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Sample records for aboriginal community members

  1. Cultural Immersion: Developing a Community of Practice of Teachers and Aboriginal Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Cathie; Cavanagh, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    A lack of teacher awareness of the cultural and historical background of Aboriginal students has long been recognised as a major causative factor in the failure of Australian schools to fully engage Aboriginal students and deliver equitable educational outcomes for them. Using Wenger's communities of practice framework, this paper analyses the…

  2. Understanding the Role of Healing in Aboriginal Communities. Corrections. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Comprendre le role de la guerison dans les collectivites autochtones. Affaires correctionnelles. Collection sur les autochtones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawll, Marcia B.

    Written in English and French, this report presents views of Canadian Aboriginal community members about developing healthy communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with elders, youth, parents, political leaders, victims, offenders, and government employees in five Aboriginal communities, and telephone and mail surveys were conducted in…

  3. The reach and flow of health information in two Aboriginal communities: a social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Winch, Scott; Ahmed, Nageen; Rissel, Christopher; Maxwell, Michelle; Coutts, Joanna; Lucas, Kerri

    2016-10-19

    The aim of the present paper was to explore how social networks enable dissemination of health information within two Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. The study design was modelled on a social network analysis socio-centric model. Data collection was conducted primarily by Aboriginal community members who were trained as community researchers. Participants reported on their patterns of interaction and who they provided or received health information from, and awareness of the Aboriginal Enhancement of the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service. In total, 122 participants across two sites participated in the study. Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) were cited as the main provider of health information in both sites. Between-ness, degree and closeness centrality showed that certain community members, ACCHS and ACCHO within the two communities in the present study were considerable enablers [actors] in enhancing the reach and flow of health information to their respective Aboriginal community. There is potential for future health-promotion activities to be increasingly targeted and effective in terms of reach and influence, if guided by local Aboriginal organisations and by key Aboriginal community members within and across family networks and communities.

  4. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  5. Contribution of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services to improving Aboriginal health: an evidence review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Megan Ann; Hunt, Jennifer; Scrimgeour, David J; Davey, Maureen; Jones, Victoria

    2017-03-07

    Objective Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) deliver comprehensive, culturally appropriate primary health care to Aboriginal people and communities. The published literature acknowledging and supporting the roles of ACCHSs in improving Aboriginal health is limited. This paper seeks to collate and analyse the published evidence supporting the contribution of ACCHSs to improving the health of Aboriginal people.Methods A conceptual framework for exploring the contribution of ACCHSs was developed, drawing on the literature on the core functions of ACCHSs and the components of quality primary health care. This framework was used to structure the search strategy, inclusion criteria and analysis of the review.Results ACCHSs contribute to improving the health and well being of Aboriginal peoples through several pathways, including community controlled governance, providing employment and training, strengthening the broader health system and providing accessible, comprehensive primary health care.Conclusions ACCHSs make a range of important contributions to improving the health of Aboriginal peoples that are under-acknowledged. Consideration of the different ways ACCHSs contribute to improving Aboriginal health is of value in the design and evaluation of programs and policies that aim to improve the health of Aboriginal peoples.What is known about the topic? Aboriginal communities have long argued the vital role of ACCHSs in improving Aboriginal health.What does this paper add? This paper provides a comprehensive collation and analysis of the evidence supporting the contributions ACCHSs are making to improving Aboriginal health.What are the implications for practitioners? The conceptual framework and findings outlined in this paper illustrate that ACCHSs are making important contributions to improving Aboriginal health through several pathways. This information can be used to ensure actions to improve Aboriginal health are appropriate and effective

  6. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  7. Community Control and Self-Determination in Aboriginal Education Research: The Changed Roles, Relationships and Responsibilities of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Researchers and Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shayne; Stewart, Ian

    This paper examines ongoing changes related to appropriate methods and practices in Aboriginal educational research, including community control of research based on the principle of self-determination. This assertion of control includes the redefinition of relationships in the research process; appropriate initiation of research projects;…

  8. Are primary healthcare services culturally appropriate for Aboriginal people? Findings from a remote community.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kaye; Fatima, Yaqoot; Knight, Sabina

    2017-04-13

    This study explored the views of key stakeholders on cultural appropriateness of primary health care (PHC) services for Aboriginal people. A total of 78 participants, including healthcare providers, administrative team members (n=24, ~30% of study sample) and Aboriginal community members (n=54, ~70% of study sample) living in remote North West Queensland participated in the study. Outcome measures were assessed by administering survey questionnaires comprising qualitative questions and various subscales (e.g. provider behaviours and attitudes, communication, physical environment and facilities, and support from administrative staff). Descriptive statistics were used to present quantitative findings, whereas inductive thematic analysis was used for qualitative data. In contrast to the views of PHC providers, a significant number of Aboriginal people did not perceive that they were receiving culturally appropriate services. Although PHC providers acknowledged cultural awareness training for familiarising themselves with Aboriginal culture, they found the training to be general, superficial and lacking prospective evaluation. PHC providers should understand that culturally inappropriate clinical encounters generate mistrust and dissatisfaction. Therefore, a broad approach involving culturally respectful association between PHC providers, Aboriginal consumers and administrative staff is required to bring sustainable changes at the practice level to improve the health of Aboriginal people.

  9. The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

  10. Sustaining health education research programs in Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Wisener, Katherine; Shapka, Jennifer; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2016-05-09

    Despite evidence supporting the ongoing provision of health education interventions in First Nations communities, there is a paucity of research that specifically addresses how these programs should be designed to ensure sustainability and long-term effects. Using a Community-Based Research approach, a collective case study was completed with three Canadian First Nations communities to address the following research question: What factors are related to sustainable health education programs, and how do they contribute to and/or inhibit program success in an Aboriginal context? Semi-structured interviews and a sharing circle were completed with 19 participants, including members of community leadership, external partners, and program staff and users. Seven factors were identified to either promote or inhibit program sustainability, including: 1) community uptake; 2) environmental factors; 3) stakeholder awareness and support; 4) presence of a champion; 5) availability of funding; 6) fit and flexibility; and 7) capacity and capacity building. Each factor is provided with a working definition, influential moderators, and key evaluation questions. This study is grounded in, and builds on existing research, and can be used by First Nations communities and universities to support effective sustainability planning for community-based health education interventions.

  11. A Community of Practice Approach for Aboriginal Girls’ Sexual Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Banister, Elizabeth M.; Begoray, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of intervention programs for Aboriginal girls and many of those that exist are delivered in culturally inappropriate ways. Methods In this paper, we provide an overview of recent research that focused on delivering a sexual health mentorship program that enhanced the voices of Aboriginal youth and was culturally relevant and appropriate to indigenous youth. Results Our program served to enhance social connection and reinforced a sense of belonging and relational mutuality among group members. Conclusion The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a mentorship program that used a community of practice approach empowered Aboriginal youth to become successful border crossers and helped to align them with the wider community. PMID:18392205

  12. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C R

    1998-10-01

    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines.

  13. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  14. Impact of a methadone maintenance program on an Aboriginal community: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Michel; Veilleux, Nadia; Arseneault, Julie-Eve; Abboud, Saneea; Barrieau, André; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methadone maintenance treatment programs implemented in Aboriginal communities have proven to be beneficial for the control of opioid addiction and its associated consequences, but the perceptions and opinions of different community members about these programs remain elusive. The goal of this study was to determine the perceptions of members of a First Nation community in New Brunswick, Canada, on the implementation of a methadone maintenance treatment program and its effects on the community. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using semistructured focus group discussions with 3 distinct groups composed of health care professionals and influential community members, patients in the methadone maintenance treatment program and community members at large. Thematic analysis of discussion transcripts was performed. Results: A total of 22 partipants were included in the 3 focus groups. All groups of participants expressed that patients in the program are stigmatized and marginalized. Discussions also revealed widespread misconceptions about the program. Participants associated the program with improvements in community-level outcomes and in parenting abilities of patients, but also with difficulties preserving family unity. Interpretation: Despite being culturally adapted to the community, elements surrounding the methadone maintenance treatment program in this First Nation community appear to be misunderstood and stigmatized. It may be beneficial to provide community education on these programs to assure community buy-in for the successful implementation of harm reduction programs in Aboriginal communities. PMID:27730106

  15. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community.

  16. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  17. E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  18. Aboriginal Families Study: a population-based study keeping community and policy goals in mind right from the start

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are between two to five times more likely to die in childbirth than non-Aboriginal women, and two to three times more likely to have a low birthweight infant. Babies with a low birthweight are more likely to have chronic health problems in adult life. Currently, there is limited research evidence regarding effective interventions to inform new initiatives to strengthen antenatal care for Aboriginal families. Method/Design The Aboriginal Families Study is a cross sectional population-based study investigating the views and experiences of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women having an Aboriginal baby in the state of South Australia over a 2-year period. The primary aims are to compare the experiences and views of women attending standard models of antenatal care with those accessing care via Aboriginal Family Birthing Program services which include Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care (AMIC) Workers as members of the clinical team; to assess factors associated with early and continuing engagement with antenatal care; and to use the information to inform strengthening of services for Aboriginal families. Women living in urban, regional and remote areas of South Australia have been invited to take part in the study by completing a structured interview or, if preferred, a self-administered questionnaire, when their baby is between 4–12 months old. Discussion Having a baby is an important life event in all families and in all cultures. How supported women feel during pregnancy, how women and families are welcomed by services, how safe they feel coming in to hospitals to give birth, and what happens to families during a hospital stay and in the early months after the birth of a new baby are important social determinants of maternal, newborn and child health outcomes. The Aboriginal Families Study builds on consultation with Aboriginal communities across South Australia. The project has been implemented with

  19. Suicide Rates in Aboriginal Communities in Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nathaniel J.; Mulay, Shree; Valcour, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare suicide rates in Aboriginal communities in Labrador, including Innu, Inuit, and Southern Inuit, with the general population of Newfoundland, Canada. Methods. In partnership with Aboriginal governments, we conducted a population-based study to understand patterns of suicide mortality in Labrador. We analyzed suicide mortality data from 1993 to 2009 from the Vital Statistics Death Database. We combined this with community-based methods, including consultations with Elders, youths, mental health and community workers, primary care clinicians, and government decision-makers. Results. The suicide rate was higher in Labrador than in Newfoundland. This trend persisted across all age groups; however, the disparity was greatest among those aged 10 to 19 years. Males accounted for the majority of deaths, although suicide rates were elevated among females in the Inuit communities. When comparing Aboriginal subregions, the Innu and Inuit communities had the highest age-standardized mortality rates of, respectively, 165.6 and 114.0 suicides per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions. Suicide disproportionately affects Innu and Inuit populations in Labrador. Suicide rates were high among male youths and Inuit females. PMID:27196659

  20. Community Development and Research. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Developpement Communautaire et Recherches. Collection sur les Autochtones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report provides Canadian Aboriginal communities with information and resources for carrying out participatory action research and applying the results to community development. Presented in English and French, the report is based on a literature review and a 2-day focus group involving 14 community development experts, Aboriginal community…

  1. Childhood Cryptosporidium infection among aboriginal communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; ’Azlin, M Y; Fatmah, M S; Norhayati, M

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian parasite that is prevalent worldwide, some species of which cause morbidity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The prevalence and predictors of Cryptosporidium infection, and its effect on nutritional status, have recently been explored among 276 children (141 boys and 135 girls, aged 2–15 years) in aboriginal (Orang Asli) villages in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Faecal smears were examined by the modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique while socio–economic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Cryptosporidium infection, which was detected in 7·2% of the aboriginal children, was found to be significantly associated with low birthweight (⩽2·5 kg), being part of a large household (with more than seven members) and prolonged breast feeding (>2 years). The output of a binary logistic regression confirmed that large household size was a significant predictor of Cryptosporidium infection (giving an odds ratio of 2·15, with a 95% confidence interval of 1·25–5·02). Cryptosporidium infection is clearly a public-health problem among the aboriginal children of Selangor, with person-to-person the most likely mode of transmission. PMID:21396250

  2. Grounded in Country: Perspectives on Working within, alongside and for Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Barrett, Elizabeth; Price, Anne; Stomski, Norman; Walker, Bruce F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences of four researchers working within, alongside and for the Gumala Aboriginal Corporation in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The focus of the research was a health and education needs analysis of Gumala Aboriginal Corporation members that would inform future education and health planning in the region.…

  3. Community capacity as an "inside job": evolution of perceived ownership within a university-aboriginal community partnership.

    PubMed

    Cargo, Margaret D; Delormier, Treena; Lévesque, Lucie; McComber, Alex M; Macaulay, Ann C

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To assess the evolution of perceived ownership of a university-Aboriginal community partnership across three project stages. DESIGN. Survey administration to project partners during project formalization (1996-T1), mobilization (1999-T2), and maintenance (2004-T3). SETTING. Aboriginal community of Kahnawake, outside Montreal, Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS. Partners involved in influencing decision making in the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). MEASURE AND ANALYSIS . A measure of perceived primary ownership subjected to linear trend analysis. RESULTS. KSDPP staff were perceived as primary owner at T1 and shared ownership with Community Advisory Board (CAB) members at T2 and T3. Trend tests indicated greater perceived ownership between T1 and T3 for CAB (χ(2)(1)  =  12.3, p < .0001) and declining KSDPP staff (χ(2)(1)  =  10.5, p < .001) ownership over time. Academic partners were never perceived as primary owners. CONCLUSION. This project was community driven from the beginning. It was not dependent on an external academic change agent to activate the community and develop the community's capacity to plan and implement a solution. It still took several years for the grassroots CAB to take responsibility from KSDPP staff, thus indicating the need for sustained funding to build grassroots community capacity.

  4. Culturally Competent Evaluation for Aboriginal Communities: A Review of the Empirical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill A.; Cousins, J. Bradley

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the current empirical literature on cross-cultural evaluation in Aboriginal communities, and to begin to address the recognized lack of critically engaged discussion about research on culturally competent evaluation. The term "Aboriginal" in this document refers to First Nations,…

  5. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods.

  6. A Systematic Review of Community Interventions to Improve Aboriginal Child Passenger Safety

    PubMed Central

    Oudie, Eugenia; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated evidence of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety (CPS) in terms of its scientific merit and cultural relevance. We included studies if they reported interventions to improve CPS in Aboriginal communities, compared at least pre- and postintervention conditions, and evaluated rates and severity of child passenger injuries, child restraint use, or knowledge of CPS. We also appraised quality and cultural relevance of studies. Study quality was associated with community participation and cultural relevance. Strong evidence showed that multicomponent interventions tailored to each community improves CPS. Interventions in Aboriginal communities should incorporate Aboriginal views of health, involve the community, and be multicomponent and tailored to the community’s circumstances and culture. PMID:24754652

  7. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  8. Reconciling Mixed Methods Approaches with a Community Narrative Model for Educational Research Involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…

  9. Creating Community: A Roundtable on Canadian Aboriginal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigenbrod, Renate, Ed.; Episkenew, Jo-Ann, Ed.

    This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon"…

  10. The role of Aboriginal community attachment in promoting lifestyle changes after hepatitis C diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Hannah; Jackson, L Clair; Johnson, Priscilla; Saunders, Veronica; Treloar, Carla

    2015-01-01

    This research assessed whether greater attachment to an Aboriginal community buffers against the negative effects of stigma and promotes positive health outcomes. Aboriginal Australians (n = 203) living with hepatitis C completed a survey assessing community attachment, stigma, resilience, quality of life, treatment intent, hepatitis C knowledge and positive lifestyle changes. A stronger sense of community attachment was associated with greater resilience, increased quality of life, less hepatitis C–related stigma and with increased lifestyle changes after diagnosis. Hence, community attachment can buffer against the negative health effects of stigma and may promote the resources to engage in positive behaviour changes, ultimately increasing long-term health outcomes. PMID:28070368

  11. Rethinking nursing best practices with aboriginal communities: informing dialogue and action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn; Edwards, Nancy; Peterson, Wendy; Jaglarz, Maria; Laplante, Dorothy; Estable, Alma

    2010-01-01

    This paper stems from findings of a literature review and consultation with key informants to explore nursing best practices in public health with rural and isolated Aboriginal communities. It summarizes background information on population distribution, the impact of colonization on Aboriginal health and the potential benefits for nurses and communities in adopting a partnership approach, rather than risking cultural imposition while applying best practices and knowledge derived from the dominant culture. The authors provide an alternative working definition for best practices in the context of public health nursing with Aboriginal communities based on findings from the literature review and key informant consultations. Findings include three principles for the development and assessment of nursing best practices with isolated Aboriginal communities: use of indigenous frameworks, capacity building and cultural safety. The discussion highlights examples that demonstrate the feasibility and strengths of these three principles across a selection of isolated, rural and national settings. Implications include a call for nursing leaders, managers and policy makers to take up this challenge and support wider dialogue and action to enable nursing practice that supports the efforts of Aboriginal people to improve health and social conditions.

  12. Help bring back the celebration of life: A community-based participatory study of rural Aboriginal women’s maternity experiences and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite clear evidence regarding how social determinants of health and structural inequities shape health, Aboriginal women’s birth outcomes are not adequately understood as arising from the historical, economic and social circumstances of their lives. The purpose of this study was to understand rural Aboriginal women’s experiences of maternity care and factors shaping those experiences. Methods Aboriginal women from the Nuxalk, Haida and 'Namgis First Nations and academics from the University of British Columbia in nursing, medicine and counselling psychology used ethnographic methods within a participatory action research framework. We interviewed over 100 women, and involved additional community members through interviews and community meetings. Data were analyzed within each community and across communities. Results Most participants described distressing experiences during pregnancy and birthing as they grappled with diminishing local maternity care choices, racism and challenging economic circumstances. Rural Aboriginal women’s birthing experiences are shaped by the intersections among rural circumstances, the effects of historical and ongoing colonization, and concurrent efforts toward self-determination and more vibrant cultures and communities. Conclusion Women’s experiences and birth outcomes could be significantly improved if health care providers learned about and accounted for Aboriginal people’s varied encounters with historical and ongoing colonization that unequivocally shapes health and health care. Practitioners who better understand Aboriginal women’s birth outcomes in context can better care in every interaction, particularly by enhancing women’s power, choice, and control over their experiences. Efforts to improve maternity care that account for the social and historical production of health inequities are crucial. PMID:23360168

  13. Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

  14. Guarding against an HIV epidemic within an Aboriginal community and cultural framework; lessons from NSW.

    PubMed

    Ward, James; Akre, Snehal P; Kaldor, John M

    2010-01-01

    The rate of HIV diagnosis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia has been stable over the past 5 years. It is similar to the rate in non-Indigenous people overall, but there are major differences in the demographical and behaviour patterns associated with infection, with a history of injecting drug use and heterosexual contact much more prominent in Aboriginal people with HIV infection. Moreover there are a range of factors, such as social disadvantage, a higher incidence of sexually transmitted infections and poor access to health services that place Aboriginal people at special risk of HIV infection. Mainstream and Aboriginal community-controlled health services have an important role in preventing this epidemic. Partnerships developed within NSW have supported a range of services for Aboriginal people. There is a continuing need to support these services in their response to HIV, with a particular focus on Aboriginal Sexual Health Workers, to ensure that the prevention of HIV remains a high priority.

  15. Aboriginal community controlled health services: leading the way in primary care.

    PubMed

    Panaretto, Kathryn S; Wenitong, Mark; Button, Selwyn; Ring, Ian T

    2014-06-16

    The national Closing the Gap framework commits to reducing persisting disadvantage in the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, with cross-government-sector initiatives and investment. Central to efforts to build healthier communities is the Aboriginal community controlled health service (ACCHS) sector; its focus on prevention, early intervention and comprehensive care has reduced barriers to access and unintentional racism, progressively improving individual health outcomes for Aboriginal people. There is now a broad range of primary health care data that provides a sound evidence base for comparing the health outcomes for Indigenous people in ACCHSs with the outcomes achieved through mainstream services, and these data show: models of comprehensive primary health care consistent with the patient-centred medical home model; coverage of the Aboriginal population higher than 60% outside major metropolitan centres; consistently improving performance in key performance on best-practice care indicators; and superior performance to mainstream general practice. ACCHSs play a significant role in training the medical workforce and employing Aboriginal people. ACCHSs have risen to the challenge of delivering best-practice care and there is a case for expanding ACCHSs into new areas. To achieve the best returns, the current mainstream Closing the Gap investment should be shifted to the community controlled health sector.

  16. Providing choices for a marginalized community. A community-based project with Malaysian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects.

  17. Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

  18. An ecological approach to health promotion in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2010-03-01

    Poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities are a symptom of a disjuncture in the cultures of a disadvantaged (and only relatively recently enfranchised) minority population and a proportionally large, wealthy dominant immigrant population, problematic social policies and the legacy of colonialism. Developing effective health promotion interventions in this environment is a challenge. Taking an ecological approach, the objective of this study was to identify the key social, economic, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to poor hygiene in remote Aboriginal communities, and to determine approaches that will improve hygiene and reduce the burden of infection among children. The methods included a mix of quantitative and qualitative community-based studies and literature reviews. Study findings showed that a combination of crowding, non-functioning health hardware and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children. Also, models of health promotion drawn from developed and developing countries can be adapted for use in remote Australian Aboriginal community contexts. High levels of disadvantage in relation to social determinants of health underlie the problem of poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Measures need to be taken to address the immediate problems that impact on children's health-for example, by ensuring the availability of functional and adequate water and sanitation facilities-but these interventions are unlikely to have a major effect unless the underlying issues are also addressed.

  19. Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

  20. Definitions of Suicide and Self-Harm Behavior in an Australian Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…

  1. Professional Pathways of Aboriginal Early Childhood Teachers: Intersections of Community, Indigeneity, and Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma; Wechmann, Kerrie; Whitworth, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available about the employment trajectories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples pursuing university professional qualifications. This article describes a context in which cultural space, issues of identity, pragmatics of employment, family and community and a bureaucratic regulatory environment intersect to…

  2. Community Arts as Public Pedagogy: Disruptions into Public Memory through Aboriginal Counter-Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quayle, Amy; Sonn, Christopher; Kasat, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Community Arts and Cultural Development (CACD) is a form of public pedagogy that seeks to intervene into the reproduction of meaning in public spaces. In this article, we explore the Bush Babies and Elders portrait project that sought to contribute to the empowerment of Aboriginal participants through counter-storytelling. Drawing on interview and…

  3. Knowledge transfer and exchange processes for environmental health issues in Canadian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Jack, Susan M; Brooks, Sandy; Furgal, Chris M; Dobbins, Maureen

    2010-02-01

    Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  4. From Generation to Generation: Survival and Maintenance of Canada's Aboriginal Languages, within Families, Communities and Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Mary Jane

    2004-01-01

    The survival and maintenance of Aboriginal languages in Canada depend on their transmission from generation to generation. Children are the future speakers of a language. This paper demonstrates that the family and the community together play critical roles in the transmission of language from parent to child. On their own, neither family capacity…

  5. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-01-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  6. [Health system and aboriginal communities in the province of Formosa, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Mirassou, Cristina S

    2013-01-01

    The author comments her experience in the practice of medicine and public health among aborigines in Formosa, a long neglected province in northeast Argentina. Her experience goes through a span of 34 years, 11 in a small community in a far off region. The province has 530162 inhabitants, 43358 (6.5%) aborigines of the Wichí, Qom, and Pilagá ethnicities. Some particular public health problems of these aborigines are due to the great distance between communities and the regular medical assistance while others are related to cultural differences. The situation has gradually improved in the last 30 years due to government awareness in providing easy and close access to medical care, making the most of the abilities of local aborigines midwifes, teaching health assistants and conventional measures. The most apparent results are the decrease in infant mortality rates and the lower incidence of tuberculosis, with no deaths due to tuberculous meningitis since 1999. No less important was the opening of new opportunities for education and the teaching of both native and Spanish language in the schools retaining local customs. The changes have brought about new risks and challenges such as: traffic accidents involving youngsters riding motorcycles, alcoholism, obesity, diabetes (undiagnosed beforehand), high rate of adolescence pregnancy, and crisis of leadership within the communities.

  7. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting. PMID:20017919

  8. Workforce insights on how health promotion is practised in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Kathryn; Devine, Sue; Judd, Jenni; Nichols, Nina; Watt, Kerrianne

    2017-02-03

    Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services deliver holistic and culturally appropriate primary health care to over 150 communities in Australia. Health promotion is a core function of comprehensive primary health care; however, little has been published on what enables or challenges health promotion practice in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service. Apunipima Cape York Health Council (Apunipima) delivers primary health care to 11 remote north Queensland communities. The workforce includes medical, allied health, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers and health practitioners and corporate support staff. This study aimed to identify current health promotion practices at Apunipima, and the enablers and challenges identified by the workforce, which support or hinder health promotion practice. Sixty-three staff from across this workforce completed an online survey in February 2015 (42% response rate). Key findings were: (1) health promotion is delivered across a continuum of one-on-one approaches through to population advocacy and policy change efforts; (2) the attitude towards health promotion was very positive; and (3) health promotion capacity can be enhanced at both individual and organisational levels. Workforce insights have identified areas for continued support and areas that, now identified, can be targeted to strengthen the health promotion capacity of Apunipima.

  9. Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families.

  10. Chronic disease, medications and lifestyle: perceptions from a regional Victorian Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor medication management may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of Aboriginal people in Australia. Yet while there is extensive literature about the perceptions of healthcare providers on this issue, there is limited information on the perceptions of Aboriginal people themselves. Objectives: To investigate the perceptions of a group of Aboriginal people attending a Victorian regional Aboriginal Health Service (AHS) with diagnosed medical conditions requiring medications, of their lifestyle, disease management and medication usage. Methods: Data was collected through one to one in depth interviews using a semi-structured ‘yarning’ process. Twenty patients were invited to participate in the study and were interviewed by Aboriginal Health Workers in a culturally appropriate manner. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Our results show that the majority of participants perceived that changes in lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, and smoking cessation would help improve their health. Most patients reported having been counselled on their medicines, and while the majority reported adherence and acknowledgement of the efficacy of their medicines, there was a lack of clarity regarding long term maintenance on regimens. Finally, while the majority reported taking over the counter products, some did not see the need to inform their doctor about this, or chose not to. Conclusion: Chronic illness was perceived as common in families and community. Patients relied mostly on their health care professionals as sources for their drug information. Patients may have benefited from further counselling in the area of complementary and other over the counter medicines, as well as on the necessity of maintenance of regimes for chronic disease management. Finally, lifestyle changes such as dietary improvements and smoking cessation were identified as areas that may

  11. Closing the Gap: the need to consider perceptions about drinking water in rural Aboriginal communities in NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jaravani, Fidelis G; Massey, Peter D; Judd, Jenni; Allan, Jason; Allan, Natalie

    2016-04-15

    A crucial objective of the Australian Government's Closing the Gap program is to improve Aboriginal health, and to achieve morbidity and mortality rates similar to those for non-Indigenous Australians. Reducing public health risks due to drinking water of unknown quality will help to close the gap. Factors such as hardness, taste, colour and odour of water may influence perceptions of risk and quality. Increased contact and familiarity with a hazard is associated with individuals becoming desensitised and habituated to its presence, so that their risk judgements may reflect their behavioural experiences. Consumption of water of unknown quality, such as rainwater, instead of treated town water in Australian Aboriginal communities may be a community norm, a part of a community's culture or a result of lack of trust in government water suppliers. Partnerships between service providers and communities can ensure that the service is responsive to community needs, is conducted in a culturally appropriate manner and is beneficial to the community. Governance of drinking water in Aboriginal communities cannot be comprehensive without active engagement of the communities involved, and greater understanding of cultural issues, perceptions and behaviours towards drinking water quality. This Perspective article reviews the literature to shed light on the need to consider New South Wales (NSW) Aboriginal perceptions about drinking water and its acceptability. We urge more dialogue and research, and a policy focus that includes partnerships with discrete NSW Aboriginal communities to develop a deeper understanding of perceptions of drinking water and encourage consumption of safe water.

  12. So far, so good: Maintenance of prevention is required to stem HIV incidence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, James; Costello-Czok, Michael; Willis, Jon; Saunders, Mark; Shannon, Cindy

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous people globally remain resilient yet vulnerable to the threats of HIV. Although Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience the worst health status of any identifiable group in Australia, with a standardized morbidity rate three times that of non-Indigenous Australians, the Australian response to HIV has resulted in relatively low and stable rates of HIV infection among Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper examines the reasons for the success of HIV prevention efforts. These include early recognition by Indigenous peoples of the potential effect that HIV could have on their communities; the supply of health hardware (needle and syringe programs and condoms); the development and implementation of culturally-appropriate health promotion messages such as the internationally-recognized Condoman campaign; the inclusion of dedicated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Sexual Health Workers in communities; and an inclusive policy and partnership approach. Furthermore, the efforts of peak Aboriginal health organizations including NACCHO and its member services and Indigenous programs in peak mainstream organizations like AFAO and its member organizations, have all contributed to prevention success. Efforts need to be maintained however to ensure an escalated epidemic does not occur, particularly among heterosexual people, especially women, and people who inject drugs. New ideas are required as we enter a new era of HIV prevention within the context of the new paradigm of treatment as prevention, and getting to zero new infections.

  13. Trying to keep a balance: the meaning of health and diabetes in an urban aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S J; Gifford, S M

    2000-11-01

    Although the predominant paradigm of epidemiological investigation continues to focus narrowly on the individual and on individual risk factors, there is a growing body of work that calls for a rethinking of the current epidemiological models. In this paper we illustrate the need for a more comprehensive epidemiological approach towards understanding the risks for diabetes, by exploring the lived experiences of diabetes and lay meanings of risk among Aborigines living in Melbourne, Australia. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted within the Melbourne Aboriginal community in the state of Victoria over a 22-month period (1994-1996). Melbourne Aborigines see non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) as the result of living a life out of balance, a life of lost or severed connections with land and kin and a life with little control over past, present or future. The lay model regarding diabetes that is derived from the narratives of Melbourne Aborigines, consists of three levels of connectedness important in determining an individual's susceptibility not only to diabetes but to all disease--(1) family, (2) community and (3) society. This structure of interactive systems at successive levels from the individual to the population fits within the framework of an ecological paradigm. The strength of ethnography as applied to epidemiology is that it has the capacity to discover previously unknown components of a system at several different levels, and to build models to explain how these components interact. This framework, developed using an ethno-epidemiological approach, has application in other indigenous populations who have been dispossessed of their land, their pasts and their future. There is great potential to apply this approach to the major public health challenges presented by rapid global socio-cultural and environmental change that are impacting negatively on population health.

  14. Stolen from Our Embrace: The Abduction of First Nations Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Suzanne; Crey, Ernie

    A deliberate policy to separate and forcibly assimilate Aboriginal First Nations children into the mainstream has pervaded every era of Aboriginal history in Canada. Each era saw a new reason to take Aboriginal children away from their homes, placing them in residential schools, foster care, or non-Aboriginal adoptive families. In the words of…

  15. A Regional Initiative to Reduce Skin Infections amongst Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Communities of the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ross M.; Kearns, Therese; Connors, Christine; Parker, Colin; Carville, Kylie; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Linked to extreme rates of chronic heart and kidney disease, pyoderma is endemic amongst Aboriginal children in Australia's Northern Territory (NT). Many of those with pyoderma will also have scabies. We report the results of a community-based collaboration within the East Arnhem Region, which aimed to reduce the prevalence of both skin infections in Aboriginal children. Methodology/Principal Findings Commencing September 2004, we conducted an ecological study that included active surveillance for skin infections amongst children aged <15 years in five remote East Arnhem communities over a three year period. Screening was undertaken by trained local community workers, usually accompanied by another project team member, using a standard data collection form. Skin infections were diagnosed clinically with the aid of a pictorial flip chart developed for the purpose. Topical 5% permethrin was provided for age-eligible children and all household contacts whenever scabies was diagnosed, whilst those with pyoderma were referred to the clinic for treatment in accordance with current guidelines. In addition, annual mass scabies treatment (5% permethrin cream) was offered to all community residents in accordance with current guidelines but was not directly observed. Pyoderma and scabies prevalence per month was determined from 6038 skin assessments conducted on 2329 children. Pyoderma prevalence dropped from 46.7% at baseline to a median of 32.4% (IQR 28.9%–41.0%) during the follow-up period – an absolute reduction of 14.7% (IQR 4.7%–16.8%). Compared to the first 18 months of observation, there was an absolute reduction in pyoderma prevalence of 18 cases per 100 children (95%CI −21.0, −16.1, p≤0.001) over the last 18 months. Treatment uptake increased over the same period (absolute difference 13.4%, 95%CI 3.3, 23.6). While scabies prevalence was unchanged, the prevalence of infected scabies (that is with superimposed pyoderma) decreased from 3.7% (95

  16. Sharing the tracks to good tucker: identifying the benefits and challenges of implementing community food programs for Aboriginal communities in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Murray, Margaret; Bonnell, Emily; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer; Barbour, Liza; MacDonald, Catherine; Palermo, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a significant issue in the Victorian Aboriginal population, contributing to the health disparity and reduced life expectancy. Community food programs are a strategy used to minimise individual level food insecurity, with little evidence regarding their effectiveness for Aboriginal populations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of community food programs operating for Aboriginal people in Victoria and their perceived influence on food access and nutrition. Semistructured interviews were conducted with staff (n=23) from a purposive sample of 18 community food programs across Victoria. Interviews explored the programs' operation, key benefits to the community, challenges and recommendations for setting up a successful community food program. Results were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach and revealed three main themes regarding key factors for the success of community food programs: (1) community food programs for Aboriginal people should support access to safe, affordable, nutritious food in a socially and culturally acceptable environment; (2) a community development approach is essential for program sustainability; and (3) there is a need to build the capacity of community food programs as part of a strategy to ensure sustainability. Community food programs may be an effective initiative for reducing food insecurity in the Victorian Aboriginal population.

  17. A decolonizing approach to health promotion in Canada: the case of the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project.

    PubMed

    Mundel, Erika; Chapman, Gwen E

    2010-06-01

    Aboriginal people in Canada suffer ill-health at much higher rates compared with the rest of the population. A key challenge is the disjuncture between the dominant biomedical approach to health in Canada and the holistic and integrative understandings of and approaches to health in many Aboriginal cultures. More fundamentally, colonization is at the root of the health challenges faced by this population. Thus, effective approaches to health promotion with Aboriginal people will require decolonizing practices. In this paper, we look at one case study of a health promotion project, the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project in Vancouver, Canada, which, guided by the teachings of the Medicine Wheel, aims to provide culturally appropriate health promotion. By drawing on Aboriginal approaches to healing, acknowledging the legacy of colonization and providing a context for cultural celebration, we suggest that the project can be seen as an example of what decolonizing health promotion could look like. Further, we suggest that a decolonizing approach to health promotion has the potential to address immediate needs while simultaneously beginning to address underlying causes of Aboriginal health inequities.

  18. Specialist clinics in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: where rock art meets rocket science.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Russell; Bailie, Ross

    2004-10-01

    People in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory have greater morbidity and mortality than other Australians, but face considerable barriers when accessing hospital-based specialist services. The Specialist Outreach Service, which began in 1997, was a novel policy initiative to improve access by providing a regular multidisciplinary visiting specialist services to remote communities. It led to two interesting juxtapositions: that of 'state of the art' specialist services alongside under-resourced primary care in remote and relatively traditional Aboriginal communities; and that of attempts to develop an evidence base for the effectiveness of outreach, while meeting the short-term evaluative requirements of policy-makers. In this essay, first we describe the development of the service in the Northern Territory and its initial process evaluation. Through a Cochrane systematic review we then summarise the published research on the effectiveness of specialist outreach in improving access to tertiary and hospital-based care. Finally we describe the findings of an observational population-based study of the use of specialist services and the impact of outreach to three remote communities over 11 years. Specialist outreach improves access to specialist care and may lessen the demand for both outpatient and inpatient hospital care. Specialist outreach is, however, dependent on well-functioning primary care. According to the way in which outreach is conducted and the service is organised, it can either support primary care or it can hinder primary care and, as a result, reduce its own effectiveness.

  19. Cannabis use and violence in three remote Aboriginal Australian communities: Analysis of clinic presentations.

    PubMed

    Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n = 88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n = 58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n = 40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR = 3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence.

  20. Engaging Aboriginal Families to Support Student and Community Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodkiewicz, Andrew; Widin, Jacquie; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    Engaging families in school-related programs, such as family literacy programs, has been promoted as an effective strategy to assist students who might otherwise fail to achieve success in school. The authors in this article report on an action research initiative with an urban Australian government community school in a relatively…

  1. Asthma Prevention and Management for Aboriginal People: Lessons From Mi’kmaq Communities, Unama’ki, Canada, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Robert; Bennett, Ella; Masuda, Jeffrey; King, Malcolm; Stewart, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma affects at least 10% of Aboriginal children (aged 11 or younger) in Canada, making it the second most common chronic disease suffered by this demographic group; yet asthma support strategies specific to Aboriginal peoples have only begun to be identified. Community Context This research builds on earlier phases of a recent study focused on identifying the support needs and intervention preferences of Aboriginal children with asthma and their parents or caregivers. Here, we seek to identify the implications of our initial findings for asthma programs, policies, and practices in an Aboriginal context and to determine strategies for implementing prevention programs in Aboriginal communities. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 22 recruited community health care professionals and school personnel in 5 Mi’kmaq communities in Unama’ki (Cape Breton), Nova Scotia, Canada, through a community-based participatory research design. Each focus group was first introduced to findings from a local “social support for asthma” intervention, and then the groups explored issues associated with implementing social support from their respective professional positions. Outcome Thematic analysis revealed 3 key areas of opportunity and challenges for implementing asthma prevention and management initiatives in Mi’kmaq communities in terms of 1) professional awareness, 2) local school issues, and 3) community health centers. Interpretation Culturally relevant support initiatives are feasible and effective community-driven ways of improving asthma support in Mi’kmaq communities; however, ongoing assistance from the local leadership (ie, chief and council), community health directors, and school administrators, in addition to partnerships with respiratory health service organizations, is needed. PMID:26766847

  2. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2015-05-14

    Purpose . To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Design . The study used a prospective intervention design. Setting . The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Subjects . Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. Intervention . A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Measures . Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. Analysis . The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results . Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. Conclusions . The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults.

  3. Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marlene Brant, Ed.; Davis, Lynne, Ed.; Lahache, Louise, Ed.

    Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…

  4. Boyfriends, Babies and Basketball: Present Lives and Future Aspirations of Young Women in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Kate A.; Chenhall, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their…

  5. Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

  6. Converting virtual community members into online buyers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumeet; Kim, Hee-Woong; Shin, Seon-Jin

    2010-10-01

    Although many online vendors have sponsored virtual communities (VCs) in the hope of reaping commercial benefits from it, not many have been successful in reaping commercial benefits from their VC. Online vendors can benefit greatly from having a VC, if the VC members can be converted into online buyers. This study examines the conversion of a VC member into an online buyer. Using a classical-conditioning approach, this study finds that members' committed participation in the VC is the springboard for online vendors to convert VC members into online buyers.

  7. Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches1

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence. PMID:21052554

  8. Chagas' disease in Aboriginal and Creole communities from the Gran Chaco Region of Argentina: Seroprevalence and molecular parasitological characterization.

    PubMed

    Lucero, R H; Brusés, B L; Cura, C I; Formichelli, L B; Juiz, N; Fernández, G J; Bisio, M; Deluca, G D; Besuschio, S; Hernández, D O; Schijman, A G

    2016-07-01

    Most indigenous ethnias from Northern Argentina live in rural areas of "the Gran Chaco" region, where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic. Serological and parasitological features have been poorly characterized in Aboriginal populations and scarce information exist regarding relevant T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) and parasitic loads. This study was focused to characterize T. cruzi infection in Qom, Mocoit, Pit'laxá and Wichi ethnias (N=604) and Creole communities (N=257) inhabiting rural villages from two highly endemic provinces of the Argentinean Gran Chaco. DNA extracted using Hexadecyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide reagent from peripheral blood samples was used for conventional PCR targeted to parasite kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) and identification of DTUs using nuclear genomic markers. In kDNA-PCR positive samples from three rural Aboriginal communities of "Monte Impenetrable Chaqueño", minicircle signatures were characterized by Low stringency single primer-PCR and parasitic loads calculated using Real-Time PCR. Seroprevalence was higher in Aboriginal (47.98%) than in Creole (27.23%) rural communities (Chi square, p=4.e(-8)). A low seroprevalence (4.3%) was detected in a Qom settlement at the suburbs of Resistencia city (Fisher Exact test, p=2.e(-21)).The kDNA-PCR positivity was 42.15% in Aboriginal communities and 65.71% in Creole populations (Chi square, p=5.e(-4)). Among Aboriginal communities kDNA-PCR positivity was heterogeneous (Chi square, p=1.e(-4)). Highest kDNA-PCR positivity (79%) was detected in the Qom community of Colonia Aborigen and the lowest PCR positivity in two different surveys at the Wichi community of Misión Nueva Pompeya (33.3% in 2010 and 20.8% in 2014). TcV (or TcII/V/VI) was predominant in both Aboriginal and Creole communities, in agreement with DTU distribution reported for the region. Besides, two subjects were infected with TcVI, one with TcI and four presented mixed infections of TcV plus TcII/VI. Most minicircle signatures

  9. Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Thérèse M.; Speare, Richard; Cheng, Allen C.; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Holt, Deborah C.; Currie, Bart J.; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Bundhala, Leanne; Mulholland, Eddie; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined disease acquisition and treatment failures. Scabies infestations were diagnosed clinically with additional laboratory investigations for crusted scabies. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 2–3 weeks if scabies was diagnosed, others followed a standard alternative algorithm. Principal Findings We saw >1000 participants at each population census. Scabies prevalence fell from 4% at baseline to 1% at month 6. Prevalence rose to 9% at month 12 amongst the baseline cohort in association with an identified exposure to a presumptive crusted scabies case with a higher prevalence of 14% amongst new entries to the cohort. At month 18, scabies prevalence fell to 2%. Scabies acquisitions six months after each MDA were 1% and 2% whilst treatment failures were 6% and 5% respectively. Conclusion Scabies prevalence reduced in the six months after each MDA with a low risk of acquisition (1–2%). However, in a setting where living conditions are conducive to high scabies transmissibility, exposure to presumptive crusted scabies and population mobility, a sustained reduction in prevalence was not achieved. Clinical Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register (ACTRN—12609000654257). PMID:26516764

  10. Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-08

    Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum.

  11. Rebuilding from Resilience: Research Framework for a Randomized Controlled Trial of Community-led Interventions to Prevent Domestic Violence in Aboriginal Communities1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Shea, Beverley; Amaratunga, Carol; McGuire, Patricia; Sioui, Georges

    2010-01-01

    This research framework, which competed successfully in the 2008 CIHR open operating grants competition, focuses on protocols to measure the impact of community-led interventions to reduce domestic violence in Aboriginal communities. The project develops and tests tools and procedures for a randomized controlled trial of prevention of family violence. Women’s shelters mainly deal with victims of domestic violence, and the framework also addresses other types of domestic violence (male and female children, elderly, and disabled). The partner shelters are in Aboriginal communities across Canada, on and off reserve, in most provinces and territories. The baseline study applies a questionnaire developed by the shelters. Testing the stepped wedge design in an Aboriginal context, shelters randomized themselves to two waves of intervention, half the shelters receiving the resources for the first wave. A repeat survey after two years will measure the difference between first wave and second wave, after which the resources will shift to the second wave. At least two Aboriginal researchers will complete their doctoral studies in the project. The steering committee of 12 shelter directors guides the project and ensures ethical standards related to their populations. Each participating community and the University of Ottawa reviewed and passed the proposal. PMID:20975853

  12. Learning about Aboriginal contexts: the reading circle approach.

    PubMed

    Begoray, Deborah L; Banister, Elizabeth

    2008-07-01

    As more opportunities arise for nursing students to obtain experience in community sites, they will be called on to practice in culturally appropriate ways more often. Although nurses remain challenged by the range of populations needing differentiated approaches, Aboriginal cultural contexts deserve special attention. Nurse educators must help students increase their understanding of Aboriginal life and ways of knowing. One way to facilitate this understanding is through a learning approach called reading circles. Reading circles offer a structure in the classroom for students to interact about ideas or readings. The reading circle process is congruent with Aboriginal ways of learning, which emphasize working in circle, with each member having a role and an equal chance to be heard. Aboriginal students in the class may be particularly comfortable with this learning method. This article describes specific steps for incorporating the reading circle approach into the nurse education classroom.

  13. Aboriginal English Inside and Outside the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an analysis of five first-person oral narratives of Aboriginal children of Western Australia recorded outside the classroom. These narratives are compared with a first-person oral narrative of a non-Aboriginal child and with teacher-led interactions in the classes of which the Aboriginal children are members. (26 references) (Author/CK)

  14. A case study of physical and social barriers to hygiene and child growth in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite Australia's wealth, poor growth is common among Aboriginal children living in remote communities. An important underlying factor for poor growth is the unhygienic state of the living environment in these communities. This study explores the physical and social barriers to achieving safe levels of hygiene for these children. Methods A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach included a community level cross-sectional housing infrastructure survey, focus groups, case studies and key informant interviews in one community. Results We found that a combination of crowding, non-functioning essential housing infrastructure and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children in this remote community. Conclusion There is a need to address policy and the management of infrastructure, as well as key parenting and childcare practices that allow the high burden of infection among children to persist. The common characteristics of many remote Aboriginal communities in Australia suggest that these findings may be more widely applicable. PMID:19761623

  15. Culturally Framing Aboriginal Literacy and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    More than just the development of reading and writing skills, Aboriginal literacy is a wholistic concept, with spiritual, physical, mental, and emotional aspects, involving relationships between self, community, nation, and creation. Models are presented for incorporating traditional Aboriginal knowledge and methodologies into Aboriginal learning…

  16. 7 CFR 7.15 - Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates. 7.15 Section 7.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of... COMMITTEES § 7.15 Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members,...

  17. Effects of the heavy usage of kava on physical health: summary of a pilot survey in an aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Mathews, J D; Riley, M D; Fejo, L; Munoz, E; Milns, N R; Gardner, I D; Powers, J R; Ganygulpa, E; Gununuwawuy, B J

    1988-06-06

    Health status was assessed in 39 kava users and 34 non-users in a coastal Aboriginal community in Arnhem Land. Twenty (27%) respondents were very heavy (mean consumption, 440 g/week) users of kava; 15 (21%) respondents were heavy (310 g/week) users of kava and four (5%) respondents were occasional (100 g/week) users of kava. Kava users were more likely to complain of poor health and a "puffy" face, and were more likely to have a typical scaly rash, and slightly-increased patellar reflexes. Very heavy users of kava were 20% underweight and their levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase were increased greatly. Albumin, plasma protein, urea and bilirubin levels were decreased in kava users, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased. Kava users were more likely to show haematuria, and to have urine which was poorly acidified and of low specific gravity. The use of kava was also associated with an increased red-cell volume, with a decreased platelet volume and with a decreased lymphocyte count. Shortness of breath in kava users was associated with tall P waves on a resting electrocardiogram, which provided suggestive evidence of pulmonary hypertension. In common with other Aboriginal communities, there was evidence of decreased lung volumes, a high carriage rate of hepatitis B surface antigen, and of other morbidity that was unrelated to the use of kava. On the basis of these findings, there is a strong rationale for urgent social action to improve health in Aboriginal communities and, in particular, to reduce the consumption of kava and to improve the nutritional status of kava users.

  18. Weeding out or Developing Capacity? Challenges for Aboriginal Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Teacher education is critical to the development of Aboriginal teachers able to ensure success among Aboriginal learners and contribute to the preservation and renewal of Aboriginal communities. In a series of talking circles, six beginning Aboriginal teachers discussed their teacher preparation and their first years of practice. They expressed…

  19. Innovation and Aboriginal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnochie, K. R.

    After defining educational and cultural terms and establishing a model representing cultural reproduction, case studies illustrate how three Aboriginal communities are educating and socializing their children. Strelley, a community in Western Australia, has a history of determined independence that has resulted in a unique level of economic and…

  20. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  1. Constructing Knowledge and Training Curricula about Early Childhood Care and Development in Canadian Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jessica; Pence, Alan

    The Meadow Lake Tribal Council (MLTC) (Saskatchewan) and the University of Victoria (British Columbia) developed a bicultural postsecondary training curriculum in early childhood care and development that incorporated both Euro-Western and Aboriginal knowledge. Since the MLTC sought curricula using representative Cree and Dene cultures rather than…

  2. Walanbaa Warramildanha: The Impact of Authentic Aboriginal Community and School Engagement on Teachers' Professional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The conundrum of Indigenous education in Australia is that there are multiple, highly contested and polarising narratives that vie to inform both public and policy debate about how to construct effective schooling of Aboriginal students. Two of these contested discourses, which are seen to drive much of this debate, highlight the complexity of…

  3. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  4. Bringing safety and responsiveness into the forefront of care for pregnant and parenting aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn; Edwards, Nancy; Varcoe, Colleen; Martens, Patricia J; Davies, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Poor access to prenatal care for Aboriginal people is well documented, and is explicated as an unethical barrier to care resulting from colonial and neocolonial values, attitudes, and practices. A postcolonial standpoint, participatory research principles, and a case study design were used to investigate 2 Aboriginal organizations' experiences improving care for pregnant and parenting Aboriginal people. Data were collected through exploratory interviews and small-group discussions with purposefully selected community leaders, providers, and community members. The study found that safety in healthcare relationships and settings, and responsiveness to individuals' and families' unique experiences and capacities must be brought into the forefront of care. Results suggest that the intention of care must be situated within a broader view of colonizing relations to improve early access to, and relevance of, care during pregnancy and parenting for Aboriginal people.

  5. Evolution properties of the community members for dynamic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Qiang; Li, Sheng-Nan; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2017-03-01

    The collective behaviors of community members for dynamic social networks are significant for understanding evolution features of communities. In this Letter, we empirically investigate the evolution properties of the new community members for dynamic networks. Firstly, we separate data sets into different slices, and analyze the statistical properties of new members as well as communities they joined in for these data sets. Then we introduce a parameter φ to describe community evolution between different slices and investigate the dynamic community properties of the new community members. The empirical analyses for the Facebook, APS, Enron and Wiki data sets indicate that both the number of new members and joint communities increase, the ratio declines rapidly and then becomes stable over time, and most of the new members will join in the small size communities that is s ≤ 10. Furthermore, the proportion of new members in existed communities decreases firstly and then becomes stable and relatively small for these data sets. Our work may be helpful for deeply understanding the evolution properties of community members for social networks.

  6. More bark than bite: Comparative studies are needed to determine the importance of canine zoonoses in Aboriginal communities. A critical review of published research.

    PubMed

    Smout, F; Schrieber, L; Speare, R; Skerratt, L F

    2017-03-25

    The objective of this review was to identify and critique over forty years of peer-reviewed literature concerned with the transmission of canine zoonoses to Aboriginal people and determine the zoonotic organisms documented in dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities. A systematic literature search of public health, medical and veterinary databases identified 19 articles suitable for critical appraisal. Thirteen articles documented the occurrence of recognized zoonotic organisms in dogs in Aboriginal communities, including Toxocara canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Rickettsia felis, Sarcoptes scabiei and Giardia. Currently, there is definitive evidence indicating that dogs act as a reservoir for human scabies in Aboriginal communities. However, there is a need for large-scale, high-quality, comparative studies of dogs and humans from the same household to assess the occurrence and importance of transmission of S. scabiei and other diseases between dogs and humans. These studies should use current genetic and molecular techniques along with traditional techniques to identify and type organisms in order to better understand their epidemiology. This review has revealed that there is a lack of high-quality comparative studies to determine whether dogs are contributing to human disease by transmitting zoonoses. Our recommendations differ significantly from current public health policy and may have substantial implications for human and dog health.

  7. Aboriginal Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sherry

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)

  8. Building better research partnerships by understanding how Aboriginal health communities perceive and use data: a semistructured interview study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christian; Tong, Allison; Sherriff, Simone; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Muthayya, Sumithra; Craig, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals working in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS) towards the access, usage and potential value of routinely obtained clinical and research data. Design, setting and participants Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 health professionals from 2 urban and 1 regional ACCHS in New South Wales. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified using an adapted grounded theory approach. Results Six major themes were identified: occupational engagement (day-to-day relevance, contingent on professional capacity, emphasising clinical relevance), trust and assurance (protecting ownership, confidence in narratives, valuing local sources), motivation and empowerment (engaging the community, influencing morale, reassuring and encouraging clients), building research capacity (using cultural knowledge, promoting research aptitude, prioritising specific data), optimising service provision (necessity for sustainable services, guiding and improving services, supporting best practice), and enhancing usability (ensuring ease of comprehension, improving efficiency of data management, valuing accuracy and accessibility). Conclusions Participants were willing to learn data handling procedures that could further enhance health service delivery and enable more ACCHS-led research, but busy workloads restrict these opportunities. Staff held concerns regarding the translation of research data into beneficial services, and believed that the outcome and purpose of data collection could be communicated more clearly. Promoting research partnerships, ensuring greater awareness of positive health data and the purposes of data collection, and communicating data in a user-friendly format are likely to encourage greater data use, build research capacity and improve health services within the Aboriginal community. PMID:27113239

  9. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  10. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  11. Scholarship and the Professional Identity of Community College Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The institutional culture of community colleges often fosters a professional identity among faculty members that sees research, publication, and other forms of out-of-class scholarship as detrimental to teaching and student learning. But the professional associations established by and for community college faculty members in specific academic…

  12. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together. Who or what is making the assists to score social goals?

    PubMed

    Parnell, Daniel; Hylton, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Providing pragmatic interventions (through sport) to tackle social issues in hard-to-reach communities, including those in Aboriginal and black minority ethnic (BME) communities, this study highlights how a community football club was able to deliver positive outcomes for racism, discrimination and health. The article compares findings geographically originating from Australia with those in the UK. The program highlighted herein does not have the so-called 'power' and backing of a brand (of a professional football club) to rely on, and the appealing factor is football alone; football in its purest sense: the activity. We call upon those strategically placed in funding and commissioning roles to draw on the evidence base to support non-professional football (and sport and recreation) clubs to deliver on the health agenda. Adding further conclusions that this mechanism and context of delivery can support positive social and health changes, but requires further examination.

  13. Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W.

    1994-09-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

  14. Real Stories, Extraordinary People: Preliminary Findings from an Aboriginal Community-Controlled Cultural Immersion Program for Local Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Cathie; Cavanagh, Pat

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on effective strategies for developing the cultural competence of teachers involved in Aboriginal education and presents the preliminary findings of a review into the Connecting to Country Program (CTC), a joint venture of the NSW Aboriginal Education Consultative Group (AECG) and the NSW Department of Education and Communities…

  15. Member Perspectives on the Role of BDSM Communities.

    PubMed

    Graham, Benjamin C; Butler, Sarah E; McGraw, Ryan; Cannes, Shelby Marie; Smith, Joanna

    2015-10-19

    Bondage-discipline/Dominance-submission/sadomasochism (BDSM) is an often misunderstood and misrepresented social phenomenon warranting further discourse and study. Community-based research that engages member perspective can assist in understanding socially marginalized experiences. The current study examined the role, meaning, and function of BDSM communities from the perspective of self-identified members. Seven nominal group technique workshops were conducted representing a variety of practitioner experiences and identities. Workshops involved 48 participants and resulted in the generation of 133 unique terms describing the role of BDSM communities in their lives. Terms were coded using a five-step procedure involving both academic and community members. A total of 15 categories were identified and included domains such as acceptance, sexual expression, friendship, safety, and sharing of educational knowledge. Results underscore the multifaceted nature of the role of such communities. While results consisted of mostly positive features, participants also identified certain negative aspects, such as conflict among members. Results from the study provide a succinct, member-derived, structured inventory of the role of BDSM communities that can serve to validate and synthesize existing research, improve dissemination of community voice around BDSM, and inform future research. We conclude with a discussion of the study's implications for sex education, clinical practice, and community dissemination.

  16. Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented

  17. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  18. Toward a Shift in Expectations and Values: What We've Learned from Collaborative Action Research in Northern Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelly Stagg; Horton, Laura; Restoule, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose that collaborative action research values, goals and practices have much in common with guiding principles for conducting research with educators and community members in First Nation, Inuit and Metis communities, as outlined in the Task Force on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures'…

  19. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.

  20. Online depression communities: members' interests and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Nimrod, Galit

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies on online communities (peer-to-peer support groups) dedicated to people with depression related to members as a homogeneous group, and none examined differences between segments based on psychographic measures. Such segmentation may be most helpful in understanding members' participation patterns and explaining the benefits members gain from participation. This study aimed to explore whether members of online depression communities vary in their interests in issues discussed in the communities, and if so, whether groups with different interests also differ with regard to the benefits gained from participation. The study was based on an online survey of 793 members of 16 online depression communities. Results identified four member groups: concerned about daily living, information seekers, interested in all topics, and relatively less involved. There were very few differences between the groups in background characteristics, participation patterns, and level of depression. However, results indicated significant differences between the groups in perceived benefits, as the interested in all topics reported more "online support" and "offline improvement" than the information seekers and the relatively less involved, and more "offline improvement" than the concerned about daily living. Assuming that the reported interests reflected actual involvement in discussions of different issues, the findings suggest that combining supportive and informative discussions is more beneficial than attending to only one type of discussion, and stress the importance of informative discussions.

  1. Community members as recruiters of human subjects: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have considered in detail the ethical issues surrounding research in which investigators ask community members to engage in research subject recruitment within their own communities. Peer-driven recruitment (PDR) and its variants are useful for accessing and including certain populations in research, but also have the potential to undermine the ethical and scientific integrity of community-based research. This paper examines the ethical implications of utilizing community members as recruiters of human subjects in the context of PDR, as well as the authors' experience with a variant of PDR in a research project in South Africa. The importance of situating PDR in a comprehensive community engagement process that is responsive to the constraints of science and local needs and interests is emphasized. The paper will have relevance to bioethicists, health researchers, and research regulators concerned about the appropriate use of peer-driven recruitment strategies in health research.

  2. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  3. “Rebuilding our community”: Hearing silenced voices on Aboriginal youth suicide

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Melissa L.; Hautala, Dane; Hurley, Jenna

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings forth the voices of adult Aboriginal First Nations community members who gathered in focus groups to discuss the problem of youth suicide on their reserves. Our approach emphasizes multilevel (e.g., individual, family, and broader ecological systems) factors viewed by participants as relevant to youth suicide. Wheaton’s conceptualization of stressors (1994; 1999) and Evans-Campbell’s (2008) multilevel classification of the impacts of historical trauma are used as theoretical and analytic guides. Thematic analysis of qualitative data transcripts revealed a highly complex intersection of stressors, traumas, and social problems seen by community members as underlying mechanisms influencing heightened levels of Aboriginal youth suicidality. Our multilevel coding approach revealed that suicidal behaviors were described by community members largely as a problem with deep historical and contemporary structural roots as opposed to being viewed as individualized pathology. PMID:24097414

  4. "They treated me like crap and I know it was because I was Native": The healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples living in Vancouver's inner city.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Ashley; Fleming, Kim; Markwick, Nicole; Morrison, Tracey; Lagimodiere, Louise; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-01-26

    There is growing evidence that Aboriginal peoples often experience healthcare inequalities due to racism. However, research exploring the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit substances is limited, and research rarely accounts for how multiple accounts of stigma intersect and contribute to the experiences of marginalized populations. Our research aimed to explore the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs and or illicit alcohol (APWUID/A) living in Vancouver's inner city. Using Indigenous methodologies, a community research team comprised of APWUID/A led the study design, data collection and analysis. Peer-facilitated talking circles explored community members' experiences accessing healthcare services and patient-provider encounters. Using an intersectionality framework, our research demonstrated how healthcare inequalities among Aboriginal peoples are perpetuated by systemic racism and discrimination. Stigmatizing racial stereotypes were perceived to negatively influence individual attitudes and clinical practice. Participants' experiences of medical dismissal often resulted in disengagement from care or delay in care. The findings suggest healthcare providers must understand the structural and historical forces that influence racial disparities in healthcare and personal attitudes in clinical practice. Adequate clinical protocols for pain management within the context of illicit substance use are urgently needed. The valuation of Aboriginal peoples and cultures within healthcare is paramount to addressing the health gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians.

  5. Psychological Community Integration among People with Psychiatric Disabilities and Nondisabled Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanos, Philip T.; Stefanic, Ana; Tsemberis, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined individual and neighborhood predictors of the psychological community integration of people with psychiatric disabilities and nondisabled community members. One hundred twenty-three adults (60 psychiatrically disabled, 63 general community residents), completed measures of sense of community, life satisfaction, psychiatric…

  6. "The Tongue of Pangcah and of Savages Are the Same": Language Ideology in a Multilingual Aboriginal Village in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ya-ling

    2011-01-01

    This study examines incongruent languages ideologies as they exist among parents, grandparents and community members of Taiwan's aboriginal Pangcah people. The language ideologies of the villagers function as language policy that informs their decisions in favor of transmitting or abandoning their linguistic heritage. Taking a critical perspective…

  7. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  8. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure) and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63), but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94), evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60); for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49); for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00); for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99). Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised. PMID:20302661

  9. Reconstructing the star knowledge of Aboriginal Tasmanians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantevoort, Michelle; Hamacher, Duane W.; Lischick, Savannah

    2016-12-01

    The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from these ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors and aurorae held cultural, spiritual and subsistence significance for the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.

  10. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  11. Effects of Hurricane Hugo: Mental Health Workers and Community Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…

  12. Legal Liability of Community College Presidents and Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumer, D. H.

    This document describes the criminal and legal liability of community college presidents and board members in such areas as contracts,civil rights, and fiduciary responsibilities. Also described are the defenses which universities ordinarily build to protect their employees from these liabilities. These defenses include the sovereign or charitable…

  13. Feasibility and costs of water fluoridation in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Jonathon P; Bailie, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Background Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Methods Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. Results The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US11,800 per unit. Conclusion Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should be considered as a potential

  14. Generative Methodology: An Inquiry into How a University Can Acknowledge a Commitment to Its Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; Page, Susan; Finneran, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper maps ethical and epistemological issues around attempts by a university to negotiate with the traditional custodians of the Sydney basin, the Darug, to facilitate the intergenerational transmission of knowledge within their community, and through the university curriculum. The theory and practice of research raised some important…

  15. A Service-Learning Immersion in a Remote Aboriginal Community: Enhancing Pre-Service Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavery, Shane; Cain, Glenda; Hampton, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a service-learning immersion undertaken by pre-service primary teachers in a remote indigenous community and school in Western Australia. The article initially presents the purpose and significance for the immersion in the light of the Australian National Professional Standards for Teachers. The article subsequently outlines…

  16. The Lililwan Project: study protocol for a population-based active case ascertainment study of the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Lucas, Barbara; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Peadon, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Genevieve; Hand, Marmingee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed ‘fetal alcohol spectrum disorders’ (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management. Methods and analysis This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western

  17. "Is it still safe to eat traditional food?" Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79mg/kg and 0.15mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. 'Connecting tracks': exploring the roles of an Aboriginal women's cancer support network.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Briand, Beatriz; Bessarab, Dawn; Shahid, Shaouli; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-11-01

    Aboriginal Australians are at higher risk of developing certain types of cancer and, once diagnosed, they have poorer outcomes than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Lower access to cancer screening programmes, deficiencies in treatment and cultural barriers contribute to poor outcomes. Additional logistical factors affecting those living in rural areas compound these barriers. Cancer support groups have positive effects on people affected by cancer; however, there is limited evidence on peer-support programmes for Aboriginal cancer patients in Australia. This paper explores the roles played by an Aboriginal women's cancer support network operating in a regional town in Western Australia. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 participants including Aboriginal and mainstream healthcare service providers, and network members and clients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. Connecting and linking people and services was perceived as the main role of the network. This role had four distinct domains: (i) facilitating access to cancer services; (ii) fostering social interaction; (iii) providing a culturally safe space; and (iv) building relationships with other agencies. Other network roles included providing emotional and practical support, delivering health education and facilitating engagement in cancer screening initiatives. Despite the network's achievements, unresolved tensions around role definition negatively impacted on the working relationship between the network and mainstream service providers, and posed a threat to the network's sustainability. Different perspectives need to be acknowledged and addressed in order to build strong, effective partnerships between service providers and Aboriginal communities. Valuing and honouring the Aboriginal approaches and expertise, and adopting an intercultural approach are suggested as necessary to the way forward.

  19. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  20. Predictive accuracy of dynamic risk factors for aboriginal and non-aboriginal sex offenders: an exploratory comparison using STABLE-2007.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Leslie; Babchishin, Kelly M; Blais, Julie

    2012-09-01

    Although Aboriginal offenders are overrepresented in Canadian prisons, there is limited research examining the extent to which commonly used risk factors and risk scales are applicable to Aboriginals. Aboriginal (n = 88) and non-Aboriginal (n = 509) sex offenders on community supervision were compared on the dynamic risk factors of STABLE-2007. Data on sexual, violent, any crime, and any recidivism (including breaches) were collected with an average follow-up of 3.4 years. Aboriginal offenders scored significantly higher than non-Aboriginal offenders on STABLE-2007 total scores and on several items measuring general criminality. STABLE-2007 did not significantly predict recidivism with Aboriginal offenders (although it did for non-Aboriginals). The general antisociality items were generally significantly less predictive for Aboriginals than non-Aboriginals, whereas items assessing sexual self-regulation and relationship stability predicted similarly for both groups. These exploratory results suggest that Aboriginal sex offenders are a higher-needs group but that some STABLE-2007 items are not predictive with this population.

  1. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  2. Formative Research on Perceptions of Biobanking: What Community Members Think

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John S.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Montel-Ishino, Francisco A.; Arevalo, Mariana; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Preparing healthy community members with timely communications prior to engaging them in a request to donate biospecimens promises to improve the experience of biobanking participation. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted to assess community member knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about cancer-related biospecimen collection in a large metropolitan area in southwest Florida. The study utilized purposive sampling techniques to recruit a total of 95 participants to participate in 12 focus groups, segmented by race/ethnicity and language preference (mixed race, African American only, and Spanish speaking) and age (18–29, 30–54, and 55 and older). Focus group interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify emergent themes. Overall, participants in the 30 years and older groups were favorable toward participating in biobanking if their concerns were addressed, such as confidentiality and consent issues, in contrast to participants aged 18–29 who were more skeptical. For all participants, the desire to participate in research that seeks new cancer treatments outweighed mistrust. Moreover, many cited the potential scientific benefit for future generations as a primary motivator. Finally, in some groups a therapeutic misconception was expressed, where participants expressed a willingness to forego confidentiality of their health status in exchange for therapeutic benefit. This study contributes to the literature on community perceptions of the benefits and barriers of biobanking and adds to the development of meaningful education communication priming tools to advance understandings about biobanking. PMID:21927867

  3. Role, Impacts and Implications of Dedicated Aboriginal Student Space at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Natasha L.; Varghese, Jeji

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of the University of Guelph's Aboriginal Resource Centre (ARC) to identify the role that dedicated spaces have in the lives of Aboriginal students. Three roles that were identified include how these spaces build a sense of community, foster and enhance Aboriginal identity, and provide a safe space for Aboriginal…

  4. Aspirations of Adult Learners in Aboriginal Family Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl; Debassige, Brent

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap in the literature on the experiences of Aboriginal adults who have made the transition into education and employment after moving to an urban community. Staff of three Aboriginal inner-city family services agencies participated in an interview that included the question: What changes do you see in your employment and education?…

  5. Aligning Provider Team Members With Polyvalent Community Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Beth A; Davis, Sheila; Kulbok, Pamela; Frank-Lightfoot, Loraine; Sgarlata, Lisa; Poree, Shawanda

    2015-01-01

    In light of the fragmentation of health care services and the need for health promotion and disease prevention, it is time to consider the important role community health workers (CHWs) could play as part of the health care team. Globally, CHWs tend to focus on a single patient condition, resulting in fragmented, uncoordinated health care services. Polyvalent (or multimodal) CHWs can provide a comprehensive, patient-centric range of care coordination services with other members of the health care team, ultimately improving patient outcomes and decreasing the cost of care. The potential benefits of the polyvalent CHW to the health care team are not widely understood in the United States. To fill this knowledge gap, a toolkit for nurse leaders in mainstream health care settings was created. The toolkit outlines the key elements essential to a successful CHW program and offers strategies for navigating the various challenges involved when integrating this new role into existing models of care.

  6. Aboriginal Digital Opportunities: Addressing Aboriginal Learning Needs through the Use of Learning Technologies. 328-01 Detailed Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall, David; Loizides, Stelios

    Aboriginal educators and economic development practitioners in Canada are developing and implementing initiatives to promote the achievement of "digital opportunities" so that Aboriginal communities can both develop and be in a position to take advantage of economic opportunities without falling deeper into the "digital…

  7. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  8. “We Made the Rule, We Have to Stick to It”: Towards Effective Management of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Remote Australian Aboriginal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jan; Pointing, Boris Shane; Stevenson, Leah; Clough, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007–2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years), participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study’s intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS. PMID:24157514

  9. How Community College Faculty Members May Improve Student Learning Productivity in Their Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven experienced community college faculty members were interviewed to elicit examples of how they improved student learning productivity in their online courses. The 11 faculty members represented eight different states, nine different fields or disciplines, and all were permanent or full-time faculty members at community colleges in the…

  10. The Community College Faculty Member: A Brief Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, James J.

    A review of the literature on the community college faculty member is presented. In contrast to the college and university professor, the community college faculty member does not possess a persona that has been subject to treatment in the media. The academic literature portrays this faculty member as the doctoral candidate that couldn't make it,…

  11. Aboriginal English. PEN 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eades, Diana

    This report focuses on the teaching of English to Aboriginal children in primary schools in Australia. A definition and analysis of dialectal differences between Aboriginal (Australian) English and Standard (Australian) English is offered that includes the phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexico-semantic, and pragmatic differences of the Aboriginal…

  12. Aboriginal Education Program, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…

  13. Transformation and Aboriginal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamlin, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Literacy is discussed in the broadest sense. From an Aboriginal perspective, literacy is about sustaining a world view and culture, resymbolizing and reinterpreting past experience while honoring traditional values, living these values, and visioning a future in which an Aboriginal way of being will continue to thrive. Meaningful Aboriginal…

  14. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education…

  15. The politics of evaluating Aboriginal Health Services.

    PubMed

    Moodie, R

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs) has become a topic of importance to service providers and governments in recent years. This paper examines some of the difficulties AHSs have in conducting evaluation and presents an example of an inappropriate evaluation methodology as proposed by the Commonwealth Department of Aboriginal Affairs (DAA) in 1986. The paper examines the contradictory nature of the DAA proposal and the mistrust it has engendered in many AHSs. It then highlights some of the political difficulties in developing meaningful national and community health objectives as a basis for sound evaluation of health services. The paper concludes by identifying some of the processes whereby more appropriate evaluation methodologies might be developed and suggests that negotiation and consultation with the Aboriginal communities and their health services are imperative to successful evaluation.

  16. Talking About Your Prostate: Perspectives from Providers and Community Members.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Seel, Jessica S; Steck, Susan E; Payne, Johnny; McCormick, Douglas; Schrock, Courtney S; Friedman, Daniela B

    2017-03-07

    Prostate cancer (PrCA) screening is controversial, especially for African-American (AA) men who have higher PrCA incidence and mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. Patient-provider communication is important for the PrCA screening decision process. The study purpose was to better understand the current dialogue between primary care providers (PCPs-physicians and nurse practitioners) and AA men about PrCA prevention and screening. An online survey with 46 PCPs, education sessions (including pre/post surveys) with 56 AA men, and a forum with 5 panelists and 38 AA men for open dialogue were held to examine both provider and community perspectives on PrCA communication needs and practices. PCPs' perceptions of PrCA screening were varied and they used different PrCA screening guidelines in their practices. PCPs and AA men had different experiences with PrCA communication. PCPs reported that they have discussions about PrCA screening and prostate health with AA patients; few AA men reported these same experiences. About 38.0% of PCPs reported that they remain neutral about PSA testing during discussions; however, only 10.7% of AA men reported that their doctor remained neutral. Prostate health knowledge among AA men increased significantly following participation in the education sessions (p < 0.001). AA community members reported high satisfaction regarding the education session and forum. Different recommendations from PCPs may hinder AA men's decisions about PrCA screening. The forum used in this study could be a model for others to help improve patient-provider communication and increase engagement in dialogue about this common cancer.

  17. Advancing coalition theory: the effect of coalition factors on community capacity mediated by member engagement.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W

    2012-08-01

    Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community's capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity.

  18. Advancing coalition theory: the effect of coalition factors on community capacity mediated by member engagement

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Swan, Deanne W.

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community’s capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity. PMID:21911845

  19. Faculty Members' Perceptions of Rigor in Dual Enrollment, Accelerated Programs, and Standard Community College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Colin; Baker, Pete; Burnett, Dana

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a study that investigated faculty members' views on the level of academic rigor in three settings at one community college: dual enrollment, accelerated programs, and standard community college courses.

  20. In Indigenous Words: Exploring Vignettes as a Narrative Strategy for Presenting the Research Voices of Aboriginal Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Amy T.; Schinke, Robert J.; Smith, Brett; Peltier, Duke; Pheasant, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recently, awareness within academia has grown regarding the incompatibilities of mainstream research with indigenous cultures as well as the historical injustices that have accrued through colonizing practices. Accordingly, support for alternative (non-Westernized) research approaches has been increasing. Participatory action research (PAR) and…

  1. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

  2. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, R. P.

    2010-10-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, and its own ceremonies and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Sadly, the Australian media tend to focus on negative aspects of contemporary Aboriginal culture, and very few non-Aboriginal people in the wider Australian community are aware of the intellectual depth of traditional Aboriginal cultures. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider public about Aboriginal astronomy, so that they might understand something of the depth and complexity of traditional Aboriginal cultures. This article describes some of the challenges and successes of this programme, and the impact that this work has had on Australian perceptions of Aboriginal culture, helping to build a bridge across the cultures. It also describes the achievement of an unexpected and unplanned goal: the inclusion of Aboriginal astronomy opened up astronomy to a section of the population who had never before intentionally attended a talk on science.

  3. Culture-based literacy and Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Smylie, Janet; Williams, Lewis; Cooper, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary report of the Aboriginal content of the Language and Culture theme at the Canadian Public Health Association's Second Canadian Conference on Literacy and Health. Our key premise is that Indigenous conceptualizations of literacy need to build on Indigenous understandings and perspectives. We support this premise through a review of the relevant literature in the disciplines of Aboriginal literacy, Indigenous education, health literacy, health promotion, and knowledge translation and our synthesis of the presentations, workshops, and discussions at the meeting. Key emergent themes include: the unique and culturally determined ways in which Aboriginal peoples and their languages conceptualize learning, education, and health; and the recognition that self-determination of language and learning are human rights. Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to literacy naturally link to and overlap with Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to health. The paper includes an overview of gaps in the field and an example of the way that research and practice can be brought together in the context of one First Nations community.

  4. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic…

  5. Community-Based Participatory Research with Hispanic/Latino Leaders and Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, Mary Grace

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…

  6. AFRICAN ABORIGINAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Philip A. E.

    1920-01-01

    No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265

  7. Every Mark on the Page: Educating Family and Community Members about Young Children's Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusumano, Kate Foley

    2008-01-01

    Family and community members often look at children's writing from a deficit point of view--seeing only what's "wrong" with it, what needs "fixing." Teachers can take a proactive role as family and community member educators, communicating to them how writing develops in young children and how they can play a positive role in this development.…

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations.

    PubMed

    Goodman, K J; Jacobson, K; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S

    2008-03-01

    In 2006, the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group identified Aboriginal communities among Canadian population groups most at risk of Helicobacter pylori-associated disease. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about the H pylori-associated disease burden in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations to identify gaps in knowledge. Six health literature databases were systematically searched to identify reports on H pylori prevalence in Canadian population groups, or any topic related to H pylori in Canadian Aboriginals, Alaska Natives or Aboriginals of other Arctic regions. Identified reports were organized by subtopic and summarized in narrative form. Key data from studies of H pylori prevalence in defined populations were summarized in tabular form. A few Arctic Aboriginal communities were represented in the literature: two Canadian Inuit; one Canadian First Nation; two Greenland Inuit; one Russian Chutkotka Native; and several Alaska Native studies. These studies uniformly showed elevated H pylori prevalence; a few studies also showed elevated occurrence of H pylori-related diseases and high rates of treatment failure. Based on the evidence, it would be warranted for clinicians to relax the criteria for investigating H pylori and related diseases in patients from Arctic Aboriginal communities, and to pursue post-therapy confirmation of eradication. Additional community-based research is needed to develop public health policies for reducing H pylori-associated health risks in such communities.

  9. Shared Understandings: Environmental Perspectives of Kenyan Community Members and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigely, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are a shared human concern as communities in all nations and geographic regions are grappling with environmental degradation. Despite this concern, there are multiple different viewpoints on the current state of environmental issues and how to understand these problems. Understanding how different communities conceive of the…

  10. An Analysis of Community Pharmacy Shared Faculty Members' Contributions to Teaching, Service, and Scholarship.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Jennifer L; Akinwale, Tolu P; Adams, Alex J; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To identify community pharmacy shared faculty members across the United States and to describe their roles and responsibilities in terms of teaching, service, and scholarship. Methods. This study was a mixed-methods analysis using surveys and key informant interviews. Results. Twenty-two faculty members completed the survey; nine were interviewed. Their major roles and responsibilities included teaching in community-based and experiential learning courses, precepting students and/or residents, being actively involved in professional organizations, providing patient care while leading innovation, and disseminating findings through scholarship. Conclusion. Community pharmacy shared faculty members contribute to their academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations by educating learners, providing direct patient care, and advancing community practice through innovation and service to the profession. Findings of this study can be used as a guide for academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations interested in partnering to develop a community pharmacy shared faculty position.

  11. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  12. Aboriginal Self-Determination in Australia: The Effects of Minority-Majority Frames and Target Universalism on Majority Collective Guilt and Compensation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…

  13. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, John H., Ed.

    This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…

  14. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  15. Can We Educate and Train Aboriginal Leaders within Our Tertiary Education Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Aboriginal leadership often results in debate. The fundamental question raised is if Australian Aboriginal people are equal members of a pluralistic society that is based on co-operation and consensuses then how can you have a leader? Consequently who determines leadership or is a leader someone that in effect is more equal than…

  16. The relative importance of relational and scientific characteristics of psychotherapy: Perceptions of community members vs. therapists.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d = .27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d = .74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed.

  17. Fall Meeting: Showcasing our members' achievements and building community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    Amazing! Inspiring! Incomparable! These are words that describe AGU's Fall Meeting—the largest gathering of Earth and space scientists in the world. Every December for 45 years, scientists from around the globe have converged on the Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. Excitement and enthusiasm pervade this unique annual event, where our members present their latest research and communicate its relevance to the great challenges that face society. Fall Meeting attendees can also survey the evolving panorama of geophysical research and hear firsthand about the latest pioneering advances in our understanding of the Earth and planetary system. It's an extraordinary opportunity to share, to learn, to network, and to renew old friendships; and it's one of the most important ways that we as a scholarly society advance our mission of promoting “discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity.”

  18. Determinants of Success for Online Communities: An Analysis of Three Communities in Terms of Members' Perceived Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon

    2009-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence suggests that the updated DeLone and McLean's information systems (D&M IS) model can identify the determinants of success of online communities in terms of member loyalty (Lin and Lee 2006). This study is similarly concerned with the challenge of identifying the determinants of success of online communities, but it…

  19. 7 CFR 7.9 - Election of community committee members, delegates to local administrative area and county...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of community committee members, delegates to local administrative area and county conventions, and county committee members. 7.9 Section 7.9... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.9 Election of community committee members, delegates...

  20. Can Community Members Identify Tropical Tree Species for REDD+ Carbon and Biodiversity Measurements?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingxu; Brofeldt, Søren; Li, Qiaohong; Xu, Jianchu; Danielsen, Finn; Læssøe, Simon Bjarke Lægaard; Poulsen, Michael Køie; Gottlieb, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is a required co-benefit of REDD+. Biodiversity monitoring is therefore needed, yet in most areas it will be constrained by limitations in the available human professional and financial resources. REDD+ programs that use forest plots for biomass monitoring may be able to take advantage of the same data for detecting changes in the tree diversity, using the richness and abundance of canopy trees as a proxy for biodiversity. If local community members are already assessing the above-ground biomass in a representative network of forest vegetation plots, it may require minimal further effort to collect data on the diversity of trees. We compare community members and trained scientists’ data on tree diversity in permanent vegetation plots in montane forest in Yunnan, China. We show that local community members here can collect tree diversity data of comparable quality to trained botanists, at one third the cost. Without access to herbaria, identification guides or the Internet, community members could provide the ethno-taxonomical names for 95% of 1071 trees in 60 vegetation plots. Moreover, we show that the community-led survey spent 89% of the expenses at village level as opposed to 23% of funds in the monitoring by botanists. In participatory REDD+ programs in areas where community members demonstrate great knowledge of forest trees, community-based collection of tree diversity data can be a cost-effective approach for obtaining tree diversity information. PMID:27814370

  1. Can Community Members Identify Tropical Tree Species for REDD+ Carbon and Biodiversity Measurements?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingxu; Brofeldt, Søren; Li, Qiaohong; Xu, Jianchu; Danielsen, Finn; Læssøe, Simon Bjarke Lægaard; Poulsen, Michael Køie; Gottlieb, Anna; Maxwell, James Franklin; Theilade, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is a required co-benefit of REDD+. Biodiversity monitoring is therefore needed, yet in most areas it will be constrained by limitations in the available human professional and financial resources. REDD+ programs that use forest plots for biomass monitoring may be able to take advantage of the same data for detecting changes in the tree diversity, using the richness and abundance of canopy trees as a proxy for biodiversity. If local community members are already assessing the above-ground biomass in a representative network of forest vegetation plots, it may require minimal further effort to collect data on the diversity of trees. We compare community members and trained scientists' data on tree diversity in permanent vegetation plots in montane forest in Yunnan, China. We show that local community members here can collect tree diversity data of comparable quality to trained botanists, at one third the cost. Without access to herbaria, identification guides or the Internet, community members could provide the ethno-taxonomical names for 95% of 1071 trees in 60 vegetation plots. Moreover, we show that the community-led survey spent 89% of the expenses at village level as opposed to 23% of funds in the monitoring by botanists. In participatory REDD+ programs in areas where community members demonstrate great knowledge of forest trees, community-based collection of tree diversity data can be a cost-effective approach for obtaining tree diversity information.

  2. A pilot study of Aboriginal health promotion from an ecological perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background For health promotion to be effective in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities, interventions (and their evaluation) need to work within a complex social environment and respect Indigenous knowledge, culture and social systems. At present, there is a lack of culturally appropriate evaluation methods available to practitioners that are capable of capturing this complexity. As an initial response to this problem, we used two non-invasive methods to evaluate a community-directed health promotion program, which aimed to improve nutrition and physical activity for members of the Aboriginal community of the Goulburn-Murray region of northern Victoria, Australia. The study addressed two main questions. First, for members of an Aboriginal sporting club, what changes were made to the nutrition environment in which they meet and how is this related to national guidelines for minimising the risk of chronic disease? Second, to what degree was the overall health promotion program aligned with an ecological model of health promotion that addresses physical, social and policy environments as well as individual knowledge and behaviour? Methods Rather than monitoring individual outcomes, evaluation methods reported on here assessed change in the nutrition environment (sports club food supply) as a facilitator of dietary change and the 'ecological' nature of the overall program (that is, its complexity with respect to numbers of targets, settings and strategies). Results There were favourable changes towards the provision of a food supply consistent with Australian guidelines at the sports club. The ecological analysis indicated that the design and implementation of the program were consistent with an ecological model of health promotion. Conclusions The evaluation was useful for assessing the impact of the program on the nutrition environment and for understanding the ecological nature of program activities. PMID:21961906

  3. Opportunistic screening to detect atrial fibrillation in Aboriginal adults in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Flaskas, Yvonne; O'Brien, Ciaran; Jeffries, Thomas Lee; McCowen, Debbie; Finlayson, Heather; Martin, Tanya; Neubeck, Lis; Freedman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for Aboriginal Australians is cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known precursor to stroke there are no published studies about the prevalence of AF for Aboriginal people and limited evidence about AF in indigenous populations globally. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will recruit and train Aboriginal health workers to use an iECG device attached to a smartphone to consecutively screen 1500 Aboriginal people aged 45 years and older. The study will quantify the proportion of people who presented for follow-up assessment and/or treatment following a non-normal screening and then estimate the prevalence and age distribution of AF of the Australian Aboriginal population. The study includes semistructured interviews with the Aboriginal health workers about the effectiveness of the iECG device in their practice as well as their perceptions of the acceptability of the device for their patients. Thematic analysis will be undertaken on the qualitative data collected in the study. If the device and approach are acceptable to the Aboriginal people and widely adopted, it may help prevent the effects of untreated AF including ischaemic stroke and early deaths or impairment in Aboriginal people. Ethics and dissemination This mixed methods study received ethics approval from the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (1135/15) and the Australian Health Council of Western Australia (HREC706). Ethics approval is being sought in the Northern Territory. The findings of this study will be shared with Aboriginal communities, in peer reviewed publications and at conferences. There are Aboriginal investigators in each state/territory where the study is being conducted who have been actively involved in the study. They will also be involved in data analysis

  4. Family Involvement in Four Voices: Administrator, Teacher, Students, and Community Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Collaborations and partnerships among schools and community members have been described as a way to provide better educational opportunities for students. Such school-community partnerships have been described as relationships that involve exchange and engagement with mutually defined goals benefiting all participants. However, the process of…

  5. Community Members' Perceptions of Teacher Candidates during Panel Employment Interviews: Does Personality Mean More than Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delli, Dane A.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    The context for this study involves the intersection between a community's increasing expectation for hiring highly qualified classroom teachers and its increasing expectation for access and involvement in public schools. The current investigation attempted to identify community members' perceptions of the primary factors that influence their…

  6. Strengthening Parent-Community Member Relations on Agency Boards: Comparative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Meg A.; Keys, Christopher B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comparative study of the boards of three community agencies, the forces that influence the quality of parent-community member relations are examined. Results indicate that an organization's ability to manage intergroup tension is influenced by organizational history of intergroup relations, group identification, and organizational…

  7. 7 CFR 7.18 - Terms of office of county and community members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms of office of county and community members. 7.18 Section 7.18 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.18 Terms of office of county...

  8. College and Community Choir Member Experiences in a Collaborative Intergenerational Performance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen; Hodgman, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the experiences of college and community choir members in a collaborative intergenerational performance project. Data included an initial focus group interview with college choir participants (n = 8), an initial focus group interview with community chorus participants (n = 8); collaborative…

  9. 75 FR 65331 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) members it has selected for the 2010 first round review cycle under the FHFA... for the review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation must submit completed... 2010 first round review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation must...

  10. Community and team member factors that influence the early phase functioning of community prevention teams: the PROSPER project.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-11-01

    This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demographics and team member characteristics, perceptions, and attitudes at initial team formation were related to local team functioning 6 months later, when teams were planning for prevention program implementation. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), perceived community readiness, characteristics of local team members (previous collaborative experience) and attitudes toward prevention played a substantial role in predicting the quality of community team functioning 6 months later. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors identify barriers to successful long-term implementation of prevention programs and add to a small, but important, longitudinal research knowledge base related to community coalitions.

  11. Community Advisory Board Members' Perspectives Regarding Opportunities and Challenges of Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary E; Lazoritz, Stephen; Shaffer, Ken; Palm, David; Ford, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    This case study examines the perspectives of rural community advisory board (CAB) members regarding the opportunities and challenges of partnering with academic investigators on funded research. We used a sequential exploratory design to evaluate the phenomena. Qualitative and quantitative data from CAB members were integrated to gain better understanding. Results showed that CAB members valued professional networking and gaining new evidence-based knowledge to enhance their professional practices. They identified rurality, the academic research process, and fulfilling research roles as the most significant challenges. CAB members also believed that strong community-based leaders had been essential in promoting and sustaining a shared vision for evidence-based research solutions to their community problem. Self-evaluation is essential for effective CAB research partnerships, and nurse researchers can strengthen these collaborations by (a) providing continuing education on research and evidence-based practices, (b) assuring that perceived benefits of CAB participation outweigh perceived challenges, and

  12. Brief report: do delinquency and community violence exposure explain internalizing problems in early adolescent gang members?

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and witnessing community violence. In a sample of 589 ethnically diverse early adolescents, gang membership was related to suicidal behavior but not depression or anxiety. Both delinquency and witnessing community violence mediated this association. Professionals working with gang members should assess these youth for suicidal behavior and provide interventions as needed.

  13. Factors affecting job satisfaction of Aboriginal mental health workers working in community mental health in rural and remote New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Cosgrave, Catherine; Maple, Myfanwy; Hussain, Rafat

    2016-12-05

    Objective The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the job satisfaction and subsequent retention of Aboriginal mental health workers (AMHWs).Methods Five AMHWs working in New South Wales (NSW) for NSW Health in rural and remote community mental health (CMH) services participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand how employment and rural living factors affected workers' decisions to stay or leave their CMH positions.Results Using a constructivist grounded theory analysis, three aspects negatively impacting the job satisfaction of AMHWs were identified: (1) difficulties being accepted into the team and organisation; (2) culturally specific work challenges; and (3) professional differences and inequality.Conclusions Policy and procedural changes to the AMHW training program may address the lower remuneration and limited career opportunities identified with regard to the Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification. Delivering training to increase levels of understanding about the AMHW training program, and cultural awareness generally, to CMH staff and NSW Health management may assist in addressing the negative team, organisational and cultural issues identified.What is known about the topic? The Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification and traineeship pathway undertaken by AMHWs differs significantly from that of other health professionals working in NSW Health's CMH services. The health workforce literature identifies that each health professional group has its own culture and specific values and that forming and maintaining a profession-specific identity is an extremely important aspect of job satisfaction for health workers.What does the paper add? AMHWs working in rural and remote NSW CMH services commonly experience low levels of job satisfaction, especially while undertaking the embedded training program. Of particular concern is the health sciences qualification not translating into NSW Health

  14. With Their Help: How community members construct a congruent Third Space in an urban kindergarten classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie F.

    2013-03-01

    Through the use of narrative enquiry, this paper tells the story of how a kindergarten teacher in an all-girls' school incorporates family and community members' involvement to the construction of the congruent Third Space present in the classroom, and the ways the girls respond to this involvement, thereby providing a successful model for other schools in marginalized communities. In this study, the author sought to understand how this teacher and the community members' in this classroom create a congruent Third Space. This research enquiry includes the systematic use of the methodology portraiture with analysis of critical events. The portraits are titled: Mutual Desire for the Girls to Succeed and Community Members' Involvement. This paper moves Third Space theory towards praxis through concrete examples in an urban, kindergarten classroom.

  15. Which Members of the Microbial Communities Are Active? Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brandon E. L.

    only at the early stages of understanding the microbial processes that occur in petroliferous formations and the surrounding subterranean environment. Important first steps in characterising the microbiology of oilfield systems involve identifying the microbial community structure and determining how population diversity changes are affected by the overall geochemical and biological parameters of the system. This is relatively easy to do today by using general 16S rRNA primers for PCR and building clone libraries. For example, previous studies using molecular methods characterised many dominant prokaryotes in petroleum reservoirs (Orphan et al., 2000) and in two Alaskan North Slope oil facilities (Duncan et al., 2009; Pham et al., 2009). However, the problem is that more traditional molecular biology approaches, such as 16S clone libraries, fail to detect large portions of the community perhaps missing up to half of the biodiversity (see Hong et al., 2009) and require significant laboratory time to construct large libraries necessary to increase the probability of detecting the majority of even bacterial biodiversity. In the energy sector, the overarching desire would be to quickly assess the extent of in situ hydrocarbon biodegradation or to disrupt detrimental processes such as biofouling, and in these cases it may not be necessary to identify specific microbial species. Rather, it would be more critical to evaluate metabolic processes or monitor gene products that are implicated in the specific activity of interest. Research goals such as these are well suited for a tailored application of microarray technology.

  16. Aboriginal Women Working in Vocational Training and Education: A Story from Central Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines research undertaken by an Aboriginal women's non-government organization (NGO) into vocational training and education (VTE) needs and issues for remote Aboriginal communities in Central Australia. It describes the Central Australian context, and in particular the impact of remoteness, inequity and disadvantage upon Aboriginal…

  17. Distance Education and the Issue of Equity Online: Exploring the Perspectives of Rural Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores Aboriginal perspectives of tertiary education "online" from rural and remote community locations in New South Wales. It does so within a frame of enquiry as to how neo-liberal educational policy reforms are impacting on equity issues in distance education "online". Accounts from Aboriginal university…

  18. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  19. The Influence of Community Members on Participation by Youth in an HIV Vaccine Trial in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mbunda, Theodora; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Bakari, Muhammad; Sandström, Eric; Kulane, Asli

    2016-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of HIV is high among young people and it is of the utmost importance that they be recruited into vaccination trials. Since community members influence the willingness of young people to participate in the vaccination trials, ascertaining their opinions is essential to overcoming barriers to such participation. Here, in seven focus group discussions we explored the views of 44 community members identified as someone they felt close by youth in Tanzania. The transcripts of these discussions were examined using content analysis. Our participants expressed that community members would be directly involved in the decisions of young people about whether or not to participate in an HIV vaccine trial. In general, they felt that community members would provide social support for youth during the trial and perceived that youth might have misconceptions concerning the vaccine and trial process. The participants pointed out structural factors such as substance use, poverty, stigma and unemployment that are barriers to participation. In conclusion, involvement of community members could be an integral part of the recruitment and retention of young people in HIV vaccine trials in Tanzania. PMID:27997617

  20. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    PubMed

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  1. Analyzing Members' Motivations to Participate in Role-Playing and Self-Expression Based Virtual Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Eun; Saharia, Aditya

    With the rapid growth of computer mediated communication technologies in the last two decades, various types of virtual communities have emerged. Some communities provide a role playing arena, enabled by avatars, while others provide an arena for expressing and promoting detailed personal profiles to enhance their offline social networks. Due to different focus of these virtual communities, different factors motivate members to participate in these communities. In this study, we examine differences in members’ motivations to participate in role-playing versus self-expression based virtual communities. To achieve this goal, we apply the Wang and Fesenmaier (2004) framework, which explains members’ participation in terms of their functional, social, psychological, and hedonic needs. The primary contributions of this study are two folds: First, it demonstrates differences between role-playing and self-expression based communities. Second, it provides a comprehensive framework describing members’ motivation to participate in virtual communities.

  2. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  3. Personality and community prevention teams: Dimensions of team leader and member personality predicting team functioning.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Greenberg, Mark T

    2008-11-01

    The predictors and correlates of positive functioning among community prevention teams have been examined in a number of research studies; however, the role of personality has been neglected. In this study, we examined whether team member and leader personality dimensions assessed at the time of team formation predicted local prevention team functioning 2.5-3.5 years later. Participants were 159 prevention team members in 14 communities participating in the PROSPER study of prevention program dissemination. Three aspects of personality, aggregated at the team level, were examined as predictors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. A series of multivariate regression analyses were performed that accounted for the interdependency of five categories of team functioning. Results showed that average team member Openness was negatively, and Conscientiousness was positively linked to team functioning. The findings have implications for decisions about the level and nature of technical assistance support provided to community prevention teams.

  4. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  5. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities.

  6. Social Contract Among the Members of the Community of the Evergreen State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen State Coll., Olympia, Washington.

    In its life as a community, the Evergreen State College requires a social contract rather than a list of specific prohibitions and essentially negative rules. The contract, open to modifications over time and responsive to the changing circumstances sure to attend the institution's future, represents a commitment by each member of the college…

  7. A Beach and Dune Community. 4-H Marine Science. Member's Guide. Activity I. MSp 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…

  8. With Their Help: How Community Members Construct a Congruent Third Space in an Urban Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie F.

    2013-01-01

    Through the use of narrative enquiry, this paper tells the story of how a kindergarten teacher in an all-girls' school incorporates family and community members' involvement to the construction of the congruent Third Space present in the classroom, and the ways the girls respond to this involvement, thereby providing a successful model for other…

  9. Attitudes of Pakistani Community Members and Staff toward People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patka, Mazna; Keys, Christopher B.; Henry, David B.; McDonald, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The acceptance and inclusion of persons with intellectual disability can vary across cultures, and understanding attitudes can provide insight into such variation. To our knowledge, no previous study has explored attitudes toward people with intellectual disability among Pakistani community members and disability service providers. We administered…

  10. Faculty Members' Perceptions of Community College Centers for Teaching and Learning: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore faculty members' perceptions of community college Centers for Teaching and Learning (CTLs); whose main purpose is to promote, facilitate, and honor excellence in teaching and learning through the support of full-time and adjunct faculty, at all career stages. A generic qualitative study with a grounded…

  11. The Perceived Presence and Effect of Incentives on Community College Faculty Members' Enthusiasm to Teach Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Burton Cornelius, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the perceived effects of incentives on community college faculty member enthusiasm to teach online courses. Ten incentives used with college faculty were identified in the literature: (a) release time, (b) personal satisfaction, (c) teaching development, (d) technical support, (e) professional prestige,…

  12. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  13. Community Member and Stakeholder Perspectives on a Healthy Environment Initiative in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Lowe-Wilson, Abby; Mouw, Mary Sherwyn; Jeon, Janet Yewon; Baber, Ceola Ross; Vu, Maihan B.; Bethell, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The North Carolina Community Transformation Grant Project (NC-CTG) aimed to implement policy, system, and environmental strategies to promote healthy eating, active living, tobacco-free living, and clinical and community preventive services to advance health equity and reduce health disparities for the state’s most vulnerable communities. This article presents findings from the Health Equity Collaborative Evaluation and Implementation Project, which assessed community and stakeholder perceptions of health equity for 3 NC-CTG strategies: farmers markets, shared use, and smoke-free multiunit housing. Methods In a triangulated qualitative evaluation, 6 photo elicitation (PE) sessions among 45 community members in 1 urban and 3 rural counties and key informant interviews among 22 stakeholders were conducted. Nine participants from the PE sessions and key informant interviews in the urban county subsequently participated in a stakeholder power analysis and mapping session (SPA) to discuss and identify people and organizations in their community perceived to be influential in addressing health equity–related issues. Results Evaluations of the PE sessions and key informant interviews indicated that access (convenience, cost, safety, and awareness of products and services) and community fit (community-defined quality, safety, values, and norms) were important constructs across the strategies. The SPA identified specific community- and faith-based organizations, health care organizations, and local government agencies as key stakeholders for future efforts. Conclusions Both community fit and access are essential constructs for promoting health equity. Findings demonstrate the feasibility of and need for formative research that engages community members and local stakeholders to shape context-specific, culturally relevant health promotion strategies. PMID:26270741

  14. Perceptions of children and community members concerning the circumstances of orphans in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Foster, G; Makufa, C; Drew, R; Mashumba, S; Kambeu, S

    1997-08-01

    Focus group discussions and interviews were held with 40 orphans, 25 caretakers and 33 other community workers from a rural area near Mutare, Zimbabwe. Orphan concerns included feeling different from other children, stress, stigmatization, exploitation, schooling, lack of visits and neglect of support responsibilities by relatives. Many community members, while recognizing their limitations due to poverty, were already actively helping orphans and caretakers. Extended family networks are the primary resource for orphans, though some relatives exploit orphans or fail to fulfil their responsibilities. Interventions are suggested which support community coping mechanisms by strengthening the capacities of families to care for orphans. Outside organizations can develop partnerships with community groups, helping them to respond to the impact of AIDS, by building upon existing concern for orphan families. They can help affected communities to develop orphan support activities which encourage caring responses by community leaders and relatives and which discourage property-grabbing and orphan neglect. Material support channelled through community groups to destitute families at critical times can strengthen family coping mechanisms. Income-generating activities should build upon communities' existing capabilities and benefit the most vulnerable orphan households. Some communities are responding to the AIDS disaster by adaptations to cope with devastating changes taking place in their communities.

  15. Attitudes of Pakistani community members and staff toward people with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Patka, Mazna; Keys, Christopher B; Henry, David B; McDonald, Katherine E

    2013-01-01

    The acceptance and inclusion of persons with intellectual disability can vary across cultures, and understanding attitudes can provide insight into such variation. To our knowledge, no previous study has explored attitudes toward people with intellectual disability among Pakistani community members and disability service providers. We administered the Community Living Attitudes Scale (Henry et al., 1996), a measure of attitudes toward people with intellectual disability developed in the United States, to 262 community members and 190 disability service providers in Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis found a 4-factor solution (empowerment, similarity, exclusion, and sheltering) fit the Pakistani sample. More positive attitudes were observed in staff serving people with intellectual disability, females, Christians, Hindus, Sunnis, and people with greater education. We discuss implications for research, theory, and practice.

  16. Building a Co-Created Citizen Science Program with Community Members Neighboring a Hazardous Waste Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A research project that is only expert-driven may ignore the role of local knowledge in research, often gives low priority to the development of a comprehensive strategy to engage the community, and may not deliver the results of the study to the community in an effective way. To date, only a limited number of co-created citizen science projects, where community members are involved in most or all steps of the scientific process, have been initiated at contaminated sites and even less in conjunction with risk communication. Gardenroots: The Dewey-Humboldt AZ Garden Project was a place-based, co-created citizen science project where community members and researchers together: defined the question for study, developed hypotheses, collected environmental samples, disseminated results broadly, translated the results into action, and posed new research questions. This co-created environmental research project produced new data and addressed an additional exposure route (consumption of vegetables grown in soils with elevated arsenic levels) that was not being evaluated in the current site assessment. Furthermore, co-producing science led to both individual learning and social-ecological outcomes. This approach illustrates the benefits of a co-created citizen-science program in addressing the complex problems that arise in communities neighboring a hazardous waste sites. Such a project increased the community's involvement in regional environmental assessment and decision-making, which has the potential to help mitigate environmental exposures and thereby reduce associated risks.

  17. Making Research Count at Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool, Armidale NSW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dianne; Power, Kerith

    This interview with Dianne Roberts, director of the Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool in Armidale, New South Wales (Australia), explores research issues, leadership styles, and how decision making and responsibilities are handled at Minimbah. Incoming researchers must show how research will benefit the community under study, how they will work in…

  18. Completing the circle: elders speak about end-of-life care with aboriginal families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Mary; Baydala, Angelina; Bourassa, Carrie; McKay-McNabb, Kim; Placsko, Cheryl; Goodwill, Ken; McKenna, Betty; McNabb, Pat; Boekelder, Roxanne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we share words spoken by Aboriginal elders from Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to the research question, "What would you like non-Aboriginal health care providers to know when providing end-of-life care for Aboriginal families?" Our purpose in publishing these results in a written format is to place information shared by oral tradition in an academic context and to make the information accessible to other researchers. Recent theoretical work in the areas of death and dying suggests that cultural beliefs and practices are particularly influential at the end of life; however, little work describing the traditional beliefs and practices of Aboriginal peoples in Canada exists to guide culturally appropriate end-of-life care delivery. Purposive sampling procedures were used to recruit five elders from culturally diverse First Nations in southern Saskatchewan. Key informant Aboriginal elder participants were videotaped by two Aboriginal research assistants, who approached the elders at powwows. Narrative analysis of the key informant interview transcripts was conducted to identify key concepts and emerging narrative themes describing culturally appropriate end-of-life health care for Aboriginal families. Six themes were identified to organize the data into a coherent narrative: realization; gathering of community; care and comfort/transition; moments after death; grief, wake, funeral; and messages to health care providers. These themes told the story of the dying person's journey and highlighted important messages from elders to non-Aboriginal health care providers.

  19. Students, Parents and Community Members as Partners in Strategic School-Community Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blick, Charles (Buzz)

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the question of who should be involved in strategic decisions that affect a school, a cluster of schools, or an entire school district. It discusses the common problems that hamper effective participation: such as workgroups that are too large or too small; selecting the same roster of persons to serve as team members; choosing…

  20. Recruitment of Members from the Rare Biosphere of Marine Bacterioplankton Communities after an Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Sjöstedt, Johanna; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Tunlid, Anders; Lundberg, Per; Hagström, Åke

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial community may be resistant to environmental disturbances if some of its species show metabolic flexibility and physiological tolerance to the changing conditions. Alternatively, disturbances can change the composition of the community and thereby potentially affect ecosystem processes. The impact of disturbance on the composition of bacterioplankton communities was examined in continuous seawater cultures. Bacterial assemblages from geographically closely connected areas, the Baltic Sea (salinity 7 and high dissolved organic carbon [DOC]) and Skagerrak (salinity 28 and low DOC), were exposed to gradual opposing changes in salinity and DOC over a 3-week period such that the Baltic community was exposed to Skagerrak salinity and DOC and vice versa. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone libraries of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the transplanted communities differed significantly from those held at constant salinity. Despite this, the growth yields (number of cells ml−1) were similar, which suggests similar levels of substrate utilization. Deep 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the disturbed communities had changed due to the recruitment of phylotypes present in the rare biosphere of the original community. The study shows that members of the rare biosphere can become abundant in a bacterioplankton community after disturbance and that those bacteria can have important roles in maintaining ecosystem processes. PMID:22194288

  1. Constructivist Beliefs about the Science Classroom Learning Environment: Perspectives from Teachers, Administrators, Parents, Community Members, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Jodi J.; Lumpe, Andrew T.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and high school students about the science learning environment. The participants were active members of a grant project aimed at creating community action teams. Varrella and Burry-Stock's (1997) Beliefs About Learning Environments (BALE) Instrument was…

  2. Insights into the Shifting Perspectives of Members of the Gypsy and Traveller Community on Schooling, and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anna R. T.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceptions and experiences of education of two female adult members of the Gypsy and Traveller community and one female adult member of the settled community who works closely with Travellers. Narrative interviews were conducted in England in 2016, to gain some understanding of the factors contributing to the…

  3. Sociology Faculty Members Employed Part-Time in Community Colleges: Structural Disadvantage, Cultural Devaluation, and Faculty-Student Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.; Mahabir, Cynthia; Vitullo, Margaret Weigers

    2016-01-01

    The large majority of faculty members teaching in community colleges are employed on a part-time basis, yet little is known about their working conditions and professional engagement. This article uses data from a recent national survey of faculty members teaching sociology in community colleges to provide this information, with particular…

  4. How community members and health professionals conceptualize medical emergencies: implications for primary care promotion.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Holley A; Tannebaum, Michael A; Cohen, Elizabeth L; Leslie, Travie; Williams, Nora; Haley, Leon L

    2012-12-01

    Access to continuous care through a primary care provider is associated with improved health outcomes, but many communities rely on emergency departments (EDs) for both emergent and non-emergent health problems. This article describes one portion of a community-based participatory research project and investigates the type of education that might be needed as part of a larger intervention to encourage use of a local primary care clinic. In this article we examine how people who live in a low-income urban community and the healthcare workers who serve them conceptualize 'emergency medical condition'. We conducted forum and focus group discussions with 52 community members and individual interviews with 32 healthcare workers. Our findings indicate that while community members share a common general definition of what constitutes a medical emergency, they also desire better guidelines for how to assess health problems as requiring emergency versus primary care. Pain, uncertainty and anxiety tend to influence their choice to use EDs rather than availability of primary care. Implications for increasing primary care use are discussed.

  5. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  6. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  7. Iodine status of Eeyou Istchee community members of northern Quebec, Canada, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Tam, Benita; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N; Ayotte, Pierre; Coté, Suzanne; Dewailly, Éric; Nieboer, Evert

    2015-04-01

    A multi community environment-and-health study among six of the nine communities of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, Canada provided greater insight into iodine intake levels among these Cree First Nation communities. Using data from this large population-based study, descriptive statistics of measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and iodine-creatinine ratios (stratified by age, sex, community of residence, and water consumption) were calculated, and the associations between independent variables and iodine concentration measures were examined through a general linear model. Traditional food consumption contributions were examined through Pearson partial correlation tests and linear regression analyses; and the importance of water sources through ANOVA. Generally speaking, urinary iodine levels of Eeyou Istchee community members were within the adequate range set out by the World Health Organization, though sex and community differences existed. However, men in one community were considered to be at risk of iodine deficiency. Older participants had significantly higher mean iodine-creatinine ratios than younger participants (15-39 years = 90.50 μmol mol(-1); >39 years = 124.52 μmol mol(-1)), and consumption of beaver (Castor canadensis) meat, melted snow and ice, and bottled water were predictive of higher iodine excretion. It is concluded that using both urinary iodine indicators can be helpful in identifying subgroups at greater risk of iodine deficiency.

  8. Aboriginal Female Children in Kanyashrams of Orissa, India: A Critical Assessment of the Processes of Educational Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behera, Deepak Kumar; Nath, Nibedita

    2005-01-01

    In India, the Constitution now includes special educational safeguards for aboriginals (Mohanty, 2003). Aboriginal communities, commonly denoted as "tribal," constitute roughly 8 percent of the total Indian population. In 1960, the Scheduled Area and Scheduled Tribes Commission was established with the aim of integrating the aboriginal…

  9. Toward Creation of a National Table for Aboriginal Literacy and Essential Skills (NTALES). Report on Meeting of May 27, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Literacy and Learning Network, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Literacy and Learning Network (CLLN), in partnership with Aboriginal community leaders and literacy experts, is leading an initiative to create a National Table for Aboriginal Literacy and Essential Skills (NTALES). A potential role of the National Table will be to represent First Nation, Metis and Inuit literacy and essential skills…

  10. A Capacity Building Program to Promote CBPR Partnerships Between Academic Researchers and Community Members

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michele L.; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A.; Pergament, Shannon; Call, Kathleen Thiede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Community-based participatory research (CBPR) adds community perspectives to research and aids translational research aims. There is a need for increased capacity in CBPR but few models exist for how to support the development of community/university partnerships Objective Evaluate an approach to promote nascent CBPR partnerships. Methods Design was a mixed-methods evaluation utilizing interviews, process notes, and open and closed ended survey questions. We trained ten community scholars, matched them with prepared researchers to form seven partnerships, and supported their developing partnerships. Sequential mixed-methods analysis assessed research and partnership processes and identified integrated themes. Results Four of seven partnerships were funded within 15 months; all self-reported their partnerships as successful. Themes were: 1) Motivators contributed to partnership development and resiliency; 2) Partners took on responsibilities that utilized individuals' strengths; 3) Partners grappled with communication, decision-making, and power-dynamics; and 4) Community-university infrastructure was essential to partnership development. Conclusions This program for developing nascent partnerships between academicians and community members may guide others in increasing capacity for CBPR. PMID:22212224

  11. Birth preparedness and complication readiness – a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B.; Kayombo, Edmund; Mbekenga, Columba; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. Design A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. Conclusions This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via community health workers

  12. Most of the Dominant Members of Amphibian Skin Bacterial Communities Can Be Readily Cultured

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Matthew H.; Hughey, Myra C.; Swartwout, Meredith C.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Belden, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, it is estimated that only 0.001% to 15% of bacteria in any given system can be cultured by use of commonly used techniques and media, yet culturing is critically important for investigations of bacterial function. Despite this situation, few studies have attempted to link culture-dependent and culture-independent data for a single system to better understand which members of the microbial community are readily cultured. In amphibians, some cutaneous bacterial symbionts can inhibit establishment and growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and thus there is great interest in using these symbionts as probiotics for the conservation of amphibians threatened by B. dendrobatidis. The present study examined the portion of the culture-independent bacterial community (based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) that was cultured with R2A low-nutrient agar and whether the cultured bacteria represented rare or dominant members of the community in the following four amphibian species: bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus). To determine which percentage of the community was cultured, we clustered Illumina sequences at 97% similarity, using the culture sequences as a reference database. For each amphibian species, we cultured, on average, 0.59% to 1.12% of each individual's bacterial community. However, the average percentage of bacteria that were culturable for each amphibian species was higher, with averages ranging from 2.81% to 7.47%. Furthermore, most of the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), families, and phyla were represented in our cultures. These results open up new research avenues for understanding the functional roles of these dominant bacteria in host health. PMID:26162880

  13. Stable Isotope Probing: Linking Functional Activity to Specific Members of Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.

    2007-03-12

    Abstract Linking organisms or groups of organisms to specific functions within natural environments is a fundamental challenge in microbial ecology. Advances in technology for manipulating and analyzing nucleic acids have made it possible to characterize the members of microbial communities without the intervention of laboratory culturing. Results from such studies have shown that the vast majority of soil organisms have never been cultured, highlighting the risks of culture-based approaches in community analysis. The development of culture-independent techniques for following the flow of substrates through microbial communities therefore represents an important advance. These techniques, collectively known as stable isotope probing (SIP), involve introducing a stable isotope-labeled substrate into a microbial community and following the fate of the substrate by detecting the appearance of the isotope in diagnostic molecules such as fatty acids and nucleic acids. The molecules in which the isotope label appears provide identifying information about the organism that incorporated the substrate. SIP allows direct observations of substrate assimilation in minimally disturbed communities, and thus represents an exciting new tool for linking microbial identity and function. The use of lipids or nucleic acids as the diagnostic molecule brings different strengths and weaknesses to the experimental approach, and necessitates the use of significantly different instrumentation and analytical techniques. This mini-review provides an overview of the lipid and nucleic acid approaches, discusses their strengths and weaknesses, gives examples of applications in various settings, and looks at prospects for the future of SIP technology.

  14. Aboriginal Education and the Arts Policy (Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kaye

    This document outlines a policy for the art education of and about Aboriginal people. Teachers in art education should have an understanding of Aboriginal education issues, and developers of art programs should consult with Aboriginal people before beginning work on a program and continuously throughout development. Teachers should take into…

  15. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  16. Strategies for Working with Asian Americans in Mental Health: Community Members' Policy Perspectives and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Weng, Suzie S; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer

    2017-01-04

    This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants. Findings demonstrate the importance and value of including diverse Asian American individuals in mental health policymaking efforts.

  17. Every Member of the U.S. Astronomical Community Can Apply for NASA Keck Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelino, Dawn M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA time on the W. M. Keck telescopes is open to every member of the U.S. astronomical community. In fact, it is the only way for PIs from non Keck partner institutions to gain access to these two 10 meter telescopes. I will provide information and tips on how to apply for NASA Keck time through the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), as well as how to access public Keck data through the NASA-Keck joint Keck Observatory Archive (KOA).

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. Objective The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. Methods We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. Results On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: “positive emotion,” “negative emotion,” “anxiety,” “anger,” “sadness,” “first person singular,” “negation,” “swear words,” and “death.” Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. Conclusions We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the

  19. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Lois A.

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which influence their contributions to America's science literacy and school science education. This emergent design nested case study described how an innovative program provided professional development and enabled growth in participants' abilities to contribute to science literacy. Data were collected through interviews, participant observations, and class artifacts. The program by design and constituency was the overarching entity that accounted for members' experiences. Three principal aspects of the ISI certificate program and cohort which influenced perceptions and reported positive outcomes were (1) the cohort's composition and their collaborative activities which established a vigorous community of practice and fostered community building, mentoring, and networking, (2) long term program design and implementation which promoted experiential learning in a generative classroom, and (3) ability of some members who were able to be independent or autonomous learners to embrace science education reform strategies for greater self-efficacy and career advancement. This research extends the limited literature base for professional development of informal science educators and may benefit informal science institutions, informal and formal science educators, science education reform efforts, and public education and science-technology-society understanding. The study may raise awareness of the need to establish more professional development opportunities for ISEs and to fund professional development. Further, recognizing and appreciating informal science educators as a diverse committed community of professionals who positively

  20. Institutional Review Board Community Members: Who Are They, What Do They Do, and Whom Do They Represent?

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The roles of nonaffiliated and nonscientific institutional review board (IRB) members at academic medical centers have received some attention, but questions remain—Who are they, what do they do, and whom, if anyone, do they represent? Method The author interviewed 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators, and members in 2007–2009. He contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions, then recruited 7 additional members from these IRBs to interview. Results Regular IRB members often called these individuals community members and were confused as to who these members were, or should be, and whether they did, or should, represent anyone and, if so, whom. IRBs encountered challenges in finding, training, and retaining these community members. Tensions emerged because nonscientific members, by definition, have no scientific training, so they have difficulty understanding key aspects of protocols, making them feel unempowered to contribute to reviews. IRBs varied in how much they encouraged these members to participate, in what ways, and with what success. Conclusions At academic medical centers, IRBs struggled with how to view, choose, employ, and retain nonaffiliated and nonscientific members, and they varied widely in these regards. Some IRBs had these members review entire protocols, others only limited parts (particularly reading consent forms for comprehension), pro forma. Yet, at times, these members’ input proved very important. These findings have critical implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:22622206

  1. A Descriptive Study to Determine the Opinions of Community Band Members regarding the Effectiveness of Comprehensive Musicianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Various comprehensive musicianship teaching methods have been used in school instrumental programs throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The intention of this study was to determine the attitudes of adult community band members on the use of comprehensive musicianship teaching methods within rehearsals. Members of the South of the…

  2. Bibliography of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch. Up to December 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Alison, Comp.

    This bibliography is primarily a listing of works by current or former members of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch (SIL-AAIB), but also lists works by non SIL-AAIB members that are included in publications edited and/or published by the organization. Unpublished works are not included, with the…

  3. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  4. Cultivating Aboriginal Cultures and Educating Aboriginal Children in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Karen; Kuo, Li Tsung Wen

    2007-01-01

    Many Americans believe that diversity issues are limited to the United States. The truth is, however, that many cultures struggle to recognize and foster cultural diversity. In this article, the authors have two aims: (1) to recognize various ethnic groups in Taiwan, in particular aboriginal groups; and (2) to inform educators about what they can…

  5. Using participatory action research to understand the meanings aboriginal Canadians attribute to the rising incidence of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boston, P; Jordan, S; MacNamara, E; Kozolanka, K; Bobbish-Rondeau, E; Iserhoff, H; Mianscum, S; Mianscum-Trapper, R; Mistacheesick, I; Petawabano, B; Sheshamush-Masty, M; Wapachee, R; Weapenicappo, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of adopting forms of participatory action research with aboriginal Canadians. Using a recent qualitative study of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among the James Bay Cree, it outlines and discusses the methodology used to construct a form of action research that focused on what meaning the Cree gave to the rising incidence and prevalence of diabetes. In order to understand this perspective, the researchers recruited members of the Cree community as co-researchers in the study. This facilitated the development of a Cree perspective on diabetes and also allowed the Cree members of the study to acquire a grounding in the knowledge and skills necessary for forms of qualitative research that can inform both policy and practice in health care and related areas. In particular, the paper discusses how the study was constructed and what lessons can be drawn from this form of collaborative inquiry.

  6. "Role Models Can't Just Be on Posters": Re/membering Barriers to Indigenous Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Brooke; Higgins, Marc; Korteweg, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Current Canadian scholarly literature, education policy, and curricular documents encourage the participation of Indigenous community members as a key component of Indigenous Education reform. Guided by sharing circles conducted with Indigenous Elders, families, teachers, and support workers, we present community voices and experiences of…

  7. Improving the health status of aboriginal people in Canada: new directions, new responsibilities.

    PubMed Central

    Tookenay, V F

    1996-01-01

    The study findings reported in this issue by Dr. Harriet L. MacMillan and associates (see pages 1569 to 1578) demonstrate that aboriginal people in Canada bear a disproportionate burden of illness compared with the general population. In this editorial the author examines some of the factors that have contributed to this situation, such as poverty, cultural barriers and jurisdictional problems. The way forward lies in supporting the aspirations of aboriginal people for self-determination. Aboriginal people in Canada need to recognize and use their own professional human resources and to adopt more responsibility for improving the health status of their communities. At the same time, there is a need for greater acceptance by aboriginal people of existing initiatives for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:8956835

  8. Adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Aprano, Anita; Silburn, Sven; Johnston, Vanessa; Robinson, Gary; Oberklaid, Frank; Squires, Jane

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge to providing quality developmental care in remote Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centers has been the absence of culturally appropriate developmental screening instruments. This study focused on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), with careful attention to language and culture. We aimed to adapt the ASQ-3 for use with remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal children, and to investigate the cultural appropriateness and feasibility of the adapted ASQ-3 for use in this context. We undertook a qualitative study in two remote Australian Aboriginal communities, using a six-step collaborative adaptation process. Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) were trained to use the adapted ASQ-3, and follow-up interviews examined participants' views of the cultural acceptability and usefulness of the adapted instrument. The adapted ASQ-3 was found to have high face validity and to be culturally acceptable and relevant to parents, AHWs, and early childhood development experts.

  9. Insights on end-of-life ceremonial practices of Australian Aboriginal peoples.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Phillips, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The ceremonies surrounding death are extremely important to Aboriginal peoples and take precedence over all other activities. This article presents research findings on Aboriginal mortuary ceremonies in the hope that it will be useful for non-indigenous nurses working with Aboriginal peoples. A qualitative research methodology was used, whereby data were collected by conducting 72 open-ended interviews with patients, carers, Aboriginal health care workers, health care workers and interpreters in four geographical areas in the Northern Territory. A descriptive phenomenological approach was taken to the recording and analysis of the data. The findings reveal that traditional practices including the smoking ceremony (a spiritual ritual conducted in the deceased's living space with the rationale of driving the deceased's spirit away), painting ochre on all living spaces inhabited by the deceased, or alternatively of putting up "flags" (which is considered to drive away the deceased's spirit and also to notify to the community that this is the house of a deceased) and the death ceremony (which includes practices such as keeping the deceased's body in the home, painting the bodies of the mourners and bringing kinship communities together to share food, song and dance) are of great significance in many Aboriginal cultures. It is the authors' hope and expectation that an understanding of these rituals, and their significance for different cultural groups, will assist nurses by increasing their knowledge of Aboriginal cultural and ceremonial practices associated with caring for the deceased and so aid their important work in this area.

  10. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities.

  11. Use of participatory research and photo-voice to support urban Aboriginal healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Adams, Karen; Burns, Cate; Liebzeit, Anna; Ryschka, Jodie; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research was to work collaboratively with an urban Aboriginal community to understand meanings of food and food insecurity and strengthen responses to this issue. The project took place at the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative in Geelong, South Eastern Australia in 2009-2010. Photo-voice research methods were used to explore meanings of food and food insecurity. This identified that food selections were influenced by family harmony, collectivism and satiation of hunger with cheap high carbohydrate and fat foods. People were also proud of their hunter-gatherer heritage and saw the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative as leaders in healthy food provision. Action research cycles were used to develop responses including plates depicting healthy food portions, social cooking opportunities, development of a cooking television series and a specialised cook-book. The partnership required researchers to listen carefully to respond to needs of the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative, and this meant adapting research plans to suit the local environment and community partner needs. There is potential for Aboriginal organisations to provide further leadership for healthy eating and food security through workplace food policies and partnerships with food security agencies. Use of Aboriginal nutrition knowledge to provide nutrition education may be useful in health promotion approaches.

  12. What Are Fair Study Benefits in International Health Research? Consulting Community Members in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njue, Maureen; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Background Planning study benefits and payments for participants in international health research in low- income settings can be a difficult and controversial process, with particular challenges in balancing risks of undue inducement and exploitation and understanding how researchers should take account of background inequities. At an international health research programme in Kenya, this study aimed to map local residents' informed and reasoned views on the effects of different levels of study benefits and payments to inform local policy and wider debates in international research. Methods and Findings Using a relatively novel two-stage process community consultation approach, five participatory workshops involving 90 local residents from diverse constituencies were followed by 15 small group discussions, with components of information-sharing, deliberation and reflection to situate normative reasoning within debates. Framework Analysis drew inductively and deductively on voice- recorded discussions and field notes supported by Nvivo 10 software, and the international research ethics literature. Community members' views on study benefits and payments were diverse, with complex contextual influences and interplay between risks of giving ‘too many’ and ‘too few’ benefits, including the role of cash. While recognising important risks for free choice, research relationships and community values in giving ‘too many’, the greatest concerns were risks of unfairness in giving ‘too few’ benefits, given difficulties in assessing indirect costs of participation and the serious consequences for families of underestimation, related to perceptions of researchers' responsibilities. Conclusions Providing benefits and payments to participants in international research in low-income settings is an essential means by which researchers meet individual-level and structural forms of ethical responsibilities, but understanding how this can be achieved requires a careful

  13. "You need to know where we're coming from": Canadian Aboriginal women's perspectives on culturally appropriate HIV counseling and testing.

    PubMed

    Bucharski, Dawn; Reutter, Linda I; Ogilvie, Linda D

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine Canadian Aboriginal women's perspectives on culturally appropriate HIV counseling and testing. Data were collected through semistructured individual interviews with 7 Aboriginal women, and one focus group, in a western Canadian city. Four major categories were elucidated through thematic content analysis: Aboriginal women's life experiences that may influence their risk of HIV infection and their response to testing; barriers to HIV testing; guiding principles of the ideal HIV testing situation; and characteristics of culturally appropriate HIV testing. The fear of being judged by both the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities and the need for sensitivity to the historical and current context of Aboriginal women's life experiences were pervasive themes throughout the findings.

  14. Paresthesias Among Community Members Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, Michael; Shao, Yongzhao; Bhatt, D. Harshad; Stecker, Mark M.; Berger, Kenneth I.; Goldring, Roberta M.; Rosen, Rebecca L.; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Kazeros, Angeliki; Pradhan, Deepak; Wilkenfeld, Marc; Reibman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Paresthesias can result from metabolic disorders, nerve entrapment following repetitive motions, hyperventilation pursuant to anxiety, or exposure to neurotoxins. We analyzed data from community members exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001, to evaluate whether exposure to the disaster was associated with paresthesias. Methods: Analysis of data from 3141 patients of the WTC Environmental Health Center. Results: Fifty-six percent of patients reported paresthesias at enrollment 7 to 15 years following the WTC disaster. After controlling for potential confounders, paresthesias were associated with severity of exposure to the WTC dust cloud and working in a job requiring cleaning of WTC dust. Conclusions: This study suggests that paresthesias were commonly associated with WTC-related exposures or post-WTC cleaning work. Further studies should objectively characterize these paresthesias and seek to identify relevant neurotoxins or paresthesia-inducing activities. PMID:28157767

  15. The Aboriginal Practical Experience and Its Impact on Pre-Service Teacher's Decisions about Living and Working in Remote in Indigenous Communities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Jenny; Moss, Lynette; Cherednichenko, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008, 10 pre-service teachers and 2 teacher educators from Edith Cowan University (ECU) participated in an existing community education program in rural and remote Indigenous communities in central Australia. From an intrepid start with a mountain of overloaded baggage and camping cutlery setting off the scanning machine at the airport,…

  16. ‘Doing the hard yards’: carer and provider focus group perspectives of accessing Aboriginal childhood disability services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of

  17. Determinants of healthy eating in Aboriginal peoples in Canada: the current state of knowledge and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Willows, Noreen D

    2005-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are the original inhabitants of Canada. These many diverse peoples have distinct languages, cultures, religious beliefs and political systems. The current dietary practices of Aboriginal peoples pose significant health risks. Interventions to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal peoples must reflect the realities of how people make food choices and therefore should be informed by an understanding of contemporary patterns of food procurement, preparation and distribution. Most of the literature documenting the health of Aboriginal peoples is primarily epidemiologic, and there is limited discussion of the determinants that contribute to health status. The majority of studies examining dietary intake in Aboriginal communities do not aim to study the determinants of food intake per se even though many describe differences in food intake across sex, age groups, seasons and sometimes communities, and may describe factors that could have an effect on food consumption (e.g., employment status, level of education, household size, presence of a hunter/trapper/fisher, occupation, main source of income). For these reasons, there are many gaps in knowledge pertaining to the determinants of healthy eating in Aboriginal peoples that must be filled. Given the diversity of Aboriginal peoples, research to address the gaps should take place at both the national level and at a more local level. Research would be important for each of Inuit, Métis and First Nations.

  18. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  19. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  20. Mental health and Victorian Aboriginal people: what can data mining tell us?

    PubMed

    Adams, Karen; Halacas, Chris; Cincotta, Marion; Pesich, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, Aboriginal people experience high levels of psychological distress, primarily due to trauma from colonisation. In Victoria, Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) provide many services to support mental health. The aim of the present study was to improve understanding about Victorian Aboriginal people and mental health service patterns. We located four mental health administrative datasets to analyse descriptively, including Practice Health Atlas, Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Service (AODTS), Kids Helpline and Close The Gap Pharmaceutical Scheme data. A large proportion of the local Aboriginal population (70%) were regular ACCHO clients; of these, 21% had a mental health diagnosis and, of these, 23% had a Medicare Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP). There were higher rates of Medicare MHCP completion rates where general practitioners (GPs) had mental health training and the local Area Mental Health Service had a Koori Mental Health Liaison Officer. There was an over-representation of AODTS episodes, and referrals for these episodes were more likely to come through community, corrections and justice services than for non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal episodes were less likely to have been referred by a GP or police and less likely to have been referrals to community-based or home-based treatment. There was an over-representation of Victorian Aboriginal calls to Kids Helpline, and these were frequently for suicide and self-harm reasons. We recommend primary care mental health programs include quality audits, GP training, non-pharmaceutical options and partnerships. Access to appropriate AODTS is needed, particularly given links to high incarcerations rates. To ensure access to mental health services, improved understanding of mental health service participation and outcomes, including suicide prevention services for young people, is needed.

  1. Collaboration among community members, local health service providers, and researchers in an urban research center in Harlem, New York.

    PubMed

    Galea, S; Factor, S H; Bonner, S; Foley, M; Freudenberg, N; Latka, M; Palermo, A G; Vlahov, D

    2001-01-01

    The Urban Research Center at the Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies brings together community members and researchers working in Harlem, New York. A Community Advisory Board (CAB) composed of community members, service providers, public health professionals, and researchers was formed to assist the Center's research and interventions and to guide community partnerships. Through a collaborative process, the CAB identified three public health problems-substance use, infectious diseases, and asthma-as action priorities. To deal with substance use, the Center created a Web-based resource guide for service providers and a "survival guide" for substance users, designed to improve access to community services. To deal with infectious diseases, the Center is collaborating with local community-based organizations on an intervention that trains injection drug users to serve as peer mentors to motivate behavior change among other injection drug users. To deal with asthma, the Center is collaborating with community child care providers on an educational intervention to increase asthma awareness among day care teaching staff, enhance communication between staff and families, and improve the self-management skills of children with asthma. The Center's experience has demonstrated that active communities and responsive researchers can establish partnerships that improve community health.

  2. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  3. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation we will address the issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and othe minorities. We will deal specially with the intangible astronomical heritage and their particularities. We will study (from the ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways, in which the native's knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by the scientists, the state politicians, the professional artists and NGOs. We will address several cases to illustrate this kind of conflicts. We will analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when it are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of give the label of "cultural heritage" without a careful consideration of each specific case.In particular we will suggest possible forms by which he international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way we will contribute to promote the respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  4. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    2016-10-01

    In this presentation we address issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and other minorities. We deal specially with intangible astronomical heritage and its particularities. Also, we study (from ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways in which the natives' knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by scientists, state politicians, professional artists and NGOs. Furthermore, we address several cases that illustrate these kinds of conflicts. We aim to analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when they are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, and the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of applying the label ``cultural heritage'' without a careful consideration of each specific case. In particular we suggest possible ways in which the international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way, we aim to contribute to the promotion of respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  5. Community and team member factors that influence the operations phase of local prevention teams: the PROSPER Project.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Chilenski, Sarah M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the longitudinal predictors of quality of functioning of community prevention teams during the "operations" phase of team development. The 14 community teams were involved in a randomized-trial of a university-community partnership project, PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prevention Science, 5(1): 31-39, 2004b), that implements evidence-based interventions intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use, as well as other problem behaviors. The study included a multi-informant approach to measurement of constructs, and included data from 137 team members, 59 human service agency directors and school administrators, 16 school principals, and 8 Prevention Coordinators (i.e. technical assistance providers). We examined how community demographics and social capital, team level characteristics, and team member attributes and attitudes are related to local team functioning across an 18-month period. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), social capital, team member attitudes towards prevention, and team members' views of the acceptability of teen alcohol use played a substantial role in predicting various indicators of the quality of team functioning 18 months later.

  6. Causes of schizophrenia reported by urban African American lay community members.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Esterberg, Michelle L; Broussard, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Although mental health professionals' "etiologic beliefs" concerning schizophrenia have evolved in accordance with diathesis-stress and neurodevelopmental models, little is known about etiologic attributions in nonclinical general population samples in the United States. Yet, course and outcome for people with the illness may be indirectly influenced by beliefs about causes in the larger community. Because of very limited research in this area, especially among African Americans in particular, this descriptive study investigated the causes of schizophrenia reported by 127 urban African Americans from the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the most commonly reported causes of schizophrenia, as well as the frequency of endorsing items from a list of 30 factors, some of which are congruent with current psychiatric conceptualizations of schizophrenia, whereas others are not. Results of this report complement previously reported findings from the same setting involving family members of patients with schizophrenia [Esterberg ML, Compton MT. Causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of urban African American hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry 2006;47:221-226]. The 5 most commonly reported causes were disturbance of brain biochemistry (49.6%), drug/alcohol abuse (42.5%), hereditary factors (40.9%), brain injury (40.2%), and avoidance of problems in life (37.8%). The mean number of likely or very likely causes endorsed by participants was 7.5 +/- 5.7. Some 47.9% reported one or more esoteric factors as a cause. Of the 6 esoteric factors, possession by evil spirits (28.3%), radiation (20.2%), and punishment by God (19.7%) were most common. Esoteric causes were more commonly chosen by male participants, those with 12 years of education or less, and participants who reported never having known someone with schizophrenia. Future research should seek to better understand how esoteric beliefs about causation affect attitudes

  7. Aboriginal Community Education Officers' Border Work: Culturally Safe Practices for Supporting Migrating Indigenous Students from Country into Urban and Semi-Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGill, Bindi

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 there has been an increase in migration patterns by Indigenous families from remote communities to urban and semi-rural locations. Indigenous student emigration from remote Indigenous schools to urban and semi-rural schools is an emerging crisis as there are routinely inadequate service providers for Indigenous emigres. Migration away…

  8. Network correlates of sexual health advice seeking and substance use among members of the Los Angeles House and Ball communities

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Wong, Carolyn F.; Dunlap, Shannon L.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    House and Ball communities (HBCs), represent a prime context for human immunodeficiency virus prevention with African American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons. This study sought to understand the composition and function of social support and sexual networks of HBC members in Los Angeles, California (N = 263). Participants were recruited using venue-based sampling and asked to report on sexual health advice seeking, alcohol use and illicit substance use. Participants were more likely to seek sexual health advice from social support network members compared with sexual network members [odds ratio (OR): 2.50, P < 0.001]. HBC members were more likely to get drunk (OR: 1.57; P < 0.05) and use illicit substances (OR: 1.87; P < 0.10) with House members and sexual network members compared with non-House members and social support network members. Health promotion programs tailored for the HBC should encourage open communication regarding sexual health; these interventions must include information about the role of substance use in sexual risk taking. PMID:24452228

  9. Network correlates of sexual health advice seeking and substance use among members of the Los Angeles House and Ball communities.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Schrager, Sheree M; Wong, Carolyn F; Dunlap, Shannon L; Kipke, Michele D

    2014-04-01

    House and Ball communities (HBCs), represent a prime context for human immunodeficiency virus prevention with African American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons. This study sought to understand the composition and function of social support and sexual networks of HBC members in Los Angeles, California (N = 263). Participants were recruited using venue-based sampling and asked to report on sexual health advice seeking, alcohol use and illicit substance use. Participants were more likely to seek sexual health advice from social support network members compared with sexual network members [odds ratio (OR): 2.50, P < 0.001]. HBC members were more likely to get drunk (OR: 1.57; P < 0.05) and use illicit substances (OR: 1.87; P < 0.10) with House members and sexual network members compared with non-House members and social support network members. Health promotion programs tailored for the HBC should encourage open communication regarding sexual health; these interventions must include information about the role of substance use in sexual risk taking.

  10. Increasing the Usage of a School District Web Site by Training Staff and Community Members in Its Use and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willome, Mike

    This goal of this project was to create a public school district World Wide Web site that staff and community members would use more frequently. The project included three solutions. First, 33 one-on-one and small-group training sessions were conducted to increase awareness and improve Web services. A Web-site advisory committee, which developed…

  11. The Reliance on and Demand for Adjunct Faculty Members in America's Rural, Suburban, and Urban Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Hara D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a survey of chief academic officers at 347 community colleges nationwide, this study examined the impact of institutional type (rural, suburban, urban) on reliance on and demand for adjunct faculty members. Findings indicated that rural institutions rely less on adjuncts, whereas both rural and urban institutions report high levels of…

  12. Incorporating Traditional Healing into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…

  13. Network Correlates of Sexual Health Advice Seeking and Substance Use among Members of the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Wong, Carolyn F.; Dunlap, Shannon L.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    House and Ball communities (HBCs), represent a prime context for human immunodeficiency virus prevention with African American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons. This study sought to understand the composition and function of social support and sexual networks of HBC members in Los Angeles, California (N = 263). Participants…

  14. Remembering Nancy. 25 Members of the Montessori Community Share Their Reflections on the Death of the AMS Founder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five members of the Montessori community share their memories of Dr. Nancy McCormick Rambusch, charismatic founder of the American Montessori movement, early childhood professional, and innovative educator, who died of pancreatic cancer on October 27, 1994. Rambusch's work of 40 years now flowers as an institutionalized educational program…

  15. The In-Service Training of Teachers in the Twelve Member States of the European Community. Education Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, V.; Moisan, C.

    Improvement in the quality of education is a concern shared by all the Member States of the European Community. The in-service training of teachers is a critical factor in the pursuit of this objective. Increasingly rapid changes in society (economic, technological, social, and cultural) mean that teachers are constantly faced with new syllabuses…

  16. As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.

    For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from…

  17. Supporting Success: Aboriginal Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Cynthia J.; Bastien, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    For most Aboriginal students in Canada, the term "success" in postsecondary education is more complicated than the mainstream notions of higher socioeconomic status and career advancement. Historically, "success" for Aboriginal peoples in postsecondary education was linked to issues of assimilation, since to be successful meant…

  18. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  19. Preparing Aboriginal Students for Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Krause, R.G.; Stephens, M.C.C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the Special Premedical Studies Program at the University of Manitoba and results of interviews with its graduates. This program prepares aboriginal students for admission to medical school. Six physicians and several other health professionals have graduated from the program. Respondents noted similarities in the needs of rural students and those of aboriginal students. PMID:21221337

  20. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  1. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  2. Knowledge Building in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars) followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars), are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with…

  3. Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

  4. Mining Aboriginal Labour: Examining Capital Reconversion Strategies Occurring on the Risk Management Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkins, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a vocational education and training partnership occurring in the Canadian oil sands mining industry. The case study involves a corporate-sponsored pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to procure aboriginal labour in the province of Alberta. Interviews with members of key partner groups and stakeholders occurred…

  5. Teacher Awareness and Understandings about Aboriginal English in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Vanderford, Samantha; Grote, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Repeated assessments of literacy skills have shown that Aboriginal students do not achieve at the same level as their non-Aboriginal peers. Many Aboriginal students speak Aboriginal English, a dialect different from the Standard Australian English used in schools. Research shows that it is crucial for educators in bidialectal contexts to be aware…

  6. Employment Outcomes of Community College Equity Group Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goho, James; Blackman, Ashley

    This study examines whether equity graduates (Aboriginal people, visible minorities, and persons with disabilities) of Canadian community colleges achieve employment outcomes that are equivalent with non-equity graduates. There appear to be differences in employment rates and earnings of Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal people, of men…

  7. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  8. The relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to research in Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Browne, Annette J; Smye, Victoria L; Varcoe, Colleen

    2005-12-01

    The authors critically examine the relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to nursing research in the area of Aboriginal health. They discuss key theoretical underpinnings of postcolonial theory, citing differences and commonalities in postcolonial theory, postcolonial indigenous thinking, and other forms of critical theory. Drawing on insights from Aboriginal scholars, they critique the relevance of postcolonial discourses to issues of concern to Aboriginal peoples, and the potential limitations of those discourses. They then consider the implications of conducting research that is informed by postcolonial perspectives. They argue that postcolonial perspectives provide direction for research with Aboriginal communities in 4 interrelated ways. These are focused on (a) issues of partnership and "voice" in the research process, (b) a commitment to engaging in praxis-oriented inquiry, (c) understanding how continuities from the past shape the present context of health and health care, and (d) the colonizing potential of research. The authors draw attention to the concept of cultural safety as an instrument for incorporating postcolonial perspectives into the realm of nursing. To illustrate applications of postcolonial theory, they give examples from recent research conducted in partnership with Aboriginal communities. Although postcolonial theories are relatively new in nursing discourses, they provide a powerful analytical framework for considering the legacy of the colonial past and the neocolonial present as the context in which health care is delivered.

  9. Roles of Urban Indigenous Community Members in Collaborative Field-Based Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a community-university partnership for teacher preparation with an urban Indigenous community organization. The study examined the roles of Indigenous community partners as co-teacher educators working to better prepare teachers for the needs of urban Indigenous children and communities. The author collected…

  10. The Scattered Members of an Invisible Republic: Virtual Communities and Paul Ricoeur's Hermeneutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of virtual communities focuses on Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic theories which accounts for temporal and spatial distance in the exchange of the community's texts. Topics include virtual communities and computer mediated communication studies; the linguistic aspects of virtual communities; and empirical hermeneutics. (Contains 61…

  11. Health professionals as stigmatisers of tuberculosis: insights from community members and patients with TB in an urban district in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dodor, Emmanuel Atsu; Kelly, Shona; Neal, Keith

    2009-05-01

    Health professionals are in a power category within any social setting so when they identify and label diseases with negative attributes, it can be recognised by society with discriminatory consequences for individuals affected in the community. This article reports how activities of health professionals, as perceived and construed by community members can be a basis of stigmatisation of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in society. One hundred individual interviews and 22 focus groups were held with community members and patients with TB, and the generated data analysed using the grounded theory techniques and procedures. Through examination of the words and statements of the participants, five inter-related ways by which activities of health professionals may expose patients with TB to stigmatisation in the community were identified: isolation and exclusionary practices; behaviours of health professionals towards patients with TB; public health discourse; food safety and hygiene practices and prohibition of full burial rites to those who died from TB. These activities are mirrored in the attitudes and behaviours of community members, and often become the basis of stigmatisation of individuals affected by TB in society. This may considerably contribute to diagnostic delay and low case finding in Ghana. Because, for fear of stigmatisation, community members who may be experiencing symptoms suggestive of TB may fail to go to the hospital. The stigma attached to TB in society may also contribute to the poor adherence to treatment seen among patients with TB in Ghana. To help to improve case finding and defaulter rate, the TB control programme should organise regular refresher courses in TB control and management for health professionals, and address the fear of infection by developing a national guidelines on how to prevent transmission of TB to health professionals within the hospital setting.

  12. Otitis media in Australian Aboriginal children: an overview.

    PubMed

    Leach, A J

    1999-10-05

    Remote and rural Australian Aboriginal children achieve lower standards of numeracy and literacy than their non-Aboriginal peers. The reasons are complex, but extraordinarily high rates of conductive hearing loss (> 50%) are, in part, responsible for poor classroom success. In addition to the burden of acute bacterial respiratory illness (highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease in the literature), chronic disease affects virtually every young child. In the Aboriginal community studied, otitis media commenced within 3 months of birth for all infants, progressed to chronic suppurative otitis media in 60% and did not resolve throughout early childhood. Our findings, supported by mathematical modelling, show that the vicious cycle of endemic chronic otitis media is perpetuated by high carriage rates of multiple species and multiple types of respiratory bacterial pathogens, by high cross-infection rates and thus, by early age of pathogen acquisition and prolonged carriage. Long-term damage to respiratory mucosa, possibly linked to later chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis, follows a constant series of infections by each of the concurrently held pathogens, without periods of recovery. Overcrowding and poor hygiene promote this vicious cycle. Medical and social options for intervention are limited by poor resources, low expectations for health and a complex biology that includes antibiotic resistant pneumococci.

  13. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    PubMed

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing.

  14. Efficient degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by a bacterial consortium and shifts in the aboriginal microorganism community during the bioremediation of contaminated-soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Lv, Tongyang; Liu, Wanjun; Zang, Hailian; Cheng, Yi; Li, Dapeng

    2017-05-01

    Excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil contamination and limited crop rotation; therefore, tactics to decrease and eliminate residual chlorimuron-ethyl in the environment have attracted increasing attention. In this study, two chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial strains (Rhodococcus sp. D310-1; Enterobacter sp. D310-5) were used to ferment and prepare a chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial consortium. To improve the degradation efficiency of the bacterial consortium, the cultivation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum biodegradation rate (87.42%) was obtained under optimal conditions (carbon concentration, 9.21gL(-1); temperature, 26.15°C; pH, 6.95). The rate of chlorimuron-ethyl degradation by the bacterial consortium in the chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil was monitored and reached 80.02% at the end of a 60-d incubation period. Illumina MiSeq sequencing results showed that microbial diversity was high, and 33 phyla were identified in the analyzed samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were present in relatively high abundances in the samples. The bacterial consortium made a positive impact on the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil and somewhat altered the composition of the bacterial community in the chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil. These findings provide highly valuable information on the production of bacterial consortium for the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl and other sulfonylurea-herbicide-contaminated soil.

  15. Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates.

  16. The CIET Aboriginal Youth Resilience Studies: 14 Years of Capacity Building and Methods Development in Canada.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    CIET started supporting Canadian Aboriginal community-based researchers of resilience in 1995. An evolving approach to Aboriginal resilience used a combination of standard instruments and questionnaires of local design. Over the years, CIET measured personal assets like sense of coherence, spirituality, knowledge, pride in one's heritage, mastery or self-efficacy, self-esteem, low levels of distress, involvement in traditional ways and activities, church attendance. Other indicators reflected the social dimension of resilience: feeling supported; parental care and support; parental monitoring, attitudes, and example; peer support; and support from the wider community.Pride in one's heritage, self-esteem, low distress, and mastery were measurable personal assets of resilient Aboriginal youth in a variety of cultures and circumstances. Early efforts to link resilience with specific features of culture or spirituality did not meet with success - largely reflecting failure to ask the right questions. Parental care and support, parental monitoring, parental attitudes, and parental example clearly supported the resilient Aboriginal youth in most settings. But peers are an even stronger influence, critical in relation to different types of behaviour from smoking to drinking to substance abuse to violence, unsafe sex, and suicidal tendencies. More generally, having someone to confide in, to count on in times of crisis, someone to give advice and someone who makes one feel cared for are important factors in youth resilience and something that communities can help to provide even where the family is not the support it should be and where peers are more of a hindrance than a help.CIET currently supports three resilience research projects involving Aboriginal youth in Canada: suicide prevention, reduction of HIV risk, and reduction of domestic violence. The latest resilience measurement tools include enculturation and revised approaches to Aboriginal spirituality.

  17. Communication and the Sense of Community Among the Members of an Immigrant Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regis, Humphrey A.

    1988-01-01

    The likelihood of friends and acquaintances providing desired information predicted the sense of community Trinidadian immigrants displayed toward Jamaican immigrants in Washington, D.C. The volume of information secured from immigrant community-oriented radio programs predicted the sense of community Jamaican immigrants displayed toward…

  18. Sustainable Leadership in an Elementary School: How One School Principal and Members of the School Community View the Sustainability of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, M. Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to examine how one principal of an urban elementary school and selected members of the school community perceived the sustainability of the principal's leadership. One goal of this study was to enhance the understanding of how principals and members of the school community may perceive the ability…

  19. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  20. Teaching Aboriginal Perspectives: An Investigation into Teacher Practices amidst Curriculum Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring ways in which five experienced teachers interpreted and responded to a curricular initiative in Alberta calling for teachers to help students see social studies through multiple perspective lenses representing Aboriginal (and Francophone) communities. Over the course of the study, which focused primarily on…

  1. Influences of Indigenous Language on Spatial Frames of Reference in Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…

  2. Melq'ilwiye: coming together--intersections of identity, culture, and health for urban Aboriginal youth.

    PubMed

    Clark, Natalie; Walton, Patrick; Drolet, Julie; Tribute, Tara; Jules, Georgia; Main, Talicia; Arnouse, Mike

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this exploratory community-based participatory action research project was twofold: to determine how urban Aboriginal youth identify their health needs within a culturally centred model of health and wellness, and to create new knowledge and research capacity by and with urban Aboriginal youth and urban Aboriginal health-care providers. A mixed-method approach was employed to examine these experiences using talking circles and a survey. The study contributes to anticolonial research in that it resists narratives of dis(ease) put forth through neocolonial research paradigms.A key focus was the development of strategies that address the aspirations of urban Aboriginal youth, laying foundations upon which their potential in health and wellness can be nurtured, supported, and realized. The study contributes to a new narrative of the health of urban Aboriginal youth within a culturally centred and culturally safe framework that acknowledges their strong connection to their Indigenous lands, languages, and traditions while also recognizing the spaces between which they move.

  3. Worker compensation injuries among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, annual trends, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1987–2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who

  4. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights.

  5. Using narrative inquiry to elicit diabetes self-care experience in an Aboriginal population.

    PubMed

    Barton, Sylvia S

    2008-09-01

    A narrative inquiry approach was used to explore the experience of Aboriginal people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural community. Narrative inquiry based on hermeneutic phenomenological philosophy was the methodology used to guide the research. A purposive sample of 4 persons of Nuxalk ancestry living in Bella Coola, Canada, were selected for their ability to present rich life narratives and to reveal meaning in their particular diabetes stories. Three key insights or overarching analytical interpretations emerged and could contribute broadly to Aboriginal health research. The focus of the article is the expansion of our understanding of diabetes within a specific cultural context. The discussion connects various philosophical, epistemological, and methodological orientations to research with Aboriginal people living with diabetes.

  6. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members.

    PubMed

    Willsey, Graham G; Wargo, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes) involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment.

  7. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members

    PubMed Central

    Willsey, Graham G.; Wargo, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes) involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment. PMID:26599415

  8. Hemostatic factors in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaimin; Rowley, Kevin; Best, James; McDermott, Robyn; Taylor, Michael; O'Dea, Kerin

    2007-05-01

    Hemostatic processes are important in precipitating myocardial infarction and stroke. Elevated plasma fibrinogen is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the results of previous studies on the association of plasma factor VIIc activity with CVD and diabetes have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to explore the association of plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc to clinical characteristics and estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Cross-sectional surveys of Australian Aboriginal people (n = 852) and Torres Strait Islanders (n = 276) aged 15 years and older were conducted from 1993 to 1995. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, fasting plasma fibrinogen, factor VIIc, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were measured. Levels of fibrinogen (mean, 95% confidence interval) for Aboriginal (3.52, 3.44-3.59 g/L) and Torres Strait Islander people (3.62, 3.49-3.75 g/L) were higher compared with previous reports from other populations. Factor VIIc (mean, 95% confidence interval) was especially high in Torres Strait Islanders (116%, 111%-122%) compared with Aboriginal people (99%, 97%-102%). Fibrinogen increased with age in both ethnic groups and sexes. Fibrinogen was independently associated with female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and diabetes, whereas the independent predictors for factor VIIc were Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, and total cholesterol. Average fibrinogen levels were high (>3.5 mg/dL) even for people considered "below average risk of coronary heart disease" according to conventional risk factor levels. For Aboriginal women, levels of fibrinogen and factor VIIc were significantly higher for persons at high risk than those at below average risk. The data suggest that plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc might

  9. Understanding Canada's Aboriginal Peoples: A Regional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Terry

    1993-01-01

    Reviews materials from history, anthropology, art, and journalism related Canada's aboriginal peoples. Uses a regional geography approach to present information. Includes an extensive annotated bibliography of resources for classroom teachers. (CFR)

  10. Aboriginal fractions: enumerating identity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Notions of identity in Taiwan are configured in relation to numbers. I examine the polyvalent capacities of enumerative technologies in both the production of ethnic identities and claims to political representation and justice. By critically historicizing the manner in which Aborigines in Taiwan have been, and continue to be, constructed as objects and subjects of scientific knowledge production through technologies of measuring, I examine the genetic claim made by some Taiwanese to be "fractionally" Aboriginal. Numbers and techniques of measuring are used ostensibly to know the Aborigines, but they are also used to construct a genetically unique Taiwanese identity and to incorporate the Aborigines within projects of democratic governance. Technologies of enumeration thus serve within multiple, and sometimes contradictory, projects of representation and knowledge production.

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7047 - Exports by Approved Community Members in Performance of the Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... eligible exporters, and certain government and industry facilities in Australia or the United Kingdom that are approved and listed by the U.S. Government. “Australia Community member” means an Australian government authority or nongovernmental entity or facility on the Australia Community list accessible at...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7047 - Exports by Approved Community Members in Performance of the Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eligible exporters, and certain government and industry facilities in Australia or the United Kingdom that are approved and listed by the U.S. Government. “Australia Community member” means an Australian government authority or nongovernmental entity or facility on the Australia Community list accessible at...

  13. Initial Teacher Training in the Member States of the European Community. Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    The educational systems among the European Community nations vary considerably and this variety, which is the result of historic and cultural factors, constitutes a great wealth which should be preserved. It is also in the interest of everyone to draw benefit from the experiences and projects of partner countries within the Community. Educational…

  14. "If I Wanted to Have More Opportunities and Go to a Better School, I Just Had to Get Used to It": Aboriginal Students' Perceptions of Going to Boarding School in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mander, David J.; Cohen, Lynne; Pooley, Julie Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of 32 male Aboriginal students from regional and remote towns and communities while they attended a metropolitan boarding school away from home and family in Perth, Western Australia. Using narrative interviews it specifically investigated how these Aboriginal students construct meaning around the transition…

  15. Yup'ik culture and context in Southwest Alaska: community member perspectives of tradition, social change, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James; Rasmus, Stacy M

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup'ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup'ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup'ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup'ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup'ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community.

  16. Yup’ik Culture and Context in Southwest Alaska: Community Member Perspectives of Tradition, Social Change, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup’ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup’ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup’ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup’ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup’ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community. PMID:24771075

  17. The Public Health Implications of the Use and Misuse of Tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers. PMID:23283033

  18. The public health implications of the use and misuse of tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2012-10-28

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers.

  19. The birthing experiences of rural Aboriginal women in context: implications for nursing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Varcoe, Colleen; Calam, Betty

    2011-12-01

    It has been established that the birthing experiences and outcomes of rural women are shaped by poverty, isolation, limited economic opportunities, and diminishing maternity services. We lack research into how these dynamics are compounded by intersecting forms of oppression faced by Aboriginal women, to impact on their birthing experiences and outcomes. The findings of this study of rural Aboriginal maternity care in 4 communities in British Columbia show how diminishing local birthing choices and women's struggles to exert power, choice, and control are influenced by centuries of colonization. The research questions focus on rural Aboriginal women's experiences of birthing and maternity care in this neocolonial context and their desire for supportive birthing environments. A community-based participatory and ethnographic design was employed. Individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation were the primary data sources. Although the women's experiences in each community were shaped by distinct histories and traditions, economics, politics, and geographies, the impacts of colonization and medical paternalism and the struggle for control of women's bodies during birth intersect, placing additional stress on women. The implications for nurses of accounting for the intersecting dynamics that shape Aboriginal women's experiences and birth outcomes are discussed.

  20. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  1. Results of community deliberation about social impacts of ecological restoration: comparing public input of self-selected versus actively engaged community members.

    PubMed

    Harris, Charles C; Nielsen, Erik A; Becker, Dennis R; Blahna, Dale J; McLaughlin, William J

    2012-08-01

    Participatory processes for obtaining residents' input about community impacts of proposed environmental management actions have long raised concerns about who participates in public involvement efforts and whose interests they represent. This study explored methods of broad-based involvement and the role of deliberation in social impact assessment. Interactive community forums were conducted in 27 communities to solicit public input on proposed alternatives for recovering wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest US. Individuals identified by fellow residents as most active and involved in community affairs ("AE residents") were invited to participate in deliberations about likely social impacts of proposed engineering and ecological actions such as dam removal. Judgments of these AE participants about community impacts were compared with the judgments of residents motivated to attend a forum out of personal interest, who were designated as self-selected ("SS") participants. While the magnitude of impacts rated by SS participants across all communities differed significantly from AE participants' ratings, in-depth analysis of results from two community case studies found that both AE and SS participants identified a large and diverse set of unique impacts, as well as many of the same kinds of impacts. Thus, inclusion of both kinds of residents resulted in a greater range of impacts for consideration in the environmental impact study. The case study results also found that the extent to which similar kinds of impacts are specified by AE and SS group members can differ by type of community. Study results caution against simplistic conclusions drawn from this approach to community-wide public participation. Nonetheless, the results affirm that deliberative methods for community-based impact assessment involving both AE and SS residents can provide a more complete picture of perceived impacts of proposed restoration activities.

  2. Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

  3. How Aboriginal Peer Interactions in Upper Primary School Sport Support Aboriginal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kickett-Tucker, Cheryl S.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study tested the hypothesis that positive social interactions in sport will contribute positively to the Aboriginal identity of urban, Australian Aboriginal children. Nine male and female children aged 11-12 years were observed and interviewed. Significant responses were extracted and meanings were identified and grouped into…

  4. Differences between Values of Australian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerald J.; White, Colin

    1994-01-01

    Examines differences in the values of 112 aboriginal university students and 106 nonaboriginal students at an Australian university. Aboriginal students placed more emphasis on values associated with tradition, conformity, and security, and less on values associated with achievement, self-direction, stimulation, hedonism, and benevolence. Results…

  5. 77 FR 35965 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    .... Association. Black Mountain Savings Bank, S.S.B....... Black Mountain North Carolina. Harrington Bank, FSB... Union Saint Joseph Michigan. Seaway Community Bank Saint Clair Michigan. First Catholic Federal...

  6. Hiring Diverse Faculty Members in Community Colleges: A Case Study in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Eugene Oropeza

    2012-01-01

    As the diversity of students on college campuses continues to increase, the racial and ethnic diversity among faculty members continues to lag (Jayakumar, Howard, Allen, & Han, 2009; Turner, Myers, & Creswell, 1999). An often overlooked segment of this problem is the 2-year-college setting. With increasing numbers of students of color achieving…

  7. A Community of Practice That Supported the Transition from Doctoral Student to Faculty Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Robin J.; Hemphill, Michael A.; Beaudoin, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Professional collaboration is an important aspect of any field. It allows for individuals to share ideas and be part of a team. The TPSR Alliance has been a space for such professional collaborations where members have been able to both benefit from and contribute to it by sharing research and practices revolving around developing responsible…

  8. 77 FR 23539 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... the meaning of Articles 1 and 2 of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM... obligations under the SCM Agreement. On December 1, 2011, the EU transmitted a document (``EU Notification... resolve the dispute. Article 7.8 of the SCM Agreement provides that a Member found to maintain...

  9. Phonemic awareness and early spelling skills in urban Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corinne J; Masterson, Julie J

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness and early spelling skills of 10 Australian Aboriginal and 10 non-Aboriginal children in their first year of schooling at urban schools. Phonological awareness was assessed using a standardized test (the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy), and children completed a standard spelling task that required them to generate spelling attempts in response to 12 line drawings of familiar animals. Spelling was analysed using the Spelling Scoring Sensitivity procedure. All children performed within the normal range for scores on the QUIL. However, as a group, Aboriginal children performed more poorly than their non-Aboriginal peers. Statistically significant differences were found on the subtests non-word spelling, non-word reading, and phoneme segmentation. Both formal scoring and informal observations were used to examine the spelling skills of participants. Possible explanations of the differences between groups are discussed in terms of health and cultural factors, and implications for the education of Aboriginal children are suggested.

  10. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  11. Addressing Uncomfortable Issues: Reflexivity as a Tool for Culturally Safe Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognised that research with Aboriginal communities needs to be ethical, meaningful and useful, in a way that is defined by communities themselves. This article provides an example of how reflexivity, from a number of positions and paradigms, can be used to undertake such research. I used a reflexive journal to document and critically…

  12. Perceptions of the Role of Short-Term Volunteerism in International Development: Views from Volunteers, Local Hosts, and Community Members

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Bethina; Sibbald, Rebekah; Raman, Salem A.; Darren, Benedict; Loh, Lawrence C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Short-term international volunteer trips traditionally involve volunteers from high-income countries travelling to low- and middle-income countries to assist in service-related development activities. Their duration typically ranges from 7 to 90 days. The city of La Romana, Dominican Republic, receives hundreds of short-term international volunteers annually. They participate in activities aimed at improving conditions faced by a marginalized ethnic-Haitian community living in bateyes. Methods. This qualitative analysis examined perceptions of short-term international volunteerism, held by three key stakeholder groups in La Romana: local hosts, international volunteers, and community members. Responses from semistructured interviews were recorded and analysed by thematic analysis. Results. Themes from the 3 groups were broadly categorized into general perceptions of short-term volunteerism and proposed best practices. These were further subdivided into perceptions of value, harms, and motivations associated with volunteer teams for the former and best practices around volunteer composition and selection, partnership, and skill sets and predeparture training for the latter. Conclusion. Notable challenges were associated with short-term volunteering, including an overemphasis on the material benefits from volunteer groups expressed by community member respondents; misalignment of the desired and actual skill sets of volunteers; duplicate and uncoordinated volunteer efforts; and the perpetuation of stereotypes suggesting that international volunteers possess superior knowledge or skills. Addressing these challenges is critical to optimizing the conduct of short-term volunteerism. PMID:27382372

  13. Otitis Media, Learning and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwan, David; Clinch, Emma; Store, Ron

    This paper reviews selected literature on otitis media (OM) and its learning consequences in Aboriginal children in rural Australia and reports on a project to develop a community approach to the problem. Aboriginal people are the most disadvantaged group in Australia; have much poorer health and lower life expectancy than other Australians; and…

  14. Interactions with community members and institutions: Preventive pathways for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yiwen; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-12-01

    Parents interact with their environment in important ways that may impact their ability to parent their children positively. The current study uses data from the age 3 wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study to investigate whether neighborhood processes and community participation relate to internal control, and whether these three variables are associated with child maltreatment behaviors. Using structural equation modeling, the direct and indirect effects of the environment (neighborhood disorder, social control, and social cohesion) and community participation on child maltreatment are tested. The mediating variable tested is internal control. The results show that neighborhood processes and community participation are associated with child neglect, physical child abuse, and psychological aggression but that these associations are driven through their effect on internal control.

  15. Middle ear problems in Aboriginal school children cause developmental and educational concerns.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Judith A

    An epidemiological study was carried out in the year 2000 and sought to measure the occurrences of middle ear disease and hearing loss within school aged (4 years to 12 years) Aboriginal children. A number of the local schools and preschools in Coraki and Lismore with a high percentage of Aboriginal students were selected in an effort to identify service gaps regarding essential hearing screenings and assessments. A total of 185 (370 ears) Aboriginal children aged 4 years to 12 years were examined from four schools and three preschools. This examination included otoscopy, tympanometry and audiometry. Data were collected as each child was tested and this was then entered into a computer database on returning to the work place. Results indicated that 61.08% of these children had middle ear problems of some type. Unilateral hearing loss of 30 dB or greater was found in 10.80% of children, bilateral hearing loss of 30 dB and greater was found in 22.16%, and perforation of tympanic membranes in 3.24%. Suggestions are made in relation to the need for ongoing training of Aboriginal Community Audiometrists to provide community, school and preschool screening programs together with health related promotional activities to minimise the occurrences of ear infections.

  16. Primary oral health service provision in Aboriginal Medical Services-based dental clinics in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Australians living in rural and remote areas have poorer access to dental care. This situation is attributed to workforce shortages, limited facilities and large distances to care centres. Against this backdrop, rural and remote Indigenous (Aboriginal) communities in Western Australia seem to be more disadvantaged because evidence suggests they have poorer oral health than non-Indigenous people. Hence, provision of dental care for Aboriginal populations in culturally appropriate settings in rural and remote Western Australia is an important public health issue. The aim of this research was to compare services between the Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS)-based clinics and a typical rural community clinic. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and clinical treatment data was undertaken among patients who attended the dental clinics over a period of 6 years from 1999 to 2004. The majority of patients who received dental care at AMS dental clinics were Aboriginal (95.3%), compared with 8% at the non-AMS clinic. The rate of emergency at the non-AMS clinic was 33.5%, compared with 79.2% at the AMS clinics. The present study confirmed that more Indigenous patients were treated in AMS dental clinics and the mix of dental care provided was dominated by emergency care and oral surgery. This indicated a higher burden of oral disease and late utilisation of dental care services (more focus on tooth extraction) among rural and remote Indigenous people in Western Australia.

  17. Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p < .001). Coercive control and age explained most of this inequality. The final model included Aboriginal status, age, a seven-item coercive control index, and stalking, which reduced the odds ratio for Aboriginal status to 1.92 (p = .085) and explained 70.5% of the Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequality in postseparation IPV. Research and action are needed that challenge structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences.

  18. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Lois A.

    2012-01-01

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which…

  19. A Planned Giving Primer for Rockingham Community College Foundation Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Barry M.

    This document provides an explanation of various ways individuals, groups, and corporations can financially support Rockingham Community College through planned giving, previously known as "deferred giving." Planned giving, which is defined as a deliberate, well-thought-out act of contributing an asset or assets to a charitable organization, has…

  20. The Development of a Handbook for Technical Advisory Committee Members at Delgado Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlee, Brian

    Research has suggested that in order to survive in the 1990's, community colleges must increase public awareness of their role in society, encourage employer-specific programs and services, and initiate closer working relationships with industry. One strategy to accomplish these objectives is through the establishment of a Technical Advisory…

  1. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  2. Contracts with Community College Adjunct Faculty Members: Potential Supplemental Benefits to Increase Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Kimberly Ann

    2016-01-01

    During the 21st century Great Recession, college enrollments increased as displaced workers trained to advance their skills (Baum & Ma, 2012). At the same time, state funding to community colleges declined (Baum & Ma, 2012; Ehrenberg, 2012). Although higher enrollments increased tuition revenues, they were insufficient to cover the gap…

  3. Lighting the Way: Keweenaw Bay Ojibwa Community College Serves as a Beacon Light for Tribal Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Sherrole

    2015-01-01

    On the shores of Lake Superior, the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC), a small cluster of Ojibwa (also known as Chippewa), keep their fires alive in the face of daunting pressures to let go of their ways. After the ravages of war, colonization, and territorial loss, KBIC continues to make a stand for their people and future generations. Their…

  4. 78 FR 8131 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Credit Union Enderlin North Dakota. BlackRidge Bank Fargo North Dakota. The Citizens State Bank of Finley... Dakota. Farmers State Bank Hosmer South Dakota. Sunrise Bank Dakota Onida South Dakota. Black Hills... Union Wichita Kansas. Pony Express Community Bank--Elwood, KS.. St. Joseph Missouri. Carson...

  5. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Ningwakwe Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…

  6. Supporting Educational Success for Aboriginal Students: Identifying Key Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The academic difficulties experienced by many Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) students in Canada have been well-documented. Indicators such as school persistence and post-secondary enrollment are typically far lower for Aboriginal students as a group compared to non-Aboriginal students. Identifying facilitators of success is key to…

  7. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  8. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  9. Decolonization, Reinhabitation and Reconciliation: Aboriginal and Place-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal/Indigenous education is being increasingly emphasized in Faculties of Education across Canada. Through self-study as an instructor of a mandatory course in Aboriginal education in a Faculty of Education, the author is exploring the use of local, place-based education in the fostering of cross-cultural understanding of Aboriginal and…

  10. Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

  11. A Handbook for Aboriginal Parents of Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowchief-McHugh, Daphne; Yellowhorne-Breaker, Kathy; Weasel Fat-White, Freda

    To develop this handbook, three Aboriginal teachers gathered extensive data through workshops; questionnaires; and research with Elders, Aboriginal parents, teachers, advocates, and others who work first-hand with children with special needs. The handbook opens by presenting the traditional Aboriginal perspective on disabled children--that they…

  12. Closing the Education Gap: A Case for Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada, a Look at the Aboriginal Headstart Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Mai

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises awareness concerning the education gap between Aboriginal youth and the non-Aboriginal youth population in Canada. It argues that the historical consequences of colonialism that resulted in diminished sense of self-worth, self-determination, and culture have placed Aboriginals at the low-end of the socio-economic strata. This…

  13. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology) and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service. PMID:20569478

  14. ENGAGING COMMUNITIES TO STRENGTHEN RESEARCH ETHICS IN LOW-INCOME SETTINGS: SELECTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF MEMBERS OF A NETWORK OF REPRESENTATIVES IN COASTAL KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis K; Geissler, P Wenzel; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-01-01

    There is wide agreement that community engagement is important for many research types and settings, often including interaction with ‘representatives’ of communities. There is relatively little published experience of community engagement in international research settings, with available information focusing on Community Advisory Boards or Groups (CAB/CAGs), or variants of these, where CAB/G members often advise researchers on behalf of the communities they represent. In this paper we describe a network of community members (‘KEMRI Community Representatives’, or ‘KCRs’) linked to a large multi-disciplinary research programme on the Kenyan Coast. Unlike many CAB/Gs, the intention with the KCR network has evolved to be for members to represent the geographical areas in which a diverse range of health studies are conducted through being typical of those communities. We draw on routine reports, self-administered questionnaires and interviews to: 1) document how typical KCR members are of the local communities in terms of basic characteristics, and 2) explore KCR's perceptions of their roles, and of the benefits and challenges of undertaking these roles. We conclude that this evolving network is a potentially valuable way of strengthening interactions between a research institution and a local geographic community, through contributing to meeting intrinsic ethical values such as showing respect, and instrumental values such as improving consent processes. However, there are numerous challenges involved. Other ways of interacting with members of local communities, including community leaders, and the most vulnerable groups least likely to be vocal in representative groups, have always been, and remain, essential. PMID:23433404

  15. A network approach to policy framing: A case study of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jennifer; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Gleeson, Deborah; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal health policy in Australia represents a unique policy subsystem comprising a diverse network of Aboriginal-specific and "mainstream" organisations, often with competing interests. This paper describes the network structure of organisations attempting to influence national Aboriginal health policy and examines how the different subgroups within the network approached the policy discourse. Public submissions made as part of a policy development process for the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan were analysed using a novel combination of network analysis and qualitative framing analysis. Other organisational actors in the network in each submission were identified, and relationships between them determined; these were used to generate a network map depicting the ties between actors. A qualitative framing analysis was undertaken, using inductive coding of the policy discourses in the submissions. The frames were overlaid with the network map to identify the relationship between the structure of the network and the way in which organisations framed Aboriginal health problems. Aboriginal organisations were central to the network and strongly connected with each other. The network consisted of several densely connected subgroups, whose central nodes were closely connected to one another. Each subgroup deployed a particular policy frame, with a frame of "system dysfunction" also adopted by all but one subgroup. Analysis of submissions revealed that many of the stakeholders in Aboriginal health policy actors are connected to one another. These connections help to drive the policy discourse. The combination of network and framing analysis illuminates competing interests within a network, and can assist advocacy organisations to identify which network members are most influential.

  16. Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women's Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Dell, Colleen; Kilty, Jennifer; Fillmore, Cathy; Grantham, Sheila; Lyons, Tara; Clarke, Sharon; Hopkins, Carol

    2010-07-04

    Our research identifies key skills and traits for service providers working with Aboriginal women that assists them with re-claiming their cultural identity. The "Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women's Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse" was created to disseminate and commence discussion on this initial finding from our community-based research project in Canada. The study overall focussed on the role of identity and stigma in the healing journeys of criminalized Aboriginal women from illicit drug abuse. Our team is committed to sharing its finding with the community from which the information was collected-workers in the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NNADAP). The Fact Sheet is based on a sample of interviews with substance abuse treatment providers, and was verified with women in treatment and who have completed treatment. In recent years, the addictions literature has increased its attention toward the importance of the therapeutic alliance between treatment providers and clients(1), although understanding specific to Aboriginal women remains limited. Identity reclamation is central to women's healing journeys and treatment providers have an influential role. This finding is framed in the fact sheet within the cultural understanding of the Seven Teachings of the Grandfathers(2). The fact sheet (8.5x11) has been distributed to the over 700 NNADAP workers, and is also available at no cost in two poster size formats. It is appropriate for anyone providing services to Aboriginal women requiring addictions treatment.

  17. Meeting the needs of a community: teaching evidence-based youth violence prevention initiatives to members of strategic communities.

    PubMed

    Ruffolo, Daria C; Andresen, Pamela A; Winn, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is among the most serious health threats in the nation today. Violence disproportionately affects young people and people of color. Although the national rates of violent injury and homicide have shown a decline in most regions of the United States over the past 15 years, the rates of violence and related injuries among youth remain unacceptably high. The prevention of youth violence has been a priority of health departments nationwide, including the Cook County Department of Public Health. The goal of this project was to provide key community leaders, social service workers, and nurses within suburban Cook County with educational sessions on Blueprints for Violence Prevention, an initiative to promote evidence-based youth violence prevention programs.

  18. The construction and validation of an instrument to measure "community understanding": Interdependence among community members, awareness of sustainability issues, and experience of connection with the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerly-Kolb, Susan Jessamyn

    Statement of the problem. Research in the areas of environmentalism and environmental education indicate the need to understand the concepts of environmental attitude and environmental action in order to better facilitate their positive development in students. This research indicates that environmental attitude is connected to certain characteristics found in persons who exhibit positive attitude toward the environment and who tend toward positive environmental action. These characteristics include interdependence among members of a community, awareness of sustainability issues, and experience of connection with nature. For this research, the above characteristics, taken together, are called Community Understanding. The purpose of this research was the development of an instrument to examine the construct of Community Understanding and to utilize the instrument to look at a possible correlation between Community Understanding and environmental attitudes and action. The instrument was also used to examine the differences in Community Understanding among rural and urban students. Methods. The Community Understanding Questionnaire was developed utilizing the method created by Dr. William Curlette at Georgia State University (Curlette, 1996). The questionnaire was then administered to 500 10sp{th} grade students in rural and urban Colorado. After the administration of a group difference study and the questionnaire, the results were analyzed using factor analysis to determine the fit of the questions into the original constructs of Interdependence, Awareness of Sustainability Issues, and Connection to Nature. The analysis resulted in the elimination of certain questions and the rearrangement of other questions to create a better fit into the three scales. Reliability analysis conducted on this new formation of questions resulted in a stronger instrument. Results. Statistical analyses of the Community Understanding Questionnaire imply the presence of a construct

  19. Sometimes more is more: iterative participatory design of infographics for engagement of community members with varying levels of health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bales, Michael E; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Yoon, Sunmoo; Woollen, Janet; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To collaborate with community members to develop tailored infographics that support comprehension of health information, engage the viewer, and may have the potential to motivate health-promoting behaviors. Methods The authors conducted participatory design sessions with community members, who were purposively sampled and grouped by preferred language (English, Spanish), age group (18–30, 31–60, >60 years), and level of health literacy (adequate, marginal, inadequate). Research staff elicited perceived meaning of each infographic, preferences between infographics, suggestions for improvement, and whether or not the infographics would motivate health-promoting behavior. Analysis and infographic refinement were iterative and concurrent with data collection. Results Successful designs were information-rich, supported comparison, provided context, and/or employed familiar color and symbolic analogies. Infographics that employed repeated icons to represent multiple instances of a more general class of things (e.g., apple icons to represent fruit servings) were interpreted in a rigidly literal fashion and thus were unsuitable for this community. Preliminary findings suggest that infographics may motivate health-promoting behaviors. Discussion Infographics should be information-rich, contextualize the information for the viewer, and yield an accurate meaning even if interpreted literally. Conclusion Carefully designed infographics can be useful tools to support comprehension and thus help patients engage with their own health data. Infographics may contribute to patients’ ability to participate in the Learning Health System through participation in the development of a robust data utility, use of clinical communication tools for health self-management, and involvement in building knowledge through patient-reported outcomes. PMID:26174865

  20. Perceptions of sitting posture among members of the community, both with and without non-specific chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Keeffe, Mary; O'Sullivan, Leonard; O'Sullivan, Peter; Dankaerts, Wim

    2013-12-01

    Physiotherapists perceive upright, lordotic sitting postures to be important in the management of non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Little is known about the perceptions of the wider community about seated posture, despite this being an important consideration before attempting to change seated posture. This study investigated perceptions of the best and worst sitting postures among members of the community, both with (n = 120) and without (n = 235) NSCLBP. Participants with NSCLBP perceived posture to be more important (p < 0.001), and reported thinking about their posture significantly more frequently (p < 0.001), than those without NSCLBP. 54% of participants selected a "neutral" lordotic sitting posture as their best posture, which was more frequent than any other posture (p < 0.001). Sitting postures which were "straight", and were perceived to keep the head, neck and shoulders in good alignment were preferred. However, what people considered "straight" varied considerably. 78% selected a slumped sitting posture as their worst posture, which was more frequent than any other posture (p < 0.001). The choice of best and worst sitting postures was not significantly influenced by gender, the presence of NSCLBP, or measures of pain, disability or back pain beliefs. Interestingly, a very upright sitting posture was the second most popular selection as both the best (19%) and worst (15%) posture. Overall, lordotic lumbar postures were strongly favoured among members of the community, which is broadly in line with the previously reported perceptions of physiotherapists.

  1. Virtual users support forum: do community members really want to help you?

    PubMed

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Mari, Silvia; Volpato, Chiara

    2013-04-01

    The survival of a virtual community is guaranteed by the users' creation of content. However, the literature has found that the percentage of users who create innovative content is very modest. The content contribution process can also be interpreted as a social collective action in which we-intentions play a primary role. Nevertheless, some people choose not to participate in the collective action, but to benefit from the community's resources and to maximize individual outcomes. In this study (N=250), we investigated the effects of the free-riding tendency, conceived as the willingness to maximize personal outcomes. The specific setting was a virtual support forum, the most common type of web platform, generally used instrumentally by web users to find information and solutions to specific problems. We used the theory of planned behavior theoretical framework, plus social influence variables to test the effect of the free-riding tendency as a drawback for contributions, considering both the role of individual and we-intentions on the observed behavior. Findings showed that neither we-intentions nor I-intentions predicted the actual contribution behavior. Both types of intentions and contribution behavior were negatively influenced only by the free-riding tendency construct. Considerations and future developments of these results are discussed.

  2. Investigating local sustainable environmental perspectives of Kenyan community members and teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Efforts to conserve and preserve the environment in developing or marginalized locales frequently involve a one-way transfer of knowledge and materials from a source in a more developed location. This situation often degenerates into a short-term donor project which risks little to no long-term impacts on local or indigenous relationships with the environment. This research study with educators in Narok, Kenya investigates the current perspectives of local key stakeholders on the environment and sustainability with the purpose of sharing these understandings among local groups to generate a locally constructed meaning of environmental conservation and sustainability. It is the researchers' aim that through locally constructed meanings of environmental hazards and conservation, the Maasai community will empower themselves to transform their relationship with their environment and begin to construct and enact sustainable alternatives to destructive environmental practices. The approach used in this study is a qualitative study of representative stakeholders' environmental perspectives called photovoice. Two major themes emerged during the data analysis: How do we co-habit? and How do we modernize? This community demonstrated a complex understandings including navigate traditional practices, made connections to a larger system, and describing positive ways in which humans influence our environment.

  3. “I know it’s bad for me and yet I do it”: exploring the factors that perpetuate smoking in Aboriginal Health Workers - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) have a mandate to deliver smoking cessation support to Aboriginal people. However, a high proportion of AHWs are smokers and this undermines their delivery of smoking cessation programs. Smoking tobacco is the leading contributor to the burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and must be prevented. Little is known about how to enable AHWs to quit smoking. An understanding of the factors that perpetuate smoking in AHWs is needed to inform the development of culturally relevant programs that enable AHWs to quit smoking. A reduction of smoking in AHWs is important to promote their health and also optimise the delivery of smoking cessation support to Aboriginal clients. Methods We conducted a fundamental qualitative description study that was nested within a larger mixed method participatory research project. The individual and contextual factors that directly or indirectly promote (i.e. perpetuate) smoking behaviours in AHWs were explored in 34 interviews and 3 focus groups. AHWs, other health service staff and tobacco control personnel shared their perspectives. Data analysis was performed using a qualitative content analysis approach with collective member checking by AHW representatives. Results AHWs were highly stressed, burdened by their responsibilities, felt powerless and undervalued, and used smoking to cope with and support a sense of social connectedness in their lives. Factors directly and indirectly associated with smoking were reported at six levels of behavioural influence: personal factors (e.g. stress, nicotine addiction), family (e.g. breakdown of family dynamics, grief and loss), interpersonal processes (e.g. socialisation and connection, domestic disputes), the health service (e.g. job insecurity and financial insecurity, demanding work), the community (e.g. racism, social disadvantage) and policy (e.g. short term and insecure funding). Conclusions An extensive array of factors perpetuated smoking in

  4. The Community of Practice among Mathematics and Mathematics Education Faculty Members at an Urban Minority Serving Institution in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Jacqueline; Quander, Judith; Redl, Timothy; Leveille, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Using narrative inquiry as a research method, four mathematics and mathematics education faculty members explored the integration of theoretical perspectives into their personal narratives as they developed a community of practice. Initially their focus was strictly on improving their students' mathematical knowledge. As their community of…

  5. Building Relationships: It's Not Always Easy, but Juggling Relationships with Board Members and Community Stakeholders Is Essential to Making Needed Campus Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Building relationships is the essence of the community college. Higher education administrators learned long ago that building rapport with businesses, state and local government, and constituents is the best way to represent the interests of the community. But that does not make it easy. Board members come and go and the shifting dynamics of…

  6. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Tracey R; Hanson, Jessica D; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-07-03

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  7. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:26550005

  8. Diabetes mellitus and the Aboriginal diabetic initiative in Canada: An update review

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of major global health concern due to its increasing prevalence in both developing and developed counties, with a projection increase of 214% from the year 2000 to 2030. Among the Aboriginal population of Canada (which includes the First Nations, Inuit and Metis), diabetes mellitus contribute significantly to their higher morbidity and increased health disparity when compared to the non-Aboriginal Canadians. In view of this, the Federal Government of Canada had launched the Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative (ADI) in 1999 as part of the bigger Canadian Diabetes Strategy to provide a better framework for surveillance, public education and community-based management of diabetes. Originally, ADI was intended for a 5-year cycle, but it was renewed twice in 2005 and then 2010, with a total funding of C$523 million. Given its long history of operation and the massive amount of revenue being injected, it is worthwhile to review the background information and the relevant data that had fostered the ADI; and more importantly, to critically evaluate the benefits and impact of the ADI in terms of the actual health of the Aboriginals and their social inequalities. PMID:27843824

  9. Evaluation of the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module.

    PubMed

    Tsey, Komla; Chigeza, Philemon; Holden, Carol A; Bulman, Jack; Gruis, Hilton; Wenitong, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module. Although men experience higher levels of illness and die younger than women, educational programs to support health workers utilise a gender-based approach to increase participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males in health care are rare and lack appropriate content. Recognising this gap in service provision, and under the guidance of a Reference Group comprising community leaders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait male health, a comprehensive and culturally appropriate Male Health Module has been developed to enhance the capacity of health workers to improve access to services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males. Methods used were: in-depth interviews with Module developers, pilot workshops for trainers and health workers, questionnaires and focus group discussions with workshop participants, and participant observations. As well as enhancing capacity to facilitate access to health services for men, the Module was deemed relevant because of its potential to promote health worker empowerment and wellbeing. Findings revealed that improving access to services for men required male and female health workers working in partnership. Despite overall enthusiasm for the Module, the findings also revealed deep fear that it would end up 'collecting dust on shelves'. Strategies to improve the Module quality and accessibility are highlighted.

  10. Community support and disclosure of HIV serostatus to family members by public-sector antiretroviral treatment patients in the Free State Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; van Loon, Francis; van Rensburg, Dingie; Meulemans, Herman

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the support of close relatives is fundamental in coping with HIV/AIDS and in accessing the emotional and material support necessary for sustained adherence to treatment. Because disclosure to family members is imperative to ensure their support, identifying tools or resources that can minimize the possible risks and maximize the potential benefits of disclosure should be useful in improving the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS. Where health systems require strengthening, engaging the community in HIV/AIDS care could potentially create an environment that encourages disclosure to family members. This study investigated the impact of community support initiatives (community health workers and treatment support groups), patient characteristics (age, gender, and education), and time since first diagnosis on the disclosure of serostatus to family members by a sample of 268 public-sector antiretroviral treatment patients in a province of South Africa between August 2004 and July 2007. Whereas gender, age, and education only weakly influenced disclosure, there was a strong and stable positive association between community support and disclosure to family members. The immediate and long-term impact of community support on the disclosure by seropositive patients to family members indicates that initiatives such as community health workers and HIV support groups run by people living with HIV/AIDS should be strengthened, especially for those patients who cannot disclose their status to immediate family and close friends.

  11. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies.

  12. Lysine fortification reduces anxiety and lessens stress in family members in economically weak communities in Northwest Syria.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Miro; Ghosh, Shibani; Mouneimne, Youssef; Pellett, Peter L; Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2004-06-01

    Lysine is a limiting amino acid in diets based on wheat as the staple. In experimental animals, prolonged dietary lysine inadequacy increases stress-induced anxiety. If observed in humans, such a result would have a strong implication for the relationship between nutrition and communal quality of life and mental health. As part of a 3-month randomized double-blind study, we tested whether lysine fortification of wheat reduces anxiety and stress response in family members in poor Syrian communities consuming wheat as a staple food. In the lysine-fortified group, the plasma cortisol response to the blood drawing as a cause of stress was reduced in females, as was sympathetic arousal in males as measured by skin conductance. Lysine fortification also significantly reduced chronic anxiety as measured by the trait anxiety inventory in males. These results suggest that some stress responses in economically weak populations consuming cereal-based diets can be improved with lysine fortification.

  13. 'We are afraid of them': attitudes and behaviours of community members towards tuberculosis in Ghana and implications for TB control efforts.

    PubMed

    Dodor, Emmanuel Atsu; Kelly, Shona

    2009-03-01

    One major set back to the success of TB control globally is the stigma attached to the disease in most societies. This article explores community's understanding of, and attitudes and behaviours towards TB and examines the implications for disease control efforts. Individual in-depth interviews and focus groups were held with community members and the generated data analysed using Grounded Theory techniques and procedures. At the core of feelings towards TB in the community is the fear of infection leading to imposition of socio-physical distance and participatory restrictions on those suffering from the disease. Because of fear of infection, most of the community members were of the view that TB patients should not be part of the society and said they will not marry a TB patient or encourage any family member to enter such a relationship. They also pointed out that TB patients should not sell in the community and would not be allowed to represent them at any public function because they can infect others. Whenever it becomes unavoidable for the community members to interact with someone with TB, they indicated that they would cover their mouth with a handkerchief, turn their head or sit in the opposite direction of the wind from the TB patient to avoid inhaling the air. When a TB patient joins the community members at any function, he/she is expected to abide by certain 'codes of conduct'. The stigmatising attitudes and behaviours of the community members towards the disease and its sufferers may lead individuals with very obvious signs and symptoms of TB to attribute it to other non-stigmatising conditions or hide the diagnosis from others as well as default from treatment.

  14. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  15. Developing a Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bow, Catherine; Christie, Michael; Devlin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The fluctuating fortunes of Northern Territory bilingual education programs in Australian languages and English have put at risk thousands of books developed for these programs in remote schools. In an effort to preserve such a rich cultural and linguistic heritage, the Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages project is establishing an open access,…

  16. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  17. Aboriginal Knowledge Traditions in Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael

    2005-01-01

    According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…

  18. Developmental milestones among Aboriginal children in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna; Miller, Anton

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Windows of achievement provide age ranges for the attainment of early developmental skills. Group-specific research is warranted given that development may be influenced by social or cultural factors. OBJECTIVES: To examine developmental milestones for Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nation children in Canada, based on developmental domains collected from the 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey. Sociodemographic and health predictors of risk for developmental delay were also examined. RESULTS: The ranges in which children achieve certain developmental milestones are presented. Gross motor and self-help skills were found to be achieved earlier (across the three Aboriginal groups), whereas language skills were achieved slightly later than in Canadian children in general. Furthermore, health factors (eg, low birth weight, chronic health conditions) were associated with late achievement of developmental outcomes even when sociodemographic characteristics were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the timing of milestone achievement may differ for Aboriginal children, highlighting the importance of establishing culturally specific norms and standards rather than relying on those derived from general populations. This information may be useful for practitioners and parents interested in identifying the age ranges for development, as well as age ranges indicating potential for developmental risk and opportunities for early intervention among Aboriginal children. PMID:24855426

  19. Australian Aboriginal Language Early Childhood Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…

  20. Micmac Indians Present Aboriginal Rights Claim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northian, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Micmac Indian leaders presented their claim for aboriginal rights to the Federal Government April 25, 1977 in an historic and symbolic ceremony on their home ground at the Eskasoni Reserve. The article discusses this event and some of the Micmacs' demands. (NQ)

  1. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  2. Everywhere and Nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strain Islander Contact Languages in Education and Indigenous Language Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellwood, Juanita; Angelo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…

  3. Taking Ownership: The Implementation of a Non-Aboriginal Early Education Programme for on-Reserve Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatch, Michelle; Le Mare, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative study, over the period of one year, we assessed the appropriateness of a mainstream early childhood education intervention, the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) programme, in five on-reserve First Nations communities, by focusing on the experiences of the Aboriginal women who delivered the programme.…

  4. Meeting the Needs of Aboriginal Learners: An Overview of Current Programs and Services, Challenges, Opportunities and Lessons Learned. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national and international voice through which Canada's colleges and institutes inform and advise various levels of government, business, industry and labour. ACCC's Strategic Focus priorities for 2005-2006 include Aboriginal peoples' access to post-secondary education, and enhancing…

  5. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    PubMed

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm.

  6. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327

  7. Frequency, Nature, and Correlates of Hate Crime Victimization Experiences in an Urban Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Members.

    PubMed

    Burks, Alixandra C; Cramer, Robert J; Henderson, Craig E; Stroud, Caroline H; Crosby, James W; Graham, James

    2015-09-17

    The present study examines two central research questions. First, we sought to add to current knowledge on the frequency and types of hate crime experiences in an urban sample. Also, drawing on existing frameworks for sexual minority specific (SMS) stress, we examined internalized SMS stress (defined by internalized homophobia and acceptance concerns regarding one's minority status) as a mediator of the association between hate crime victimization (i.e., objective or social SMS stress) and mental health symptoms (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety, and general stress). Participants were 336 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) community members who elected to participate in research at a community health agency in an urban southwestern United States jurisdiction. Results suggested (a) approximately one third of the sample reported lifetime hate crime victimization, with the most common types characterized by interpersonal, as opposed to property, crimes; (b) approximately half of participants reported their most recent victimization to law enforcement; and (c) internalized SMS stress mediated the relation between hate crime victimization and overall mental health symptoms. Findings are discussed with respect to implications of the unique nature of hate crimes in an urban setting, as well as theoretical and practical implications of SMS stress findings.

  8. Effects of Bacterial Community Members on the Proteome of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. Strain Is79

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Christopher J.; Nielsen, Susanne; Greis, Kenneth D.; Haffey, Wendy D.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ticak, Tomislav; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms in the environment do not exist as the often-studied pure cultures but as members of complex microbial communities. Characterizing the interactions within microbial communities is essential to understand their function in both natural and engineered environments. In this study, we investigated how the presence of a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB) and heterotrophic bacteria affect the growth and proteome of the chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79. We investigated Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 in co-culture with Nitrobacter winogradskyi, in co-cultures with selected heterotrophic bacteria, and as a member of the nitrifying enrichment culture G5-7. In batch culture, N. winogradskyi and heterotrophic bacteria had positive effects on the growth of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics approach was used to investigate the effect of N. winogradskyi and the co-cultured heterotrophic bacteria from G5-7 on the proteome of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79. In co-culture with N. winogradskyi, several Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 oxidative stress response proteins changed in abundance, with periplasmic proteins increasing and cytoplasmic proteins decreasing in abundance. In the presence of heterotrophic bacteria, the abundance of proteins directly related to the ammonia oxidation pathway increased, while the abundance of proteins related to amino acid synthesis and metabolism decreased. In summary, the proteome of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 was differentially influenced by the presence of either N. winogradskyi or heterotrophic bacteria. Together, N. winogradskyi and heterotrophic bacteria reduced the oxidative stress for Nitrosomonas sp. Is79, which resulted in more efficient metabolism. IMPORTANCE Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms play an important role in the global nitrogen cycle, converting ammonia to

  9. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Young-Mo; Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie; ...

    2015-04-17

    Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptative and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars), wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number ofmore » predominant taxa inhabiting this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate) and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate) products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2) in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1) the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2) Synechococcus spp. produce CH4 via metabolism of phosphonates, and photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3) glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4) fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters) at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences

  10. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution. PMID:27563915

  11. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Mo; Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie; Becraft, Eric; Wood, Jason M.; Thiel, Vera; Klapper, Isaac; Kuhl, Michael; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bryant, Donald A.; Ward, David M.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2015-04-17

    Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptative and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars), wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number of predominant taxa inhabiting this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate) and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate) products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2) in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1) the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2) Synechococcus spp. produce CH4 via metabolism of phosphonates, and photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3) glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4) fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters) at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their

  12. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-08-23

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution.

  13. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mo; Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie T.; Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Thiel, Vera; Klapper, Isaac; Kühl, Michael; Fredrickson, James K.; Bryant, Donald A.; Ward, David M.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptive and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars), wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number of predominant taxa inhabit this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms, and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g., glycolate) and fermentation (e.g., acetate, propionate, and lactate) products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gasses (e.g., H2 and CO2) in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: (1) the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; (2) photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; (3) glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and (4) fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g., wax esters) at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their niches. PMID:25941514

  14. Remote area aboriginal health services managers: key practice challenges.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J

    2001-06-01

    The following reflections on the author's management practice are based on the text of an address given by the author at the 1999 International Conference of the Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators in Sydney. These reflections arise out of the author's experience for the past 5 years as manager of Nganampa Health Council, an Aboriginal community-controlled health organisation located in the remote north-west of South Australia. Nganampa Health Council is a large regional service with a national reputation for clinical and administrative excellence. It has several leading-edge health programs, which provide an exemplar for other remote health services across Australia. The author discusses three generic key management issues that remote health services managers typically encounter and argues that services are likely to be most effective when resources are applied in a focused and strategic manner and when management practices that are pragmatic and culturally appropriate are adopted.

  15. Knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Estey, Elizabeth; Kmetic, Andrew; Reading, Jeffrey

    2008-06-01

    Interest in the concept of knowledge translation (KT), one of the many terms used to describe the process(es) through which knowledge is transformed into action, is increasingly prevalent in the mainstream health literature. Despite a pressing need, little has been done to address the implications of evolving theories and strategies for KT in an Aboriginal context. The authors attempt to narrow the gap by reviewing the literature on Aboriginal KT and exploring ways to extend this work by engaging with the Aboriginal health research literature and the KT literature. They argue that the inclusion of multiple perspectives and an examination of the social and political context in which Aboriginal KT takes shape are important for the conceptual development of Aboriginal KT. This article is particularly relevant for those involved at the interface between nursing practice and efforts to improve Aboriginal health.

  16. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    PubMed

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles.

  17. Addressing Disparities in Low Back Pain Care by Developing Culturally Appropriate Information for Aboriginal Australians: "My Back on Track, My Future".

    PubMed

    Lin, Ivan B; Ryder, Kim; Coffin, Juli; Green, Charmaine; Dalgety, Eric; Scott, Brian; Straker, Leon M; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2017-01-13

    OBJECTIVES : Addressing disparities in low back pain care (LBP) is an important yet largely unaddressed issue. One avenue to addressing disparities, recommended by clinical guidelines, is to ensure that LBP information is culturally appropriate. Our objectives were, first, to develop LBP information that was culturally appropriate for Aboriginal Australians living in a rural area and, second, to compare this to traditional information. METHODS : The overall information development process was guided by a "cultural security" framework and included partnerships between Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal investigators, a synthesis of research evidence, and participation of a project steering group consisting of local Aboriginal people. LBP information (entitled My Back on Track, My Future [MBOT]) was developed as five short audio-visual scenarios, filmed using Aboriginal community actors. A qualitative randomized crossover design compared MBOT with an evidence-based standard (the Back Book [BB]). Twenty Aboriginal adults participated. Qualitatively we ascertained which information participants' preferred and why, perceptions about each resource, and LBP management. RESULTS : Thirteen participants preferred MBOT, four the BB, two both, and one neither. Participants valued seeing "Aboriginal faces," language that was understandable, the visual format, and seeing Aboriginal people undertaking positive changes in MBOT. In contrast, many participants found the language and format of the BB a barrier. Participants who preferred the BB were more comfortable with written information and appreciated the detailed content. CONCLUSIONS : The MBOT information was more preferred and addressed important barriers to care, providing support for use in practice. Similar processes are needed to develop pain information for other cultural groups, particularly those underserved by existing approaches to care.

  18. A unique resource mutualism between the giant Bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Melinda; Clarke, Charles; Lee, Ch'ien C; Gunsalam, Ansou; Clarke, Rohan H

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers) that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids.Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community.We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant.

  19. Los Angeles Free-Net: an experiment in interactive telecommunication between lay members of the Los Angeles community and health care experts.

    PubMed Central

    Bluming, A; Mittelman, P S

    1996-01-01

    The Los Angeles Free-Net, an interactive community information resource, was established in part to help community members become more effective consumers of health care services. By providing timely, expert answers to anonymously asked medical questions at no charge, we hope to decrease unnecessary physician-patient encounters, encourage effective preventive-health measures, and improve the overall results of health care in our community. Although it is too early to assess health care benefits from this system, the following observations may help guide the development of similar systems around the nation: (1) A small annual registration fee generates both moral and financial public support. (2) Demographic information from registered users can help direct attempts at enfranchising all members of the community. (3) Toll-free access, free public-instruction sessions, moderated forums, extensive volunteer help, and encryption security are encouraged, while Internet censorship is difficult and counterproductive. (4) Access to Internet resources is important, but the strength of a community system lies primarily in the sharing of expertise and resources among members of the community. (5) A critical mass of available physicians to answer questions must be matched with a critical level of question input for this type of interactive medical information resource to function in a time-sensitive fashion. PMID:8826627

  20. Distribution of intestinal parasitic infections amongst aborigine children at Post Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hartini, Y; Geishamimi, G; Mariam, A Z; Mohamed-Kamel, A G; Hidayatul, F O; Ismarul, Y I

    2013-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are important public health problems among underprivileged communities. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate of intestinal parasites among aborigine children at Pos Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 111 faecal samples from aborigine children aged 4-12 years were screened for intestinal parasites by direct smear technique. Harada-Mori culture was also performed to identify hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. The results showed that 87.4% of the children examined were positive for one or more parasites. Intestinal parasites were significantly lower in boys (78.7%) as compared to girls (93.8%). The infection occurred in very young children aged 4-6 years (80.0%) and the percentage of parasite-positive cases appeared to be significantly higher (92.9%) among the children aged 7-9 years. Trichuris trichiura was the most common parasite found in aborigine children (65.8%). Low socioeconomic status, poor environmental sanitation and poor personal hygiene are possible contributing factors that increase the rate of intestinal parasitic infections among the children. Thus, the parasitic diseases will continue to threaten the people's health especially among communities from rural areas if no appropriate actions are taken to diminish the transmission of the parasites.

  1. Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

  2. From benzos to berries: treatment offered at an Aboriginal youth solvent abuse treatment centre relays the importance of culture.

    PubMed

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Seguin, Maureen; Hopkins, Carol; Tempier, Raymond; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Dell, Debra; Duncan, Randy; Mosier, Karen

    2011-02-01

    First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents are one of the most highly stigmatized substance-abusing groups in Canada. Drawing on a residential treatment response that is grounded in a culture-based model of resiliency, this article discusses the cultural implications for psychiatry's individualized approach to treating mental disorders. A systematic review of articles published in The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry during the past decade, augmented with a review of Canadian and international literature, revealed a gap in understanding and practice between Western psychiatric disorder-based and Aboriginal culture-based approaches to treatment and healing from substance abuse and mental disorders. Differing conceptualizations of mental health and substance abuse are discussed from Western psychiatric and Aboriginal worldviews, with a focus on connection to self, community, and political context. Applying an Aboriginal method of knowledge translation-storytelling-experiences from front-line workers in a youth solvent abuse treatment centre relay the difficulties with applying Western responses to Aboriginal healing. This lends to a discussion of how psychiatry can capitalize on the growing debate regarding the role of culture in the treatment of Aboriginal youth who abuse solvents. There is significant need for culturally competent psychiatric research specific to diagnosing and treating First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse substances, including solvents. Such understanding for front-line psychiatrists is necessary to improve practice. A health promotion perspective may be a valuable beginning point for attaining this understanding, as it situates psychiatry's approach to treating mental disorders within the etiology for Aboriginal Peoples.

  3. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  4. The Quest for Continuous Improvement: A Qualitative Study on Diffusion of Outcomes Assessment among Career and Technical Education Faculty Members at Rocky Mountain States Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The following qualitative multicase study presents an examination of outcomes assessment adoption as it relates to Career and Technical Education faculty at community colleges and outlines recommendations for postsecondary education administration as they introduce innovations to faculty members. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  5. Challenges of Knowledge Management and Creation in Communities of Practice Organisations of Deaf and Non-Deaf Members: Requirements for a Web Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade, Daniela; Guimaraes, Cayley; Antunes, Diego Roberto; Garcia, Laura Sanchez; Lopes da Silva, Rafaella Aline; Fernandes, Sueli

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the role of knowledge management (KM) tools used to cultivate a community of practice (CP) in its knowledge creation (KC), transfer, learning processes. The goal of such observations was to determine requirements that KM tools should address for the specific CP formed by Deaf and non-Deaf members of the CP. The CP studied is a…

  6. Academic Freedom, Tenure, and Responsibility for Faculty Members in Texas Public Community and Senior Colleges and Universities. Policy Paper 1. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    Modifications are presented to a 1967 document that contained recommendations concerning academic freedom, academic responsibility, and tenure for faculty members in Texas public community and senior colleges and universities. The recommended standards constitute patterns or guidelines and are not binding on any institution and may be varied in…

  7. Assessing the Student, Faculty, and Community Partner in Academic Service-Learning: A Categorization of Surveys Posted Online at Campus Compact Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Susan; Anderson-Lain, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Service-learning is an instructional strategy used by faculty at hundreds of institutions, including those that are members of Campus Compact, an organization committed to service-learning and community/civic engagement. For this study, researchers examined a variety of online survey assessment tools used in service-learning projects. The…

  8. A Study of the Relationship of Highly Effective California Community Colleges and Their Board of Trustee Members' Characteristics, Behaviors, and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Among the identified highly effective California community colleges, the purpose of the study was to ascertain the degree of importance for the six competencies of board effectiveness as determined by the Chait et al. (1993, 1996) Board Self-Assessment Questionnaire (BSAQ) as self-reported by board members. Methodology: The design for…

  9. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  10. Intellectual Disability in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…

  11. Research: Documenting an Urban/Rural Aboriginal Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Margaret R.

    During research on cultural differences in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander pedagogy, it became obvious that the lack of an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander cultural typology was impeding research progress. The author's cultural heritage group, the Malara People, a subgroup of the Bandjalang People of northern New South Wales,…

  12. Aboriginal nurses' beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2002-11-01

    The potential of risky sexual behaviors and adolescent unplanned pregnancy has become a primary issue in the health care system for aborigines in eastern Taiwan. Using aboriginal nurses to provide information on sexual behaviors may have potential in promoting healthy sexual practices among aborigines. The purposes of this study were to explore Taiwanese aboriginal nurses beliefs. attitudes, and values about sexuality. Several health centers in eastern Taiwan were randomly selected to recruit participants in the year 2000. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 206 female nurses (mean age = 28.4, SD = 7.4) who worked in various clinical units. The results revealed that aboriginal nurses hold moderately positive beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality. The conflict between aboriginal nurses' belief and value systems about sexuality was clear. A conflict between aboriginal nurses' value systems and patients behaviors also existed. Strategies to help aboriginal nurses to be more aware of their beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality should be an essential issue in the practice and education of nurses.

  13. Residential Schools: Impact on Aboriginal Students' Academic and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Rosemary; Josefowitz, Nina; Cole, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Government commissions have demonstrated that residential schools' ability to educate aboriginal students was compromised by widespread problems including (a) inadequate curriculum, staffing, instruction time, and parental involvement; (b) racism; (c) prohibition against the use of aboriginal language; and (d) maltreatment. This article uses…

  14. An Exploratory Study of Binge Drinking in the Aboriginal Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl

    2005-01-01

    There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…

  15. The Ancestor Project: Aboriginal Computer Education through Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Marla; Biin, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the ANCESTOR program is to use digital storytelling as a means of promoting an interest in technology careers for Aboriginal learners, as well as increasing cultural literacy. A curriculum was developed and first tested with Aboriginal students at the LÁU,WELNEW Tribal School near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Based on feedback…

  16. Seeding Success: Schools That Work for Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munns, Geoff; O'Rourke, Virginia; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a large mixed methods research project that investigated the conditions of success for Aboriginal school students. The article presents the qualitative case study component of the research. It details the work of four schools identified as successful for Aboriginal students with respect to social and academic outcomes, and…

  17. Aboriginal Street-involved Youth Experience Elevated Risk of Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Brittany; Alfred, Gerald Taiaiake; Fleming, Kim; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Past research has identified risk factors associated with incarceration among adult Aboriginal populations; however, less is known about incarceration among street-involved Aboriginal youth. Therefore, we undertook this study to longitudinally investigate recent reports of incarceration among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Data were collected from a cohort of street-involved, drug-using youth from September 2005 to May 2013. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses were employed to examine the potential relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and recent incarceration. Results Among our sample of 1050 youth, 248 (24%) reported being of aboriginal ancestry, and 378 (36%) reported being incarcerated in the previous six months at some point during the study period. In multivariate analysis controlling for a range of potential confounders including drug use patterns and other risk factors, Aboriginal ancestry remained significantly associated with recent incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.86). Conclusions Even after adjusting for drug use patterns and other risk factors associated with incarceration, this study found that Aboriginal street-involved youth were still significantly more likely to be incarcerated than their non-Aboriginal peers. Given the established harms associated with incarceration these findings underscore the pressing need for systematic reform including culturally appropriate interventions to prevent Aboriginal youth from becoming involved with the criminal justice system. PMID:26390949

  18. Aboriginal Pygmalion in Australia: An Open and Closed Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, B.

    1978-01-01

    Racism in Australian schools is indicated by an attitude survey which reveals that teachers from traditional classrooms believe that Aboriginal students will do less well than White students, whereas teachers from an open school predict that Aboriginal children should do as well as White children, given equal ability. (Author/EB)

  19. Aboriginal Education at Two Australian Schools: Under One Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…

  20. Identity and Culture Shock: Aboriginal Children and Schooling in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Gisela; Eckermann, Anne-Katrin

    1996-01-01

    Observes the activities and characteristics of Aboriginal children in an Aboriginal school and compares these to the culture shock and alienation experienced when they transfer to a mainstream school. Identifies five major stressors of culture shock as mechanical differences, communication, attitudes and beliefs, customs, and isolation. (MJP)

  1. Aboriginal Language Standardisation Project: Progress Report, 2000. Literacy Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, Toronto. Literacy and Basic Skills Section.

    The Aboriginal Language Standardisation (ALS) Project's task is to develop quality literacy materials in order to help preserve aboriginal languages of Canada. The Canadian Assembly of First Nations, a group of tribal leaders, recently called for the establishment of standards for written and oral languages by approving terminology, developing…

  2. A Pedagogical Model for Engaging Aboriginal Children with Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark; Byrne, Matt; Gower, Graeme; Anderson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal children experience social and educational disadvantage and many are not engaged with schooling or learning, which results in significantly lower levels of educational attainment. The Aboriginal Education Program delivered by Scitech to remote Western Australian schools has been shown to significantly increase student ratings of their…

  3. Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

  4. Task Force on Aboriginal Peoples in Federal Corrections. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on the Reintegration of Aboriginal Offenders as Law-Abiding Citizens. This task force was established in March 1987 by the Canadian federal government to examine and recommend changes for improving services to help incarcerated Aboriginals achieve successful social…

  5. Imaginative Education Engages Aboriginal Learners in Prince Rupert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago, only 10% of the aboriginal students attending the public school of Prince Rupert took down their diploma of secondary studies. Across British Columbia, only 47 percent of the Aboriginal students who entered Grade 8 in 2003 have since completed high school, compared to 79 percent for all students in the province, an inequity that…

  6. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  7. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4 Section 230.4 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a)...

  8. Bush tucker, shop tucker: production, consumption, and diet at an Aboriginal outstation.

    PubMed

    Scelza, Brooke A; Bird, Douglas W; Bird, Rebecca Bliege

    2014-01-01

    Foraging models have rarely been used to address how behavior is altered by the presence of non-foraged foods. Here, choices of store-bought and hunted foods in one Aboriginal community are analyzed. Hunting occurs frequently, but community residents also purchase food from the shop. Increases in the frequency of hunting certain large and small prey are associated with reduced access to food in the shop. Higher-variance hunt types are not associated with shop purchases, but continue to be acquired due to their cultural significance. The variation in these results highlights the complexity of dietary behavior in a mixed economy.

  9. Becoming "Real" Aboriginal Teachers: Attending to Intergenerational Narrative Reverberations and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary; Chester, Jerri-Lynn; Flett, Brenda Mary; Joe, Lucy; Marshall, Laura; Moore, Dorothy; Paul, Khea; Paynter, Florence; Williams, Jennifer; Huber, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Our paper, and the inquiry from which it emerges, is situated in world-wide concern to increase the numbers of Aboriginal teachers in schools. In Canada, the population of Aboriginal young people is rapidly increasing. Yet, at the same time, the gap between the attainment of a university credential in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is…

  10. Tertiary Success for the Aboriginal Student: The Numerous Factors Impacting on the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eltchelebi, Wadda

    This paper presents an overview of Aboriginal education in the state of Victoria, Australia, as a frame for the role of the Aboriginal Tertiary Support Unit (ATSU) at La Trobe University, Bendigo. At the elementary and secondary levels, Aboriginal advocacy and support are provided by the Victorian Aboriginal Education Association, which promotes…

  11. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  12. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe abortion: experiences from community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia counties Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Yegon, Erick Kiprotich; Kabanya, Peter Mwaniki; Echoka, Elizabeth; Osur, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rate of unsafe abortions in Kenya has increased from 32 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 to 48 per 1000 women in 2012. This is one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Kenya changed its Constitution to include a more enabling provision regarding the provision of abortion services. Abortion-related stigma has been identified as a key driver in silencing women's ability to reproductive choice leading to seeking to unsafe abortion. We sought to explore abortion-related stigma at the community level as a barrier to women realizing their rights to a safe, legal abortion and compare manifestations of abortion stigma at two communities from regions with high and low incidence of unsafe abortion. Methods A qualitative study using 26 focus group discussions with general community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia Counties. We used thematic and content analysis to analyze and compare community member's responses regarding abortion-related stigma. Results Although abortion is recognized as being very common within communities, community members expressed various ways that stigmatize women seeking an abortion. This included being labeled as killers and are perceived to be a bad influence for women especially young women. Women reported that they were poorly treated by health providers in health facilities for seeking abortion especially young unmarried women. Institutionalization of stigma especially when Ministry of Health withdrew of standards and guidelines only heightened how stigma presents at the facilities and drives women seeking an abortion to traditional birth attendants who offer unsafe abortions leading to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of abortion-related complications. Conclusion Community members located in counties in regions with high incidence of unsafe abortion also reported higher levels of how they would stigmatize a woman seeking an abortion compared to community members from counties in low incidence

  13. Reliability, validity and administrative burden of the community reintegration of injured service members computer adaptive test (CRIS-CAT)”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Computer Adaptive Test version of the Community Reintegration of Injured Service Members measure (CRIS-CAT) consists of three scales measuring Extent of, Perceived Limitations in, and Satisfaction with community integration. The CRIS-CAT was developed using item response theory methods. The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability, concurrent, known group and predictive validity and respondent burden of the CRIS-CAT. The CRIS-CAT was developed using item response theory methods. The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability, concurrent, known group and predictive validity and respondent burden of the CRIS-CAT. Methods This was a three-part study that included a 1) a cross-sectional field study of 517 homeless, employed, and Operation Enduring Freedom / Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans; who completed all items in the CRIS item set, 2) a cohort study with one year follow-up study of 135 OEF/OIF Veterans, and 3) a 50-person study of CRIS-CAT administration. Conditional reliability of simulated CAT scores was calculated from the field study data, and concurrent validity and known group validity were examined using Pearson product correlations and ANOVAs. Data from the cohort were used to examine the ability of the CRIS-CAT to predict key one year outcomes. Data from the CRIS-CAT administration study were used to calculate ICC (2,1) minimum detectable change (MDC), and average number of items used during CAT administration. Results Reliability scores for all scales were above 0.75, but decreased at both ends of the score continuum. CRIS-CAT scores were correlated with concurrent validity indicators and differed significantly between the three Veteran groups (P < .001). The odds of having any Emergency Room visits were reduced for Veterans with better CRIS-CAT scores (Extent, Perceived Satisfaction respectively: OR = 0.94, 0.93, 0.95; P < .05). CRIS-CAT scores were predictive of SF-12 physical and mental

  14. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  15. Driver licensing: descriptive epidemiology of a social determinant of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Helps, Yvonne; Senserrick, Teresa; Byrne, Jake; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Daniels, John; Harrison, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Education, employment and equitable access to services are commonly accepted as important underlying social determinants of health. For most Australians, access to health, education and other services is facilitated by private transport and a driver licence. This study aimed to examine licensing rates and predictors of licensing in a sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, as these have previously been poorly described. Methods: Interviewer‐administered surveys were conducted with 625 people 16 years or older in four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales and South Australia over a two‐week period in 2012–2013. Results: Licensing rates varied from 51% to 77% by site. Compared to not having a licence, having a driver licence was significantly associated with higher odds of full‐time employment (adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 2.5–6.3) and educational attainment (adjusted OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.2–2.8 for trade or certificate; adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.6–9.5 for degree qualification). Conclusions: Variation in driver licensing rates suggests different yet pervasive barriers to access. There is a strong association between driver licensing, education and employment. Implications: Licensing inequality has far‐reaching impacts on the broader health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, reinforcing the need for appropriate and accessible pathways to achieving and maintaining driver licensing. PMID:27481274

  16. [Features of the regulation of legal relations in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare in the Eurasian Economic Community member-states].

    PubMed

    Eremin, G B; Iakubova, I Sh; Mel'tser, A V; Cherniakina, T S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was identification of both general trends and approaches, and the differences in the regulation of relations in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population, determination of the necessary measures to harmonize legislation states in the countries - members of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) in the noted sphere. As a result of the present research recommendations about unification and harmonization of legislations in member states of EurAsEC are developed for formation of uniform economic policy in noted sphere.

  17. Learning from both sides: Experiences and opportunities in the investigation of Australian aboriginal medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Bradley S; Claudie, David J; Smith, Nicholas M; McKinnon, Ross A; Semple, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    With one of the oldest surviving cultures in the world, Australian Aboriginal people have developed immense knowledge about the diverse Australian flora. Western scientific investigation of some Australian Aboriginal medicinal plants has demonstrated interesting pharmacological activities and chemistry, however the majority of these species have not yet been extensively examined. We argue that research that is locally initiated and driven by Indigenous traditional owners in collaboration with Western scientists has significant potential to develop new plant-based products. Locally driven medicinal plants research in which traditional owners work as researchers in collaboration with University-based colleagues in the investigation of medicines rather than "stakeholders" or "informants" is one model that may be used in characterising plants with the potential to be developed into sustainable plant-based medicinal products with commercial value. Our team has taken this approach in research located both on traditional homelands and in the laboratory. Research being conducted by the University of South Australia and Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation has led to patent filing for protection of intellectual property associated with novel compounds and extracts with the potential for development through cosmetic, complementary medicine and pharmaceutical routes. Ongoing research is examining the commercial developmental pathways and requirements for product development in these spaces. This review will address the opportunities that might exist for working in partnership with Australian Indigenous communities, some of the scientific knowledge which has been generated so far from our work together and the lessons learnt since the inception of the collaboration between the Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation and scientists from the University of South Australia.

  18. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  19. College Advisor, Student, and Senior Staff Member Perceptions of Academic Advising Modalities and Types: A Community College Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Institutions of higher learning, their senior staff members, and advisors are always striving to create advising modalities and utilize matching advising types that work best for the individual student. This qualitative single-case study was conducted to examine perceptions of the students, advisors, and senior staff members of the advising…

  20. Balancing Head and Heart: The Importance of Relational Accountability in Community-University Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajner, Tania; Fletcher, Fay; Makokis, Pat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a "head and heart" approach to community-engaged scholarship. Through the literatures of Aboriginal scholarship and engaged scholarship we reflect on a community-university research and program development project undertaken in response to health and education concerns of Aboriginal people in Canada. We…

  1. Comparisons of substance use disorders and correlates between aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents living in a mountain region in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Chuang; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen

    2007-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the differences in prevalence of lifetime substance use disorders (SUDs), age at initial substance use, and knowledge and attitudes toward substance use between aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents living in a mountain region of southern Taiwan, and to separately examine the correlates of SUDs among the two groups. A total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal adolescents were recruited into this study. The results revealed that although the prevalence of SUDs was high in both aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents, no difference in the prevalence of SUDs between the two groups was found. Attitudes toward substance use and several dimensions of peer influence were associated with SUDs in both aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents. However, there were different socio-demographic and family correlates with SUDs in aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents, and an association between characteristics of personality and SUDs was found only in aboriginal adolescents. Those who devise strategies to prevent adolescent substance use may consider the differences in the correlates of SUDs between aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents.

  2. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.

  3. The use of National Youth Service Corp members to build AIDS competent communities in rural Edo State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, Francisca; Akpede, Ese; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Agbontean-Eghafona, Kokunre; Onokerhoraye, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    This paper focuses on the community component of a larger action research project on HIV Prevention for Rural Youth (HP4RY), funded by the Global Health Research Initiative (Canada). It began with ethnographic research in 10 communities selected using geographic representative sampling and random assignment to one of three research arms. Using the AIDS Competent Community (ACC) model developed by Catherine Campbell, the ethnographic research identified factors in six domains that contributed to youth vulnerability to HIV infection. This was followed by recruitment, training and deployment of three overlapping cohorts of young adults (n = 40) serving in Nigeria's National Youth Service Corp (NYSC), to mobilize youth and adults in the communities to increase communities' AIDS competence over a nearly 2 year period. Monthly reports of these Corpers, observations of a Field Coordinator, and community feedback supported the conclusion that communities moved towards greater AIDS competence and reduction in youth vulnerability to HIV infection.

  4. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  5. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  6. Benefits and Risks in Secondary Use of Digitized Clinical Data: Views of Community Members Living in a Predominantly Ethnic Minority Urban Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Robert J.; Kearney, Joan; Cortes, Yamnia; Arcia, Adriana; Appelbaum, Paul; Fernández, Roberto Lewis; Luchsinger, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background There is potential to increase the speed of scientific discovery and implement personalized health care by using digitized clinical data collected on the patient care experience. The use of these data in research raises concerns about the privacy and confidentiality of personal health information. This study explored community members’ views on the secondary use of digitized clinical data to (1) recruit participants for clinical studies; (2) recruit family members of persons with an index condition for primary studies; and (3) conduct studies of information related to stored biospecimens. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the bioethical issues outlined from the perspective of urban-dwelling community members. Focus groups were used for data collection, and emergent content analysis was employed to organize and interpret the data. Results Thirty community members attended one of four focus groups ranging in size from 4 to 11 participants. Five critical themes emerged from the focus-group material: (1) perceived motivators for research participation; (2) objective or “real-life” barriers to research participation; (3) a psychological component of uncertainty and mistrust; (4) preferred mechanisms for recruitment and participation; and (5) cultural characteristics that can impact understanding and willingness to engage in research. Conclusions The overriding concern of community members regarding research participation and/or secondary clinical and nonclinical use of digitized information was that their involvement would be safe and the outcome would be meaningful to them and to others. According to participants, biospecimens acquired during routine clinical visits or for research are no longer possessions of the participant. Although the loss of privacy was a concern for participants, they preferred that researchers access their personal health information using a digitized clinical file rather than through a paper

  7. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates.

  8. Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Shaouli; Finn, Lizzie; Bessarab, Dawn; Thompson, Sandra C

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. Methods A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Results Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. Conclusion These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of care and support that

  9. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  10. Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

    PubMed

    Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.

  11. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Rita I.; Williams, Keri; Crowshoe, Lynden (Lindsay)

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions. PMID:26701840

  12. Trimethopim-sulfamethoxazole compared with benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; Kearns, Therese; Gundjirryirr, Rosalyn; McDonald, Malcolm I; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-03-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children. Treatment was successful in 7 of 7 children treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 5 of 6 treated with benzathine penicillin. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole achieved microbiological clearance and healing of sores from which beta-hemolytic streptococci and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were initially cultured.

  13. [Contributions by integrative community therapy to users of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) and family members: thematic oral history].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Mariana Albernaz Pinheiro de; Dias, Maria Djair; Miranda, Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de; Ferreira Filha, Maria de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze contributions by integrative community therapy to behavior changes in users of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS). This was a comprehensive-interpretative study with a qualitative approach, based on thematic oral history. The study site was the Caminhar Center in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil. The study material was produced with interviews conducted with six subjects and was discussed using thematic analysis as proposed by Minayo, providing the basis for two major thematic lines: integrative community therapy as a liberating praxis and changes that make the difference. The subjects' stories revealed significant changes in the personal, professional, and community fields, based on their inclusion in the integrative community therapy circles, a strategy that promoted the recovery of processes of natural socialization that constitute human life. The use of integrative community therapy was clearly related to proposals for the participants' psychosocial integration and rehabilitation.

  14. Peace-building and reconciliation dividends of integrated health services delivery in post-conflict Burundi: qualitative assessments of providers and community members.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Cathryn; Edward, Anbrasi

    2015-01-01

    While demonstrating causality remains challenging, several 'health-peace' mechanisms have been proposed to describe how health systems contribute to peace-building and stability in post-conflict settings. A qualitative study was undertaken in southern Burundi to identify drivers of social tension and reconciliation in the catchment area of Village Health Works, a health services organisation. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in early 2014 with a total of one hundred and twenty community members and staff representing a range of conflict and recovery experience. Themes emerging from these interviews indicated mechanisms at the individual, household, community, and regional levels through which health provision mitigates tensions and promotes social cohesion. This peace dividend was amplified by the clinic's integrated model, which facilitates further community interaction through economic, agricultural and education programmes. Land pressure and the marginalisation of repatriated refugees were cited as drivers of local tension.

  15. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  16. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-07

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  17. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... captains or crew under the control of those captains may engage in whaling. They must follow the...

  18. Emu Dreaming: An Introduction to Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla M.

    2009-07-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the "emu in the sky" constellation of dark clouds, and stories about the Sun, Moon , Orion, and the Pleiades. Several use the rising and setting of particular stars to indicate the time to harvest a food source, and some link the Sun and Moon to tides, and even explain eclipses as a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Thse traditions reveal a depth and complexity of Aboriginal cultures which are not widely appreciated by outsiders. This book explores the wonderful mystical Aboriginal astronomical stories and traditions, and the way in which these are used for practical applications such as navigation and harvesting. It also describes the journey of exploration which is opening Western eyes to this treasury of ancient Aboriginal knowledge.

  19. Study of the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Individual Objective Performance within a University Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Shontarius D.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and individual objective performance. While the LMX literature suggests a positive correlation between LMX and performance, a closer look at the research examined showed that the performance measurements were based on subjective measurements rather than objective…

  20. Destructive Behaviors among Members of the Black Community with a Special Focus on Males: Causes and Methods of Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Alton R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between stress, depression, homicide, and suicide within the psychosocial context of an ethnic minority group; examines the relationship between mental health and destructive behavior among Blacks; and suggests some possible methods of intervention as well as prevention of destructive behaviors among members of the Black…

  1. Community Health Coalitions in Context: Associations between Geographic Context, Member Type and Length of Membership with Coalition Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, V.; Sanders, M.; Andrews, M. L.; Hale, R.; Carrillo, C.

    2014-01-01

    The coalition literature recognizes context (geography, demographics and history) as a variable of interest, yet few coalition evaluation studies have focused on it. This study explores the association between geographic context and structures (e.g. member type) with functional characteristics (e.g. decision making or levels of conflict) in a…

  2. Prenatal care through the eyes of Canadian Aboriginal women.

    PubMed

    Di Lallo, Sherri

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal Prenatal Wellness Program (APWP) in Canada represents a culturally safe approach to prenatal care. By understanding the history of colonization and residential schools and how this history has contributed to health disparities, a multidisciplinary team provides culturally competent and integrated prenatal care to Aboriginal women and their families. This article describes the APWP and discusses how increased participation in health care by historically marginalized populations can lead to better maternal and neonatal health outcomes.

  3. Epizootic activity of Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses in an aboriginal community in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia: results of mosquito fauna and virus isolation studies.

    PubMed

    Broom, Annette K; Lindsay, Michael D A; Wright, Anthony E; Smith, David W; Mackenzie, John S

    2003-09-01

    We undertook annual surveys of flavivirus activity in the community of Billiluna in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia between 1989 and 2001 [corrected]. Culex annulirostris was the dominant mosquito species, particularly in years of above average rains and flooding. Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus was isolated in 8 of the 13 years of the study from seven mosquito species, but more than 90% of the isolates were from Cx. annulirostris. The results suggest that MVE virus is epizootic in the region, w ith activity only apparent in years with average or above average rainfall and increased numbers of Cx. annulirostris. High levels of MVE virus activity and associated human cases were detected only once (in 1993) during the survey period. Activity of MVE virus could only be partially correlated with wet season rainfall and flooding, suggesting that a number of other factors must also be considered to accurately predict MVE virus activity at such communities.

  4. Evaluation of Community-Based Program as a Model for Early Childhood Education Programs and Social Action Programs Involving Children, Parents, and Community Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyen, Gary V.

    The Community-Based Program (CBP) Model was developed to achieve several major goals: 1) to provide learning experiences to children that are functional for them at the time, 2) to emphasize family and community participation and development, 3) to emphasize broad service delivery to the family (as opposed to educational service to one child), and…

  5. Impacts of American Agricultural Education Student Teachers on Eleven Community Members in a New South Wales, Australia Community: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Tera; Stephens, Carrie; Hart, William

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influences of American agricultural education student teachers on a rural community in New South Wales, Australia. The study analyzed interviews with eleven participants of the American student teacher program in a rural New South Wales community. Results of the study were formulated by two…

  6. Aboriginal pregnancies and births in South Australia, 1981-1982.

    PubMed

    Hart, G; MacHarper, T; Moore, D; Roder, D

    1985-10-28

    Information on 555 Aboriginal births which occurred during 1981 and 1982 was forwarded by midwives to the South Australian perinatal statistics unit. Corresponding information was also supplied for all other births in the state. This information showed that Aboriginal women appear to have a higher fertility rate than do other women, particularly in the teenage years. Aboriginal mothers are very young and have a high parity. They appear to receive little antenatal care and there is a greater tendency for their pregnancies to be complicated by medical conditions, such as anaemia, urinary tract infections, cardiac disorders and diabetes. Post-partum haemorrhages and retained placentas are relatively common, as are genital tract infections after delivery. Aboriginal babies are characterized by low birthweights, low Apgar scores, and prematurity. There is an indication that Aboriginal babies may have a high perinatal mortality rate in the country areas of South Australia. It is intended that this information be used as a baseline for evaluating trends in the health status of Aborigines.

  7. Notes from the Field: Developing a Support Group for Older Lesbian and Gay Community Members Who Have Lost a Partner.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Anne K; Waters, Petra; Herrick, Christie D; Pelon, Sally

    2014-12-01

    While bereavement support groups have been shown to be helpful in assisting older adults with spousal loss, many lesbian and gay older adults would not be comfortable in these groups. Lack of recognition of same sex relationships and fear of judgment are barriers that some older lesbian and gay people face when considering these services. In this report we discuss a community-university collaboration to develop a support group for the older lesbian and gay community in our area. We share lessons we learned in developing and conducting a group for older lesbian and gay adults experiencing partner loss.

  8. Advisory Council Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The pamphlet is directed toward the new member of a career education advisory council. It explains why advisory councils are needed and why an individual should join one. An advisory council is defined as a group of persons selected to collectively advise regarding career education efforts within the community, whose members are predominantly from…

  9. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a critical but neglected factor influencing school participation of Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Azam, Mohammad Nurul; Ithoi, Init; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Surin, Johari

    2012-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), among the most common neglected tropical diseases, is a major public health problem in Malaysia with a possible impact on the nutritional status and school participation of rural children. This study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren, living in an endemic area for STH in Malaysia, to determine the possible relationship between intestinal helminthiasis and school absenteeism. We also evaluated whether successful treatment of the infection will affect school attendance among the subjects. Stool analysis revealed that more than 90% of the subjects were infected with at least 1 helminth species, with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections being most prevalent. Infection of moderate-to-heavy worm burdens, low level of fathers' education and anaemia were identified as the significant predictors of high absenteeism among the subjects (P<0·05). Following treatment of the infected children, it was found that school absenteeism was reduced significantly (P<0·01). In conclusion, STH continues to have significant impacts on public health, particularly in rural communities with a negatively significant effect on the school participation of Aboriginal children. A school-based de-worming programme should be introduced and incorporated in the current educational assistance targeted towards the Aboriginal communities, under the auspices of the government.

  10. Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The…

  11. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  12. Community Development by American Indian Tribes: Five Case Studies of Establishing Policy for Tribal Members with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Kathy; Fowler, LaDonna; Seekins, Tom; Locust, Carol; Clay, Julie

    2000-01-01

    The Tribal Disability Actualization Process used culturally appropriate deliberation processes and particpatory action research in considering policies for American Indians with disabilities. Talking circles on five reservations were used to achieve consensus on the needs of people with disabilities and derive community-driven solutions that are…

  13. Helping members of a community-based health insurance scheme access quality inpatient care through development of a preferred provider system in rural Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Ranson, M Kent; Sinha, Tara; Gandhi, Fenil; Jayswal, Rupal; Mills, Anne J

    2006-01-01

    We describe and analyse the experience of piloting a preferred provider system (PPS) for rural members of Vimo SEWA, a fixed-indemnity, community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme run by the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA). The objectives of the PPS were (i) to facilitate access to hospitalization by providing financial benefits at the time of service utilization; (ii) to shift the burden of compiling a claim away from members and towards Vimo SEWA staff; and (iii) to direct members to inpatient facilities of acceptable quality. The PPS was launched between August and October 2004, in 8 subdistricts covering 15,000 insured. The impact of the scheme was analysed using data from a household survey of claimants and qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The PPS appears to have been successful in terms of two of the three primary objectives--it has transferred much of the burden of compiling a health Insurance claim onto Vimo SEWA staff, and it has directed members to inpatient facilities with acceptable levels of technical quality (defined in terms of structural Indicators). However, even under the PPS, user fees pose a financial barrier, as the insured have to mobilize funds to cover the costs of medicines, supplies, registration fee, etc. before receipt of cash payment from Vimo SEWA. Other barriers to the success of the PPS were the geographic Inaccessibility of some of the selected hospitals, lack of awareness about the PPS among members and a variety of administrative problems. This pilot project provides useful lessons relating to strategic purchasing by CBHI schemes and, more broadly, managed care in India. In particular, the pragmatic approach taken to assessing hospitals and identifying preferred providers is likely to be useful elsewhere.

  14. Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved. Methods Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway. Results Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented. Conclusions Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations. PMID:24568142

  15. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, L.R.; Stewart, S.M.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R.; Hellyer, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4

  16. Resilience amongst Australian Aboriginal Youth: An Ecological Analysis of Factors Associated with Psychosocial Functioning in High and Low Family Risk Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434

  17. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  18. Intellectual Property and Aboriginal People: A Working Paper = Propriete intellectuelle et Autochtones: Document de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brascoupe, Simon; Endemann, Karin

    Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…

  19. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  20. A Social History of the Manitoba Metis. The Development and Loss of Aboriginal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Emile

    The concept of aboriginal rights has been interpreted in various ways. Too often the general public does not understand fully what is meant by aboriginal rights. This topic has been debated in Parliament since Confederation and the general attitude of the news media has been to overlook it as unimportant. By definition, an aboriginal right is what…

  1. Education for Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: An Overview of Four Realms of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.

    2016-01-01

    In line with an Aboriginal worldview of interconnectivity, I outline successful educational programs, policies, and services for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. These programs and initiatives are presented within four thematic areas related to (a) early childhood education, (b) Aboriginal pedagogy, language, and culture (throughout kindergarten to…

  2. Knowledge of an Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes for Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…

  3. Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors, Bella Coola Valley, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Sylvia S.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tallio, Bill; Zhang, William; Michalos, Alex C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make comparisons between Aboriginal residential school survivors' perceptions of health status and overall quality of life, and Aboriginal non-residential school attendees, as well as between non-Aboriginals. Data were obtained from thirty-three questions derived from the 2001 Determinants of Health and Quality of…

  4. The Process of Coping with Changes: A Study of Learning Experiences for the Aboriginal Nursing Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruo Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing presence of aborigines in Taiwan higher education, especially in nursing institutes, the retention and adaptation of aboriginal students is a critical issue for research. Understanding the adjustment and transformation process of aboriginal nursing freshmen is very important for improving their learning, but very…

  5. Attitudes of Aboriginal Students to Further Education: An Overview of a Questionnaire Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Kaye; Godfrey, John; Partington, Gary; Harslett, Mort; Harrison, Bernard

    A study examined the attitudes of Aboriginal students concerning their education and their perceptions of their parents' views of education. Questionnaires completed by 473 Aboriginal students in grades 6-10 from 22 urban and rural schools in Western Australia indicated that Aboriginal children had a positive attitude toward their schools and…

  6. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  7. Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

  8. "We Can't Feel Our Language": Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloy, Natalie J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores possibilities for extending aboriginal language education opportunities into the urban domain based on qualitative research in Vancouver, British Columbia. The author argues that aboriginal language revitalization efforts have a place in the city, as demonstrated by emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people…

  9. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  10. Building Cultural Bridges with Aboriginal Learners and Their "Classmates" for Transformative Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Annamarie

    2012-01-01

    The educational gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians is the most significant social policy challenge facing Canada (Richards 2008). This gap is particularly evident in the science fields. Educational institutions are still regarded as mechanisms of colonization by many Aboriginal people. Their "foreign" Eurocentric (or…

  11. A Study of Aboriginal Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Experience in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Verna

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study, initiated by the Canadian Teachers' Federation and its Advisory Committee on Aboriginal Education, explored the professional knowledge and experiences of Aboriginal (First Nations, Mets and Inuit) teachers. The rationale for the study was to address the urgent need to improve and promote Aboriginal education in public…

  12. Otitis Media, Learning and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwan, David; Clinch, Emma; Store, Ron

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year research project in Queensland (Australia) implemented educational and health strategies to ameliorate effects of otitis media at three schools in remote Aboriginal communities. The interdisciplinary model brought together health and education professionals, teacher aides, and the community, with the school being the lead agency. However,…

  13. An Aboriginal-driven program to prevent, control and manage nutrition-related "lifestyle" diseases including diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Michael; Bridge, Ernie; Martin, David; Jones, Timothy; Spargo, Randolph M; Shephard, Mark; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and other nutrition-related so-called "lifestyle" diseases, including obesity, and cardiovascular and chronic renal disease, are very prevalent in Australian Aboriginal people and contribute to their high rates of chronic illness and premature mortality. An Aboriginal-driven, community-based health protection, health promotion and improved disease detection, management and care program was introduced in four remote, discrete communities in the far north of Western Australia (WA) in order to attempt to prevent these disorders through community-based lifestyle modification. More energetic screening for early risk factors is involved as well as early dietary and exercise interventions and medical treatment, when indicated. Distinctive features of this program include its Aboriginal initiatives and perspectives, committed partnerships between the communities, the Unity of First People of Australia of Australia (UFPA) and its carers, the communities' health care providers, external clinical specialists, other external agencies and a locally-operated point-of-care (POC) pathology testing capability that is conducted by local and UFPA personnel. The POC component is quality managed by Flinders University. These features have ensured the viability of the program in three of the communities; the other one decided not to continue with the program despite risks of serious long-term health consequences. The pre-program prevalence of diabetes in screened adults was almost 40% and in adults aged (35 years was almost 60%. After several months of the program's operation, there have been positive changes in knowledge about food, nutrition, exercise and disease and altered attitudes and behaviours related to dietary and exercise patterns. There have also been improvements in weight control and in pathology test results relevant to the risk of subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  14. Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in β-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 μmol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians.

  15. A snapshot of physical activity programs targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Macniven, Rona; Elwell, Michelle; Ride, Kathy; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2017-01-19

    Issue addressed: Participation in physical activity programs can be an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease risk factors and improve broader social outcomes. Health and social outcomes are worse among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders than non-Indigenous Australians, who represent an important group for culturally specific programs. The extent of current practice in physical activity programs is largely unknown. This study identifies such programs targeting this population group and describes their characteristics.Methods: Bibliographic and Internet searches and snowball sampling identified eligible programs operating between 2012 and 2015 in Australia (phase 1). Program coordinators were contacted to verify sourced information (phase 2). Descriptive characteristics were documented for each program.Results: A total of 110 programs were identified across urban, rural and remote locations within all states and territories. Only 11 programs were located through bibliographic sources; the remainder through Internet searches. The programs aimed to influence physical activity for health or broader social outcomes. Sixty five took place in community settings and most involved multiple sectors such as sport, health and education. Almost all were free for participants and involved Indigenous stakeholders. The majority received Government funding and had commenced within the last decade. More than 20 programs reached over 1000 people each; 14 reached 0-100 participants. Most included process or impact evaluation indicators, typically reflecting their aims.Conclusion: This snapshot provides a comprehensive description of current physical activity program provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people across Australia. The majority of programs were only identified through the grey literature. Many programs collect evaluation data, yet this is underrepresented in academic literature.So what?: Capturing current practice can inform future efforts to

  16. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2) with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3). The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been

  17. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Brett J.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of the Acetothermia (OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylum Parcubacteria (OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, including Microgenomates (OP11), Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, and Marinimicrobia (SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. PMID:26787827

  18. COMMUNITY MEMBERS' PERCEPTIONS OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION FOR CONTROL OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN RURAL AND URBAN TANZANIA.

    PubMed

    Kisoka, William J; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowsky; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Mushi, Declare L

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of several neglected tropical diseases with severely disabling and stigmatizing manifestations that are referred to as 'neglected diseases of poverty'. It is a mosquito-borne disease found endemically and exclusively in low-income contexts where, concomitantly, general public health care is often deeply troubled and fails to meet the basic health needs of impoverished populations. This presents particular challenges for the implementation of mass drug administration (MDA), which currently is the principal means of control and eventual elimination. Several MDA programmes face the dilemma that they are unable to attain and maintain the required drug coverage across target groups. In recognition of this, a qualitative study was conducted in the Morogoro and Lindi regions of Tanzania to gain an understanding of community experiences with, and perceptions of, the MDA campaign implemented in 2011 by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme. The study revealed a wide variation of perceptions and experiences regarding the aim, rationale and justification of MDA. There were positive sentiments about the usefulness of the drugs, but many study participants were sceptical about the manner in which MDA is implemented. People were particularly disappointed with the limited attempts by implementers to share information and mobilize residents. In addition, negative sentiments towards MDA for lymphatic filariasis reflected a general feeling of desertion and marginalization by the health care system and political authorities. However, the results suggest that if the communities are brought on board with genuine respect for their integrity and informed self-determination, there is scope for major improvements in community support for MDA-based control activities.

  19. Aboriginal urbanization and rights in Canada: examining implications for health.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Wilson, Kathi

    2013-08-01

    Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research.

  20. Combining aboriginal and non-aboriginal knowledge to assess and manage feral water buffalo impacts on perennial freshwater springs of the aboriginal-owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  1. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  2. Melioidosis and Aboriginal seasons in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Jacups, Susan P; Ward, Linda; Currie, Bart J

    2008-12-01

    Melioidosis, an infection due to the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia, with cases strongly correlated with the monsoonal wet season. We hypothesized that seasonal variation in the mode of acquisition, informed by traditional knowledge, would result in variations in disease characteristics as well as disease incidence. We explored the seasonal variation in acute, culture-confirmed melioidosis using local Aboriginal definitions of seasons in presentations to the Royal Darwin Hospital, the referral centre for the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. In 387 patients, we observed an increased proportion of patients with pneumonia (60%) and severe sepsis (25%) associated with presentations in the wet seasons Gunumeleng (October-December) and Gudjewg (January-March) compared with the drier seasons Wurrgeng (June August) and Gurrung (August-October) (pneumonia 26%, severe sepsis 13%). This observation supports the hypothesis that in the wet seasons there may be changes in the mode and/or magnitude of exposure to B. pseudomallei, with a shift from percutaneous inoculation to aerosol inhalation, for instance.

  3. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John

    2014-03-01

    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  4. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice.

  5. Defining the Functional Potential and Active Community Members of a Sediment Microbial Community in a High-Arctic Hypersaline Subzero Spring

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Chih-Ying; Mykytczuk, Nadia C. S.; Yergeau, Étienne; Lamarche-Gagnon, Guillaume; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The Lost Hammer (LH) Spring is the coldest and saltiest terrestrial spring discovered to date and is characterized by perennial discharges at subzero temperatures (−5°C), hypersalinity (salinity, 24%), and reducing (≈−165 mV), microoxic, and oligotrophic conditions. It is rich in sulfates (10.0%, wt/wt), dissolved H2S/sulfides (up to 25 ppm), ammonia (≈381 μM), and methane (11.1 g day−1). To determine its total functional and genetic potential and to identify its active microbial components, we performed metagenomic analyses of the LH Spring outlet microbial community and pyrosequencing analyses of the cDNA of its 16S rRNA genes. Reads related to Cyanobacteria (19.7%), Bacteroidetes (13.3%), and Proteobacteria (6.6%) represented the dominant phyla identified among the classified sequences. Reconstruction of the enzyme pathways responsible for bacterial nitrification/denitrification/ammonification and sulfate reduction appeared nearly complete in the metagenomic data set. In the cDNA profile of the LH Spring active community, ammonia oxidizers (Thaumarchaeota), denitrifiers (Pseudomonas spp.), sulfate reducers (Desulfobulbus spp.), and other sulfur oxidizers (Thermoprotei) were present, highlighting their involvement in nitrogen and sulfur cycling. Stress response genes for adapting to cold, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress were also abundant in the metagenome. Comparison of the composition of the functional community of the LH Spring to metagenomes from other saline/subzero environments revealed a close association between the LH Spring and another Canadian high-Arctic permafrost environment, particularly in genes related to sulfur metabolism and dormancy. Overall, this study provides insights into the metabolic potential and the active microbial populations that exist in this hypersaline cryoenvironment and contributes to our understanding of microbial ecology in extreme environments. PMID:23563939

  6. Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and communication preferences of Latino community members regarding BRCA1/2 mutation testing and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Gammon, Amanda; Coxworth, James; Simonsen, Sara E.; Arce-Laretta, Maritza

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To inform development of a culturally sensitive hereditary breast and ovarian cancer communication initiative and related clinical genetic services. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 51 female and male Latinos. Educational materials were designed to communicate information about hereditary breast or ovarian cancer and availability of relevant clinical services or prevention strategies. Focus groups explored participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 testing, and communication preferences for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer health messages. Results Overall, awareness of familial breast and ovarian cancer and availability of genetic risk assessment was low. Once informed, participants held favorable attitudes toward risk assessment and counseling services. Critical themes of the research highlighted the need to provide bilingual media products and use of a variety of strategies to increase awareness about hereditary cancer risk and availability of clinical genetic services. Important barriers were identified regarding family cancer history communication and cancer prevention services. Strategies were suggested for communicating cancer genetic information to increase awareness and overcome these barriers; these included both targeted and tailored approaches. Conclusion This research suggests that cancer genetic communication efforts should consider community and cultural perspectives as well as health care access issues before widespread implementation. PMID:20061960

  7. Sulfoquinovose degraded by pure cultures of bacteria with release of C3-organosulfonates: complete degradation in two-member communities.

    PubMed

    Denger, Karin; Huhn, Thomas; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Schleheck, David; Cook, Alasdair M

    2012-03-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ, 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) was synthesized chemically. An HPLC-ELSD method to separate SQ and other chromophore-free sulfonates, e.g. 2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate (DHPS), was developed. A set of 10 genome-sequenced, sulfonate-utilizing bacteria did not utilize SQ, but an isolate, Pseudomonas putida SQ1, from an enrichment culture did so. The molar growth yield with SQ was half of that with glucose, and 1 mol 3-sulfolactate (mol SQ)(-1) was formed during growth. The 3-sulfolactate was degraded by the addition of Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA, and the sulfonate sulfur was recovered quantitatively as sulfate. Another isolate, Klebsiella oxytoca TauN1, could utilize SQ, forming 1 mol DHPS (mol SQ)(-1) ; the molar growth yield with SQ was half of that with glucose. This DHPS could be degraded by Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, with quantitative recovery of the sulfonate sulfur as sulfate. We presume that SQ can be degraded by communities in the environment.

  8. Cribra orbitalia in the aborigines of Hawaii and Australia.

    PubMed

    Zaino, D E; Zaino, E C

    1975-01-01

    Cranii of 53 Hawaiian aboriginal infants and children, and 45 from Austrailian aboriginal children were inspected. Cribra orbitalia was present in 22.8% of the former and 26.6% of the latter; osteoporotic pitting (symmetrical osteoporosis; porotic hyperostosis) was also present in the latter. The frequency compares favorably with that found in pre-Columbian North American Pueblo Indians, 24.7%. It is associated with a widespread skeletal involvement suggestive of an active bone marrow. The findings support the concept that cribra orbitalia is related to symmetrical osteoporosis and that it may be associated with a blood disorder.

  9. Mentoring Relationships and the Mental Health of Aboriginal Youth in Canada.

    PubMed

    DeWit, David J; Wells, Samantha; Elton-Marshall, Tara; George, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We compared the mentoring experiences and mental health and behavioral outcomes associated with program-supported mentoring for 125 Aboriginal (AB) and 734 non-Aboriginal (non-AB) youth ages 6-17 participating in a national survey of Big Brothers Big Sisters community mentoring relationships. Parents or guardians reported on youth mental health and other outcomes at baseline (before youth were paired to a mentor) and at 18 months follow-up. We found that AB youth were significantly less likely than non-AB youth to be in a long-term continuous mentoring relationship. However, AB youth were more likely than non-AB youth to be in a long-term relationship ending in dissolution. AB youth were also more likely than non-AB youth to have been mentored by a female adult. AB youth were significantly more likely than non-AB youth to report a high quality mentoring relationship, regular weekly contact with their mentor, and monthly mentoring activities. Structural equation model results revealed that, relative to non-mentored AB youth, AB youth with mentors experienced significantly fewer emotional problems and symptoms of social anxiety. These relationships were not found for non-AB youth. Our findings suggest that mentoring programs may be an effective intervention for improving the health and well-being of AB youth.

  10. Knowledge, attitude, practices and their associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetes community members of Bale Zone administrative towns, South East Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Mekonen, Alemayehu Gonie

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes kills more than 4.9 million adults per year. It becomes rapidly increasing, non-communicable disease—a major threat to global public health particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though previous studies among diabetic patients were focused in health institution, limited knowledge, attitude and practice were seen. There is no study conducted about diabetes related to knowledge, attitudes, practice and associated factors in the community level. Objective of the study The study assessed knowledge, attitude, practices, and its associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetic community members of Bale Zone, Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 15 to December 15, 2015 among 605 non diabetic community members of Bale Zone administrative towns. Data was collected using pretested structured face-to-face interview after taking informed written consent. Respondents were selected by systematic random sampling. The data was entered into EPI data version 3.1 and analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences version 20. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate the independent predictors of knowledge, attitude and practice. Result Response rate of the study was 98.2%. About 52.5% of participants were knowledgeable, 55.9% and 56.6% had good attitude and practice respectively. Earning average monthly family income of ≤500 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.6) and 501–1000 (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.7), heard about diabetes (AOR = 4.4, CI = 1.9, 10.2), had diabetes health education exposure (AOR = 5, CI = 2.5, 9.7) resulted to have good diabetes knowledge. Student, (AOR = 5.1, CI = 2.1,12), government/private employee (AOR = 3,CI = 1.4,6.7), merchant (AOR = 2,CI = 1.1,3.6) and Knowledgeable (AOR = 3, CI = 2.1, 4.7) subjects had positive attitude

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay

    2015-04-15

    This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (≥0.15 μg/ml) in ≥97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12 μg/ml versus 3.51 μg/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4 mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649.

  12. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Brett J.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2016-01-19

    Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of theAcetothermia(OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylumParcubacteria(OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, includingMicrogenomates(OP11),Atribacteria(OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, andMarinimicrobia(SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. The activities of microorganisms in oil reservoirs impact petroleum

  13. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; ...

    2016-01-19

    Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to bemore » the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of theAcetothermia(OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylumParcubacteria(OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, includingMicrogenomates(OP11),Atribacteria(OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, andMarinimicrobia(SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. The activities of microorganisms in oil reservoirs impact petroleum resource quality and the global carbon cycle. In conclusion, we show that

  14. The other side of the broken window: a methodology that translates building permits into an ecometric of investment by community members.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel Tumminelli; Montgomery, Barrett W

    2015-03-01

    Much research has focused on physical disorder in urban neighborhoods as evidence that the community does not maintain local norms and spaces. Little attention has been paid to the opposite: indicators of proactive investment in the neighborhood's upkeep. This manuscript presents a methodology that translates a database of approved building permits into an ecometric of investment by community members, establishing basic content, criteria for reliability, and construct validity. A database from Boston, MA contained 150,493 permits spanning 2.5 years, each record including the property to be modified, permit type, and date issued. Investment was operationalized as the proportion of properties in a census block group that underwent an addition or renovation, excluding larger developments involving the demolition or construction of a building. The reliability analysis found that robust measures could be generated every 6 months, and that longitudinal analysis could differentiate between trajectories across neighborhoods. The validity analysis supported two hypotheses: investment was best predicted by homeownership and median income; and maintained an independent relationship with measures of physical disorder despite controlling for demographics, implying that it captures the other end of a spectrum of neighborhood maintenance. Possible uses for the measure in research and policy are discussed.

  15. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID

  16. Community and household socioeconomic factors associated with pesticide-using, small farm household members' health: a multi-level, longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies using multi-level models to examine health inequalities in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) are rare. We explored socio-economic gradients in health among small farm members participating in a pesticide-related health and agriculture program in highland Ecuador. Methods We profiled 24 communities through key informant interviews, secondary data (percent of population with unsatisfied basic needs), and intervention implementation indicators. Pre (2005) and post (2007) surveys of the primary household and crop managers included common questions (education, age, and the health outcome - digit span scaled 0-10)) and pesticide-related practice questions specific to each. Household assets and pesticide use variables were shared across managers. We constructed multi-level models predicting 2007 digit span for each manager type, with staged introduction of predictor variables. Results 376 household managers (79% of 2005 participants) and 380 crop managers (76% of 2005 participants) had complete data for analysis. The most important predictor of 2007 digit span was 2005 digit span: β (Standard Error) of 0.31(0.05) per unit for household and 0.17(0.04) for crop managers. Household asset score was next most important: 0.14(0.06) per unit for household and 0.14(0.05) for crop managers. Community percent with unsatisfied basic needs was associated with reductions in 2007 digit span: -0.04(0.01) per percent for household and -0.03(0.01) for crop managers. Conclusions The important roles of life endowments and/or persistent neurotoxicity were exemplified by limited change in the health outcome. Gradients by household assets and community deprivation were indicative of ongoing, structural inequities within this LMIC. PMID:22094171

  17. Teacher Education, Aboriginal Studies and the New National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Clair

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…

  18. Difficult Dialogue: Conversations with Aboriginal Parents and Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra; Johnston, Ken; Morris, Kristal; Power, Kerith; Roberts, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous conversation and voice are increasingly heard in the research literature but there needs to be more dialogue in order for it to be a two-way conversation. This paper contributes to research that attempts to redress this situation by reporting on conversations with Aboriginal parents and caregivers of students enrolled in a public…

  19. Participatory Action Research: Lessons Learned with Aboriginal Grandmothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Geraldine; Green, Kathryn L.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve older Aboriginal women in a Canadian city were trained to be co-researchers as part of a participatory health assessment and health promotion project involving 40 such women. Lessons were learned about project ownership, Native perceptions of research, use of traditions, participants' capacity to engage in research and analysis, conflict…

  20. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...