006 censuses (long form), describing income, education, employment, housing, proportions of urban and rural dwellers, and prevalence of Aboriginal ethnicity. We studied association of census characteristics with SRR of fall injury, by multivariable linear regression. The best-fitting model was an excellent fit (R 2 = 0.854, p < 0.001) and predicted SRRs very close to observed values for the total, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations of BC. After stepwise regression, the following terms remained: population per room, urban residence, labor force participation, income per capita, and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and labor force participation. The disparities are predictable by the hypothesized risk markers. Aboriginal ethnicity is not an independent risk marker: it modifies the effects of socioeconomic factors. Closing the gap in fall injury risk between the general and Aboriginal populations is likely achievable by closing the gaps in socioeconomic conditions.
McNamara, Bridgette J; Banks, Emily; Gubhaju, Lina; Williamson, Anna; Joshy, Grace; Raphael, Beverley; Eades, Sandra J
To assess the cross-cultural validity of two Kessler psychological distress scales (K-10 and K-5) by examining their measurement properties among older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and comparing them to those in non-Aboriginal individuals from NSW Australia. Self-reported questionnaire data from the 45 and Up Study for 1,631 Aboriginal and 231,774 non-Aboriginal people were used to examine the factor structure, convergent validity, internal consistency and levels of missing data of K-10 and K-5. We found excellent agreement in classification of distress of Aboriginal participants by K-10 and K-5 (weighted kappa=0.87), high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha K-10: 0.93, K-5: 0.88), and factor structures consistent with those for the total Australian population. Convergent validity was evidenced by a strong graded relationship between the level of distress and the odds of: problems with daily activities due to emotional problems; current treatment for depression or anxiety; and poor quality of life. K-10 and K-5 scales are promising tools for measuring psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged 45 and over in research and clinical settings. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Schwartz, Lita Linzer
The impact of divorce on children seems to vary according to the child's age. Previous studies on the impact of divorce on children have generally focused on pre-schoolers and elementary-age children. Since more long-term marriages are ending in divorce, attention should also be given to adolescent and adult children of divorce. Subjects (N=26)…
Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.
Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…
Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya
Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…
Frydrych, A M; Slack-Smith, L M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm. Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC.
Shi, Lei; Jiang, Fan; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhimin; Shen, Xiaoming
Age estimation is critical in forensic science, in competitive sports and games and in other age-related fields, but the current methods are suboptimal. The combination of age-associated DNA methylation markers with skeletal age (SA) and dental age (DA) may improve the accuracy and precision of age estimation, but no study has examined this topic. In the current study, we measured SA (GP, TW3-RUS, and TW3-Carpal methods) and DA (Demirjian and Willems methods) by X-ray examination in 124 Chinese children (78 boys and 46 girls) aged 6-15 years. To identify age-associated CpG sites, we analyzed methylome-wide DNA methylation profiling by using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip system in 48 randomly selected children. Five CpG sites were identified as associated with chronologic age (CA), with an absolute value of Pearson's correlation coefficient (r)>0.5 (p<0.01) and a false discovery rate<0.01. The validation of age-associated CpG sites was performed using droplet digital PCR techniques in all 124 children. After validation, four CpG sites for boys and five CpG sites for girls were further adopted to build the age estimation model with SA and DA using multivariate linear stepwise regressions. These CpG sites were located at 4 known genes: DDO, PRPH2, DHX8, and ITGA2B and at one unknown gene with the Illumina ID number of 22398226. The accuracy of age estimation methods was compared according to the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best single measure for SA was the TW3-RUS method (MAE=0.69years, RMSE=0.95years) in boys, and the GP method (MAE=0.74years, RMSE=0.94years) in girls. For DA, the Willems method was the best single measure for both boys (MAE=0.63years, RMSE=0.78years) and girls (MAE=0.54years, RMSE=0.68years). The models that incorporated SA and DA with the methylation levels of age-associated CpG sites provided the highest accuracy of age estimation in both boys (MAE=0.47years, R 2 =0.886) and girls (MAE=0.33years, R
Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul
This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.
Children's books must primarily be appropriate for children so that they could be a significant stimulus in children's lives. In other words, it is essential that the concepts child reality, literary criteria and artist sensitivity be reflected in books in order to create children's books. From birth to age 6, the fact that children's books are…
Diener, Marissa L.; Wright, Cheryl; Brehl, Beverly; Black, Tyler
This study examines the correlates of creative potential in preschool children, with a focus on children's social behavior. Ninety-four preschool-aged children, their mothers, and teachers participated in the study. Mothers completed a questionnaire measure of children's shyness, and teachers reported on children's levels of shyness, prosocial…
Street, Jackie; Cox, Heather; Lopes, Edilene; Motlik, Jessie; Hanson, Lisa
Including and prioritising community voice in policy development means policy is more likely to reflect community values and priorities. This project trialled and evaluated a storyboard approach in a deliberative community forum to engage Australian Aboriginal people in health policy priority setting. The forum was co-constructed with two Aboriginal community-controlled organisations. A circle storyboard was used to centre Aboriginal community knowledge and values and encourage the group to engage with broader perspectives and evidence. The forum asked a diverse (descriptively representative) group of Aboriginal people in a rural town what governments should do to support the wellbeing of children and youth, particularly to encourage them to eat well and be active. The storyboard provided a tactile device to allow shared stories and identification of community issues. The group identified policies they believed governments should prioritise, including strategies to combat racism and provide local supports and outlets for young people. An informed deliberative storyboard approach offers a novel way of engaging with Aboriginal communities in a culturally appropriate and inclusive manner. Implications for public health: The identification of racism as a major issue of concern in preventing children from living healthy lifestyles highlights the need for policy responses in this area. © 2018 The Authors.
Discusses the benefits of mixed-age grouping for children's social and cognitive development and reservations parents sometimes have about mixed-age groupings. Also discusses issues that teachers need to consider when implementing mixed-age groups: children's personal care routines; furnishings; children's language, motor, creative, and social…
Lee, Ling-Ling; Lin, Shu-Shuan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chuang, Jui-Ling
Providing healthcare to older people is an essential policy in Taiwan. Previous studies have assessed the health needs of older people residing in urban areas. Evidence related to the differences in healthcare needs between older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese people in Taiwan is insufficient. As both groups exhibit mutually distinct physical and socio-cultural attributes, understanding their different health needs is necessary to provide tailored and effective healthcare. To investigate the distinct health needs of older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese using a comprehensive health-needs assessment tool. A cross-sectional study design was used. Older people aged 65 or over were proportionally sampled from communities. The Elderly Assessment System Care Standard instrument was used to collect data through interviews held in participant homes or in community activity centers between October 20th and December 20th, 2011. A total of 180 older people were recruited. A majority of participants had at least one chronic disease, disability, or frailty. Across a range of dimensions and categories of health needs, older aboriginal people had statistically significant higher health needs than non-aboriginal ones. However, older ethnic Chinese participants had higher levels of need in the domains of housing/financing and social participation/isolation. Regression analysis found that independence, risk of frailty, and risk of falls explained the majority of health needs, with R2 values of 64% and 69.6% for older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese participants, respectively. However, the respective impact of these three categories on overall health needs varied between the two groups. Based on our findings, healthcare providers should focus on improving the self-care capabilities of older aboriginal people and on reducing the risk of breakdowns in care for older ethnic Chinese people in order to enhance the quality of elderly care in Taiwan.
Jin, Andrew; George, M Anne; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E
Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. During the period 1987-2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who identified as Aboriginal, and
Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1987–2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who
Davis, Deborah Winders
The purpose of this article is to discuss findings in the literature regarding long-term developmental outcomes of infants born prematurely, to examine potential causes of individual differences in these outcomes, and to explore directions for future research. An extensive table summarizes recent (1996-2002) international studies of developmental outcomes among children of school age and older who were born with low birth weight, especially as the studies relate to cognitive development and academic performance. The discussion then examines how characteristics of the child and the environment may interact to produce individual differences in outcomes. Processes of attention regulation within the context of the psychosocial environment are examined as an important possible direction for future research. When designing and implementing interventions aimed at improving outcomes in this and other groups of children at risk for delays and deficits, it is important to consider how various factors affect development.
Hesham Al-Mekhlafi, M; Surin, Johari; Atiya, A S; Ariffin, W A; Mohammed Mahdy, A K; Che Abdullah, H
Data on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and reinfection among Orang Asli (aborigine) schoolchildren and their nutritional and socioeconomic status were analyzed to investigate the pattern and the possible predictors of STH reinfection. In this longitudinal study, 120 (60 males and 60 females) Orang Asli primary schoolchildren aged 7-12 years and living in remote areas in Pos Betau, Kuala Lipis, Pahang were screened for the presence of STH using modified cellophane thick smear and Harada Mori techniques. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections were 65.8, 97.5 and 10.8%, respectively. After complete deworming with a 3-day course of 400mg/daily of albendazole tablets, children were re-examined at 3 and 6 months from baseline. The reinfection rate, by one or more of STH species, at 3 months after deworming was high (49.5%) while 79.6% of the children were reinfected at 6 months after deworming. Logistic regression analyses showed that females, stunted children and those living in houses without toilets had significantly higher reinfection rates than others at 3 months (P<0.05). At 6 months, maternal employment status emerged as another predictor where children of working mothers had significantly higher reinfection rates (P=0.026). In conclusion, reinfection rate of STH is high and thus necessitates frequent and periodic deworming among children. Public health personnel need to re-look at the current control measures and identify innovative and integrated ways in order to reduce STH significantly in the rural communities.
Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder
Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.
Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy
The aim of the study was to detect whether the Willems model, developed on a Belgian reference sample, can be used for age estimations in United Arab Emirates (UAE) children. Furthermore, it was verified that if added third molars development information in children provided more accurate age predictions. On 1900 panoramic radiographs, the development of left mandibular permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) was registered according the Demirjian and the Kohler technique, respectively. The PT data were used to verify the Willems model and to develop a UAE model and to verify it. Multiple regression models with PT, TM, and PT + TM scores as independent and age as dependent factor were developed. Comparing the verified Willems- and the UAE model revealed differences in mean error of -0.01 year, mean absolute error of 0.01 year and root mean squared error of 0.90 year. Neglectable overall decrease in RMSE was detected combining PM and TM developmental information. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Sayre, James; Pospiech-Kurkowska, Sylwia; Huang, H.K
We have developed an automated method to assess bone age of children using a digital hand atlas. The hand Atlas consists of two components. The first component is a database which is comprised of a collection of 1,400 digitized left hand radiographs from evenly distributed normally developed children of Caucasian (CA), Asian (AS), African-American (AA) and Hispanic (HI) origin, male (M) and female (F), ranged from 1 to 18 year old; and relevant patient demographic data along with pediatric radiologists' readings of each radiograph. This data is separate into eight categories: CAM, CAF, AAM, AAF, HIM, HIF, ASM, and ASF. In addition, CAM, AAM, HIM, and ASM are combined as one male category; and CAF, AAF, HIF, and ASF are combined as one female category. The male and female are further combined as the F & M category. The second component is a computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) module to assess a child bone age based on the collected data. The CAD method is derived from features extracted from seven regions of interest (ROIs): the carpal bone ROI, and six phanlangeal PROIs. The PROIs are six areas including the distal and middle regions of three middle fingers. These features were used to train the eleven category fuzzy classifiers: one for each race and gender, one for the female, one male, and one F & M, to assess the bone age of a child. The digital hand atlas is being integrated with a PACS for validation of clinical use. PMID:17387000
Harrison, Rosamund; Veronneau, Jacques; Leroux, Brian
The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting randomized trials in remote settings, the importance of thorough
Background The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Methods/design Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. Discussion In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting randomized trials in remote
Children start to develop number sense even well before they start the school. Developing number sense serves as an intermediate tool for learning conventional mathematics taught in schools. This number sense has three key areas: number knowledge, counting and arithmetic operations. As a result, the aim of this study was to examine aged related…
Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh
Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.
Tokuhara, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Cho, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo
A patency capsule (PC) can help predict capsule endoscope (CE) retention; however, PC tolerability is unknown in children. We retrospectively evaluated PC tolerability in school-aged children. Sixty-one patients (median age, 12.9 years; range 7.4-17.3 years) who underwent PC examination were analyzed for occurrence and determinants of ingestion difficulty and relationships between ingestion of the 2 capsules. We defined ingestion difficulty as taking 30 min or more, or failure, to ingest the PC. Thirty-nine patients (64%) successfully ingested the PC without ingestion difficulty. The other 22 had ingestion difficulty and were significantly younger (11.7 ± 2.2 vs. 13.0 ± 1.8 years; p = 0.04) and shorter (143.3 ± 14.0 vs. 154.6 ± 12.5 cm; p = 0.003) than those without ingestion difficulty. Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant factor for predicting PC ingestion difficulty was height (cutoff value, 152 cm). Time to ingest the CE was significantly shorter than that for PC ingestion (8 ± 32 vs. 20 ± 58 min; p = 0.01). All patients indicated that ingestion of the CE was easier because of its smooth surface compared with the PC. PC ingestion is not guaranteed in school-aged children. PC ingestion ability should be evaluated by considering the child's height and lack of experience ingesting capsules prior to PC examination. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa
This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.
Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa
This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.
Schinke, Robert; Yungblut, Hope; Blodgett, Amy; Eys, Mark; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen; Recollet-Saikkonen, Danielle
There has been a recent push in the sport psychology literature for sport participants to be approached based on their cultural backgrounds. However, there are few examples where a cultural approach is considered, such as a culturally reflexive version of participatory action research (PAR). In the current study, the role of family is considered in relation to the sport engagement of Canadian Aboriginal youth. Mainstream researchers teamed with coresearchers from the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve for 5 years. Community meetings and talking circles were employed as culturally sensitive data collection techniques to uncover how to encourage youth participation in Wikwemikong's sport programs. The overarching methodology for the project is PAR. Themes and subthemes were determined by community consensus with terms indigenous (ie, culturally relevant) among the local Aboriginal culture. Family was considered important for youth involvement in Aboriginal community sport programs. Parents were expected to support their children by managing schedules and priorities, providing transportation, financial support, encouragement, and being committed to the child's activity. Aunts, uncles, cousins, siblings, grandparents, and the family as a whole were seen as sharing the responsibility to retain youth in sport through collateral support (ie, when gaps in parental support arose). Suggestions are proposed regarding how families in Aboriginal communities can collaborate to facilitate sport and physical activity among their youth. Further suggestions are proposed for researchers engaging in culturally reflexive research with participants and coresearchers from oppressed cultures.
Exploring alternate specifications to explain agency-level effects in placement decisions regarding aboriginal children: further analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part B.
Chabot, Martin; Fallon, Barbara; Tonmyr, Lil; MacLaurin, Bruce; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy
This paper builds upon the analyses presented in two companion papers (Fluke et al., 2010; Fallon et al., 2013) using data from the 1998 and 2003 cycles of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-1998 and CIS-2003) to examine the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place a child in out-of-home care at the conclusion of a child maltreatment investigation. This paper explores various model specifications to explain the effect of an agency-level factor, proportion of Aboriginal reports, which emerged as a stable and significant factor through the two data collection cycles. It addresses the issue of data comparability between the two cycles and explores various re-specifications and descriptive analyses of reported models to evaluate their solidity with regards to the sampling schemes and the precise contribution of a multi-level specification. The decision to place a child in out-of-home care was examined using data from the CIS-2003. This child welfare dataset collected information about the results of nearly 12,000 child maltreatment investigations as well as a description of the characteristics of the workers and organization responsible for conducting those investigations. Multi-level statistical models were developed using MPlus software, which can accommodate dichotomous outcome variables and are more reflective of decision-making in child welfare. The models are thus multi-level binary logistic regressions. Final models revealed that two agency-level variables, 'Education degree of majority of workers' and 'Degree of centralization in the agency' clarify the nature of the effect of 'Proportion of Aboriginal reports', a stable, key second level predictor of the placement decision. The comparability of the effect of this agency-level variable across the 1998 and 2003 cycles becomes further evident through this analysis. By using a unified database including both cycles and various
Goldfinch, Thomas; Prpic, Juliana Kaya; Jolly, Lesley; Leigh, Elyssebeth; Kennedy, Jade
In Australia, representation of Aboriginal populations within the engineering profession is very low despite participation targets set by Government departments, professional bodies and Universities. Progressing the Aboriginal inclusion agenda within Australian Engineering Education requires a clearer understanding of engineering educators' preparedness for increased numbers of students from this non-traditional cohort. This research stems from a recently completed project that explored Aboriginal perspectives in engineering education and proposed a model for embedding perspectives in curricula. Nine engineering academics were interviewed to explore attitudes towards Aboriginal perspectives in engineering and the viability of the proposed model. Results of the interviews indicate efforts to embed Aboriginal perspectives are starting from a small base of knowledge and experience. Individuals' motivations and values indicate that there is significant support for improving this, but that efforts can be hampered by conceptions of Aboriginal perspectives that do not consider how Aboriginal knowledges may change engineering itself.
Bailey, Sandra; Hunt, Jennifer
Partnership is a process that must be recognised as a fundamental part of any strategy for improving health outcomes for Aboriginal people. Addressing the inequities in health outcomes between Aboriginal people and other Australians will require a sustained, coordinated and well-informed approach that works to a set of goals and targets developed with input from the Aboriginal community. Partnerships provide the most effective mechanism for obtaining this essential input from Aboriginal communities and their representative organisations, enabling Aboriginal people to have an influence at all stages of the health-care process. Within the health sector, effective partnerships harness the efforts of governments and the expertise of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services, which offer the most effective means of delivering comprehensive primary health care to Aboriginal people.
Amarasena, Najith; Kapellas, Kostas; Skilton, Michael R; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Brown, Alex; Bartold, Mark; O'Dea, Kerin; Celermajer, David; Jamieson, Lisa M
To determine factors associated with routine dental attendance in Aboriginal Australians. Data of 271 Aboriginal adults residing in Australia's Northern Territory were used. Routine dental attendance was defined as last visiting a dentist less than one year ago or visiting a dentist for a check-up. Both bivariate and multivariable analytical techniques were used. While 27% visited a dentist in the past year, 29% of these visited for a check-up. In bivariate analysis, being female, low psychological distress, and low clinical attachment loss (CAL) were associated with visiting a dentist within last year. Being aged younger than 39 years, male, no oral health impairment, being caries-free, low CAL, and low apolipoprotein B were associated with visiting for a check-up. Clinical attachment loss remained associated with visiting a dentist less than one year ago while being younger than 39 years and having no oral health impairment remained associated with usually visiting for a check-up in multivariable analysis. Younger age, no oral health impairment, and low CAL were associated with routine dental attendance among Indigenous Australians.
Amarasena, Najith; Kapellas, Kostas; Skilton, Michael R; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Brown, Alex; Bartold, Mark; O'Dea, Kerin; Celermajer, David; Jamieson, Lisa M
To determine factors associated with routine dental attendance in Aboriginal Australians. Data of 271 Aboriginal adults residing in Australia's Northern Territory were used. Routine dental attendance was defined as last visiting a dentist less than one year ago or visiting a dentist for a check-up. Both bivariate and multivariable analytical techniques were used. While 27% visited a dentist in the past year, 29% of these visited for a check-up. In bivariate analysis, being female, low psychological distress, and low clinical attachment loss (CAL) were associated with visiting a dentist within last year. Being aged younger than 39 years, male, no oral health impairment, being caries-free, low CAL, and low apolipoprotein B were associated with visiting for a check-up. Clinical attachment loss remained associated with visiting a dentist less than one year ago while being younger than 39 years and having no oral health impairment remained associated with usually visiting for a check-up in multivariable analysis. Younger age, no oral health impairment, and low CAL were associated with routine dental attendance among Indigenous Australians.
Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.
Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.
Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Myers, John; Dunn, Winnie
Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. Results showed four subtypes that differed by degree and quality of sensory features, age and differential presentation of developmental skills. Findings partially align with previous literature on sensory subtypes and extends our understanding of how sensory processing aligns with other developmental domains in young children with ASD.
Jin, Andrew; Lalonde, Christopher E; Brussoni, Mariana; McCormick, Rod; George, M Anne
Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury has
Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of
Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; Turkalov, Rust; van Oorschot, Roland A H; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Schurr, Theodore G; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R John
Aboriginal Australians are one of the more poorly studied populations from the standpoint of human evolution and genetic diversity. Thus, to investigate their genetic diversity, the possible date of their ancestors' arrival and their relationships with neighboring populations, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in a large sample of Aboriginal Australians. Selected mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the hypervariable segment haplotypes were analyzed in 594 Aboriginal Australians drawn from locations across the continent, chiefly from regions not previously sampled. Most (~78%) samples could be assigned to mtDNA haplogroups indigenous to Australia. The indigenous haplogroups were all ancient (with estimated ages >40 000 years) and geographically widespread across the continent. The most common haplogroup was P (44%) followed by S (23%) and M42a (9%). There was some geographic structure at the haplotype level. The estimated ages of the indigenous haplogroups range from 39 000 to 55 000 years, dates that fit well with the estimated date of colonization of Australia based on archeological evidence (~47 000 years ago). The distribution of mtDNA haplogroups in Australia and New Guinea supports the hypothesis that the ancestors of Aboriginal Australians entered Sahul through at least two entry points. The mtDNA data give no support to the hypothesis of secondary gene flow into Australia during the Holocene, but instead suggest long-term isolation of the continent.
Natriashvili, G D; Kapanadze, N B; Natriashvili, S G
We have investigated 200 patients 0-4 months of age (boys 110 and girls - 90), 120 of them under 1 month of age and 80 children from 1 to 4 months. The evaluation of the neurologic status of patients was performed 40-60 minutes after feeding in a relaxed condition. From the additional methods of the investigation of the nervous system, the most informative was the neurosonoscopy. We have divided patients into two groups according to the clinical syndromes: I gr. neuro-reflexion irritation syndrome (118 patients), II gr.--depression syndrome (82 patients). According to the treatment regimen patients also have been divided into two groups: the basic group (104 patients) with treatment only by mexydol (mexydol in a dose of 5 mg/kg and 0,3 ml in the form of injections twice a day. Injections were initiated at the acute stage of the disease) and the control group (96 patients) with no treatment. Efficiency of mexidol was estimated comparison of the findings in the basic and control groups based both on a clinical status and on the neurosonoscopic findings. Positive dynamics was observed in patients of the basic group. Verification of mexydol efficiency was performed by neurosonoscopic investigations. In a small portion of patients positive dynamics was not observed. These patients were from the age group from 3 to 4 months, which confirms that earlier and optimal treatment contribute to the prevention of severe neurological outcomes. It may be concluded that: 1. Mexydol acting on the pathogenetic mechanisms of perinatal encephalopathy, reduces reflexion irritation and depression syndromes both in neonatal and early age children. 2. Mexydol induces normalization of pathological neurosonoscopic patterns. 3. Mexydol with its wide pharmacological spectrum of action is an effective medicine in treatment of perinatal encephalopathy.
Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella
In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children's socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification - given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits - and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.
Gwynne, Kylie; Jeffries, Thomas; Lincoln, Michelle
Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the enablers for effective health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. Methods This systematic review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Papers were included if they had data related to health services for Australian Aboriginal people and were published between 2000 and 2015. The 21 papers that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Seven papers were subsequently excluded due to weak methodological approaches. Results There were two findings in the present study: (1) that Aboriginal people fare worse than non-Aboriginal people when accessing usual healthcare services; and (2) there are five enablers for effective health care services for Australian Aboriginal people: cultural competence, participation rates, organisational, clinical governance and compliance, and availability of services. Conclusions Health services for Australian Aboriginal people must be tailored and implementation of the five enablers is likely to affect the effectiveness of health services for Aboriginal people. The findings of the present study have significant implications in directing the future design, funding, delivery and evaluation of health care services for Aboriginal Australians. What is known about the topic? There is significant evidence about poor health outcomes and the 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and limited evidence about improving health service efficacy. What does this paper add? This systematic review found that with usual health care delivery, Aboriginal people experience worse health outcomes. This paper identifies five strategies in the literature that improve the effectiveness of health care services intended for Aboriginal people. What are the implications for
Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina
The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…
Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Sheperd, Kelly A.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…
He, Xiangui; Jin, Peiyao; Zou, Haidong; Li, Qiangqiang; Jin, Jiali; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Huijuan; He, Jiangnan; Xu, Xun; Wang, Mingjin; Zhu, Jianfeng
To explore the characteristics of choroidal thickness (ChT) in Chinese children. A total of 144 healthy children, aged 6 years to 12 years old, were enrolled in the study. The ChT of subfovea and peripheral locations 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm away from the fovea were evaluated by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. The association between subfoveal ChT and systemic, as well as ocular factors, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, axial length, refractive error, intraocular pressure, preterm history, and the refractive status of parents were studied. The mean subfoveal ChT was 302 ± 63 μm. In the nasal, superior, and inferior areas, the ChT of locations closer to the fovea was thicker than those farther away from the fovea (all P < 0.05); however, ChT was not significantly different among different locations in the temporal area (P = 0.16). The ChT of the nasal quadrant was significantly thinner than that of other areas (P < 0.01). Subfoveal ChT decreased with age, axial length, preterm history, and increased with height. Sex was not statistically associated with subfoveal ChT. In Chinese children, the ChT is thinnest in the nasal quadrant and thicker in central regions than in peripheral areas. The subfoveal ChT independently decreases with age, axial length, preterm history, and increases with height.
George, M A; Brussoni, M; Jin, A; Lalonde, C E; McCormick, R
The current study examines what factors contribute to higher injury risk among Aboriginal peoples, compared to the total British Columbia (BC) population. We explore socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural factors, and combinations of these factors, that contribute to increased injury risk for Aboriginal peoples. This follows from our previously reported findings of improvements in injury risk over time for both the total and Aboriginal populations. We use provincial population-based linked health care databases of hospital discharge records. We identify three population groups: total BC population, and Aboriginal populations living off-reserve, or on-reserve. For each group we calculate age and gender-standardized relative risks (SRR) of injury-related hospitalization, relative to the total population of BC, for two 5-year time periods (1999-2003, and 2004-2008). We use custom data from the 2001 and 2006 long-form Censuses that described income, education, employment, housing conditions, proportion of urban dwellers, proportion of rural dwellers, and prevalence of Aboriginal ethnicity. We use multivariable linear regression to examine the associations between the census characteristics and SRR of injury. The best-fitting model was an excellent fit (R(2) = 0.905, p < 0.001) among the three population groups within Health Service Delivery Areas of BC. We find indicators in all three categories (socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural) are associated with disparity in injury risk. While the socioeconomic indicators (income, education, housing, employment) were shown to be highly correlated, only living in housing that needs major repair and occupational hazardousness, along with rural residence and Aboriginal ethnicity, remained in the final model. Our data show that cultural density is not associated with injury risk for Aboriginal peoples, and that living off-reserve is associated with reduced injury by improving socioeconomic and geographic conditions
Bangerter, Lauren R.; Polenick, Courtney A.; Zarit, Steven H.; Fingerman, Karen L.
Giving support may be a stressful or rewarding experience, little is known about how family members perceive giving support amidst problems or crises. Using a sample of 226 mother-child dyads (mother mean age = 75.04; child mean age = 49.57), we examine how mothers and their middle-aged children perceive giving support in the context of life problems. Actor–partner interdependence models tested whether associations between problems and perceptions of support are moderated by frequency of support given and if associations were stronger for daughters or sons. Children perceived giving support to their mother as more stressful when they had more of their own problems and gave high levels of support. Daughters, but not sons, considered helping their mother more stressful when their mother had more problems and they gave high levels of support. Distinctions between mother-son and mother-daughter dyads demonstrate the merit of a dyadic approach to understanding mother-child relationships. PMID:29720778
Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Munck, Petriina; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena
Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children.
Laliberté, Arlene; Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Reilly, Lyndon
This paper presents two arguments relevant to both past and present efforts to improve Indigenous health. It advocates for ways of thinking about and doing health promotion that begin with empowerment to help people gain a greater level of control over their lives and circumstances. A combination of the strengths of different approaches is in fact an empowering, dialectical view that can be achieved by considering Aboriginal people not as children in need, but as capable and efficacious individuals.
Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.
The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…
Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Celano, Mark J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N.; Wallace, Gregory L.
Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n = 41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n = 58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings…
Misalidi, Plousia; Bonoti, Fotini
The study aimed to investigate whether the impact of mood state on children's choice of expressive strategies (literal and non-literal content and abstract) varies as a function of mood valence, age and topic to be drawn. The sample (N?=?96) consisted of four groups of children aged 5, 7, 9 and 11years, respectively. Half of the children in each…
Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna
This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…
Lewis, Alvin D.
This practicum addressed the needs of latency age children who were insensitive to racial and ethnic differences. These needs were met by designing and developing a Cultural Awareness Program, so as to increase latency age children's sensitivity to racial and ethnic differences. The program's focus was on helping the children gain an appreciation…
MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.
Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…
Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…
Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir
This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …
Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.
This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…
Taylor, Donald M.; And Others
Sudden empowerment of Canadian Aboriginal communities has raised many dilemmas concerning community controlled education, including issues related to educational planning and decision making by inexperienced administrators, focusing educational goals on the community versus mainstream society, discontinuities between community and school culture,…
According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…
Lee, A J; O'Dea, K; Mathews, J D
Apparent per capita food and nutrient intake in six remote Australian Aboriginal communities using the 'store-turnover' method is described. The method is based on the analysis of community-store food invoices. The face validity of the method supports the notion that, under the unique circumstances of remote Aboriginal communities, the turnover of foodstuffs from the community store is a useful measure of apparent dietary intake for the community as a whole. In all Aboriginal communities studied, the apparent intake of energy, sugars and fat was excessive, while the apparent intake of dietary fibre and several nutrients, including folic acid, was low. White sugar, flour, bread and meat provided in excess of 50 per cent of the apparent total energy intake. Of the apparent high fat intake, fatty meats contributed nearly 40 per cent in northern coastal communities and over 60 per cent in central desert communities. Sixty per cent of the apparent high intake of sugars was derived from sugar per se in both regions. Compared with national Australian apparent consumption data, intakes of sugar, white flour and sweetened carbonated beverages were much higher in Aboriginal communities, and intakes of wholemeal bread, fruit and vegetables were much lower. Results of the store-turnover method have important implications for community-based nutrition intervention programs.
Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike
Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…
Argues that universities in Australia have done little to assist in the preservation of Aboriginal languages. The article maintains that provision by the government of adequate financial support to universities would enable them to make a significant contribution to the cause of saving endangered languages from extinction. (Author/CK) (17…
Bow, Catherine; Christie, Michael; Devlin, Brian
The fluctuating fortunes of Northern Territory bilingual education programs in Australian languages and English have put at risk thousands of books developed for these programs in remote schools. In an effort to preserve such a rich cultural and linguistic heritage, the Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages project is establishing an open access,…
Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.
Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…
Chang, Ya-Chih; Shih, Wendy; Landa, Rebecca; Kaiser, Ann; Kasari, Connie
Few interventions exist for school-aged minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Even though play skills are associated with children's production of language, few studies have focused on play for minimally verbal children. Fifty-eight minimally verbal children with ASD received a naturalistic developmental behavioral…
Brussoni, Mariana; George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E
Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. During the period 1991-2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, p<0.001), predicted SRRs very close to observed values, and retained the following terms: urban residence, population per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions and
Lukaszyk, Caroline; Coombes, Julieann; Turner, Norma Jean; Hillmann, Elizabeth; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Cathie; Ivers, Rebecca
Fall related injury is an emerging issue for older Indigenous people worldwide, yet few targeted fall prevention programs are currently available for Indigenous populations. In order to inform the development of a new Aboriginal-specific fall prevention program in Australia, we conducted community consultation with older Aboriginal people to identify perceptions and beliefs about falls, and to identify desired program elements. Yarning Circles were held with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 45 years and over. Each Yarning Circle was facilitated by an Aboriginal researcher who incorporated six indicative questions into each discussion. Questions explored the impact of falls on Yarning Circle participants, their current use of fall prevention services and investigated Yarning Circle participant's preferences regarding the design and mode of delivery of a fall prevention program. A total of 76 older Aboriginal people participated in ten Yarning Circles across six sites in the state of New South Wales. Participants associated falls with physical disability, a loss of emotional well-being and loss of connection to family and community. Many participants did not use existing fall prevention services due to a lack of availability in their area, having no referral provided by their GP and/or being unaware of fall prevention programs in general. Program elements identified as important by participants were that it be Aboriginal-specific, group-based, and on-going, with the flexibility to be tailored to specific communities, with free transport provided to and from the program. Older Aboriginal people reported falls to be a priority health issue, with a significant impact on their health and well-being. Few older Aboriginal people accessed prevention programs, suggesting there is an important need for targeted Aboriginal-specific programs. A number of important program elements were identified which if incorporated into prevention programs, may help to
George, M. Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E.
Background Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. Methods We identified Aboriginal people through BC’s universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1991–2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, p<0.001), predicted SRRs very close to observed values, and retained the following terms: urban residence, population per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Conclusions Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued
Amarasena, N; Kapellas, K; Skilton, M R; Maple-Brown, L J; Brown, A; O'Dea, K; Celermajer, D S; Jamieson, L M
Few studies have examined dental caries experience in Aboriginal adults. The objectives of this study were to describe the dental caries experience of some Aboriginal Australian adults residing in the Northern Territory, and to determine associations with dental caries experience. A convenience sample of Aboriginal adults from Australia's Northern Territory was dentally examined. Self-reported oral health information was collected through a questionnaire. Data were available for 312 participants. The per cent of untreated decayed teeth (per cent DT >0) was 77.9 (95% CI 73.0 to 82.1), the mean DT was 3.0 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.4), the prevalence of any caries experience (the per cent DMFT >0) was 95.5 (95% CI 92.6 to 97.3) and the mean DMFT was 9.7 (95% CI 8.9 to 10.5). In multivariable analyses, unemployment and not brushing teeth the previous day were associated with the per cent DT >0. Problem-based dental attendance was associated with both the mean DT and the per cent DMFT >0. Older age, residing in the capital city, being non-incarcerated, last visiting a dentist <1 year ago and problem-based dental attendance were associated with the mean DMFT. Dental caries experience among this convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults was very high. Most factors associated with dental caries were social determinants or dental service access-related. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Fitzpatrick, E F M; Macdonald, G; Martiniuk, A L C; D'Antoine, H; Oscar, J; Carter, M; Lawford, T; Elliott, E J
Researchers are required to seek consent from Indigenous communities prior to conducting research but there is inadequate information about how Indigenous people understand and become fully engaged with this consent process. Few studies evaluate the preference or understanding of the consent process for research with Indigenous populations. Lack of informed consent can impact on research findings. The Picture Talk Project was initiated with senior Aboriginal leaders of the Fitzroy Valley community situated in the far north of Western Australia. Aboriginal people were interviewed about their understanding and experiences of research and consent processes. Transcripts were analysed using NVivo10 software with an integrated method of inductive and deductive coding and based in grounded theory. Local Aboriginal interpreters validated coding. Major themes were defined and supporting quotes sourced. Interviews with Aboriginal leaders (n = 20) were facilitated by a local Aboriginal Community Navigator who could interpret if necessary and provide cultural guidance. Participants were from all four major local language groups of the Fitzroy Valley; aged 31 years and above; and half were male. Themes emerging from these discussions included Research-finding knowledge; Being respectful of Aboriginal people, Working on country, and Being flexible with time; Working together with good communication; Reciprocity-two-way learning; and Reaching consent. The project revealed how much more there is to be learned about how research with remote Aboriginal communities should be conducted such that it is both culturally respectful and, importantly, meaningful for participants. We identify important elements in community consultation about research and seeking consent.
Wilson, Kevin; Steenbeek, Audrey; Asbridge, Mark; Cragg, Amber; Langille, Donald B
Background Young Aboriginal Canadian people are at increased risk of negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy. Associations between Aboriginal ethnicity and sexual risk behaviours and related health services use among sexually active female university students in eastern Canada were examined. A secondary analysis of online survey data collected from sexually active female university students under age 30 years from eight post-secondary institutions in the Maritime Provinces of Canada was carried out (N=5010). Students were asked about their ethnic backgrounds, health services use and sexual health behaviours. Logistic regressions were used to compare Aboriginal students to Caucasian students regarding their sexual health behaviours and services use. In adjusted analyses, Aboriginal students were seen to be more likely to not have used a condom (OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.34-4.18) or any form of effective contraception (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.75-5.31) at last intercourse. They also were more likely to report any lifetime testing for pregnancy (OR 5.81; 95% CI 3.07-10.99) and STIs (OR 2.95; 95% CI 1.11-7.82). Aboriginal students accessed university health services as often as their Caucasian counterparts. Aboriginal women attending university in the Maritime Provinces of Canada engage in greater sexual risk taking than Caucasian women and report more related testing. Health services providers working with university students should be aware of these lower rates of barrier protection and use of contraception among Aboriginal women, and use healthcare visits as opportunities to engage these women in reducing their sexual risk taking.
Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio
This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.
Quinlan, Carol A; McVeigh, Katharine H; Driver, Cynthia R; Govind, Prashil; Karpati, Adam
We examined trends in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the association of ASD with parental age among young New York City (NYC) children. Children born in NYC to resident mothers from 1994-2001 were identified through vital statistics records (N = 927,003). Records were linked to data from NYC Early Intervention (EI) Program through 2004. The independent parental age-specific odds of having an ASD before 36 months of age were estimated using multiple logistic regression controlling for risk factors. The increase in ASD attributable to changes in parental age at birth was examined. Births to mothers and fathers 35 years or older increased 14.9 and 11.5 %, respectively, between 1994 and 2001. ASD prevalence in EI increased significantly from 1 in 3,300 children born in 1994 to 1 in 233 children born in 2001. Children born to mothers ages 25-29, 30-34 and 35 or older had significantly greater odds of being diagnosed with ASD than children of mothers younger than 25 years (OR 1.5, 1.6, and 1.9, respectively). Children born to fathers ages 35 or older (OR 1.4) had greater odds of ASD than children of fathers younger than 25. The change in parental age accounted for only 2.7 % of the increase in ASD prevalence. Older paternal age and maternal age were independently associated with increased risk of ASD. However, while parental age at birth increased between the 1994 and 2001 birth cohorts in NYC, it did not explain the increase in number of ASD cases.
Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.
SUMMARY Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. PMID:20022181
Borelli, Jessica L.; St. John, H. Kate; Cho, Evelyn; Suchman, Nancy E.
Parental reflective functioning (RF) has garnered tremendous support as a predictor of secure attachment in infancy, though little work has examined RF among parents of older children. In this study, we used a high-risk community sample of parent–child dyads (N = 117) to explore whether parental RF comprises self- and child-focused factors, whether parental RF is associated with parent and child attachment security, and whether parental RF mediates the association between parent and child attachment security. Results suggested that parental RF can be characterized as having both self- and child-focused components, and that child-focused parental RF is associated with child but not parent attachment security. Further, child-focused parental RF indirectly mediates the association between parent attachment avoidance and child attachment security. These findings extend previous work on parental RF to parents of school-age children and, in so doing, inform developmental models of attachment relationships in middle childhood. Discussion focuses on the importance of these findings in informing theory, prevention, clinical practice, and policy. PMID:26618938
Ward, Kristina M.; Brehm, Laurel
Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children’s multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children’s accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children’s dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children’s proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition. PMID:28105890
Brauner-Otto, Sarah R
Intergenerational transfers play an important role in individuals' lives across the life course. In this paper I pull together theories on intergenerational transfers and social change to inform our understanding of how changes in the educational context influence children's support of their parents. By examining multiple aspects of a couple's educational context, including husbands' and wives' education and exposure to schools, this paper provides new information on the mechanisms through which changes in social context influence children's support of their parents. Using data from a rural Nepalese area I use multilevel logistic regression to estimate the relationship between schooling, exposure to schools, and the likelihood of couples giving to their parents. I find that both schooling and exposure to schools itself have separate, opposite effects on support of aging parents. Higher levels of schooling for husbands was associated with a higher likelihood of having given support to husbands' parents. On the other hand, increased exposure to schools for husbands and wives was associated with a lower likelihood of having given to wives' parents. Findings constitute evidence that multiple motivations for intergenerational support exist simultaneously and are related to social context through different mechanisms.
Suls, Jerry; Kalle, Robert J.
Examined kindergarten, first, third, and fifth graders' reactions to the moral transgressions of children and adults. The stories presented to the children varied in terms of intention, damage, and age of transgressor. (BD)
Lecompte, Emily; Baril, Mireille
To meet the unique health needs of Aboriginal peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis), it is important to increase and encourage Aboriginal representation in health care. One Federal initiative, the Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative (AHHRI) at Health Canada, focuses on: (1) increasing the number of Aboriginal people working in health careers; (2) adapting health care educational curricula to support the development of cultural competencies; and (3) improving the retention of health care workers in Aboriginal communities. A health care system that focuses on understanding the unique challenges, concerns, and needs of Aboriginal people can better respond to this specific population, which suffers disproportionately from ill health in comparison to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. This report examines the supply of Aboriginal health care providers in Canada, based on geographic region, area of residence, Aboriginal identity, and occupation. Findings are drawn from the 1996 and 2001 censuses from Statistics Canada. Quantitative results provide a greater understanding of labour force characteristics of First Nation, Inuit, Métis, and non-Aboriginal health providers.
Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois
We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Macfie, Jenny; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
A study compared the self-development of 43 typical preschool children and 155 maltreated preschool children. Each group of sexually, physically abused, and neglected preschool children showed more dissociation than did the typical children. Clinically identifiable dissociation was particularly associated with physical abuse. Severity of…
Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A child age 22 or over...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A child age 22 or over...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A child age 22 or over...
Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.
A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…
Greenberg, Joy Pastan
The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…
Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn
The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…
Parisette-Sparks, Alyssa; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N
Shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that begin to develop early in life and are associated with various forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to these emotions in young children. Specifically, no longitudinal studies to date have examined a range of parent factors that shape the expression of children's shame and guilt. The current multimethod, longitudinal study sought to determine whether parenting style, parental psychopathology, and parents' marital satisfaction assessed when children were age 3 predict expressions of shame and guilt in children at age 6. A large community sample of families (N = 446; 87.4% Caucasian) with 3-year-old children (45.7% female) was recruited through commercial mailing lists. Parent variables were assessed when children were age 3 with mother- and father-report questionnaires and a diagnostic interview. Children's expressions of shame and guilt were observed in the laboratory at age 6. Fathers', but not mothers', history of depression and permissive parenting assessed when children were age 3 predicted children's expressions of shame and guilt when children were age 6; parents' marital dissatisfaction also predicted children's shame and guilt. These findings suggest that parents, and fathers in particular, contribute to expressions of self-conscious emotions in children. These data on emotional development may be useful for better characterizing the risk and developmental pathways of psychopathology.
Childcare Resources, Birmingham, AL.
The purpose of this manual is to provide school-age child care center staff in Alabama with information about school-age children that facilitates program planning and provides a basis for implementing and evaluating a high quality school-age child care (SACC) program. Sections of the manual discuss: (1) teacher competencies addressed by the…
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…
Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden
Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise
Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles.
Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken
This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…
Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie
This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.
Barrios, Chelsey S; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N; Dougherty, Lea R
Little is known about the role of stress reactivity in the emergence of psychopathology across early childhood. In this longitudinal study, we tested the hypothesis that child cortisol reactivity at age 3 moderates associations between early parenting and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms from age 3 to age 6. One hundred and sixty children were assessed at age 3, and 135 children were reassessed at age 6. At age 3, we exposed children to stress-inducing laboratory tasks, during which we obtained four salivary cortisol samples, and parental hostility was assessed using an observational parent-child interaction task. At ages 3 and 6, child psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a clinical interview with parents. The results indicated that the combination of high child cortisol reactivity and high observed parental hostility at age 3 was associated with greater concurrent externalizing symptoms at age 3 and predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms from age 3 to age 6. Findings highlight that increased stress reactivity, within the context of hostile parenting, plays a role in the emergence of psychopathology from preschool to school entry.
Cattelino, E; Bina, M; Skanjeti, A M; Calandri, E
Body perception has been mainly studied in adolescents and adults in relation to eating disorders and obesity because such conditions are usually associated with distortion in the perception of body size. The development of body perception in children was rather neglected despite the relevance of this issue in understanding the aetiology of health eating problems. The main aim of this study was to investigate body weight and body height perception in children by gender, age and body mass index (BMI), taking into account differences among underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese children. A school-based sample of 572 Italian children (49% boys) aged 6-10 were involved in a cross-sectional survey. Current weight and height were measured by standard protocols, and BMI was calculated and converted in centile categories using the Italian growth curves for children. Perceived weight and height were assessed using visual methods (figures representing children of different weight and height). About a third of the children do not show to have an accurate perception of their weight and height (weight: 36%; height: 32%): as for weight, an error of underestimation prevails and as for height, an error of overestimation prevails. In general, children who have different weight and height from the average tend to perceive their physical characteristics closer to average. However, overweight children underestimate their weight much more than obese children. Distortions in the perception of their physical features, weight and height, appear to be related to the aesthetic models of Western culture. The tendency to underestimate weight, particularly in overweight children, has implications in interventions for health promotion and healthy lifestyle in school-aged children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rowse, T; Scrimgeour, D; Knight, S; Thomas, D
Attempts to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal people through nutritional education programs should be informed by an understanding of contemporary patterns of food procurement, preparation and distribution. This paper describes the results of a survey of food-purchasing behaviour in a central-Australian Aboriginal community. Every transaction occurring in each food outlet in the community over a two-week period was recorded and the data analysed. The results show that women play a much greater role than men in food purchasing, that there is a significant recourse to takeaway foods, that there is a cycle of expenditure determined by distribution of pension and Community Development Employment Project cheques, and that children have sufficient disposable income to be able to provision themselves from the food outlets, so that much of their food consumption is not determined by adult members of their family.
Cairney, Sheree; Abbott, Tammy; Quinn, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Jessica; Wilson, Byron; Wakerman, John
Wellbeing has been difficult to understand, measure and strengthen for Aboriginal people in remote Australia. Part of the challenge has been genuinely involving community members and incorporating their values and priorities into assessment and policy. Taking a 'shared space' collaborative approach between remote Aboriginal communities, governments and scientists, we merged Aboriginal knowledge with western science - by bringing together stories and numbers. This research aims to statistically validate the holistic Interplay Wellbeing Framework and Survey that bring together Aboriginal-identified priorities of culture, empowerment and community with government priorities including education, employment and health. Quantitative survey data were collected from a cohort of 842 Aboriginal people aged 15-34 years, recruited from four different Aboriginal communities in remote Australia. Aboriginal community researchers designed and administered the survey. Structural equation modeling showed good fit statistics (χ/df = 2.69, CFI = 0.95 and RMSEA = 0.045) confirming the holistic nature of the Interplay Wellbeing Framework. The strongest direct impacts on wellbeing were 'social and emotional wellbeing' (r = 0.23; p < 0.001), 'English literacy and numeracy' (r = 0.15; p < 0.001), 'Aboriginal literacy' (r = 0.14; p < 0.001), 'substances' (lack thereof; r = 0.13; p = 0.003), 'work' (r = 0.12; p = 0.02) and 'community' (r = 0.08; p = 0.05). Correlation analyses suggested cultural factors have indirect impacts on wellbeing, such as through Aboriginal literacy. All cultural variables correlated highly with each other, and with empowerment and community. Empowerment also correlated highly with all education and work variables. 'Substances' (lack thereof) was linked with positive outcomes across culture, education and work. Specific interrelationships will be explored in detail separately. The Interplay Wellbeing
Ravikumar, Dhanalakshmi; Gurunathan, Deepa; Karthikeyan, Shanmugaavel; Subbramanian, Emg; Samuel, Victor A
The attire of the dentist has an influence on child's behaviour in dental setup. Recent research has shown that the children have preferences towards the outfit worn by the dentist. The aim of the study was to determine the preference of children towards dentists' attire based on various age groups and environment. A total of 534 children aged between 6-11 years participated in the study. Children were divided into three groups based on their age as younger, middle and older age groups. Photographs of the dentist in different attires such as white coat, surgical scrubs and regular outfit were shown to children and the questionnaire was evaluated by a single, qualified Paediatric dentist in two different environmental set ups, namely school and dental environment. The anxiety level was evaluated by using Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Data was collected and tabulated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards dentist attire (p-value= 0.002). There was a positive correlation in the preference level of children towards dentist attire in different age groups. A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards the dentist attire in school and dental environment (p-value <0.001). Younger age group children preferred regular outfit and middle and older age group preferred white coat and surgical scrubs respectively. Children preferred white coat in school environment and surgical scrubs in dental environment.
Duley, P; Botfield, J R; Ritter, T; Wicks, J; Brassil, A
Issue addressed Aboriginal youth in Australia often experience high rates of intimate partner violence (family violence) and poorer reproductive and sexual health than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. To address some of the disparities, the Strong Family Program was developed to deliver reproductive and sexual health education to Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. Methods Development of the program was based on an extensive consultation process with Aboriginal communities. It was implemented in three communities, with two groups from each hosting Aboriginal youth and Elders in a yarning circle within the culturally respectful frameworks of 'men and boys'' and 'women and girls'' business. An evaluation was conducted to measure reproductive and sexual health knowledge and attitude changes upon program completion, using pre- and post-program surveys and yarning (focus group discussions). Results Program participants comprised 48 females and 28 males. Overall, mean knowledge and attitude scores improved upon completion of the program (from 77% to 82% and from 4.15 to 4.32 out of 5, respectively). Among participants aged 20 years and under (the youngest participant was 13 years), there was an increase in knowledge (P=0.034); among participants aged over 20 years (the oldest participant was 78 years), there was an increase in positive attitudes (P=0.001). Participants perceived the information provided to be useful and relevant, with many reporting improved knowledge and attitudes around rights and respectful relationships. Conclusions Reproductive and sexual health education in Aboriginal communities should be based on community consultations and carried out within a culturally appropriate framework to promote greater success. Continued implementation of the Strong Family Program will promote increased understanding of respectful relationships and improved health outcomes for Aboriginal young people. So what? The Strong Family Program was based on an extensive
Li, Cheng-Mei; Gu, Li; Yin, Shao-Jun; Yang, Rong; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Xiao-Zhi; Fu, Yu-Xuan; Cheng, Dan
To measure Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP)-associated myocardial damage in different age groups of children with pneumonia. Children aged 0-14 years with pneumonia and myocardial damage (serum creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB [CK-MB] concentration >25 U/l) were enrolled in the study. The children were classified as Mycoplasma pneumoniae immunoglobulin M positive (M. pneumoniae IgM+) or negative (M. pneumoniae IgM-) based on a serological test. Children were stratified into four age groups in order to analyse age-specific MPP-associated myocardial damage. The incidence of fever was significantly higher in children who were M. pneumoniae IgM+ compared with M. pneumoniae IgM- children. The median serum CK-MB concentration was significantly higher in children who were M. pneumoniae IgM+ compared with those who were M. pneumoniae IgM-. Children who were M. pneumoniae IgM+ in the 13-36 months and 72 months-14 years age groups had significantly higher median serum CK-MB concentrations than those who were M. pneumoniae IgM- in the same age group. M. pneumoniae infection was associated with greater myocardial damage in children aged 13-36 months and 72 months-14 years. This suggests age-specific immune responses to M. pneumoniae.
Kirman, Joseph M.
Discusses remote sensing technology use in teaching elementary school students about science and social studies. Reviews findings dealing with the use of remote sensing and considering children's abilities, teacher training, computer applications, gifted children, and sex-related differences. Concludes that children as young as grade three can…
Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy
Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…
Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine
The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.
Sergeant, Desmond; Welch, Graham Frederick
This paper forms part of a larger study into the nature of singing development in children. The focus here is on an investigation of age-related changes in long-term average spectra (LTAS). Three hundred and twenty children in age groups 4-11 years learned a song. Each child was then digitally recorded singing alone. LTAS curves were calculated from the recordings of each voice and perceived age was estimated by a panel of independent judges. Progressive statistically significant changes were ob